Cory T. de Carvalho; Luiz E. M. Vasconcellos
The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782). It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II) to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gat...
Leandro Chisté Pinto
Full Text Available The present study presents the record of occurrence of Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 in an area of wet grasslands which is adjacent to the riparian forest along Ibicui river, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The species was found through the use of camera traps and search of vestiges in pre-established transections in the area, as part of a environmental monitoring program of a forestation project.
Cory T. de Carvalho
Full Text Available The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782. It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gathered. They are territorial and monogamous, and give birth to two or three young once a year, after a 63 days gestation, on average. Maned wolves inhabit the open areas and have omnivorous feeding habits.
Joaquim de Araújo Silva
Full Text Available Based on the finding of remains (tracks, scats, and hairs, an analysis was made of the core area and centre of activity of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, living in a private natural reserve in which ecotourism activities are developed and these animals are daily fed bovine meat. A total of 465 samples of remains were recorded. Using the fixed kernel method, the area encompassing all samples recorded was estimated at 25.7 km², yet 50% of all samples were found in an area of only 1.5 km², representing 5.8% of the total area covered. For estimating the core area of the animals, the frequency of occurrence of the samples was determined by superimposing a 50 x 50 m cell grid over a map of the area encompassing all recorded occurrences. Based on the cells containing more than six occurrences, the animals' core area was 0.99 km², which included the place where the animals are fed. The centre of activity was located only 0.50 km from this place. The high negative correlation (r = -0.93, p A área central e o centro de atividade de lobos-guará, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, foram determinados através de seus vestígios (fezes, pegadas e pêlos em uma reserva natural particular, onde esses animais estão sujeitos à alimentação artificial e sofrem influência de atividades turísticas. No total, foram registrados 465 vestígios, sendo que 65,8% corresponderam à estação seca. Através do método Kernel fixo, a área compreendida por todos os vestígios foi de 25,7 km², sendo que 50% encontravam-se em uma área de apenas 1,5 km², o que representou 5,8% do total da área amostrada. A área central de atividade dos animais foi obtida pelo cálculo da freqüência dos registros dos vestígios através da sobreposição de uma quadrícula subdividida em células de 50 x 50 m sobre a área que abrangia todos os registros. Considerando as células com mais de seis registros a área central de atividade atribuída aos
Joaquim A. Silva
Full Text Available From the analysis of 230 scats, the diet of the maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, was determined in a private natural reserve in southeastern Brazil in which ecotourism activities are developed and the animals are deliberately fed bovine meat. A total of 569 occurrences of food items were recorded, of which 56.8% were of animal origin and 29.1% of vegetal origin. Rodents, insects and birds added up to 35.8% of the occurrences, yet accounted for 68.5% of the total number of preys (277. Insects, however, had practically no importance (0.1% in the total estimated biomass consumed. Even though the fruit Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil. is a common food item in the diet of the maned wolf, its occurrence in the diet at the Serra do Caraça Reserve was insignificant, accounting for only 4.8% of the total number of food item occurrences and 3.4% of the total estimated biomass consumption. Food items of anthropic origin and inorganic items (e.g., plastic represented 14.1% of all occurrences, which shows that the animals are used to the presence of humans. Seasonal variations in consumption were found for S. lycocarpum (c² = 10,09; p < 0,001, for other fruits (c² = 19,73; p < 0,001, and for reptiles (c² = 15,56; p < 0,001, all of which were more frequently eaten during the dry months. There was a significant correlation between the availability of small mammals and their consumption by the maned wolves (r s = 0.59; p = 0.041, yet the same was not observed for the fruits of S. lycocarpum (r s = 0,101; p = 0,754. Our findings stress the need for a better understanding of the effects of additional foods on the natural feeding habits of the maned wolf.
Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.
This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...
Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Guimarães, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz; Young, Robert John
Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different environmental enrichment treatments in the diminution of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (stress indicators) of three captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Correlations of the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels with expressed behaviors were also determined. Results showed that environmental enrichment reduced fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Furthermore, interspecific and foraging enrichment items were most effective in reducing stress in two of the three wolves. No definite pattern was found between behavioral and physiological responses to stress. In conclusion, these behavioral and physiological data showed that maned wolves responded positively from an animal well being perspective to the enrichment items presented. PMID:27057585
Full Text Available A maned female wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus showed nodules in the inguinal and left abdominal cranial mammary glands. The mammary gland was surgically excised, and microscopic analysis revealed epithelial cell proliferation in a tubular and papillary pattern; delicate fibrovascular stalks presenting numerous layers of moderately pleomorfic epithelial cells were observed. This histologic appearance was compatible with a diagnosis of mammary tubulopapillary carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profile revealed nuclear positivity for estrogen (70% and progesterone (at least 90% of the neoplastic cells. The myoepithelium-associated with neoplastic cells lacked integrity, as evidenced by failed smooth muscle alpha actin reactivity in microinvasive areas. A low proliferation index was observed (3.4%. To the authors' knowledge, the present case represents the first finding of female tubulopapillary carcinoma in a mammary gland in this species.
Full Text Available Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments.
Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Eckhardt-de-Pontes, Luiz Antonio; Petrucci, Melissa Paes; dos Santos, Israel Pereira; da Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves
Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments. PMID:24688529
Full Text Available Identificaram-se, por ultrassonografia, os ovários fetais e o sexo dos fetos em uma loba-guará. Ao exame ultrassonográfico, foi possível identificar estruturas fetais e realizar medidas (relação entre diâmetro cranial e abdominal dos fetos que indicavam idade fetal de 59 dias. Observaram-se: estruturas torácicas e abdominais formadas, diafragma, membros, estruturas do crânio definidas, coluna vertebral, medula, costelas, batimentos cardíacos normais, movimentação fetal, câmaras e valvas cardíacas, grandes vasos, rins, peristaltismo intestinal e ovários fetais. O exame ultrassonográfico foi eficaz nessa espécie, pois foi possível observar estruturas fetais para a avaliação da viabilidade fetal e, também, identificou-se a imagem ovariana em um dos fetos, mostrando-se importante para estudos de sexagem fetal.The ovaries and the gender of the fetuses in a female maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus were identified by ultrasound examination. It was possible to identify fetal structures and to determine measures, i.e., cranial and abdominal diameters and these elements indicated 59-day of fetal age. The main visualized structures were diaphragm, members, cranium, spine, marrow, ribs, cardiac chambers and valves, veins and arteries, kidneys, and fetal ovaries. Normal heartbeats and fetal and bowel movements were recorded. The ultrasound examination was an effective method in this species, since enabled the correct observation of the fetal structures as well as viability; in addition, proved to be an important method for fetal sexing determination.
Food habits of two syntopic canids, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, in southeastern Brazil Hábitos alimentarios de dos cánidos sintópicos, el aguara guazú (Chrysocyon brachyurus y el zorro del monte (Cerdocyon thous, en el sudeste de Brasil
ADRIANA DE ARRUDA BUENO
Full Text Available The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous are two South American canids with large overlap in their geographic distribution. However, there are few data on the comparative ecology of these species. The aim of this research was to quantify the diet of these two canids living in syntopy at three levels: frequency of occurrence, minimum number of individuals preyed and estimated biomass ingested. Additionally, seasonality in the consumption of major groups of food items and aspects of prey size distribution were assessed. The study took place in the Experimental Station of Itapetininga, São Paulo State, Brazil. General results showed that both canids are omnivorous in accordance with other studies. By occurrences, the wolves consumed vegetal and animal food in similar proportions, whereas the foxes consumed more animals, mainly insects. In contrast, both canids ingested mainly animal food if biomass is considered. The maned wolf consumed more wolf's fruit (Solanum lycocarpum and small mammals in the dry season, and miscellaneous fruits during the wet season. The crab-eating fox also ingested more miscellaneous fruits in the wet season, but the insects were mostly consumed during dry months. The crab-eating fox is more generalist than the maned wolf, but the wolf seems better able to handle distinct prey types. The distribution of prey sizes suggested separate food niches: while the maned wolf consumed a larger spectrum of prey sizes, especially small vertebrates between 10.1 and 100.0 g, the crab-eating fox consumed smaller prey, mainly insects between 0.01 and 0.1 gEl aguara guazú (Chrysocyon brachyurus y el zorro del monte (Cerdocyon thous son dos cánidos sudamericanos cuyas distribuciones geográficas se sobreponen extensamente. Sin embargo, hay pocos datos sobre la ecología comparativa de estas especies. El objetivo de esta investigación fue cuantificar la dieta de estos dos cánidos en sintopia en
郑建清; 袁耀华; 王爱善; 刘群秀
Luciana D. Guimarães
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the ultrasound characterization of the abdominal and pelvic regions of five maned wolves kept in captivity at the Triage Center of Wild Animals of the Federal University of Viçosa (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres, Universidade Federal de Viçosa. This characterization included descriptions of ultrasonographic aspects and measurements of various structures using B-mode ultrasound. Biometric data were collected to assess the existence of significant linear correlations between these measurements and the measurements obtained by ultrasound. Additionally, hematological and serum biochemistry evaluations of the animals were performed. The ultrasound findings were similar to those available in the literature on domestic dogs, which were used for comparison as a result of the lack of published data regarding maned wolves. The latter species showed characteristics closely resembling those of the former, differing in the spleen and left renal cortex echogenicities, in the appearance of the prostatic and testicular regions and in the hepatic portal vein morphology. In the current study, the biometric values were similar to those previously published; however, no data regarding thoracic perimeter, modified crown-rump length or thoracic depth were found in the literature for this Canidae species. Statistical analysis showed the existence of a strong negative correlation between the modified crown-rump length and left renal length, between the modified crown-rump length and the right renal volume, between the thoracic perimeter and the height at the cranial pole of the left adrenal gland and between the thoracic perimeter and the height at the caudal pole of the left adrenal gland. Laboratory findings, including segmented neutrophil, eosinophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts and the serum levels of glucose, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, urea, total protein, globulin, creatine phosphokinase, triglyceride, sodium, phosphate, potassium and chloride, were inconsistent with values found by other authors. The ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging method that must be further explored in the medicine of wild animals; therefore, additional research in this area is required.
Lourdes M. B. Pessoa
Full Text Available The purpose of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of unerupted canine teeth in a maned wolf. After physical examination, complete blood count, and serum biochemical profile, the animal underwent general anesthesia and head radiography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The treatment consisted of the extraction of both maxillary canine teeth and clinical and radiographic follow-up of the right mandibular canine tooth.
Full Text Available Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P 0.05. Sixteen captive males showed higher testosterone concentration during winter and spring compared with 30 free-living animals (P < 0.05. Progesterone concentration varied among seasons in 26 captive females (P < 0.05, being higher in autumn (15.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL than in summer (6.6 ± 1.5 ng/mL, winter (5.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL and spring (4.3 ± 0.7 ng/mL. Progesterone concentration of 24 free-living females varied between autumn (17.1 ± 6.0 ng/mL and winter (1.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL (P < 0.05, but we could not obtain data for spring or summer. No difference in progesterone levels was observed between captive and free-living females in autumn and winter.
Maned wolves are endangered carnivores endemic to Brazil. This research aimed to compare the attitudes of interest groups towards the conservation of the maned wolf in urban and rural areas; to investigate how such attitudes may influence the maned wolf's status and conservation; and to recommend ways to incorporate such knowledge into strategies to conserve both wolf and habitat. The methodology used questionnaires and interviews. Questionnaires targeted people living in the neighbourhoo...
Luciana D. Guimarães
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the ultrasound characterization of the abdominal and pelvic regions of five maned wolves kept in captivity at the Triage Center of Wild Animals of the Federal University of Viçosa (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres, Universidade Federal de Viçosa. This characterization included descriptions of ultrasonographic aspects and measurements of various structures using B-mode ultrasound. Biometric data were collected to assess the existence of significant linear correlations between these measurements and the measurements obtained by ultrasound. Additionally, hematological and serum biochemistry evaluations of the animals were performed. The ultrasound findings were similar to those available in the literature on domestic dogs, which were used for comparison as a result of the lack of published data regarding maned wolves. The latter species showed characteristics closely resembling those of the former, differing in the spleen and left renal cortex echogenicities, in the appearance of the prostatic and testicular regions and in the hepatic portal vein morphology. In the current study, the biometric values were similar to those previously published; however, no data regarding thoracic perimeter, modified crown-rump length or thoracic depth were found in the literature for this Canidae species. Statistical analysis showed the existence of a strong negative correlation between the modified crown-rump length and left renal length, between the modified crown-rump length and the right renal volume, between the thoracic perimeter and the height at the cranial pole of the left adrenal gland and between the thoracic perimeter and the height at the caudal pole of the left adrenal gland. Laboratory findings, including segmented neutrophil, eosinophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts and the serum levels of glucose, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, urea, total protein, globulin, creatine phosphokinase, triglyceride, sodium, phosphate, potassium and chloride, were inconsistent with values found by other authors. The ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging method that must be further explored in the medicine of wild animals; therefore, additional research in this area is required.O presente trabalho objetivou a caracterização ultrassonográfica das regiões abdominal e pélvica de cinco lobos-guarás mantidos em cativeiro no Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, com descrição dos aspectos ultrassonográficos e obtenção de medidas de suas diversas estruturas, por meio de ultrassonografia modo-B. Coletaram-se dados de biometria corporal com a finalidade de se verificar a existência de correlação linear significativa entre estas medidas e as mensurações obtidas ultrassonograficamente. Adicionalmente, efetuou-se avaliação hematológica e bioquímica sérica dos animais. Os achados ultrassonográficos foram equiparados aos existentes na literatura de cães domésticos devido à inexistência de dados publicados referentes a lobos-guarás. Esta espécie apresentou características muito semelhantes às do cão, diferindo nas ecogenicidades do baço e córtex renal esquerdo, no aspecto da região prostática, testicular e na morfologia da veia porta hepática. No presente estudo, os valores de biometria corporal foram semelhantes aos anteriormente publicados, porém não se encontraram dados na literatura referentes a perímetro torácico, comprimento vértice-caudal modificado e profundidade torácica para esta espécie de canídeo. A análise estatística revelou a existência de forte correlação negativa entre o comprimento vértice caudal modificado e o comprimento renal esquerdo, entre o comprimento vértice caudal modificado e o volume renal direito, entre o perímetro torácico e a altura do polo cranial da glândula adrenal esquerda e entre o perímetro torácico e a altura do polo caudal da glândula adrenal esquerda. Laboratorialmente, a contagem de neutrófilos segmentados, eosinófilos, monócitos e linfócitos e os níveis séricos de glicose, ALT, fosfatase alcalina, ureia, proteína total, globulina, creatina fosfoquinase, triglicérides, sódio, fosfato, potássio e cloreto foram discordantes de valores obtidos por outros autores. A ultrassonografia é um método de diagnóstico por imagem que necessita ser mais explorado na medicina de animais silvestres, sendo, portanto necessário o incremento de pesquisas nesta área.
Brygadyrenko, Viktor V.; Korolev, Olexij V.
We examined polymorphism in an urban population of the ground beetle Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798) in forest plantations on the outskirts of Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine). We took measurements for 130 males and 95 females according to 14 metric, 10 non-metric parameters and 10 indices. According to 13 out of the 14 metric parameters (except for the length of the flight wings) P. melanarius showed a significant sexual dimorphism. The female specimens showed a normal distribution in body l...
Mário M Inomoto; Andressa C. Z. Machado; Sonia R. Antedomênico
O sistema plantio direto é utilizado em extensas áreas agrícolas do Brasil, condição que pode propiciar o aumento dos danos causados pelos fitonematóides na cultura principal, na dependência da reação das plantas utilizadas como coberturas vegetais. O capim-colonião (Panicum maximum) e as braquiárias (Brachiaria spp.) podem ser utilizadas em áreas infestadas por Meloidogyne incognita e M. javanica, pois não são hospedeiras dessas espécies, mas sua resposta ao nematóide Pratylenchus brachyurus...
Bonney, K R; Wynne, C D L
Two male quokkas (Setonix brachyurus: a herbivorous macropod marsupial) were trained to discriminate pairs of stimuli in the laboratory. Quokkas indicated their choice by pulling on 1 of 2 simultaneously presented cords. The quokkas' discrimination abilities were tested on 6 tactile and 6 visual discrimination tasks. Correct responses were rewarded with food. For both quokkas, all tactile tasks were learned to a criterion of 75% correct in up to 4 20-trial sessions. No visual task maintained criterion performance in 4 sessions. One tactile discrimination was reversed 10 times. After the 1st reversal, the error rate declined sharply and fell to a level well below the initial discrimination. PMID:11930935
Brygadyrenko, Viktor V.
Full Text Available We examined polymorphism in an urban population of the ground beetle Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798 in forest plantations on the outskirts of Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine. We took measurements for 130 males and 95 females according to 14 metric, 10 non-metric parameters and 10 indices. According to 13 out of the 14 metric parameters (except for the length of the flight wings P. melanarius showed a significant sexual dimorphism. The female specimens showed a normal distribution in body length and the males showed a significant positive excess. The 10 most significant body proportions of the ground beetles showed much lower sexual differences (0.26±0.86% compared to linear measurements (6.56±0.96%. Females and males are practically isomorphic: when one metric parameter decreases, another decreases proportionally. Statistically significant differences between males and females were registered only for the ratio of elytra to length of prothorax, width of elytra to maximum width of prothorax and length of elytra to their width. A highly significant excess was registered in 6 out of 10 assessments of body proportions for females and 5 out of 10 for males. The coefficient of variation is minimal for body proportions and is maximal for metric parameters, which proves the existence of isomorphic differences between P. melanarius males and females. Out of 10 non-metric parameters a statistically significant sexual dimorphism (P=0.01 was registered only for the shape of the front edge of the labrum (males mostly have a slightly concave, and females a strongly concave front edge of the labrum. Using PCA analysis it was established that 45.2% of the morphological variability of the studied population depends upon the individuals’ sex: the whole complex of metric parameters (length and width of head, prothorax, elytra and parts of head, body height taken together synchronically varies among individuals of different sex. More or less defined groups
Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is a major parasitic nematode on patchouli that reduces plant production up to 85%. The use of endophytic bacteria is promising for controlling nematode and promoting plant growth through production of phytohormones and enhancing the availability of soil nutrients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endophytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus on patchouli plant and its influence on plant productions (plant fresh weight and patchouli oil. The study was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Garden and Laboratory of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMECRI, Bogor, West Java. The experi-ment was designed in a randomized block with seven treatments and eight replications; each replication consisted of 10 plants. The treatments evaluated were five isolates of endophytic bacteria (Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK and Bacillus subtilis NJ57, synthetic nematicide as a reference, and non-treated plant as a control. Four-week old patchouli plants of cv. Sidikalang were treated by soaking the roots in suspension of endophytic bacteria (109 cfu ml-1 for one hour before trans-planting to the field. At one month after planting, the plants were drenched with the bacterial suspension as much as 100 ml per plant. The results showed that applications of the endophytic bacteria could suppress the nematode populations (52.8-80% and increased plant weight (23.62-57.48% compared to the control. The isolate of endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2 was the best and comparable with carbofuran.
Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo
Members of the genus Scutellonema can cause substantial crop losses to ornamental and cultivated plants directly by feeding ectoparasitically on plant roots (Bridge et al., 2005; Coyne et al., 2006). In May 2015, a soil sample from a house garden from Heraklion city in Crete, Greece, was sent for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this place, there had been cactus (Opuntia sp.) plants (probably imported), which were uprooted 3 to 4 years earlier. After that, the area was cropped with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in spring-summer and leaf vegetables such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) in autumn-winter. The soil was collected 1 mon after the end of chicory crop. A population density (ca. 30 individuals/100 cm(3) of soil) of spiral nematodes (Scutellonema sp.) was found by extracting soil with the wet sieving and decanting method (Cobb, 1918). Morphological and molecular analyses of females identified the species as Scutellonema brachyurus (Steiner, 1938) Andrássy, 1958. The morphology of females was characterized by a hemispherical lip region with four to six annuli, morphometric data for 12 females were L, 640 to 760 μm; a, 24.6 to 30.6; b, 5.8 to 7.4; c, 69.1 to 99.3; c´ 0.5 to 0.6; stylet, 24.5 to 27.5 μm with anterior part shorter than posterior; and spermatheca nonfunctional and male absent. The morphology agreed with the description of S. brachyurus (van den Berg et al., 2013). Alignment indicated that the D2-D3 and ITS sequences (KU059494 and KU059495, respectively) showed 99% and 100% to 99% similarity, respectively, to other sequences of S. brachyurus (type A) deposited in GenBank from the United States, Italy, and Korea (JX472037-JX472046, DQ328753, FJ485643; and JX472069, JX472070, JX472071, respectively), differing from one to six nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference of these sequences placed the Scutellonema sp. in a highly supported (100%) clade that included all S. brachyurus
Mauro Junior Natalino da Costa
Full Text Available No controle do nematoide das lesões (Pratylenchus brachyurus, têm sido indicadas algumas estratégias visando redução dos níveis populacionais, e outras que estimulam o desenvolvimento radicular, assim, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, identificar os benefícios das interações entre culturas de cobertura, teor de matéria orgânica do solo e sistemas de plantio. Foram escolhidas 2 áreas com infestação natural do nematoide e implantadas as culturas de cobertura Crotalaria spectabilis, Pennisetum glaucum (milheto ADR 300, Brachiaria decumbens, milho (híbrido 'Formula', além de tratamentos com e sem capina química. A testemunha foi o alqueive (capina periódica. O plantio das coberturas foi realizado no dia 22/02/2010, e, no dia 3/11/2010, foi implantada a cultura da soja. Cada ensaio contou com parcelas de 6 m e 10 linhas (espaçamento de 0,45 m. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições. Como sub parcelas, foram utilizados o plantio direto e o convencional da soja e das coberturas, com a utilização de uma grade aradora. As avaliações constaram de massa seca de culturas de cobertura, níveis populacionais de nematoides, massa verde de raízes, massa seca de parte aérea e rendimento de grãos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a matéria orgânica do solo apresentou benefícios, com diminuição da taxa de multiplicação de P. brachyurus, além disso, houve interação com a cultura de cobertura e o método de plantio. O plantio convencional reduziu os níveis de infecção nas avaliações até 40 dias após a emergência (40 DAE, contudo, na avaliação seguinte (70 DAE, os níveis no plantio direto foram menores, evidenciando atributos positivos desta técnica de plantio. Dentre as culturas de cobertura, C. spectabilis apresentou maior antagonismo a P. brachyurus. A testemunha capinada e a capina química evitaram a multiplicação, mas o nematoide manteve níveis suficientes para causar prejuízos.
EFFECT OF NATURAL AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS ON Pratylenchus brachyurus POPULATION IN SUGARCANE EFEITO DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS E NATURAIS SOBRE A POPULAÇÃO DE NEMATÓIDE Pratylenchus brachyurus NA CULTURA DA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR
Fábia Silva de Oliveira
Full Text Available
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural and chemical products on Pratylenchus brachyurus population in sugarcane crop, cv. RB 835486.This study was conducted at ";Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos"; of ";Universidade Federal de Goiás";, in Goiânia, and at experimental fields of ";Usina Jalles Machado S/A";, in Goianésia, Goiás State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with five replications. The ten treatments were the arrangement of the nematicide abamectim 0.5 L.ha-1, abamectim 1.0 L.ha-1, neem oil, 2.0 L.ha-1, aldicarb 150G 12 kg.ha-1 and control, all with and without filter cake (30 t.ha-1. The population of P. brachyurus was evaluated at two, four, six and eight months after planting. The yield of sugarcane was also evaluated at the end of the first harvest. Effect of treatments on nematode population was observed two, four and six months after planting, but only aldicarb treatment showing efficiency to reduce nematode population. Abamectim and neem oil did not show consistent nematicide effect, sometimes developing higher population than the control. The filter cake showed effect on P. brachyurus population only at six months after planting, even though plots treated with filter cake presented 10 t.ha-1 average yield increase.
KEY-WORDS: Nematodes; Azadirachta indica; control; ilter cake.
Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de produtos químicos e naturais sobre a população do nematóide Pratylenchus brachyurus, na cultura da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp., cv. RB 835486, esta pesquisa foi conduzida na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia, GO, e nos campos experimentais da Usina
Chromosomal similarity between the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus and the Yellow-faced parrot (Salvatoria xanthops (Psittaciformes: Aves: a cytotaxonomic analysis
Full Text Available Behavior, morphology, allozyme studies and DNA hybridization and sequencing data all suggest the independent evolution of the Old and New World parrots and support tribe status for the American species, although the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe are still poorly understood. A previous study has shown that the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops Spix 1824 exhibits large karyotypic differences compared to the other Amazona species and suggested that this species should be renamed Salvatoria xanthops, although the relationships between S. xanthops and the other New World parrots remain unclear. In the present work, we describe the karyotype of the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, Kuhl 1820 and the karyotype and C-banding pattern of the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus, Kuhl 1820 and compare them to the karyotype and C-banding pattern of S. xanthops, as well as to the karyotypes of other New World parrots. The chromosomal similarity between these three species and the karyotypic differences between them and other New World parrots suggest that G. brachyurus and S. xanthops are sister species and are most closely related to members of the genus Pionus.
Maressa Rocha do Prado
Full Text Available O grau de ameaça e a importância ecológica dos mamíferos terrestres de médio e grande porte evidenciam a necessidade da busca de informações em inventários e diagnósticos ambientais. Objetivo deste estudo foi inventariar e avaliar a freqüência de ocorrência e riqueza de espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte na Estação de Pesquisa, Treinamento e Educação Ambiental (EPTEA Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa - MG. A área de estudo foi aleatoriamente percorrida, em busca de evidências indiretas e diretas de mamíferos. Também foram utilizadas armadilhas Tomahawk e fotográficas para o registro e identificação das espécies. Para registrar a freqüência de ocorrência, estabeleceu-se 20 parcelas de 2 x 2 m ao longo de um transecto, as quais foram vistoriadas 29 vezes entre abril de 2005 e abril de 2006. A partir dos dados de freqüência de ocorrência, estimou-se a riqueza de espécies, pelo procedimento Jackknife 1, utilizando o Programa EstimateS. Foram registradas 23 espécies de mamíferos, das quais três estão ameaçadas de extinção: Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 e Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775. As espécies silvestres com maior freqüência de registro foram Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, L. tigrinus e L. pardalis. Foi estimada a riqueza de 15 (intervalo de confiança = 0,95 espécies de mamíferos terrestres silvestres para a EPTEA Mata do Paraíso. O presente trabalho mostra que apesar de pequena, a área de estudo desempenha um importante papel na conservação da mastofauna da região de Viçosa - MG.The degree of threat and the ecological importance of both medium and large-sized terrestrial mammals point out the necessity of searching for information on inventories and environmental diagnostics. This work aimed to inventory and evaluate the species frequency of occurrence and richness of both medium and large-sized mammals from the Estação de Pesquisa
Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil
Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos
Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.
Goodwin, T.E.; Songsasen, N.; Broederdorf, L.J.; Burkert, B.A.; Joi Chen, C.; Jackson, S.R.; Keplinger, K.B.; Rountree, M.E.; Waldrip, Z.J.; Wedell, M.E.; Desrochers, L.P.; Baker, W.K.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.
Maned wolves ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) are endemic to South America, monogamous, solitary, and threatened in the wild. Maned wolf urine has a pungent and powerful odour and is used for scent marking. There is evidence to suggest that the presence of a male may be required to initiate oestrus and/or
赵立荣; 崔汝强; 王金成; 胡学难; 钟国强; 张治宇
广东检验检疫技术中心植检实验室于2008年4月从尼日利亚进境的芋头中分离到数条短体线虫,经纯培养、形态观察、测量,以及对rDNA-ITS、D2D3区序列的扩增、克隆、测序分析,鉴定为最短尾短体线虫（Pratylenchus brachyurus（Godfrey,1929）Filipjev ＆ Schuurmans Stekhoven,1941）。该线虫在国内局部分布,属于检疫性线虫,在系统内首次截获。%Pratylenchus sp.in Colocasia sp.imported from Nigeria was isolated at Guangzhou of China in April,2008.The nematode was cultured and morphological measured.The rDNA-ITS,D2D3 sequence analysis and morphometrical data support that it is Pratylenchus brachyurus（Godfrey,1929） Filipjev Schuurmans Stekhoven,1941.Pratylenchus brachyurus is distributed in some areas of China.It is quarantine nematodes and is intercepted by the Inspection and Quarantine of the People′s Republic of China for the first time.
Martín Beldomenico Pablo
Full Text Available The first finding of a Capillariid in the urinary tract of a free ranging maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus is described. The individual was an adult male attacked by dogs in the locality of Cayastacito (Santa Fe, Argentina, 31º05' S, 60º 34' W. Eggs found in urine measured 64.6-66.9µm (mean 65.4µm x 26.9-31µm (mean 29µm. Further studies are needed to determine whether this finding corresponds to a new Capillariid species, related to C. brachyurus, or it is an already described species that has been introduced by domestic dogs.
Between the years 2000 and 2011, the following Canidae species have been kept in Czech and Slovak zoological gardens: the South American Canidae have been represented by the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) and the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the Central American and North American by the swift fox (Vulpes velox), and the European and Asian by the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), the wolf (Canis lupus), with its subspecies the gray wolf (Canis lupus), the Eurasian wolf (C. l. lupus), the Mac...
Full Text Available Esse trabalho objetivou pesquisar anticorpos para Neospora caninum em amostras de soro de canídeos silvestres sul-americanos pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. As amostras foram coletadas de 48 lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, provenientes de zoológicos e de vida livre e de dois cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Anticorpos para N. caninum não foram detectados nas amostras testadas.
Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade; Thais Oliveira Morgado; Paulo Ricardo Mallmann; Paulo Roberto Spiller; Lianna Ghisi Gomes; Matias Bassinello Stocco; Andresa de Cássia Martini; Deise Cristine Schroder; Sandra Helena Ramiro Correa; Roberto Lopes Souza
Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae) between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua), three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), s...
This bird is known also as the stinking pheasant, anna, stinking anna, and van Batenburg’s turkey — after a Dutch Governor of years gone by. It gets the name »stinking’ from the peculiar smell, like fresh cow-dung, that comes from its crop or stomach or both, for when the skin is preserved it posses
Trefas, H.; Lenteren, van, J.C.
In the case of ground beetles, the number of studies investigating the effects plant-related structure and microclimate on the selection of egg laying sites is very limited. The egg laying site preference of Pterostichus melanarius, an important carabid beetle in agricultural fields, was studied under laboratory conditions. The effects of wet/dry substrate, light/shadow and structured/unstructured environment on the number of eggs laid were investigated, as well as the influence of the presen...
Menezes Albert N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Owl monkeys, belonging to the genus Aotus, have been extensively used as animal models in biomedical research but few reports have focused on the taxonomy and phylogeography of this genus. Moreover, the morphological similarity of several Aotus species has led to frequent misidentifications, mainly at the boundaries of their distribution. In this study, sequence data from five mitochondrial regions and the nuclear, Y-linked, SRY gene were used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstructions using well characterized specimens of Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans, A. lemurinus, A. griseimembra, A. trivirgatus, A. nigriceps, A. azarae boliviensis and A. infulatus. Results The complete MT-CO1, MT-TS1, MT-TD, MT-CO2, MT-CYB regions were sequenced in 18 Aotus specimens. ML and Bayesian topologies of concatenated data and separate regions allowed for the proposition of a tentative Aotus phylogeny, indicating that Aotus diverged some 4.62 Million years before present (MYBP. Similar analyses with included GenBank specimens were useful for assessing species identification of deposited data. Conclusions Alternative phylogenetic reconstructions, when compared with karyotypic and biogeographic data, led to the proposition of evolutionary scenarios questioning the conventional diversification of this genus in monophyletic groups with grey and red necks. Moreover, genetic distance estimates and haplotypic differences were useful for species validations.
Nelson Henrique de Almeida Curi
Full Text Available Transmission of disease between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is of great concern to conservation issues and public health. Here we report on the prevalence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies in 21 wild canids (7 Chrysocyon brachyurus, 12 Cerdocyon thous, and 2 Lycalopex vetulus and 74 free domestic dogs (Canis familiaris sampled around the Serra do Cipó National Park. In dogs, the apparent prevalence was 8.1% and in wild canids it was 19% (2 crab-eating foxes, C. thous, and 2 maned wolves, C. brachyurus. Management of the domestic dog population with evaluation of incidence changes in humans and wildlife, and enlightenment on the role of wild reservoirs are essential issues for future action and research.
Impactos de atropelamentos de animais silvestres no trecho da rodovia SP-215 confrontante ao Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira – Porto Ferreira, SP (Nota Científica. Impacts roadkills mortality of wild animals in the area of SP-215 highway alongside Porto Ferreira State Park – Porto Ferreira, SP (Scientific Note.
Sonia Aparecida de SOUZA
Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi realizado o monitoramento dos atropelamentos de animais silvestres na rodovia SP–215 no trecho confrontante ao Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira. Em seis anos foram registrados 72 indivíduos, sendo 17 espécies de mamíferos, 10 de aves, quatro de répteis, uma de anfíbio e três indivíduos não identificados. Dentre esses, lobo-guará Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguatirica Leopardus pardalis e cuíca-lanosa Caluromys lanatus se encontram na lista das espécies ameaçadas de extinção do Estado de São Paulo. A partir do conhecimento das espécies atingidas, faz-se necessário o desenvolvimento de estudos e propostas de implantação de medidas mitigadoras à presença da rodovia SP–215 para a conservação da fauna.This paper presents the data collected through the monitoring of roadkills on SP–215 highway in the area alongside Porto Ferreira State Park. During six years, 72 roadkills were recorded, including 17 species of mammals, 10 of birds, five of reptiles, one of amphibians and three unidentified individuals. Among those species, maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus, ocelot Leopardus pardalis, and Western woolly opossum Caluromys lanatus are included in the threatened species list of the state of São Paulo. After finding out which species are affected, it is necessary to develop studies and proposals for implementing effective mitigation measures for the presence of SP–215 highway in the area in order to preserve the local fauna.
Sandeep Kumar Gupta
Full Text Available The Asian small-clawed otter is the smallest among the 13 extant species of otters. It has a large distribution range extending from India in South Asia through Southeast Asia up to Taiwan and Philippines in the east and Southern China in the north. It is considered ‘Vulnerable’ due to habitat loss and degradation, depletion of prey species and exploitation. Being adapted to live in shallow streams and water bodies, they are more vulnerable to modification of these habitats by anthropogenic as well as climate change impacts. This paper summarizes the state of knowledge on the biology and ecology of this little known species. Over the years, the IUCN SSC Otter Specialist Group has developed a cadre of biologist across Asia to conduct field surveys and has popularized otter conservation by promoting otter as the ambassador of wetlands. However, concerted effort is needed for its long-term survival. Policy based action, research on factors affecting survival, habitat-based actions on creation and where required expansion of protected areas and communication and awareness building among local communities are suggested.
Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado
Full Text Available Sloths belong to the Mammalian class and Xenarthar Order, presenting very peculiar corporal designs and habits of life. One particular species, Bradypus torquatus, belongs to the Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, this research aims to contribute to knowledge of the male genital organ morphology of the maned sloth on account of the fact that it has so far only been inadequately elucidated by existing science. In this research, six Bradypus torquatus males were used, provided by the Anatomy Laboratory of the Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia/USP, originally donated by the Reserva Zoobotânica Matinha, Ilhéus/BA. The commom carotid arteries of the animals were canulated and the arterial systems were washed with 40°C water for posterior injection of 10% water formaldehyde solution. The animals were dissected for gross evaluation and sections of tissue from the seminal vesicles and prostates were collected and submitted to light microscopy. The maned sloth presented two genital accessory glands, a prostate and a vesicular gland. It was established through histology that the vesicular gland followed the norm for mammals, but that the prostate showed a peculiar aspect, dividing into muscular and urethral forms.
Paulo R.B. Ferreira
Full Text Available Na América do Sul, alguns canídeos silvestres são considerados reservatórios naturais da Leishmania chagasi. A resposta imunológica desses animais à Leishmania é pouco conhecida, havendo a necessidade de métodos diagnósticos adequados para esse fim. No presente estudo, é descrita a padronização do ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA para o diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres brasileiros. Foram estudadas amostras de soro e plasma de 12 canídeos cativos: sete lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, três raposinhas (Lycalopex vetulus e dois cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. As amostras de um C. brachyurus e uma L. vetulus, cativos em área endêmica para LV, que apresentavam doença clínica e positividade em testes de Imunofluorescência Indireta e Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase, foram utilizadas como controles positivos. Foram comparados os conjugados anti-IgG de cão e proteína A, ambos ligados a peroxidase, cujos testes detectaram quatro (04/12 e três (03/12 C. brachyurus soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leishmania sp., respectivamente. As médias das densidades ópticas (DOs das amostras negativas foram nitidamente mais baixas do que as médias das DOs dos positivos tanto no ELISA com anti-IgG de cão (4,8 vezes como com proteína A (15,5 vezes. Os soros de três C. brachyurus positivos no ELISA indireto foram avaliados por Western blotting e identificaram 22 bandas, sendo imunodominantes as de peso molecular de 19, 22, 24, 45 e 66 kDa. Os testes ELISA com a proteína A e o conjugado anti-IgG de cão apresentaram respectivamente concordância excelente (Kappa = 1; p<0,001 e moderada (Kappa = 0,8; p<0,0015, com o Western blotting. Ambos foram, portanto, considerados adequados a avaliações de triagem de animais cuja resposta humoral de anticorpos indica contato com o parasito, úteis para subsidiar estudos para adequação de metodologias específicas para os canídeos silvestres.
Paulo R.B. Ferreira
Full Text Available Na América do Sul, alguns canídeos silvestres são considerados reservatórios naturais da Leishmania chagasi. A resposta imunológica desses animais à Leishmania é pouco conhecida, havendo a necessidade de métodos diagnósticos adequados para esse fim. No presente estudo, é descrita a padronização do ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA para o diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres brasileiros. Foram estudadas amostras de soro e plasma de 12 canídeos cativos: sete lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, três raposinhas (Lycalopex vetulus e dois cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. As amostras de um C. brachyurus e uma L. vetulus, cativos em área endêmica para LV, que apresentavam doença clínica e positividade em testes de Imunofluorescência Indireta e Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase, foram utilizadas como controles positivos. Foram comparados os conjugados anti-IgG de cão e proteína A, ambos ligados a peroxidase, cujos testes detectaram quatro (04/12 e três (03/12 C. brachyurus soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leishmania sp., respectivamente. As médias das densidades ópticas (DOs das amostras negativas foram nitidamente mais baixas do que as médias das DOs dos positivos tanto no ELISA com anti-IgG de cão (4,8 vezes como com proteína A (15,5 vezes. Os soros de três C. brachyurus positivos no ELISA indireto foram avaliados por Western blotting e identificaram 22 bandas, sendo imunodominantes as de peso molecular de 19, 22, 24, 45 e 66 kDa. Os testes ELISA com a proteína A e o conjugado anti-IgG de cão apresentaram respectivamente concordância excelente (Kappa = 1; pIn South America, some wild canids are considered natural reservoirs of Leishmania chagasi. The immunological response of wild canids to Leishmania is not well understood, and the development of diagnostic methods is necessary for such purpose. In the present study, the standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent
Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.
Moreno-Beas, Eduardo; Abalos, Pedro; Hidalgo-Hermoso, Ezequiel
Serum samples from 130 individuals representing 42 species of carnivores, ungulates, and primates from a population of captive mammals in Metropolitan Region in Chile were tested for antibodies against nine serovars of Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test. Ten percent of the animals were seropositive to one or more serovars. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in ungulates (20.4%) compared to carnivores (3.8%) and primates (3.4%). There were no significant differences in seroprevalence among sex and age ranges. The most frequent serovar detected was Autumnalis, present in 53.4% of antibody-positive animals. Most positive animals had titers of ≤1 : 200, except for a maned wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) with titers of 1 : 400 against serovar Hardjo. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Leptospira exposure detected in native endangered pudu ( Pudu puda ) and the first confirmation of exposure to L. interrogans in captive wild mammals in Chile. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in future disease presentation for hepatitis or abortions in captive mammals in Chile.
Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from Brazilian wildlife. For this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by PCR based on 18S rRNA sequences. A total of 15 T. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three Dasypus novemcinctus, one Euphractus sexcinctus, three collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla, three whited-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari, one spotted paca (Cuniculus paca, one oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, one lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus and one maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus. DNA from the isolates, originated from mice bioassay, and from the tissues of the wild animal, designated as “primary samples”, were genotyped by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP, using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L258, PK1, CS3 and Apico. A total of 17 genotypes were identified, with 13 identified for the first time and four already reported in published literature. Results herein obtained corroborate previous studies in Brazil, confirming high diversity and revealing unique genotypes in this region. Given most of genotypes here identified are different from previous studies in domestic animals, future studies on T. gondii from wildlife is of interest to understand population genetics and structure of this parasite.
A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations. PMID:10959107
Bruno H Saranholi
Full Text Available Objective. Here we aimed to identify the main points of animal death by roadkill in the view of helping mitigation plans and reducing the impact over the local fauna of a protected area. Materials and methods. We surveyed the roads around a protected area of Cerrado (São Paulo, Brazil from May 2012 to August 2013. We recorded the local of roadkills, biometric and morphologic data of the animals, and collected samples of tissue for molecular species confirmation. Results. Thirty-one roadkilled animals were registered, including threatened species: Leopardus pardalis; Cuniculus paca and Chrysocyon brachyurus. Most roadkills were represented by mammals (54.8% and reptiles (38.7%, and the mortality rate was 1.46 animals/km/year. Three roadkill hotspots were detected, suggesting that they were important points of animal crossing, probably because of the existence of natural remnant vegetation and intersection of roads by riparian vegetation. Conclusions. This work provided strong evidence of the most critical points where mitigation strategies should be immediately implemented and highlighted the importance of detecting roadkill hotspots and the species or taxonomic groups more affected, helping to elaborate effective actions that can improve fauna conservation.
Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa; Santos, Jean Pierre; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Cordeir-Estrela, Pedro; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Jansen, Ana Maria
Aiming to better understand the ecological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles, wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs were examined for T. cruzi infection in the Serra da Canastra National Park region, Brazil. Isolates were genotyped using mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8 and H3) genomic targets. Trypanosoma cruzi transmission was well established in the area and occurred in both wild and peridomestic environments. Dog seroprevalence was 29·4% (63/214) and TcI and TcII genotypes, besides mixed infections were observed. Only TcI was detected in wild mammals. Marsupials displayed lower relative abundance, but a high prevalence of positive haemocultures (4/22), whereas rodents displayed positive haemocultures (9/113) mainly in the abundant Akodon montensis and Cerradomys subflavus species. The felid Leopardus pardalis was the only carnivore to display positive haemoculture and was captured in the same region where the small mammal prevalence of T. cruzi infection was high. Two canid species, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Cerdocyon thous, were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection (4/8 and 8/39, respectively), probably related to their capacity to exploit different ecological niches. Herein, dog infection not only signals T. cruzi transmission but also the genotypes present. Distinct transmission strategies of the T. cruzi genotypes are discussed. PMID:23062278
Full Text Available pus_brachyurus_L.png Lepus_brachyurus_NL.png Lepus_brachyurus_S.png Lepus_brachyurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus...+brachyurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyuru...s&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=138 ...
In the present study, the first report on the distribution of Nosema chaetocnemae infection of Chaetocnema tibialis populations in Turkey is given. Of the 1751 beetles collected from ten provinces, 193 were infected by the parasite. The infection average was 11.02% in Turkey. Nosema infection was found in C. tibialis adults from two (Samsun and Trabzon) of the ten provinces studied. In eight localities in different regions of Turkey, the infection was not observed. The highest percentage of beetles infected with a Nosema isolate was recorded in Samsun. The infection average in Samsun was 25.20%. The results showed that the infection level of N. chaetocnemae was relatively stable during the observation period between the years 2000-2006.
Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M
The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1
Juliana Lúcia Costa Santos
Full Text Available Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park. The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.Nas últimas décadas, as doenças têm sido apontadas como importantes causas de extinção de espécies silvestres. Maior ênfase tem sido dada às doenças transmitidas por animais domésticos que crescem em número, bem como as populações humanas, em áreas naturais. O presente estudo objetivou verificar a presença de helmintos intestinais de canídeos silvestres (lobo-guará - Chrysocyon brachyurus e cachorro-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (43-44º W e 19-20º S e endo e ectoparasitos de cães domésticos da Área de Proteção Ambiental Morro da Pedreira (entorno do
Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K
Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing
Tsubouchi, Ayako; Fukui, Daisuke; Ueda, Miya; Tada, Kazumi; Toyoshima, Shouji; Takami, Kazutoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Uraguchi, Kohji; Raichev, Evgeniy; Kaneko, Yayoi; Tsunoda, Hiroshi; Masuda, Ryuichi
To investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the family Canidae, nucleotide sequences of the zinc-finger-protein gene on the Y chromosome (ZFY, 924-1146 bp) and its homologous gene on the X chromosome (ZFX, 834-839 bp) for twelve canid species were determined. The phylogenetic relationships among species reconstructed by the paternal ZFY sequences closely agreed with those by mtDNA and autosomal DNA trees in previous reports, and strongly supported the phylogenetic affinity between the wolf-like canids clade and the South American canids clade. However, the branching order of some species differed between phylogenies of ZFY and ZFX genes: Cuon alpinus and Canis mesomelas were included in the wolf-like canid clades in the ZFY tree, whereas both species were clustered in a group of Chrysocyon brachyurus and Speothos venaticus in the ZFX tree. The topology difference between ZFY and ZFX trees may have resulted from the two-times higher substitution rate of the former than the latter, which was clarified in the present study. In addition, two types of transposable element sequence (SINE-I and SINE-II) were found to occur in the ZFY final intron of the twelve canid species examined. Because the SINE-I sequences were shared by all the species, they may have been inserted into the ZFY of the common ancestor before species radiation in Canidae. By contract, SINE-II found in only Canis aureus could have been inserted into ZFY independently after the speciation. The molecular diversity of SINE sequences of Canidae reflects evolutionary history of the species radiation. PMID:22379982
Vagner de Araujo Gabriel
Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas a expansão de plantações de Eucalyptus sp. foi notável no Brasil, destacando-se no cenário mundial. Diversos estudos revelam que tais plantações, especialmente aquelas respaldadas por instrumentos de certificação, podem trazer benefícios de cunho social e ambiental. Este trabalho apresenta dados coletados no período de 2002 a 2011 sobre a riqueza de plantas, aves e mamíferos em fazendas de plantação de eucalipto no Brasil. Discute-se sobre a importância dessas fazendas na conservação da biodiversidade, em que já foram registradas diversas espécies de plantas arbustivo-arbóreas, aves e mamíferos de médio e grande porte, respectivamente. Foi registrada a ocorrência de regeneração de plantas ameaçadas de extinção nos talhões de eucalipto: Araucaria angustifolia, Couratari asterotricha, Buchenavia hoehneana, Dalbergia nigra, Ocotea catharinensis e Ocotea porosa. Quanto às espécies da fauna ameaçadas de extinção, a águia-cinzenta (Urubitinga coronata, o chauá (Amazona rhodochorytha, o lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, o tamanduá (Myrmecophaga tridactyla e a anta (Tapirus terrestris já foram observados. Plantações florestais e fragmentos compostos por vegetação secundária figurarão entre os principais elementos das paisagens tropicais futuras. Desta forma, não se pode negligenciar a contribuição das plantações de eucalipto na conservação da biodiversidade.
Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for
Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade
Full Text Available Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua, three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, six crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, three ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, one cougar (Puma concolor and three wild cats (Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii and Leopardus colocolo were reviewed. The most frequent lesions were dental absences 21/31 (67.7%, dental fractures 20/31 (64.5% and tooth wear 19/31 (61.3%, which were suggestive of trauma caused from stress. Of lesser importance, we also observed occurrence of dental calculus grade I in 18/31 (58%, caries 1/31 (3.2%, foreign bodies 2/31 (6.4%, orofacial fistulas 1/31 (3.2%, hyperplasia in the oral mucosa 1/31 (3.2%, dental dimming 3/31 (9.7% and chafing of the soft tissue 5/31 (16.1%. Therefore, it was concluded that environmental enrichment strategies and oral routine evaluation must be implemented to ensure the welfare of these animals, reducing local and systemic adverse effects of oral lesions. The diet has been successful in preventing periodontal disease, suggesting that this diet for the captive animals in the institution should be maintained.
Caracterização do mel produzido por espécies de Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini) da região nordeste do Brasil: 1. Características físico-químicas Characterization of honey produced by species of Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini) from the northeast area of Brazil: 1. Physico-chemical characteristics
Bruno de Almeida Souza; Luís Carlos Marchini; Melissa Oda-Souza; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho; Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves
Thirty three honey samples produced by four Melipona species from different areas of the State of Bahia, were analyzed with the aim to determine their physico-chemical characteristics, contributing to the establishment of standards for quality control. The majority of the average values for physico-chemical parameters fulfilled the quality criteria established by the Brazilian and international Legislations for Apis honey, except for moisture content, which afforded higher values. Concerning ...
Caracterização do mel produzido por espécies de Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini da região nordeste do Brasil: 1. Características físico-químicas Characterization of honey produced by species of Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini from the northeast area of Brazil: 1. Physico-chemical characteristics
Bruno de Almeida Souza
Full Text Available Thirty three honey samples produced by four Melipona species from different areas of the State of Bahia, were analyzed with the aim to determine their physico-chemical characteristics, contributing to the establishment of standards for quality control. The majority of the average values for physico-chemical parameters fulfilled the quality criteria established by the Brazilian and international Legislations for Apis honey, except for moisture content, which afforded higher values. Concerning the high number of samples wich did not fit the limits for reducing sugars, it is necessary to define minimum values in order to characterize Melipona honeys, as well as criteria for use of diastasic activity.
Vynne, Carly; Skalski, John R; Machado, Ricardo B; Groom, Martha J; Jácomo, Anah T A; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Ramos Neto, Mario B; Pomilla, Cristina; Silveira, Leandro; Smith, Heath; Wasser, Samuel K
Most protected areas are too small to sustain populations of wide-ranging mammals; thus, identification and conservation of high-quality habitat for those animals outside parks is often a high priority, particularly for regions where extensive land conversion is occurring. This is the case in the vicinity of Emas National Park, a small protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado. Over the last 40 years the native vegetation surrounding the park has been converted to agriculture, but the region still supports virtually all of the animals native to the area. We determined the effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in detecting presence of five species of mammals threatened with extinction by habitat loss: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), puma (Puma concolor), jaguar (Panthera onca), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), and giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus). The probability of scat detection varied among the five species and among survey quadrats of different size, but was consistent across team, season, and year. The probability of occurrence, determined from the presence of scat, in a randomly selected site within the study area ranged from 0.14 for jaguars, which occur primarily in the forested areas of the park, to 0.91 for maned wolves, the most widely distributed species in our study area. Most occurrences of giant armadillos in the park were in open grasslands, but in the agricultural matrix they tended to occur in riparian woodlands. At least one target species occurred in every survey quadrat, and giant armadillos, jaguars, and maned wolves were more likely to be present in quadrats located inside than outside the park. The effort required for detection of scats was highest for the two felids. We were able to detect the presence for each of five wide-ranging species inside and outside the park and to assign occurrence probabilities to specific survey sites. Thus, scat dogs provide an effective survey tool for rare species even when accurate detection
Jansen, Ana Maria; Xavier, Samanta C C; Roque, André Luiz R
In this study, we report and discuss the results generated from over 20 years of studies of the Trypanosoma cruzi sylvatic transmission cycle. Our results have uncovered new aspects and reviewed old concepts on issues including reservoirs, true generalist species, association of mammalian species with distinct discrete typing units - DTUs, distribution of T. cruzi genotypes in the wild, mixed infections, and T. cruzi transmission ecology. Using parasitological and serological tests, we examined T. cruzi infection in 7,285 mammalian specimens from nine mammalian orders dispersed all over the Brazilian biomes. The obtained T. cruzi isolates were characterized by mini-exon gene sequence polymorphism and PCR RFLP to identify DTUs. Infection by T. cruzi was detected by serological methods in 20% of the examined animals and isolated from 41% of those infected, corresponding to 8% of all the examined mammals. Each mammal taxon responded uniquely to T. cruzi infection. Didelphis spp. are able to maintain high and long-lasting parasitemias (positive hemocultures) caused by TcI but maintain and rapidly control parasitemias caused by TcII to almost undetectable levels. In contrast, the tamarin species Leontopithecus rosalia and L. chrysomelas maintain long-lasting and high parasitemias caused by TcII similarly to Philander sp. The coati Nasua nasua maintains high parasitemias by both parental T. cruzi DTUs TcI or TcII and by TcII/TcIV (formerly Z3) at detectable levels. Wild and domestic canidae seem to display only a short period of reservoir competence. T. cruzi infection was demonstrated in the wild canid species Cerdocyon thous and Chrysocyon brachyurus, and positive hemoculture was obtained in one hyper carnivore species (Leopardus pardalis), demonstrating that T. cruzi transmission is deeply immersed in the trophic net. T. cruzi DTU distribution in nature did not exhibit any association with a particular biome or habitat. TcI predominates throughout (58% of the T. cruzi
Chromosomal similarity between the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus) and the Yellow-faced parrot (Salvatoria xanthops) (Psittaciformes: Aves): a cytotaxonomic analysis
Renato Caparroz; José Maurício Barbanti Duarte
Behavior, morphology, allozyme studies and DNA hybridization and sequencing data all suggest the independent evolution of the Old and New World parrots and support tribe status for the American species, although the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe are still poorly understood. A previous study has shown that the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops Spix 1824) exhibits large karyotypic differences compared to the other Amazona species and suggested that this species should be rena...
Allema, A.B.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Van der Werf, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Steingrover, E.; Van Lenteren, J.C.
Behaviour of nocturnal insects is routinely observed under red light, but it is unclear how the behaviour under red light compares to behaviour in complete darkness, or under a source of white light. Here, we measure movement behaviour of the nocturnal carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius Illiger
Anderli Divina Ferreira Rios; Mara Rúbia da Rocha; Alan Soares Machado; Kássia Aparecida Garcia Barbosa Ávila; Renato Andrade Teixeira; Leonardo de Castro Santos; Lilian Rosana Silva Rabelo
ABSTRACT: Among the nematode management strategies, genetic resistance is one of the most appropriate and desirable. However, resistant soybean and corn genotypes resistant to Pratylenchus brachyurus are not available up to the moment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the host suitability of 50 soybean and 38 corn genotypes to P. brachyurus under natural infestation. Soybean genotypes BRSGO Chapadões, BRSGO Paraíso, M-Soy 7211 RR, M-Soy 8008 RR, Emgopa 313 RR, M-Soy 8411, BRSGO Jul...
A nidificação de Pionus maximiliani (Kuhl e Ara maracana (Vieillot em Gália São Paulo, Brasil (Aves, Psittacidae Nesting of Pionus maximiliani (Kuhl and Ara maracana (Vieillot in Gália, São Paulo, Brazil
Cory T. de Carvalho
Full Text Available Nests of the "Scaly-headed parrot" and "Illiger's macaw" - Pionus maximiliani (Kuhl, 1820 and Ara maracana (Vieillot, 1816 - found at the Ecological Station in Gália, São Paulo with clutches in 26-VII-90 and 20-IX-90, both containing four white rounded and at one end slightly pointed eggs, measuring 33.4x30.0mm and 33.0x28.0mm each respectively, are being reported on. The incubation in the "Scaly-headed parrot" lasted for 26 days, the stay of the young in the nest cavity for about 50 days and only one adult was seen incubating, while in "Illiger's or Blue-winged macaw" both parents used to stay in the nest.
Hang, Chuon Chamrong; Suzuki, Nobuhiko
Although Cambodia achieved an overall self-sufficiency in rice supply in 1995, many obstacles such as poor roads and illigal fee collections by government officials increase the marketing costs and create distribution barriers to deficit areas. Farmers' income remains very low because they have poor bargaining power for rice price formation due to limited chances to meet buyers and not much information of agro-product prices anailale. Some collections dominate the marketing by lending money, ...
Tréfás, H.; Lenteren, van, J.C.
Increased vegetational diversity influences the behaviour of carabid beetles by changing plant-related abiotic factors. These abiotic factors (light, humidity and habitat structure) affect the selection of oviposition sites and egg survival of carabid beetles. In a field experiment, more larvae of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger) (Coleoptera Carabidae) were caught in Brussels sprout intercropped with barley than in Brussels sprout alone. The influence of the presence of living barley and Bru...
Diversidade de espécies e densidade de ninhos de abelhas sociais sem ferrão (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae) em floresta de terra firme na Amazônia central Diversity of species and density of stingless bee social nests (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae) in terra firme forest in central Amazônia
Marcio L. Oliveira; Elder F. Morato; Garcia, Marcos V. B.
Stingless bees were collected between 1984 and 1990 in continuous forest, forest fragments and cleared areas 90 Km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Several methods were employed. a total of 54 species of 21 genera were collected including two undescribed species of Plebeia Schwarz, 1938. The most abundant genera were Trigona Jurine, 1807; Melipona Illiger, 1806; Partamona Schwarz, 1939 and Tetragona Lepeletier, 1825. The most abundant species were Trigona crassipes (Fabricius, 1793) and T. ...
Anderli Divina Ferreira Rios
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Among the nematode management strategies, genetic resistance is one of the most appropriate and desirable. However, resistant soybean and corn genotypes resistant to Pratylenchus brachyurus are not available up to the moment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the host suitability of 50 soybean and 38 corn genotypes to P. brachyurus under natural infestation. Soybean genotypes BRSGO Chapadões, BRSGO Paraíso, M-Soy 7211 RR, M-Soy 8008 RR, Emgopa 313 RR, M-Soy 8411, BRSGO Juliana RR, Emgopa 316 RR, BRSGO Luziânia RR and TMG 103 RR, and corn genotype Agromem 30A06 reduced the nematode population during the evaluation period.
Sergio Carmona de São Clemente
Full Text Available One out of four specimens of sharks, Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860, captured off the southern Brazilian Coast, harboured cestodes identified as Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965, of which the adult form is now described and referred as ocurring in Brazil.Um entre quatro espécimes de Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860, coletados na costa sul brasileira, estava parasitado por cestóides pertencentes ao gênero Dasyrhynchus Pintner, 1928. Os espécimes foram identificados como D. pacificus Ribinson, 1965, sendo este o primeiro registo da ocorrência desta espécie no Brasil. Nesta oportunidade, é pela primeira vez apresentada a descrição da forma adulta, embora sem o proglotide grávido.
Rodrigo Souza Santos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to conduct a survey on nematodes associated with five cultivated fruit trees growing in the Agroforestry System (AFS of the municipality of Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil. Rhizosphere samples were collected from three points at the base of murici ( Byrsonima sp., soursop ( Annona muricata , cupuaçu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , passion fruit ( Passiflora sp. and peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes trees. Four species of phytonematodes were identified, namely Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema xenoplax and Rotylenchulus reniformis . The most prevalent and abundant species was R. reniformis , which was found in the rhizospheres of passion fruit, cupuaçu, soursop, and peach palm. The first record in Brazil of the nematode P. brachyurus , found in the roots of murici is reported here, and all of the nematode species identified here are the first records for fruit trees in the state of Amapá.
Cassia de Carvalho
Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a densidade populacional de Pratylenchus brachyurus e Pratylenchus zeae, associados à Brachiaria brizantha, B. decumbens e B. humidicola, e sua influência na disponibilidade e na qualidade da forragem, realizou-se este trabalho. O experimento foi conduzido na Agropecuária Hisaeda, em Terenos, MS. Coletaram-se amostras de solo, raízes e parte aérea, em dez repetições ao acaso, de 1 m² cada, dos seguintes tratamentos: Bom, Intermediário e Ruim, caracterizados visualmente, considerando-se a percentagem de material verde das plantas. As densidades de P. brachyurus e P. zeae foram avaliadas nas amostras de solo e raízes. Na parte aérea, avaliou-se a disponibilidade de matéria seca dos materiais verde, morto e da rebrota, estado nutricional das plantas e qualidade da forragem. A fertilidade do solo foi determinada em todas as unidades amostrais. Ambos os nematoides foram identificados em todas as amostras, com maior número nas raízes (entre 87-311 P. brachyurus e 1-61 P. zeae.10 g-1 que no solo (de 0-8 P. brachyurus a 1-39 P. zeae.200 cm-3, no entanto, não houve diferenças significativas, na quantidade de espécimes, entre os tratamentos. Considerando-se que essas forrageiras são perenes e hospedam Pratylenchus spp., há tendência ao aumento da população desses patógenos, ao longo do tempo, podendo se tornar um sério problema fitossanitário.
McDonald, A. H.; van den Berg, E. H.
The effect of simulated rainfall frequency on the pathogenicity of Pratylenchus zeae and P. brachyurus was studied in four greenhouse experiments. Corn and grain sorghum were watered at different intervals during predetermined cycles to create a gradient of water-stressed plants. Each experiment included nematode and uninoculated treatments. Growth reaction of plants to different frequencies of watering was significant but was not affected by the presence of nematodes. Pratylenchus zeae numbe...
Reproduction, age, growth, feeding habits and population dynamics of four large temperate sharks (sand tiger shark Carcharias taurus, school shark Galeorhinus galeus, copper shark Carcharhinus brachyurus, and broadnose sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus) were studied in Anegada Bay (between 39°50' and 40°40'S), Argentina. Data were gathered from 1089 individuals examined during a three-year study period. Age and growth were studied through examination of vertebral centra only in the first...
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different cultures second crop on the population of the nematode P. brachyurus, and the soybean crop productivity. The experiment was conducted at Embrapaagrosilvopastoral during agricultural year 2012/13, 2013/2014 and 2014/15, 0.4 ha of tracks. During the 2012/2013 crop soybeans planted in every area, in the off-season in 2013, two corn cultivars, two soybean and corn consortium with B. ruziziensis in 2013/14 crop was sown soybeans again in the off-season 2014 They were sown three soybean cultivars, a cultivar of corn and intercropping of millet with C. ochroleuca. In the season 2014/15 soybean was sown in every area and in the off-season 2 cultivars of maize and 3 soybean cultivars. Productivity was determined and the population of the P. brachyurus in roots. It was observed that millet consortium and C. ochroleuca were efficient in controlling the nematode. There were differences of reactions not only among species but within species and between the genotypes and soybeans, interfering with the population of the P. brachyurus. In the season 2013/2014 the soybean yield was influenced by the treatments, but the harvest 2014/2015 there was no statistical difference.
Biju, A.; Jagadeesan, L.; Panampunnayil, S.U.
in their distribution to surface waters only (Table III). In the 500–1000m depth stratum only two species, Boreomysis plebeja Hansen, 1910 and Gibbery- throps acanthura (Illig, 1906) were observed (Table III). Most of the species showed spatial and temporal variations.... typica orientalis were found in one depth stratum (surface; Table III) and P. inscita distribution was in both the surface and TT–BT layers. The distribution of P. pusilla was different from the other three species, occurring at higher densities from...
Derek Richard Dapp
Full Text Available Incidental fisheries capture has been identified as having a major effect on shark populations throughout the world. However, factors that contribute to the mortality of shark bycatch during fisheries capture are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of capture duration, sea surface temperature, and shark total length (snout to the tip of the upper caudal lobe on the physiology and condition of longline-caught bronze whalers, Carcharhinus brachyurus. Plasma lactate and potassium concentration had a positive linear relationship with capture duration, indicating that this species experiences increasing physiological challenges while on fishing gear. Additionally, we used stereotype logistic regression models to determine variables that could predict the capture condition of sharks (categorized as healthy, sluggish, or moribund or dead. In these models, elevated plasma lactate concentration, plasma potassium concentration, and capture duration increased the likelihood of C. brachyurus being captured in a sluggish condition or in a moribund or dead condition. After plasma lactate concentration exceeded 27.4 mmol/L, plasma potassium concentration exceeded 8.3 mmol/L, or capture durations exceeded 293 minutes, the majority of captured sharks (>50% were predicted to be moribund or dead. We recommend that a reduction in the amount of time longlines are left fishing (soak time will reduce immediate and post-release mortality in C. brachyurus bycatch and that our methods could be applied to identify causes of fisheries-induced mortality in future studies. The identification of operational, environmental, and biological variables contributing to poor condition will be necessary to implement conservation strategies that reduce mortality during capture.
潘玉雯; 谈家金; 叶建仁
Five species of Tylenchida nematodes and two species of Dorylaimida nematodes were identified in 54 samples collected in roots and rhizosphere soil of poplar trees from Zhenjiang, Yangzhou , Huaian, Lianyungang, Suzhou and Wuxi city of Jiangsu Province from June to November in 2008. These species included Filenchus orbus, Filenchus vulgaris, Tylenchorhynchus brassicae, Helicotylenchus digitiformis, Scutellonema brachyurus, Xiphinema americanum and Xiphinema hunaniense. Among those nematodes, Filenchus vulgaris was new records in Jiangsu Province, and the poplar tree was new host of Filenchus vulgaris, Tylenchorhynchus brassicae and Xiphinema hunaniense.
Carlos Henrique Hoff Brait
Full Text Available This study investigates the use of wild animal hair of C. brachyurus, C. thous and L. pardalis as biomonitors of trace metal at Parque Nacional das Emas, Brazil. Results reveal a strong correlation between Cd and Pb as well as Cu and Zn, which suggests a single source of emission. Most metals showed a lower or equal concentration than those obtained in previous studies. The research shows that monitoring may be performed only with Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cr because of statistical similarity and of a non-natural occurrence of large amounts of the material under analysis.
Gerson Dalla Corte; Felipe Frigo Pinto; Marlon Tagliapietra Stefanello; Caroline Gulart; Juliano Perlin de Ramos; Ricardo Silveiro Balardin
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de aplicação tratamento de sementes (TS), sulco de semeadura (Sulco) e associação de ambos (TS + Sulco) e tratamentos químicos no controle de Pratylenchus brachyurus e Meloydogine javanica, em condição de campo e ambiente controlado em vaso. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas, em que, nas parcelas principais, foram alocados três sistemas de aplicação: tratamento de sementes, aplicação...
Full Text Available Influence of crop rotation, fertilization and tillage on populations of plant parasitic nematodes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. The soil nematodes of three long-term trials (1960, 1980 and 1990 representing the production of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench under different agricultural practices (rotation, tillage and fertilization in the Center West of Burkina Faso, have been explored in the wake of the harvest during the agricultural season 2007/2008. The objective was to identify these nematodes and to study the influence of agricultural practices on this nematofauna. Nematodes were extracted by the method of Seinhorst elutriator. Plant-parasitic nematodes identified are Pratylenchus brachyurus, Tylenchorhynchus martini, Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Scutellonema Caveness, Criconemoides curvatum, Telotylenchus indicus and Xiphinema sp. The first three species represent approximately 98% of individuals surveyed. On the first site, the treatments involving mineral fertilizer and recycling of sorghum straw were favorable for the control of nematodes instead of treatments involving manure. As for rotations, monoculture of sorghum was more infested by nematodes than the rotations sorghum – cowpea and sorghum – cotton. On the second site, the nitrogen has increased of infestation by the two major nematodes in comparison to treatments without nitrogen, with the exception of treatment with anaerobic compost incorporation. On the third site, deep plowing has been unfavorable to the main nematode sorghum compared to shallow tillage. The nematofauna in fallow was more diversified than in cultivated sites and P. brachyurus, the main nematode related to sorghum has fallen sharply in fallow.
Fitonematóides associados à rizosfera e raízes da mandioca cultivada em rotação com inhame cultivar da Costa Nematodes associated with rhizosphere and roots of cassava planted in rotation with yam crops
Marlon da Silva Garrido
Full Text Available O trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar as populações de fitonematóides associados à cultura da mandioca, plantada em sucessão à cultura do inhame, em 22 propriedades rurais do Recôncavo da Bahia. Adicionalmente, foram feitos testes de hospedabilidade com as variedades de mandioca 'Cigana' e 'Talo Roxo', ao nematóide Scutellonema bradys. Foram constatadas as presenças dos seguintes nematóides: Pratylenchus brachyurus, Scutellonema bradys, Meloidogyne incognita e Rotylenchulus reniformis, nas raízes e amostras de solo. Além dos nematóides, Tylenchus sp., Aphelenchus sp., Meloidogyne incognita, Mesocriconema sp., Aphelenchoides sp., Helicotylenchus presente apenas nas amostras de solos. O teste de hospedabilidade demostrou que as variedades de mandioca estudadas não são hospedeiras de Scutellonema bradys.The work had the objective of evaluating the population of plant parasitic nematodes associated with the cassava crop planted in succession to the yam crop was evaluated in 22 farming in the Recôncavo region of Bahia. Additionally, the hospitability of two cassava varieties 'Cigana' and 'Talo Roxo' to Scutellonema bradys. The following nematodes were found in cassava roots and soils: Pratylenchus brachyurus, Scutellonema bradys, Meloidogyne incognita, and Rotylenchulus reniformis, Tylenchus sp., Aphelenchus sp., Mesocriconema sp., Aphelenchoides sp., Helicotylenchus. Host status test show that the studied varieties are not hostesses of nematode Scutellonema bradys.
Flávio H.G. Rodrigues
Full Text Available Emas National Park is a very importam Conservation Unit in the Cerrado Biome. Nevertheless the fauna of this region is still poorly known. In this study, a revised list of the mammal fauna of the Emas National Park with comments about the composition and the number of species surveyed is presented. Eighty six species of mammals were recorded in the Park and neighboring area, including several rare and threatened species, like the bush dog (Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842, Marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815 and others. The giant rat (Kunsia tomentosus (Lichtenstein, 1830 was recorded for the first time in a conservation unit. On the other hand, species usually very common in the Cerrado biome, don't occur in Emas National Park: the brazilian rabbit (Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758, marmosets (Callithrix spp., and the punaré (Thrichomys apereoides (Lund, 1841.
Li, Changgen; Zou, Yunding; Bi, Shoudong; Wu, Houchang; Chen, Xiangyang; Li, Fen; Zhou, Xiazhi; Lin, Xuefei
In this paper, an investigation on the grape tree and ground vegetation was conducted in two graperies with intensive and extensive management, aimed to study the effects of different management level on the community characteristics of arthropod, and the population numbers of target pest Halticinae chalybca (Illiger) and its natural enemies Erigonidium gram inicolum and Tetragnathidae. The results showed that between the two graperies, the individual number, concentration value, evenness, and Hill diversity index of arthropod community had no significant difference, but its species number and abundance was significantly different (P number of arthropod on the grape trees in intensive management grapery was not significantly different from that in extensive management grapery, while on the ground vegetation, it was significantly different (P numbers of H. chalybca and its natural enemies on the trees and ground vegetations of the two graperies.
О. V. Korolev
Full Text Available The features of interrelations of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798 with the soil and litter mesofauna species are considered. In the conditions of forest ecosystems of steppe Dnieper region P. melanarius demonstrates trophic preference for І order zoofagoes (body mass 8.0–31.9 mg and also sapro- and phytofagoes (more than 128 mg of body mass. P. melanarius is able to change the trophic load between invertebrates’ populations depending on their number in the ecosystem. In comparison with the other ground beetle species, the P. melanarius has an extraordinarily wide trophic niche. That is one of principal reasons of the high quantity of P. melanarius in many anthropogenic and transformed ecosystems.
Full Text Available The great similar tooth morphologies that characterized the sharks of the genus Carcharhinus have suggested that the Neogene Mediterranean Sea were inhabited by only one or two widespread carcharhinid taxa, Carcharhinus egertoni and C. priscus. The first Mediterranean Pliocene record of five new shark species included into Carcharhinus, C. aff. brachyurus, C. falciformis, C. leucas, C. perezi, and C. plumbeus, have been identified by the review of some shark teeth from Tuscany (Italy and housed in the Italian Museums of the Universities of Firenze, Bologna, and Pisa. Moreover, the Mediterranean records of the two Recent C. longimanus and C. obscurus has been confirmed too. Paleobiogeographic and palaeoecologic analysis have been produced on the presence of some species absent or doubtful for the extant Mediterranean shark community.
Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento com torta de mamona e com nematicidas sistêmicos (aldicarb, carbofurã, oxamil e sulfona de aldicarb, na qualidade das fibras do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 cultivado em área infestada por Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides e Xiphinema sp., no nunicípio de Paranapanema, no Estado de São Paulo. As características afetadas foram: o comprimento das fibras, no qual só o carbofurã produziu aumento significativo; a resistência das fibras, que aumentou com os tratamentos torta de mamona e aldicarb; e a maturidade das fibras, onde, com exceção do oxamil, todos os tratamentos foram superiores à testemunha. As características de uniformidade e índice de finura das fibras não diferiram da testemunha em nenhum dos tratamentos.The effect of nematode control using castor bean cake and systemic nematicide treatments (Aldicarb, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and Sulfon Aldicarb, on the fiber properties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 was evaluated. The crop was grown in Paranapanema - SP, Brazil, in a field infested with Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides and Xiphinema sp. The properties affected were: fiber length, which improved only with Carbofuran; fiber strength, that improved with the treatments castor bean calce and Aldicarb; and fiber maturity, in which all treatments showed superior results than the check, except Oxamyl. No treatment effects on fiber fineness and uniformity were observed.
Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques. PMID:26088742
Morales Soto Gilberto
Full Text Available Las abejas sin aguijón del género Trigona constituyen uno de los grupos de insectos más amplios v diversos de la región tropical. Aunque su origen parece haber sido África, su mayor especiación ocurrió en el Trópico Americano, con cerca de 300 especies. En la región Neotropical, estas abejas son el grupo más importante de polinizadores de muchas plantas ornamentales, frutales y maderables. La interdependencia entre dichas plantas y las abejas, es en muchos casos altamente compleja y la ruptura de esa estrecha asociación por la intervención errónea del hombre, podría implicar la desaparición de unas otras respectivamente. Existen estudios sobre los hábitos de nidifación y arquitectura de los nidos de las trigonas y se posee conocimientos al respecto sobre la especia Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula Illiger. Sin embargo, los trabajos sobre comportamiento e importancia económica de este grupo de insectos son muy escasos y en el medio prácticamente inexistentes.
Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.; Fischbach, A.S.; Garlich-Miller, J. L.
Understanding haul-out behavior of ice-associated pinnipeds is essential for designing and interpreting popula-tion surveys and for assessing effects of potential changes in their ice environments. We used satellite-linked transmitters to obtain sequential information about location and haul-out state for Pacific walruses, Odobenus rosmarus divergens (Il-liger, 1815), in the Bering Sea during April of 2004, 2005, and 2006. We used these data in a generalized mixed model of haul-out bout durations and a hierarchical Bayesian model of haul-out probabilities to assess factors related to walrus haul-out behavior, and provide the first predictive model of walrus haul-out behavior in sea ice habitat. Average haul-out bout duration was 9 h, but durations of haul-out bouts tended to increase with durations of preceding in-water bouts. On aver-age, tagged walruses spent only about 17% of their time hauled out on sea ice. Probability of being hauled out decreased with wind speed, increased with temperature, and followed a diurnal cycle with the highest values in the evening. Our haul-out probability model can be used to estimate the proportion of the population that is unavailable for detection in spring surveys of Pacific walruses on sea ice.
Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques.
Siang, Tan Hai; Rahim, Azman Abdul; Ross, Othman Haji
This study aims to elucidate the abundance and species composition of the mysid community from seagrass bed of Pulau Tinggi. Samples were taken from July 2009 until October 2009 excluding September 2009 by using epibenthic sledge from Kampung Pasir Panjang and Kampug Sebirah Kecil. A greater abundance of mysids occurred in the seagrass area of Kampung Pasir Panjang (69.10%) compared to the Kampung Sebirah Kecil (30.90%). Maximum mysid abundance occurred during October at both study sites for the whole study period. A total of 1136 mysid individuals comprising 14 species from 5 subfamilies were identified. They were Erythrops minuta Hansen, 1910, Anchialina dentata Pillai, 1964, Haplostylus bengalensis (Hansen, 1910), Haplostylus sp. 1, Haplostylus sp. 2, Pseudanchialina inermis (Illig, 1906), Prionomysis aspera Ii, 1937, Acanthomysis longispina Fukuoka & Murano, 2002, Acanthomysis platycauda (Pillai, 1961), Acanthomysis quadrispinosa Nouvel, 1965, Anisomysis aikawai Ii, 1964, Lycomysis spinicauda Hansen, 1910 and Siriella vulgaris Hansen, 1910. Maximum species richness occurred in the Kampung Sebirah Kecil (10) during July 2009 followed by October 2009 (9) and August 2009 (8) while for Kampung Pasir Panjang highest species richness occurred during October 2009 (8), July 2009 (7) and August 2009 (6). Siriella vulgaris was the most dominant species consisting 41.20% (195ind/m3) of the total mysids sampled.
Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a ocorrência de nematoides fitoparasitos em frutíferas cultivadas na região noroeste do Paraná, realizou-se um levantamento, envolvendo 124 amostras de solo e raízes coletadas de 19 espécies de frutíferas, em 15 municípios, no período de dezembro/2007 a fevereiro/2009. As amostras foram submetidas a extrações e avaliadas sob microscópio óptico. Foram constatados nove diferentes gêneros de nematoides. Em citros, a espécie mais frequente e abundante foi Tylenchulus semipenetrans, sendo também recuperados das amostras os gêneros Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema e Dolichodorus. Nas demais frutíferas, os gêneros observados foram Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus e Hemicycliophora. A maior abundância de Pratylenchus brachyurus ocorreu em abacaxizeiro, Meloidogyne incognita em figueira e caquizeiro, e Helicotylenchus dihystera e H. multicinctus em bananeira. Os principais gêneros de fitonematoides foram constatados em aproximadamente 50% das amostras, podendo representar risco para fruteiras da região se não manejados adequadamente.A survey was carried out in order to study the occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes in fruit crops in the Northwest of Paraná, from December 2007 to February 2009. A hundred and twenty four soil and roots samples were collected from 19 species of fruit crops in 15 different municipalities. Nematodes were extracted from the samples and identified under an optical microscope. Nine genera of plant parasitic nematodes were found. In citrus, the most abundant species was Tylenchulus semipenetrans, but it was also recovered Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema and Dolichodorus. In the other fruit crops, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus and Hemicycliophora were recovered. Pratylenchus brachyurus was most abundant in pineapple crops, Meloidogyne incognita in fig and
怀意君; 谈家金; 叶建仁; 瞿红叶
2007-2008年,对江苏省杨树根际寄生线虫种群进行了初步调查,根据形态特征和测量值共鉴定出杨树根际寄生线虫7属9种,分别是南方丝尾垫刃线虫Filenchus australis Xie & Feng、圆形丝尾垫刃线虫Filenchus orbus Andrassy、指状螺旋线虫Helicotylenchus digitiformis Ivanova、小尾盾线虫Scutellonema brachyurus Strine、微小针线虫Paratylenchus minutus Linford、同形真滑刃线虫Aphelenchus isomerus Anderson & Hoopper、林伯滑刃线虫Aphelenchoides limberi Steiner、双尾滑刃线虫Aphelenchoides bicaudatus Filipjuv & Schuurmans,Stekhoven和美洲剑线虫Xiphinema americanum Cobb.这9种线虫除同形真滑刃线虫外,杨树是其余8种线虫的新寄主.
Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a ocorrência de nematoides fitoparasitos em frutíferas cultivadas na região noroeste do Paraná, realizou-se um levantamento, envolvendo 124 amostras de solo e raízes coletadas de 19 espécies de frutíferas, em 15 municípios, no período de dezembro/2007 a fevereiro/2009. As amostras foram submetidas a extrações e avaliadas sob microscópio óptico. Foram constatados nove diferentes gêneros de nematoides. Em citros, a espécie mais frequente e abundante foi Tylenchulus semipenetrans, sendo também recuperados das amostras os gêneros Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema e Dolichodorus. Nas demais frutíferas, os gêneros observados foram Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus e Hemicycliophora. A maior abundância de Pratylenchus brachyurus ocorreu em abacaxizeiro, Meloidogyne incognita em figueira e caquizeiro, e Helicotylenchus dihystera e H. multicinctus em bananeira. Os principais gêneros de fitonematoides foram constatados em aproximadamente 50% das amostras, podendo representar risco para fruteiras da região se não manejados adequadamente.
Potencial atrator de tubarões costeiros em recife artificial no litoral norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Attractive potential of coastal sharks in artificial reef on the Northern Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
Vicente Vieira Faria
Full Text Available Artificial reefs have been used in many countries to increase coastal fishery productivity. In order to increase fish attraction to the Northern Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, it was installed an artificial reef (1,500 m² 5 nautical miles off Manguinhos's Bay (São Francisco de ltabapoana, Rio de Janeiro. The artificial structures were made of tires, concrete and cement blocks. A gill net of 125 x 3 m was monthly used in the artificial reef (AR and in a control area (CA to determine the effect of the experimental structures on the stock and diversity of coastal sharks. Considering the complexity of a sustainable elasmobranch exploitation, sharks were focused in this study. During 24 months of investigation (April/96 to March/98, a total of 325 individuais distributed in four shark species were captured in the two areas (AR and CA: Mustelus higmani (Springer & Lowe, 1963 (AR = 70; CA = 82 individuals, Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839 (AR = 86; CA = 56 individuals, R. porosus (Poey, 1861 (AR = 16; CA = 14 individuals and Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1870 (AR = 1 individual. The attractive potential of the artificial reef is suggested by the predominance of the shark R. lalandii in the reef complex after the first year of monitoring, with the increase of the structures.
Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov
Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.
Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.
Flávia Melo Rodrigues
Full Text Available A frequently addressed question in conservation biology is what is the chance of survival for a population for a given number of years under certain conditions of habitat loss and human activities. This can be estimated through an integrated analysis of genetic, demographic and landscape processes, which allows the prediction of more realistic and precise models of population persistence. In this study, we modeled extinction in stochastic environments under inbreeding depression for two canid species, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachiurus and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, in southwest Goiás State. Genetic parameters were obtained from six microsattelite loci (Short Tandem Repeats - STR, which allowed estimates of inbreeding levels and of the effective population size under a stepwise mutation model based on heterozygosis. The simulations included twelve alternative scenarios with varying rates of habitat loss, magnitude of population fluctuation and initial inbreeding levels. ANOVA analyses of the simulation results showed that times to extinction were better explained by demographic parameters. Times to extinction ranged from 352 to 844, in the worst and best scenario, respectively, for the large-bodied maned wolf. For the small-bodied crab-eating fox, these same estimates were 422 and 974 years. Simulations results are within the expectation based on knowledge about species' life history, genetics and demography. They suggest that populations can persist through a reasonable time (i.e., more than 200 years even under the worst demographic scenario. Our analyses are a starting point for a more focused evaluation of persistence in these populations. Our results can be used in future research aiming at obtaining better estimates of parameters that may, in turn, be used to achieve more appropriate and realist population viability models at a regional scale.
Rosângela D'Arc de Lima Oliveira
Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorrentes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.. As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s espécie(s e, ou da(s raça(s de Meloidogyne presente(s nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2, seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3 e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2. A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp.Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG, and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. The main species
Paparini, Andrea; Ryan, Una M; Warren, Kris; McInnes, Linda M; de Tores, Paul; Irwin, Peter J
Piroplasms, which include the genera Theileria and Babesia, are blood-borne parasites transmitted mainly by tick vectors. Relatively little is known about their prevalence and clinical impact in Australian marsupials. In the present study the occurrence and molecular phylogeny of these parasites were studied in both wild and captive marsupials from Western Australia (WA) and Queensland (QLD). Blood samples were screened by microscopy and molecular methods, using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Overall, 7.1% of the blood samples (8/113) were positive for piroplasm 18S rDNA. Theileria and Babesia rDNA was detected in 0.9% (1/113) and 6.2% (7/113) of the animals, respectively. The single Theileria positive was identified in one of three boodies (Bettongia lesueur) screened from a wildlife rehabilitation centre in WA, while all seven Babesia positives were detected in WA in wild captured woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi). Small intraerythrocytic inclusions were observed in blood films made from six of these individuals. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. in woylies, and Theileria sp. in boodies. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the woylie-derived Babesia was genetically distinct and most closely related to Babesia occultans, the causative agent of a benign form of cattle babesiosis (genetic similarity 98.4%). The Theileria identified was most closely related to the marsupial-derived species Theileria penicillata from the woylie, Theileria brachyuri from the quokka (Setonix brachyurus), and Theileria sp. from the long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus).
Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J
Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identified to species level. Of these, 70.6% were blue sharks (Prionace glauca), 28.4% short-fin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus), and 1% were other species (including thresher (Alopias vulpinus), hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena), porbeagle (Lamnus nasus), and other Carcharhinidae species (Carcharhinus brachyurus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeorhinus galeus). Mean ± SD catch per unit effort of 33.6 ± 10.9 sharks per 1000 hooks was calculated for the shark season and 1.9 ± 3.1 sharks per 1000 hooks were caught in the dolphinfish season. An average of 83.7% of sharks caught (74.7% blue sharks; 93.3% mako sharks) were deemed sexually immature and under the legal minimum landing size, which for species exhibiting k-selected life history traits can result in susceptibility to over exploitation. As these growing fisheries operate along the entire Peruvian coast and may catch millions of sharks per annum, we conclude that their continued expansion, along with ineffective legislative approaches resulting in removal of immature individuals, has the potential to threaten the sustainability of the fishery, its target species, and ecosystem. There is a need for additional monitoring and research to inform novel management strategies for sharks while maintaining fisher livelihoods. PMID:25360274
Full Text Available Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon, Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata, Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis, Japanese marten (Martes melampus, Japanese badger (Meles anakuma, and wild boar (Sus scrofa generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor, raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape. Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale
Marília D. e Silva
Full Text Available Há evidências de que a temperatura do ar e a umidade relativa afetam a atividade de voo de espécies de abelhas sociais Meliponini. Em particular, as espécies grandes do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806 responderiam de maneira mais estreita à variação na umidade relativa. Neste estudo defende-se o argumento de que a umidade relativa seja uma variável de confusão. Nesta linha de argumentação, também foi analisado o papel da coleta de pólen sobre o ritmo diário de forrageio. A robusta Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811 foi usada como modelo e a atividade diária de voo e de forrageio de pólen foi medida em 12 colônias (4 colônias/hábitat, em três tipos de hábitats, que variam principalmente quanto à pluviosidade, na área de distribuição natural desta espécie (Floresta Pluvial, Floresta Sazonal e Transição Floresta Tropical-Cerrados. A maioria da atividade de voo acontece durante a manhã. A atividade de forrageio das colônias foi mais elevada nas primeiras horas do alvorecer, quando a umidade relativa também era alta, frequentemente associada a picos de coleta de pólen. A atividade de voo decresceu abruptamente durante as temperaturas altas ao redor do meio dia. A relação da atividade de voo com a umidade relativa foi altamente significativa e linear, contrastando com a relação significativa e unimodal com a temperatura. Na relação com o forrageio de M. scutellaris, a umidade relativa se configura como uma variável contingente, em hábitats tropicais úmidos, considerando os padrões diários de variação do microclima e de forrageio de pólen. Este último padrão também sustenta a hipótese de partição temporal de fontes florais de pólen.
Bradley, A J; Stoddart, D M
but contrast with the pattern described for two macropodid marsupials, the red kangaroo Macropus rufus and the quokka Setonix brachyurus.