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Sample records for chrysosporium

  1. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  2. Chrysosporium zonatum, a new Keratinophilic fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Musallam, A.; Tan, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Chrysosporium zonatum, spec, nov., a keratinophilic and cellulolytic species, is described from horse dung in Kuwait. It was found in association with Microsporum gypseum (Bodin) Guiart & Grigorakis, both species colonizing horse hair.

  3. A series of Xerophilic Chrysosporium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1992-01-01

    Xerophilic Chrysosporium species related to C. farinicola were often isolated from uneaten provisions (pollen-and-nectar mixture) of mason bees (Osmia spp.). The fungi have an optimal growth rate on media which are 2 to 3 molar in regard to glucose, exhibit some growth up to 3.6 molar glucose, an......, and initiate a new increased growth rate when the glucose crystallizes out from these supersaturated media. Seven of these species and three varieties are described and separated into a Farinicola series of Chrysosporium species....

  4. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phaneroehatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated anduntreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  5. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Menghua Qin; Xuemei Lu; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phanerochatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated and untreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  6. Primary Cutaneous Chrysosporium Infection following Ear Piercing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonkiat Suchonwanit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysosporium is a large genus of saprophytic fungi that is commonly found in the soil. Infection caused by this organism is rare in humans and typically occurs in immunocompromised patients. Primary cutaneous Chrysosporium infection is relatively rare and has been reported in a heart transplant patient. The prognosis is usually favorable, but very poor in the setting of persistent profound immunosuppression. We herein report a case of primary cutaneous Chrysosporium infection following ear piercing in an immunocompetent patient. It is important for clinicians to consider this condition in patients with slow-onset skin and soft tissue infection following cutaneous injury, even in an immunocompetent setting.

  7. Manganese regulates expression of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J A; Glenn, J K; Gold, M H

    1990-01-01

    The appearance of manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity in nitrogen-limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is dependent on the presence of manganese. Cultures grown in the absence of Mn developed normally and produced normal levels of the secondary metabolite veratryl alcohol but produced no MnP activity. Immunoblot analysis indicated that appearance of MnP protein in the extracellular medium was also dependent on the presence of Mn. Intracellular MnP protein was detectable only in cel...

  8. Disseminated Chrysosporium infection in a German shepherd dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Chrysosporium spp. infection was diagnosed in a German shepherd dog based on a positive fungal culture and cytological findings of intralesional fungi associated with granulomatous splenitis and neutrophilic lymphadenitis. The clinical presentation that could mimic a multicentric lymphoma, including markedly enlarged lymph nodes and a very abnormal splenic appearance on ultrasound makes this case even more atypical. The patient showed rapid clinical improvement on oral posaconazole and remains clinically stable ten months after diagnosis.

  9. Fatal cutaneous mycosis in tentacled snakes caused by the chrysosporium anamorph of nannizziposis vriesii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Sigler, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes......The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes...

  10. Influence Of Chrysosporium Spp. In The Prevalence Of Dermatophytes in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Gokul S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two soil samples were screened for the prevalence of Chrysosporium and dermatophytes. Out of the 75 positive samples 2 were M. gypseum and 73 were Chrysosporium spp.None of the soil samples yielded both Chrysosporium spp. and M. gypseum. The co- inoculation of Chrysosporium spp. with different species of dermatophytes (T. rubrum. T. Mentagrophytes. E. floccosum and M. gypseum in sterilized soil revealed that none of the dermatophytes except M. gypseum could be recovered after the 15th day of co- inoculation. Whereas, these organisms when inoculated alone in sterilized soil, could be recovered even upto 25 days. In the light of the above finding, we suggest that Chrysosporium spp. might pose a definite challenge to dermatophytes in their saprophytic existence in soil.

  11. PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR KERATINASE BY CHRYSOSPORIUM TROPICUM AND TRICHOPHYTON AJELLOI

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    Jaroslava Kačinová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Keratinous wastes constitute a troublesome environmental contaminant that is produced in large quantities in companies processing of poultry and their further use has ecological significance. We can use for degradation of keratinous wastes enzymes or strains, which produce these enzymes. The aim of this study was isolation of keratinophilic fungi from the soil samples and optimalization of culture conditions of keratinase producing strains in vitro. For the isolation of our strains, we used hair - baiting method. From the all isolated strains, we used for other screening Chrysosporium tropicum (JK39 and Trichophyton ajelloi (JK82. Production of keratinase we monitored with different time of cultivation (7th, 14th, 21th days, sources of carbon (glucose, fructose, mannitol, sucrose, concentration of carbon sources (1%, 2% and cultivation temperature (20, 25, 30, 37ºC. Keratinase production was studied in a liquid medium containing chicken feathers as a source of keratin. We recorded the maximum production of keratinase (10.51 KU/ml by Chrysosporium tropicum on 21th day of incubation with 1% glucose at 25ºC.

  12. Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium produces gibberellins and promotes plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Sumera Afzal; Iqbal, Ilyas; Na, Chae-In; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hwang, Young-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, In-Jung

    2009-08-01

    We isolated 10 endophytic fungi from the roots of drought stressed soybean cultivar Hwangkeumkong and bioassayed on waito-c rice and soybean seedlings, in order to identify plant growth-promoting fungi. The fungal isolate D-2-1 provided the best result for plant height and biomass promotion as compared to wild type Gibberella fujikuroi. The D-2-1 culture filtrate (CF) was analyzed for the presence of gibberellins (GAs) and it was observed that all physiologically active GAs, especially gibberellic acid, were present in higher amounts (GA1, 0.24 ng/ml; GA3, 8.99 ng/ml; GA4, 2.58 ng/ml and GA7, 1.39 ng/ml) in conjunction with physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA15, GA19, and GA24. The fungal isolate D-2-1 was identified as a new strain of Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Plant growth promotion and GAs production capacity of genus Chrysosporium have been reported for the first time in this study.

  13. ADSORPTION OF CONGO RED DYE ON HAZELNUT SHELLS AND DEGRADATION WITH Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo A. Carletto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work concerns the experimental evaluation of hazelnut shells as a low cost natural biosorbent. Adsorption of the direct azo dye Congo Red was performed within a concentrations range of 50-5000 mg/L. Hazelnut shells were employed as organic support for Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures to study the best cultural medium composition for the MnP production. The capability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to take macronutrients as carbon and nitrogen from hazelnut shells was demonstrated. Cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were carried out with hazelnut shells coming from Congo Red adsorption tests, showing that 43% of the adsorbed dye was degraded.

  14. Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Fueyo, E.; Ruiz-Duenas, F.J.; Ferreira, P.; Floudas, D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Canessa, P.; Larrondo, L.F.; James, T.Y.; Seelenfreund, D.; Lobos, S.; Polanco, R.; Tello, M.; Honda, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Ryu, J.S.; Kubicek, C.P.; Schmoll, M.; Gaskell, J.; Hammel, K.E.; St John, F.J.; Vanden Wymelenberg, A.; Sabat, G.; Splinter BonDurant, S.; Syed, K.; Yadav, J.S.; Doddapaneni, H.; Subramanian, V.; Lavin, J.L.; Oguiza, J.A.; Perez, G.; Pisabarro, A.G.; Ramirez, L.; Santoyo, F.; Master, E.; Coutinho, P.M.; Henrissat, B.; Lombard, V.; Magnuson, J.K.; Kues, U.; Hori, C.; Igarashi, K.; Samejima, M.; Held, B.W.; Barry, K.W.; LaButti, K.M.; Lapidus, A.; Lindquist, E.A.; Lucas, S.M.; Riley, R.; Salamov, A.A.; Hoffmeister, D.; Schwenk, D.; Hadar, Y.; Yarden, O.; de Vries, R.P.; Wiebenga, A.; Stenlid, J.; Eastwood, D.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Berka, R.M.; Blanchette, R.A.; Kersten, P.; Martinez, A.T.; Vicuna, R.; Cullen, D.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do

  15. Effect of nitrogen concentration in culture mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2005-01-01

    Effect of different nitrogen concentration in the mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied when glucose concentration was 10 g/L. The results showed that the medium contained 0.8 g/L ammonium tartrate is the best. It not only supply abundant nutrients for the growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which make mycelia the best grow compared with the other medium, but also produce higher manganese-dependent peroxidase(Mnp) and laccase(Lac) activity. In addition, it is observed that the variation of mycelia surface is related to ligninolytic enzyme secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When the surface of mycelium pellets appeared burs, it predicts secondary metabolism begin. This experimentation demonstrated that when the ratio of carbon and nitrogen in nitrogen limited medium is equal to 100:8, growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is the best, it could achieve the maximum Mnp and Lac activity.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls fractioning assessment in aqueous bioremediation assy with phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to growing environmental concerns in public opinion, bioremediation processes are more and more used to decontaminate soils from organic compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be world wide spread persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade PCBs in water, and soil As POPs, PCBs can also be adsorbed onto organic matter, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium mycelium. This study aims at estimating the fractioni...

  17. A Simple Structure Model for Enzyme Production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑沛霖; 郑重鸣; FOOYinDin; JefferyPhilipObbard; 林建平

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the behavior of ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium, study on time courses and a mathematical model for the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) of the fungi was undertaken. Based on the Monod-Jacob operon model, the ligninolytic enzyme would be synthesized in the absence of a related repressor. The repressor is assumed to be active in the presence of ammonia nitrogen, and as combined as co-repressor, it causes the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. The model can explain the mechanism of extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi. The results,as predicted by the model, correspond closely to those observed in experimental studies. In addition, some light is also shed on unmeasured variables, such as the concentrations of repressor and mRNA that are related to the enzyme synthesis.

  18. Enhanced production of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziye Ozturk Urek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 (ATCC 24725 was monitored during growth in different media and growth conditions. The effect of some activators of MnP production, Mn2+, Tween 80, phenylmethylsulphonylfloride (PMSF, oxygen, temperature, pH, glycerol and nitrogen was studied. Supplementing the cultures with Tween 80 (0.05 %, v/v and Mn2+ (174 µM resulted a maximum MnP activity of 356 U/L which was approximately two times higher than that obtained in the control culture (without Tween 80. Decolourisation of Direct Blue 15 and Direct Green 6 (50 mg/L was also achieved with MnP.

  19. Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Fueyo, Elena; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Ferreira, Patrica; Floudas, Dimitrios; HIbbett, David S.; Canessa, Paulo; Larrondo, Luis F.; James, Tim Y.; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Lobos, Sergio; Polanco, Ruben; Tello, Mario; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takahito; Watanabe, Takashi; Ryu, Jae San; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika; Gaskell, Jill; Hammel, Kenneth E.; John, Franz J.; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Sabat, Grzegorz; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Yadav, Jagjit S.; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Lavin, Jose L.; Oguiza, Jose A.; Perez, Gumer; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramirez, Lucia; Santoyo, Francisco; Master, Emma; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Lombard, Vincent; Magnuson, Jon Karl; Kues, Ursula; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Held, Benjamin W.; Barry, Kerrie W.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Schwenk, Daniel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Yarden, Oded; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Stenlid, Jan; Eastwood, Daniel; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Berka, Randy M.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Kersten, Phil; Martinez, Angel T.; Vicuna, Rafael; Cullen, Dan

    2011-12-06

    Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do so with relatively little cellulose degradation. To investigate the basis for selective ligninolysis, we conducted comparative genome analysis of C. subvermispora and P. chrysosporium. Genes encoding manganese peroxidase numbered 13 and five in C. subvermispora and P. chrysosporium, respectively. In addition, the C. subvermispora genome contains at least seven genes predicted to encode laccases, whereas the P. chrysosporium genome contains none. We also observed expansion of the number of C. subvermispora desaturase-encoding genes putatively involved in lipid metabolism. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis showed substantial up-regulation of several desaturase and MnP genes in wood-containing medium. MS identified MnP proteins in C. subvermispora culture filtrates, but none in P. chrysosporium cultures. These results support the importance of MnP and a lignin degradation mechanism whereby cleavage of the dominant nonphenolic structures is mediated by lipid peroxidation products. Two C. subvermispora genes were predicted to encode peroxidases structurally similar to P. chrysosporium lignin peroxidase and, following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, the enzymes were shown to oxidize high redox potential substrates, but not Mn2. Apart from oxidative lignin degradation, we also examined cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic systems in both fungi. In summary, the C. subvermispora genetic inventory and expression patterns exhibit increased oxidoreductase potential and diminished cellulolytic capability relative to P. chrysosporium.

  20. New substrates and activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium Omega glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meux, Edgar; Morel, Mélanie; Lamant, Tiphaine; Gérardin, Philippe; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Gelhaye, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Omega glutathione transferases (GSTO) constitute a family of proteins with variable distribution throughout living organisms. It is notably expanded in several fungi and particularly in the wood-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, raising questions concerning the function(s) and potential redundancy of these enzymes. Within the fungal families, GSTOs have been poorly studied and their functions remain rather sketchy. In this study, we have used fluorescent compounds as activity reporters to identify putative ligands. Experiments using 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate as a tool combined with mass analyses showed that GSTOs are able to cleave ester bonds. Using this property, we developed a specific activity-based profiling method for identifying ligands of PcGSTO3 and PcGSTO4. The results suggest that GSTOs could be involved in the catabolism of toxic compounds like tetralone derivatives. Biochemical investigations demonstrated that these enzymes are able to catalyze deglutathionylation reactions thanks to the presence of a catalytic cysteine residue. To access the physiological function of these enzymes and notably during the wood interaction, recombinant proteins have been immobilized on CNBr Sepharose and challenged with beech wood extracts. Coupled with GC-MS experiments this ligand fishing method allowed to identify terpenes as potential substrates of Omega GST suggesting a physiological role during the wood-fungus interactions.

  1. A combined biological removal of Cd(2+) from aqueous solutions using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meihua; Zhang, Chaosheng; Zeng, Guangming; Cheng, Min; Liu, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The removal of Cd(2+) from aqueous solutions by agricultural residues rice straw combined with white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) was investigated. The results showed that over 99% of the total Cd(2+) (initial concentration of 150mgL(-1)) was removed at the optimal operating conditions (pH 5.0 at 35°C). We also found that P. chrysosporium could survive under Cd(2+) stress even with an initial Cd(2+) concentration of 250mgL(-1). But when Cd(2+) concentration increased to 250mgL(-1), fungus growth and reproduction were remarkably restrained, and as a result, Cd(2+) removal dropped to 59.2%. It was observed that the fungus biomass and activities of ligninolytic enzymes decreased at some degree under high concentration of Cd(2+) (above 100mgL(-1)). Also, we found that a moderate Cd(2+) stress (below 150mgL(-1)) could stimulate P. chrysosporium's production of the heavy metals chelator - oxalate. This study will provide useful information for the application of biological removal of heavy metal irons from wastewater.

  2. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  3. Mode of action of Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 a-l-arabinohydrolases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnel, S.; Westphal, Y.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The mode of action of four Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 a-l-arabinohydrolases was determined to enable controlled and effective degradation of arabinan. The active site of endoarabinanase Abn1 has at least six subsites, of which the subsites -1 to +2 have to be occupied for hydrolysis. Abn1 was able

  4. Effects of selenium oxyanions on the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    KAUST Repository

    Espinosa-Ortiz, Erika J.

    2014-10-24

    The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to reduce the oxidized forms of selenium, selenate and selenite, and their effects on the growth, substrate consumption rate, and pellet morphology of the fungus were assessed. The effect of different operational parameters (pH, glucose, and selenium concentration) on the response of P. chrysosporium to selenium oxyanions was explored as well. This fungal species showed a high sensitivity to selenium, particularly selenite, which inhibited the fungal growth and substrate consumption when supplied at 10 mg L−1 in the growth medium, whereas selenate did not have such a strong influence on the fungus. Biological removal of selenite was achieved under semi-acidic conditions (pH 4.5) with about 40 % removal efficiency, whereas less than 10 % selenium removal was achieved for incubations with selenate. P. chrysosporium was found to be a selenium-reducing organism, capable of synthesizing elemental selenium from selenite but not from selenate. Analysis with transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and a 3D reconstruction showed that elemental selenium was produced intracellularly as nanoparticles in the range of 30–400 nm. Furthermore, selenite influenced the pellet morphology of P. chrysosporium by reducing the size of the fungal pellets and inducing their compaction and smoothness.

  5. INSITU LOCALIZATION OF THE SECRETION OF LIGNIN PEROXIDASES IN COLONIES OF PHANEROCHAETE-CHRYSOSPORIUM USING A SANDWICHED MODE OF CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOUKHA, SM; WOSTEN, HAB; ASTHER, M; WESSELS, JGH

    1993-01-01

    Protein secretion and growth were investigated in Phanerochaete chrysosporium by using cultures sandwiched between perforated polycarbonate membranes. Labelling of colonies with radioactive N-acetylglucosamine and L-methionine indicated a close correlation between growth and general protein secretio

  6. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in anthracene metabolism by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigu, Nomathemba Loice; Hirosue, Sinji; Nakamura, Chie; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) involved in anthracene metabolism by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium were identified by comprehensive screening of both catalytic potentials and transcriptomic profiling. Functional screening of P. chrysosporium P450s (PcCYPs) revealed that 14 PcCYP species catalyze stepwise conversion of anthracene to anthraquinone via intermediate formation of anthrone. Moreover, transcriptomic profiling explored using a complementary DNA microarray system demonstrated that 12 PcCYPs are up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of anthracene. Among the up-regulated PcCYPs, five species showed catalytic activity against anthracene. Based upon both catalytic and transcriptional properties, these five species are most likely to play major roles in anthracene metabolic processes in vivo. Thus, the combination of functional screening and a microarray system may provide a novel strategy for obtaining a thorough understanding of the catalytic functions and biological impacts of PcCYPs.

  7. Biodegradation of colorants in refinery effluents : potential use of the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Carla; Bento, Luis San Miguel; Mota, M.

    1999-01-01

    The degradative ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium towards each of the four;main types of colorants present in regeneration effluents from ion exchange resins was investigated. The fungus was able to decolorise melanoidin, caramel and HADP (hexose alkaline degradation product) solutions by 74%, 87% and 80%,. respectively, and to reduce levels of phenolic compounds by 72%. Gel permeation chromatography studies showed that decolorisation was accompanied by effective degradation of the color...

  8. Simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation from aqueous solutions by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Anwei; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Fan, Jiaqi; Zou, Zhengjun; Li, Hui; Hu, Xinjiang; Long, Fei [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering; Ministry of Education, Changsha (CN). Key Lab. of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan Univ.)

    2011-08-15

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been recognised as an effective bioremediation agent due to its unique degradation to xenobiotic and biosorption ability to heavy metals. However, few studies have focused on the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in P. chrysosporium liquid cultures. The removal efficiencies were pH dependent and the maximum removal efficiencies were observed at pH 6.5 under an initial cadmium concentration of 5 mg/L and an initial 2,4-DCP concentration of 20 mg/L. The removal efficiencies for cadmium and 2,4-DCP reached 63.62% and 83.90%, respectively, under the optimum conditions. The high production levels of lignin peroxidase (7.35 U/mL) and manganese peroxidase (8.30 U/mL) resulted in an increase in 2,4-DCP degradation. The protein content decreased with increasing cadmium concentration. The surface characteristics and functional groups of the biomass were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometer. The results showed that the use of P. chrysosporium is promising for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and 2,4-DCP from liquid media. (orig.)

  9. Lignocellulose degradation during solid-state fermentation: Pleurotus ostreatus versus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerem, Z.; Friesem, D.; Hadar, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Rehovot (Israel))

    1992-04-01

    Lignocellulose degradation and activities related to lignin degradation were studied in the solid-state fermentation of cotton stalks by comparison two white rot fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium grew vigorously, resulting in rapid, nonselective degradation of 55% of the organic components of the cotton stalks within 15 days. In contrast, P. ostreatus grew more slowly with obvious selectivity for lignin degradation and resulting in the degradation of only 20% of the organic matter after 30 days of incubation. The kinetics of {sup 14}C-lignin mineralization exhibited similar differences. In cultures of P. chrysosporium, mineralization ceased after 18 days, resulting in the release of 12% of the total radioactivity as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. In P. ostreatus, on the other hand, 17% of the total radioactivity was released in a steady rate throughout a period of 60 days of incubation. Laccase activity was only detected in water extracts of the P. ostreatus fermentation. No lignin peroxidase activity was detected in either the water extract or liquid cultures of this fungus. 2-Keto-4-thiomethyl butyric acid cleavage to ethylene correlated to lignin degradation in both fungi. A study of fungal activity under solid-state conditions, in contrast to those done under defined liquid culture, may help to better understand the mechanism involved in lignocellulose degradation.

  10. Expression of lignin peroxidase H2 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by multi-copy recombinant Pichia strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WEN Xianghua

    2009-01-01

    The lipH2 gene, encoding the expression of lignin peroxidase, was cloned from Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33, a yeast.The cDNA of LiPH2 was generated from total RNA extracted from P.chrysosporium by PCR with primers that do not contain a P.chrysosporium lignin peroxidase secretion signal.The gene was then successfully inserted into the expression vector pPICZα, resulting in the recombinant vector pPICZα-lipH2.The transformation was conducted in two ways.One was using the wild Pichia pastoris as the recipients, which results in the recombinant P.pastoris with single or low lipH2 gene copy.The second was using P.pastoris and single or low lipH2 gene copy as the recipients, which results in the recombinant P.pastoris with multi-copies of lipH2 genes.This study first expressed the gene lipH2 in P.pastoris and achieved the successful expression of the LiPH2 depending upon the generation of a recombinant strain that contains multiple copies.The lignin peroxidase activity reached a maximum of 15 U/L after 12 h induction.

  11. The biodegradation of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters by Sawdust and by a Phanerochaetae chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD abatement in olive mill wastewaters (OMW by Phanerochaetae chrysosporium grown in static, stirred and immobilized cultures. When P. Chrysosporium is used in cultures, no decolorization of crude OMW is observed. Decolorization occurs only after the removal of polyphenols by adsorption in sawdust, which allows a 39% polyphenol removal. The use of a High lignin peroxides (Lip producing medium, yields the highest OMW decolorization and COD removal efficiencies. The use of P. Chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam leads to significant abatements of OMW polluting characteristics. And COD abatement reached 70%. The reduction of polyphenols reached its highest level at 62%. A significant effluent decolorization is apparent.Este trabajo describe la decoloración y la disminución de la demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín (OMW por Phanerochaetae chrysosporium, crecido en cultivos estáticos, agitados e inmovilizados. Cuando P. chrysosporium fue cultivado en agitación, no se observa ninguna decoloración de OMW crudo, la decoloración ocurre solamente después de eliminar los polifenoles mediante adsorción en el serrín (Disminución del 39% del contenido en polifenoles. La utilización de la lignina peroxidasa generada en el medio da lugar a la mayor decoloración de alpechín y a las eficiencias de eliminación de DQO más altas. Las pruebas de la decoloración realizadas en las muestras de OMW que fueron pretratadas por la adsorción de madera del serrín, y usaron cultivos inmovilizadas demostraron resultados mejores. Por tanto, la eficiencia de eliminación de DQO alcanzó un 70%. La reducción de los polifenoles alcanzó los niveles más altos siempre, i.e. 62%. Se observó una decoloración significativa del efluente.

  12. Ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide treated corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol was produced via the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of dilute sodium hydroxide treated corn stover. Saccharification was achieved by cultivating either Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Gloeophyllum trabeum on the treated stover, and fermentation was then performed by using either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli K011. Ethanol production was highest on day 3 for the combination of G. trabeum and E. coli K011 at 6.68 g/100g stover, followed by the combination of P. chrysosporium and E. coli K011 at 5.00 g/100g stover. SSF with S. cerevisiae had lower ethanol yields, ranging between 2.88 g/100g stover at day 3 (P. chrysosporium treated stover) and 3.09 g/100g stover at day 4 (G. trabeum treated stover). The results indicated that mild alkaline pretreatment coupled with fungal saccharification offers a promising bioprocess for ethanol production from corn stover without the addition of commercial enzymes.

  13. Polyvinyl alcohol-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium and its application in the bioremediation of composite-polluted wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenzhen [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Guiqiu, E-mail: gqchen@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Anwei [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Zuo, Yanan; Guo, Zhi; Tan, Qiong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Song, Zhongxian [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Niu, Qiuya [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-05-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of polyvinyl alcohol-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium beads (PPBs) for Cd(II) removal and 2,4-DCP degradation. - Highlights: • PVA-immobilized P. chrysosporium beads (PPBs) were fit for wastewater treatment. • Removal rates of Cd(II) and 2,4-DCP at optimum conditions were up to 78% and 95.4%. • 2,4-DCP removal rates were beyond 90% with varying initial 2,4-DCP concentrations. • PVA was vital to Cd(II) removal besides the function groups in P. chrysosporium. • Maximum recovery of the Cd(II)-laden PPBs after reuse three times was 98.9%. - Abstract: A novel biosorbent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was applied to the bioremediation of composite-polluted wastewater, containing both cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The optimum removal efficiency achieved was 78% for Cd(II) and 95.4% for 2,4-DCP at initial concentrations of 20 mg/L Cd(II) and 40 mg/L 2,4-DCP. PPBs had significantly enhanced the resistance of P. chrysosporium to 2,4-DCP, leading to the degradation rates of 2,4-DCP beyond 90% with varying initial 2,4-DCP concentrations. This research demonstrated that 2,4-DCP and secreted proteins might be used as carbon and nitrogen sources by PVA-immobilized P. chrysosporium beads (PPBs) for Cd(II) removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of PPBs were dominant in Cd(II) binding. The mechanism underlying the degradation of 2,4-DCP into fumaric acid and 1-hexanol was investigated. The adsorption–desorption studies indicated that PPBs kept up to 98.9% of desorption efficiency over three cycles.

  14. Biodegradation, biosorption of phenanthrene and its trans-membrane transport by Massilia sp. WF1 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping eGu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing phenanthrene (PHE in the environment is critical to ecosystem and human health. Biodegradation, biosorption and the trans-membrane transport mechanism of PHE by a novel strain, Massilia sp. WF1, and an extensively researched model fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium were investigated in aqueous solutions. Results showed that the PHE residual concentration decreased with incubation time and the data fitted well to a first-order kinetic equation, and the t1/2 of PHE degradation by WF1, spores and mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium were about 2 hours, 87 days, and 87 days, respectively. The biosorbed PHE was higher in P. Chrysosporium than that in WF1, and it increased after microorganisms were inactivated and inhibited, especially in mycelial pellets. The detected intracellular auto-fluorescence of PHE by two-photon excitation microscopy also proved that PHE indeed entered into the cells. Based on regression, the intracellular (Kdin and extracellular (Kdout dissipation rate constants of PHE by WF1 were higher than those by spores and mycelial pellets. In addition, the transport rate constant of PHE from outside solution into cells (KinS/Vout for WF1 were higher than the efflux rate constant of PHE from cells to outside solution (KoutS/Vin, while the opposite phenomena were observed for spores and mycelial pellets. The amount of PHE that transported from outside solution into cells was attributed to the rapid degradation and active PHE efflux in the cells of WF1 and P. Chrysosporium, respectively. Besides, the results under the inhibition treatments of 4 °C, and the presence of sodium azide, colchicine and cytochalasin B demonstrated that a passive trans-membrane transport mechanism was involved in PHE entering into the cells of WF1 and P. Chrysosporium.

  15. Impact of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on the Functional Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Decaying Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Vincent; Ketter, Elodie; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Gelhaye, Eric; Frey-Klett, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi naturally coexist in various environments including forest ecosystems. While the role of saprotrophic basidiomycetes in wood decomposition is well established, the influence of these fungi on the functional diversity of the wood-associated bacterial communities has received much less attention. Based on a microcosm experiment, we tested the hypothesis that both the presence of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood, as a growth substrate, impacted the functional diversity of these bacterial communities. Microcosms containing sterile sawdust were inoculated with a microbial inoculum extracted from a forest soil, in presence or in absence of P. chrysosporium and subsequently, three enrichment steps were performed. First, bacterial strains were isolated from different microcosms previously analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Strains isolated from P. chrysosporium mycosphere showed less antagonism against this fungus compared to the strains isolated from the initial forest soil inoculum, suggesting a selection by the fungus of less inhibitory bacterial communities. Moreover, the presence of the fungus in wood resulted in a selection of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains, highlighting the role of mycospheric bacteria in wood decomposition. Additionally, the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria increased along the enrichment steps, suggesting an important role of bacteria in iron mobilization in decaying-wood. Finally, taxonomic identification of 311 bacterial isolates revealed, at the family level, strong similarities with the high-throughput sequencing data as well as with other studies in terms of taxonomic composition of the wood-associated bacterial community, highlighting that the isolated strains are representative of the wood-associated bacterial communities.

  16. Impact of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on the Functional Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Decaying Wood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Hervé

    Full Text Available Bacteria and fungi naturally coexist in various environments including forest ecosystems. While the role of saprotrophic basidiomycetes in wood decomposition is well established, the influence of these fungi on the functional diversity of the wood-associated bacterial communities has received much less attention. Based on a microcosm experiment, we tested the hypothesis that both the presence of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood, as a growth substrate, impacted the functional diversity of these bacterial communities. Microcosms containing sterile sawdust were inoculated with a microbial inoculum extracted from a forest soil, in presence or in absence of P. chrysosporium and subsequently, three enrichment steps were performed. First, bacterial strains were isolated from different microcosms previously analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Strains isolated from P. chrysosporium mycosphere showed less antagonism against this fungus compared to the strains isolated from the initial forest soil inoculum, suggesting a selection by the fungus of less inhibitory bacterial communities. Moreover, the presence of the fungus in wood resulted in a selection of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains, highlighting the role of mycospheric bacteria in wood decomposition. Additionally, the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria increased along the enrichment steps, suggesting an important role of bacteria in iron mobilization in decaying-wood. Finally, taxonomic identification of 311 bacterial isolates revealed, at the family level, strong similarities with the high-throughput sequencing data as well as with other studies in terms of taxonomic composition of the wood-associated bacterial community, highlighting that the isolated strains are representative of the wood-associated bacterial communities.

  17. Enzyme activities during degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Li, Jieming; Li, Yimeng; Zhang, Qingmin

    2009-10-01

    The degradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in soils by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced during degradation, were analyzed. The results showed that the 19-d percentage degradation ranged from 72.77+/-1.39% to 25.50+/-3.41% for the three compounds, and the maximum LiP and MnP activities ranged from 0.16+/-0.005 to 0.05+/-0.002 U g(-1) and from 1.92+/-0.03 to 0.54+/-0.03 U g(-1), respectively. Degradation percentage and enzyme activities both exhibited inverse relationships with the octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) of the compounds, indicating that LiP and MnP from P. chrysosporium may be the primary enzymes responsible for PAH degradation in soil. As the soil organic matter (SOM) content increased from 0.3% for Soil 1 to 19% for Soil 4, the 19-d degradation percentage of pyrene decreased from 66.20+/-2.72% to 32.42+/-1.05%, and correspondingly, the maximum of LiP and MnP activities increased from 0.05+/-0.002 to 1.78+/-0.15 U g(-1) and from 0.34+/-0.03 to 1.78+/-0.15 U g(-1), respectively. Hence, it is plausible to conclude that the P. chrysosporium appeared to degrade not only the PAHs with small molecular size but also the macromolecular SOM. When SOM differences are large, as in this study, SOM has greater influence on enzyme activity than low-level exotic pollutants.

  18. Biotransformation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: oxidation of alkyl side-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J S; Lawrence, D L; Nuck, B A; Federle, T W; Reddy, C A

    2001-01-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which generally mineralizes substituted aromatics to CO2, transformed linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) surfactants mainly at their alkyl side chain. Degradation of LAS was evidenced by a zone of clearing on LAS-containing agar plates and colorimetric analysis of liquid cultures. Disappearance of LAS was virtually complete within 10 days in low nitrogen (2.4 mM N), high nitrogen (24 mM N) and malt extract (ME) liquid media. After 5 days of incubation in ME medium, transformation of LAS was complete at concentrations < or = 4 mg l(-1), but decreased at higher concentrations. The LAS degradation was not dependent on lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs). Mineralization of 14C-ring-LAS to 14CO2 by P. chrysosporium was < 1% regardless of the culture conditions used. Thin layer chromatography and mass spectral analyses indicated that P. chrysosporium transformed LAS to sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPCs) through oxidative shortening of the alkyl side-chains. While LAS disappearance in the cultures was not dependent on LiPs and MnPs, transformation of the parent LAS moieties to SPCs was more extensive in low N medium that favors expression of these enzymes. The SPCs produced in LN cultures were shorter in chain- length than those produced in ME cultures. Also there was a notable shift in the relative abundance of odd and even chain length metabolites compared to the starting LAS particularly in the low N cultures suggesting the possible involvement of processes other than or in addition to beta-oxidation in the chain-shortening process.

  19. Application of Phanerochaete chrysosporium 1038 - Enzyme Complex and Laccase in Biobleaching of Flax Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching processes in textile industry require to keep fibers tenacity, partially to preserve the pectin and reducing the lignin content, that gives color to row flax fibers. The use of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium 1038 strain and pure Laccase from Biocatalyst in flax fibers treatment was studied. The whiteness of enzymatically-processed fibers was significantly improved and the residual quantity of nondegraded lignin was less than obtained with chemical processing. The structural changes in the flax fibers during enzyme treatment were determined with IR spectroscopy, which confirmed the lignin degradation.

  20. Heat Shock Induction of Manganese Peroxidase Gene Transcription in Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Julie A.; Li, Dan; Alic, Margaret; Gold, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of manganese peroxidase (MnP) in nitrogen-limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is regulated by heat shock at the level of gene transcription. Nitrogen limitation and manganous ion [Mn(II)] previously have been shown to regulate mnp gene transcription. Northern (RNA) blot analysis demonstrates that 45°C heat shock results in the accumulation of mnp mRNA, even in cells grown in the absence of Mn. Heat shock induces mnp gene transcription in 4- or 5-day-old cells, and m...

  1. [Effect of pH on suppressing the growth of other bacteria and fungi in culturing Phanerochaete chrysosporium in liquid medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-wen; Wen, Xiang-hua; Zhou, Xiao-yan; Zeng, Yong-gang; Qian, Yi

    2005-11-01

    Effect of different pH value on suppressing the growth of other bacteria and fungi in culturing Phanerochaete chrysosporium in liquid medium under non-sterile were investigated in agitated Erlenmeyer flasks. Results showed that nitrogen-limited liquid medium with pH3.6 and pH4.4 were contaminated only by yeast fungi when the Phanerochaete chrysosporium was incubated with spore inoculation under non-sterile condition for one day; however, nitrogen-limited liquid medium with pH5.6 was contaminated not only by yeast, but also by bacteria. These contaminated yeast and bacteria reduced the dye decolorizing ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium . If after the Phanerochaete chrysosporium was incubated under sterile condition for 5 days, it can decolorize over 70% of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP within 45 hours under non-sterile condition, and this removal rate was close to or even higher than that under sterile condition. Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultured in the liquid medium with pH4.4 have the best decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition, and can decolorize up to 80% of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP in 24 hours. In additions, it was observed that by using the Phanerochaete chrysosporium incubated in above nitrogen-limited liquid medium with different pH under sterile condition for 5 days, the system were also contaminated by the other bacteria and yeast during decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under non-sterile condition, but the amount of these bacteria and yeast in liquid medium were too little to influence the Phanerochaete chrysosporium decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP. So that, when Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to decolorize reactive dyes under non-sterile condition, the incubation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium must be operated under sterile condition in order to achieve the higher decolorization.

  2. Degradation of Diuron by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Role of Ligninolytic Enzymes and Cytochrome P450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline da Silva Coelho-Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated for its capacity to degrade the herbicide diuron in liquid stationary cultures. The presence of diuron increased the production of lignin peroxidase in relation to control cultures but only barely affected the production of manganese peroxidase. The herbicide at the concentration of 7 μg/mL did not cause any reduction in the biomass production and it was almost completely removed after 10 days. Concomitantly with the removal of diuron, two metabolites, DCPMU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-3-methylurea] and DCPU [(3,4-dichlorophenylurea], were detected in the culture medium at the concentrations of 0.74 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. Crude extracellular ligninolytic enzymes were not efficient in the in vitro degradation of diuron. In addition, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, significantly inhibited both diuron degradation and metabolites production. Significant reduction in the toxicity evaluated by the Lactuca sativa L. bioassay was observed in the cultures after 10 days of cultivation. In conclusion, P. chrysosporium can efficiently metabolize diuron without the accumulation of toxic products.

  3. Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin-degrading fungus Phaerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, J.T.; Gold, M.H.; Renganathan, V. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Under nitrogen-limiting, secondary metabolic conditions, the white rat basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium extensively mineralized the specifically [sup 14]C-ring-labeled azo dyes 4-phenylazophenol, 4-phenylazo-2-methoxyphenol, Disperse Yellow 3 [2-(4[prime]-acetamidophenylaso)-4-methylphenol], 4-phenylazoaniline, N,N-dimethyl-4-phenylazoaniline, Disperse Orange 3 [4-(4[prime]-nitrophenylazo)-aniline], and Solvent Yellow 14 (1-phenylazo-2-naphthol). Twelve days after addition to cultures, the dyes had been mineralized 23.1 to 48.1%. Aromatic rings with substituents such as hydroxyl, amino, acetamido, or nitro functions were mineralized to a greater extent than unsubstituted rings. Most of the dyes were degraded extensively only under nitrogen-limiting, ligninolytic conditions. However, 4-phenylazo-[U-[sup 14]C] phenol and 4-phenylazo-[U-[sup 14]C] 2-methoxyphenol were mineralized to a lesser extent under nitrogen-sufficient, nonligninolytic conditions as well. These results suggest that P. chrysosporium has potential applications for the cleanup of textile mill effluents and for the bioremediation of dye-contaminated soil.

  4. Use of steam explosion liquor from sugar cane bagasse for lignin peroxidase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; Bon, Elba P S; Araujo Neto, Julio Silva

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using two by-products of the sugar cane industry, molasses and bagasse steam explosion liquor (SEL), for lignin peroxidase (LiP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. For comparison, the fungus was initially cultivated in synthetic media containing either glucose, sucrose, xylose, or xylan as sole carbon sources. The effect of veratryl alcohol (VA) was also investigated in relation to the enzyme activity levels. Results showed that sucrose was not metabolized by this fungus, which precluded the use of molasses as a carbon source. Glucose, xylose, and xylan promoted equivalent cell growth. Enzyme levels in the absence of VA were lower than 28 UI/L and in the presence of VA reached 109 IU/L with glucose and 85 IU/L with xylose or xylan. SEL was adequate for P. chrysosporium LiP production as LiP activity reached 90 IU/L. When VA was added to this medium, enzyme concentration increased to 155 IU/L.

  5. Fungal pretreatment by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for enhancement of biogas production from corn stover silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Li, Xin; Wu, Shubiao; He, Jing; Pang, Changle; Deng, Yu; Dong, Renjie

    2014-11-01

    Corn stover silage (CSS) was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid-state fermentation (SSF), to enhance methane production via subsequent anaerobic digestion (AD). Effects of washing of corn stover silage (WCSS) on the lignocellulosic biodegradability in the fungal pretreatment step and on methane production in the AD step were investigated with comparison to the CSS. It was found that P. chrysosporium had the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of CSS up to 19.9, 32.4, and 22.6 %, respectively. Consequently, CSS pretreated by 25 days achieved the highest methane yield of 265.1 mL/g volatile solid (VS), which was 23.0 % higher than the untreated CSS. However, the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in WCSS after 30 days of SSF increased to 45.9, 48.4, and 39.0 %, respectively. Surface morphology and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses also demonstrated that the WCSS improved degradation of cell wall components during SSF. Correspondingly, the pretreatment of WCSS improved methane production by 19.6 to 32.6 %, as compared with untreated CSS. Hence, washing and reducing organic acids (such as lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) present in CSS has been proven to further improve biodegradability in SSF and methane production in the AD step.

  6. Transformation of low rank coal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P.; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1997-11-01

    There is evidence that the organic fraction of low rank coal (LRC) is chemically transformed by wood-rot fungi. These fungi and the oxidases they secrete have variously been shown to solubilise, polymerise, depolymerise and decolourise macromolecules derived from LRC. The white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is able to depolymerise and decolourise alkali-soluble acid-precipitable LRC macromolecules (AS-coal), converting them to a form not recoverable by alkali washing. Transformation of AS-coal is enhanced in N-limiting media under hyperbaric oxygen and is believed to be due, at least in part, to oxidation by manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP). The precise role these enzymes play is not yet clear but enzyme and mutant studies show AS-coal can be both polymerised and depolymerised by MnP and its mimetic Mn(III), without change to its absorbance at 400 nm. LiP decolourises AS-coal without apparently altering its molecular mass. Culture filtrates containing MnP and LiP acting on methylated AS-coal yield an array of low molecular mass moieties. Coal-derived monometers have not been recovered from cultures of P. chrysosporium, consistent with them being taken-up by the fungal cells. This suggests that cellular transformations may permit the diverse catabolic products derived from LRC to be converted to specific low molecular mass compounds in usable yield. 43 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Biodegradation pathway and detoxification of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayatizamir, Naeimeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana; Yakhchali, Bagher; Alikhani, Hossein A; Mohammadi, Leila

    2011-11-01

    The in vivo biodegradation of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilised on cubes of nylon sponge and on sunflower-seed shells (SS) in laboratory-scale bioreactors was investigated. The SS cultivation led to the best results with a decolouration percentage of 90.3% in 72 h for an initial RB5 concentration of 100 mg/L. It was found that the addition of 0.4 mM veratryl alcohol (VA) into the medium considerably increased the decolouration rate in SS cultivation. However, the addition of VA had no effect in the nylon cultivation. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that RB5 was transformed into one metabolite after 24 h. UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) also confirmed the biodegradation of RB5. Toxicity of RB5 solutions before and after fungal treatment was assayed using Sinorhizobium meliloti as a sensitive soil microorganism. P. chrysosporium transformed the toxic dye RB5 into a non-toxic product.

  8. EFECTO DEL COBRE Y HIERRO SOBRE LA EXPRESION Y ACTIVIDAD ENZIMATICA DE LAS OXIDASAS MULTICOBRE DEL HONGO BASIDIOMICETE PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM.

    OpenAIRE

    CANESSA AGUILA, PAULO FRANCISCO

    2009-01-01

    Los basidiomicetes como Phanerochaete chrysosporium son un grupo de hongos filamentosos capaces de degradar la lignina, un biopolimero de estructura y composición altamente compleja, presente en la pared celular de las plantas leñosas. Durante la degradac 125p.

  9. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py

  10. Biosorption of lead by phanerochaete chrysosporium in the form of pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725) in pellets was influenced by culture time, medium pH, C/N, surfactant concentration, spore number in inoculum, and shaking rate. The removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution by this kind of mycelial pellets was studied. The results indicated that many factors affected biosorption. These factors included pH, Pb2+ concentration, co-ion, adsorption time, and chemical pretreatments of biomass. Under optimum biosorption conditions (pH 4.5, 27℃, 16h), the highest lead uptake of 108 mg/g, was observed with mycelial pellets of 1.5-1.7 mm in diameter which were treated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution before adsorption. Pretreatment of biomass with NaOH further increased its biosorption capacity.

  11. Atypical features of a Ure2p glutathione transferase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Anne; Roret, Thomas; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Didierjean, Claude; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie

    2013-07-11

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are known to transfer glutathione onto small hydrophobic molecules in detoxification reactions. The GST Ure2pB1 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium exhibits atypical features, i.e. the presence of two glutathione binding sites and a high affinity towards oxidized glutathione. Moreover, PcUre2pB1 is able to efficiently deglutathionylate GS-phenacylacetophenone. Catalysis is not mediated by the cysteines of the protein but rather by the one of glutathione and an asparagine residue plays a key role in glutathione stabilization. Interestingly PcUre2pB1 interacts in vitro with a GST of the omega class. These properties are discussed in the physiological context of wood degrading fungi.

  12. Noncovalent immobilization of manganese peroxidases from P. chrysosporium on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxi LI; Xianghua WEN

    2009-01-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnP) from Phaner-ochaete chrysosporium were adsorbed onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). Four different loadings of MnP on MWNTs were investigated, and the maximum enzyme loading of 47.5 μg/mg of MWNTs was obtained in 12 h. The adsorbed MnP showed a catalytic activity of up to 0.1 U/mg of the weight of the system of MnP/MWNTs,with 23% of its original activity retained. The AFM image of the adsorbed enzymes indicated that a layer of MnP covered the surface of the MWNTs and retained its original three-dimensional shape. Amino-based nonspecific inter-actions may play the dominant role in the adsorption of MnP on MWNTs.

  13. Removal of phenol in phenolic resin wastewater by a novel biomaterial: the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet containing chlamydospore-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailei, Wang; Ping, Li; Yu, Qin; Hui, Yang

    2016-06-01

    A novel biomaterial, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet (CP) composed of chlamydospore-like cells (CLCs), was prepared and its potential in treating phenolic resin wastewater was evaluated. CP possesses higher phenol removal ability in contrast with mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium, and CLC can be seen as the naturally immobilized enzymes. At shake-flask level, the ideal pH value, temperature, and inoculation quantity of CP for treatment of 1430 mg/l phenol wastewater were pH 4-6, 30 °C, and 5.0 g/l, respectively, and the maximum specific removal rate, 41.1 mg phenol/g CP/h, was obtained in fixed bed reactor (FBR) when the flow rate of wastewater was 3.4 l/h. During the treatment, FBR harbored amounts of bacteria (135 genera) and eukaryotes, as analyzed by metagenomic sequencing. Bacterial pollution not only decreased reactor performance but also had a negative impact on reusability of CP. Hot water treatment (80-85 °C) is effective to inhibit bacterial pollution, and heat resistance of CLC makes the repeated regrowing of CP be feasible. This work presents an innovative and low-cost biomaterial for phenol removal and will be helpful for the practical application of P. chrysosporium in wastewater treatment.

  14. Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03 secretes high titers of manganese peroxidase during decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL textile dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Razia; Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Batool, Shaheera; Asad, Muhammad Javaid

    2011-01-01

    A novel indigenous strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03, with high manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities was used for decolorization of a reactive textile dye, Drimarine Blue K2R, which is used extensively in textile units of Pakistan. The initial experiment was run for seven days with 0.01% (w/v) dye solution prepared in Kirk's basal nutrient medium. Samples were removed after every 24 h and the extent of dye decolorization was determined at lambda(max) of the dye. The study revealed that P. chrysosporium caused 65% decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL in seven days. By process optimization, 97% colour removal could be achieved in three days using 0.005% (w/v) Drimarine Blue K2RL solution at pH 4.0 and 30 degrees C in defined Kirk's medium with 0.9% (w/v) molasses and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium dihydrogen phosphate added as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Manganese peroxidase was found to be the major enzyme (560 IU/mL) involved in dye decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL by P. chrysosporium. The dye adsorption studies showed that the dye initially adsorbed on fungal mats disappeared later on, possibly by the action of MnP secreted by the fungus in secondary metabolism.

  15. Removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and other selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater using a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Batisson, Isabelle; Fick, Jerker; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Grabic, Roman

    2010-09-01

    The capacity of the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of environmentally persistent xenobiotics has been largely reported in the literature. Beside other factors, one barrier to a wider use of this bioremediation fungus is the availability of effective formulations that ensure easy preparation, handling and application. In this series of laboratory experiments, we evaluated the efficiency of a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of P. chrysosporium for removal of four selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater samples. Addition of inoculated granules to samples of the wastewater treatment plant of Bologna significantly increased the removal of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu), and the antibiotics, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazol, and ciprofloxacin. Similar effects were also observed in effluent water. Oseltamivir was the most persistent of the four active substances. After 30d of incubation, approximately two times more oseltamivir was removed in bioremediated wastewater than controls. The highest removal efficiency of the bioplastic formulation was observed with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Microbiological DNA-based analysis showed that the bioplastic matrix supported the growth of P. chrysosporium, thus facilitating its adaptation to unusual environment such as wastewater.

  16. Direct determination of lignin peroxidase released from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by in-capillary enzyme assay using micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Airi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kaneta, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Here we describe the application of an in-capillary enzyme assay using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in the determination of enzyme activity in a crude culture medium containing lignin peroxidase released from Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). The method consists of a plug-plug reaction between lignin peroxidase and its substrate, veratryl alcohol, the separation of the product, veratraldehyde, from the other components including the enzyme and the culture medium, and the determination of the enzyme activity from the peak area of veratraldehyde produced by the plug-plug reaction. This method is more sensitive than conventional spectrophotometry since the background originates from the enzyme and the culture medium can be removed via MEKC separation. Veratraldehyde was separated at -10kV in a background electrolyte containing 50mM tartrate buffer (pH 2.5) and 50mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) after a plug-plug reaction in the capillary for 5min. The calibration curve of veratraldehyde was linear up to 4pmol (500μM) with a limit to quantification of 0.026pmol (3.2μM) (SN=10). The activity of lignin peroxidase was directly measured from the peak area of veratraldehyde. The activity of lignin peroxidase released from P. chrysosporium into the medium for 7 days was successfully determined to be 3.40UL(-1).

  17. ABILITY OF Phanerochaete chrysosporium AND Trametes versicolor TO REMOVE Zn2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Solís Pacheco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of fungal biomass as an alternative for removing heavy metals has become increasingly important in recent years, replacing conventional methods based on chemical physical processes. In this study, we evaluated the biosorption of Zn2+, Cr3+ and Pb2+, which were analyzed to determine their effect on growth kinetic parameters of Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 1267. Growth kinetics were performed in four liquid culture media: 1 Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB used as control, 2 YNB medium plus Pb2+ (0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1, 3 YNB medium plus Zn2+ (5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 and 4 YNB medium plus Cr3+ (0.5, 1 and 2 mg L-1. The flasks were incubated at 25 °C with shaking at 150 rpm. Metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES with prior acid digestion of the sample. The results demonstrated that Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 12679 are able to grow in the culture medium with Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+ ions at different concentrations. However, P. chrysosporium ATCC 32629 showed greater adaptability and ability to adsorb Cr3+ in the culture medium at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg L-1, whereas T. versicolor ATCC 12679 was capable of Pb2+ biosorption at concentrations of 0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1.

  18. The RT-PCR Analysis of Lignocellulytic Biodegradation-related Gene Expression of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Mingfeng(江明锋); Zhang Yizheng

    2004-01-01

    Expression of lignocellulytic biodegradation-related genes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown in 10 kinds of defined media for 5 days and on fir wood chip for 2 to 8 weeks is analyzed by using the RT-PCR method. The result shows that an individual gene of lip gene family responds differently to different nutrient factors. The expression of lipD gene can be promoted by molecular O2 but suppressed by Mn2+. The influence of nitorgen is not the controlling factor for lipD gene expression. No clear relationship is found between nutrient factors and the expression of lipA gene which may be regulated by several nutrient factors through a complex system. Mnp3 gene is not strongly regulated by Mn2+ and other nutrient factors. It can be expressed in different media. CBHI gene family can not be expressed in the presence of glucose as the sole carbon source. Glx expression is regulated by Mn2+ and molecular O2, and depressed when Mn2+ concerntration goes up to 300 mg/L. The transcription patterns of lip gene family grown on fir wood chip are shown to be markedly different from those patterns in defined media. The expression of single lip gene changes with colonized time. No difference is observed between the expression pattern of mnp, cbh, glx gene in defined media and fir wood chips.

  19. Continuous treatment of coloured industry wastewater using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kheria, Sumeet

    2012-06-30

    Coloured industry wastewaters often contain dyes and other toxic ingredients, and, therefore, pose serious threat to the receiving environment. Among the available methods the eco-friendly biological method has gained maximum attention due to its many advantages over the traditional methods. In the present study, continuous biological treatment of coloured wastewater from a textile dyeing industry was investigated using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor. The raw wastewater was diluted with an equal volume of either distilled water or media containing glucose at varying concentrations to study its effect on the decolourization process. Results revealed that the wastewater could be decolourized to an extent of more than 64% when diluted with media containing glucose; and, a maximum decolourization efficiency of 83% was obtained with 10 g/l glucose concentration. COD removal efficiencies were also found to be consistent with the decolourization efficiencies of the wastewaters. Further, the results were correlated with the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) by the fungus, which were found to play some significant role in decolourization of the wastewater. Results of replacing the costly carbon source glucose in the decolourization media with the more cheap molasses, however, revealed very high COD removal efficiency, but low decolourization efficiency of the industry wastewater.

  20. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. (Forstbotanisches Inst. der Univ. Gottingen (Germany)); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J (Univ. of Detroit Mercy, MI (United States))

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

  1. Electrochemical evidence of self-substrate inhibition as functions regulation for cellobiose dehydrogenase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Leonard; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Gorton, Lo

    2009-09-01

    The reaction mechanism of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, adsorbed on graphite electrodes, was investigated by following its catalytic reaction with cellobiose registered in both direct and mediated electron transfer modes between the enzyme and the electrode. A wall-jet flow through amperometric cell housing the CDH-modified graphite electrode was connected to a single line flow injection system. In the present study, it is proven that cellobiose, at concentrations higher than 200 microM, competes for the reduced state of the FAD cofactor and it slows down the transfer of electrons to any 2e(-)/H(+) acceptors or further to the heme cofactor, via the internal electron transfer pathway. Based on and proven by electrochemical results, a kinetic model of substrate inhibition is proposed and supported by the agreement between simulation of plots and experimental data. The implications of this kinetic model, called pseudo-ping-pong mechanism, on the possible functions CDH are also discussed. The enzyme exhibits catalytic activity also for lactose, but in contrast to cellobiose, this sugar does not inhibit the enzyme. This suggests that even if some other substrates are coincidentally oxidized by CDH, however, they do not trigger all the possible natural functions of the enzyme. In this respect, cellobiose is regarded as the natural substrate of CDH.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation and extracellular enzyme secretion in agitated and stationary cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular enzyme secretion and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in agitated and shallow stationary liquid cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Veratryl alcohol and Tween80 were added to cultures as lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) inducer, respectively. Shallow stationary cultures were suitable for the production of enzyme, whereas agitated cultures enhanced overall biodegradation by facilitating interphase mass transfer of PAH into aqueous phases. The use of a LiP stimulator, veratryl alcohol, did not increase PAH degradation but significantly enhanced LiP activity. In contrast, Tween80 increased both MnP secretion and PAH degradation in shallow stationary cultures. On the other hand, high PAH degradation was observed in agitated cultures in the absence of detectable LiP and MnP activities. The results suggested that extracellular peroxidase activities are not directly related to the PAH degradation, and the increased solubility rather than enzyme activity may be more important in the promotion of PAH degradation.

  3. Transcriptional effect of a calmodulin inhibitor, W-7, on the ligninolytic enzyme genes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takaiku; Kitaura, Hironori; Minami, Masahiko; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takashi; Ueda, Akio; Suzuki, Kazumi; Irie, Toshikazu

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the effects of a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor, W-7, on the expression of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium to consider the role of cam gene, which was upregulated in parallel with the total activities of LiP and MnP in our previous transcriptomic analysis. The addition of 100 μM W-7 to the fungal cultures repressed the total activities of LiP and MnP, whereas the addition of 100 μM W-5, which is a control drug of W-7, retained approximately half of them, indicating that the effect of W-7 was attributable to CaM inhibition. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that most of lip and mnp isozyme genes predicted from whole-genome data were significantly inhibited by W-7 at the transcription level (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that CaM has an important role for the expression of isozyme genes of LiP and MnP at the transcription level.

  4. Effects of culture conditions on ligninolytic enzymes and protease production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes and protease by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated under different culture conditions. Different amounts of medium were employed in free and immobilized culture, together with two kinds of medium with different C/N ratios. Little lignin peroxidase (LiP) (< 2 U/L) was detected in free culture with nitrogen-limited medium (C/N ratio: 56/2.2 mmol/L), while manganese peroxidase (MnP) maximum activity was 231 and 240 U/L in 50 and 100 ml medium culture, respectively. Immobilized culture with 50 ml nitrogen-limited medium gave the highest MnP and LiP production with the maximum values of 410 and 721 U/L separately on day 5; however, flasks containing 100 ml nitrogen-limited medium only produced less MnP with a peak value of 290 U/L. Comparatively, carbon-limited medium (C/N ratio: 28/44 mmol/L) was adopted in culture but produced little MnP and LiP. Medium type had the greatest impact on protease production. Large amount of protease was produced due to glucose limitation. Culture type and medium volume influence protease activity corporately by affecting oxygen supply. The results implied shallow immobilized culture was a possible way to gain high production of ligninolytic enzymes.

  5. Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Ramu, Kamma; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation during drum composting of agricultural waste was performed at different composting stages. Three trials were carried out with (5:4:1) combination of vegetable waste, cattle manure, and sawdust along with 10 kg of dried leaves with a total mass of 100 kg in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Trial 1 was a control without inoculation of fungus, while trial 2 was inoculated during the initial day (0th day of composting), and trial 3 was inoculated after the thermophilic phase, i.e., on the 8th day of composting period. The inoculation of fungus increased the volatile solids reduction by 1.45-fold in trial 2 and 1.7-fold in trial 3 as compared to trial 1 without any fungal inoculation. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was observed with 2.31, 2.62, and 2.59% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at the end of 20 days of composting period. Hence, it can be concluded that inoculation of white-rot fungus increased the decomposition rate of agricultural waste within shorter time in drum composting. However, inoculation after the thermophilic phase was found more effective than inoculation during initial days of composting for producing more stabilized and nutrient-rich compost.

  6. Biochemical characterization and transcriptional analysis of the epoxide hydrolase from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Li; Yizheng Zhang; Hong Feng

    2009-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a model fungus used to investigate the sec-ondary metabolism and lignin degradation. Genomic sequencing reveals the presence of at least 18 genes encoding putative epoxide hydrolases (EHs). One cDNA encoding EH (designated as PchEHA) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the transcripts of PchEHA could be detected under the ligninolytic and nonligninolytic con-ditions as well as amended with anthracene. The recom-binant enzyme exhibits broad hydrolytic activity toward several racemic epoxides including styrene oxide, epichlorohydrin, and 1,2-epoxybutane, but with different specificity. Using racemic styrene oxide as the substrate, the optimal pH and temperature are pH 9.0 and 40℃, respectively. The enzyme is not sensitive to EDTA, and is inhibited by H2O2, and several metal ions including Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+ at various extents. Several organic cosoivents including acetone, dimethylsulfoxide, formamide, glycerol and ethanol at 10% (v/v) cause slight or no inhibition of the hydrolytic reaction. More importantly, the recombinant enzyme displays distinct enantioselective preference to several chiral epoxides. The enzyme showed good enantioselec-tivity toward chiral styrene oxide with preferential hydrolysis of (R)-enantiomer. PchEHA is likely a novel soluble EH based on the sequence analysis and catalytic properties, and is a great potential biocatalyst for the preparation of enantiopure styrene oxide in racemic kinetic resolution.

  7. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been recognized as a widespread, potentially low cost renewable source of mixed sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol. Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol, remains one of the main barriers to technical and commercial success of the processing technology. Existing pretreatment methods have largely been developed on the basis of physiochemical technologies which are considered relatively expensive and usually involve adverse environmental impacts. In this study, an environmentally benign alternative, microbial pretreatment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was explored to degrade lignin in cotton stalks and facilitate their conversion into ethanol. Two submerged liquid pretreatment techniques (SmC), shallow stationary and agitated cultivation, at three inorganic salt concentrations (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+, modified salts with Mn2+) were compared by evaluating their pretreatment efficiencies. Shallow stationary cultivation with no salt was superior to other pretreatment conditions and gave 20.7% lignin degradation along with 76.3% solids recovery and 29.0% carbohydrate availability over a 14 day period. The influence of substrate moisture content (65%, 75% and 80% M.C. wet-basis), inorganic salt concentration (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+ , modified salts with Mn2+) and culture time (0-14 days) on pretreatment effectiveness in solid state (SSC) systems was also examined. It was shown that solid state cultivation at 75% M.C. without salts was the most preferable pretreatment resulting in 27.6% lignin degradation, 71.1% solids recovery and 41.6% carbohydrate availability over a period of 14 days. A study on hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks treated microbially using the most promising SmC (shallow stationary, no salts) and SSC (75% moisture content, no salts) methods resulted in no increase in cellulose conversion with direct enzyme application (10.98% and 3

  8. To enhance the reproduction of Phanerochaete chrysosporium by adding natural lixiviums in liquid medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gang; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2003-01-01

    Great promotion to the reproduction of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn by adding natural lixiviums such as from wood,maize core and potato in liquid medium was found in this research. Incubated in the liquid medium contained 10 mg/L glucose as carbon source with natural lixiviums for three days, the production of mycelium pellet reaches more than 80 g/L, which is 5 times more than that of without natural lixiviums. Incubated in the liquid medium contained 5 mg/L glucose as carbon source with natural lixiviums for three days, the production of mycelium pellet can reach 69.5 g/L, while the production in the medium without natural lixiviums is very low. When the liquid medium contained 1-20 g/L glucose as carbon source, the production of mycelium pellet in 3 d can only reach 12.5 g/L to 14.5 g/L. The fungus in the medium with potato lixiviums are easily contaminated by other microorganisms and in the medium with maize core lixiviums are easily bulking, while in the medium with wood lixiviums are neither easily contaminated nor bulking. Medium with wood lixiviums can produce more pellet than other medium, endure contamination and keep better sedimentation capacity. So that, wood lixivium is better additive to the culture of white rot fungi in liquid medium. Addition of the mixture of wood, maize core and potato lixiviums is of advantage to the production of mycelium pellet. The difference of the production in the medium with different amount of wood lixiviums showed little in the first 3 d, while it expanded after 3 d. Wood lixiviums stimulate the growth of P. chrysosporium instead of supply organics which fungi need.

  9. Mineralization of sulfonated azo dyes and sulfanilic acid by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Streptomyces chromofuscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszczynski, A; Pasti-Grigsby, M B; Goszczynski, S; Crawford, R L; Crawford, D L

    1992-11-01

    Five 14C-radiolabeled azo dyes and sulfanilic acid were synthesized and used to examine the relationship between dye substitution patterns and biodegradability (mineralization to CO2) by a white-rot fungus and an actinomycete. 4-Amino-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(3-sulfo-4-aminophenylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid were used as representative compounds having sulfo groups or both sulfo and azo groups. Such compounds are not known to be present in the biosphere as natural products. The introduction of lignin-like fragments into the molecules of 4-amino-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(3-sulfo-4-aminophenylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid by coupling reactions with guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) resulted in the formation of the dyes 4-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(2-sulfo-3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxy-azobenzene-4-azo)-[U-14C]benzenesulf oni c acid, respectively. The synthesis of acid azo dyes 4-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid also allowed the abilities of these microorganisms to mineralize these commercially important compounds to be evaluated. Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralized all of the sulfonated azo dyes, and the substitution pattern did not significantly influence the susceptibility of the dyes to degradation. In contrast, Streptomyces chromofuscus was unable to mineralize aromatics with sulfo groups and both sulfo and azo groups. However, it mediated the mineralization of modified dyes containing lignin-like substitution patterns. This work showed that lignocellulolytic fungi and bacteria can be used for the biodegradation of anionic azo dyes, which thus far have been considered among the xenobiotic compounds most resistant to biodegradation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The effect of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress on the enzymes in white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihua; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Yan, Min; Chen, Anwei; Du, Jianjian; Huang, Jian; Yi, Bin; Zhou, Ying; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Prevalence of heavy metals in the living environment causes chemical stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). However, the mechanisms involved in ROS defense are still under investigation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidative stress on the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP). A time-dependent change in all enzyme activities was observed following exposure to 50 μM cadmium and 25 μM lead. The lowest values were recorded at 4 h after exposure. Both cadmium and lead inhibited CAT and POD. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) levels increased under 50-100 μM cadmium or lead exposure and decreased when heavy metal concentration was under 50 μM; this suggested that ROS is not the only factor that alters the CYP450 levels. The cadmium removal rate in the sample containing 900 μM taxifolin (inhibitor of CYP450) and 100 μM cadmium was reduced to 12.34 %, 9.73 % lower than that of 100 μM cadmium-induced sample, indicating CYP450 may play an indirect but key role in the process of clearance of heavy metals. The pH of the substrate solution decreased steadily during the incubation process.

  11. Biodegradation of pyrene by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and enzyme activities in soils: effect of SOM, sterilization and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Liu, Haibin; Wang, Baolin

    2014-05-01

    The impacts of soil organic matter (SOM), aging and sterilization on the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium during the biodegradation of pyrene in soils were investigated. The biodegradation of pyrene by P. chrysosporium decreased with increasing SOM content, whereas the maximum activities of LiP and MnP increased, which indicates that SOM outweighed pyrene in controlling enzyme production. Sterilization enhanced the degradation of pyrene due to the elimination of competition from indigenous microbes, whereas aging led to a reduction in the degradation of pyrene primarily through changes in its sorbed forms. Both sterilization and aging could reduce SOM content and alter its structure, which also influenced the bioavailability of pyrene and the enzyme activity. The sterilization and aging processes caused changes in the degradation of pyrene, and the enzyme activities were greater in soils with high SOM contents. MnP was related to the degradation of pyrene to a greater extent, whereas LiP was more related to the decomposition of SOM.

  12. BIODEGRADATION OF DDT [1,1,1-TRICHLORO-2,2-BIS(4- CHLOROPHENYL) ETHANE] BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of [14C]DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the form...

  13. BIODEGRATION OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN LIQUID CULTURE AND IN SOIL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of [14C]-2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ([[14C]-2,4,5-T) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in nutrient nitrogen-limited aqueous cultures and in [14C]-2,4,5-T-contaminated soil inoculat...

  14. Effect of inducers and culturing processes on laccase synthesis in Phanerochaete chrysosporium NCIM 1197 and the constitutive expression of laccase isozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manavalan, Arulmani

    2006-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium NCIM 1197 constitutively secretes considerable level of extracellular enzyme laccase in defined growth medium. Effect of several inducers on laccase production was attempted and found that copper sulphate alone at 30 mM concentration accelerate the laccase production...

  15. EFFECTS OF CULTURE PARAMETERS ON DDT [1,1,1-TRICHLO- RO-2,2-BIS(4-CHLOROPHENYL) ETHANE] BIODEGRADATION BY PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lignin degrading system of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organopollutants to carbon dioxide. Current research is focused on ways to increase or optimize rates of biodegradation in order to a...

  16. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ground corn stover for the production of fuel ethanol using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Escherichia coli K011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum and subsequent fermentation of the saccharification products to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli K011 were achieved. Prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production, solid-state fermentation was performed for four days on ground corn stover using either P. chrysosporium or G. trabeum to induce in situ cellulase production. During SSF with S. cerevisiae or E. coli, ethanol production was the highest on day 4 for all samples. For corn stover treated with P. chrysosporium, the conversion to ethanol was 2.29 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae as the fermenting organism, whereas for the sample inoculated with E. coli K011, the ethanol production was 4.14 g/100 g corn stover. Corn stover treated with G. trabeum showed a conversion 1.90 and 4.79 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 as the fermenting organisms, respectively. Other fermentation co-products, such as acetic acid and lactic acid, were also monitored. Acetic acid production ranged between 0.45 and 0.78 g/100 g corn stover, while no lactic acid production was detected throughout the 5 days of SSF. The results of our experiment suggest that it is possible to perform SSF of corn stover using P. chrysosporium, G. trabeum, S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 for the production of fuel ethanol.

  17. Screening of static culture and comparison of batch and continuous culture for the textile dye biological decolorization by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Urra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the level of decolorization of 13 dyes were evaluated using static and agitated batch cultures and continuous cultures. A screening carried out under static conditions showed that the oxidative system has a certain affinity for azoic structures. For concentrations of 100 mg l-1 of Acid Black 1, Reactive Black 5, Reactive Orange 16 and Acid Red 27, decolorization percentages higher than 90% were obtained. In batch cultures with Acid Black 1 and Reactive Black 5 a significant increment in primary post-metabolism biomass was observed. For these last two dyes, it was possible to explore the response of the continuous system during 32 to 47 days, with concentrations between 25 to 400 mg l-1, obtaining decolorization percentages greater than 70% for 400 mg l-1.

  18. A novel knotted cotton-thread carrier:Its potential use in achieving the biomass renewal of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve an innovative strategy to renew the biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system which can maintain white-rot fungi biomass, a novel knotted cotton-thread carrier was designed and made. By using a high-speed stirring apparatus under the conditions of 1400 r/min stirring speed for 6 min, mycelia immobilized on the knotted cotton-thread carriers were exfoliated completely and homogenized to a proper size. Furthermore, the homogenized mycelia from the immobilized mycelia can resume their growth on the knotted cotton-thread carriers in agitated flask cultures. The average regrowth biomass on the new carriers and the reused carriers was 0.0171 g/carrier and 0.0314 g/carrier, respectively. It proves that the knotted cotton-thread carrier performs perfectly in homogening the immobilized mycelia to achieve the biomass renewal of P. chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system.

  19. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of some fungicides on catalase produced and purified from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakçıoğlu, Berna; Tarhan, Leman

    2014-10-01

    In this study, in vitro and in vivo effects of some commonly used fungicides, antibiotics, and various chemicals on isolated and purified catalase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated. The catalase was purified 129.10-fold by using 60% ammonium sulfate and 60% ethanol precipitations, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange and Sephacryl-S-200 gel filtration chromatographies from P. chrysosporium growth in carbon- and nitrogen-limited medium for 12 days. The molecular weight of native purified catalase from P. chrysosporium was found to be 290 ± 10 kDa, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE results indicated that enzyme consisted of four apparently identical subunits, with a molecular weight of 72.5 ± 2.5 kDa. Kinetic characterization studies showed that optimum pH and temperature, Km and Vmax values of the purified catalase which were stable in basic region and at comparatively high temperatures were 7.5, 30°C, 289.86 mM, and 250,000 U/mg, respectively. The activity of purified catalase from P. chrysosporium was significantly inhibited by dithiothreitol (DTT), 2-mercaptoethanol, iodoacetamide, EDTA, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). It was found that while antibiotics had no inhibitory effects, 45 ppm benomyl, 144 ppm captan, and 47.5 ppm chlorothalonil caused 14.52, 10.82, and 38.86% inhibition of purified catalase, respectively. The inhibition types of these three fungicides were found to be non-competitive inhibition with the Ki values of 1.158, 0.638, and 0.145 mM and IC50 values of 0.573, 0.158, 0.010 mM, respectively. The results of in vivo experiments also showed that benomyl, captan and chlorothalonil caused 15.25, 1.96, and 36.70% activity decreases after 24-h treatments compared to that of the control.

  20. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  1. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from grass to bioethanol using materials pretreated with alkali and the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yee Liong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Grasses are abundant in many climatic regions of the world and have been regarded as weeds by many. This work investigated the use of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass in the production of bioethanol. Two pretreated grasses were compared as the initial substance in the hydrolysis process followed by bacteria fermentation. For the purpose of breaking down lignin, alkali pretreatment, where grass was soaked in 7% NaOH, was used. For biological pretreatment, grass was incubated for 3 weeks with the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both types of pretreated materials were subjected to Trichoderma reesei ATCC 26921 enzyme hydrolysis. Glucose content from alkali-pretreated samples was 1.6-fold higher than fungus-pretreated samples. Hydrolysates from the pretreatments were fermented using the ethanol insensitive strain Escherichia coli K011. After 24 hours of fermentation, the ethanol yield from alkali-pretreated material was 1.5 times higher than the biological-pretreated material. It can be concluded that NaOH-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had a better ethanol yield compared to biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate, but biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had better ethanol conversion efficiency, which was 18.5 g/g. These results indicated that wild grass is capable of becoming an important biomass for small local bioethanol production.

  2. Manganese peroxidase production from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation and its decolorization of indigo carmine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huixing Li; Ruijing Zhang; Lei Tang; Jianhua Zhang; Zhonggui Mao

    2015-01-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes to higher value products through fungal fermentation has economic and ecological benefits. In this study, to develop an effective strategy for production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation, the stimulators of MnP produc-tion were screened and their concentrations were optimized by one-at-a-time experiment and Box–Behnken design. The maximum MnP activity of 186.38 nkat·g−1 dry mass of the sample was achieved after 6 days of fer-mentation with the supplement of 79.5 mmol·L−1·kg−1 acetic acid, 3.21 ml·kg−1 soybean oil, and 28.5 g·kg−1 alkaline lignin, indicating that cassava residue is a promising substrate for MnP production in solid state fermen-tation. Meanwhile, in vitro decolorization of indigo carmine by the crude MnP was also carried out, attaining the ratio of 90.18%after 6 h of incubation. An oxidative mechanism of indigo carmine decolorization by MnP was pro-posed based on the analysis of intermediate metabolites with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Using the crude MnP produced from cassava residue for indigo carmine decolorization gives an effective approach to treat dyeing effluents.

  3. Purification and characteristics of a low-molecular-weight peptide possessing oxidative capacity for phenol from Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Ming; ZHANG; Weican; LU; Xuemei; GAO; Peiji

    2006-01-01

    A new low-molecular-weight peptide with phenol oxidase activity, named Pc factor, was isolated and purified from liquid culture of a white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Its molecular weight was about 600 Da estimated by gel-filtration. Three amino acids Glu, Gly and Val were detected in hydrolysate. Absorption peaks corresponding to amino acids and peptide were observed by UV and IR spectra analysis. And the signal of Cα of amino acid was also detected by 13C-NMR method. Pc factor had high thermostability and remained active in weakly alkalescent pH range. It could chelate Fe3+ and reduce it to Fe2+, but no hydroxyl radical HO` could be detected during the reaction process. It could oxidize phenolic lignin-model compounds such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP), 2,2(-azinobis (3-ethylbenzathiazoline-6-sulfinic acid) (ABTS) and syringaldazine in the absence of Mn2+ and H2O2. These characteristics differed greatly from those of manganese peroxidases. The oxidative catalysis of Pc factor can be enhanced by certain metal ions such as Cu2+ and Mn2+ etc., and O2 molecule was necessary for this reaction. In summary, Pc factor may function as an electron carrier in this novel oxidation-reduction system.

  4. Biopulping of lignocarbohydrates residues of cymbopogon martini with phanerochaete chrysosporium: An approach towards energy conservation and waste utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, C. H.; Dharm, D.; Upadhyaya, J. S.; Upadhyay, A. K.; Garg, A. P. (Department of Paper Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Saharanpur (India))

    2007-07-01

    Lignocarbohydrates residue of Cymboogon martini (Palma rosa grass), cultivated for palma rosa oil, is used for land filling after steam distillation which creates environmental problems. This hitherto unexploited source of lignocarbohydrates biomass can successfully be used for the production of chemical grade pulp by soda and bio soda, alkali 02 and bio alkali 02 pulping processes. Lignocarbohydrates residue left after steam distillation was treated with P. chrysosporium at optimum conditions which degrades lignin, pentosan and holocellulose to 30.11, 62.25 and 18.60% respectively of the original composition of lignocarbohydrates residues of C. martini. Lignocellulosic residues of C. martini produces 44.73 % pulp yield with 22.12 kappa number at H factor 553.21, maximum cooking time 3 hours, maximum cooking temp 150 deg C, alkali dose 14 % (as Na{sub 2}0) and liquor to wood ratio of 5:1. The addition of 0.1 % AQ improves pulp yield by 0.72 % and reduces kappa number by 1.12 units. The 02 pressure 5 kg/cm2 improves pulp yield by 1.07 % and reduces kappa number by 1.65 units. The bio soda and bio alkali 02 pulping processes requires 11 % active alkali doses to get the same kappa number as for soda and alkali 02 pulps with a chemical saving of 3%. (orig.)

  5. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, 39 Mukaizano, Dazaifu-shi, Fukuoka 818-0135 (Japan); Ichinose, Hirofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Wariishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hirowari@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Bio-Architecture Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  6. Decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on synthetic dye bath effluent containing Amido black 10B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthilkumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic azo dyes are extensively used in textile industry and are not easily degraded into the environment due to their complex structure. Due to the low degree of fixation of these dyes to fabrics, more than 10–15% of the dye does not bind to fabrics during colour processing and release into water bodies as effluent cause serious environmental pollution. White-rot fungus is found to be capable of degrading lignin which has a complex structure similar to azo dyes. In this study, the decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which is capable of decolourizing synthetic dye bath effluent, was investigated. Maximum decolourization of 98% was achieved on the third day under normal conditions. The rate of decolourization carried out at different concentrations revealed that the increase in dye effluent concentration suppresses the percentage decolourization. The optimized amounts of nutrients were found to be 0.5%, 0.1% and 0.5% of glucose, manganese sulphate and ammonium salts, respectively. The addition of inducers such as starch and lignin increased enzyme production and the rate of decolourization.

  7. Glutathione transferases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium: S-glutathionyl-p-hydroquinone reductase belongs to a new structural class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meux, Edgar; Prosper, Pascalita; Ngadin, Andrew; Didierjean, Claude; Morel, Mélanie; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Lamant, Tiphaine; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric

    2011-03-18

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a saprophytic basidiomycete, possesses a large number of cytosolic glutathione transferases, eight of them showing similarity to the Omega class. PcGSTO1 (subclass I, the bacterial homologs of which were recently proposed, based on their enzymatic function, to constitute a new class of glutathione transferase named S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductases) and PcGSTO3 (subclass II related to mammalian homologs) have been investigated in this study. Biochemical investigations demonstrate that both enzymes are able to catalyze deglutathionylation reactions thanks to the presence of a catalytic cysteinyl residue. This reaction leads to the formation of a disulfide bridge between the conserved cysteine and the removed glutathione from their substrate. The substrate specificity of each isoform differs. In particular PcGSTO1, in contrast to PcGSTO3, was found to catalyze deglutathionylation of S-glutathionyl-p-hydroquinone substrates. The three-dimensional structure of PcGSTO1 presented here confirms the hypothesis that it belongs not only to a new biological class but also to a new structural class that we propose to name GST xi. Indeed, it shows specific features, the most striking ones being a new dimerization mode and a catalytic site that is buried due to the presence of long loops and that contains the catalytic cysteine.

  8. Study of the degradation of dyes by MnP of Phanerochaete chrysosporium produced in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, D; Rodríguez Couto, S; Cameselle, C; Sanromán, M A

    2003-04-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes by the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a fixed-bed tubular bioreactor, filled with cubes of nylon sponge, operating in semi-solid-state conditions, was studied. Maximum individual manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) activities of 1293 and 225 U/l were detected. The in vitro decolourisation of two structurally different dyes (Poly R-478, crystal violet) by the extracellular liquid obtained in the above-mentioned bioreactor was monitored in order to determine its degrading capability. The concentration of some compounds (sodium malonate, manganese sulphate) from the reaction mixture was optimised in order to maximise the decolourisation levels. A percentage of Poly R-478 decolourisation of 24% after 15 min of dye incubation was achieved. On the other hand, a methodology for a long treatment of these dyes based on the continuous addition of MnP enzyme and H(2)O(2) was developed. Moreover, this enzymatic treatment was compared with a photochemical decolourisation process. The former allowed to maintain the degradation rate almost constant for a long time, resulting in a decolourisation percentage of 70% and 30% for crystal violet and Poly R-478, respectively, after 2 h of treatment. As for the latter, it was not able to degrade Poly R-478, whereas crystal violet reached a degradation of 40% in 2 h.

  9. Influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzyme production of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiaoyan; WEN Xianghua; FENG Yan

    2007-01-01

    The present work studied the influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a nitrogen-limited(C/N ratio is 56/8.8 mmol/L)medium.Several sets of shaking flask experiments were conducted.The results showed that 2g/L glucose feeding on the first day of the culture(24 h after the inoculation)stimulated both fungal biomass growth and enzyme production.The manganese peroxidase(MnP)activity was 2.5 times greater than that produced in cultures without glucose feeding.Furthermore,the glucose feeding mode in fed-batch culture was also investigated.Compared to cultures with glucose feeding every 48 h,cultures with glucose feeding of 1.5 g/L(final concentration)every 24 h produced more enzymes.The peak and total yield of MnP activity were 2.7 and 3 times greater compared to the contrast culture,respectively,and the enzyme was kept stable for 4 days with an activity of over 200 U/L.

  10. In vitro degradation of natural insoluble lignin in aqueous media by the extracellular peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.N.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Hames, B.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Biomass Analysis Group; Grethlein, H.E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    1998-03-20

    The lignin peroxidases (LIP) and manganese peroxidases (MNP) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium catalyze a wide range of lignin depolymerization reactions with lignin models and synthetic lignins in solution. However, their ability to degrade insoluble natural lignin in aqueous media has not been demonstrated. Insoluble isolated poplar lignin similar to natural lignin was treated in vitro in aqueous media for 12 h with LIP, MNP, and both. Treatment with MNP alone slightly increased the solid mass and produced measurable amounts of lignin-derived 2,6-dimethoxyhydroquinone and 2-methoxyhydroquinone but did not appreciably decrease the total lignin content. Treatment with LIP alone did not decrease the mass but produced measurable amounts of lignin-derived p-hydroxybenzoic acid and slightly decreased the lignin content. Finally, treatment with LIP and MNP together decreased the solid mass by 11%, decreased the lignin content by 5%, and released low-concentration compounds with mass spectra containing the typical lignin-derived electron-impact fragments of mass 107, 137, 151, 167, and 181. These results suggest that MNP increases the effectiveness of LIP-mediated lignin degradation.

  11. Isolation and structure identification of bioactive metabolite C3438A of psychrophilic fungi Chrysosporium sp. C3438 isolated from soil of south pole%南极土壤嗜冷真菌Chrysosporium sp.C3438活性代谢产物C3438A的分离及结构鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁敏; 王文翔; 王丽萍; 胡继兰

    2002-01-01

    以对精原细胞法是否有活性作为筛选模型,对南极土壤嗜冷真菌Chrysosporium sp.C3438经低温发酵的活性产物进行了深入的化学研究,首次从南极土壤微生物代谢产物中分离得到Ferrichrome.

  12. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  13. Biodegradation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: new insight into the degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-08-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a recalcitrant energetic chemical that tends to accumulate in soil, close to the surface. The present study describes the aerobic biodegradability of HMX using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When added to 7 day old static P. chrysosporium liquid cultures, HMX (600 nmol) degraded within 25 days of incubation. The removal of HMX was concomitant with the formation of transient amounts of its mono-nitroso derivative (1-NO-HMX). The latter apparently degraded via two potential routes: the first involved N-denitration followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage, and the second involved alpha-hydroxylation prior to ring cleavage. The degradation of 1-NO-HMX gave the ring-cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), nitrite (NO2 -), nitrous oxide (N2O), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Using [14C]-HMX, we obtained 14CO2 (70% in 50 days), representing three C atoms of HMX. Incubation of real soils, contaminated with either HMX (403 micromol kg(-1)) (military base soil) or HMX (3057 micromol kg(-1)), and RDX (342 micromol kg(-1)) (ammunition soil) with the fungus led to 75 and 19.8% mineralization of HMX (liberated 14CO2), respectively, also via the intermediary formation of 1-NO-HMX. Mineralization in the latter soil increased to 35% after the addition of glucose, indicating that a fungus-based remediation process for heavily contaminated soils is promising. The present findings improve our understanding about the degradation pathway of HMX and demonstrate the utility of using the robust and versatile fungus P. chrysosporium to develop effective remediation processes for the removal of HMX.

  14. The Bio-degradation of Atrazine by Chlamydospore of Phanerochaete chrysosporium%黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)厚垣孢子降解阿特拉津的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 秦雨; 李慧; 王海磊

    2016-01-01

    阿特拉津(atrazine)是一类普遍存在于环境中且难降解的污染物.本文探究了黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)厚垣孢子对阿特拉津降解的最佳条件,包括温度、摇床转速、初始培养基pH及接种量.并在大田土壤盆栽实验中,研究P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子和土壤土著微生物对土壤中阿特拉津的降解情况.结果表明:P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子可以有效去除阿特拉津,在33℃、转速为180 r· min-1、pH值为7.0、接种量是4 g·L-1时,去除效果最好,去除率达90.77%.土壤盆栽实验结果表明:施用P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子28 d后,非灭菌土壤中阿特拉津去除率为97.8%,其中P.chrysosporium的降解贡献最为突出,去除能力为59.3%.而土著土壤微生物的去除率仅为20.7%,表明P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子对AT降解效果明显.

  15. Characterization of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium glutathione transferase reveals a novel structural and functional class with ligandin properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Prosper, Pascalita; Buée, Marc; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Gérardin, Philippe; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Lamant, Tiphaine; Meux, Edgar; Mathiot, Sandrine; Didierjean, Claude; Morel, Mélanie

    2012-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes. A new fungal specific class of GST has been highlighted by genomic approaches. The biochemical and structural characterization of one isoform of this class in Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed original properties. The three-dimensional structure showed a new dimerization mode and specific features by comparison with the canonical GST structure. An additional β-hairpin motif in the N-terminal domain prevents the formation of the regular GST dimer and acts as a lid, which closes upon glutathione binding. Moreover, this isoform is the first described GST that contains all secondary structural elements, including helix α4' in the C-terminal domain, of the presumed common ancestor of cytosolic GSTs (i.e. glutaredoxin 2). A sulfate binding site has been identified close to the glutathione binding site and allows the binding of 8-anilino-1-naphtalene sulfonic acid. Competition experiments between 8-anilino-1-naphtalene sulfonic acid, which has fluorescent properties, and various molecules showed that this GST binds glutathionylated and sulfated compounds but also wood extractive molecules, such as vanillin, chloronitrobenzoic acid, hydroxyacetophenone, catechins, and aldehydes, in the glutathione pocket. This enzyme could thus function as a classical GST through the addition of glutathione mainly to phenethyl isothiocyanate, but alternatively and in a competitive way, it could also act as a ligandin of wood extractive compounds. These new structural and functional properties lead us to propose that this GST belongs to a new class that we name GSTFuA, for fungal specific GST class A.

  16. 载体吸附培养黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)和云芝(Trametes versicolor) 对染料的脱色%Decolorization of dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor growing on adsorptive carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊; 李学梅; 张文黎; 花清信; 苌道松; 徐颖; 李雪玲; 任四伟; 陈宣宇; 杨清香

    2012-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were cultured on different carriers for continuous decolorization, the performance of different Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were researched and compared. In this paper, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were cultured in liquid containing spherical sawdust, corncob and peanut shells under oscillation conditions. During few days of cultivation, large amount of bacteria was grew and attached on the carrier surface in membranous and lump state. After consecutive 4 rounds of decolorization, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor growing on sawdust carrier had significant advantage both in continuous decolorization and producing enzymes, so the optimal adsorptive carrier was sawdust. After consecutive 2 rounds and 12 d of reactive black RB5 decolorization, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium culture with sawdust as adsorptive carrier could achieve the decolorization of 97 %; after three rounds of dye supplemented, the cultures also could remove nearly 96% of M-3BE and the maximum production of manganese dependant pcroxidase enzyme (MnP) and lignin peroxidase enzyme (LiP) was 611, 1 477 U/L. In the actual application, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor culture with sawdust as carriers should be added to dye wastewater treatment system to strengthen the biological treatment effect.%比较研究了不同载体吸附培养的黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)和云芝(Trametes versicolor)对染料连续脱色的效果.结果表明:(1)白腐真菌黄孢原毛平革菌和云芝分别在含有球形的木屑、玉米芯和花生壳载体的液体环境中振荡培养,菌体以膜状或团状形式大量附着生长在载体表面.(2)连续4轮脱色过程中,不论黄孢原毛平革菌还是云芝,都是木屑为载体的培养液的持续脱色和产酶能力最好,宜选择木屑为载体.其中,木屑为载体的黄孢

  17. Involvement of a new enzyme, glyoxal oxidase, in extracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, P.J.; Kirk, K.

    1987-05-01

    The importance of extracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in lignin degradation has become increasingly apparent with the recent discovery of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-requiring ligninases produced by white-rot fungi. Here the authors describe a new H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-producing activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium that involves extracellular oxidases able to use simple aldehyde, ..cap alpha..-hydroxycarbonyl, or..cap alpha..-dicarbonyl compounds as substrates. The activity is expressed during secondary metabolism, when the ligninases are also expressed. Analytical isoelectric focusing of the extracellular proteins, followed by activity staining, indicated that minor proteins with broad substrate specificities are responsible for the oxidase activity. Two of the oxidase substrates, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, were also identified, as their quinoxaline derivatives, in the culture fluid as secondary metabolites. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to lignin degradation and other proposed systems for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production in P. chrysosporium.

  18. Enhanced oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts produced during interspecific fungal interaction of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo Qian; Baoliang Chen

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interspecific fungal interactions between Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium on laccase activity and enzymatic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated.A deadlock between the two mycelia rather than replacement of one fungus by another was observed on an agar medium.The laccase activity in crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached a maximum after a 5-day incubation,which was significantly higher than that from regions of T.versicolor or P.chrysosporium alone.The enhanced induction of laccase activity lasted longer in half nutrition than in normal nutrition.A higher potential to oxidize benzo[a]pyrene by a crude enzyme preparation extracted from the interaction zones was demonstrated.After a 48 hr incubation period,the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached 26.2%,while only 9.5% of benzo[a]pyrene was oxidized by crude extracts from T.versicolor.The oxidation was promoted by the co-oxidant 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate diammonium salt (ABTS).These findings indicate that the application of co-culturing of white-rot fungi in bioremediation is a potential ameliorating technique for the restoration of PAH-contaminated soil.

  19. A single mating-type locus composed of homeodomain genes promotes nuclear migration and heterokaryosis in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Timothy Y; Lee, Maria; van Diepen, Linda T A

    2011-02-01

    The white-rot basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Agaricomycetes) is a model species that produces potent wood-degrading enzymes. The mating system of the species has been difficult to characterize due to its cryptic fruiting habit and lack of clamp connections in the heterokaryotic phase. By exploiting the draft genome sequence, we reevaluated the mating system of P. chrysosporium by studying the inheritance and segregation of putative mating-type gene homologues, the homeodomain transcription factor genes (MAT-A) and the pheromone receptors (MAT-B). A pattern of mating incompatibility and fructification consistent with a bipolar system with a single MAT locus was observed, but the rejection response was much weaker than that seen in other agaricomycete species, leading to stable heterokaryons with identical MAT alleles. The homeodomain genes appear to comprise the single MAT locus because they are heterozygous in wild strains and hyperpolymorphic at the DNA sequence level and promote aspects of sexual reproduction, such as nuclear migration, heterokaryon stability, and basidiospore formation. The pheromone receptor loci that might constitute a MAT-B locus, as in many other Agaricomycetes, are not linked to the MAT-A locus and display low levels of polymorphism. This observation is inconsistent with a bipolar mating system that includes pheromones and pheromone receptors as mating-type determinants. The partial uncoupling of nuclear migration and mating incompatibility in this species may be predicted to lead to parasexual recombination and may have contributed to the homothallic behavior observed in previous studies.

  20. Transport, fate, and stimulating impact of silver nanoparticles on the removal of Cd(II) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Yanan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Guiqiu, E-mail: gqchen@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Zhongwu; Yan, Ming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Anwei [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Guo, Zhi; Huang, Zhenzhen; Tan, Qiong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Appropriate concentration of AgNPs can stimulate the biological removal of Cd(II). • Added AgNPs were oxidatively dissolved and transported to the surface of fungus. • AgNPs have undergone coarsening in the process of transport. • Amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and other reducing groups were involved in transportion. - Abstract: Despite the knowledge about increasing discharge of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into wastewater and its potential toxicity to microorganisms, the interaction of AgNPs with heavy metals in the biological removal process remains poorly understood. This study focused on the effect of AgNPs (hydrodynamic diameter about 24.3 ± 0.37 nm) on the removal of cadmium (Cd(II)) by using a model white rot fungus species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Results showed that the biological removal capacity of Cd(II) increased with the concentration of AgNPs increasing from 0.1 mg/L to 1 mg/L. The maximum removal capacity (4.67 mg/g) was located at 1 mg/L AgNPs, and then decreased with further increasing AgNPs concentration, suggesting that an appropriate concentration of AgNPs has a stimulating effect on the removal of Cd(II) by P. chrysosporium instead of an inhibitory effect. Results of Ag{sup +} and total Ag concentrations in the solutions together with those of SEM and XRD demonstrated that added AgNPs had undergone oxidative dissolution and transported from the solution to the surface of fungal mycelia (up to 94%). FTIR spectra confirmed that amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and other reducing functional groups were involved in Cd(II) removal, AgNPs transportation, and the reduction of Ag{sup +} to AgNPs.

  1. Variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and biofilm of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in continuous membrane bioreactor for Reactive Brilliant Red X3-B treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shang; CHEN Cheng; TAO Fang; HUANG Minsheng; MA Lihua; WANG Zhonghua; WU Linhui

    2009-01-01

    The influence of a Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B (RBR X-3B) dye on the peroxidase isoenzyme of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was determined, and the biofilm structure in a white rot fungal continuous membrane bioreactor (MBR) was also investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and the decolorization rate in the continuous MBR were evaluated. The results showed that the 100 mg/L RBR X-3B could stimulate the production of the peroxidase isoenzyme in the shaking-flask culture. In addition, two new peroxidase isoenzyme bands with relative mobility (Rf) value of 0.27 and 0.28 appeared, but the activity was lower than the blank control of 11 d. In the continuous MBR, the system worked stably during the first 60 d, the main peroxidase isoenzyme bands existed and three new bands with Rf value of 0.10, 0.27, and 0.28 appeared. Meanwhile, the biofilm grew well and the average decolorization rate could reach 90.6%. But the bands of peroxidase isoenzyme decreased rapidly at day 65, only two bands with Rf value 0.24 and 0.26 existed, and the decolorization rate decreased to 78.3%. Therefore, 5 bottles of P. chrysosporium mycelial pellet were added into the MBR, and then the activity of the peroxidase isoenzyme and the decolorization rate had a slight recovery. Finally, the decolorization rate finally decreased to 75.2%. These results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and biofilm in continuous MBR by white rot fungi.

  2. Study of the degradation of methylene blue by semi-solid-state fermentation of agricultural residues with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and reutilization of fermented residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangming; Cheng, Min; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Xu, Piao; Wei, Zhen; Li, Ningjie; Zhang, Chen; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of methylene blue (MB) by semi-solid-state fermentation of agricultural residues rice straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the reutilization of fermented residues was investigated. A maximum decolorization of 84.8% for an initial dye concentration of 0.4 g/L was observed at the optimal operating conditions (temperature 35 °C, pH 5). As compared to the previous results obtained using synthetic materials as substrate, the results in the present study revealed an excellent performance of the bioreactor in decolorizing the wastewater containing MB, which is due to this type of cultivation reproducing the natural living conditions of the white rot fungi. Among the two ligninolytic enzymes that are responsible to the decolorization, manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was found better correlated with decoloration percentage. Our results also provide a first step to recycling the fermented residues for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions, the maximum adsorption capacity of the fermented residues reached 51.4 mg/g.

  3. The putative endoglucanase PcGH61D from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a metal-dependent oxidative enzyme that cleaves cellulose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørge Westereng

    Full Text Available Many fungi growing on plant biomass produce proteins currently classified as glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61, some of which are known to act synergistically with cellulases. In this study we show that PcGH61D, the gene product of an open reading frame in the genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is an enzyme that cleaves cellulose using a metal-dependent oxidative mechanism that leads to generation of aldonic acids. The activity of this enzyme and its beneficial effect on the efficiency of classical cellulases are stimulated by the presence of electron donors. Experiments with reduced cellulose confirmed the oxidative nature of the reaction catalyzed by PcGH61D and indicated that the enzyme may be capable of penetrating into the substrate. Considering the abundance of GH61-encoding genes in fungi and genes encoding their functional bacterial homologues currently classified as carbohydrate binding modules family 33 (CBM33, this enzyme activity is likely to turn out as a major determinant of microbial biomass-degrading efficiency.

  4. The effectiveness of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi and Aspergillus niger or Phanerochaete chrysosporium treated organic amendments from olive residues upon plant growth in a semi-arid degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2010-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and a residue from dry olive cake (DOC) supplemented with rock phosphate (RP) and treated with either Aspergillus niger (DOC-A) or Phanerochaete chrysosporium (DOC-P), were assayed in a natural, semi-arid soil using Trifolium repens or Dorycnium pentaphyllum plants. The effects of the AM fungi and/or DOC-A were compared with P-fertilisation (P) over eleven successive harvests to evaluate the persistence of the effectiveness of the treatments. The biomass of dually-treated plants after four successive harvests was greater than that obtained for non-treated plants or those receiving the AM inoculum or DOC-A treatments after eleven yields. The AM inoculation was critical for obtaining plant growth benefit from the application of fermented DOC-A residue. The abilities of the treatments to prevent plant drought stress were also assayed. Drought-alleviating effects were evaluated in terms of plant growth, proline and total sugars concentration under alternative drought and re-watering conditions (8th and 9th harvests). The concentrations of both compounds in plant biomass increased under drought when DOC-A amendment and AM inoculation were employed together: they reinforced the plant drought-avoidance capabilities and anti-oxidative defence. Water stress was less compensated in P-fertilised than in DOC-A-treated plants. DOC-P increased D. pentaphyllum biomass, shoot P content, nodule number and AM colonisation, indicating the greater DOC-transforming ability of P. chrysosporium compared to A. niger. The lack of AM colonisation and nodulation in this soil was compensated by the application of DOC-P, particularly with AM inoculum. The management of natural resources (organic amendments and soil microorganisms) represents an important strategy that assured the growth, nutrition and plant establishment in arid, degraded soils, preventing the damage that arises from limited water and nutrient supply.

  5. A novel P450-initiated biphasic process for sustainable biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil under nutrient-sufficient conditions by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sukanta S; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Shann, Jodi; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2013-10-15

    High molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are resistant to biodegradation in soil. Conventionally, white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated for HMW-PAH degradation in soil primarily using nutrient-deficient (ligninolytic) conditions, albeit with limited and non-sustainable biodegradation outcomes. In this study, we report development of an alternative novel biphasic process initiated under nutrient-sufficient (non-ligninolytic) culture conditions, by employing an advanced experimental design strategy. During the initial nutrient-sufficient non-ligninolytic phase (16 days), the process showed upregulation (3.6- and 22.3-fold, respectively) of two key PAH-oxidizing P450 monooxygenases pc2 (CYP63A2) and pah4 (CYP5136A3) and formation of typical P450-hydroxylated metabolite. This along with abrogation (84.9%) of BaP degradation activity in response to a P450-specific inhibitor implied key role of these monooxygenases. The subsequent phase triggered on continued incubation (to 25 days) switched the process from non-ligninolytic to ligninolytic resulting in a significantly higher net degradation (91.6% as against 67.4% in the control nutrient-limited set) of BaP with concomitant de novo ligninolytic enzyme expression making it a biphasic process yielding improved sustainable bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. To our knowledge this is the first report on development of such biphasic process for bioremediation application of a white rot fungus.

  6. Effect of cyclodextrin on PAHs degradation by MnP enzymes produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium%三株白腐菌产锰过氧化物酶活性及其对多环芳烃的降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁娟; 罗坤; 周娟; 高士祥

    2007-01-01

    比较研究了β-环糊精(β-CD)对3株黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)CGMCC5.776、GIM3.383和GIM3.393产锰过氧化物酶(MnP)和降解多环芳烃(PAHs)的影响.结果表明:3株菌都能分泌出高活性的MnP,β-CD能显著提高MnP的活性.加入2.0 g/Lβ-CD的体系培养到第12天时.酶活性最高达到2 912.5 U/L;而且β-CD能显著提高PAHs的降解率,两者之间存在较好的相关性.加入1.0 g/L β-CD的体系对比不加β-CD的体系,PAHs的降解率提高了1~2倍.PAHs的降解同时受到MnP活性、PAHs表观溶解度和分子结构稳定性等因素的影响.

  7. Effects of Strains and Veratryl Alcohol on Degradation of Two Kinds of Dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium%菌种品系及VA对黄孢原毛平革菌降解两种染料的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧蓉

    2001-01-01

    The shallow static cultures of methylene blue and Biebrich scarlet with different strains of Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed: to methylene blue, degradation efficiency of ME-446 was best, that of OGC101 was similar to BKM-F-1767; to Biebrich scarlet, the first was OGC101, the second M-446, and the last BKM-F-1767. The extraneous supply of VA was advantaged to decolorization and degradation of dyes during early stages, but a week later, there was no significant difference in the samples with addition of VA and without VA. The results showed that various strains had different abilities of decolorization and degradation; the VA that the intact fungus culture self-synthesized was enough to support the normal operation of degradative culture system.%黄孢原毛平革菌的不同品系与染料亚甲基蓝和比布列希猩红的浅层静培养表明,对于亚甲基蓝而言,ME-446降解能力最强,OGC101和BKM-F-1767相似;以比布列希猩红为底物,则OGC101最好,ME-446其次,最后为BKM-F-1767。虽然外源藜芦醇(vA)的补充在培养初期有利于染料脱色降解率的提高;但一周后,与不添加VA的样品比较,脱色降解率接近或相等。这说明菌的品系存在降解能力的差异;完整菌体自身合成的VA足以维持降解培养体系的正常运作。

  8. Biosorption and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in aqueous solution%黄孢原毛平革菌菌球对多环芳烃的生物吸附和生物降解作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洁; 陈宝梁; 朱利中

    2012-01-01

    以黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium,Pc)为代表,研究了死体和活体Pc菌球对水中菲、芘等多环芳烃(PAHs)的生物吸附和生物降解作用及其相对贡献,探讨了碳源、氮源浓度和共存Cu2+的影响,考察了连续多次输入下菲的生物吸附和生物降解作用,试图为准确掌握微生物作用下PAHs的迁移转化行为及其调控作用提供理论指导.结果表明,死体Pc菌球对水中菲、芘的去除机制为生物吸附,分配系数分别为4040和17500 L/kg.活体Pc菌球的去除机制包括生物吸附和生物降解,3d时生物吸附对水中菲、芘的去除率分别为19.71%和52.21%;随着作用时间延长(3~40 d),生物降解对菲、芘的去除作用逐渐增大(20.40%~60.62%和15.55%~49.21%),且菌体中PAHs残留量不断下降.富碳限氮营养条件下,活体Pc菌球对PAHs的去除作用和降解效果最优,在60 d时分别为99.55%和92.77%(菲),99.47%和83.97%(芘),主要源于富碳增加Pc菌体生物量而增强生物吸附、限氮则触发Pc对PAHs的生物降解作用.活体Pc菌球在富碳限氮强化条件下可连续多次去除和降解新输入的PAHs,其中单次生物降解率随循环次数(6 d/次)增加而增大,循环3次后菲的生物降解率高达90%.

  9. Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the production of lignocellulase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium%铜绿假单胞菌对白腐菌产木质纤维素降解酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪萍萍; 袁兴中; 梁运姗; 曾光明; 黄华军; 祝慧娜; 晁阳; 孙婷

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the production of lignin peroxidase,manganese peroxidase and CMCase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a solid substrate fermentation process were studied.Effects of different concentrations of Ps.aeruginosa on other parameters,such as pH,surface tension of crude enzyme liquid,volatile organic matter concentration were also evaluated.The results showed that Ps.aeruginosa AB93066 at 5.72% increased the production of LiP,MnP and CMCase by 67.8%,57.9% and 17.8%,respectively while strain Ps.aeruginosa ATCC9027 at 2.86% increased the production of LiP,MnP and CMCase by 86.3%,49.3% and 43.7%,respectively.The surface tension of crude enzyme liquid from P.aeruginosa ATCC9027 was lower than that from Ps.aeruginosa AB93066.The addition of Ps.aeruginosa had no significant influence on the pH value.The volatile organic matter concentration was positively correlated with the enzymatic activity.%采用固态发酵的方法,考察了两株不同型号的铜绿假单胞菌(AB93066和ATCC9027)对白腐菌(黄孢原毛平革菌)产木质纤维素降解酶(木素过氧化物酶LiP、锰过氧化物酶MnP和羧甲基纤维素酶CMCase)的影响,并对酶提取液的pH值、表面张力及稻草降解残渣中挥发性有机质含量的变化进行了分析.结果表明,添加5.72%的AB93066可使LiP、MnP和CMCase酶活分别提高67.8%、57.9%和17.8%;而添加2.86%的ATCC9027时可使LiP、MnP和CMCase酶活分别提高86.3%、49.3%和43.7%.发酵过程中,添加ATCC9027的酶提取液的表面张力明显低于添加AB93066,添加铜绿假单胞菌对酶提取液的pH值无明显影响,而挥发性有机质含量的变化与酶活变化呈正相关关系.

  10. 抗氮营养阻遏黄孢原毛平革菌pcR5305产酶条件优化%Optimizing Enzyme-production Conditions of Phanerochaete chrysosporium pcR5305 which Can be Resistant to Nitrogen Nutritional Repression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶友贤

    2014-01-01

    We optimized the enzyme-production nutritional medium and environment condition of the breeding strain of Phanerochaete chrysosporium pcR5305 which can be resistant to nitrogen nutritional repression. Results show that pcR5305 had the best enzyme activity when it was grown at the following condition:the medium was mixed with ammoni-um tartrate 2.2g/L, glucose 20g/L, Mn2+0.2g/L and Tween 80 1g/L, and adding benzyl alcohol 5.2mmol/L after 24h, the cul-turing temperature was 37℃and the initial pH was 4.5. After 6d static cultured, the LiP activity could reached 2013.59U/L, and the MnP activity could reach 353.42U/L, increased respectively by 23.41% and 27.97% against the un-optimized cul-tured strains.%对选育的抗营养阻遏产酶黄孢原毛平革菌pcR5305菌株的产酶营养基质与环境条件进行了优化。实验结果表明pcR5305在37℃、初始pH4.5条件下,以酒石酸铵(富氮2.2g/L),葡萄糖(20g/L),Mn2+(0.2g/L),Tween 80(1g/L)为主要成分的优质培养基中培养24h后添加5.2mmol/L苯甲醇,pcR5305的产酶活性最高。上述条件下,该菌接种后静置培养6 d,LiP活力可达到2013.59U/L,MnP活力达到353.42U/L,分别提高了23.41%和27.97%。

  11. 全氟辛酸和雌二醇对黄孢原毛平革菌过氧化物酶活性的影响%Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Estradiol on the Peroxidase Enzyme Activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉娜; 毛晖; 曲东

    2013-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium(PC) was pure cultured with Kirk liquid medium,two typical persistent organic pollutants perfluorooctanoic acid(PFOA) and estradiol(E2) were chosen,the effects of PFOA and E2 on PC extracellular peroxidase activity and total enzyme activities were studied.The results showed that 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt(ABTS)was used as the substrate,and ABTS,H2O2,MnSO4,fungi solution were added in turn to citrate buffer with pH 3 to form a solution.The maximum bacterium activity was measured at 470 nm within 60 s reaction,which contained total activity of extracellular enzymes including lignin peroxidase (LiP),manganese peroxidase (MnP),laccase (Lac) and so on.Lip and MnP were two main extracellular enzymes secreted by PC in the culture system,while Lac enzyme activity was very low.Total enzyme activity increased with incubation time of PC.A small peak was observed between 20~30 days,while a big peak appeared between 50~60 days,and which decreased thereafter.Effects on activities of the two peroxidases(LiP and MnP) and total enzymes activities of broth were the same with addition of O.O1 mmol· L-1 PFOA,which was inhibited at beginning and promoted later.Effects with addition of 0.1 mmol· L-1 E2 on activities of the two peroxidases(LiP and MnP)and total enzyme activities of broth were the same,which executed consistent inhibition effects.%选取典型的持久性有机污染物全氟辛酸(PFOA)和雌二醇(E2),采用Kirk液体培养基对黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium,简称PC菌)纯培养的方式,以分光光度法测定了该体系中菌液总酶活性的变化规律,研究了PFOA和E2对其胞外过氧化物酶活性的影响.结果表明:(1)以“2,2-联氮基双(3-乙基苯并噻唑啉-6-磺酸)二铵盐”(ABTS)为底物,在pH为3的柠檬酸盐缓冲液中,依次加入ABTS、H2O2、MnSO4和菌液,在470 nm处测定60 s内反应的酶活性是其最大值,包含木质素过氧

  12. Activity Regulation of Lignin Peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium in Nonionic Reversed Micellar Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan WANG; Xi Rong HUANG; Cai Xia LIU; Yue Zhong LI; Yin Bo QU; Pei Ji GAO

    2005-01-01

    The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) in reversed micelles of polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (Brij30) changed with the molar ratio of water to the surfactant and the denaturant concentration of guanidinium chloride. At low water contents the activity of LiP could be enhanced by the denaturant at moderate concentration. This phenomenon, together with the spectral characteristics of the intrinsic fluorescence of LiP, suggested that the conformation of the active center of LiP was flexible.

  13. Taxonomic study of keratinophilic fungi isolated from soil and some mammals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D

    1988-03-01

    In France, most of the researches have showed the distribution of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in the soil and in the coat of wild mammals. During these last years, we have also practiced numerous investigations about the distribution of such fungi. The isolated species are: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton ajelloï, Trichophyton simii, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum cookei, Microsporum nanum, Microsporum persicolor, Anixiopsis stercoraria, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma curreyi, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma cuniculi, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma multifidum, Ctenomycès serratus, Chrysosporium parvum, Chrysosporium indicum, Chrysosporium georgii, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium asperatum, Chrysosporium pannorum. A key to these species is proposed: it attempts to provide an aid in identifying geophilic dermatophytes and related fungi (belonging to the Chrysosporium genus).

  14. A dedicated vector for efficient library construction and high throughput screening in the hyphal fungus Chrysosporium lucknowense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoes, J.C.; Punt, P.J.; Burlingame, R.; Bartels, J.; Dijk, R. van; Slump, E.; Meens, M.; Joosten, R.; Emalfarb, M.

    2007-01-01

    A self-replicating vector was designed that enables the construction of complex libraries in the fungus Chiysosporium lucknowense. The circular vector is linearized in vivo and results in a transformation frequency up to 13,000 transformants/ug ofplasmid DNA. Upon prolonged cultivation of the transf

  15. Characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 and their use to degrade sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Pectin, arabinan, biorefinery, mode of action, branched arabinose oligomers, ferulic acid esterase, arabinohydrolase, pretreatment Sugar beet pulp is the cellulose and pectin-rich debris remaining after sugar extraction from sugar beets. In order to use sugar beet pulp for biorefinery pu

  16. [Keratinophilic fungal flora isolated from small wild mammals and rabbit-warren in France. Discussion on the fungal species found].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Guiguen, C; Couatarmanac'h, A; Launay, H; Reecht, V; de Bièvre, C

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi was investigated in 237 small wild mammals and 125 european rabbit. The purpose of the investigation was to determine what were the species of fungi present in the these animals. Four species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum persicolor. Trichophyton terrestre was the most frequently isolated and it occurred more frequently than its presence could be explained by the contamination from soil. Members of the genus Chrysosporium were found in many animals: Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium multifidum, Chrysosporium pannorum, Chrysosporium georgii, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma curreyi, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma cuniculi, Anixiopsis stercoraria, Chrysosporium parvum. Wild small mammals and european rabbits in France, not only act as carrier of keratinophilic fungi and allied dermatophytes but also provide a suitable habitat for their survival as saprophytes. The recurrence of numerous species present on the coat, isolated fort the first time in France was remarkable.

  17. Solid-state production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium using steam-exploded straw as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujian, X; Hongzhang, C; Zuohu, L

    2001-11-01

    In the used media mainly consisting of steam-exploded wheat straw, the straw, which could replace expensive veratryl alcohol, might act not only as nutrient, but also as inducer of lignin enzymes. The activities of the enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) in solid-state fermentation (SSF) were far higher than in submerged fermentation (SmF). Under optimal conditions of SSF, the maximum activities of the enzymes Lip and MnP were 2600 and 1375 U/L, respectively. Thus, this would pave the way for production and application of lignin enzymes on a large scale.

  18. 黄孢原毛平革菌产酶的简化结构动力学模型%A Simple Structure Model for Enzyme Production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhongming(郑重鸣); FOO YinDin; Jeffery Philip Obbard; LIN Jianping(林建平); CEN Peilin(岑沛霖)

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the behavior of ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi Phanerochaetechrysosporium, study on time courses and a mathematical model for the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) andmanganese peroxidase (MnP) of the fungi was undertaken. Based on the Monod-Jacob operon model, the ligninolyticenzyme would be synthesized in the absence of a related repressor. The repressor is assumed to be active in thepresence of ammonia nitrogen, and as combined as co-repressor, it causes the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Themodel can explain the mechanism of extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi. The results,as predicted by the model, correspond closely to those observed in experimental studies. In addition, some lightis also shed on unmeasured variables, such as the concentrations of repressor and mRNA that are related to theenzyme synthesis.

  19. The influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzymes production of the white-rot fungus P.chrysosporium%葡萄糖补料对白腐真菌P.chrysosporium产木质素降解酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓燕; 文湘华; 冯嫣

    2007-01-01

    为了提高木质素降解酶的产量,采用氮限制培养基(C/N=56.0/8.8),研究了葡萄糖补料对P.chrysosporium产木质素降解酶的影响.结果表明,在培养第1d即接种24h后进行葡萄糖补料,可以刺激菌丝体的生长和产酶,补料浓度达到2g·L-1时,补料体系中的MnP酶活可提高至空白对照样(不进行补料)的2.5倍.同时,对葡萄糖分批补料方式进行的试验结果显示,培养过程中每24h进行1次补料,葡萄糖补料终浓度为1.5g·L-1的补料方式,与每48h的补料方式相比,产酶效果更好.MnP酶活峰值和达到峰值时酶的总产量可提高至空白对照样(不进行补料)的2.7倍和3.0倍,且酶活能够在200U·L-1以上稳定4d.实验结果说明,葡萄糖补料可以有效刺激白腐真菌产酶,且连续低浓度葡萄糖补料可获得较优的产酶效果.

  20. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  1. Biotechnological modification of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    A literature search of organisms capable of degrading lignin was conducted. Four fungi were selected for study and these were Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Chrysosporium pruinosum, Phlebia tremellosus and Trametes versicolor. Other organisms, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus florida and Lentinus edodes were also tested in preliminary experiments. All cultures were screened for their ability to degrade the lignin component of aspen sawdust and also lignin extracted from steam-exploded wood. This type of screen was followed by analysis of culture filtrates for the presence of ligninase, the marker enzyme for lignin degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and consequently chosen for further studies in fermentors. Considerable efforts were directed to production of ligninase in fermentors. Only when Chrysosporium pruinosum was pre-cultured in a shake flask for 4 days and then transferred to a fermentor could ligninase activity be detected. The enzyme from shake flasks has been concentrated ready for use in bench-scale studies on cell-free depolymerization of lignin. 13 refs., 8 tabs.

  2. Comparison of ligninolytic activities of selected white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, R.; Leisola, M.S.A.; Fiechter, A.

    1988-10-01

    Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in agitated cultures Bjerkandera adusta showed highest lignin degradation rates. Metabolites accumulating during the degradation of veratryl alcohol were analyzed and compared. Peroxidase production seems to be a common feature of all the tested fungi. Polyclonal antibodies against the lignin peroxidase with pl of 4.65 from P. chrysosporium reacted with the extracellular peroxidases of C. pruinosum, C. versicolor and B. adusta, but not with those of Pleurotus ostreatus.

  3. Effect of spent cotton stalks on color removal and chemical oxygen demand lowering in olive oil mill wastewater by white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, S; Yeşilada, O

    1999-01-01

    Wastewater from olive oil mill was decolorized (and its chemical oxygen demand reduced in static cultivation) using the fungi Coriolus versicolor, Funalia trogii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus sajor-caju. The effect of cotton stalk on decolorizing and COD removing capability was demonstrated. P. chrysosporium (in 20% medium with cotton stalk) reduced the COD by 48% and color by 58%, F. trogii (in 30% medium with cotton stalk)) by 51 and 55%, respectively.

  4. Biodegradation of Jet Fuel-4 (JP-4) in Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Specific Objectives of This Proposal Are: 1. To assess the ability of C. resinae , P. chrysosporium and selected bacterial consortia to degrade individual...chemical components of JP-4. 2. To develop a sequencing batch reactor that utilizes C. resinae to degrade chemical components of JP-4 in contaminated...Angeles Air Force Base. The study of the effectiveness of the two fungal systems (P. chrysosporium and and C. resinae ) is still in progress. Initial

  5. Effect of Electric Field on Cell Growth, Permeability and Extracellular Enzymatic Reactions of Phanerochaete chrysosporium%电场对黄孢原毛平革菌生长、细胞通透性及其胞外酶反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福远; 苗长春; 韩慧龙; 金文标; 刘铮

    2007-01-01

    研究了交、直流电场对黄孢原毛平革菌Phanerochaete chrysosporuim的生长、细胞通透性及其所分泌的漆酶、木质素过氧化物酶及锰型过氧化物酶活力的影响. 结果表明,施加50 Hz, 50 mA交流电可显著地促进Phanerochaete chrysosporium的生长,经过10 d的培养,其干菌重为对照组的1.72倍;施加交、直流电都能够使细胞的通透性增强;施加交、直流电场在短时间内可显著提高3种胞外酶的活力,而时间过长则导致活力降低,电流强度为10 mA时的适宜加电时间为10 h.

  6. Incidence of Keratinophilic Fungi from Selected Soils of Vidarbha Region of Maharashtra State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Deshmukh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty samples were collected from eleven districts of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state and screened for the presence of keratinophilic fungi using hair baiting technique for isolation. Seventy-one isolates were recovered and identified. The cultures were identified using macro- and micromorphological features. Their identification was also confirmed by the BLAST search of sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region against the NCBI/Genbank data and compared with deposited sequences for identification purpose. Thirteen species of eight genera were isolated, namely, Auxarthron conjugatum (2.00%, Chrysosporium indicum (14.00%, Chrysosporium evolceanui (2.66%, Chrysosporium tropicum (4.66%, Chrysosporium zonatum (1.33%, Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (3.33%, Gymnascella dankaliensis (1.33%, Gymnascella hyalinospora (0.66%, Gymnoascoideus petalosporus (0.66%, Microsporum gypseum complex (9.33%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2.00%, T. terrestre (3.33%, and Uncinocarpus queenslandicus (2.00%. This study indicates that the soils of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra may be significant reservoirs of certain keratinophilic fungi.

  7. Biodegradation of Gaseous Chlorobenzene by White-rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAN WANG; JIN-YING XI; HONG-YING HU; XIANG-HUA WEN

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on removal of gaseous chlorobenzene.Methods Fungal mycelium mixed with a liquid medium was placed into airtight bottles.A certain amount of chlorobenzene was injected into the headspace of the bottles under different conditions.At a certain interval,the concentrations in the headspace were analyzed to evaluate the degradation of chlorohenzene by P.chtysosporium.Results The degradation effects of P chrysosporium on chlorobenzene under different conditions were investigated.The difference in the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi and chlorobenzene degradation was observed.The data indicated that a lower temperature (28℃) would promote the degradation of chlorobenzene than the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi (37℃).A low nitrogen source concentration (30 mg N/L) had a better effect on degrading chlorohenzene than a high nitrogen source concentration (higher than 100 mg N/L).A high initial concentration (over 1100 mg/m3) of chlorobenzene showed an inhibiting effect on degradation by P.chrysosporium.A maximum removal efficiency of 95% was achieved at the initial concentration of 550 mg/m3.Conclusion P.chrysosporium has a rather good ability to remove gaseous chlorobenzene.A low nitrogen source concentration and a low temperature promote the removal of chlorohenzene by P.chrysosporium.However,a high initial chlorobenzene concentration can inhibit chlorobenzene degradation.

  8. Occurrence of keratinolytic fungi and related dermatophytes in soils in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Y A; el-Din, A A; Hassanein, S M

    1992-01-01

    120 soil samples collected from various sites of Cairo were processed for the isolation of keratinophilic fungi by "ToKaVa" hair baiting technique. 22 species belonging to 6 genera were isolated viz.: Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. queenslandicum, C. merdarium, C. anamorph of Arthroderma curreyi, C. pannicola, C. lobatum, C. anamorph of Renispora flavissima, C. pseudomerdarium, Microascus mangini, Malbranchea gypsea, Ml. State of Uncicarpus reesii, Ml. State of Coccidioides immitis, Microsporum gypseum, Mr. distortum Mr. audouinii, Mr. fulvum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. terrestre, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The frequency of occurrence of the isolated fungi was determined. Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium tropicum and Chrysosporium indicum were the most frequent species recovered from soil. Most species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated from university, public garden and zoo garden. The distribution of the isolates are discussed.

  9. Interspecific affinity among keratinolytic fungi associated with birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z

    1976-01-01

    Twelve species of keratin decomposers isolated from 923 samples of feathers, nests and pellets of 90 species of free-living birds were clustered in 4 "econs" (numerical ecological groups): (A) Artroderma tuberculatum, A. ciferrii, A. multifidum, A. cuniculi (associated with the birds nesting in hollows); (B) Ctenomyces serratus, Arthroderma quadrifidum, Chrysosporium evolceanui (moderately alkalophilic species associated with the birds having a frequent contact with the soil); (C) Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Aphanoascus fulvescens, Chrysosporium tropicum (alkalophilic and hygrophilic species); (D) Arthroderma curreyi, Aphanoascus terreus (the species common in water habitats and associated frequently with exoanthropic birds). Two simple numerical procedures were used and compared: (1) Jaccard's association coefficient, and Sörensen's complete linkage clustering; (2) Forbes's association coeficient adjusted with chi-square, and the 3-linkage clustering technique. The method (2) seemed to be more effective.

  10. Investigation of the response of wood-rotting fungi to copper stress by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis with ICP MS detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacchina, V.; Szpunar, J. [Group of Bio-inorganic Analytical Chemistry, CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Baldrian, P.; Gabriel, J. [Laboratory of the Biochemistry of the Wood-Rotting Fungi, Institute of Microbiology ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-02-01

    A method based on the coupling of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was developed for screening the changes in the bioligand composition of wood-rotting fungi as a function of their exposure to copper stress. Strains of four different species of wood-rotting fungi: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Schizophyllum commune, Daedalea quercina and Pleurotus ostreatus were examined. Only one, namely Ph. chrysosporium, showed any significant difference in terms of the fingerprint of Cu-binding ligands between control and exposed cells which suggest trapping of Cu(II) by cell walls as the only resistance mechanisms. In the case of Ph. chrysosporium the bioinduction of a new Cu-binding ligand was demonstrated. The presence of a new compound in the SE chromatographic fraction of interest was confirmed by CZE-ICP MS. Attempts to identify the new compound by electrospray MS/MS failed because of insufficient sensitivity. (orig.)

  11. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from selected soils of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S K; Verekar, S A

    2014-12-01

    One hundred and twenty-five samples were collected from eight different sites in the vicinity of Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) and screened for the presence of keratinophilic fungi using hair baiting technique for isolation. Seventy-three isolates were recovered and identified. The cultures were identified using macro- and micro-morphological features. Their identification was also confirmed by the BLAST search of sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region against the NCBI/Genbank data and compared with deposited sequences for identification purpose. Thirteen species of nine genera were isolated viz. Aphanoascus durus (2.4%), Arthroderma corniculatum (1.6%), Auxarthron umbrinum (0.8%), Chrysosporium evolceanui (1.6%), Chrysosporium indicum (16.0%), Chrysosporium tropicum (2.4%), Chrysosporium zonatum (4.0%), Chrysosporium states of Arthroderma tuberculatum (0.8%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (11.2%), Gymnascella dankaliensis (3.2%), Microsporum gypseum (12.0%), Myriodontium keratinophilum (0.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (1.6%). Representative of all thirteen species can release the protein in the range of 152.2-322.4 μg/mL in liquid media when grown on human hair in shake flask culture and also decompose 18.4-40.2% of human hair after four weeks of incubation. This study indicates that the soils of SGNP, Mumbai may be significant reservoirs of certain keratinophilic fungi. The keratinolytic activity of these fungi may be playing significant role in superficial infections to man and animals and recycling of keratinic material of this environment.

  12. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The occurrence of keratinophilic fungi in sewage sludge from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M

    1990-01-01

    The keratinophilic fungi of 40 sewage sludge samples from Upper Egypt were studied using a goat hair-baiting technique. 43 species representing 22 genera were isolated, 17 species of which were dermatophytes and closely related fungi: Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum, C. asperatum, C. georgii, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. pseudomerdarium, C. queenslandicum, Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium, C. tropicum, Microsporum cookei, M. gypseum, Myceliophthora anamorph of Corynascus novoguineensis, M. vellerea and Trichophyton terrestre. 26 species of cycloheximide resistant fungi were collected and these included members of Acremonium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Emericella, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Penicillium and others.

  14. Reverse Transcription-PCR Analysis of the Regulation of the Manganese Peroxidase Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Gettemy, Jessica M.; Ma, Biao; Alic, Margaret; Gold, Michael H.

    1998-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) gene expression in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is regulated by nutrient nitrogen levels and by Mn(II), the substrate for the enzyme, as well as by heat shock and other factors. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of total RNA can distinguish the mRNAs of each of the three sequenced P. chrysosporium mnp genes, i.e., mnp1, mnp2, and mnp3. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrates that each of the three transcripts is present at a similar low basal le...

  15. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YNL331C, YNL331C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available um aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase; mutational analysis has not yet revealed a physiological role Rows with this ...ogenase; mutational analysis has not yet revealed a physiological role Rows with this bait as bait Rows with... to P. chrysosporium aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase; mutational analysis has not yet revealed a physiological ro...larity to P. chrysosporium aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase; mutational analysis has not yet revealed a physiolo...gical role Rows with this prey as prey (2) Rows with this prey as bait (1) 8 8 - -

  16. Effect of inoculation during different phases of agricultural waste composting on spectroscopic characteristics of humic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红丽; 曾光明; 罗琳; 张嘉超; 喻曼; 秦普丰

    2015-01-01

    The white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium(P. chrysosporium), was inoculated during different phases of agricultural waste composting and its effect on the spectroscopic characterization of humic acid(HA) was studied. Three runs were used in this study: Run A was the control without inoculating, and Runs B and C were inoculated P. chrysosporium during the first and the second fermentation phase, respectively. The elemental analysis, ultra-violet spectroscopy(UV), fluorescence spectra, Fourier transform infra-red(FTIR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance(13C-NMR) of HA all lead to the same conclusion, that is, the degree of aromatization and polymerization of HA increases after 42 days composting. However, the inoculation during different phases presents different effects. P. chrysosporium increases the degree of aromatization and polymerization of HA when it is inoculated during the second fermentation phase, while it does not produce an obvious change on the humification degree of HA when it is inoculated during the first fermentation phase.

  17. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was fo...

  18. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  19. Antagonism of Microsporum species by soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, I; Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K S

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen fungi isolated from soil by hair bating method were tested against soil inhabiting Microsporum equinum, Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum racemosum for their antagonistic interactions. Colony inhibition during dual cultures showed inhibition of all the four Microsporum species. The maximum inhibition of M. equinum, M. fulvum, M. gypseum and M. racemosum was caused by Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Curvularia lunata and Chrysosporium lucknowense in dual cultures. On the other hand, M. fulvum showed maximum inhibition of Macrophomina phaseolina (70.1%) while M. equinum, M. gypseum and M. racemosum showed maximum inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporoides. Staling products of C. lucknowense accelerated growth of all Microsporum species, C. keratinophilum 3 and Chrysosporium evolceaunui and M. phaseolina accelerated growth of two species of Microsporum. Staling product of Alternaria alternata was most inhibitory. Culture filtrates of Trichophyton vanbreseughemii accelerated the growth of all the four Microsporum species and C. tropicum, C. lucknowense accelerated growth of two species, while Botryotrichum piluliferum accelerated growth of three species of Microsporum. Volatiles showed inhibition of all the Microsporum species ranging from 0.33 to 57.2% except in case of M. fulvum. Lysis of Microsporum mycelium was the most common feature.

  20. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Dermatophyles and other keratinophilic fungi in bottom sediments of rivers and lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Ulfig

    2014-01-01

    Sam pies of bottom sediments from the Rivers Nacyna, Ruda and from an eutrophic reservoir holding cooling waters were examined for dermatophytes and correlated fungi. The species isolated were: Trichophyton terrestre complex, T. ajelloi (and its perfect form Anhroderma uncinatum). pathogenic strains of T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum cookei; also isolated were five species of the genus Chrysosporium.

  1. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Dermatophyles and other keratinophilic fungi in bottom sediments of rivers and lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ulfig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sam pies of bottom sediments from the Rivers Nacyna, Ruda and from an eutrophic reservoir holding cooling waters were examined for dermatophytes and correlated fungi. The species isolated were: Trichophyton terrestre complex, T. ajelloi (and its perfect form Anhroderma uncinatum. pathogenic strains of T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum cookei; also isolated were five species of the genus Chrysosporium.

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK061841 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061841 001-040-E04 S69963.1 mnp2=manganese peroxidase isozyme 2 {heat-shock elements, metal response eleme...nts} [Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Genomic, 3297 nt].|PLN PLN 2e-12 +3 ...

  3. Physical Damages of Wood Fiber in Acacia Mangium due to Biopulping Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Yahya

    2016-05-01

    chrysosporium to Acacia mangium Willd can reduce lignin and improve holocellulose and cellulose content of the material. Fiber dimension recognized as other important factor for paper properties. The question is how the integrity and dimensions of the wood fiber that has been pretreated with the fungus. The objectives of present study were to know effect of pretreatment of P. chrysosporium to the integrity and dimensions of the fiber. The P. chrysosporium was cultured for 14 days in growth medium, and inoculated to wood chips 5% (w/v and incubated for 0, 15 and 30 days. The inoculated wood chips were chipped into 1 mm x 1 mm x 20 mm and macerated using franklin solution at 60 oC for 48 hours. Forty fibers from each incubated time were analized their physical damages using a light microscope at a 400 magnification. The inoculated fibers were measured theirs dimensions. The physical damage percentage of fibers pretreated using P. chrysosporium was 0%. Length and wall thickness of the pretreated fibers were can be categorized as middle class and thin fibers, respectively.

  4. Optimization of an Innovative Biofiltration System as a VOC Control Technology for Aircraft Painting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-20

    Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and...degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. Cladosporium resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones...2002). Cladosporium Cladosporium Exophiala Mucor Phanerochaete resinae sphaerospermum lecanii-corni rouxii chrysosporium No carbon source Glucose

  5. Studies on the production of fungal peroxidases in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamentous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this purpo

  6. Effect of inoculation during different phases of agricultural waste composting on spectroscopic characteristics of humic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红丽; 曾光明; 罗琳; 张嘉超; 喻曼; 秦普丰

    2015-01-01

    The white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium), was inoculated during different phases of agricultural waste composting and its effect on the spectroscopic characterization of humic acid (HA) was studied. Three runs were used in this study: Run A was the control without inoculating, and Runs B and C were inoculatedP. chrysosporium during the first and the second fermentation phase, respectively. The elemental analysis, ultra-violet spectroscopy (UV), fluorescence spectra, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) of HA all lead to the same conclusion, that is, the degree of aromatization and polymerization of HA increases after 42 days composting. However, the inoculation during different phases presents different effects.P. chrysosporium increases the degree of aromatization and polymerization of HA when it is inoculated during the second fermentation phase, while it does not produce an obvious change on the humification degree of HA when it is inoculated during the first fermentation phase.

  7. Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Using Forced-Aeration Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory simulation studies and a composting pilot study were conducted to evaluate the capacity of three strains of fungi, indigenous fungus Fusarium sp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus Versicolor, to remediate petroleum-contaminated soils. In laboratory, the fungi were inoculated into a liquid culture medium and the petroleum-contaminated soil samples for incubation of 40 and 50 days, respectively.In the 200-day pilot study, nutrient contents and moisture were adjusted and maintained under aerobic condition in composting units using concrete container (118.5 cm × 65.5 cm × 12.5 cm) designed specially for this study. The laboratory simulation results showed that all the three fungi were effective in degrading petroleum in the liquid culture medium and in the soil. At the end of both the laboratory incubations, the degradation rates by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were the highest, reaching 66% after incubation in liquid culture for 50 days. This was further demonstrated in the composting pilot study where the degradation rate by P. chrysosporium reached 79% within 200 days, higher than those of the other two fungi (53.1% and 46.1%), indicating that P. chrysosporium was the best fungus for bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum. Further research is required to increase degradation rate.Key Words: bioremediation, composting, fungi, petroleum, soil

  8. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YNL189W, YNL331C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available to P. chrysosporium aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase; mutational analysis has not yet revealed a physiological ro...s has not yet revealed a physiological role Rows with this prey as prey Rows with this prey as prey (2) Rows

  9. Testing the Tolerance and Growth of eleven Trichoderma Strains to crude oil, naphthalene and phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argumedo-Delira, R.; Alarcon, A.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.; Pena-Cabriales, J. J.

    2009-07-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) are major organic contaminants in soils, and are subjected to degradation process mediated by either rhizospheric or soil microorganisms. Filamentous fungi such as cunninghamella elegans and Phanerochaete chrysosporium have a significant role on degradation of organic contaminants in soils. (Author)

  10. [The occurrence of keratinolytic fungi in the polluted environment of the Labedy District in Gliwice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfig, K

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to find relationships between the degree of bacteriological contamination with qualitative composition of potentially pathogenic keratinolytic fungal population in soil, sediment and air samples from the Labedy district in Gliwice (Poland). The examined soil samples were characterized by the predominance of Botryotrichum piluliferum, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma curreyi, Myceliophthora anamorph of Ctenomyces serratus, Chrysosporium pannicola and Trichphyton ajelloi. These species are typical for keratinolytic mycoflora in moderate climate soils, and their abundance was certainly resulted from the assembly of keratin remains in the soil environment. In the light of the weak bacteriological and mycological differentiation of the examined soil samples, however, it is difficult to determine categorically the extent to which the remains were originated from sewage via soil flooding by sewage or air transportation, or from the local human and animal population. Subsequently, the population of keratinolytic fungi in sediments was found to be clearly dependent of the degree of water contamination with sewage. In badly polluted sediments, Chrysosporium pannicola, Chrysosporium anamorph of Aphanoascus fulvescens, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Trichophyton ajelloi and Microsporum cookei were prevalent species. Keratinolytic fungi were only a small part of airborne fungal population in sewage bioaerosoles. Geomyces pannorum, a soil species better known by its celullotytic than keratinolytic properties, predominated in air samples. Some pathogenic species, such as Aspergillus flavus, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysporium anamorph of Aphanoascus fulvescens, Candida spp., Geotrichum candidum, Microsporum canis, Sporothrix schenckii and Trichosporon beigelii, were recovered in the present study. This confirms that the sewage-contaminated environments in an important storage place of pathogenic fungi, mostly from the opportunistic subgroup.

  11. Isolation of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from surface sediments of the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks at Basrah, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S K; Hassan, D A

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-five sediment samples were taken from randomly selected sites in the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks and analysed for dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. The results revealed that out of 25 samples only 13 (52%) yielded dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. A total of nine species in four genera were isolated. The most frequent genera isolated in this study were Chrysosporium and its teleomorph Aphanoascus. The species most frequently found were Aphanoascus fulvescens, A. durus, Chrysosporium crassitunicatum, Chr. keratinophilum and Chr. tropicum (each n = 3). Microsporum was represented by two species, namely M. fulvum and M. gypseum. Trichophyton was represented by one species, T. verrucosum. The occurrence of these fungi illustrates that sediments may act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic fungi for human and animals.

  12. Validation and application of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of RBBR decolorization, a model for highly toxic molecules, using several fungi strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

    2012-11-01

    A novel analytical method using HPLC-MS/MS operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for evaluation of fungi efficacy to decolorize Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye solution was developed, validated and applied. The method shows high sensibility allowing the detection of 4.6 pM of RBBR. Four fungal strains were tested in liquid medium, three strains of Aspergillus (Aspergillus aculeatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. All fungi were able to degrade the dye, with efficiencies ranging from 40% for P. chrysosporium up to 99% for A. flavus during a 30-day incubation period. During the experiment, increased accumulation of degradation products was observed in A. flavus cultures containing RBBR. Through the use of full scan HPLC-MS technique it was possible to propose the biogenesis of the microbial metabolic degradation pathway. Screening using microorganisms and RBBR may be hereafter used to investigate microbial biodegradation of high toxicity molecules such as dioxins.

  13. Keratinophilic and saprophytic fungi isolated from students' nails in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium.

  14. Diversification of fungal specific class a glutathione transferases in saprotrophic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Prosper, Pascalita; Favier, Frédérique; Harvengt, Luc; Didierjean, Claude; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie; Gelhaye, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes and endogenous metabolism. The distribution of fungal-specific class A GSTs was investigated in saprotrophic fungi revealing a recent diversification within this class. Biochemical characterization of eight GSTFuA isoforms from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinus cinereus demonstrated functional diversity in saprotrophic fungi. The three-dimensional structures of three P. chrysosporium isoforms feature structural differences explaining the functional diversity of these enzymes. Competition experiments between fluorescent probes, and various molecules, showed that these GSTs function as ligandins with various small aromatic compounds, derived from lignin degradation or not, at a L-site overlapping the glutathione binding pocket. By combining genomic data with structural and biochemical determinations, we propose that this class of GST has evolved in response to environmental constraints induced by wood chemistry.

  15. Diversification of fungal specific class a glutathione transferases in saprotrophic fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Mathieu

    Full Text Available Glutathione transferases (GSTs form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes and endogenous metabolism. The distribution of fungal-specific class A GSTs was investigated in saprotrophic fungi revealing a recent diversification within this class. Biochemical characterization of eight GSTFuA isoforms from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinus cinereus demonstrated functional diversity in saprotrophic fungi. The three-dimensional structures of three P. chrysosporium isoforms feature structural differences explaining the functional diversity of these enzymes. Competition experiments between fluorescent probes, and various molecules, showed that these GSTs function as ligandins with various small aromatic compounds, derived from lignin degradation or not, at a L-site overlapping the glutathione binding pocket. By combining genomic data with structural and biochemical determinations, we propose that this class of GST has evolved in response to environmental constraints induced by wood chemistry.

  16. Changes in enzymatic activities and microbial properties in vermicompost of water hyacinth as affected by pre-composting and fungal inoculation: a comparative study of ergosterol and chitin for estimating fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, P

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, three different fungal species, viz. Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were inoculated in 7 day and 15 day partially decomposed water hyacinth to study their effect on enzymatic activities, microbial respiration and fungal biomass of the final stabilized product. The results suggested that increasing the duration of pre-composting from 7 days to 15 days did not show any significant effect on the activities of hydrolytic enzymes. Inoculation of fungi significantly (P vermicomposts. Inoculation of P. chrysosporium in initial organic waste registered the highest chitin content in vermicompost. A comparison of fungal biomass and chitin content revealed a conversion factor of 2.628 with a standard deviation of 0.318. Due to significant correlation (r = 0.864), this conversion factor allows for the calculation of fungal biomass from chitin, which is comparatively more stable than ergosterol.

  17. Effects of Rhamnolipid and Microbial Inoculants on the Vermicomposting of Green Waste with Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Wang, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of adding the biosurfactant rhamnolipid, the lignolytic and cellulolytic fungus Phanerochete chrysosporium, and the free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chrococcum on vermicomposting of green waste with Eisenia fetida was investigated. The addition of rhamnolipid and/or either microorganism alone or in all combinations significantly increased E. fetida growth rate, the number of E. fetida juveniles and cocoons, the population densities of cellulolytic fungi and Azotobacter bacteria, and cellulase and urease activities in the vermicomposts. The quality of the final vermicompost (in terms of electrical conductivity, nutrient content, C/N ratio, humic acid content, lignin and cellulose contents, and phytotoxicity to germinating seeds) was enhanced by addition of rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms. The physical characteristics of vermicomposts produced with rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms were acceptable for agricultural application. The best quality vermicompost was obtained with the combined addition of P. chrysosporium, A. chrococcum, and rhamnolipid. PMID:28122059

  18. Biodegradation of Degradable Plastic Polyethylene by Phanerochaete and Streptomyces Species †

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The ability of lignin-degrading microorganisms to attack degradable plastics was investigated in pure shake flask culture studies. The degradable plastic used in this study was produced commercially by using the Archer-Daniels-Midland POLYCLEAN masterbatch and contained pro-oxidant and 6% starch. The known lignin-degrading bacteria Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii 75Vi2 and fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used. Pro-oxidant activity was accelerated by placin...

  19. Biotransformacion de Residuos Lignocelulosicos con Hongos Pleurotus.

    OpenAIRE

    Grisel Maria Ortega Arias-Carbajal; Gloria Bueno García; Dionisio Betancourt Rodríguez; Ivis Álvarez; Ana Lidia González

    2005-01-01

    En los últimos años se han estudiado numerosos microorganismos capaces de degradar los componentes de las maderas, considerándose como agentes degradadores de la lignina en la naturaleza. Los hongos del grupo de Phanerochaete chrysosporium y otros basidiomicetos, que incluso pueden ser cultivados a escala comercial, como son los Agaricus bisporus y Pleurotus, ambos comestibles, metabolizan con cierta selectividad la fracción de lignina del complejo lignocelulósico dejando un residuo de pudric...

  20. Survey of keratinophilic fungi isolated from city park soils of Pisa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, R; Mancianti, F; Grassotti, G; Cardini, G

    1998-01-01

    A survey of geophilic dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi isolated from city park soils of Pisa is reported. Twenty-three (48%) soil samples out of 48 were positive by hair baiting. The following species were isolated: Microsporum gypseum (39%), Trichophyton ajelloi (31%), Chrysosporium keratinophilum (14%), T. terrestre (8%), M. fulvum, Ch. luteum, Ch. indicum (5% each) and M. cookei (2%). The presence of the different species is discussed in relation to the risk of fungal skin infections.

  1. Keratinophilic fungi from Nigerian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonna, C I; Pugh, G J

    1987-08-01

    During a survey of keratinophilic fungi in Nigerian soil samples, twelve species of fungi were isolated. These included Chrysosporium keratinophilum, C. tropicum, Curvularia lunata, Microsporum audouinii, M. canis, M. fulvum, M. gypseum, M. vanbreuseghemii, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense and T. yaoundei. These keratinophilic fungi had a higher incidence by occurrence of individual species during the rainy season (May-October) than the dry season (November-April).

  2. Lignin Peroxidase Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds in Systems Containing Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    1994-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hy...

  3. Biodegradation and Transformation of Nitroaromatic Compounds (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    hlorophenoxyaaoc acid in the soil.]. Sci. Food Agric. 3:2 68-274. 5. Barr, D.P., and S.D. Aust. 1994. Mec hanisms white rot fungi use to degrade pollutants...79. Venkatadri, R., and R. L. Irvine. 1993. Cultivation of Phanerochaece chrysosporium and production of lignin per· oxidase in novel biofilm ...nirrophenol and m-nitroph enol by a Pseudomonas pmul.a. ]. Agric. Food Chern . 3Z:238- 24Z..

  4. BLEACHING OF SULFONATED CMP FROM BIO-TREATED WHEAT STRAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw chemi-mechanical pulp was pretreated with a crude xylanase which was secreted by white rot fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium prior to hydrogen peroxide bleaching. The process of xylanase pretreatment and hydrogen peroxide bleaching was optimized. The xylanase treated pulp achieved a brightness gain of 5.8% ISO over the untreated pulp. The xylanase treatment was found to liberate reducing sugars and facilitating lignin removal. Fiber morphology of pulp treated with xylanase was also studied by SEM.

  5. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-28

    Progress is reported on solubilization of low-rank coal by enzyme activity derived from Trametes versicolor or P. chrysosporium. Specifically during the reporting period efforts were directed towards the determining the effect of pH on solubilization of leonardite, the role of laccase in low coal solubilization and metabolism, the decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by P. chrysosprium and T. versicolor in solid agar gel, and the solubilization of low rank coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

  6. Production of fungal biomass immobilized loofa sponge (FBILS)-discs for the removal of heavy metal ions and chlorinated compounds from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M; Saeed, A; Edyvean, R G J; O'Sullivan, B; Styring, P

    2005-09-01

    A white rot basidiomycete, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was immobilized on loofa sponge (FBILS) discs. It removed ca. 37 and 71 mg Cd (II) g(-1) from 50 and 200 mg l(-1) aqueous solutions and up to 89% of 4-chloroanisole from a 10 mg l(-1) aqueous solution. FBILS are physically strong and chemically recalcitrant, resisting temperature, mechanical agitation, and variations in pH without alteration to shape, structure or texture.

  7. Solid State production of manganese peroxidases using arecanut husk as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhila Rajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The lignocellulosic biomass from arecanut husk (Areca catechu Linnaeus was evaluated as a new substrate for cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete sp for solid state fermentation of manganese peroxidase (MnP. Arecanut had a moisture content of 79.84 % for ripe nut husk whereas green nut husk had 68.39 % moisture and a pH of 5.0, 3.0 and 7.0 for raw, ripe and dry husk. Reducing sugar content was 14.31, 19.21 and 1.77(mg/g of husk for raw, ripe and dry nut husk, respectively. Non reducing sugar was 1.04(mg/g of husk for raw and 0.68 (mg/g of husk for dry husk. Solid state fermentation carried out at different pH showed optimum enzyme production at pH 6.0 (52.60 IU/g for P.chrysosporium and pH 5.0 (44.08 IU/g for Phanerochaete sp. Optimum temperature was 30 ± 2º C for both the organisms. Lower concentration of MnSO4 (0.1 mM MnSO4 induced maximum enzyme production in P.chrysosporium whereas Phanerochaete sp. required 1 mM MnSO4 for induction. Absence of carbon and nitrogen stimulated enzyme production in P.chrysosporium while Phanerochaete sp. needed nitrogen. Enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography.

  8. Enzymatic production of microthecin by aldos-2-ulose dehydratase from 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose and stability studies of microthecin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Shukun; Andreassen, Mikkel; Lundt, Inge

    2008-01-01

    .2.2.13) from glycogen and starch by aldos-2-ulose dehydratase (AUDH; EC 4. 2.1.110). In the current study, the yield and purity of microthecin was examined with respect to pH and buffers using AUDH purified from the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. It was found that AUDH had a Km of 5.4 and 4.9 mM towards...

  9. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  10. [1st cases of adiaspiromycosis observed in small mammals in Turkey. 3 new host species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau-Lebreuil, M T; Orhan, V

    1985-01-01

    The authors examine the lungs of 193 small mammals caught in different places in West Turkey and belonging to 11 different species. Six species have one or many adiaspores in their lungs. Those are Microtus arvalis, Apodemus flavicollis and A. sylvaticus already found parasited by Chrysosporium parvum in many countries particularly France. These are M. guentheri, Pitymys majori and A. mystacinus which have never been mentioned before this day having adiaspiromycosis.

  11. Aspergillus flavus: A potential Bioremediator for oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Avasn Maruthi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly treatment for oily contaminated sites by the use of microorganisms. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to establish the performance of fungal isolates in degradation of organic compounds contained in soils contaminated with petrol and diesel. As a result of the laboratory screening, two natural fungal strains capable of degrading total organic carbons (TOC were prepared from isolates enriched from the oil contaminated sites. Experiments were conducted in Erlenmeyer flasks under aerobic conditions, with TOC removal percentage varied from 0.7 to 32% depending on strains type and concentration. Strains Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger exhibited the highest TOC removal percentage of 32 and 21%, respectively, before nutrient addition. TOC removal rate was enhanced after addition of nutrients to incubated flasks. The highest TOC reduction (45% was estimated after addition of combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur to Phanerocheate chrysosporium strains. Results of experimental work carried out elucidate that the fungi like Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger were capabled of producing enzymes at a faster rate to decompose the substrate hydrocarbon and released more CO2 and hence these potential fungi can be utilized effectively as agents of biodegradation in waste recycling process and Bioremediation of oil contaminated sites.

  12. [Survey of keratinophilic fungi from soils and mating behaviour of Microsporum canis from human ringworm cases in Hokkaido Prefecture in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, H

    1988-03-01

    From 383 (38.3%) of a total 1000 of soil samples, collected from Hokkaido prefecture, keratinophilic fungi have been isolated using hair baiting technique. The fungi isolated were as follows: 318 strains of Trichophyton ajelloi (including 90 strains of Arthroderma uncinatum), 59 of Microsporum cookei (including 13 of Nannizzia cajetani), 32 of Chrysosporium keratinophilum, 23 of C. tropicum, 15 of Chrysosporium anamorph of A. tuberculatum, 6 of T. terrestre (including 3 of A. insingulare and one of A. quadrifidum), 4 of Chrysosporium sp., 2 of M. canis (including one of N. otae), one of M. gypseum, and one of Ctenomyces serratus. This is the first isolation of N. otae from soil. Because of the successful isolation of N. otae (and its anamorph) from soil sample, (+) strain of M. canis was suggested to be popular in Hokkaido prefecture. The prevalence of (+) strain of M. canis was investigated using 279 isolates obtained from human ringworm cases. Among the 279 isolates, 257 were (-) mating type, 8 were (+) and 14 were nonreactive. Results of the present study indicate that the distribution of keratinophilic fungi from soils in Hokkaido prefecture is markedly different from that in the southern parts of Japan. The unexpected isolation of N. otae and its anamorph from soil samples as well as the significant population of N. otae(+) strain from human ringworms suggest the peculiar distribution pattern of N. otae (+) in Hokkaido prefecture.

  13. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koutrotsios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent’s decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64% followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW’s phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment.

  14. Lignolytic Enzymes of a Mushroom Stereum ostrea Isolated from Wood Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of lignolytic enzymes by the mushroom fungus Stereum ostrea in liquid medium under conditions of vegetative growth was examined for 10 days in comparison to the reference culture Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Though growth and secretion of extracellular protein by S. ostrea were comparable to those of P. chrysosporium, yields of laccase enzyme by S. ostrea were higher than laccase titres of P. chrysosporium by more than 2 folds on the peak production time interval (IVth day of incubation. S. ostrea yielded titres of 25 units of laccase/ml as against 8.9 units of laccase/ml on the IVth day of incubation. Stereum ostrea also exhibited activities of other lignolytic enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP and manganese peroxidase (MnP, higher than the reference culture. Growth of S. ostrea on the medium in the presence of Remazol orange 16 resulted in the decolourisation of dye, confirming the presence of lignolytic enzymes. S. ostrea appears to be a promising culture with complete lignolytic system.

  15. Isolation and molecular characterization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic degrading fungal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ahmed, Safia; Robson, Geoff; Javed, Imran; Ali, Naeem; Atiq, Naima; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrant nature of polyvinyl chloride creates serious environmental concerns during manufacturing and waste disposal. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen different soil fungi having potential to biodegrade PVC films. After 10 months of soil burial experiment, it was observed that a number of fungal strains were flourishing on PVC films. On morphological as well as on 18rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic basis they were identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium PV1, Lentinus tigrinus PV2, Aspergillus niger PV3, and Aspergillus sydowii PV4. The biodegradation ability of these fungal isolates was further checked in shake flask experiments by taking thin films of PVC (C source) in mineral salt medium. A significant change in color and surface deterioration of PVC films was confirmed through visual observation and Scanning electron microscopy. During shake flask experiments, P. chrysosporium PV1 produced maximum biomass of about 2.57 mg ml(-1) followed by A. niger PV3. P. chrysosporium PV1 showed significant reduction (178,292 Da(-1)) in Molecular weight of the PVC film than control (200,000 Da(-1)) by gel permeation chromatography. Furthermore more Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance also revealed structural changes in the PVC. It was concluded that isolated fungal strains have significant potential for biodegradation of PVC plastics.

  16. Seasonal study of the fungal biota of the fur of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F J; Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G

    1996-01-01

    During a one year period, 944 dogs from the Municipal kennel of Barcelona were examined to detect animals with suspected dermatophytosis. Only a few animals (1.8%) presented skin lesions but none of them had dermatophytosis. A representative number of dogs without visible skin lesions (n = 172), selected at random, were used to carry out a seasonal study of the mycobiota of their fur. Fifteen isolates belonging to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton were isolated from 14 of the 172 (8.1%) dogs without lesions. The identity of these fungi was Microsporum gypseum (6/15), Trichophyton terrestre (4/15), M. canis (2/15), M. cookei (2/15) and Trichophyton ajelloi (1/15) (one strain each of M. gypseum and T. ajelloi were isolated from one dog). Species of Penicillium (% prevalence = 89.5%), Alternaria (86.6%), Cladosporium (84.9%), Aspergillus (77.3%), Scopulariopsis (65.7%) and Chrysosporium (64.5%) were the most prevalent. No significant differences in the fungal biota were observed with respect to age, gender, hair length or between mixed and pure breed dogs. A large number of isolates, including species belonging to the genera Beauveria, Chrysosporium, Malbranchea and Scopulariopsis, that macroscopically and/or microscopically resemble dermatophytes and may be mistaken for them, produced a red color change in Dermatophyte Test Medium. No significant seasonal difference was detected among the isolates belonging to the most frequently encountered genera, with the exception of Scopulariopsis (higher in summer and autumn) and Chrysosporium (higher in summer). Species from other genera, with lower occurrence also presented significant differences in their seasonal distribution. Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Chaetomium and Phoma spp. presented maximum prevalence peaks in spring, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Phoma and Rhizopus spp. in summer and Geotrichum and Mucor spp. in autumn. The Microsporum and Trichophyton species were more frequently isolated in summer.

  17. Hyphomycetes from soil of an area affected by copper mining activities in the State of Bahia, Brazil Hyphomycetes de solo de uma área de mineração de cobre no Estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella P.M. Wanderley Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of observing the impact produced by copper-mining activities on soil fungi, samples were collected from an area at the Caraíba Mining, in the State of Bahia, Brazil. This area was divided in six sub-areas: one had native vegetation and was used as control, while the others varied according to degrees of impact. The samples, collected during the dry and the rainy seasons, were submitted to serial dilutions and placed on Petri dishes with Sabouraud medium plus antibiotic. Sixty five species and 16 genera of Hyphomycetes were identified: Acremonium, Acrophialophora, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Humicola, Malbranchea, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scolecobasidium, Staphylotrichum, Stilbella and Trichoderma.Acrophialophora levis, Crhysosporium merdarium, Curvularia verruculosa, Malbranchea chrysosporoidea, Penicillium adametzii, Staphylotrichum coccosporum and Stilbella sebacea were isolated for the first time in Brazil.Com o objetivo de observar o impacto produzido pelas atividades da mineração de cobre em fungos do solo, amostras foram coletadas de uma área da Mineração Caraíba no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Esta área foi dividida em seis sub-áreas: uma com vegetação nativa, usada como controle enquanto as outras variavam de acordo com os graus de impacto. As amostras, coletadas durante os períodos de estiagem e chuvoso, foram submetidas a diluições sucessivas e colocadas em placas de Petri contendo meio Sabouraud acrescido de antibiótico. Sessenta e cinco espécies e 16 gêneros de Hyphomycetes foram identificados: Acremonium, Acrophialophora, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Humicola, Malbranchea, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scolecobasidium, Staphilotricum, Stilbella e Trichoderma.Acrophialophora levis, Chrysosporium merdarium, Curvularia verruculosa, Malbranchea chrysosporoidea, Penicillium adametzii, Staphylotrichum coccosporum e

  18. Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by fungal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, Sarabjeet Singh [Department of Biotechnology, General Shivdev Singh Diwan Gurbachan Singh Khalsa College, Patiala, Punjab (India); Goyal, Dinesh [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab (India)

    2010-10-15

    Chromium compounds are released by industrial processes including leather production, mining, petroleum refining, in textile industry and dyeing. They are a significant threat to the environment and public health because of their toxicity. Removal of hexavalent chromium by living biomass of different fungi was effective in the order of Aspergillus terricola>Aspergillus niger>Acremonium strictum>Aureobasidium pullulans>Paecilomyces variotii>Aspergillus foetidus>Cladosporium resinae>Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Non-living dried fungal biomass showed higher potential for metal removal than living cells. Among all fungi dead biomass of P. chrysosporium, C. resinae and P. variotii had the maximum specific chromium uptake capacity, which was 11.02, 10.69 and 10.35 mg/g of dry biomass respectively at pH 4.0-5.0 in batch sorption. Removal of Cr(VI) by P. chrysosporium from multi-metallic synthetic solution as well as chrome effluent was significant by bringing down the residual concentration to 0.1 mg/L in the effluent, which falls within the permissible range and its removal was not affected by the presence of other metal ions such as Fe, Zn and Ni. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis revealed the presence of carboxylate (C=O) and amine (-NH{sup +}{sub 3}-NH{sup +}{sub 2}) functional groups commonly present on the cell surface of all fungi, with possible involvement in chromium binding. The result indicates that non-living fungal biomass either obtained as a by-product of fermentation industry or mass produced using inexpensive culture media can be used for bioremediation of Cr(VI) from chrome effluent on large scale. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Functional Diversification of Fungal Glutathione Transferases from the Ure2p Class

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Thuillier; Ngadin, Andrew A.; Cécile Thion; Patrick Billard; Jean-Pierre Jacquot; Eric Gelhaye; Mélanie Morel

    2011-01-01

    The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to c...

  20. SOIL FUNGI: POTENTIAL MYCOREMEDIATORS OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Avasn Maruthi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The continual expansion of urbanization and industrial activity has led to the accumulation of a large quantity of lignocellulosic residues throughout the world. In particular, large quantities of paper and bagasse are largely produced in Visakhapatnam. In this work we present the study of the degradability of these substrates with fungi. Three cultures of soil fungi were screened for their ability to degrade cellulose. Aspergillus flavus degraded the most, as shown by the highest CO2 release. Further, Aspergillus flavus was tested with the standard fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium for cellulose degradation, which showed nearly equivalent potential.

  1. A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE OCCURRENCE OF KERATINOPHILIC FUNGI IN SOILS OF JAMAICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish C. Gugnani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report represents the first study of keratinophilic fungi present in soils of Jamaica. Out of the 40 soil samples examined from different habitats, 30 (75% were positive for the presence of keratinophilic fungi, yielding 36 isolates of keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum complex (represented by 16 isolates of M. gypseum, and four of M. fulvum was most frequent, being present in 50% of the samples. A very high occurrence of this dermatophyte in Jamaican soil is of public health significance. The remaining isolates of keratinophilic fungi were represented by Chrysosporium spp (mainly C. indicum and C. tropicum and Sepedonium sp.

  2. A preliminary study on the occurrence of keratinophilic fungi in soils of Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, Harish C; Sharma, Soni; Wright, Kharl

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the first study of keratinophilic fungi present in soils of Jamaica. Out of the 40 soil samples examined from different habitats, 30 (75%) were positive for the presence of keratinophilic fungi, yielding 36 isolates of keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum complex (represented by 16 isolates of M. gypseum, and four of M. fulvum) was most frequent, being present in 50% of the samples. A very high occurrence of this dermatophyte in Jamaican soil is of public health significance. The remaining isolates of keratinophilic fungi were represented by Chrysosporium spp (mainly C. indicum and C. tropicum) and Sepedonium sp.

  3. FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control. Fresh and barkless large (betung bamboo chips of 2 year's old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO; P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC; P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV; and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO.After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for

  4. Comparison of different cellulolytic fungi for bioconversion of apple distillery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.; Cimerman, A.; Perdih, A.

    1986-08-01

    The suitability of three ascomycetous fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. awamori and Trichoderma reesei, as well as two basidiomycetes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, for bioconversion of apple distillery slop was compared. Trichoderma and Phanerochaete degraded raw fibres by 20%, producing filter cakes with 17% to 22% raw protein contents. Aspergillus spp. were superior in filtration time and COD reduction and were of the same efficiency in protein synthesis as Trichoderma and Phanerochaete, but did not degrade fibres. Pleurotus ostreatus did not degrade lignin under fermentation conditions used and could not compete with other fungi due to its slower growth.

  5. Effect of Saprotrophic Soil Fungi on Toxocara canis Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Ciarmela, M. L.; Arambarri, A. M.; Basualdo, J. A.; Minvielle, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the ovicidal activity of Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and F. sulphureum isolated from public areas in the city of La Plata, Argentina, on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. Each species were cultured on water agar 2% with a suspension of immature-stage T. canis eggs. At 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-culture, they were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. One hundred eggs were evaluated a...

  6. [Research of keratinophiles in the soil and their effects on human cutaneous pathology in the Lyons area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, J; Michel-Brun, J; Mojon, M; Pichot, J

    1979-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1977, the systematic research of keratinophiles of the ground in a radius of 30--50 km around Lyon, has shown the ubiquitarian predominance of Microsporum nanum, which is probably the most ancient occupant of the ground. The most intensive areas of human and animal occupation in the Rhodanian tract show the predominance of Microsporum gypseum, which is scarcely found in man. Sporadic localizations, tightly limites, bound to cirulcation axes and international gathering, let us detect Microsporum cookei, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, and Keratinomyces ajelloi. However, in the last years, a progressive extension of recently imported kinds and a decrease in native kinds appears to have occurred.

  7. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP with the white- rot fungi under non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Dawen; WEN Xianghua; QIAN Yi

    2004-01-01

    @@ In recent years, many researches indicate that white rot fungus is a promising microbe in wastewater treatment. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium in white rot fungi is the most extensively studied and discussed[1]. The extracellular ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi have the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo-pollutants such as chlorinated phenols and various types of synthetic dyes because of their nonspecific characteristics[2-6]. And some significant mineralization (20%-48%) was observed during degradation of azo dyes[7].

  8. Inmovilización de hongos ligninolíticos para la remoción del colorante negro reactivo 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Immobilising lignilolytic fungus for removing reactive black 5 dye Resumen: La presencia de colorantes azoicos en aguas residuales de la industria textil es un problema ambiental y sanitario, porque muchos de estos compuestos son cancerígenos. Los tratamientos biológicos son una alternativa para la remoción de ese tipo de colorantes. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de tres hongos de podredumbre blanca, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus y Phanerochaete chrysosporium sobre la decoloración de un agua que contiene colorante negro reactivo 5 (NR5, ampliamente usado en la industria textil. Se estudió la inmovilización de estos hongos en dos soportes, espuma de poliuretano y estropajo (L. cylíndrica para seleccionar el mejor soporte y el hongo con mayor capacidad para la decoloración. Ambos soportes fueron igualmente efectivos, pero se seleccionó estropajo por ser un producto natural. El hongo que generó los mayores porcentajes de decoloración en 4 días fue Trametes versicolor, con 96%, 98% y 98% para agua con concentración de NR5 300 ppm, 150 ppm y 75 ppm, respectivamente. La actividad lacasa para cada concentración de NR5 fue 8 U L-1, 7 U L-1 y 5 U L-1.Palabras clave: , Trametes versicolor; Pleurotus ostreatus y Phanerochaete chrysosporium Luffa cylindrinca; espuma de poliuretano y negro reactivo 5. Abstract: Waste water from the textile industry represents a major environmental and health problem because it contains azo dyes whose carcirogenic effect has been tested in research. Biological treatment represents a valuable alternative for removing these dyes. The effect of Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium rot fungi on decoloration of water containing reactive black five (NR5 textile dye was evaluated in this work. Immobilising the fungi on polyurethane foam and luffa sponge (Luffa cylindrica supports was studied in order to select the best support and the fungi having the best

  9. Inmovilización de hongos ligninolíticos para la remoción del colorante negro reactivo 5

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Andrés Fernández; Lina María Henao; Aura Marina Pedroza-Rodríguez; Balkys Quevedo-Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Immobilising lignilolytic fungus for removing reactive black 5 dye Resumen: La presencia de colorantes azoicos en aguas residuales de la industria textil es un problema ambiental y sanitario, porque muchos de estos compuestos son cancerígenos. Los tratamientos biológicos son una alternativa para la remoción de ese tipo de colorantes. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de tres hongos de podredumbre blanca, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus y Phanerochaete chrysosporium sobre la ...

  10. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-28

    This project addresses the solubilization of low-rank coal (leonardite) by lignin degrading fungi. During this reporting period efforts were focused on determining the effect of pH on coal solubilization by oxalate ion and other biologically important compounds that might function as metal chelators, on the role of laccase in coal solubilization and metabolism, on decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and T. versicolor in solid agar media, and on solubilization of coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

  11. Biochemical and molecular biological research development of the reduction of enzyme by xylem cellulose%木质素降解酶的分子生物学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尚旭; 赖寒

    2001-01-01

    在以黄孢原毛平革菌(p.chrysosporium)为模式菌的木质素降解系统中,能氧化断裂木质素和芳香族污染物的木质素过氧化物酶(Lip)、锰过氧化物酶(Mnp)、漆酶(Lac)的生理生化特性及Lip基因、Mnp基因和Lac基因的表达调控等分子生物学研究进展.

  12. Fungal biodegradation of anthracene-polluted cork: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Patrícia; Olivella, Maria À; Camarero, Susana; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Cano, Laura; De Las Heras, Francesc X

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of cork waste in adsorbing aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been previously reported. Biodegradation of contaminated cork using filamentous fungi could be a good alternative for detoxifying cork to facilitate its final processing. For this purpose, the degradation efficiency of anthracene by three ligninolytic white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus) and three non-ligninolytic fungi which are found in the cork itself (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium simplicissimum and Mucor racemosus) are compared. Anthracene degradation by all fungi was examined in solid-phase cultures after 0, 16, 30 and 61 days. The degradation products of anthracene by P. simplicissimum and I. lacteus were also identified by GC-MS and a metabolic pathway was proposed for P. simplicissimum. Results show that all the fungi tested degraded anthracene. After 61 days of incubation, approximately 86%, 40%, and 38% of the initial concentration of anthracene (i.e., 100 µM) was degraded by P. simplicissimum, P. chrysosporium and I. lacteus, respectively. The rest of the fungi degraded anthracene to a lesser extent (PAH-contaminated cork.

  13. Effect of microbial pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R.; Chinn, Mari [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Campus Box 7625, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7625 (United States); Howell, Noura [North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, Durham, NC 27715 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    The potential of microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade lignin and facilitate fuel ethanol production was investigated under two culture conditions: submerged cultivation (SmC) and solid state (SSC) cultivation. Although microbial pretreatments showed significant lignin degradation (LD) (19.38% and 35.53% for SmC and SSC, respectively), a study on hydrolysis and fermentation of the microbial-pretreated cotton stalks showed no increase in cellulose conversion (10.98% and 3.04% for SmC and SSC pretreated samples, respectively) compared to untreated cotton stalks (17.93%). Solid state cultivation demonstrated better selectivity of 0.82 than 0.70 with submerged pretreatment. Washing of pretreated cotton stalks did not significantly increase cellulose conversion. However, heating and washing remarkably improved (P<0.05) cellulose conversion to 14.94% and 17.81% for SmC and SSC 14 day pretreatment, respectively. Ethanol yields, up to 0.027 g ethanol g{sup -1} initial cotton stalks, were low for all untreated and pretreated samples mainly due to the low cellulose conversion. Although potential and some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment using P. chrysosporium have been explored in this study, additional investigation is still required especially to improve the selectivity for preferential LD and to optimize hydrolysis efficiency. The mechanism of catalytic binding of cellulolytic enzymes to cotton stalks as affected by the presence of fungal mycelia also warrants further study. (author)

  14. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, I; Mishra, A; Kushwaha, Rks

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266, A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137, Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081, Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270, C. indicum ITCC 5269, C. pannicola GPCK 1022, C. tropicum GPCK 1269, Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267, Gymnoascus reessii ITCC 5265, Malbranchea fulva GPCK 1075, Malbranchea pulchella ITCC 5268, Micosporum gypseum GPCK 1038 , Microsporum cookei GPCK 2001, M. fulvum GPCK 2002, Paecilomyces lilacinum GPCK 1080, Penicillium expansum GPCK 1082, Trichophyton mentagrophytes GPCK 2003 and T. terrestre GPCK 2004. In hospitals, the minimum frequency was of Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267 while the maximum frequency was of Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275. In houses, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270 and C. tropicum GPCK 1269 were with minimum and maximum frequencies respectively. This makes the first report of these fungi with keratinolytic ability in the indoor dust of hospitals and houses.

  15. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guoqi [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Wang, Lihai, E-mail: xu12nefu@sina.cn [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu, Junliang [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wu, Jinzhuo [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  16. Notes on soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Mount Taibai and its surrounding area, China Ⅰ%太行山及其周围地区土壤中的暗色丝孢菌Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 于金凤; 张天宇

    2008-01-01

    A total of 103 isolates of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes belonging to 27 species in 15 genera were obtained from soil samples of Mount Taibai and its surrounding area, Shaanxi Province, China. Among them Eladia pachyphialis and Gliomastix pallescens are new species, while Acremoniula sarcinellae, Allescheriella crocea, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium pannorum are new records to China. The main distinction between E. pachyphialis and its similar species E. saccula is that the phialide of the former is wider and the conidia are smaller than those of the latter. Gliomastix pallescens is characterized by having light colored, long and unbranched conidiophores by which it can be separated from its similar species, G. cerealis. Latin descriptions are given for the new species. Brief descriptions and illustrations of the new records are also provided based on Chinese isolates. The other 21 species being previously known from China in several genera are also listed. All specimens (dried cultures and slides) and living cultures studied have been deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University: Plant Pathology (HSAUP).

  17. Biodiversity of Keratinophilic Fungal Flora in University Campus, Jaipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil is well known to support the transient or ongoing existence of keratinophilic fungi and potential source of infection for human and animalsMethods: Samples were collected from 67 sites of university campus like PG study centers, playgrounds, gardens, hostels, administrative blocks, library, bank, canteen and road side for the estimation of keratinophilic fungi using the hair baiting technique.Results: Totally, 192 isolates belonging to 14 genera and 21 species were reported. Soil pH range varies from 6.5 to 9.0 pH. Most of the fungi isolated from neutral to slightly alkaline soil. Chrysosporium tropicum (20.83% was the most predominant fungi reported from all sites. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.10% was the second most commonly reported fungi. Chrysosporium indicum (11.45%, T. simii (9.37%, C.evolceanui (8.83% T. terrestre (4.68% and Cephaliophora irregularies (4.68% were frequently reported. Microsporum audouinii, Paceliomyces sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sporothrix schenckii were isolated for the first time from Jaipur.Conclusion: Road sides were found most suitable for the occurrence of all most all keratinophilic fungi. Higher incidence of keratinophilic fungi was found in hostel sides followed by road sides, PG study centers and play grounds.

  18. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Rani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85% followed by Nigrosin (77.47%, Malachite green (72.77% and dye mixture (33.08% under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15% followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%, Malachite green (83.25% and mixture (78.4%. The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.

  19. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.

  20. Transformation behavior of lead fractions during composting of lead-contaminated waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-xiao; XU Xiang-min; HUANG Dan-lian; ZENG Guang-ming

    2009-01-01

    The transformation behaviors of Pb fractions during composting of Pb-polluted waste without inoculants and with the inoculants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were studied. Results show that the active Pb ions with high toxicity and transferability are transformed into the inactive Pb with low toxicity and transferability, confirming that Pb ions can be efficiently immobilized during composting without or with the inoculants. The soluble-exchangeable Pb in composting without inoculants reaches 49.0 mg/kg at day 60, while that with the inoculants is reduced to 0 mg/kg dry mass compost. The higher contents of organic-bound Pb (59.0 mg/kg) and residual Pb (69.2 mg/kg) with low toxicity are found after 60-day composting with inoculants, compared with those without inoculants. The above data indicate the better immobilization effect of Pb and the greater alleviation of Pb hazards in composting with the inoculants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium than without inoculants, which may be due to the more microbial biomass and the higher pH value in composting of Pb-polluted waste with inoculants.

  1. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  2. Functional Diversification of Fungal Glutathione Transferases from the Ure2p Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thuillier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione-S-transferase (GST proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to correlate the sequence diversity with the functional diversity of these glutathione transferases. The results show that among the nine isoforms found in P. chrysosporium, two belonging to Ure2pA subclass are exclusively expressed at the transcriptional level in presence of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Moreover, we have highlighted differential catalytic activities and substrate specificities between Ure2pA and Ure2pB isoforms. This diversity of sequence and function suggests that fungal Ure2p sequences have evolved rapidly in response to environmental constraints.

  3. Functional diversification of fungal glutathione transferases from the ure2p class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Anne; Ngadin, Andrew A; Thion, Cécile; Billard, Patrick; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric; Morel, Mélanie

    2011-01-01

    The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to correlate the sequence diversity with the functional diversity of these glutathione transferases. The results show that among the nine isoforms found in P. chrysosporium, two belonging to Ure2pA subclass are exclusively expressed at the transcriptional level in presence of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Moreover, we have highlighted differential catalytic activities and substrate specificities between Ure2pA and Ure2pB isoforms. This diversity of sequence and function suggests that fungal Ure2p sequences have evolved rapidly in response to environmental constraints.

  4. Ligninolytic Activity of Ganoderma strains on Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TYPUK ARTININGSIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a phenylpropanoid polymers with only few carbon bonds might be hydrolized. Due to its complexity, lignin is particularly difficult to decompose. Ganoderma is one of white rot fungi capable of lignin degradation. The ligninolytic of several species Ganoderma growing under different carbon sources was studied under controlled conditions which P. chrysosporium was used as standard comparison.Three types of ligninolytic, namely LiP, MnP, and laccase were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Ratio between clear zone and diameter of fungal colony was used for measuring specific activity qualitatively.Four sspecies of Ganoderma showed positive ligninolytic qualitatively that G. lucidum KT2-32 gave the highest ligninolytic. Activity of LiP and MnP in different carbon sources was consistently resulted by G. lucidum KT2-32, while the highest activity of laccase was shown by G. ochrolaccatum SA2-14. Medium of Indulin AT affected production of protein extracellular and induced ligninolytic. Glucose, BMC, and pine sawdust did not affect the activity of ligninolytic. The specific activity of Ganoderma species was found to be higher than the one of P. chrysosporium.

  5. Screening of white-rot fungi manganese peroxidases: a comparison between the specific activities of the enzyme from different native producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Juho; Taskila, Sanna; Isomäki, Ritva; Ojamo, Heikki

    2012-11-29

    In this study manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzymes from selected white-rot fungi were isolated and compared for potential future recombinant production. White-rot fungi were cultivated in small-scale in liquid media and a simplified process was established for the purification of extracellular enzymes.Five lignin degrading organisms were selected (Bjerkandera sp., Phanerochaete (P.) chrysosporium, Physisporinus (P.) rivulosus, Phlebia (P.) radiata and Phlebia sp. Nf b19) and studied for MnP production in small-scale. Extracellular MnP activity was followed and cultivations were harvested at proximity of the peak activity. The production of MnPs varied in different organisms but was clearly regulated by inducing liquid media components (Mn2+, veratryl alcohol and malonate). In total 8 different MnP isoforms were purified.Results of this study reinforce the conception that MnPs from distinct organisms differ substantially in their properties. Production of the extracellular enzyme in general did not reach a substantial level. This further suggests that these native producers are not suitable for industrial scale production of the enzyme. The highest specific activities were observed with MnPs from P. chrysosporium (200 U mg-1), Phlebia sp. Nf b19 (55 U mg-1) and P. rivulosus (89 U mg-1) and these MnPs are considered as the most potential candidates for further studies. The molecular weight of the purified MnPs was estimated to be between 45-50 kDa.

  6. Biosoftening of coir fiber using selected microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Akhila; Senan, Resmi C; Pavithran, C; Abraham, T Emilia

    2005-12-01

    Coir fiber belongs to the group of hard structural fibers obtained from coconut husk. As lignin is the main constituent of coir responsible for its stiffness, microbes that selectively remove lignin without loss of appreciable amounts of cellulose are extremely attractive in biosoftening. Five isolated strains were compared with known strains of bacteria and fungi. The raw fiber treated with Pseudomonas putida and Phanerocheate chrysosporium produced better softened fiber at 30+/-2 degrees C and neutral pH. FeSO4 and humic acid were found to be the best inducers for P. chrysosporium and P. putida, respectively, while sucrose and dextrose were the best C-sources for both. Biosoftening of unretted coir fibers was more advantageous than the retted fibers. Unlike the weak chemically softened fiber, microbial treatment produced soft, whiter fibers having better tensile strength and elongation (44.6-44.8%) properties. Scanning electron microscopy photos showed the mycelia penetrating the pores of the fiber, removing the tylose plug and degrading lignin.

  7. Fermented Apple Pomace as a Feed Additive to Enhance Growth Performance of Growing Pigs and Its Effects on Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran M. Ajila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace is a by-product from the apple processing industry and can be used for the production of many value-added compounds such as enzymes, proteins, and nutraceuticals, among others. An investigation was carried out to study the improvement in the protein content in apple pomace by solid-state fermentation using the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium by tray fermentation method. The effect of this protein in terms of how it enriched apple pomace as animal feed for pigs has also been studied. There was a 36% increase in protein content in the experimental diet with 5% w/w fermented apple pomace. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food was increased from 43.5 ± 2.5 to 83.1 ± 4.4 in the control group and the efficiency of conversion of feed increased from 55.4 ± 4.5 to 92.1 ± 3.6 in the experimental group during the animal feed experiment. Similarly, the effect of a protein enriched diet on odor emission and greenhouse gas emission has also been studied. The results demonstrated that the protein enrichment of apple pomace by solid state cultivation of the fungus P. chrysosporium makes it possible to use it as a dietary supplement for pigs.

  8. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh I

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection ITCC 5266 , A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi GPCK 1137 , Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081 , Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275 , Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270 , C. indicum ITCC 5269 , C. pannicola GPCK 1022 , C. tropicum GPCK 1269 , Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267 , Gymnoascus reessii ITCC 5265 , Malbranchea fulva GPCK 1075 , Malbranchea pulchella ITCC 5268 , Micosporum gypseum GPCK 1038 , Microsporum cookei GPCK 2001, M. fulvum GPCK 2002 , Paecilomyces lilacinum GPCK 1080 , Penicillium expansum GPCK 1082, Trichophyton mentagrophytes GPCK 2003 and T. terrestre GPCK 2004. In hospitals, the minimum frequency was of Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267 while the maximum frequency was of Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275 . In houses, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270 and C. tropicum GPCK 1269 were with minimum and maximum frequencies respectively. This makes the first report of these fungi with keratinolytic ability in the indoor dust of hospitals and houses.

  9. Effect of Saprotrophic Soil Fungi on Toxocara canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciarmela, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the ovicidal activity of Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and F. sulphureum isolated from public areas in the city of La Plata, Argentina, on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. Each species were cultured on water agar 2% with a suspension of immature-stage T. canis eggs. At 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-culture, they were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. One hundred eggs were evaluated and scored according to Lỳsek’s ovicidal effect classification. These procedures were repeated three times which each fungal species. Chrysosporium merdarium and F. oxysporum showed very high ovicidal activity, F. sulphureum high ovicidal activity, F. moniliforme intermediate ovicidal activity and T. harzianum did not affect the viability of T. canis eggs. Taking into account the effects on human and animal health and the environment, the species with better prospects for studying its potential use as biological control was F. sulphureum.

  10. Isolation of dermatophytes and related species from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Sano, Ayako; Hiruma, Midori; Murata, Michiko; Kaneshima, Takashi; Murata, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Touyama, Hidemi; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Nakazato, Yasutomo; Uehara, You; Hirakawa, Morihiko; Imura, Yoshimi; Terashima, Yoshie; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Keji; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Hiruma, Masataro; Murakami, Masaru; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated 793 bird combs [645 chickens and 148 fighting cocks (Shamo)] to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and their related fungal species. The targeted fungal species were recovered from 195 of the 793 examined birds (24.6 %). Prevalence ratios were compared in temperate (the mainland) and subtropical (Nansei Islands) areas, genders, strains, breeding scale (individual and farm), and housing system (in cage and free ranging). The frequency of the fungal species in the mainland, males, fighting cocks, breeding scale by individual nursing, and free-range housing system exhibited significantly higher positive ratios than that in the other groups. A total of 224 dermatophytes and related species were isolated, including 101 Arthroderma (Ar.) multifidum, 83 Aphanoascus (Ap.) terreus, five Uncinocarpus queenslandicus, two U. reesii, two Ap. pinarensis, one Amauroascus kuehnii, one Ar. simii, one Gymnoascus petalosporus, one Microsporum gallinae, and 28 Chrysosporium-like (Chrysosporium spp.) isolates, which were identified using internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The predominant fungal species in the mainland was Ap. terreus and that in the Nansei Islands was Ar. multifidum. Pathogenic fungal species to humans and animals were limited to M. gallinae and Ar. simii, which corresponded to 0.025 % of the isolates in this study.

  11. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, Erika B; Jayanegara, Anuraga

    2015-03-01

    Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control), CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea), CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses), CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content) and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum). Analysis of proximate and Van Soest's fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates). Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration) was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg) with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates). Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (pCAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05) of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01) with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05). It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the nutritive value of cocoa pod.

  12. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively.

  13. Optimization and kinetics evaluation of biodegradation of synthetic azo reactive dye by fungal consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, V; Sivakumar, V

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater containing direct dyes discharged from various industries, in particular, textile industry, often cause many environmental problems. Among the various effluent treatment methods, biological methods found to be cost effective and do not end up in secondary pollutants. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the decolorization of cibacron yellow S-3R, an azo reactive dye by using fungal cultures such as Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Myrothecium verrucaria. The fungi were able to decolorize individually the azo reactive dye cibacron yellow S-3R to an extent of nearly in the range 75 - 85%, whereas the mixed fungal consortium was able to decolorize to an extent of nearly 95%.The study is extended with the kinetics of decolorization of Cibacron yellow S-3R using mixed fungal consortium containing equal proportions of the cultures. The experimental results show that decolorization kinetics follow second order rate equation.

  14. The use of white-rot fungi as active biofilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.; Huettermann, A. [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Forstbotanisches Inst.

    1995-12-31

    White-rot fungi, growing on lignocellulosic substrates, have been successfully used as active organisms in biofilters. Filters using these fungi have a very high biological active surface area, allowing for high degrees of retention, a comparatively low pressure drop, and a high physical stability. The unspecific action of the extracellular enzymes of the white-rot fungi allows for the degradation of a wide variety of substances by the same organism. Degradation of several compounds in the gas phase by the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bjerkandera adusta, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was tested. Among the aromatic solvents, styrene was the compound that was most readily degraded, followed by ethylbenzene, xylenes, and toluene. Tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane were also degraded, whereas dioxane could not be attacked by fungi under the conditions used. Acrylonitrile and aniline were degraded very well, whereas pyridine was resistant to degradation. The process for removing styrene is now in the scaling-up stage.

  15. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microflora and combinations of white-rot fungi in a coal-tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canet, R.; Birnstingl, J.G.; Malcolm, D.G.; Lopez-Real, J.M.; Beck, A.J. [Inst. of Valenciano Invest. Agency, Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Four white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium IMI 232175, Pleurotus ostreatus from the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection IMI 341687, Coriolus versicolor IMI210866 and Wye isolate No. 7) and all possible combinations of two or more of these fungi, were incubated in microcosms containing wheat straw and non-sterile coal-tar contaminated soil to determine their potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biotic and abiotic controls were prepared similarly and PAH concentrations remaining in each microcosm were determined after 8, 16 and 32 weeks by GC-MS following extraction with dichloromethane. The greatest PAH losses were in the biotic control. Soil cultures prepared at the end of the experiment showed that though introduced fungi were still alive, they were unable to thrive and degrade PAH in such a highly contaminated soil and remained in a metabolically inactive form.

  16. Microfungi in the soil beneath common oak and their effect on Armillaria occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microfungal assemblages in a soil beneath 30- and 50·year-old oaks and their 2-year-old stumps were studied using the soil dilution plate method. A total of 98 culturable microfungi were isolated. Compared to the living oaks before felling and the control living oaks, the density of Mortierella macrocystis, Penicillium jonczewskii, Pseudogymnoascus roseus Sporothrix schenckii, Tolypoccladiumum inflatum and Umbelopsis vinacea sigificantly inacased in the soil beneath slumps in the 32- and 52-year-old stands. Density of Aspergillus kanagawaensis, Monodictys lepraria, P. daleae and sterile dematiaceous hyphomycetes increased significantly in the 32-year-old stand and Chrysosporium merdarium in the 52·year-old stand. These fungi are known 'stimulants' of Armillaria rhizomorph formation. It is suggested that the increase in density of Armillaria rhizomorph 'stimulants' in a soil beneath oak stumps may increase the possibility of colonization of stumps by Armillaria.

  17. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process proceeded by in-situ cellulolytic enzyme induction enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose from corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides). The yeast fermentation of hydrolyzate yielded 7.1, 8.6 and 4.1 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest corn-to-ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol/100 g corn fiber) was equivalent to 42 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. Cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities of these fungi were also investigated over a week long solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber. G. trabeum had the highest activities for starch (160 mg glucose/mg protein.min) and on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. P. chrysosporium had the highest activity for xylan (119 mg xylose/mg protein.min) on day five and carboxymethyl cellulose (35 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. T. reesei showed the highest activity for Sigma cell 20 (54.8 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day 5 of solid-substrate fermentation. The effect of different pretreatments on SSF of corn fiber by fungal processes was examined. Corn fiber was treated at 30 °C for 2 h with alkali [2% NaOH (w/w)], alkaline peroxide [2% NaOH (w/w) and 1% H2O 2 (w/w)], and by steaming at 100 °C for 2 h. Mild pretreatment resulted in improved ethanol yields for brown- and soft-rot SSF, while white-rot and Spezyme CP SSFs showed

  18. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Robin A; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-11-01

    Woody plants convert the energy of the sun into lignocellulosic biomass, which is an abundant substrate for bioenergy production. Fungi, especially wood decayers from the class Agaricomycetes, have evolved ways to degrade lignocellulose into its monomeric constituents, and understanding this process may facilitate the development of biofuels. Over the past decade genomics has become a powerful tool to study the Agaricomycetes. In 2004 the first sequenced genome of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed a rich catalog of lignocellulolytic enzymes. In the decade that followed the number of genomes of Agaricomycetes grew to more than 75 and revealed a diversity of wood-decaying strategies. New technologies for high-throughput functional genomics are now needed to further study these organisms.

  19. Investigation of keratinophilic fungi from soils in western Australia a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, R

    1980-11-28

    In order to determine which species of geophilic dermatophytes were present in Western Australian soils 299 samples were investigated. These samples were collected from a range of locations, 208 towns throughout the state and 91 samples from the Perth Metropolitan area. Most samples were collected from areas frequented by people and animals, such as home gardens, parks and animal yards. Of the total 299 soils, 271 (90.6%) yielded keratinophilic fungi. A total of 181 dermatophytes were isolated, and there were 205 isolations of other keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum (30.7%) was the most prevalent dermatophyte recovered from soil followed by Microsporum cookei (21.7%) and then Trichophyton ajelloi (8.0%). No other dermatophytes were recovered. Chrysosporium indicum was the most common of all the keratinophilic fungi and was isolated from 50.1% of the samples. Mixed growth was obtained from 33.5% of the soil samples.

  20. Utilization of a chemical-mechanical pulp with improved properties from poplar wood in the composition of packing papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonov, I.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to obtain a chemical-mechanical pulp (CMP from poplar wood with improved properties, to be used in packing papers in place of more expensive softwood or hardwood pulp. For improving the CMP quality indicators, a preliminary treatment of the pulp has been carried out with a mixture of oxidizing enzymes produced from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase. The two types of fiber materials obtained were double-stage bleached and then ground to 30oSR. It was found that preliminary enzyme treatment yielded CMP with improved physical, mechanical, and optical properties. The enzyme-pretreated CMP also refined faster, thus reducing the electricity consumption. Bleached CMP from poplar wood, obtained after preliminary enzyme treatment, could be successfully utilized at levels up to 40% in the composition of various packaging papers.

  1. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with ligninolytic enzyme for high efficient enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Qin; Xie, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wang, En-Tao; Du, Feng-Guang; Song, An-Dong

    2013-09-01

    Aiming at increasing the efficiency of transferring corn stover into sugars, a biological pretreatment was developed and investigated in this study. The protocol was characterized by the pretreatment with crude ligninolytic enzymes from Phanerochete chrysosporium and Coridus versicolor to break the lignin structure in corn stover, followed by a washing procedure to eliminate the inhibition of ligninolytic enzyme on cellulase. By a 2 d-pretreatment, sugar yield from corn stover hydrolysis could be increased by 50.2% (up to 323 mg/g) compared with that of the control. X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR analysis revealed that biological pretreatment could partially remove the lignin of corn stover, and consequently enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose and hemeicellulose. In addition, the amount of microbial inhibitors, such as acetic acid and furfural, were much lower in biological pretreatment than that in acid pretreatment. This study provided a promising pretreatment method for biotransformation of corn stovers.

  2. Biological liquefaction characteristics of Jurassic weak & non-stick coal in Hengshan, North Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Mei-li; CHEN Hong-gui; JIANG Su-rong

    2008-01-01

    Jurassic weak & non-stick coal in Hengshan of North Shaanxi Province waspretreated by the nitric acid. Then, it was biodegraded by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.The biodegradation role of the white-rot fungus for coal is extremely significant. Orthogo-nal test demonstrate that liquefied time, liquefaction temperature and the amount of fun-gus liquids etc. are the main factors affecting the coal biodegradation rate. The best tech-nical condition of the coal biological liquefaction was got. Comparing the coal sample be-fore biodegradation with that after biodegradation, it is found that the ash of the coal resi-due after biodegradation reduces significantly, H and O contents increase, C and N con-tents decrease. The biodegradation change the coal macromolecular structure.

  3. Isolation and properties of xyloglucanases of Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyna, O A; Fedorova, E A; Pravilnikov, A G; Rozhkova, A M; Skomarovsky, A A; Matys, V Yu; Bubnova, T M; Okunev, O N; Vinetsky, Yu P; Sinitsyn, A P

    2010-01-01

    Using chromatographic technique, xyloglucanase (XG) A (25 kDa, pI 3.5, 12th glycosyl hydrolase family) was isolated from the enzyme complex secreted by the mycelial fungus Penicillium canescens, and xyloglucanases XG 25 (25 kDa, pI 4.1, 12th glycosyl hydrolase family) and XG 70 (70 kDa, pI 3.5, 74th glycosyl hydrolase family) were isolated from the enzyme complex of Penicillium verruculosum. Properties of the isolated enzymes (substrate specificity, optimal ranges of pH and temperature for enzyme activity and stability, effect of metal ions on catalytic activity) were compared with the properties of xyloglucanases XG 32 of Aspergillus japonicus, XG 78 of Chrysosporium lucknowense, and XG of Trichoderma reesei. The gene xegA encoding XG A of P. canescens was isolated, and the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein was determined.

  4. Wastewater Treatment for Removal of Recalcitrant Compounds:A Hybrid Process for Decolorization and Biodegradation of Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolyn Palma; Andrea Carvajal; Carlos Vasquez; Elsa Contreras

    2011-01-01

    While conventional wastewater treatments for urban effluents are fairly routine and have proved highly effective,industrial wastewater requires more complex and specific treatments.This paper provides a technological strategy for removal of recalcitrant contaminants based on a hybrid treatment system.The model effluent containing a binary mixture of synthetic dyes is treated by a combination of a preliminary physicochemical stage followed by a biological stage based on ligninolytic enzymes produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.This proposal includes biosorption onto peat as pretreatment,which decreases the volume and concentration to be treated in the biological reactor,thereby obtaining a completely decolorized effluent.The treated wastewater can therefore be reused in the dyeing baths with the consequent saving of water resources.

  5. The GSTome Reflects the Chemical Environment of White-Rot Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Deroy

    Full Text Available White-rot fungi possess the unique ability to degrade and mineralize all the different components of wood. In other respects, wood durability, among other factors, is due to the presence of extractives that are potential antimicrobial molecules. To cope with these molecules, wood decay fungi have developed a complex detoxification network including glutathione transferases (GST. The interactions between GSTs from two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and an environmental library of wood extracts have been studied. The results demonstrate that the specificity of these interactions is closely related to the chemical composition of the extracts in accordance with the tree species and their localization inside the wood (sapwood vs heartwood vs knotwood. These data suggest that the fungal GSTome could reflect the chemical environment encountered by these fungi during wood degradation and could be a way to study their adaptation to their way of life.

  6. Sorption of heavy metals by four basidiomycetous fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, S. [Biotechnology Programme, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India); Rao, P.R.N. [Environmental Engineering Lab., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India); Bhattacharyya, B.C. [Biotechnology Programme, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [Environmental Engineering Lab., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India)

    1995-04-01

    Biosorptions of Pb{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} were investigated, with special emphasis on the first one, using live and dead fungal mycelia. Of the four fungi, namely Polyporus ostreiformis, Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the last one was found to be most effective in Pb{sup 2+} removal. Total biosorption was effected in 6 days up to the Pb{sup 2+} concentration of 6 mg/l, with a specific uptake of 1.33 mg Pb{sup 2+}/g dry cell mass. The removal of other three metals varied between 28.8-73.3% from a medium containing 4 mg/l of each of the metals. (orig.)

  7. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Nancy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Jon H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kingsley, Mark T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Karen L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  9. Microbial dynamics and enzyme activities during rapid composting of municipal solid waste - a compost maturity analysis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, M P; Prince William, S P M; Bhattacharyya, J K; Chakrabarti, T; Devotta, S

    2008-09-01

    An investigation was carried out in the laboratory to find out the microbial dynamics and enzyme activities during rapid composting of municipal solid waste (MSW). Various treatments such as aeration (A), addition of chemical agents (glucose (G) and acetic acid (AA) and application of cellulolytic microbial (M) inoculum (Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma reesei) were used to facilitate the decomposition of MSW. The result of the present investigation revealed that the degradation of organic substrates were quick (within 9-12 days) in case of rapid composting as indicated by the reduction (below 20) in C/N ratio. Whereas, normal composting took more than 20 days to attain C/N ratio of below 20. Estimation of selected enzymes (amylase, protease, phosphatase and cellulase) provided information on the substrate specific degradation profiles of various labile substrates contained in organic waste.

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis and characterization of waste lignocellulosic biomass produced after dye bioremediation under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Pankajkumar R; Kadam, Avinash A; Saratale, Ganesh D; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2014-09-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) adsorbes 60% Reactive Blue172 (RB172). Providensia staurti EbtSPG able to decolorize SCB adsorbed RB172 up to 99% under solid state fermentation (SSF). The enzymatic saccharification efficiency of waste biomass after bioremediation of RB172 process (ddSCB) has been evaluated. The cellulolyitc crude enzyme produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium used for enzymatic hydrolysis of native SCB and ddSCB which produces 0.08 and 0.3 g/L of reducing sugars respectively after 48 h of incubation. The production of hexose and pentose sugars during hydrolysis was confirmed by HPTLC. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on SCB and ddSCB has been evaluated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. Thus, during dye biodegradation under SSF causes biological pretreatment of SCB which significantly enhanced its enzymatic saccharification. Adsorption of dye on SCB, its bioremediation under SSF produces wastes biomass and which further utilized for enzymatic saccharification for biofuel production.

  11. Pengaruh Penambahan Jamur Pelapuk Putih (White Rot Fungi pada Proses Pengomposan Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Nasrul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Composting is nowadays a general treatment method for agriculture waste such as empty fruit bunch. This research article reported the composting process of the empty fruit bunches. The effect of addition of white rot fungi (Phanerochaete Chrysosporium as an activator on composting product was studied. Experiment results indicated that white rot fungi is a good activator to improve degradation process of the empty fruit bunch become an organic fertilizer. White rot fungi has capable to increase composting period become shorter in compare with original composting without addition of white rot fungi. The organic fertilizer product as regulation issued by the Standar Nasional Indonesia (NSI can be achieved in duration of 3 months, while for original process without addition of white rot fungi longer degradation time is necessary. Keyword: Composting, empty fruit bunch, white rot fungi

  12. Evaluation of two conservation methods of filamentous fungal oil palm pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Ladino Rey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research about filamentous fungal oil palm pathogens is as essential for the maintenance and the sustainability of the crop as the conservation of these identified fungi itself because it allows its uses for former researches or as a guide for identify fungi through time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two methods of conservation, one of them in three times sterilized distilled water (ADTE and with Glicerol 10 %. By four months, with a monthly review of fungi isolated from plant tissue palm oil affected by Aspergillus sp., Chrysosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. Six of the seven fungi strains conserved were successfully recovered from the Treatment with Glicerol 10 %, while five of the seven strains conserved ADTE were recovered after the four evaluation months of this study.

  13. Biological treatment with fungi of olive mill wastewater pre-treated by photocatalytic oxidation with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2015-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) still is a major environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic content (TPC), contributing for the high toxicity and recalcitrant nature. Several attempts have been made for developing more efficient treatment processes, but no chemical or biological approaches were found to be totally effective, especially in terms of toxicity reduction. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the treatability of OMW by the combination of photocatalytic oxidation, using two nanomaterials as catalysts (TiO2 and Fe2O3), with biological degradation by fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium). Photocatalytic oxidation was carried out using different systems, nano-TiO2/UV, nano-Fe2O3/UV, nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/H2O2/UV. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed through color (465nm), aromatics (270nm), COD and TPC reductions, as well as by the decrease in toxicity using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The chemical treatment with the system nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV promoted 43%, 14%, 38% and 31% reductions in color, aromatics content, COD and TPC, respectively. However no toxicity reduction was observed. The combination with a biological treatment increased the reduction of COD and TPC as well as a reduction in toxicity. The treatment with P. chrysosporium promoted the highest reduction in toxicity, but P. sajor caju was responsible for the best reduction in COD and TPC. However, the biological treatment was more effective when no hydrogen peroxide was used in the pre-treatment.

  14. 西藏拉萨河谷地土壤中的暗色丝孢菌%Soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Lhasa River Valley, Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿月华; 张天宇

    2010-01-01

    A total of 38 isolates of soil dernatiaceous hyphomycetes belonging to 25 species in 15 genera were obtained from 17 soil samples in the Lhasa River Valley. Among them, Gliomastix tibetensis, Monodictys tibetensis and Phialomyces microsporus are new species. Chrysosporium keratinophilum is a new record for China. The other 21 species previously known from China are also included.All descriptions and illustrations provided were based on Chinese isolates. The holotype and isotype specimens are deposited in the Herbarium of Sbandong Agricultural University: Plant Pathology (HSAUP) and the Herbarium Mycologieum, Academiae Sinicae (HMAS), respectively. The other specimens are kept in HSAUP.%从采自拉萨河谷地的17份土样中,分离获得38个暗色丝孢菌分离物,经鉴定分别属于15属中的25种,其中包括3个新种,即西藏粘鞭霉Gliomastix tibetensis,西藏单格孢Monodictys tibetensis和小孢瓶梗霉Phialomyces microsporus,1个中国新记录种嗜毛金色孢Chrysosporium keratinophilum.对新种和中国新记录种进行了描述和图示,对其他21个中国已报道种作了分离地点和生境的引证.主模式和等模式标本(干制培养物)分别保藏在山东农业大学植物病理学标本室(HSAUP)和中国科学院菌物标本馆(HMAS).其余研究过的标本(干制培养物)与活菌种保存在HSAUP.

  15. Effects of calmodulin on expression of lignin-modifying enzymes in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetomi, Takashi; Sakamoto, Takaiku; Tokunaga, Yoshitaka; Kameyama, Toru; Honda, Yoichi; Kamitsuji, Hisatoshi; Kameshita, Isamu; Izumitsu, Kousuke; Suzuki, Kazumi; Irie, Toshikazu

    2015-05-01

    Previously, we suppressed the expression of genes encoding isozymes of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) using a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor, W7, in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium; this suggested that CaM positively regulates their expression. Here, we studied the role of CaM in another white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus, which produces MnP and versatile peroxidase (VP), but not LiP. W7 upregulated Mn(2+)-dependent oxidation of guaiacol, suggesting that CaM negatively regulates the production of the enzymes. Suppression of CaM in P. ostreatus using RNAi also led to upregulation of enzyme activity, whereas overexpression of CaM in P. ostreatus caused downregulation. Real-time RT-PCR showed that MnP1-6 and VP3 levels in the CaM-knockdown strain were higher than those in the wild-type strain, while MnP-5 and -6 and VP1 and 2 levels in the CaM-overexpressing strain were lower than in the wild type. Moreover, we also found that another ligninolytic enzyme, laccase, which is not produced by P. chrysosporium, was negatively regulated by CaM in P. ostreatus similar to MnP and VP. Although overexpression of CaM did not reduce the ability of P. ostreatus to digest beech wood powder, the percentage of lignin remaining in the digest was slightly higher than in the wild-type strain digest.

  16. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, B.; Moe, W.M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kinney, K.A. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids (n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxii produced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. (orig.)

  17. Biodesulphurized subbituminous coal by different fungi and bacteria studied by reductive pyrolysis. Part 1: Initial coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Gonsalvesh; S.P. Marinov; M. Stefanova; Y. Yurum; A.G. Dumanli; G. Dinler-Doganay; N. Kolankaya; M. Sam; R. Carleer; G. Reggers; E. Thijssen; J. Yperman [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2008-09-15

    One of the perspective methods for clean solid fuels production is biodesulphurization. In order to increase the effect of this approach it is necessary to apply the advantages of more informative analytical techniques. Atmospheric pressure temperature programming reduction (AP-TPR) coupled with different detection systems gave us ground to attain more satisfactory explanation of the effects of biodesulphurization on the treated solid products. Subbituminous high sulphur coal from 'Pirin' basin (Bulgaria) was selected as a high sulphur containing sample. Different types of microorganisms were chosen and maximal desulphurization of 26% was registered. Biodesulphurization treatments were performed with three types of fungi: 'Trametes Versicolor' - ATCC No. 200801, 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' - ME446, Pleurotus Sajor-Caju and one Mixed Culture of bacteria - ATCC No. 39327. A high degree of inorganic sulphur removal (79%) with Mixed Culture of bacteria and consecutive reduction by 13% for organic sulphur (Sorg) decrease with 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' and 'Trametes Versicolor' were achieved. To follow the Sorg changes a set of different detection systems i.e. AP-TPR coupled 'on-line' with mass spectrometry (AP-TPR/MS), on-line with potentiometry (AP-TPR/pot) and by the 'off-line' AP-TPR/GC/MS analysis was used. The need of applying different atmospheres in pyrolysis experiments was proved and their effects were discussed. In order to reach more precise total sulphur balance, oxygen bomb combustion followed by ion chromatography was used. 28 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. 三种白腐菌及其组合菌种木质素降解酶比较研究%Comparative studies on lignin degradation enzymes produced by three species of white-rot fungi and combination of the strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段传人; 朱丽平; 姚月良

    2009-01-01

    朱红栓菌Trametes cinnabarina、糙皮侧耳Pleurotus ostreatus、黄孢原毛平革菌Phanerochaete chrysosporium是产生木质素降解酶能力强的菌株.对三种白腐菌及其组合菌种产生木质素降解酶能力和行为进行了比较分析和研究.结果表明,最佳培养方式为液体振荡培养;最佳培养基为酵母膏液体培养基.在产漆酶(laccases,lacs)方面,Pleurotus ostreatus和Phanerochaete chrysosporium的组合菌种的酶活最强,在第6天出现峰值,酶活达到450U/L;在产锰过氧化物酶(manganese peroxidases,maps)方面,Trametes cinnabarina和Pleurotus ostreatus的组合菌种的酶活最强,在第10天出现峰值,酶活达到1050U/L;在产木质素过氧化物酶(lignin peroxidases,lips)方面,Trametes cinnabarina和Phanerochaete chrysosporium的组合菌种的酶活最强,在第8天出现产酶峰值,酶活达到2990U/L.筛选结果表明,组合菌种比单菌种产生的三种主要木质素降解酶的活性强,这为白腐菌高效产酶提供了一条新的途径,并为白腐菌研究领域的后续工作奠定基础.%Trametes cinnabarina, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are high-yielding strains producing lignin degradation enzymes. Comparative studies on lignin degradation enzymes produced by these three species of white-rot fungi and combination of the swains were conducted. The results showed that liquid-shaking culture was the best culture method, yeast extract liquid medium was the best medium. As far as laccase (lacs) production was concerned, the enzyme activities of lacs produced by the combination of Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were the highest, reaching 450U/L on day 6; the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidases (mnps) produced by the combination of Trametes cinnabarina and Pleurotus ostreatus were the highest, reaching 1050U/L on day 10; the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidases (lips) produced by the combination of Trametes cinnabarina and

  19. Evaluation of the types of starch for preparation of LDPE/starch blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Maria Vinhas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated in relation the growth, and the amylolytic activity of mixed and isolated cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Talaromyces wortmanni on different types of starch. The thermal and mechanical properties in polyethylene/starch blends (proportion: 80/20 (w/w before and after inoculation of the mixed cultures were evaluated. The regular starch Amidex 3 and the modified starch Fox5901 stood out in relation to the cellular growth and production of the amylase enzyme. In spite of the short time that the blends were exposed to the fungi, the microorganisms promoted physical and chemical changes in the structure of the blend, modifying its thermal and mechanical properties. The alteration of the degree of crystallinity and mechanical properties of the blends could be indications of the modification caused by the biodegradation process.Nesse trabalho foi realizado um estudo sobre diferentes tipos de amido quanto ao crescimento, e a atividade amilolítica de culturas mistas e isoladas dos fungos Phanerochaete chrysosporium e Talaromyces wortmannii. Avaliaram-se também as propriedades térmicas e mecânicas das blendas de polietileno/amido anfótero (na proporção 80/20 (m/m antes e apos a inoculação das culturas mistas desses fungos.O amido regular Amidex 3 e o amido modificado Fox5901 foram os que se destacaram quanto ao crescimento celular e produção da enzima amilase. Apesar do pouco tempo de exposição dos filmes com os fungos, pode-se concluir que os microrganismos promovem mudanças físicas e químicas na estrutura da blenda, modificando suas propriedades térmicas e mecânicas. A alteração do grau de cristalinidade e das propriedades mecânicas das blendas podem ser indícios da modificação provocada pelo processo de biodegradação.

  20. Vegetal waste degradation by microbial strains inoculation Degradación de residuos vegetales mediante inoculación con cepas microbianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Grijalva Vallejos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/03/31 - Accepted: 2013/06/02Vegetal waste treatment product of urban, agricultural and industrial processes has severaltechnical problems and constitutes a significant environmental concern. Among them are thepersistence of crop protection products in high concentrations in plant material and the lack ofmicroorganisms that can tolerate such compounds and efficiently decompose the substrate.Bacteria and mainly white rot fungi are the main decomposers of lignin because of their ability tosynthesize extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes in large quantities. Trichodermareesei, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium strains are modelstrains whose hight degradation efficiency with lignocellulose materials even in the presence ofpollutants has been proven. Several studies such as directed mutagenesis, co-culturing andheterologous expression have been done in order to improve the content of some enzymes(cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase in model strains, additionally it has been done newgenetic searches to find other microorganisms with this potential. Its main applications are theindustrial production of ethanol and some seconday metabolites under controlled conditions infermentation processes. This review provides an overview about strategies and methodologiescurrently used for vegetal waste utilization by inoculation of microbial strains.(Recibido: 2013/03/31 - Aceptado: 2013/06/02El tratamiento de los residuos vegetales producto de desechos urbanos, procesos agrícolas eindustriales enfrenta varios problemas técnicos y constituye una preocupación ambientalimportante. Entre ellos se destacan la permanencia de productos fitosanitarios en altasconcentraciones en el material vegetal unido a la carencia de microorganismos que puedantolerar dichos compuestos y logren descomponer eficientemente el sustrato. Las bacterias yprincipalmente los hongos de la podredumbre blanca son los mejores

  1. Systematic identification and evolutionary analysis of catalytically versatile cytochrome p450 monooxygenase families enriched in model basidiomycete fungi.

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    Khajamohiddin Syed

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to identify such P450s in model basidiomycete fungi showing a preference for different types of plant components degradation. Any P450 family comprising a large number of member P450s compared to other P450 families indicates its natural selection over other P450 families by its important role in fungal physiology. Genome-wide comparative P450 analysis in the basidiomycete species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete carnosa, Agaricus bisporus, Postia placenta, Ganoderma sp. and Serpula lacrymans, revealed enrichment of 11 P450 families (out of 68 P450 families, CYP63, CYP512, CYP5035, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5141, CYP5144, CYP5146, CYP5150, CYP5348 and CYP5359. Phylogenetic analysis of the P450 family showed species-specific alignment of P450s across the P450 families with the exception of P450s of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete carnosa, suggesting paralogous evolution of P450s in model basidiomycetes. P450 gene-structure analysis revealed high conservation in the size of exons and the location of introns. P450s with the same gene structure were found tandemly arranged in the genomes of selected fungi. This clearly suggests that extensive gene duplications, particularly tandem gene duplications, led to the enrichment of selective P450 families in basidiomycetes. Functional analysis and gene expression profiling data suggest that members of the P450 families are catalytically versatile and possibly involved in fungal colonization of plant

  2. Effects of pH and Temperature on Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase Production and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei; Kongsaeree, Puapong; Schilke, Karl; Lajoie, Curtis; Kelly, Christine

    The enzyme manganese peroxidase (MnP) is produced by numerous white-rot fungi to overcome biomass recalcitrance caused by lignin. MnP acts directly on lignin and increases access of the woody structure to synergistic wood-degrading enzymes such as cellulases and xylanases. Recombinant MnP (rMnP) can be produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris αMnP1-1 in fed-batch fermentations. The effects of pH and temperature on recombinant manganese peroxidase (rMnP) production by P. pastoris αMnP1-1 were investigated in shake flask and fed-batch fermentations. The optimum pH and temperature for a standardized fed-batch fermentation process for rMnP production in P. pastoris ctMnP1-1 were determined to be pH 6 and 30 °C, respectively. P. pastoris αMnP1-1 constitutively expresses the manganese peroxidase (mnp1) complementary DNA from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and the rMnP has similar kinetic characteristics and pH activity and stability ranges as the wild-type MnP (wtMnP). Cultivation of P. chrysosporium mycelia in stationary flasks for production of heme peroxidases is commonly conducted at low pH (pH 4.2). However, shake flask and fed-batch fermentation experiments with P. pastoris αMnP1-1 demonstrated that rMnP production is highest at pH 6, with rMnP concentrations in the medium declining rapidly at pH less than 5.5, although cell growth rates were similar from pH 4-7. Investigations of the cause of low rMnP production at low pH were consistent with the hypothesis that intracellular proteases are released from dead and lysed yeast cells during the fermentation that are active against rMnP at pH less than 5.5.

  3. Characterisation of recombinant pyranose oxidase from the cultivated mycorrhizal basidiomycete Lyophyllum shimeji (hon-shimeji

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    Yamabhai Montarop

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flavin-dependent enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox has gained increased attention during the last years because of a number of attractive applications for this enzyme. P2Ox is a unique biocatalyst with high potential for biotransformations of carbohydrates and in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. Recently, it was shown that P2Ox is useful as bioelement in biofuel cells, replacing glucose oxidase (GOx, which traditionally is used in these applications. P2Ox offers several advantages over GOx for this application, e.g., its much broader substrate specificity. Because of this renewed interest in P2Ox, knowledge on novel pyranose oxidases isolated from organisms other than white-rot fungi, which represent the traditional source of this enzyme, is of importance, as these novel enzymes might differ in their biochemical and physical properties. Results We isolated and over-expressed the p2ox gene encoding P2Ox from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Lyophyllum shimeji. The p2ox cDNA was inserted into the bacterial expression vector pET21a(+ and successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta 2. We obtained active, flavinylated recombinant P2Ox in yields of approximately 130 mg per L of medium. The enzyme was purified by a two-step procedure based on anion exchange chromatography and preparative native PAGE, yielding an apparently homogenous enzyme preparation with a specific activity of 1.92 U/mg (using glucose and air oxygen as the substrates. Recombinant P2Ox from L. shimeji was characterized in some detail with respect to its physical and catalytic properties, and compared to the well-characterised enzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes multicolor. Conclusion L. shimeji P2Ox shows properties that are comparable to those of P2Ox from white-rot fungal origin, and is in general characterised by lower Km and kcat values both for electron donor (sugar as well as electron acceptor (ferrocenium ion, 1,4-benzoquinone, 2

  4. A biodegradabilidade da blenda de poli(β-Hidroxibutirato-co-Valerato/amido anfótero na presença de microrganismos The Biodegradation of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate/amphiprotic starch in the presence of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjane S. Coelho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento do consumo de plásticos vem gerando grandes problemas ambientais, pois um polímero, uma vez descartado no ambiente, necessita de mais de cem anos para se degradar. O plástico ideal deve apresentar propriedades industriais desejáveis e, ao mesmo tempo ser degradável num período considerado satisfatório. Busca-se desenvolver plásticos com boas propriedades para embalagens e que possam ser biodegradados quando descartados ao ambiente. Neste trabalho avaliamos a biodegradação da blenda do copolímero poli(β-hidroxibutirato-co-valerato, PHB-HV, que é um termoplástico natural, biodegradável e biocompatível, e do amido anfótero, na proporção de 75 e 25% m/m, respectivamente. Os resultados foram obtidos através do teste de Sturm, uma metodologia para a avaliação da biodegradação na presença de uma cultura mista dos fungos Phanerochaete chrysosporium e Talaromyces wortmannii. Os resultados evidenciam a biodegradação da blenda em função do tempo, de acordo com os resultados do teste de Sturm, com o aparecimento de grupos carboxílicos terminais. Foi detectado também o aparecimento de nova simetria cristalina na estrutura polimérica.The increasing consumption of plastics has generated environmental problems because it takes more than a hundred years for a discarded polymer to degrade. The ideal plastic should present desirable industrial properties and be degradable within a satisfactory time period. Researches is conducted to plastics with good properties for packaging, but that are biodegradable when discarded to the environment. In this work we evaluated the biodegradation of the blend of the copolymer poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate, PHB-HV, which is a natural, biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic, and of the starch amphiprotic, in the proportion of 75 and 25% m/m, respectively. The results were obtained through the Sturm test, a methodology for the evaluation of biodegradation in the presence

  5. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  6. Decomposição fúngica de ácido tânico e outros compostos em efluente agroindustrial = Fungic decomposition of tannic acid and other compounds from agri-industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalino Perovano Filho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante o processamento da matéria-prima da indústria sucroalcooleira, gerase grande quantidade de efluentes com qualidades que impossibilitam seu lançamento em corpos de água sem o tratamento prévio. A biorremediação é usada para decompor resíduos orgânicos até um estado inócuo ou abaixo da concentração limite da legislação, tendo os fungos papel muito importante nessa estratégia por secretarem enzimas hidrolíticas. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o comportamento de fungos isolados de resíduos da estação de tratamento de efluentes de uma indústria sucroalcooleira frente à degradação de fenóis como o ácido tânico e de outros compostos de efluentes agroindustriais suplementados com nutrientes específicos. Dentre diferentes isolados, aqueles identificados como Aspergillus sp.e Cladosporium sp. apresentaram as melhores taxas de produção de enzimas degradadoras de ácido tânico, como a lacase, por exemplo, enquanto Mucor sp. foi o que melhor removeu a Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO e o conteúdo de fenóis totais, seguido por Cladosporium sp., Phanerochaeta chrysosporium e Geotrichum candidum.During the processing of raw materials from the sugar-alcohol industry, large quantities of wastewater is produced, which is inappropriate to release into water bodies without previous suitable treatment. The bioremediation is used to decompose organic waste until an innocuous condition or to a concentration below the limit under legislation; moreover fungi have very important role in this strategy due to the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. In the present study, we evaluated the behavior of fungi isolated from residuals of the waste treatment station from a sugar-alcohol industry in faceto the phenols degradation, as tannic acid and other compounds of agri-industrial wastewater supplemented with specific nutrients. Among different fungi, those identified as Aspergillus sp. and Cladosporium sp. presented the best rates of

  7. Biodegradation of Aged Residues of Atrazine and Alachlor in a Mix-Load Site Soil by Fungal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia E. M. Chirnside

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils from bulk pesticide mixing and loading (mix-load sites are often contaminated with a complex mixture of pesticides, herbicides, and other organic compounds used in pesticide formulations that limits the success of remediation efforts. Therefore, there is a need to find remediation strategies that can successfully clean up these mix-load site soils. This paper examined the degradation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-triazine; AT and alachlor (2-chloro-2, 6-diethyl-N-[methoxymethyl]-acetanilide in contaminated mix-load site soil utilizing an extracellular fungal enzyme solution derived from the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, grown in a packed bed bioreactor. Thirty-two percent of AT and 54% of AL were transformed in the biometers. The pseudo first-order rate constant for AT and AL biodegradation was 0.0882 d−1 and 0.2504 d−1, respectively. The half-life (1/2 for AT and AL was 8.0 and 3.0 days, respectively. Compared to AT, the initial disappearance of AL proceeded at a faster rate and resulted in a greater amount of AL transformed. Based on the net Co2 evolved from the biometers, about 4% of the AT and AL initially present in the soil was completely mineralized.

  8. Evolution of several soil properties following amendment with olive mill wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Mekki; Abdelhafidh Dhouib; Sami Sayadi

    2009-01-01

    Occurrences of olive mill wastewater (OMW) amendment on several chemical and biochemical properties of soil were investigated. Compared to the control, soils amended with untreated and treated OMW (by an integrated process based on aerobic fungal pre-treat-ment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSMZ 6909 followed by anaerobic treatment) showed high levels of organic and mineral mat-ters. Soil amended with untreated OMW presented low levels of total and inorganic nitrogen (0.38 and 0.08 mg g~(-1) dry soil). Treated OMW contained little content of pollutants (COD=4 gl~(-1); phenolic compounds=0.6 gl~(-1)); so, organic matter brought by these res-idues was rapidly mineralized in the soil. The number of heterotrophic bacteria was increased (from 54×10~5 CFU g~(-1) dry soil in control soil to 123×10~5 CFU g~(-1) dry soil) in response to the OMW amendment, mainly after C/N ratio correction. Untreated OMW applica-tion improved the soil carbon content (2.18 times higher), while the specific respiration remained very low. However, the treated OMW application positively affected the soil-specific respiration that increased from 6.1 in control soil to 9.75 in soil amended with treated OMW. This phenomenon was accompanied by an enhancement of nitrifiers number, urease and ammonium oxidases activities.

  9. EDXRF Analysis of Some Fungal Species for the Uptake Capacity of 28Ni, 48Cd, and 82Pb Metal Ions From Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL KUMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF analysis of eight fungi species, namely, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma fasciculatum, Penicillin Janthinellum, Aspergillus awamori, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Rhizopus arrhizus for the uptake capacity of 28Ni, 48Cd, and 82Pb metals ions from aqueous solution have been reported. Fungal samples having superior ion removal capacity through bioaccumulation and biosorption were obtained from sites contaminated with heavy metals. The detection limit in EDXRF set up was improved considerably using selective absorbers in the path of incident photons from the X-ray tube to reduce the background in the desired energy region. It has been observed that all fungi species under present study have greater affinity for 82Pb ions as compared to 28Ni and 48Cd metal ions. The Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Trichoderma fasciculatum fungi species were identified to be more efficient for removal of heavy metal ions from waste water. The measured uptake capacity of Trichoderma longibrachiatum for 28Ni, 48Cd, and 82Pb ions from aqueous solution is 0.52 mg/g, 0.97 mg/g, and 6.4 mg/g, respectively, and for Trichoderma fasciculatum it is 0.43 mg/g, 0.79 mg/g, and 3.5 mg/g, respectively. This indicated the potential of these identified fungi species as biosorbent for removal of high metal ions from waste water and industrial effluents.

  10. Degradation of linuron in soil by two fungal strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Gordana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fungal strains were applied to soil polluted with herbicide in order to determine their degradation potential. Three experimental setups were used. In the first setup, the soil in pots was contaminated by linuron in final concentration of 1 ppm. Suspensions of Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Trichoderma asperellum were applied sepa­rately or in combination. Tomato plantlets were transplanted and chlorophyll content in their leaves was determined at two time points during plant growth. In the second setup in pots, the final concentration of linuron was lower, 0.45 ppm. In the third setup 0.1 ppm of linuron was applied in the field plot. Plantlets of lettuce were transplanted and chlorophyll content was measured as indicator of plant stress. The content of linuron in soil was determined by HPLC. The applied fungal strains significantly reduced toxic effect of 0.45 ppm linuron on plants, which was not the case for 1 ppm linuron. Both fungi, applied separately or in combination, were effective in decreasing the linuron content in the soil. However, in field conditions the combination of both fungi was the most effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010

  11. Multiple roles for lignin peroxidases in the biodegradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A.; Chang, C.W.; Tatarko, M. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The wood-rotting fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade a wide variety of environmentally-persistent organic pollutants to carbon dioxide. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus are due, in part, to lignin peroxidases, oxidative enzymes that are secreted in response to nutrient deprivation. Lignin peroxidases catalyze the initial oxidation of many of the organic pollutants that are degraded by this fungus. They also mediate the initial oxidation of N,N,N{prime},N{prime},N{double_prime},N{double_prime}-hexamethylpararosaniline, several azo dyes and certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Lignin peroxidases also mediate oxidative dechlorination. For example, lignin peroxidases oxidize pentachlorophenol to 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione. Similarly, these enzymes mediate oxidative oligomerization of 4-chloroaniline, resulting in production of several dimers, trimers and tetramers and net dechlorination of the aromatic ring. Interestingly, many, but not all, of the reactions mediated by lignin peroxidases are also mediated by other plant, fungal and oxidation of an intermediate. In the case of phenanthrene degradation, lignin peroxidases do not mediate the initial oxidation. However, these enzymes do mediate the oxidation of 9-phenanthrol, forming phenanthrene-9,10-dione. 92 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Adiaspiromicose pulmonar humana novo caso da forma disseminada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário A. P. Moraes

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available E apresentado um caso de adiaspiromícose pulmonar disseminada, em paciente oriundo de Corrente, Estado do Piauí. Trata-se do segundo caso dessa forma clínica diagnosticado no Distrito Federal. As manifestações principais consistiram em febre, calafrios, tosse e dispnéia. Com dez meses da doença, veio o paciente à consulta, motivado por exacerbação dos sintomas ocorrida cerca de dois meses antes. Após toracotomia direita, numerosas lesões nodulares, brancas, miiiares, aparecem disseminadas por toda a superfície exposta do órgão. O exame microscópico de um fragmento do pulmão permitiu reconhecer-se a presença de microabscessos e granulomas, alguns contendo no seu interior estruturas redondas, queforam identificadas como adiaconidios de Chrysosporium parvum var. crescens. O aspecto variado das lesões foi considerado por representar estádios evolutivos diferentes do processo inflamatório, estando a variação ligada a inóculos diversos do fungo, separados no tempo. Admite-se que a exacerbação, referida pelo paciente, resultou de uma nova exposição ao fungo, sugerida pela existência de lesões recentes, de natureza supurativa, entre outras, de aspecto granulomatoso, tidas como mais antigas.

  13. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  14. SACCHARIFICATION BY FUNGI AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY BACTERIA USING LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Ajeet Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic material is one of the most abundant, renewable and inexpensive energy resources for bioethanol production. These materials are mainly composed of three groups of polymers namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sugar rich fractions of interest for use in fermentation processes such as ethanol production. Cellulase production by the different fungi like Trichoderma reesei (MTCC-4876, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (MTCC-787 and Aspergillus awamori (MTCC-6652 were studied using different substrates (rice straw, wheat straw and rice husk by keeping the concentration constant at 5g/ 150 ml. The subculture medium was a salt solution consisting of KH2PO4, CaCl2, etc. Fungal cells were sub-cultured in an orbital shaker (180 rpm at 30°C for 1-2 generations (two days for each generation and were then used as inoculums. The maximum cellulase production and saccharification observed in the presence of combination of fungi with treated rice straw. Further Zymomonas mobilis bacteria was used for carrying out fermentation of sugars to ethanol production. Among the three raw materials studied the ethanol yield was observed to be the highest in rice straw ( 9.5 g/l .

  15. Solid-state fermentation of rice straw residues for its use as growing medium in ornamental nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B.; El-Mahrouk, M. E.

    2010-11-01

    This work was conducted at a private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate to investigate the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma hazianum and the possibility of using rice straw compost in ornamental nurseries as a partial or total replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing medium. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation. The authors used five mixtures as follows: (1) Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), (2) SLS (100%), (3) SLS+CP (1:1 v/v), (4) SLS+V (1:1 v/v), and (5) SLS+CP+V (1:1:1 v/v/v). Data were recorded as seedling height, no. of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of Althea rosea (hollyhock) and Calendula officinalis (scotch marigold). Hollyhock seedlings grown in medium containing a mixture of SLS+CP+V displayed quality traits similar to those recorded from the control treatment, while scotch marigold seedlings in the same medium followed the control medium in quality.

  16. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  17. Accumulation and degradation of dead-end metabolites during treatment of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with five strains of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B.E. [Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund Univ. (Sweden); Henrysson, T. [Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor PRL 572, Trametes versicolor MUCL 28407, Pleurotus ostreatus MUCL 29527, Pleurotus sajor-caju MUCL 29757 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM 1556 were investigated for their ability to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) anthracene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a, h]anthracene in soil. The fungi were grown on wheat straw and mixed with artificially contaminated soil. The results of this study show that, in a heterogeneous soil environment, the fungi have different abilities to degrade PAH, with Trametes showing little or no accumulation of dead-end metabolites and Phanerochaete and Pleurotus showing almost complete conversion of anthracene to 9,10-anthracenedione. In contrast to earlier studies, Phanerochaete showed the ability to degrade the accumulated 9,10-anthracenedione while Pleurotus did not. This proves that, in a heterogeneous soil system, the PAH degradation pattern for white-rot fungi can be quite different from that in a controlled liquid system. (orig.)

  18. Microsomal transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Juan; Valderrama, Brenda; Albores, Arnulfo; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2003-12-01

    The enzymatic mechanism for the transformation of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) by different white-rot fungi strains was studied. With the exception of Ganoderma applanatum 8168, all strains from a collection of 17 different fungi cultures were able to deplete parathion. Three strains showing the highest activities were selected for further studies: Bjerkandera adusta 8258, Pleurotus ostreatus 7989 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium 3641. These strains depleted 50 to 96% of terbufos, azinphos-methyl, phosmet and tribufos after four-days exposure to the pesticides. In order to identify the cellular localization of the transformation activity, the extracellular and microsomal fractions of Pleuronts ostreatus 7989 were evaluated in vitro. While the activities of ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase) were detected in the extracellular fraction, no enzymatic modification of any of the five pesticides tested could be found, suggesting the intracellular origin of the transformation activity. In accordance with this observation the microsomal fraction was found able to transform three OPPs with the following rates: 10 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for phosmet, 5.7 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for terbufos, and 2.2 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for azinphos-methyl. The products from these reactions and from the transformation of trichlorfon and malathion, were identified by mass-spectrometry. These results, supported by specific inhibition experiments and the stringent requirement for NADPH during the in vitro assays suggest the involvement of a cytochrome P450.

  19. Isolation of dermatophytes and correlated species from the soil of public gardens and parks in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercantini, R; Marsella, R; Caprilli, F; Dovgiallo, G

    1980-06-01

    Looking for dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in the soil of parks and gardens in large towns is very interesting because of the relationship between the number of people living in the area and the presence of such fungi in the soil. As compared with other cities in Italy, Rome offers prime conditions for this kind of research. It has a high population density (10,000 inhabitants per sq/km2), and many parks and gardens, where it is possible to carry out soil studies. It was noted that in 35 sites the number of the isolated species of keratomycetes was 2.6 times higher than the number of all other species of fungi and that species found most often were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton ajelloi, M. cookei, and Chrysosporium spp. It is of particular interest that Nannizzia cajetani and N. grubya were isolated directly from the soil for the first time in Italy and that Diheterospora spp. were isolated from almost all of the samples. Keratinic matter in soils evidently influences the biological cycle of the dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi, but at present the methods of soil analysis are not yet specific enough to establish a well-defined relationship.

  20. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from floors in Roman primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercantini, R; Marsella, R; Lambiase, L; Fulvi, F

    1983-05-22

    Keratinophilic fungi are present in the environment with variable distribution patterns that depend on different factors, one of which, of fundamental importance, is human and or animal presence. The present study was conducted in the environment and classrooms of schools in order to evaluate the relationship between the human presence and the presence of keratinophilic fungi. In order to achieve this goal, a new isolation technique was used. From 20 samples, 253 colonies of keratinophilic fungi were isolated. The results showed that species of the genus Chrysosporium were present in 100% of the samples, while Microsporum and Trichophyton species were present in 40% and 65% of the samples respectively. The percentage of three pathogenic species, M. canis (25), T. mentagrophytes (10) and M. gypseum (10) was significant. The other species isolated were: T. terrestre (55%), Trichophyton sp. (35%), M. cookei (25%) and T. ajelloi (10%). A correlation between the amount of gathered dust and the number of colonies of keratinophilic fungi isolated was not found.

  1. A survey on the pathogenic fungi in soil samples of potted plants from Sari hospitals, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, M T; Mohseni-Bandpi, A; Moradi, S

    2004-09-01

    A total of 23 soil samples of potted plants was collected from hospitals in Sari, Iran. Each sample contained approximately 200 g soil, taken from a depth of 0-10 cm of the pots. Samples were analysed by two different methods. (1) Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol (SC); cultured fungi were identified by macroscopic and microscopic characterization. (2) The hair-baiting technique (HBT) was used to isolate the keratinophilic fungi. After culture on SC medium, 100% of plates were positive for fungal growth, and in total 1150 colonies with 13 different types of fungi were isolated. Penicillium spp. (52%), Acremonium spp. (20%), Paecilomyces spp. (11.9%), Cladsporium spp. (3.7%) and Aspergillus spp. (3.1%) were the predominant fungal species. Rhizopus spp. (0.1%) were less frequent. Keratinophilic fungi such as Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum cookei and Chrysosporium spp. were isolated using HBT. The presence of pathogenic fungi such as Cladosporium spp, Aspergillus spp, M. gypseum, and M. cookei in potted plants in hospitals represents a potential source of nosocomial infection.

  2. Enhanced reduction of phenol content and toxicity in olive mill wastewaters by a newly isolated strain of Coriolopsis gallica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daâssi, Dalel; Belbahri, Lassaad; Vallat, Armelle; Woodward, Steve; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2014-02-01

    The search for novel microorganisms able to degrade olive mill wastewaters (OMW) and withstand the toxic effects of the initially high phenolic concentrations is of great scientific and industrial interest. In this work, the possibility of reducing the phenolic content of OMW using new isolates of fungal strains (Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes trogii, and Fusarium solani) was investigated. In vitro, all fungal isolates tested caused an outstanding decolorization of OMW. However, C. gallica gave the highest decolorization and dephenolization rates at 30 % v/v OMW dilution in water. Fungal growth in OMW medium was affected by several parameters including phenolic compound concentration, nitrogen source, and inoculum size. The optimal OMW medium for the removal of phenolics and color was with the OMW concentration (in percent)/[(NH4)2SO4]/inoculum ratio of 30:6:3. Under these conditions, 90 and 85 % of the initial phenolic compounds and color were removed, respectively. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of extracts from treated and untreated OMW showed a clear and substantial reduction in phenolic compound concentrations. Phytotoxicity, assessed using radish (Raphanus sativus) seeds, indicated an increase in germination index of 23-92 % when a 30 % OMW concentration was treated with C. gallica in different dilutions (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8).

  3. The nature of tryptophan radicals involved in the long-range electron transfer of lignin peroxidase and lignin peroxidase-like systems: Insights from quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Caterina; Pogni, Rebecca; Basosi, Riccardo; Sinicropi, Adalgisa

    2012-05-01

    A catalytically active tryptophan radical has been demonstrated to be involved in the long-range electron transfer to the heme cofactor of lignin peroxidase (LiP) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium although no direct detection by EPR spectroscopy of the tryptophan radical intermediate has been reported to date. An engineering-based approach has been used to manipulate the microenvironment of the redox-active tryptophan site in LiP and Coprinus cinereus Peroxidase (CiP), allowing the direct evidence of the tryptophan radical species. In light of the newly available EPR experimental data, we performed a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics computational study to characterize the tryptophan radicals in the above protein matrices as well as in pristine LiP. The nature of the tryptophan radicals is discussed together with the analysis of their environment with the aim of understanding the different behavior of pristine LiP in comparison with that of LiP and CiP variants.

  4. Distribution of dermatophytes and other related fungi in Jaipur city, with particular reference to soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Screening of 217 soil samples of different habitats, such as PG study centre, garden, farmhouse, nursery, roadside, hostel, animal habitat, bird habitat, marriage garden, temple, vegetable market and house dust, was carried out for the presence of dermatophytes and related fungi in relation to soil pH. A total of 461 isolates belonging to 26 genera and 34 species were recorded. Soil pH values vary from 3 to 10.5. Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii and M. canis were isolated for the first time in Jaipur from pH range 7.0 to 9.0. Chrysosporium tropicum (46.08%) was the most predominant fungus isolated from pH range 6.5 to 9.5. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (24.88%) was the second most common fungal species isolated from pH 6.5 to 9.5. Most of the keratinophilic fungi were isolated from pH 6.5 to 8.5. Only one isolate of Fusarium moniliforme was reported from a highly acidic site at pH 3. Roadside and garden soils were found to be the most suitable sites for almost all keratinophilic fungi.

  5. Biodelignification of lignocellulose substrates: An intrinsic and sustainable pretreatment strategy for clean energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Anuj K; Gonçalves, Bruna C M; Strap, Janice L; da Silva, Silvio S

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is a promising sugar feedstock for biofuels and other high-value chemical commodities. The recalcitrance of LB, however, impedes carbohydrate accessibility and its conversion into commercially significant products. Two important factors for the overall economization of biofuel production is LB pretreatment to liberate fermentable sugars followed by conversion into ethanol. Sustainable biofuel production must overcome issues such as minimizing water and energy usage, reducing chemical usage and process intensification. Amongst available pretreatment methods, microorganism-mediated pretreatments are the safest, green, and sustainable. Native biodelignifying agents such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporous cinnabarinus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus can remove lignin, making the remaining substrates amenable for saccharification. The development of a robust, integrated bioprocessing (IBP) approach for economic ethanol production would incorporate all essential steps including pretreatment, cellulase production, enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of the released sugars into ethanol. IBP represents an inexpensive, environmentally friendly, low energy and low capital approach for second-generation ethanol production. This paper reviews the advancements in microbial-assisted pretreatment for the delignification of lignocellulosic substrates, system metabolic engineering for biorefineries and highlights the possibilities of process integration for sustainable and economic ethanol production.

  6. Enzyme production by wood-rot and soft-rot fungi cultivated on corn fiber followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand; Khanal, Samir K; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2009-05-27

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert lignocellulosic corn fiber into fermentable sugars at a moderate temperature (37 °C) with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum), and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used for in situ enzyme production to hydrolyze cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber by either white- or brown-rot fungi followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with coculture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown a possibility of enhancing wood rot saccharification of corn fiber for ethanol fermentation. The laboratory-scale fungal saccharification and fermentation process incorporated in situ cellulolytic enzyme induction, which enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose components of corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, and trisaccharides). The yeast fermentation of the hydrolyzate yielded 7.8, 8.6, and 4.9 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol per 100 g initial corn fiber) is equivalent to 35% of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. This research has significant commercial potential to increase net ethanol production per bushel of corn through the utilization of corn fiber. There is also a great research opportunity to evaluate the remaining biomass residue (enriched with fungal protein) as animal feed.

  7. Composition and antimicrobial activities of the leaf essential oil of Machilus zuihoensis from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Lung Ho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition, and antimicrobial and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the essential oil isolated from the leaf of endemic Machilus zuihoensis Hayata, Lauraceae, of Taiwan. The essential oil from the fresh leaves of M. zuihoensis was isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 104 compounds were identified, representing 100% of the oil. The main components identified were n-dodecanal (23.8% and (E-nerolidol (10.5%. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested by the disc diffusion method and micro-broth dilution method against ten microbial species (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans, respectively. The oil exhibited strong growth suppression against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast with inhibition zones of 35~43 mm to MIC values of 125 µg mL-1, respectively. The anti-wood-decay fungal activity of the oil was also evaluated. Results showed that the oil demonstrated excellent activity against four wood-decay-fungi species (Trametes versicolor, Phaneochaete chrysosporium, Phaeolus schweintizii, and Lenzites sulphureu. For the antimicrobial and anti-wooddecay fungal activities of the oil, the active source compounds were determined to be τ-cadinol, β-eudesmol, and n-dodecanal.

  8. Fungal secretomes--nature's toolbox for white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouws, Henning; Wattenberg, Andreas; Zorn, Holger

    2008-09-01

    Adapting their metabolism to varying carbon and nitrogen sources, saprophytic fungi produce an arsenal of extracellular enzymes, the secretome, which allows for an efficient degradation of lignocelluloses and further biopolymers. Based on fundamental advances in electrophoretic, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric techniques on the one hand and the availability of annotated fungal genomes and sophisticated bioinformatic software tools on the other hand, a detailed analysis of fungal secretomes has become feasible. While a number of reports on ascomycetous secretomes of, e.g., Aspergillus, Trichoderma, and Fusarium species are already available, studies on basidiomycetes have been mainly focused on the two model organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinopsis cinerea so far. Though an impressive number and diversity of fungal biocatalysts has been revealed by secretome analyses, the identity and function of many extracellular proteins still remains to be elucidated. A comprehensive understanding of the qualitative and quantitative composition of fungal secretomes, together with their synergistic actions and kinetic expression profiles, will allow for the development of optimized enzyme cocktails for white biotechnology.

  9. Lignin Peroxidase Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds in Systems Containing Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    1994-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These included anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 9-methylanthracenes, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene. Of the compounds studied, lignin peroxidase was able to oxidize those with ionization potentials of <8 eV (measured by electron impact). The reaction products contain hydroxyl and keto groups. In one case, carbon-carbon bond cleavage, yielding anthraquinone from 9-methylanthracene, was detected. Kinetic constants and stability characteristics of lignin peroxidase were determined by using pyrene as the substrate in systems containing different amounts of organic solvent. Benzyl alkylation of lignin peroxidase improved its activity in a system containing water-miscible organic solvent but did not increase its resistance to inactivation at high solvent concentrations. PMID:16349176

  10. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionations of alkane compounds and crude oil during aerobically microbial degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xianzhi; ZHANG Gan; CHEN Fanzhong; LIU Guoqing

    2004-01-01

    Normal alkane compounds dodecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, octadecane, tetracosane, isoprenoid alkane pristane and a crude oil sample were aerobically biodegraded with a pure bacterial strain GIM2.5 and white rot fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium-1767 to monitor the kinetic fractionation of the molecular stable carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes in the course of biodegradation. Both δ13C (V-PDB) and δ D (V-SMOW) remained stable for the standard alkane compounds and n-alkane components (from n-C13 to n-C25) of the crude oil, generally varying in the range of ±0.5‰ and ±5‰ respectively, within the range of the instrumental precisions, especially for those molecularly heavier than n-C16 during microbial degradation. These results indicate that molecular stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic fingerprints can be promising indicators for tracing the sources of petroleum-related contaminants in the environment, especially in the case of severe weathering when they are difficult to be unambiguously identified by the chemical fingerprints alone.

  11. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fungal enzymes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Tayssir; Rouissi, Tarek; Kaur Brar, Satinder; Cledon, Maximiliano; Sarma, Saurabhjyoti; Verma, Mausam

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of chemicals. They represent an important concern due to their widespread distribution in the environment, their resistance to biodegradation, their potential to bioaccumulate and their harmful effects. Several pilot treatments have been implemented to prevent economic consequences and deterioration of soil and water quality. As a promising option, fungal enzymes are regarded as a powerful choice for degradation of PAHs. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus and Bjerkandera adusta are most commonly used for the degradation of such compounds due to their production of ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. The rate of biodegradation depends on many culture conditions, such as temperature, oxygen, accessibility of nutrients and agitated or shallow culture. Moreover, the addition of biosurfactants can strongly modify the enzyme activity. The removal of PAHs is dependent on the ionization potential. The study of the kinetics is not completely comprehended, and it becomes more challenging when fungi are applied for bioremediation. Degradation studies in soil are much more complicated than liquid cultures because of the heterogeneity of soil, thus, many factors should be considered when studying soil bioremediation, such as desorption and bioavailability of PAHs. Different degradation pathways can be suggested. The peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes having common catalytic cycles. One molecule of hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the resting enzyme withdrawing two electrons. Subsequently, the peroxidase is reduced back in two steps of one electron oxidation. Laccases are copper-containing oxidases. They reduce molecular oxygen to water and oxidize phenolic compounds.

  12. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  13. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher E.; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  14. Fungal bioconversion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroumsia, T; Steiman, R; Seigle-Murandi, F; Benoit-Guyod, J-L

    2005-09-01

    Ninety strains of fungi from the collection of our mycology laboratory were tested in Galzy and Slonimski (GS) synthetic liquid medium for their ability to degrade the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and its by-product, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) at 100 mg l(-1), each. Evolution of the amounts of each chemical in the culture media was monitored by HPLC. After 5 days of cultivation, the best results were obtained with Aspergillus penicilloides and Mortierella isabellina for 2,4-D and with Chrysosporium pannorum and Mucor genevensis for 2,4-DCP. The data collected seemed to prove, on one hand, that the strains responses varied with the taxonomic groups and the chemicals tested, and, on the other hand, that 2,4-D was less accessible to fungal degradation than 2,4-DCP. In each case, kinetics studies with the two most efficient strains revealed that there was a lag phase of 1 day before the onset of 2,4-D degradation, whereas there was none during 2,4-DCP degradation. Moreover, 2,4-DCP was detected transiently during 2,4-D degradation. Finally, M. isabellina improved its degradation potential in Tartaric Acid (TA) medium relative to GS and Malt Extract (ME) media.

  15. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  16. Reactions of the class II peroxidases, lignin peroxidase and Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase, with hydrogen peroxide. Catalase-like activity, compound III formation, and enzyme inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiner, Alexander N P; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; García-Cánovas, Francisco; Brisset, Nigel C; Smith, Andrew T; Arnao, Marino B; Acosta, Manuel

    2002-07-26

    The reactions of the fungal enzymes Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase (LiP) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) have been studied. Both enzymes exhibited catalase activity with hyperbolic H(2)O(2) concentration dependence (K(m) approximately 8-10 mm, k(cat) approximately 1-3 s(-1)). The catalase and peroxidase activities of LiP were inhibited within 10 min and those of ARP in 1 h. The inactivation constants were calculated using two independent methods; LiP, k(i) approximately 19 x 10(-3) s(-1); ARP, k(i) approximately 1.6 x 10(-3) s(-1). Compound III (oxyperoxidase) was detected as the majority species after the addition of H(2)O(2) to LiP or ARP, and its formation was accompanied by loss of enzyme activity. A reaction scheme is presented which rationalizes the turnover and inactivation of LiP and ARP with H(2)O(2). A similar model is applicable to horseradish peroxidase. The scheme links catalase and compound III forming catalytic pathways and inactivation at the level of the [compound I.H(2)O(2)] complex. Inactivation does not occur from compound III. All peroxidases studied to date are sensitive to inactivation by H(2)O(2), and it is suggested that the model will be generally applicable to peroxidases of the plant, fungal, and prokaryotic superfamily.

  17. Production of bioethanol by direct bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent in a stirred-tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Kabbashi, Nassereldeen A; Hussin, S Nahdatul I S

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by the oil-palm industries through direct bioconversion process. The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was found to be the mixed culture that yielded the highest ethanol production (4% v/v or 31.6 g/l). Statistical optimization was carried out to determine the operating conditions of the stirred-tank bioreactor for maximum bioethanol production by a two-level fractional factorial design with a single central point. The factors involved were oxygen saturation level (pO(2)%), temperature, and pH. A polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum ethanol production of 4.6% (v/v) or 36.3 g/l was achieved at a temperature of 32 degrees C, pH of 6, and pO(2) of 30%. The results of the model validation test under the developed optimum process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 4.6% (v/v) to 6.5% (v/v) or 51.3 g/l with 89.1% chemical-oxygen-demand removal.

  18. Loofa sponge immobilized fungal biosorbent: a robust system for cadmium and other dissolved metal removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M; Edyvean, R G J

    2005-10-01

    The potential of loofa sponge discs to immobilize fungal biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (a known biosorbent) was investigated as a low cost biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution. A comparison of the biosorption of Cd(II) by immobilized and free fungal biomass from 10 to 500 mg l(-1) aqueous solutions showed an increase in uptake of over 19% when the biomass is immobilized (maximum biosorption capacity of 89 and 74 mg Cd(II) g(-1) biomass for immobilized and free biomass respectively at a solution pH of 6). Equilibrium was established within 1h and biosorption was well defined by the Langmuir isotherm model. The immobilized biomass could be regenerated using 50 mM HCl, with up to 99% metal recovery and reused in ten biosorption-desorption cycles without significant loss of capacity. This study suggests that such an immobilized biosorbent system has the potential to be used in the industrial removal/recovery of cadmium and other pollutant metal ions from aqueous solution.

  19. Effects of fungal pretreatment and steam explosion pretreatment on enzymatic saccharification of plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, T; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, F; Kuwahara, M; Watanabe, T

    1995-12-20

    The effects of consecutive treatments by a lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by steam explosion for the enzymatic saccharification of plant biomass were studied experimentally, and the optimal operational conditions for obtaining the maximum saccharification were evaluated. Beech wood-meal was treated by the fungus for 98 days and then by high steam temperatures of 170-230 degrees C with steaming times of 0-10 min. The treatment of the wood-meal by fungus prior to steam explosion enhanced the saccharification of wood-meal. The treated wood-meal was separated into holo-cellulose, water soluble material, methanol soluble lignin, and Klason lignin. The saccharification decreased linearly with the increase in the amount of Klason lignin. It was estimated by the equation for the saccharification of exploded wood-meal expressed as a function of steam temperature and steaming time that the maximum saccharification of wood-meal was obtained by consecutive treatments such as fungal treatment for 28 days and then steam explosion at a steam temperature of 215 degrees C and a steaming time of 6.5 min. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Computational studies on LiP H isolated from Ganoderma lucidum GD88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parambayil Nayana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a basidiomycete fungus that produces ligninase for the modification of lignin. Lignin peroxidase (LiP is a glycoprotein that acts on the recalcitrant cell wall component lignin. In the present study, the phylogenetic analysis of Ganoderma lucidum GD88 with the partial coding sequence (cds of other LiP isoforms was performed using MEGA6. After determination of the open reading frame, the +3 frame nucleotide sequence was converted to protein using the EMBOSS Transseq and the secondary structure was predicted using the Chou and Fasman Secondary Structure Prediction server (CFSSP. Protein modeling was also performed by SWISS-MODEL. The obtained result shows that the lipH partial cds of Ganoderma lucidum GD88 is homologous to the lipD gene of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The secondary structure prediction result revealed that the percent content of the helix (67 is higher than the percent contents of sheet (53.4 and turns (13.6. According to the generated model, LiP H protein is a homodimer with chains A and B. The heme acts as a ligand and plays a major role in structure stabilization.

  1. Evolutionary divergence of Ure2pA glutathione transferases in wood degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roret, Thomas; Thuillier, Anne; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Didierjean, Claude; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular systems of detoxification are crucial for the survival of wood degrading fungi. Within these systems, glutathione transferases could play a major role since this family of enzymes is specifically extended in lignolytic fungi. In particular the Ure2p class represents one third of the total GST number in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. These proteins have been phylogenetically split into two subclasses called Ure2pA and Ure2pB. Ure2pB can be classified as Nu GSTs because of shared structural and functional features with previously characterized bacterial isoforms. Ure2pA can rather be qualified as Nu-like GSTs since they exhibit a number of differences. Ure2pA possess a classical transferase activity, a more divergent catalytic site and a higher structural flexibility for some of them, compared to Nu GSTs. The characterization of four members of this Ure2pA subclass (PcUre2pA4, PcUre2pA5, PcUre2pA6 and PcUre2pA8) revealed specific functional and structural features, suggesting that these enzymes have rapidly evolved and differentiated, probably to adapt to the complex chemical environment associated with wood decomposition.

  2. Characterization of three mnp genes of Fomitiporia mediterranea and report of additional class II peroxidases in the order hymenochaetales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Ingo; Robertson, Deborah L; Hibbett, David S

    2010-10-01

    We report the sequence-based characterization and expression patterns of three manganese peroxidase genes from the white rot fungus and grape vine pathogen Fomitiporia mediterranea (Agaricomycotina, Hymenochaetales), termed Fmmnp1, Fmmnp2, and Fmmnp3. The predicted open reading frames (ORFs) are 1,516-, 1,351-, and 1,345-bp long and are interrupted by seven, four, and four introns, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences encode manganese peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.13) containing 371, 369, and 371 residues, respectively, and are similar to the manganese peroxidases of the model white rot organism Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The expression of the genes is most likely differentially regulated, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that other members of the order Hymenochaetales harbor mnp genes encoding proteins that are related only distantly to those of F. mediterranea. Furthermore, multiple partial lip- and mnp-like sequences obtained for Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Agaricomycotina, Polyporales) suggest that lignin degradation by white rot taxa relies heavily on ligninolytic peroxidases and is not efficiently achieved by laccases only.

  3. Lignin degradation by a white-rot fungus lacking lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, C.B.; Eriksson, K.E.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been the organism of choice for studies of lignin degradation and much of this work has focused on two phenol oxidases, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), secreted by the fungus under ligninolytic conditions. However, many white-rot fungi, including a number of aggressive lignin degraders, seem to operate without expressing LiP activity. Laccase is another phenol oxidase that white-rot fungi often produce. However, the role played by laccase in lignin degradation has remained obscured since its low redox potential appeared to make it incapable of oxidizing non-phenolic lignin constituents. We have identified, Pychnoporus cinnabarinus lacking both LiP and MnP, but a high producer of laccase, to degrade lignin as efficiently as UP producing fungi. We have found that P. cinnabarinus, to overcome the redox potential barrier for laccase, produces a mediator for oxidation of non-phenolic lignin structures. This is the first description of how laccase may be used in a biological system for the degradation of lignin.

  4. Peroxide Bleaching of Bagasse Kraft Pulp with Enzymes Pretreatment%木腐菌胞外酶漂白蔗渣硫酸盐浆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄峰; 陈嘉翔; 詹怀宇; 高培基

    1999-01-01

    利用木腐菌Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446和LIP14菌株所产胞外酶结合H2O2对蔗渣硫酸盐浆进行几种漂序漂白实验,结果表明酶处理段放在氧脱木素后漂白效果较好;ME446酶和LIP14酶处理使蔗渣硫酸盐浆氧脱木素浆终漂白度分别比对照提高4.2%ISO和6.0%ISO,LIP14酶漂白效果好于ME446酶,表明锰依赖过氧化物酶(MnP)在硫酸盐浆漂白中作用重要;木腐菌胞外酶中纤维素酶活力有损漂白浆强度,应用中应予以控制;酶处理结合碱抽提能有效降低漂白浆卡伯值,但漂白浆终漂白度不一定因此有所提高.

  5. Oxidation of wheat straw lignin by fungal lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ingo, M.J.; Kurek, B. [Laboratorie de Chimie Biologique, Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    1996-10-01

    Lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and laccase from Pleurotus eryngii were separately used to degrade alkali wheat straw lignin (AL). In order to characterize the catalytic action of the different enzymes, the chemical structure and the hydrodynamic properties of the treated lignin were analyzed by thioacidolysis-gas chromatography and molecular size exclusion chromatography. The results confirmed that only LiP was able to degrade guiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) structures in non-phenolic methylated lignins. However, provided that some phenolic terminal structures are present, MnP and laccase were able to degrade the non-phenolic portion of the polymer linked by {beta}-O-4 alkyl aryl ether bonds. This suggested that the oxidative reactions catalyzed in alkali straw lignin could progress through bond cleavages generating phenoxy radicals. The molecular size distribution of both thioacidolysis products and the oxidized polymer showed that AL underwent condensation side-reactions regardless of the enzyme treatment, but only LiP oxidation led to the increase in the hydrodynamic volume of the recovered lignin. This indicated that modification of enzymes by bonding patterns in lignin is not always associated with alterations in the spatial network of the polymer.

  6. Encapsulation of ligninolytic enzymes and its application in clarification of juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara-Chatti, Fatma; Brar, Satinder K; Ajila, C M; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valero, J R

    2013-04-15

    The thermal stability, physico-chemical properties and effect on juice clarification of hydrogel formulations of ligninolytic enzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were evaluated. The results showed that enzyme entrapment increase significantly (Penzymes at 4 and 75 °C. At 75 °C, maximum activity decreased to non detectable values of 7.9% for free laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), respectively; to 94%, 97%, 93% for laccase, MnP and LiP entrapped into Polyacrylamide/pectin, 94%, 98%, 88% for laccase, MnP and LiP encapsulated respectively into polyacrylamide/ gelatine and to 87%, 91%, 87% for laccase, MnP and LiP entrapped, respectively into polyacrylamide/carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). When particle size and viscosity of the formulation increased, enzyme stability increased. The polyphenolic reduction and clarity amelioration in mixed juice of berry and pomegranate was more significant (p>0.05) using encapsulated enzymes treatment than free enzymes. This suggested that enzymatic treatment was efficient for the juice clarification.

  7. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE FUR MICROBIOTA OF CALLITRICHIDS KEPT IN CAPTIVITY IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Raquel Albuquerque; Milanelo, Liliane; Bondan, Eduardo Fernandes; Bentubo, Henri Donnarumma Levy

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to isolate filamentous fungi from the fur of primates of the genus Callithrix kept in the Centre for Rehabilitation of Wild Animals (CRWA) at the Tietê Ecological Park, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Samples of the fur of 19 specimens of black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) and 6 specimens of white-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were obtained by the square carpet technique. The samples were plated on Mycosel™ agar medium (Difco™) and incubated at 25°C for 21 days. The identification of each isolated mold was based on its macroscopic and microscopic features and followed classical recommendations. The following filamentous fungi were isolated: Penicillium spp. (76%), Cladosporium spp. (60%), Acremonium spp. (44%), Scopulariopsis spp. (24%), Aspergillus spp. (16%), Chrysosporium spp. (16%), and Fusarium spp. (8%). Dermatophyte fungi were not detected. We conclude that C. penicillata and C. jacchus kept in captivity are sources of potentially pathogenic filamentous fungi that may represent a risk factor for immunocompromised individuals who may eventually establish contact with them.

  8. Diversity analysis of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from the Yellow River source area: I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-qin PAN; Jin-feng YU; Yue-ming WU; Tian-yu ZHANG; Hong-feng WANG

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four soil samples of eight ecosystem-types around the Yellow River source area were investigated for the number and specific composition of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes by dilution plate technique. And then the co-relationship between genus species of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes and ecosystem-types was analyzed. The results show that the amount and species distribution of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes had an obvious variability in different ecosystem-types, and that the dominant genus species varied in the eight ecosystem-types studied, with Cladosporium being the dominant genus in seven of the eight ecosystem-types except wetland. The index of species diversity varied in different ecosystem-types. The niche breadth analysis showed that Cladosporium had the highest niche breadth and distributed in all ecosystem-types, while the genera with a narrow niche breadth distributed only in a few ecosystem-types. The results of niche overlap index analysis indicated that Stachybotrys and Torula, Doratomyces and Scolecobasidium, Cladosporium and Chrysosporium had a higher niche overlap, whereas Arthrinium and Gliomastix, Phialophora and Doratomyces, Oidiodendron and Ulocladium had no niche overlap.

  9. Cutaneous Mycoses among Rice Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chito Clare Ekwealor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples collected from 201 farmers with lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses were processed and the organisms identified. Questionnaires were used to obtain other necessary data and were statistically analyzed. Of the 2,580 rice farmers screened, 201 (7.79% showed positive lesions. Organisms recovered included Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum ferrugineum, Trichophyton megnini, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus scleriotorum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Scopulariopsis sp., Chrysosporium sp., Eupenicillium javanicum, Fusarium sp., Penicillium aculeatum, and Penicillium pinophilum. At the end of this work, onychomycosis was observed to be the most prevalent with nondermatophyte molds now becoming very important agents of cutaneous mycoses among rice farmer.

  10. Primary Otomycosis in the Indian Subcontinent: Predisposing Factors, Microbiology, and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Chandra Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define otomycosis and determine the predisposing factors and microbiology in primary otomycosis. Study Design. Prospective study of two years and review of the literature. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology in a coastal city in India. Patients. 150 immunocompetent individuals of whom 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis are considered as the study group and 50 consecutive patients with no otomycosis are considered as the control group. Results and Observations. Instillation of coconut oil (42%, use of topical antibiotic eardrops (20%, and compulsive cleaning of external ear with hard objects (32% appeared to be the main predisposing factors in otomycosis. Aspergilli were the most common isolates (80% followed by Penicillium (8%, Candida albicans (4%, Rhizopus (1%, and Chrysosporium (1%, the last being reported for the first time in otomycosis. Among aspergilli, A. niger complex (38% was the most common followed by A. fumigatus complex (27% and A. flavus complex (15%. Bacterial isolates associated with fungi in otomycosis were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Proteus spp. In 42% of healthy external ears fungi were isolated. Conclusion. Aspergillus spp. were the most common fungi isolated, followed by Penicillium. Otomycotic ears are often associated with bacterial isolates when compared to normal ears. Fungi are also present in a significant number of healthy external auditory canals and their profiles match those in cases of otomycosis. The use of terms “primary” and “secondary” otomycosis is important to standardize reporting.

  11. Bio-liquefaction/solubilization of low-rank Turkish lignites and characterization of the products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesim Basaran; Adil Denizli; Billur Sakintuna; Alpay Taralp; Yuda Yurum [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Environmental Sciences

    2003-08-01

    The effect of some white-rot fungi on the bio-liquefaction/solubilization of two low-rank Turkish coals and the chemical composition of the liquid products and the microbial mechanisms of coal conversion were investigated. Turkish Elbistan and Beypazari lignites were used in this study. The white-rot fungi received from various laboratories used in the bio-liquefaction/solubilization of the lignites were Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus sapidus, Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Coriolus versicolor. FT-IR spectra of raw and treated coal samples were measured, and bio-liquefied/solubilized coal samples were investigated by FT-IR and LC-MS techniques. The Coriolus versicolor fungus was determined to be most effective in bio-liquefying/solubilizing nitric acid-treated Elbistan lignite. In contrast, raw and nitric acid-treated Beypazari lignite seemed to be unaffected by the action of any kind of white-rot fungi. The liquid chromatogram of the water-soluble bio-liquefied/solubilized product contained four major peaks. Corresponding mass spectra of each peak indicated the presence of very complicated structures. 17 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Ethanol production via in situ fungal saccharification and fermentation of mild alkali and steam pretreated corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Pometto, Anthony L; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2010-11-01

    The effect of mild alkali and steam pretreatments on fungal saccharification and sequential simultaneous-saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn fiber to ethanol was studied. The corn fiber was pretreated with: (i) 2% NaOH (w/w) at 30 degrees C for 2h and (ii) steaming at 100 degrees C for 2h. Ethanol yields were 2.6g, 2.9g and 5.5g ethanol/100g of corn fiber, respectively, for Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trichoderma reesei saccharification and sequential SSFs. SSF with commercial cellulase enzyme - Spezyme-CP had 7.7g ethanol/100g corn fiber. Mild alkali pretreatment resulted in higher glucose yields following fungal saccharification of corn fiber. However, the ethanol yields were comparatively similar for untreated and mild alkali pretreated corn fiber. Solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber with fungi can be improved to either eliminate or reduce the dosage of commercial cellulase enzymes during SSF.

  13. Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P K; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspegillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) also were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. With respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55, and 0.55 mg/g was observed by fungi Pb3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, Cr8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni27 (A. niger) respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals.

  14. Genetics and chemistry of lignin degradation by Streptomyces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Our research goal was to define the involvement of lignin peroxidases and other extracellular enzymes in lignin degradation by Streptomyces. We examined the biochemistry and genetics of lignin degrading enzyme production by several strains of Streptomyces. The lignin peroxidase ALiP-P3 of S. viridosporus was characterized kinetically and its activity optimized for oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and vanillyl-acetone. Sensitive spectrophotometric assays were developed for monitoring oxidation of these substrates. ALiP-P3 reaction chemistry was examined using both spectrophotometric assays and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Results showed that the enzyme oxidizes phenolic lignin substructure models in strong preference to nonphenolic ones. The peroxidase was also shown to depolymerize native lignin. We also cloned the ALip-P3 gene S. lividans in plasmid vector pIJ702. The cloned gene was partially sequenced, We also immunologically characterized the lignin peroxidase of S. viridosporus T7A and showed it to be structurally related to peroxidases produced by other lignin-solubilizing Streptomyces, but not the the H8 lignin peroxidase of P. chrysosporium. Studies with peroxidase deficient mutants of strain T7A showed that lignin peroxidases of S. viridosporus are directly involved in the solubilization of lignin. Additional research showed that other enzymes are also probably involved in lignin solubilization, possibly including extracellular esterases.

  15. Genetics and chemistry of lignin degradation by Streptomyces. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    Our research goal was to define the involvement of lignin peroxidases and other extracellular enzymes in lignin degradation by Streptomyces. We examined the biochemistry and genetics of lignin degrading enzyme production by several strains of Streptomyces. The lignin peroxidase ALiP-P3 of S. viridosporus was characterized kinetically and its activity optimized for oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and vanillyl-acetone. Sensitive spectrophotometric assays were developed for monitoring oxidation of these substrates. ALiP-P3 reaction chemistry was examined using both spectrophotometric assays and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Results showed that the enzyme oxidizes phenolic lignin substructure models in strong preference to nonphenolic ones. The peroxidase was also shown to depolymerize native lignin. We also cloned the ALip-P3 gene S. lividans in plasmid vector pIJ702. The cloned gene was partially sequenced, We also immunologically characterized the lignin peroxidase of S. viridosporus T7A and showed it to be structurally related to peroxidases produced by other lignin-solubilizing Streptomyces, but not the the H8 lignin peroxidase of P. chrysosporium. Studies with peroxidase deficient mutants of strain T7A showed that lignin peroxidases of S. viridosporus are directly involved in the solubilization of lignin. Additional research showed that other enzymes are also probably involved in lignin solubilization, possibly including extracellular esterases.

  16. Fungal Biodegradative Oxidants in Lignocellulose: Fluorescence Mapping and Correlation With Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, Kenneth E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ralph, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hunt, Christopher G. [U.S. Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States); Houtman, Carl J. [U.S. Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-09-06

    This work focused on new methods for the detection of oxidation in natural substrates during the deconstruction of lignocellulose by microoganisms. Oxidation was the focus because all known biological systems that degrade lignin are oxidative. The detection methods involved the used of (a) micrometer-scale beads carrying a fluorescent dye that is sensitive to oxidation, (b) 13C-labeled synthetic lignins whose breakdown products can be assessed using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and (c) a fluorometric stain that is highly sensitive to incipient oxidation during microbial attack. The results showed (a) that one white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, produces diffusible oxidants on wood, and that the onset of oxidation is coincident with the marked up-regulation of genes that encode ligninolytic peroxidases and auxiliary oxidative enzymes; (b) that a more selectively ligninolytic white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, produces a highly diastereoselective oxidative system for attack on lignin; (c) that a brown rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, uses extracellular hydroquinone metabolites to drive the production of lignocellulose-oxidizing free radicals; (d) that both white rot and brown rot fungi produce highly diffusible mild oxidants that modify lignocellulose at the earliest stage of substrate deconstruction; and (e) that lignin degradation in a tropical soil is not inhibited as much as expected during periods of flooding-induced hypoxia, which indicates that unknown mechanisms for attack on lignin remain to be discovered.

  17. Solid-state fermentation as a strategy to improve the bioactive compounds recovery from Larrea tridentata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sílvia; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2013-11-01

    Chemical composition of Larrea tridentata leaves was determined and elevated content of lignin (35.96 % w/w) was found. The present study was proposed in order to evaluate the extraction of bioactive compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of L. tridentata leaves. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used in the experiments due to its ability to degrade lignin. The concentration of total phenolic compounds in the extracts produced by SSF was determined. Additionally, the extracts were characterized regarding the concentration of flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid and antioxidant activity. SSF was not an efficient process to recover phenolic compounds from L. tridentata leaves. However, this process was very efficient when used as a pretreatment before the plant extraction with organic solvent (methanol). By submitting the plant to SSF and subsequently to extraction with 90 % (v/v) methanol, the recovery of phenolic compounds was improved by 33 % when compared to the results obtained by methanolic extraction of the non-fermented plant. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs revealed a major disorganization and porosity of the plant structure after fermentation, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra indicated a possible solubilization of some constituents of lignocellulose fraction after this process, which may have favored the solvent action in the later stage.

  18. Monitoramento de fungos anemófilos e de leveduras em unidade hospitalar Monitoring of airborne fungus and yeast species in a hospital unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nelson Martins-Diniz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Monitorar e caracterizar fungos anemófilos e leveduras de fontes bióticas e abióticas de uma unidade hospitalar. MÉTODOS: As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente e em dois períodos, do centro cirúrgico e unidades de terapia intensiva adulto e neonatal em hospital de Araraquara, Estado de São Paulo. Para coleta de fungos anemófilos foi utilizado amostrador tipo Andersen de simples estágio. A pesquisa de leveduras foi feita das mãos e de orofaringe de profissionais de saúde, bem como de superfícies de leitos e de maçanetas das áreas críticas. RESULTADOS: Foram recuperados do centro cirúrgico 32 gêneros de fungos anemófilos e 31 das unidades de terapia intensiva. Os gêneros mais freqüentemente isolados foram Cladophialophora spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Chrysosporium spp. e Aspergillus spp. Durante o período de estudo, houve reforma e implantação de uma unidade dentro do hospital, que coincidiu com o aumento na contagem de colônias de Cladophialophora spp., Aspergillus spp. e Fusarium spp. Leveduras foram encontradas em 39,4% dos profissionais de saúde (16,7% das amostras dos espaços interdigitais, 12,1% do leito subungueal e 10,6% da orofaringe e, em 44% das amostras do mobiliário, com predomínio do gênero Candida (C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis e C. lusitaniae seguido por Trichosporon spp. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se número relativamente elevado de fungos anemófilos (potencialmente patogênicos em áreas especiais e níveis expressivos de leveduras em fontes bióticas e abióticas. O monitoramento microbiológico ambiental deve ser realizado, principalmente em salas especiais com pacientes imunocomprometidos, sujeitos à exposição de patógenos do meio ambiente, assim como, advindos de profissionais de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To monitor and characterize airborne filamentous fungi and yeasts from abiotic and biotic sources within a hospital unit. METHODS: Collections were carried out on

  19. Influence of environmental factors on airborne fungi in houses of Santa Fe City, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilico, Maria de la Luz Z; Chiericatti, Carolina; Aringoli, E Elena; Althaus, Rafael L; Basilico, Juan Carlos

    2007-04-15

    This study investigated concentration and types of airborne fungi spores of indoor air. Forty nine houses of Santa Fe city (Argentina) were examined during one year. This city is characterized by a warm climate with an annual mean temperature of 18.6 degrees C and a relative humidity of 74.6%. Based on similar characteristics, a group of representative houses were selected from both urban and suburban areas. The study began by evaluating the airborne fungal concentrations on environmental factors such as area (urban-suburban), season (winter-summer) and presence/absence of a convection gas-fired heating system during winter. Samples were taken with a Standard RCS centrifugal air sampler which operates on the principle of impact onto an agar media strip by centrifugal force. Strips were filled with malt extract agar containing chloramphenicol to inhibit bacterial growth. After incubation and identification, concentrations of airborne fungi were calculated as CFU/m(3). Indoor results showed the presence of thirteen dominant genera: Cladosporium (58.90%), Alternaria (8.68%), Epicoccum (5.74%), Fusarium (5.37%), Curvularia (3.50%), Acremonium (1.27%), Drechslera (1.26%), Penicillium (1.25%), Aspergillus (1.14%), Mucor (0.61%), Ulocladium (0.57%), Nigrospora (0.48%), Chrysosporium (0.42%) and yeast (3.74%), whose presence varied throughout the year. Multivariate Analyses of Variance were performed to study the influence of environmental factors on concentrations of fungal flora. The results obtained were significant for season (lambda=0.1225), area (lambda=0.6371) and for the presence of a convection gas-fired heating system during winter (lambda=0.4765). ANOVA test for the season showed the highest fungal levels (Geometric Mean) in the summer for Alternaria (181.97 CFU/m(3) vs. 17.38 CFU/m(3)), Fusarium (158.49 CFU/m(3) vs. 2.14 CFU/m(3)), Curvularia (66.07 CFU/m(3) vs. 1.62 CFU/m(3)), Acremonium (7.24 CFU/m(3) vs. 2.29 CFU/m(3)), Mucor (3.16 CFU/m(3) vs. 1.15 CFU/m(3

  20. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi Produção de enzimas ligninolíticas e descoloração do corante azul brilhante de Remazol R por fungos basidiomicetos tropicais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M. G. Machado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR dye was used as substrate to evaluate ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA, 2%; 96 fungi showed a mycelia growth and decolorization activity stronger than the P. chrysosporium used as reference. Extracellular extracts of 35 selected fungi grown on solid medium with sugar cane bagasse (BGS were evaluated for RBBR decolorization and peroxidase activity. All fungi showed peroxidase activities, but 5 of those were unable to decolorize the RBBR. Different patterns of ligninolytic enzymes were detected in 12 fungi extracts. Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP was produced by Peniophora cinerea, Psilocybe castanella, three strains of Trametes villosa, T. versicolor, Melanoporia nigra and Trichaptum byssogenum. All 12 fungi had laccase activity. Trogia buccinalis showed the highest RBBR decolorization and did not produce MnP activity. RBBR decolorization without MnP production was also observed for three strains of Lentinum tested. Higher levels of peroxidase and laccase cannot be related to high RBBR decolorization. RBBR decolorization by extracellular extract was also detected during the growth of P. castanella, L. crinitus, P. cinerea and two strains of T. Villosa in pentachlorophenol- and hexachlorobenzene-contaminated soils. These fungi showed higher RBBR decolorization when grown in the presence of organochlorine compounds than when in non contaminated soil.O corante azul brilhante Remazol R (RBBR foi usado como substrato para avaliar 125 fungos basidiomicetos isolados de ecossistemas tropicais brasileiros quanto a atividade ligninolítica. A descoloração do RBBR por extratos obtidos do crescimento de fungos em meio sólido e

  1. Flora fúngica no ambiente da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica e Neonatal em hospital terciário Environmental fungal flora in Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units at a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Lopes S. de Melo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: As infecções nosocomiais são responsáveis por morbidade e mortalidade significativas no período neonatal. Considerando-se a preocupação com a qualidade do ar de áreas críticas como Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI, foi realizado um levantamento da flora fúngica das UTI Pediátrica e Neonatal do Hospital das Clínicas Samuel Libânio, Pouso Alegre (MG, com a finalidade de identificar a presença de fungos potencialmente patogênicos e oportunistas. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas 30 coletas, que incluíram leitos, incubadoras, janelas, aparelhos de ar condicionado, telefone, estetoscópios, portas e maçanetas. Placas de Agar Sabouraud Dextrose com o material das coletas foram incubadas em temperatura ambiente por 15 dias. A identificação foi baseada nas características macroscópicas no exame direto e em microcultivos. RESULTADOS: Fungos potencialmente patogênicos e toxigênicos foram isolados. A análise quantitativa das colônias revelou a presença de 11 gêneros. Verificou-se que mais de 40% das colônias correspondem ao gênero Penicillium spp, seguido por Cladosporium spp e Chrysosporium spp. CONCLUSÕES: Os fungos encontrados podem apresentar grande potencial de patogenicidade, principalmente em imunodeprimidos. É importante adotar medidas de controle ambiental, como assepsia dos equipamentos, controle da presença de visitantes, lavagem das mãos pelos funcionários e troca de filtros de ar condicionado.OBJECTIVE: Nosocomial infections lead to significant morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Considering the concern regarding air quality in critical hospital areas, such as Intensive Care Units (ICU, this study aims to identify the presence of potentially pathological fungi in the Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Samuel Libânio Hospital in Pouso Alegre, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Thirty samples were collected in the following areas: surface of beds, incubators, windows, air

  2. 辽宁玉米生产区土壤真菌的分离与鉴定%Separation and Identification of Cornfield Soil Fungi in Harvesting Season in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏美娜; 杨红; 刘志恒; 张江林; 李昕月; 白海涛

    2011-01-01

    2010年9月至2010年10月,从辽宁省7个玉米主要产区采集土壤样品70份.通过不同分离方法,获得132个菌株,菌种保存于沈阳农业大学真菌实验室( HMSYAU).经纯化培养鉴定出17个属,包括已定种19个,未定种3个.鉴定结果表明:扩展青霉(Penicillium expansum)分离频率最高,为28.0%,其次分别为金孢属(Chrysosporium sp.)12.1%、微黄青霉(Penicillium minioluteum)10.6%;短毛毛壳(Chaetomium brevipilium)、尖孢镰孢菌(Fusarium oxysporum)、绿僵菌(Metarrhizium anisopliae)和苏拉耳分枝绿霉(Ramichloridium schulzeri)分离频率最低,为0.8%.从地区分布看,辽中、东陵、大洼、开原地区的玉米根际土壤中菌落数量分布较多,以辽中县分布最多,为8.3×104cuf·g-1土;而庄河地区菌落数量分布最少,为1.6×104cuf·g-1土;开原市和大洼县分离获得的真菌种类最多,均为12种,并且均以扩展青霉为优势种群;大石桥地区分离获得的真菌种类最少,为4种,并且仍以扩展青霉为最多.%Sep. 2010 to Nov. 2010, 70 soil samples had been taken from different corn fields in Liaoning Province. More than 100 strains were gotten through different cultivation and separation methods, which have been preserved in the fungal laboratory of Shenyang Agriculture University (HMSYAU). 19 Species belonging to 17 genera of soil fungi were identified, of which genus, 3 species undeterminated. The results showed that the highest separation rate was that of Penicillium expansion, (28.0%). The next was Chrysosporium sp., (12.1%), Penicillium minioluteum, (10.6%); and the lowest separation rate was that of Chaetomium brevipilium, Fusarium oxysporum, Metarrhizium anisopliae and Ramiehloridium schuheri (0.8%). Geographically, Liaozhong, Dongling, Dawa, Kaiyuan had the most quantitative distribution of fungous colony in Maize rhizosphere, in which Liaozhong had the most of 8.3xl04cuf-g"'. The area of Pulandian has the least quantitative

  3. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgenstern, Ingo [CLARK UNIV; Hibbett, David [CLARK UNIV.; Schmoll, Monika [UNIV WIEN; Kubicek, Christian P [UNIV WIEN; Ferreira, Patricia [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Martinez, Angel T [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Kersten, Phil [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Hammel, Kenneth E [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber [U. WISCONSIN; Gaskell, Jill [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Lindquist, Erika [DOE JGI; Sabati, Grzegorz [U. WISCONSIN; Bondurant, Sandra S [U. WISCONSIN; Larrondo, Luis F [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Canessa, Paulo [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Vicunna, Rafael [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Yadavk, Jagiit [U. CINCINATTI; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan [U. CINCINATTI; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan [U. CINCINATTI; Pisabarro, Antonio G [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Lavin, Jose L [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Oguiza, Jose A [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Master, Emma [U. TORONTO; Henrissat, Bernard [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Coutinho, Pedro M [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Harris, Paul [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Magnuson, Jon K [PNNL; Baker, Scott [PNNL; Bruno, Kenneth [PNNL; Kenealy, William [MASCOMA, INC.; Hoegger, Patrik J [GEORG-AUGUST-U.; Kues, Ursula [GEORG-AUGUST-U; Ramaiva, Preethi [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Lucas, Susan [DOE JGI; Salamov, Asaf [DOE JGI; Shapiro, Harris [DOE JGI; Tuh, Hank [DOE JGI; Chee, Christine L [UNM; Teter, Sarah [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Yaver, Debbie [NOVOZYMES, INC.; James, Tim [MCMASTER U.; Mokrejs, Martin [CHARLES U.; Pospisek, Martin [CHARLES U.; Grigoriev, Igor [DOE JGI; Rokhsar, Dan [DOE JGI; Berka, Randy [NOVOZYMES; Cullen, Dan [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  4. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  5. Disruption of seven hypothetical aryl alcohol dehydrogenase genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and construction of a multiple knock-out strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delneri, D; Gardner, D C; Bruschi, C V; Oliver, S G

    1999-11-01

    By in silicio analysis, we have discovered that there are seven open reading frames (ORFs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose protein products show a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity to the aryl alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Yeast cultures grown to stationary phase display a significant aryl alcohol dehydrogenase activity by degrading aromatic aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols. To study the biochemical and the biological role of each of the AAD genes, a series of mutant strains carrying deletion of one or more of the AAD-coding sequences was constructed by PCR-mediated gene replacement, using the readily selectable marker kanMX. The correct targeting of the PCR-generated disruption cassette into the genomic locus was verified by analytical PCR and by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) followed by Southern blot analysis. Double, triple and quadruple mutant strains were obtained by classical genetic methods, while the construction of the quintuple, sextuple and septuple mutants was achieved by using the marker URA3 from Kluyveromyces lactis, HIS3 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and TRP1 from S. cerevisiae. None of the knock-out strains revealed any mutant phenotype when tested for the degradation of aromatic aldehydes using both spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Specific tests for changes in the ergosterol and phospholipids profiles did not reveal any mutant phenotype and mating and sporulation efficiencies were not affected in the septuple deletant. Compared to the wild-type strain, the septuple deletant showed an increased resistance to the anisaldehyde, but there is a possibility that the nutritional markers used for gene replacement are causing this effect.

  6. Toxicity of organic and inorganic nanoparticles to four species of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, T.P.S., E-mail: pgalindo@ua.pt [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, R. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Freitas, A.C.; Santos-Rocha, T.A.P. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Rasteiro, M.G.; Antunes, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Rodrigues, D. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M.; Gonçalves, F. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2013-08-01

    The rapid development of nanoparticles (NP) for industrial applications and large-volume manufacturing, with its subsequent release into the environment, raised the need to understand and characterize the potential effects of NP to biota. Accordingly, this work aimed to assess sublethal effects of five NP to the white-rot fungi species Trametes versicolor, Lentinus sajor caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Each species was exposed to serial dilutions of the following NP: organic-vesicles of SDS/DDAB and of Mo/NaO; gold-NP, quantum dot CdSe/ZnS, and Fe/Co. Fungi growth rate was monitored every day, and at the end of assay the mycelium from each replicate was collected to evaluate possible changes in its chemical composition. For all NP-suspensions the following parameters were characterized: hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, aggregation index, zeta potential, and conductivity. All tested NP tended to aggregate when suspended in aqueous media. The obtained results showed that gold-NP, CdSe/ZnS, Mo/NaO, and SDS/DDAB significantly inhibited the growth of fungi with effects on the mycelium chemical composition. Among the tested NP, gold-NP and CdSe/ZnS were the ones exerting a higher effect on the four fungi. Finally to our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that different types of NP induce changes in the chemical composition of fungi mycelium. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles (NP) tend to aggregate when in aqueous suspensions. • Chemical composition revealed to be very important in the ecotoxicity of NP. • Observed effects suggested diversified modes of action of different NP. • White-rot fungi species exhibit great differences in their sensitivity to NP.

  7. Extracellular oxidative metabolism of wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Cullen

    2010-04-21

    Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the fundamental physiology and genetics of wood decay fungi, microbes that are capable of degrading all major components of plant cell walls. Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been hampered in part by limitations in our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation. This is particularly true of woody substrates where accessibility and high lignin content substantially complicate enzymatic 'deconstruction'. The interdisciplinary research has illuminated enzymatic mechanisms essential for the conversion of lignocellulosics to simple carbohydrates and other small molecular weight products. Progress was in large part dependent on substantial collaborations with the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek and Los Alamos, as well as the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin and the Forest Products Laboratory. Early accomplishments focused on the development of experimental tools (2, 7, 22, 24-26, 32) and characterization of individual genes and enzymes (1, 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 33). In 2004, the genome of the most intensively studied lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was published (21). This milestone lead to additional progress on this important model system (6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 28-31) and was further complemented by genome analysis of other important cellulose-degrading fungi (19, 20). These accomplishments have been highly cited and have paved the way for whole new research areas.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of simple sequence repeats in the model medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun; Xu, Haibin; Song, Jingyuan; Xu, Jiang; Zhu, Yingjie; Chen, Shilin

    2013-01-10

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in gene function and genome organization. We identified SSRs in the genome of Ganoderma lucidum and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. We also compared the SSRs in G. lucidum with six other Agaricomycetes genomes: Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Postia placenta, Schizophyllum commune and Serpula lacrymans. Based on our search criteria, the total number of SSRs found ranged from 1206 to 6104 and covered from 0.04% to 0.15% of the fungal genomes. The SSR abundance was not correlated with the genome size, and mono- to tri-nucleotide repeats outnumbered other SSR categories in all of the species examined. In G. lucidum, a repertoire of 2674 SSRs was detected, with mono-nucleotides being the most abundant. SSRs were found in all genomic regions and were more abundant in non-coding regions than coding regions. The highest SSR relative abundance was found in introns (108 SSRs/Mb), followed by intergenic regions (84 SSRs/Mb). A total of 684 SSRs were found in the protein-coding sequences (CDSs) of 588 gene models, with 81.4% of them being tri- or hexa-nucleotides. After scanning for InterPro domains, 280 of these genes were successfully annotated, and 215 of them could be assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) terms. SSRs were also identified in 28 bioactive compound synthesis-related gene models, including one 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), three polysaccharide biosynthesis genes and 24 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs). Primers were designed for the identified SSR loci, providing the basis for the future development of SSR markers of this medicinal fungus.

  9. Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2011-02-01

    Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l⁻¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l⁻¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l⁻¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up.

  10. Fungal-mediated nano silver: an effective adulticide against mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2012-11-01

    Fungi as such are known to be an effective mosquito control agent. In the present investigation, the effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized with Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Verticillium lecanii, and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi has been evaluated against the adult mosquito of filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer and X-ray diffraction techniques. The micrographs of silver nanoparticles were obtained by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. Elemental analysis on single particle was carried out by EDX analysis. The characterization study confirmed different shapes and sizes of silver nanoparticles. The efficacy test was performed at five different concentrations for a period of 24 h by the probit analysis. The C. quinquefasciatus has shown higher efficacy against the silver nanoparticles synthesized with C. keratinophilum and V. lecanii (lethal concentration (LC)(50) 0.19 and 0.4 μl/cm(2); LC(90) 2.4 and 3.2 μl/cm(2); and LC(99) 4.0 and 5.6 μl/cm(2)) after 22 h of exposure. While the silver nanoparticles synthesized with F. oxysporum f.sp. pisi were found to be less effective against the C. quinquefasciatus, the silver nanoparticles synthesized by C. keratinophilum and V. lecanii were found to be more effective than those generated with the help of F. oxysporum f.sp. pisi and C. quinquefasciatus. The use of fungus-mediated silver nanoparticles is a rapid, environmentally safer, and greener approach for vector control strategy and is adaptable globally.

  11. Efficacy of fungus mediated silver and gold nanoparticles against Aedes aegypti larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2012-01-01

    Chrysosporium tropicum is a pathogenic fungus. It is known to be an effective mosquito control agent. In the present study, we have synthesized the silver and gold nanoparticles using C. tropicum. These nanoparticles have been characterized through Microscan reader, X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscopy, and further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The characterization study confirmed the spherical shape and size (2-15 and 20-50 nm) of gold and silver nanoparticles. These silver and gold nanoparticles have been tested as a larvicide against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The larvicidal efficacy was noted when performed against all instars of A. aegypti at six different log concentrations, and significant results could be observed. The gold nanoparticles used as an efficacy enhancer have shown mortality at three times higher concentration than the silver nanoparticles. The larval mortality was observed after different time of exposures. The mortality values were obtained using the probit analysis. The larvae of A. aegypti were found to be highly susceptible for the silver nanoparticles. The second instar larvae have shown 100% mortality against the silver nanoparticles after 1 h, whereas the first, third, and fourth instars have shown efficacy (LC(50) = 3.47, 4, and 2; LC(90) = 12.30, 8.91, and 4; LC(99) = 13.18, 13.18, and 7.58, respectively) after 1 h. The results could suggest that the use of fungus C. tropicum, silver, and gold nanoparticles is a rapid, environmentally safer, and greener approach for mosquito control. This could lead us to a new possibility in vector control strategy.

  12. Catalytic activity of lignin peroxidase and partition of veratryl alcohol in AOT/isooctane/toluene/water reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Huang, Xirong; Li, Yuezhong; Qu, Yinbo; Gao, Peiji

    2006-04-01

    The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and the partition of its optimum substrate veratryl alcohol (VA) in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane/toluene/water reverse micelles were studied in this paper to understand the microheterogeneous effect of the medium on the catalytic properties of LiP hosted in the reverse micelle. Results showed that LiP from Phanerochaete chrysosporium could express its activity in the reverse micelles, but its activity depended, to a great extent, on the composition of the reverse micelles. Optimum activity occurred at a molar ratio of water to AOT (omega0) of 11, a pH value of 3.6, and a volume ratio of isooctane to toluene of 7-9. Under optimum conditions, the half-life of LiP was circa 12 h. The dependence of LiP activity on the volume fraction of water in the medium (theta), at a constant omega0 value of 11, indicated that VA was mainly solubilized in the pseudophase of the reverse micelle. Based on the pseudobiphasic model and the corresponding kinetic method, a linear line can be obtained in a plot of apparent Michaelis constant of VA vs theta, and the partition coefficient of VA between the pseudophase and the organic solvent phase was determined to be 35.8, which was higher than that (22.3) between bulk water and the corresponding mixed organic solvent. H2O2 inhibited LiP at concentrations higher than 80 microM; this concentration value seems to be different from that in aqueous solution (about 3 mM). The differences mentioned above should be ascribed to the microheterogeneity and the interface of the AOT reverse micelle.

  13. Substrate oxidation by dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) from wood- and litter-degrading agaricomycetes compared to other fungal and plant heme-peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liers, Christiane; Pecyna, Marek J; Kellner, Harald; Worrich, Anja; Zorn, Holger; Steffen, Kari T; Hofrichter, Martin; Ullrich, René

    2013-07-01

    Catalytic and physicochemical properties of representative fungal dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) of wood- (WRF) and litter-decomposing white-rot fungi (LDF) are summarized and compared, including one recombinant Mycetinis scorodonius DyP (rMscDyP; LDF), the wild-type Auricularia auricula-judae DyP (AauDyP; WRF), and two new DyPs secreted by the jelly fungi Exidia glandulosa (EglDyP; WRF) and Mycena epipterygia (MepDyP; LDF). Homogeneous preparations of these DyPs were obtained after different steps of fast protein liquid chromatography, and they increase the total number of characterized fungal DyP proteins to eight. The peptide sequences of AauDyP, MepDyP, and EglDyP showed highest homologies (52-56%) to the DyPs of M. scorodonius. Five out of the eight characterized fungal DyPs were used to evaluate their catalytic properties compared to classic fungal and plant heme peroxidases, namely lignin peroxidase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PchLiP; WRF), versatile peroxidase of Bjerkandera adusta (BadVP; WRF), and generic peroxidases of Coprinopsis cinerea (CiP) and Glycine max (soybean peroxidase=SBP). All DyPs tested possess unique properties regarding the stability at low pH values: 50-90% enzymatic activity remained after 4-h exposition at pH 2.5, and the oxidation of nonphenolic aromatic substrates (lignin model compounds) was optimal below pH 3. Furthermore, all DyPs efficiently oxidized recalcitrant dyes (e.g., Azure B) as well as the phenolic substrate 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. Thus, DyPs combine features of different peroxidases on the functional level and may be part of the biocatalytic system secreted by fungi for the oxidation of lignin and/or toxic aromatic compounds.

  14. Evaluation of lignin-based black liquor decolorization by Trametes versicolor U 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amriani, Feni; Sari, Ajeng Arum; R. Irni Fitria, A.; Abimanyu, Haznan; Tachibana, Sanro

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol second generation (G-2) production process generated black liquor that need to treat before the disposal to prevent environmental pollution. Usually, coagulation technology using polyaluminium chloride was employed to precipitate dissolved lignin and intended to decolorize black liquor. However, this single work is not effective to treat black liquor, so that it requires another work to treat remain brownish liquor. Isolated fungal strain from Japan Trametes versicolor U 80 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are white rot fungi that are known in ligninolytic enzymes secretion to biodegrade soluble lignin. Decolorization of black and brownish liquor is an indicator of fungi works since lignin is known as the colour agent in liquor colouration. This work evaluated black and brownish liquor decolorization using both fungi that correspond to fungal growth. Liquor toxicity was observed based on mycelial dry weight after 30 days incubation as the presumption of the connection of fungal growth and decolorization. The biosorption from the dead cell was also evaluated for fungal adsorption capability in black and brownish decolorization. As the result, T. versicolor U 80 was able to decolorize brownish liquor 51.5% after 21 days incubation and 68.6% black liquor at 15 days incubation. MnP and Laccase enzymes activity in 15 and 21 days are correlated to those decolorized results. The dead cell was also able to decolorize 67.3% brownish liquor and 25.1% black liquor after 15 days incubation as biosorption mechanism. This research described fungal potential in decolorization as the simple black liquor treatment technology and gave valuable information related to environmental friendly decolorization process.

  15. Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D/Souza, T.M.; Merritt, C.S.; Reddy, C.A.

    1999-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was readily seen in cultures grown with pine or poplar as the sole carbon and energy source. Cultures containing both pine and poplar showed 5- to 10-fold-higher levels of laccase than cultures containing pine or poplar alone. Since syringyl units are structural components important in poplar lignin and other hardwoods but much less so in pine lignin and other softwoods, pine cultures were supplemented with syringic acid, and this resulted in laccase levels comparable to those seen in pine-plus-poplar cultures. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated extracellular culture fluid from HM cultures showed two laccase activity bands, where as isoelectric focusing revealed five major laccase activity bands with estimated pIs of 3.0, 4.25, 4.5, and 5.1. Low levels of MnP activity were detected in poplar-grown cultures but not in cultures grown with pine, with pine plus syringic acid, or in HN medium. No LiP activity was seen in any of the media tested; however, probing the genomic DNA with the LiP cDNA (CLG4) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed distinct hybridization bands suggesting the presence of lip-like sequences in G. lucidum.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-07-19

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  17. PRODUCTION OF ENRICHED BIOMASS BY RED YEASTS OF SPOROBOLOMYCES SP. GROWN ON WASTE SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Breierova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids and ergosterol are industrially significant metabolites probably involved in yeast stress response mechanisms. Thus, controlled physiological and nutrition stress including use of waste substrates can be used for their enhanced production. In this work two red yeast strains of the genus Sporobolomyces (Sporobolomyces roseus, Sporobolomyces shibatanus were studied. To increase the yield of metabolites at improved biomass production, several types of exogenous as well as nutrition stress were tested. Each strain was cultivated at optimal growth conditions and in medium with modified carbon and nitrogen sources. Synthetic media with addition of complex substrates (e.g. yeast extract and vitamin mixtures as well as some waste materials (whey, apple fibre, wheat, crushed pasta were used as nutrient sources. Peroxide and salt stress were applied too, cells were exposed to oxidative stress (2-10 mM H2O2 and osmotic stress (2-10 % NaCl. During the experiment, growth characteristics and the production of biomass, carotenoids and ergosterol were evaluated. In optimal conditions tested strains substantially differed in biomass as well as metabolite production. S.roseus produced about 50 % of biomass produced by S.shibatanus (8 g/L. Oppositely, production of pigments and ergosterol by S.roseus was 3-4 times higher than in S.shibatanus. S.roseus was able to use most of waste substrates, the best production of ergosterol (8.9 mg/g d.w. and beta-carotene (4.33 mg/g d.w. was obtained in medium with crushed pasta hydrolyzed by mixed enzyme from Phanerochaetae chrysosporium. Regardless very high production of carotenes and ergosterol, S.roseus is probably not suitable for industrial use because of relatively low biomass production.

  18. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  19. REGULATION OF COAL POLYMER DEGRADATION BY FUNGI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Bumpus

    1998-11-30

    A variety of lignin degrading fungi mediate solubilization and subsequent biodegradation of coal macromolecules (a.k.a. coal polymer) from highly oxidized low rank coals such as leonardites. It appears that oxalate or possibly other metal chelators (i.e., certain Krebs Cycle intermediates) mediate solubilization of low rank coals while extracellular oxidases have a role in subsequent oxidation of solubilized coal macromolecule. These processes are under nutritional control. For example, in the case of P. chrysosporium, solubilization of leonardite occurred when the fungi were cultured on most but not all nutrient agars tested and subsequent biodegradation occurred only in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures. Lignin peroxidases mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule in a reaction that is dependent on the presence of veratryl alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic evidence suggests that veratryl alcohol is oxidized to the veratryl alcohol cation radical which then mediates oxidation of the coal macromolecule. Results by others suggest that Mn peroxidases mediate formation of reactive Mn{sup 3+} complexes which also mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule. A biomimetic approach was used to study solubilization of a North Dakota leonardite. It was found that a concentration {approximately}75 mM sodium oxalate was optimal for solubilization of this low rank coal. This is important because this is well above the concentration of oxalate produced by fungi in liquid culture. Higher local concentrations probably occur in solid agar cultures and thus may account for the observation that greater solubilization occurs in agar media relative to liquid media. The characteristics of biomimetically solubilized leonardite were similar to those of biologically solubilized leonardite. Perhaps our most interesting observation was that in addition to oxalate, other common Lewis bases (phosphate/hydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate and bicarbonate/carbonate ions) are able to mediate

  20. Growing Incidence of Non-Dermatophyte Onychomycosis in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Marjan; Ghasemi, Zeinab; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinpour, Leila; Khodadadi, Hossein; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-dermatophyte onychomycosis (NDO) is caused by a wide range of mold fungi other than dermatophytes, and has been reported at various rates in different countries worldwide. Studies on the incidence of NDO in the community are essential for understanding its epidemiology and control, as well as for the appropriate treatment of these infections. Objectives In this study, the incidence of NDO in Tehran, Iran, was compared to the incidence of onychomycoses due to dermatophytes and yeasts. Methods From 2014 through 2015, samples from a total of 1,069 patients with suspected fungal nail diseases, who were referred to three medical mycology laboratories in Tehran, were collected and subjected to direct examination (all samples) and culture (788 samples). Differentiation of the causative agents of onychomycosis was based on microscopic observation of characteristic fungal elements in the nail samples and growth of a significant number of identical colonies on the culture plate. Results Based on only direct microscopy, onychomycosis was diagnosed in 424 (39.6%) cases, among which 35.8% were caused by dermatophytes, 32.7% by yeasts, and 29.3% by non-dermatophyte molds (NDMs), while 2.2% were mixed infections. Direct exam was significantly more sensitive than culture for the diagnosis. The most commonly isolated NDMs were Aspergillus spp. (69.3%, n = 52), followed by Fusarium spp. (n = 7). The other isolated species were Paecilomyces spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Acremonium spp., Cladosporium spp., and Chrysosporium spp., with only one case of each. Conclusions An increasing frequency of NDO compared to onychomycosis due to other causative agents has been noticeable over the past few years in Iran. This epidemiological data may be useful in the development of preventive and educational strategies. PMID:27800138

  1. Evaluation of elemental sulphur in biodesulphurized low rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Gonsalvesh; S.P. Marinov; M. Stefanova; R. Carleer; J. Yperman [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2011-09-15

    A new procedure for elemental sulphur (S{sup el}) determination in coal and its fractions is offered. It includes exhaustive CHCl{sub 3} extraction and subsequent quantitative analysis of the extracts by HPLC using C{sub 18} reversed phase column. Its application gives ground to achieve better sulphur balance and to specify the changes in the organic and elemental sulphur as a result of biotreatments. Two Bulgarian high sulphur containing coal samples, i.e. subbituminious (Pirin) and lignite (Maritza East), and one Turkish lignite (Cayirhan-Beypazari) are used. Prior to biotreatments, the samples are demineralized and depyritized. In the biodesulphurization processes, the applied microorganisms are: the white rot fungi 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' - ME446 and the thermophilic and acidophilic archae 'Sulfolobus Solfataricus' - ATCC 35091. In the preliminary demineralized and depyritized coals, the highest presence of S{sup el} is registered, which is explained by their natural weathering. As a result of the implemented biotreatments, the amount of S{sup el} could be reduced in the range of 16.1-53.8%. The content of S{sub el} is also assessed as part of the total sulphur and organic sulphur. The following range of S{sup el} content is measured: 0.01-0.16 wt.% or 0.3-4.6% of total sulphur and 0.3-5.1% of organic sulphur. In this way, more precise information is obtained concerning the content of organic sulphur presence. 31 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

  3. Bio-Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mine by Fungi: Batch and Fixed Bed Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Soleimanifar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD containing high concentrations of iron and sulphate, low pH and variableconcentrations of heavy metals leads to many environmental problems. The concentrations of Cu and Mnare high in the AMD of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman province, south of Iran. In thisstudy, the bio-remediation of Cu and Mn ions from acid mine drainage was investigated using two nativefungi called Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium which were extracted from the soil andsediment samples of the Shour River at the Sarcheshmeh mine. The live fungi was first harvested andthen killed by boiling in 0.5 N NaOH solution. The biomass was finally dried at 60 C for 24 h andpowdered. The optimum biosorption parameters including pH, temperature, the amount of biosorbent andcontact time were determined in a batch system. The optimum pH varied between 5 and 6. It was foundthat the biosorption process increased with an increase in temperature and the amount of biosorbent.Biosorption data were attempted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and showed a good match.Kinetic studies were also carried out in the present study. The results show that the second-order kineticsmodel fits well the experimental data. The biosorption experiments were further investigated with acontinuous system to compare the biosorption capacities of two systems. The results show thatbiosorption process using a continuous system increases efficiency up to 99%. A desorption process waseventually performed in order to recover Copper and Manganese ions. This process was successful andfungi could be used again.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Zeiner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a. We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  5. Identification and expression analysis of a new glycoside hydrolase family 55 exo-β-1,3-glucanase-encoding gene in Volvariella volvacea suggests a role in fruiting body development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yongxin; Xie, Baogui; Yang, Zhiyun; Chen, Zhihong; Chen, Bingzhi; Deng, Youjin; Jiang, Yuji; van Peer, Arend F

    2013-09-15

    The edible straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea is an important crop in South East Asia and is predominantly harvested in the egg stage. Rapid stipe elongation and cap expansion result in a swift transition from the egg to elongation and maturation stage, which are subjected to fast senescence and deterioration. In other mushrooms, β-1,3-glucanases have been associated with degradation (softening) of the cell wall during stipe elongation and senescence. We present a new glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) exo-β-1,3-glucanase gene, exg2, and highly conserved deduced EXG2 protein. The 3D model and presumed catalytic residues of V. volvacea EXG2 are identical to Lentinula edodes EXG2 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium Lam55A, supporting similar enzymatic functions. In addition to previous association to stipe elongation and senescence, our data clearly indicates a role for cap (pileus) expansion. Digital gene expression, quantitative PCR and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification analysis showed low exg2 and EXG2 levels in primordia, button, egg and elongation stages and significantly increased levels in the maturation stage. Subsequent relative quantitative PCR analysis designated expression of exg2 to the stipe in the elongation stage and to the pileus and stipe in the maturation stage. EXG2 cell wall softening activity, close correlation of exg2 expression with the principal expanding mushroom tissues and a strong conservation of expression patterns and protein sequences in other mushrooms, make V. volvacea exg2 an important candidate for future studies on mechanisms of fruiting body expansion and senescence causing commodity value loss.

  6. Inducción fúngica de la biorremediación de suelos contaminados con combustibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lopretti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La biorremediación de suelos ha sido en los últimos años una de las aplicaciones de los procesos de la biotecnología industrial que se ha desarrollado en busca de soluciones  naturales y eficientes al problema de la contaminación.Varios son los microorganismos que viven en condiciones extremas, desarrollando estrategias metabólicas que les permiten tener sus vías metabólicas aptas para vivir y reproducirse. Dentro de estas estrategias  se encuentra la acción de enzimas hidrolíticas, oxidativas y depolimerizantes que permiten modificar sustratos complejos como lo son los derivados del petróleo  y entre ellos los combustibles.En el presente trabajo se estudió la acción de dos hongos Gloeophylum trabeum y Phanerochaetes chrysosporium actuando en forma consorcial sobre sustratos  contaminados con gasoil y nafta.Se prepararon 4 reactores de fermentación sólida: dos de ellos blanco, contaminados sin inducción, y de los otros dos uno con nafta y el otro con gasoil inoculados ambos con 100cc de medio de propagación con micelios de P.chrysosporium y 50cc de medio de crecimiento con pellets de G. trabeum. Se extrajeron muestras cada 15 días y se evaluó  en el material de cada reactor características fisicoquímicas como %C, humedad y pH.También se realizó la evaluación microbiológica por siembra en placa y dilución en placa con agar malta al 1,25%. En todos los casos se obtuvieron micelios.Por último se determinó la actividad de enzimas lacasa  y peroxidasa. La actividad lacasa se determinó por espectrometría usando 0.5mM de ABTS como sustrato en 0,1M de buffer acetato de sodio pH5 y 1 ml de extracto obtenido por extracción salina. La determinación de actividad Mn peroxidasa se realizó con 0.01% de rojo fenol como sustrato en buffer succinato de sodio 0.1M en presencia de 1 ml de extracto enzimático, MnSO4 0.1M y H2O2 0.1M.Las actividad  de éstas enzimas permitió obtener moléculas mas pequeñas producto de la

  7. Biodegradation aspects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritash, A K; Kaushik, C P

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H(2)O, CO(2) (aerobic) or CH(4) (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate

  8. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haritash, A.K., E-mail: akharitash@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India); Kaushik, C.P. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} (aerobic) or CH{sub 4} (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  9. Producción de enzimas lignolíticas por Basidiomycetes mediante la técnica de fermentación en sustrato sólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Torres Angélica María

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La fermentación en sustrato sólido tiene amplias aplicaciones industriales; actualmente, las enzimas son emplea­das principalmente para la obtención de lácteos, edulcolorantes, fármacos, alimentos, licores, detergentes, etc. La degradación enzimática de la lignina es llevada a cabo por la acción de los hongos del género Basidiomycetes mediante un proceso no-específico y oxidativo de tres tipos diferentes de enzimas: Lacasa, Lignina-peroxidasa y Manganeso-peroxidasa; la no-especificidad de éstas es de gran importancia para la degradación de diversas sus­tancias recalcitrantes que muestran similitudes estructurales con la lignina como son los PAH's, PCB's, DDT, colo­rantes azoicos, etc. El trabajo de investigación se realizó utilizando reactores a nivel de matraces y teniendo como sustrato siete diferentes desechos agroindustriales de la región de Santander ( de los cuales se desconoce su pro­ducción de enzimas lignolíticas: tuza de mazorca, bagazo de caña, hoja de pina, cacota de cacao, cereza de café, tamo de arroz, salvado de trigo y paja de trigo. El objetivo general fue evaluar la capacidad de los Basidiomycetes: Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus floridae y Phanerochaete chrysosporium de crecer sobre los desechos agroindustriales y producir las enzimas lignolíticas: Lacasa, Lignina-peroxidasa y Manganeso-peroxidasa; mediante la técnica de fermentación sólida. Se encontró que la producción de enzimas lignolíticas en los sustratos mencionados fue sensible a la concentración de azúcares reductores, condiciones de pH, contenidos de humedad y, dependiente del tipo de inductor presente en el medio de cultivo. El sustrato que presentó una mejor producción de Lacasa y Manganeso-peroxidasa fue la paja de trigo. Se observó la producción de Lignina-peroxidasa en cultivos de tuza de mazorca y salvado de trigo. Palabras clave: enzimas inducibles; Lacasa; Mn-peroxidasa; Li-peroxidasa; desechos agroindustriales; represi

  10. Effect of biotic lignin decomposition on the fate of radiocesium-contaminated plant litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Yoshihara, Toshihiro [Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko 1646, Abiko-shi, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    .e., Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC32629), Pleurotus pulmonarius (ATCC32078), Stropharia rugosoannulata (ATCC60010), and Trametes versicolor (ATCC96186). Quantitative assessment of mass loss, lignin degradation, and radiocesium distribution in the inoculated litter indicated that leaching of radiocesium could be facilitated by biotic lignin decomposition with white-rot fungi. Further data are required to elucidate the lignin substructure that allows absorption of radiocesium. (authors)

  11. Biological degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Núñez, A; Caballero, A; Ramos, J L

    2001-09-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are xenobiotics that have found multiple applications in the synthesis of foams, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives. These compounds are toxic and recalcitrant and are degraded relatively slowly in the environment by microorganisms. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most widely used nitroaromatic compound. Certain strains of Pseudomonas and fungi can use TNT as a nitrogen source through the removal of nitrogen as nitrite from TNT under aerobic conditions and the further reduction of the released nitrite to ammonium, which is incorporated into carbon skeletons. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other fungi mineralize TNT under ligninolytic conditions by converting it into reduced TNT intermediates, which are excreted to the external milieu, where they are substrates for ligninolytic enzymes. Most if not all aerobic microorganisms reduce TNT to the corresponding amino derivatives via the formation of nitroso and hydroxylamine intermediates. Condensation of the latter compounds yields highly recalcitrant azoxytetranitrotoluenes. Anaerobic microorganisms can also degrade TNT through different pathways. One pathway, found in Desulfovibrio and Clostridium, involves reduction of TNT to triaminotoluene; subsequent steps are still not known. Some Clostridium species may reduce TNT to hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes, which are then further metabolized. Another pathway has been described in Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11 and involves nitrite release and further reduction to ammonium, with almost 85% of the N-TNT incorporated as organic N in the cells. It was recently reported that in this strain TNT can serve as a final electron acceptor in respiratory chains and that the reduction of TNT is coupled to ATP synthesis. In this review we also discuss a number of biotechnological applications of bacteria and fungi, including slurry reactors, composting, and land farming, to remove TNT from polluted soils. These treatments have been designed to achieve

  12. Isolation of viscous-oil degrading microorganism and biodegradation to resin%稠油降解菌的筛选及其对胶质降解作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大威; 张健; 齐义彬; 马挺

    2012-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium; laccase; resistant to nutritional repression; regulation of carbon and nitrogen nutrition%[目的]以胶质为唯一碳源,从中海油南堡35-2油田地层水中经富集培养,为海上油田稠油降解及提高稠油采收率研究奠定基础.[方法]利用富集培养和胶质平板法分离胶质降解菌株,对分离菌株通过形态特征、16S rRNA基因进行鉴定,对菌株的理化性质进行分析,并对其降解胶质和稠油的性能进行研究.[结果]分离筛选出细菌菌株21株,并从中筛选出性能较好的4株.经鉴定为分别为Q4-油杆菌(Petrobacter sp.)、QB9-嗜热脂肪地芽胞杆菌(Geobacillus stearothermophilus)、QB26-地衣芽胞杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis)、QB36-白色地芽胞杆菌(Geobacillus pallidus),其中QB26菌株效果最好,对该菌株的理化性质进行了分析,并对其降解胶质和稠油的性能进行了研究.结果显示,该菌株可在厌氧条件下生长,并能适应地层环境.分离菌株作用稠油后,饱和烃相对含量均有不同程度的上升,芳香烃、胶质、沥青质相对含量降低,能使胶质相对含量降低5.1%,沥青质相对含量降低2.7%.[结论]分离菌株对NB35-2油田稠油中的胶质具有一定的降解作用,在微生物采油和原油污染处理方面具有应用潜力.

  13. 玉米秸秆木质素降解过程的CP/MAS13CNMR和SEM表征%CP/MAS13CNMR and SEM Characterization of Corn Stover Lignin Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 张全; 孟雪松; 凌凤香

    2013-01-01

    利用黄孢原毛平革茵对玉米秸秆木质素进行降解处理,通过CP/MAS 13CNMR和SEM研究降解过程中木质素的结构变化.CP/MAS 13CNMR结果表明:玉米秸秆木质素降解过程中,作为木质素结构单元主要连接方式的β-O-4键基本上没有被降解;木质素单位苯环的甲氧基含量稍有增加;S/G值降低,推断反应过程中紫丁香基优先参与反应.SEM结果表明:降解后的木质素空穴增多且增大、颗粒物质减少,主要是由于酶解木质素中大量碳水化合物的降解(所)致;比木质素更容易降解的纤维素和半纤维素也存在于样品中.CP/MAS13CNMR为木质纤维原料结构的定性和初步定量提供了可能,是传统定量表征手段的有力补充,具有一定的研究意义.%The structure changes of corn stover lignin treated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were studied by CP/MAS 13CNMR and SEM.CP/MAS 13CNMR Results showed that bond β-O-4 didn't be degraded,the content of-OCH3 increased after degradation,S/G value decreased,and syringyl structure was priority to take part in the reaction.SEM Results showed that the surface holes of corn stover lignin increased both in number and in volume,and the particle matters reduced,mainly due to the degradation caused by carbohydrate,there were cellulose and hemicellulose more easily degraded than lignin in the sample.CP/MAS 13CNMR Provides the possibility of qualitative and quantitative characterization for wood materials structure,which is a strong supplement to the traditional quantitative characterization methods,and has some research significance.

  14. A fungal P450 (CYP5136A3 capable of oxidizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and endocrine disrupting alkylphenols: role of Trp(129 and Leu(324.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khajamohiddin Syed

    Full Text Available The model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which is known for its versatile pollutant-biodegradation ability, possesses an extraordinarily large repertoire of P450 monooxygenases in its genome. However, the majority of these P450s have hitherto unknown function. Our initial studies using a genome-wide gene induction strategy revealed multiple P450s responsive to individual classes of xenobiotics. Here we report functional characterization of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP5136A3 that showed common responsiveness and catalytic versatility towards endocrine-disrupting alkylphenols (APs and mutagenic/carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Using recombinant CYP5136A3, we demonstrated its oxidation activity towards APs with varying alkyl side-chain length (C3-C9, in addition to PAHs (3-4 ring size. AP oxidation involves hydroxylation at the terminal carbon of the alkyl side-chain (ω-oxidation. Structure-activity analysis based on a 3D model indicated a potential role of Trp(129 and Leu(324 in the oxidation mechanism of CYP5136A3. Replacing Trp(129 with Leu (W129L and Phe (W129F significantly diminished oxidation of both PAHs and APs. The W129L mutation caused greater reduction in phenanthrene oxidation (80% as compared to W129F which caused greater reduction in pyrene oxidation (88%. Almost complete loss of oxidation of C3-C8 APs (83-90% was observed for the W129L mutation as compared to W129F (28-41%. However, the two mutations showed a comparable loss (60-67% in C9-AP oxidation. Replacement of Leu(324 with Gly (L324G caused 42% and 54% decrease in oxidation activity towards phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively. This mutation also caused loss of activity towards C3-C8 APs (20-58%, and complete loss of activity toward nonylphenol (C9-AP. Collectively, the results suggest that Trp(129 and Leu(324 are critical in substrate recognition and/or regio-selective oxidation of PAHs and APs. To our knowledge, this is the first

  15. Preliminary geochemical, microbiological, and epidemiological investigations into possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and kidney disease in northwestern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Gifford, Amie M.; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E.; Shi, Runhua; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C.; Kolak, Jonathan; Warwick, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    In May 2002, 15 wells and four surface water sites were sampled, and in September 2002, those same wells and sites plus four additional surface sites were sampled in five parishes of northwestern Louisiana. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to select residential water wells for sampling. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically), and metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and evidence of leptospiral bacterial presence. A polymerase chain reaction protocol was optimized for detection of pathogenic leptospires, and the sensitivity of the assay was determined. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and the incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the overall number of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO4 and NH3, and thirteen chemical elements (As, B, Br, Cl, Cr, F, Li, Na, P, Rb, Se, Sr, W) from the well water as compared to the controls. Among the species of fungi from the total of 136 isolates were 12 Penicillium spp., at least two Aspergillus spp., a number of other genera (Alternaria sp., Eupenicillium lapidosum, Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum sp., Trichoderma sp., Paecilomyces sp., Chrysosporium sp., Chloridium sp.), and Zygomycetes, and Coelmycetes -- some of which are known mycotoxin producers. The two control wells yielded a mean of 6.5 (SD = 3.5355) individual isolates, while the mean number of isolates from all other sites was 7.6 (SD = 4.4866). Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was

  16. Enzymatic Strategies and Carbon Use Efficiency of a Litter-Decomposing Fungus Grown on Maize Leaves, Stems, and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Gainvors-Claisse, Angélique; Recous, Sylvie; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms can control the soil cycles of carbon (C), and depending on their C-use efficiency (CUE), these microorganisms either contribute to C stabilization in soil or produce CO2 when decomposing organic matter. However, little is known regarding the enzyme investment of microbial decomposers and the effects on their CUE. Our objective was to elucidate the strategies of litter-decomposing fungi as a function of litter quality. Fungal biosynthesis and respiration were accounted for by quantifying the investment in enzyme synthesis and enzyme efficiency. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown on the leaves, stems, and roots of maize over 126 days in controlled conditions. We periodically measured the fungal biomass, enzyme activity, and chemical composition of the remaining litter and continuously measured the evolved C-CO2. The CUE observed for the maize litter was highest in the leaves (0.63), intermediate in the roots (0.40), and lowest in the stems (0.38). However, the enzyme efficiency and investment in enzyme synthesis did not follow the same pattern. The amount of litter C decomposed per mole of C-acquiring hydrolase activity was 354 μg C in the leaves, 246 μg C in the roots, and 1541 μg C in the stems (enzyme efficiency: stems > leaves > roots). The fungus exhibited the highest investment in C-acquiring enzyme when grown on the roots and produced 40-80% less enzyme activity when grown on the stems and leaves (investment in enzymes: roots > leaves > stems). The CUE was dependent on the initial availability and replenishment of the soluble substrate fraction with the degradation products. The production of these compounds was either limited because of the low enzyme efficiency, which occurred in the roots, or because of the low investments in enzyme synthesis, which occurred in the stems. Fungal biosynthesis relied on the ability of the fungus to invest in enzyme synthesis and the efficient interactions between the enzymes and

  17. Application of compounded microbial inoculants on composting process of excess activated sludge%微生物复合菌剂对污泥好氧堆肥过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳建新; 施周; 崔凯龙; 钟华; 梁运姗

    2011-01-01

    研究了黄孢原毛平革菌与枯草芽孢杆菌复合荫剂在剩余污泥静态强制通风好氧堆肥中的作用.结果表明,根据堆肥过程中的温度(0~5d为中温阶段,6~12d为高温阶段,16~28d为腐熟阶段)变化,复合菌剂的变化导致堆体细菌数量明显高于空白堆体,且堆体中的嗜热真菌在高温期显著增多,促进了有机物的降解,加速了堆体的腐熟.试验组萝卜种子发芽指数(GI)相对空白组提前3d达到了50%,表明复合菌剂的加入迅速地降低了堆体的生物毒性,但由于相对浓缩效应使得堆肥产品Cd含量略有增加.%The study focused on the effect of microbial inoculant composite (Bacillus subtili and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) on static composting of excess activated sludge under forced ventilation.According to the temperature change in the composting process (mesophilic(0~5d), thermophilic (6~12d), and maturing(13~28d)), the number of bacterial population of the compost inoculated with the microbes was obviously higher than that of the control, and the population of the thermophilic fungi also significantly increased in the thermophilic stage,effectively enhanceing the degradation of organic matter and accelerateing maturing of the compost.The germination index (GI) of radish seed for the experiment group reached 50% spending 3d less than that for the control one,indicating that addition of the compound microbial inoculant acutely accelerated the decreasing of the compost biological toxicity.However, due to the relative enrichment effect, the Cd (II) content of compost product increased slightly.

  18. A kingdom-specific protein domain HMM library for improved annotation of fungal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stephen G

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pfam is a general-purpose database of protein domain alignments and profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMs, which is very popular for the annotation of sequence data produced by genome sequencing projects. Pfam provides models that are often very general in terms of the taxa that they cover and it has previously been suggested that such general models may lack some of the specificity or selectivity that would be provided by kingdom-specific models. Results Here we present a general approach to create domain libraries of HMMs for sub-taxa of a kingdom. Taking fungal species as an example, we construct a domain library of HMMs (called Fungal Pfam or FPfam using sequences from 30 genomes, consisting of 24 species from the ascomycetes group and two basidiomycetes, Ustilago maydis, a fungal pathogen of maize, and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In addition, we include the Microsporidion Encephalitozoon cuniculi, an obligate intracellular parasite, and two non-fungal species, the oomycetes Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum, both plant pathogens. We evaluate the performance in terms of coverage against the original 30 genomes used in training FPfam and against five more recently sequenced fungal genomes that can be considered as an independent test set. We show that kingdom-specific models such as FPfam can find instances of both novel and well characterized domains, increases overall coverage and detects more domains per sequence with typically higher bitscores than Pfam for the same domain families. An evaluation of the effect of changing E-values on the coverage shows that the performance of FPfam is consistent over the range of E-values applied. Conclusion Kingdom-specific models are shown to provide improved coverage. However, as the models become more specific, some sequences found by Pfam may be missed by the models in FPfam and some of the families represented in the test set are not present in FPfam

  19. Study on Impact Factors of Manganese-Dependent Peroxidase Produced by White Rot Fungi%白腐真菌产锰过氧化物酶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余梅; 阮小文; 谭丽泉; 卢玉娟

    2014-01-01

    以锰过氧化物酶活性为评价指标,研究各种因子对白腐真菌生长及产锰过氧化物酶的影响。结果表明:藜芦醇、苯甲醇和吐温80的添加有利于促进白腐真菌的生长及产锰过氧化物酶活性,在浓度分别为150 mg·L-1、150 mg ·L-1、14 mg·L-1时对白腐真菌生长及产锰过氧化物酶促进作用最好;Ca2+、Fe2+对白腐真菌生长及产锰过氧化物酶活性的影响是一致的,均表现为“先促进,后抑制”的作用;Cu2+浓度小于0.4 mg·L-1时能略微促进白腐真菌的生长及产锰过氧化物酶活性,大于该浓度时具有较明显的抑制作用。%Taking enzyme activity of manganese-dependent peroxidase as the assessment index,the effects of several factors on the characterizations of growth and production of manganese-dependent peroxidase(MnP)by white rot fungi(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)were studied.Results indicated that,veratryl alcohol(150 mg· L-1 ),benzyl alcohol(150 mg·L-1 )and Tween 80(14 mg·L-1 )could stimulate the growth of white rot fungi and activity of MnP.Effects on the growth of white rot fungi and activity of MnP were the same with addition of Ca2+ and Fe2+ ,which was promoted at beginning and inhibited later.When Cu2+ concentration was lower than 0.4 mg·L-1 ,Cu2+ cound promote the growth of white rot fungi and activity of MnP,while it could inhibit the growth of white rot fungi and activity of MnP when the concentration was mare than 0.4 mg·L-1 .

  20. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Porollo, Aleksey; Lam, Ying Wai; Grimmett, Paul E; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2013-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons, albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was found to possess a broad oxidizing capability toward structurally diverse hydrocarbons belonging to mutagenic/carcinogenic fused-ring higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs), endocrine-disrupting long-chain alkylphenols (APs), and crude oil aliphatic hydrocarbon n-alkanes. A homology-based three-dimensional (3D) model revealed the presence of an extraordinarily large active-site cavity in CYP63A2 compared to the mammalian PAH-oxidizing (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1) and bacterial aliphatic-hydrocarbon-oxidizing (CYP101D and CYP102A1) P450s. This structural feature in conjunction with ligand docking simulations suggested potential versatility of the enzyme. Experimental characterization using recombinantly expressed CYP63A2 revealed its ability to oxidize HMW-PAHs of various ring sizes, including 4 rings (pyrene and fluoranthene), 5 rings [benzo(a)pyrene], and 6 rings [benzo(ghi)perylene], with the highest enzymatic activity being toward the 5-ring PAH followed by the 4-ring and 6-ring PAHs, in that order. Recombinant CYP63A2 activity yielded monohydroxylated PAH metabolites. The enzyme was found to also act as an alkane ω-hydroxylase that oxidized n-alkanes with various chain lengths (C9 to C12 and C15 to C19), as well as alkyl side chains (C3 to C9) in alkylphenols (APs). CYP63A2 showed preferential oxidation of long-chain APs and alkanes. To our knowledge, this is the first P450 identified from any of the biological kingdoms that possesses such broad substrate specificity toward structurally diverse xenobiotics (PAHs, APs, and alkanes), making it a potent enzyme biocatalyst candidate to handle mixed pollution (e.g., crude oil spills).

  1. Gold nanoparticles/water-soluble carbon nanotubes/aromatic diamine polymer composite films for highly sensitive detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li Zhen, E-mail: happylizhen@yeah.ne [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Tang Lin; Wu Mengshi; Lei Xiaoxia; Liu Yuanyuan; Liu Can; Pang Ya; Zhang Yi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-05-01

    Highlights: > Gold nanoparticles/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/poly (1,5-naphthalenediamine) modified electrode was fabricated. > The sensor was applied for the detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase genes. > An effective method to distribute MWCNTs and attach to the electrode was proposed. > The composite films greatly improved the sensitivity and enhanced the DNA immobilization. > The DNA biosensor exhibited fairly high sensitivity and quite low detection limit. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/poly (1,5-naphthalenediamine) films modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated. The effectiveness of the sensor was confirmed by sensitive detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) gene which was extracted from Phanerochaete chrysosporium using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The monomer of 1,5-naphthalenediamine was electropolymerized on the GCE surface with abundant free amino groups which enhanced the stability of MWCNTs modified electrode. Congo red (CR)-functionalized MWCNTs possess excellent conductivity as well as high solubility in water which enabled to form the uniform and stable network nanostructures easily and created a large number of binding sites for electrodeposition of GNPs. The continuous GNPs together with MWCNTs greatly increased the surface area, conductivity and electrocatalytic activity. This electrode structure significantly improved the sensitivity of sensor and enhanced the DNA immobilization and hybridization. The thiol modified capture probes were immobilized onto the composite films-modified GCE by a direct formation of thiol-Au bond and horseradish peroxidase-streptavidin (HRP-SA) conjugates were labeled to the biotinylated detection probes through biotin-streptavidin bond. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to investigate the film assembly and DNA hybridization processes

  2. Fungi in housefly (Musca domestica L.) as a disease risk indicator-A case study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2014-12-01

    Houseflies are the commonest insects which have increasingly overcrowded human dwellings, particularly in rural areas and constitute a health hazard. In the environment they move back and forth by feeding and breeding on food commodities and filth. This may lead to the spread of diseases and also mycotoxin-producing fungi. Thus frequent exposure to the activity of such houseflies will have an impact on the welfare of humans. The study investigated the natural occurrence of fungal contamination in housefly samples captured from different households and pit toilets from a rural community in South Africa. Fungal contamination data were based on the prevalence, contamination level and morphological characteristics of the different identified species. A total of 497 fungal isolates of 15 genera including Aspergillus (37%), Fusarium (17%), Penicillium (21%), Alternaria (1.4%), Chrysosporium (2%), Cladosporium (0.2%), Curvularia (0.4%), Epicoccum (1%), Eupenicillium (1%), Moniliella (9%), Mucor (2%), Nigrospora (1%), Rhizopus (2%), Scopulariopsis (2%) and Yeasts (3%) were identified from the external surfaces of both female and male houseflies. The range of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated from female and male houseflies were recorded with mean fungal load of 4.1×10(6), 8.4×10(6), 4.4×10(6), 3.3×10(5), 9.8×10(6), 2.2×10(4), 5.6×10(4), 2.9×10(6), 5.2×10(6), 4.7×10(6), 4.5×10(7), 4.6×10(6), 2.3×10(6), 4.9×10(7) and 6.4×10(6)CFU/ml, respectively. However, the range from The most dominant fungal isolates of the female housefly samples were Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, Penicillium verrucosum and Moniliella suaveolens, while A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, F. verticillioides, Fusarium proliferatum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum were most prevalent in male samples. The study proves that housefly is a vector for fungal spores. Therefore, it is crucial to implement housefly-control measures to curb the spread of diseases.

  3. Biotransformation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge by Two-Stage Integrated Processes -Lsb & Ssb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahangir Alam, A. H. Molla and A. Fakhru’l-Razi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of biotransformation of domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP sludge was conducted in laboratory-scale by two-stage integrated process i.e. liquid state bioconversion (LSB and solid state bioconversion (SSB processes. The liquid wastewater sludge [4% w/w of total suspended solids (TSS] was treated by mixed filamentous fungi Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger, isolated, screened and mixed cultured in terms of their higher biodegradation potential to wastewater sludge. The biosolids was increased to about 10% w/w. Conversely, the soluble [i.e. Total dissolve solid (TDS] and insoluble substances (TSS in treated supernatant were decreased effectively in the LSB process. In the developed LSB process, 93.8 g kg-1of biosolids were enriched with fungal biomass protein and nutrients (NPK, and 98.8% of TSS, 98.2% of TDS, 97.3% of turbidity, 80.2% of soluble protein, 98.8% of reducing sugar and 92.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD in treated sludge supernatant were removed after 8 days of treatment. Specific resistance to filtration (1.39x1012 m/kg was decreased tremendously by the microbial treatment of DWTP sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The treated biosolids in DWTP sludge was considered as pretreated resource materials for composting and converted into compost by SSB process. The SSB process was evaluated for composting by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation in composting bin (CB. The process was conducted using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 and (T/P and T. harzianum and Mucor hiemalis (T/M; and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD and rice straw (RS. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent solid state bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. Significant decrease of the C/N ratio and germination index (GI were attained as well as the higher value of glucosamine was exhibited in compost; which

  4. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Pawłowska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A; Mętrak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.

  5. 菌种添加量对生物预处理小麦秸秆厌氧发酵的影响%Effects of Supplement Dose of Microorganism in Biological Pretreatment of Wheat Straw on Its Characteristics of Anaerobic Digestion for Biogas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣厚; 吴晋锴; 武丽娟

    2012-01-01

    对小麦秸秆进行了氨-生物联合预处理,在实验室自制的小型厌氧发酵装置上,对预处理后的小麦秸秆进行了厌氧发酵制取沼气试验,探讨了氨-生物联合预处理中,菌种的添加量对小麦秸秆厌氧发酵产沼气的影响.结果表明,在氨预处理尿素溶液质量浓度为35 g/L,生物预处理pH值为4,黄孢原毛平革菌和里氏木霉的添加比例为1∶1(数量级为109)的条件下,小麦秸秆厌氧发酵过程中沼气总产气量最大,为7 968 mL,较空白组提高了23.11%.发酵过程终了pH值、VFA和甲烷的变化均在正常的范围内,甲烷最高体积分数为51.33%,较空白组提高了6.01%,整个发酵过程历时23 d.%Co-pretreatment of wheat straw by urea and microorganism was conducted. The effects of supplement dose of microorganism in biological pretreatment of wheat straw on its anaerobic digestion for biogas production were investigated by using a self-made anaerobic digestion device with pretreated wheat straw as raw materials. Results showed that the total yield of biogas reached the maximum of 7 968 mL, which was 23. 11% higher than the control, when the urea concentration, pH value of biological pretreatment and ratio of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to Trichoderma reesei added into the wheat straw were 35 g/L, 4, and 1:1, respectively. The values of VFA, CH4 and pH value were located in normal range. The maximum CH4 content was 51.33% , which was 6. 01% higher than that of control. The fermentation time was shortened to 23 d during the whole experiment.

  6. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil Isolamento de Microsporum gypseum do pelame de felídeos selvagens sadios mantidos em cativeiro no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Donnarumma Levy Bentubo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken from 130 adult animals of both sexes: 25 lions (Panthera leo, 12 tigers (Panthera tigris, 6 jaguars (Panthera onca, 4 leopards (Panthera pardus, 2 snow leopards (Panthera uncia, 2 pumas (Puma concolor, 2 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, 1 ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, 28 tiger cats (Leopardus tigrinus, 10 margays (Leopardus wiedii, 8 geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi, 22 jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi and 8 pampas cats (Oncifelis colocolo. The samples were obtained by rubbing the haircoat of the animals with squares of sterile carpet, and then seeded onto Petri dishes containing Mycobiotic agar (Difco™. The plates were incubated at 25°C for 4 weeks. The isolates were subcultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (100mg/L and cultured on slides for posterior identification by their macro- and microscopic characteristics. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from two apparently healthy lionesses (1.6%, both kept in terrariums. The most prevalent contaminants were of the genera Penicillium (27.9%; Cladosporium (24.5%; Acremonium (12.1%; Scopulariopsis and Chrysosporium (9.8%; and Aspergillus (5.3%. The occurrence of dermatophytes in the haircoat of healthy wild felids, maintained in captivity, confirms their status as asymptomatic carriers and characterizes them as sources of infection for other animals and for humans.Os dermatófitos são os fungos mais comumente associados às micoses superficiais em animais e homem. O estado de

  7. Study on the effect of metal ions towards biodegradation pathway of decabrominated diphenyl ether by white rot fungus%金属离子影响白腐菌降解十溴联苯醚的途径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宝燕; 尹华; 彭辉; 叶锦韶; 龙焰; 彭素芬

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to find the influence approaches of metal ions on the degradation of organic pollutants by microorganisms. An aerobic strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium which is capable of decomposing many kinds of aromatic compounds, was selected for the biodegradation of decabrominated diphenyl ether ( BDE209). The effects of metal ions (Cu2+ , Fe2 + , Zn2+ , Mn2 + ) on the biodegradation of BDE209 were investigated. An orthogonal experiment including four factors (Fe2+ , Mn2+ , Cu2+ , Zn2+ ) and five levels (0, 0.01 mmol/L, 0.05 mmol/L, 0.1 mmol/L, 0.2 mmol/L) was designed to optimize the reaction system. The results showed that the optimum combination of the factors was Cu2+ (0.05 mmol/L) , Fe2+ (0.2 mmol/L), Zn2+ (0.01 mmol/L), Mn2+ (0.1 mmol/L). For the treatment of 1 mg/L BDE209, 86.76% degradation efficiency was obtained with 1.74 g biomass. The effect curves of metal ions on the fungus growth and BDE209 degradation were plotted and then compared with one another. Under the condition of low concentration metal ions, BDE209 degradation had a significantly positive correlation with the fungus growth, but at higher levels the relation was different . In other words, high concentration biomass could not produce maximum biodegradation efficiency. The effect of metal ions on degrading process was further explored in the terras of pH value, extracellular enzymes and metals concentration of the fungus. Metal ions altered the pH value of degrading system to which promoted the growth of fungus and accelerated the activity of extracellular enzymes, and thus improved the degradation efficiency of BDE209. Main extracellular enzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium including Iignin Peroxidase (LdP), Manganese Peroxidase (MnP) and Laccase (Lac) were analyzed in relation to BDE209 degrading efficiency. The results showed that the breakage of BDE209 had stronger dependence on Lac than the others and Cu had great influence on production and activity of Lac. A large portion

  8. Effect of different indigenous microorganisms and its composite microbes on degradation of corn straw%不同土著菌及其复合菌对玉米秸秆降解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦有宙; 高赞; 李刚; 李鹏飞; 李攀攀

    2015-01-01

    In nature, there are a large number of microorganisms that can decompose the cellulose of the wood, including bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. It has been found that the bacteria bacillus and pseudomonas, streptomyces, fungi and other microorganisms are playing an important role in the aerobic fermentation process at different stages. In this study, 8 kinds of microorganisms were selected to construct efficient composite microbes for corn straw degradation. They were identified to be Gloeophyllum trabeum, Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptomyces badius, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coriolus versicolor, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger. Lignocellulose degradation rate of single strain and the antagonism between different strains were firstly analyzed. The 90 mL liquid for the expanding culture was added to the triangular flask containing 30 g corn straws, which was then put in the incubator with constant temperature of 30℃ and humidity controlled at more than 80% for 35 d. Corn straws treated by pretreatment of microorganisms were sampled for determination of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin every 5 days. The results showed that the degradation rates of hemicellulose reached up to 47.81% and 37.53% after the fermentation processes with Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride respectively, and those of cellulose reached 38.96%and 46.32%respectively. The lignin degradation rates reached up to 43.56%and 39.17%respectively after pretreatments with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus versicolor. The bacteria and actinomycetes in this study did not have a great ability to degrade corn straws. The results showed that corn straws were not completely degraded in the process of pretreatment by microorganisms. Because of the complex structure of lignocellulose, the degradation of corn straws required the participation of many kinds of microorganisms. However, the construction of composite microbes was not a simple superposition of

  9. Deterioration and spoilage of peanuts and desiccated coconuts from two sub-Saharan tropical East African countries due to the associated mycobiota and their degradative enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M A

    2001-01-01

    A broad variety of fungi (84 species belonging to 36 genera) were identified with more taxa infesting peanut seed samples from two tropical countries (29 genera and 61 species) compared to those found in desiccated coconuts (20 genera and 55 species) on both DRBC and DG18 media. This may be due to the higher moisture levels in peanuts (5.07-7.97%) compared with coconuts (1.5-4.17%). More taxa and propagules were recovered on DG18 in both cases. The dominant fungi from both substrates on both isolation media were Aspergillus and Penicillium, with other fungi from only one substrate/medium. The aflatoxigenic species (A. flavus) dominated Kenyan samples more so than Ugandan samples on both substrates. However only 71.5% and 87.5% of the peanut kernels, on DRBC and DG18, respectively, were found to be infested with fungi. The aflatoxigenic species (A. flavus/parasiticus) were found in 75% of the samples, however only 15.75% and 13% of the kernels analyzed were infested. The most frequently isolated species from peanuts were A. niger followed by A. flavus and M. phaseolina. E. repens, E. amstelodami, E. rubrum and E. chevalieri dominated peanut seeds on DG18, and R. stolonifer, A. parasiticus, F. solani, L. theobromae and P. chrysogenum on DRBC. The mean count of fungal propagules in coconut samples were approximately 0.7 x 10(3) and 0.8 x 10(3) on DRBC and DG18, respectively, with a high proportion of those propagules recorded for the aflatoxigenic species (about 0. 17 x 10(3) and 0.25 x 10(3) colonies/g). The mycobiota of desiccated coconut was dominated by A. niger, A. flavus and P. chrysogenum. Also A. ochraceus, P. waksmanii, Paecilomyces variotii, P. islandicum and R. mucilaginosa were more frequent on DRBC, while, species of Cladosporium. Chrysosporium and Eurotium were more frequent on DG18. Enzyme indices (or the activities) for each specific strain, when determined after 5 and 8 days of incubation, proved to be similar. A recommendation is given. The

  10. [Investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific IgE levels in students' sera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovet, Habibe; Ergin, Cağrı; Kaleli, Ilknur

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. Monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. Since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. This study was aimed to investigate the indoor air mold distribution of elementary schools in Denizli province (located in west Anatolia, Turkey) and to compare the allergen-specific IgE levels of children against the most frequently detected mold genus. A questionnaire (MM080) was distributed to the 4967 students (6-8 year-old) attending first and second degrees of 16 different elementary schools with scattered locations in city center. This questionnaire form included the questions related to the general information about the child, school environment, allergic complaints since last year, home environment and nutrition. Response rate to the questionnaire was 51.6% (2565/4967). Air samples were collected from 18 classrooms in March 2009, during which high rates of allergic symptoms were observed according to the questionnaire results. Mold fungi belonging to 10 different genera (Penicillium spp. 46%; Aspergillus spp. 18%; Cladosporium spp. 17%; Alternaria spp. 15%; Drechslera spp. 1%; Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Conidiobolus and Cladothecium species 0.5%; unidentified 1%) were isolated from indoor air of classrooms. Since the most frequently detected mold was Penicillium spp. (46%), the 48 children with atopic symptoms were called to the hospital for the determination of total IgE and Penicillium specific IgE in their sera. Twenty two students accepted the invitation and serum total IgE (Immulite 2000; Diagnostic Product Corporation, USA) and allergen-specific IgE (Penicillium brevicompactum