WorldWideScience

Sample records for chrysocyon brachyurus illiger

  1. Occurrence (new record of maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 (Carnivora, Canidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Chisté Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the record of occurrence of Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 in an area of wet grasslands which is adjacent to the riparian forest along Ibicui river, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The species was found through the use of camera traps and search of vestiges in pre-established transections in the area, as part of a environmental monitoring program of a forestation project.

  2. Disease, food and reproduction of the maned wolf: Chrysocyon Brachyurus (Illiger (Carnivora, Canidae in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory T. de Carvalho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782. It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gathered. They are territorial and monogamous, and give birth to two or three young once a year, after a 63 days gestation, on average. Maned wolves inhabit the open areas and have omnivorous feeding habits.

  3. Ocorrência (novo registro de lobo-guará chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 (carnivora, canidae no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Chisté Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988459No presente estudo é apresentado o registro da ocorrência de Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger 1815 em uma área de campo úmido adjacente a faixa de mata ciliar do rio Ibicuí, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A espécie foi encontrada através do uso de armadilhas fotográficas e da procura de vestígios em transecções pré-estabelecidas na área, como parte de um programa de monitoramento ambiental de um projeto silvicultural.

  4. Seasonal aspects of reproductive physiology in captive male maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, L O; Melo-Junior, A A; Spercoski, K M; Morais, R N; Souza, F F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonality of andrological characteristics and hormonal profile of captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1811). Three adult males were evaluated from the Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração Scientific Breeding Center in Araxá, MG, Brazil, over 13 months. Semen was collected 2-3 times weekly and analysed. Scrotal circumference, biometrics and testicular volume were measured. Stool samples were collected 2-3 times weekly to analyse corticosteroid and testosterone metabolite concentrations. A success rate of 100% was achieved in the collection attempts during the breeding season (BS) and 77.8% during the non-breeding season (NBS). The interval to achieve penile erection was 1-5 min in the BS and 6-10 in the NBS (p < 0.001). Of the ejaculates collected, 80.0% contained sperm during BS, while 28.6% did during the NBS. The ejaculate had only one fraction, was odourless, predominantly translucent (72.4%), with a watery appearance, pH 6.7 and osmolarity of 352.8 mOsmol. Seasonal influences were seen in ejaculate volume (1.3 ml vs 0.4 ml), number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (73.9 × 10(6) vs 6.1 × 10(6) ) and percentage of live sperm (82.0% vs 66.1%) between the BS and NBS (p < 0.05), respectively. A high percentage of major sperm defects were observed in both seasons (50.1% in BS; 65.7% in NBS). Testicular volume was larger (p < 0.05; right testicles 13.1 cm(3) in BS vs 4.0 cm(3) in NBS, while left testicles 12.9 cm(3) in BS vs 5.3 cm(3) in NBS) and testicular consistency increased in the BS. No difference was seen in the basal faecal metabolite concentrations of testosterone; however, the corticosteroid concentrations were higher in the BS. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that the collection of semen is feasible in captive maned wolves without compromising libido, seminal characteristics and reproductive behaviour and that sperm production is influenced by seasonality; however, it

  5. Birth and mortality of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1811 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. MAIA

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the distribution of births of captive maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus and the causes of their deaths during the period from 1980 to 1998, based on the registry of births and deaths in the International Studbook for Maned Wolves. To determine birth distribution and average litter size, 361 parturitions were analyzed for the 1989-98 period. To analyze causes of mortality, the animals were divided into four groups: 1. pups born in captivity that died prior to one year of age; 2. animals born in captivity that died at more than one year of age; 3. animals captured in the wild that died at any age; and 4. all animals that died during the 1980-98 period. In group 1, the main causes of mortality were parental incompetence (67%, infectious diseases, (9% and digestive system disorders (5%. The average mortality rate for pups was 56%. Parental incompetence was responsible for 95% of pup deaths during the first week of life. In group 2, the main causes were euthanasia (18% and disorders of the genitourinary (10% and digestive systems (8%. Euthanasia was implemented due to senility, congenital disorders, degenerative diseases, and trauma. In group 3, the main causes were digestive system disorders (12%, infectious diseases (10%, and lesions or accidents (10%. The main causes of mortality of maned wolves in captivity (group 4 were parental incompetence (38%, infectious diseases (9%, and digestive system disorders (7%.

  6. Birth and mortality of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1811) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, O B; Gouveia, A M G

    2002-02-01

    The aims of this study were to verify the distribution of births of captive maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus and the causes of their deaths during the period from 1980 to 1998, based on the registry of births and deaths in the International Studbook for Maned Wolves. To determine birth distribution and average litter size, 361 parturitions were analyzed for the 1989-98 period. To analyze causes of mortality, the animals were divided into four groups: 1. pups born in captivity that died prior to one year of age; 2. animals born in captivity that died at more than one year of age; 3. animals captured in the wild that died at any age; and 4. all animals that died during the 1980-98 period. In group 1, the main causes of mortality were parental incompetence (67%), infectious diseases, (9%) and digestive system disorders (5%). The average mortality rate for pups was 56%. Parental incompetence was responsible for 95% of pup deaths during the first week of life. In group 2, the main causes were euthanasia (18%) and disorders of the genitourinary (10%) and digestive systems (8%). Euthanasia was implemented due to senility, congenital disorders, degenerative diseases, and trauma. In group 3, the main causes were digestive system disorders (12%), infectious diseases (10%), and lesions or accidents (10%). The main causes of mortality of maned wolves in captivity (group 4) were parental incompetence (38%), infectious diseases (9%), and digestive system disorders (7%).

  7. Core area and centre of activity of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, submitted to supplemental feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim de Araújo Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finding of remains (tracks, scats, and hairs, an analysis was made of the core area and centre of activity of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, living in a private natural reserve in which ecotourism activities are developed and these animals are daily fed bovine meat. A total of 465 samples of remains were recorded. Using the fixed kernel method, the area encompassing all samples recorded was estimated at 25.7 km², yet 50% of all samples were found in an area of only 1.5 km², representing 5.8% of the total area covered. For estimating the core area of the animals, the frequency of occurrence of the samples was determined by superimposing a 50 x 50 m cell grid over a map of the area encompassing all recorded occurrences. Based on the cells containing more than six occurrences, the animals' core area was 0.99 km², which included the place where the animals are fed. The centre of activity was located only 0.50 km from this place. The high negative correlation (r = -0.93, p A área central e o centro de atividade de lobos-guará, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, foram determinados através de seus vestígios (fezes, pegadas e pêlos em uma reserva natural particular, onde esses animais estão sujeitos à alimentação artificial e sofrem influência de atividades turísticas. No total, foram registrados 465 vestígios, sendo que 65,8% corresponderam à estação seca. Através do método Kernel fixo, a área compreendida por todos os vestígios foi de 25,7 km², sendo que 50% encontravam-se em uma área de apenas 1,5 km², o que representou 5,8% do total da área amostrada. A área central de atividade dos animais foi obtida pelo cálculo da freqüência dos registros dos vestígios através da sobreposição de uma quadrícula subdividida em células de 50 x 50 m sobre a área que abrangia todos os registros. Considerando as células com mais de seis registros a área central de atividade atribuída aos

  8. Diet adjustments of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, subjected to supplemental feeding in a private natural reserve, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Joaquim A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 230 scats, the diet of the maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, was determined in a private natural reserve in southeastern Brazil in which ecotourism activities are developed and the animals are deliberately fed bovine meat. A total of 569 occurrences of food items were recorded, of which 56.8% were of animal origin and 29.1% of vegetal origin. Rodents, insects and birds added up to 35.8% of the occurrences, yet accounted for 68.5% of the total number of preys (277. Insects, however, had practically no importance (0.1% in the total estimated biomass consumed. Even though the fruit Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil. is a common food item in the diet of the maned wolf, its occurrence in the diet at the Serra do Caraça Reserve was insignificant, accounting for only 4.8% of the total number of food item occurrences and 3.4% of the total estimated biomass consumption. Food items of anthropic origin and inorganic items (e.g., plastic represented 14.1% of all occurrences, which shows that the animals are used to the presence of humans. Seasonal variations in consumption were found for S. lycocarpum (c² = 10,09; p < 0,001, for other fruits (c² = 19,73; p < 0,001, and for reptiles (c² = 15,56; p < 0,001, all of which were more frequently eaten during the dry months. There was a significant correlation between the availability of small mammals and their consumption by the maned wolves (r s = 0.59; p = 0.041, yet the same was not observed for the fruits of S. lycocarpum (r s = 0,101; p = 0,754. Our findings stress the need for a better understanding of the effects of additional foods on the natural feeding habits of the maned wolf.

  9. ANATOMY OF BONE AND MUSCLE OF SCAPULA AND ARM OF Chrysocyon Brachyurus (CARNIVORA, CANIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus - Illiger, 1815, is the largest canid of South America     and its found in the central region of the continent, preferably in open field biomes. It may reach between 20 and 33 kg and up to 125 cm. It is under threat of extinction. Anatomical knowledge is  of great importance to the completion of information about wild species and clinical, surgical, and conservationist implications. This study aimed to describe the bones and the bone accidents of the cingulate forelimb of brachial region and their respective muscles in maned wolf, through dissection procedures of animals preserved in 10% formalin solution. The animals belong to the didactic collection of the Laboratory of Education and Research on Wild Animals of UFU, and are the result of roadkill. The bones are scapula and humerus. There was no clavicula. The muscles are: M. deltoideus; M. supraspinatus; M. infraspinatus; M. teres major; M. teres minor; M. triceps brachii caput: laterale, accessorium, longum and mediale; M. anconeus; M. biceps; M. subscapularis; M.  coracobrachialis; M. tensor fasciae antebrachii; M. brachial. The scapula and arm have specific accidents; however, they are similar to domestic dogs. The humerus is straight. The muscles have some peculiarities. Keywords: anatomy; canids; maned wolf; muscles; osteology.

  10. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  11. Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...

  12. Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum from maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Juliana P S; Soave, Semíramis A; Turchetti, Andréia P; Pinheiro, Guilherme R G; Pessanha, Angela T; Malta, Marcelo C C; Tinoco, Herlandes P; Figueiredo, Luiza A; Gontijo, Nelder F; Paixão, Tatiane A; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Santos, Renato L

    2015-09-15

    Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is the cause of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The disease is transmitted mostly through the bite of the invertebrate vector, the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis in the New World. Although the domestic dog is considered the most important reservoir of the disease, other mammalian, including wildlife, are susceptible to infection. The goal of this study was to perform xenodiagnosis to evaluate the capacity of naturally infected maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to transmit Leishmania infantum to female sand flies (L. longipalpis). Xenodiagnoses were performed in February and August, 2013, when 77.7% (three maned wolves and four bush dogs) or 100% of the animals were positive, respectively. However, parasite loads in the engorged sand flies was low (<200 promastigotes and <150.2 parasites/μg of DNA). No statistically significant differences were observed between the two species or the two time points (February and August). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that maned wolves (C. brachyurus) and bush dogs (S. venaticus) asymptomatically infected with L. infantum are capable of transmitting L. infantum to the invertebrate host L. longipalpis, although the parasite loads in engorged phlebotomines exposed to these animals were very low.

  13. Rangelia vitalii in a free-ranging maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and co-infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Angélica Gonçalves Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An adult free-ranged female maned wolf was rescued from a periurban area subject to anthropogenic disturbances in the Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animal presented poor body condition and anemia. The clinical condition rapidly deteriorated culminating in dead and a necropsy was performed. The main gross lesions were marked anemia and blood content in the intestines accompanied by many types of parasites. The protozoa Rangelia vitalii was identified by histopathological analysis predominantly within the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of capillaries of the small intestine. The lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, dermis, lungs and kidney had similar protozoal forms but with mild or moderate intensity. Rangelia vitalii was confirmed by molecular assays. Hepatozoon sp., Leishmania sp., and Entamoeba spp., apparently not related to the clinical signs were also detected. The myriad parasites found in the intestines included nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, A. braziliensis,, Molineus sp., Pterygodermatites sp., and Trichuris sp., cestodes (Spirometra sp. and (acanthocephalans. To our knowledge, R. vitalii was identified in C. brachyurus for the first time. These findings emphasize the fragility of Brazilian ecosystems, especially in disturbed areas, reinforcing the necessity of efforts to preserve these areas and wild carnivores, some of which are threatened with extinction, such as the maned wolf.

  14. Cytogenetic studies and karyotype nomenclature of three wild canid species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) and fennec fox (Fennecus zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńkowska-Schelling, A; Schelling, C; Zawada, M; Yang, F; Bugno, M; Ferguson-Smith, M

    2008-01-01

    We have analysed the chromosomes of three wild and endangered canid species: the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) and the fennec fox (Fennecuszerda) using classical and molecular cytogenetic methods. For the first time detailed and encompassing descriptions of the chromosomes are presented including the chromosomal assignment of nucleolar organizer regions and the 5S rRNA gene cluster. We propose a karyotype nomenclature with ideograms including more than 300 bands per haploid set for each of these three species which will form the basis for further research. In addition, we propose four basic different patterns of karyotype organization in the family Canidae. A comparison of these patterns with the most recent molecular phylogeny of Canidae revealed that the karyotype evolution of a species is not always strongly connected with its phylogenetic position. Our findings underline the need and justification for basic cytogenetic work in rare and exotic species.

  15. TOPOGRAFIA DAS ABERTURAS DOS DUCTOS PAROTÍDICOS DE UM LOBO GUARÁ (Chrysocyon brachyrus ILLIGER, 1811 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE OPENINGS OF THE PAROTIDICS DUCTS OF A "GUARA" WOLF (Chrysocyon brachyrus ILLIGER, 1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Quagliatto Santos

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a topografia dos pontos de abertura dos ductos parotídicos no vestíbulo da boca de um lobo guará (Chrysocyon brachyrus, fêmea, adulto, proveniente do Zoológico do Parque do Sábia, da cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Realizaram-se incisões horizontais nas paredes do vestíbulo da boca, a cada lado, até um ponto das comissuras labiais que permitiam a identificação das aberturas dos ductos parotídicos, bem como suas relações com as faces vestibulares dos dentes pré-molares e molares superiores. Nessa oportunidade, pôde-se observar que, nesse animal, os ductos parotídicos abrem-se em correspondência ao primeiro dente molar superior.Topography of the opening points of the parotid ducts into the vestibule of the mouth from a female adult "guara" wolf (Chrysocyon brachyrus coming from the Sabiá Park Zoo in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was studied. Horizontal incisions were performed on the walls of the vestibule of the mouth on each side up to the point of the labial comissure that allowed the identification of the parotid duct openings as well as its relationships with the vestibular surface of the pre-molar and upper molar teeth. In this opportunity, it could be observed that, in this animal, the parotid ducts open into in correspondence to the upper first molar tooth.

  16. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasound study of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana D. Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the ultrasound characterization of the abdominal and pelvic regions of five maned wolves kept in captivity at the Triage Center of Wild Animals of the Federal University of Viçosa (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres, Universidade Federal de Viçosa. This characterization included descriptions of ultrasonographic aspects and measurements of various structures using B-mode ultrasound. Biometric data were collected to assess the existence of significant linear correlations between these measurements and the measurements obtained by ultrasound. Additionally, hematological and serum biochemistry evaluations of the animals were performed. The ultrasound findings were similar to those available in the literature on domestic dogs, which were used for comparison as a result of the lack of published data regarding maned wolves. The latter species showed characteristics closely resembling those of the former, differing in the spleen and left renal cortex echogenicities, in the appearance of the prostatic and testicular regions and in the hepatic portal vein morphology. In the current study, the biometric values were similar to those previously published; however, no data regarding thoracic perimeter, modified crown-rump length or thoracic depth were found in the literature for this Canidae species. Statistical analysis showed the existence of a strong negative correlation between the modified crown-rump length and left renal length, between the modified crown-rump length and the right renal volume, between the thoracic perimeter and the height at the cranial pole of the left adrenal gland and between the thoracic perimeter and the height at the caudal pole of the left adrenal gland. Laboratory findings, including segmented neutrophil, eosinophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts and the serum levels of glucose, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, urea, total protein, globulin, creatine phosphokinase, triglyceride, sodium, phosphate, potassium and chloride, were inconsistent with values found by other authors. The ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging method that must be further explored in the medicine of wild animals; therefore, additional research in this area is required.

  17. Plantas daninhas como hospedeiras alternativas para Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Braga Pereira Braz

    Full Text Available RESUMO Uma das ações indiretas exercidas pelas plantas daninhas na interferência sob espécies cultivadas é o potencial de hospedar agentes causadores de enfermidades. O nematoide das lesões radiculares (Pratylenchus brachyurus vem causando uma série de danos em diversas culturas no Brasil. Para o manejo deste fitoparasita, o cultivo de diferentes espécies de crotalárias tem sido empregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a hospedabilidade de plantas daninhas para P. brachyurus, bem como o efeito de supressão de diferentes espécies de crotalária. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação no delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (2x17, com seis repetições. O primeiro fator consistiu na presença ou ausência da inoculação do nematoide. O segundo correspondeu a dezessete espécies vegetais, sendo onze plantas daninhas, quatro crotalárias (C. breviflora, C. juncea, C. ochroleuca e C spectabilis e duas variedades de soja, as quais serviram como testemunha sendo hospedeiras de P. brachyurus. A inoculação do nematoide das lesões radiculares não influenciou a altura de plantas e massa seca de parte aérea das diferentes espécies avaliadas. Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus viridis e Sida rhombifolia foram as espécies com maior número de nematoides por sistema radicular, e apenas a S. rhombifolia apresentou comportamento semelhante a testemunha (variedade de soja BMX Potência RR®. Com relação ao número de nematoides por grama de raiz, os maiores valores foram observados para A. viridis, seguido por P. oleracea. Excluindo-se a C. juncea, todas as demais espécies de crotalária apresentaram-se como boas opções para o manejo em áreas infestadas com P. brachyurus.

  18. View registration of lobo-guará (Carnivore, Canidae, Chrysocyon brachyurus in the National Forest of Três Barras, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anésio da Cunha Marques

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The lobo-guará is the major representative of the family of Canidae in South America. It lives in an open environment, such as fields and scrub. It is also found in nearby swamps and woods along the courses of water. This note narrates the viewing of an adult specimen of the lobo-guará in the National Forest (Flona of Ibama in Três Barras, SC (lat. 26º10’15”S; long. 50º10’15”W and elev. 750m that is characterized by remnants of Mixed Ombrofila Forest and presents huge areas with reforestation of Pinus sp. and Araucaria angustifolia of over 50 years of age. The Flona has an area of 4,458.5ha, with isotherms of 20 to 22ºC in January and 12 to 14ºC in July. The average annual relative humidity of the air is 85% and it precipitates between 1,200 and 1,400mm each year. The animal was seen many times in the morning by employees of Ibama at the end of July 2008 between the co-ordinates lat. 26º12’56”S long. 50º18’17”W and lat. 26º12’33”S long. 50º18’20”W. The individual was photographed for the fi rst time on July 3 at 7:30am and for the second time on July 19 at 7:48am for the same place, on the access road to Flona.

  19. POTENTIAL USE OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA TO CONTROL Pratylenchus brachyurus ON PATCHOULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Harni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is an important parasitic nematode which significantly decreases quality and quantity of patchouli oil. One potential measure for controlling the nematode is by using endophytic bacteria. These bacteria also induce plant growth. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of endo-phytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus. The experiments were carried out in the Bacteriological Laboratory of the Plant Protection Department, Bogor Agricultural University, and the Laboratory and Greenhouse of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute from April to December 2007. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the roots of patchouli plants sampled from various locations in West Java. Antagonistic activity of the isolates were selected against P. brachyurus and their abilities to induce plant growth of patch-ouli plants. Isolates having ability to control P. brachyurus and promote plant growth were identified by molecular techniques using 16S rRNA universal primers. The results showed that a total of 257 isolates of endophytic bacteria were obtained from patchouli roots and their population density varied from 2.3 x 102 to 6.0 x 105 cfu g-1 fresh root. As many as 60 isolates (23.34% were antagonistic against P. brachyurus causing 70-100% mortality of the namatode, 72 isolates (28.01% stimu-lated plant growth, 32 isolates (12.47% inhibited plant growth, and 93 isolates (36.18% were neutral. Based on their antago-nistic and plant growth enhancer characters, five isolates of the bacteria, namely Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK, and Bacillus subtilis NJ57 suppressed 74.0-81.6% nema-tode population and increased 46.97-86.79% plant growth. The study implies that the endophytic bacteria isolated from patchouly roots are good candidates for controlling P. brachyurus on patchouly plants. Bahasa IndonesiaPratylenchus brachyurus adalah nematoda parasit pada

  20. Control of Pratylenchus brachyurus with Selected Nonfumigant Nematicides on a Tolerant and a Sensitive Soybean Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenning, S R; Schmitt, D P

    1987-10-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate soybean cultivar sensitivity to Pratylenchus brachyurus and selected nonfumigant nematicides for control of this nematode. 'Essex', a tolerant cultivar, yielded more than 'Forrest' , a sensitive cultivar, in an infested field. Plots treated with aldicarb, carbofuran, and fenamiphos had fewer nematodes 40 days after planting than nontreated plots. Plots planted with Forrest and treated with carbofuran had a greater yield than the untreated controls.

  1. Morphological polymorphism in an urban population of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798 (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brygadyrenko, Viktor V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined polymorphism in an urban population of the ground beetle Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798 in forest plantations on the outskirts of Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine. We took measurements for 130 males and 95 females according to 14 metric, 10 non-metric parameters and 10 indices. According to 13 out of the 14 metric parameters (except for the length of the flight wings P. melanarius showed a significant sexual dimorphism. The female specimens showed a normal distribution in body length and the males showed a significant positive excess. The 10 most significant body proportions of the ground beetles showed much lower sexual differences (0.26±0.86% compared to linear measurements (6.56±0.96%. Females and males are practically isomorphic: when one metric parameter decreases, another decreases proportionally. Statistically significant differences between males and females were registered only for the ratio of elytra to length of prothorax, width of elytra to maximum width of prothorax and length of elytra to their width. A highly significant excess was registered in 6 out of 10 assessments of body proportions for females and 5 out of 10 for males. The coefficient of variation is minimal for body proportions and is maximal for metric parameters, which proves the existence of isomorphic differences between P. melanarius males and females. Out of 10 non-metric parameters a statistically significant sexual dimorphism (P=0.01 was registered only for the shape of the front edge of the labrum (males mostly have a slightly concave, and females a strongly concave front edge of the labrum. Using PCA analysis it was established that 45.2% of the morphological variability of the studied population depends upon the individuals’ sex: the whole complex of metric parameters (length and width of head, prothorax, elytra and parts of head, body height taken together synchronically varies among individuals of different sex. More or less defined groups

  2. EFFICACY OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN REDUCING PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODE Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Harni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is a major parasitic nematode on patchouli that reduces plant production up to 85%. The use of endophytic bacteria is promising for controlling nematode and promoting plant growth through production of phytohormones and enhancing the availability of soil nutrients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endophytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus on patchouli plant and its influence on plant productions (plant fresh weight and patchouli oil. The study was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Garden and Laboratory of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMECRI, Bogor, West Java. The experi-ment was designed in a randomized block with seven treatments and eight replications; each replication consisted of 10 plants. The treatments evaluated were five isolates of endophytic bacteria (Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK and Bacillus subtilis NJ57, synthetic nematicide as a reference, and non-treated plant as a control.  Four-week old patchouli plants of cv. Sidikalang were treated by soaking the roots in suspension of endophytic bacteria (109 cfu  ml-1 for one hour before trans-planting to the field. At one month after planting, the plants were drenched with the bacterial suspension as much as 100 ml per plant. The results showed that applications of the endophytic bacteria could suppress the nematode populations (52.8-80% and increased plant weight (23.62-57.48% compared to the control. The isolate of endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2 was the best and comparable with carbofuran.

  3. First Report of the Carolina Spiral Nematode, Scutellonema brachyurus, from Soil of a Garden in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    Members of the genus Scutellonema can cause substantial crop losses to ornamental and cultivated plants directly by feeding ectoparasitically on plant roots (Bridge et al., 2005; Coyne et al., 2006). In May 2015, a soil sample from a house garden from Heraklion city in Crete, Greece, was sent for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this place, there had been cactus (Opuntia sp.) plants (probably imported), which were uprooted 3 to 4 years earlier. After that, the area was cropped with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in spring-summer and leaf vegetables such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) in autumn-winter. The soil was collected 1 mon after the end of chicory crop. A population density (ca. 30 individuals/100 cm(3) of soil) of spiral nematodes (Scutellonema sp.) was found by extracting soil with the wet sieving and decanting method (Cobb, 1918). Morphological and molecular analyses of females identified the species as Scutellonema brachyurus (Steiner, 1938) Andrássy, 1958. The morphology of females was characterized by a hemispherical lip region with four to six annuli, morphometric data for 12 females were L, 640 to 760 μm; a, 24.6 to 30.6; b, 5.8 to 7.4; c, 69.1 to 99.3; c´ 0.5 to 0.6; stylet, 24.5 to 27.5 μm with anterior part shorter than posterior; and spermatheca nonfunctional and male absent. The morphology agreed with the description of S. brachyurus (van den Berg et al., 2013). Alignment indicated that the D2-D3 and ITS sequences (KU059494 and KU059495, respectively) showed 99% and 100% to 99% similarity, respectively, to other sequences of S. brachyurus (type A) deposited in GenBank from the United States, Italy, and Korea (JX472037-JX472046, DQ328753, FJ485643; and JX472069, JX472070, JX472071, respectively), differing from one to six nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference of these sequences placed the Scutellonema sp. in a highly supported (100%) clade that included all S. brachyurus

  4. First Report of the Carolina Spiral Nematode, Scutellonema brachyurus, from Soil of a Garden in Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Scutellonema can cause substantial crop losses to ornamental and cultivated plants directly by feeding ectoparasitically on plant roots (Bridge et al., 2005; Coyne et al., 2006). In May 2015, a soil sample from a house garden from Heraklion city in Crete, Greece, was sent for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this place, there had been cactus (Opuntia sp.) plants (probably imported), which were uprooted 3 to 4 years earlier. After that, the area was cropped with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in spring–summer and leaf vegetables such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) in autumn–winter. The soil was collected 1 mon after the end of chicory crop. A population density (ca. 30 individuals/100 cm3 of soil) of spiral nematodes (Scutellonema sp.) was found by extracting soil with the wet sieving and decanting method (Cobb, 1918). Morphological and molecular analyses of females identified the species as Scutellonema brachyurus (Steiner, 1938) Andrássy, 1958. The morphology of females was characterized by a hemispherical lip region with four to six annuli, morphometric data for 12 females were L, 640 to 760 μm; a, 24.6 to 30.6; b, 5.8 to 7.4; c, 69.1 to 99.3; c´ 0.5 to 0.6; stylet, 24.5 to 27.5 μm with anterior part shorter than posterior; and spermatheca nonfunctional and male absent. The morphology agreed with the description of S. brachyurus (van den Berg et al., 2013). Alignment indicated that the D2-D3 and ITS sequences (KU059494 and KU059495, respectively) showed 99% and 100% to 99% similarity, respectively, to other sequences of S. brachyurus (type A) deposited in GenBank from the United States, Italy, and Korea (JX472037-JX472046, DQ328753, FJ485643; and JX472069, JX472070, JX472071, respectively), differing from one to six nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference of these sequences placed the Scutellonema sp. in a highly supported (100%) clade that included all S. brachyurus

  5. SELEÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE ABACAXI PARA RESISTÊNCIA A Meloidogyne javanica E Pratylenchus brachyurus RESISTANCE OF PINEAPPLE GENOTYPES TO Meloidogyne javanica AND Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Calfa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Dez genótipos de abacaxi foram avaliados para resistência às espécies de nematóides, Meloidogyne javanica e Pratylenchus brachyurus, em dois experimentos conduzidos em casa de vegetação, seguindo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, empregando o cv. Smooth Cayenne como padrão de suscetibilidade. Cada parcela foi constituída de uma planta/vaso, contendo solo esterilizado com brometo de metila. Após dois meses do plantio das mudas, as plantas foram inoculadas com 1.000 juvenis (J2 de M. javanica no primeiro experimento e 1.000 indivíduos de P. brachyurus no segundo experimento. Após 90 dias da inoculação foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: peso do sistema radicular, número de ovos e de nematóides por planta e fatores de reprodução. A seleção para resistência foi baseada na percentagem de redução do fator de reprodução. Em relação a M. javanica, os genótipos FRF-632 e H-3607 foram pouco resistentes (PR e os de LBB-1385, Primavera, FRF-609 e LBB-1396 comportaram-se como moderadamente resistentes (MR. Para P. brachyurus foram selecionados como pouco resistentes (PR os genótipos de H-3607, LBB-396, Perolera, FRF-609 e Primavera.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Ananas comosus; resistência; nematóide das galhas; nematóide das lesões radiculares.

    The resistance of ten genotypes of pineapple to two nematodes species, Meloidogyne javanica and Pratylenchus brachyurus, was evaluated in two experiments at greenhouse. Each one of them was completely randomized with six replications. The cultivar Smooth Cayenne was used as a susceptible control. Each plot was represented by one plant/pot. Each pot held 4 l of soil

  6. Further characterisation of two Eimeria species (Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis) in quokkas (Setonix brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, J M; Friend, J A; Yang, R; Ryan, U M

    2014-03-01

    The identification and characterisation of novel Eimeria species has largely been based on sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphology, the host species and the geographical range. Variation in the size and shape of Eimeria oocysts across their host range however, make the identification and characterisation of novel species using traditional methodologies alone problematic. The use of molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis has greatly advanced our ability to characterise Eimeria species and has recently been applied to understand evolutionary relationships among Eimeria species from Australian marsupials. In the present study, Eimeria species isolated from quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) captured from Two Peoples Bay, Bald Island and Rottnest Island, Western Australia, were morphologically identified as Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis. Both Eimeria species were identified as being polymorphic in nature with regards to sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphometrics. Phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA and COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) genes, grouped E. quokka and E. setonicis within the Eimeria marsupial clade together with Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums, Eimeria macropodis from tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) and several unidentified macropod Eimeria species from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). This study is the first to characterise E. quokka and E. setonicis by molecular analysis, enabling more extensive resolution of evolutionary relationships among marsupial-derived Eimeria species.

  7. Efeito do teor de matéria orgânica do solo, cultura de cobertura e sistema de plantio no controle de Pratylenchus brachyurus em soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Junior Natalino da Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No controle do nematoide das lesões (Pratylenchus brachyurus, têm sido indicadas algumas estratégias visando redução dos níveis populacionais, e outras que estimulam o desenvolvimento radicular, assim, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, identificar os benefícios das interações entre culturas de cobertura, teor de matéria orgânica do solo e sistemas de plantio. Foram escolhidas 2 áreas com infestação natural do nematoide e implantadas as culturas de cobertura Crotalaria spectabilis, Pennisetum glaucum (milheto ADR 300, Brachiaria decumbens, milho (híbrido 'Formula', além de tratamentos com e sem capina química. A testemunha foi o alqueive (capina periódica. O plantio das coberturas foi realizado no dia 22/02/2010, e, no dia 3/11/2010, foi implantada a cultura da soja. Cada ensaio contou com parcelas de 6 m e 10 linhas (espaçamento de 0,45 m. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições. Como sub parcelas, foram utilizados o plantio direto e o convencional da soja e das coberturas, com a utilização de uma grade aradora. As avaliações constaram de massa seca de culturas de cobertura, níveis populacionais de nematoides, massa verde de raízes, massa seca de parte aérea e rendimento de grãos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a matéria orgânica do solo apresentou benefícios, com diminuição da taxa de multiplicação de P. brachyurus, além disso, houve interação com a cultura de cobertura e o método de plantio. O plantio convencional reduziu os níveis de infecção nas avaliações até 40 dias após a emergência (40 DAE, contudo, na avaliação seguinte (70 DAE, os níveis no plantio direto foram menores, evidenciando atributos positivos desta técnica de plantio. Dentre as culturas de cobertura, C. spectabilis apresentou maior antagonismo a P. brachyurus. A testemunha capinada e a capina química evitaram a multiplicação, mas o nematoide manteve níveis suficientes para causar prejuízos.

  8. Mamíferos de médio e grande porte em um fragmento de mata atlântica, Minas Gerais, Brasil Medium and large-sized mammal in a forest fragment of atlantic forest, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maressa Rocha do Prado

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O grau de ameaça e a importância ecológica dos mamíferos terrestres de médio e grande porte evidenciam a necessidade da busca de informações em inventários e diagnósticos ambientais. Objetivo deste estudo foi inventariar e avaliar a freqüência de ocorrência e riqueza de espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte na Estação de Pesquisa, Treinamento e Educação Ambiental (EPTEA Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa - MG. A área de estudo foi aleatoriamente percorrida, em busca de evidências indiretas e diretas de mamíferos. Também foram utilizadas armadilhas Tomahawk e fotográficas para o registro e identificação das espécies. Para registrar a freqüência de ocorrência, estabeleceu-se 20 parcelas de 2 x 2 m ao longo de um transecto, as quais foram vistoriadas 29 vezes entre abril de 2005 e abril de 2006. A partir dos dados de freqüência de ocorrência, estimou-se a riqueza de espécies, pelo procedimento Jackknife 1, utilizando o Programa EstimateS. Foram registradas 23 espécies de mamíferos, das quais três estão ameaçadas de extinção: Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 e Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775. As espécies silvestres com maior freqüência de registro foram Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, L. tigrinus e L. pardalis. Foi estimada a riqueza de 15 (intervalo de confiança = 0,95 espécies de mamíferos terrestres silvestres para a EPTEA Mata do Paraíso. O presente trabalho mostra que apesar de pequena, a área de estudo desempenha um importante papel na conservação da mastofauna da região de Viçosa - MG.The degree of threat and the ecological importance of both medium and large-sized terrestrial mammals point out the necessity of searching for information on inventories and environmental diagnostics. This work aimed to inventory and evaluate the species frequency of occurrence and richness of both medium and large-sized mammals from the Estação de Pesquisa

  9. Chromosomal similarity between the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus and the Yellow-faced parrot (Salvatoria xanthops (Psittaciformes: Aves: a cytotaxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Caparroz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior, morphology, allozyme studies and DNA hybridization and sequencing data all suggest the independent evolution of the Old and New World parrots and support tribe status for the American species, although the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe are still poorly understood. A previous study has shown that the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops Spix 1824 exhibits large karyotypic differences compared to the other Amazona species and suggested that this species should be renamed Salvatoria xanthops, although the relationships between S. xanthops and the other New World parrots remain unclear. In the present work, we describe the karyotype of the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, Kuhl 1820 and the karyotype and C-banding pattern of the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus, Kuhl 1820 and compare them to the karyotype and C-banding pattern of S. xanthops, as well as to the karyotypes of other New World parrots. The chromosomal similarity between these three species and the karyotypic differences between them and other New World parrots suggest that G. brachyurus and S. xanthops are sister species and are most closely related to members of the genus Pionus.

  10. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  11. Hemiterpenoids and Pyrazines in the Odoriferous Urine of the Maned Wolf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, T.E.; Songsasen, N.; Broederdorf, L.J.; Burkert, B.A.; Joi Chen, C.; Jackson, S.R.; Keplinger, K.B.; Rountree, M.E.; Waldrip, Z.J.; Wedell, M.E.; Desrochers, L.P.; Baker, W.K.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Maned wolves ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) are endemic to South America, monogamous, solitary, and threatened in the wild. Maned wolf urine has a pungent and powerful odour and is used for scent marking. There is evidence to suggest that the presence of a male may be required to initiate oestrus and/or

  12. Consorciação e manejo de Brachiaria decumbens em mudas de cafeeiros infestados com Pratylenchus brachyurus em condições de casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Kazuhiro Kubo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da consorciação e manejo de Brachiaria decumbens cv. 'Basilisk' em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica cv. 'Catuaí Vermelho' infestado por Pratylenchus brachyurus (Pb, o presente experimento foi desenvolvido em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos utilizados, com cinco repetições, foram: 1. Café não inoculado no limpo; 2. Café não inoculado consorciado com B. decumbens; 3. Café inoculado com 5000 juvenis e adultos de Pb por vaso (10L, no limpo; 4. Café inoculado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens podadas semanalmente; 5. Café inoculado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens com aplicação do herbicida glifosato. Aos 3, 4, 7, 10 e 11 meses após transplante dos cafeeiros, houve um aumento significativo na altura das plantas de cafeeiro sem nematoide mantidas no limpo, comparadas com os tratamentos com cafeeiros em solo infestado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens podadas e café em solo infestado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens com aplicação de glifosato. Na avaliação final, realizada 278 dias após à inoculação das plantas, o peso da matéria seca da parte aérea nos tratamentos com Pb consorciado com braquiária e com aplicação de glifosato apresentaram menores valores, quando comparado com a testemunha sem nematoide e sem plantas consorciadas. Com relação ao peso da matéria fresca das raízes, todos os tratamentos foram significativamente mais baixos do que a testemunha sem nematoide e sem consorciação. A população final de P. brachyurus nas raízes foi maior quando o café foi consorciado com braquiária

  13. Densidade populacional de raposa-do-campo Lycalopex vetulus (Carnivora, Canidae em áreas de pastagem e campo sujo, Campinápolis, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo C. Rocha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da crescente descaracterização do Bioma Cerrado em função da expansão da fronteira agropecuária na região central do Brasil, torna-se importante avaliar a capacidade de adaptação das espécies ao ambiente antropizado. Neste sentido, este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estimar e comparar a densidade populacional da raposa-do-campo Lycalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842 em duas áreas com diferentes graus de alteração, pastagem e campo sujo, em Campinápolis, Mato Grosso. Para tanto, no período entre agosto a novembro de 2005, foram efetuados censos noturnos ao longo de transectos lineares, totalizando percursos de 129,8 km na área de campo sujo e 62,08 km na área de pastagem. Estimativas de densidade populacional foram geradas utilizando o programa Distance 5.0, sendo que o modelo e ajuste mais adequados aos dados foram half-normal + hermite. Foram obtidas 23 e 52 detecções de raposas-do-campo nas áreas de campo sujo e pastagem, respectivamente. A densidade populacional de raposa-do-campo na área de pastagem (D=4,28 indivíduos/km²; IC=2,69 - 6,82 foi maior que na área de campo sujo (D=1,21 indivíduos/km²; IC=0,73 - 2,01, fato que deve estar relacionado, principalmente, com a disponibilidade de alimento e redução de potenciais predadores. Por apresentar uma dieta composta principalmente de cupins, especialmente os dos gêneros Syntermes e Cornitermes, a raposa-do-campo encontra na área de pastagem uma base alimentar abundante e estável. Além disto, a simplificação ambiental, em função da implantação de pastagens acaba por reduzir, ou até mesmo eliminar, animais que são potenciais predadores de raposas-do-campo, como Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, favorecendo o aumento da densidade populacional da espécie neste tipo de ambiente. Por fim, características adaptativas apresentadas pela raposa-do-campo têm permitido que esta espécie sobreviva, inclusive apresentando elevada densidade

  14. Identification, classification and evolution of Owl Monkeys (Aotus, Illiger 1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Albert N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owl monkeys, belonging to the genus Aotus, have been extensively used as animal models in biomedical research but few reports have focused on the taxonomy and phylogeography of this genus. Moreover, the morphological similarity of several Aotus species has led to frequent misidentifications, mainly at the boundaries of their distribution. In this study, sequence data from five mitochondrial regions and the nuclear, Y-linked, SRY gene were used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstructions using well characterized specimens of Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans, A. lemurinus, A. griseimembra, A. trivirgatus, A. nigriceps, A. azarae boliviensis and A. infulatus. Results The complete MT-CO1, MT-TS1, MT-TD, MT-CO2, MT-CYB regions were sequenced in 18 Aotus specimens. ML and Bayesian topologies of concatenated data and separate regions allowed for the proposition of a tentative Aotus phylogeny, indicating that Aotus diverged some 4.62 Million years before present (MYBP. Similar analyses with included GenBank specimens were useful for assessing species identification of deposited data. Conclusions Alternative phylogenetic reconstructions, when compared with karyotypic and biogeographic data, led to the proposition of evolutionary scenarios questioning the conventional diversification of this genus in monophyletic groups with grey and red necks. Moreover, genetic distance estimates and haplotypic differences were useful for species validations.

  15. On the habits and anatomy of Opisthocomus cristatus, Illig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, C.G.

    1888-01-01

    This bird is known also as the stinking pheasant, anna, stinking anna, and van Batenburg’s turkey — after a Dutch Governor of years gone by. It gets the name »stinking’ from the peculiar smell, like fresh cow-dung, that comes from its crop or stomach or both, for when the skin is preserved it posses

  16. Morfologia do estômago do cervo-do-pantanal (Blastocerus dichotomus, Illiger 1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.F. Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Em razão da falta de informações sobre a morfologia do cervo-do-pantanal, objetivou-se apresentar a morfologia das câmaras gástricas desse cervídeo. Macroscopicamente, o estômago do cervo-do-pantanal é formado pelo rúmen, retículo, omaso e abomaso, assemelhando-se aos ruminantes domésticos. Microscopicamente, o rúmen e o abomaso são semelhantes aos animais domésticos, já o retículo e o omaso apresentam características específicas, como acentuada queratinização no ápice das pequenas projeções epiteliais do retículo e pregas omasais revestidas por discretas papilas.

  17. Structural analyses of acessory genital glands of maned sloths (Bradypus torquatus, Illiger, 1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Sloths belong to the Mammalian class and Xenarthar Order, presenting very peculiar corporal designs and habits of life. One particular species, Bradypus torquatus, belongs to the Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, this research aims to contribute to knowledge of the male genital organ morphology of the maned sloth on account of the fact that it has so far only been inadequately elucidated by existing science. In this research, six Bradypus torquatus males were used, provided by the Anatomy Laboratory of the Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia/USP, originally donated by the Reserva Zoobotânica Matinha, Ilhéus/BA. The commom carotid arteries of the animals were canulated and the arterial systems were washed with 40°C water for posterior injection of 10% water formaldehyde solution. The animals were dissected for gross evaluation and sections of tissue from the seminal vesicles and prostates were collected and submitted to light microscopy. The maned sloth presented two genital accessory glands, a prostate and a vesicular gland. It was established through histology that the vesicular gland followed the norm for mammals, but that the prostate showed a peculiar aspect, dividing into muscular and urethral forms.

  18. Anatomical characteristics of the brachial plexus of the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus Illiger, 1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessica Ariane de Melo Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight male and female maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus cadavers, previously fixed in formalin, were used to identify the origin of the brachial plexus, nerves and innervation territory in order to determine an anatomical pattern for this species. The plexus of B. torquatus was derived from the C7 to C10 and T1 to T2 spinal nerves, but the participation of T2 was variable. The spinal nerves gave origin to the cranial and caudal trunks, which joined to form a common trunk, from which two fascicles were formed. All the nerves from the brachial plexus were originated from these two fascicles, except the thoracic, long pectoral and suprascapular nerves, which arose before the formation of the common trunk. The organization of the brachial plexus into trunks and fascicles, and subsequent origin of peripheral nerves, demonstrates that most of the spinal nerves contribute to the composition of the peripheral nerves and the possibility that lesions or traumatic injuries would damage most of the thoracic member.

  19. Aerial line transect survey to estimate abundance of marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Andriolo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate abundance of marsh deer in the Paraná River basin of this work. The results provided information to support further analysis of the impact of the Porto Primavera flooding lake over population. Sixty-nine animals were recorded by aerial survey using distance sampling methodology. Animals were widely distributed throughout the study area. The uncorrected data resulted in a estimate density of 0.0035 ind/ha and a population size of 636 individuals. Correcting the g for the animals that could be missed the calculated abundance was 896 (CV=0.27 individuals. This methodology was applied with success to survey marsh deer. The result was important to evaluate the marsh deer status in the area, and for future analysis of the impact of the flooding dam.A população de cervo-do-pantanal (Blastocerus dichotomus está drasticamente reduzida no Brasil. O nosso objetivo foi o de estimar a abundância do cervo-do-pantanal na bacia do Rio Paraná e discutir a metodologia aplicada. Os resultados darão suporte para uma análise do impacto do enchimento da represa de Porto Primavera sobre essa população. Sessenta e nove animais foram registrados através de sobrevôo utilizando-se a metodologia de transecção linear com amostragem das distâncias. Os dados não corrigidos resultaram em uma densidade estimada de 0,0035ind/ha e uma população de 636 indivíduos. A correção de g para os animais que não foram vistos apresentou uma densidade de 0,0049 ind/ha e uma abundância de 896 (CV=0,27 indivíduos. A metodologia foi aplicada com sucesso na estimativa de cervo-do-pantanal. Esse resultado é importante para avaliarmos a população do cervo-do-pantanal na área e para futuramente analisarmos o impacto do enchimento da represa.

  20. Biology and Ecology of Asian Small-Clawed Otter Aonyx cinereus (Illiger, 1815: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asian small-clawed otter is the smallest among the 13 extant species of otters. It has a large distribution range extending from India in South Asia through Southeast Asia up to Taiwan and Philippines in the east and Southern China in the north. It is considered ‘Vulnerable’ due to habitat loss and degradation, depletion of prey species and exploitation. Being adapted to live in shallow streams and water bodies, they are more vulnerable to modification of these habitats by anthropogenic as well as climate change impacts. This paper summarizes the state of knowledge on the biology and ecology of this little known species. Over the years, the IUCN SSC Otter Specialist Group has developed a cadre of biologist across Asia to conduct field surveys and has popularized otter conservation by promoting otter as the ambassador of wetlands. However, concerted effort is needed for its long-term survival. Policy based action, research on factors affecting survival, habitat-based actions on creation and where required expansion of protected areas and communication and awareness building among local communities are suggested.

  1. Teste de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R.B. Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Na América do Sul, alguns canídeos silvestres são considerados reservatórios naturais da Leishmania chagasi. A resposta imunológica desses animais à Leishmania é pouco conhecida, havendo a necessidade de métodos diagnósticos adequados para esse fim. No presente estudo, é descrita a padronização do ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA para o diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres brasileiros. Foram estudadas amostras de soro e plasma de 12 canídeos cativos: sete lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, três raposinhas (Lycalopex vetulus e dois cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. As amostras de um C. brachyurus e uma L. vetulus, cativos em área endêmica para LV, que apresentavam doença clínica e positividade em testes de Imunofluorescência Indireta e Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase, foram utilizadas como controles positivos. Foram comparados os conjugados anti-IgG de cão e proteína A, ambos ligados a peroxidase, cujos testes detectaram quatro (04/12 e três (03/12 C. brachyurus soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leishmania sp., respectivamente. As médias das densidades ópticas (DOs das amostras negativas foram nitidamente mais baixas do que as médias das DOs dos positivos tanto no ELISA com anti-IgG de cão (4,8 vezes como com proteína A (15,5 vezes. Os soros de três C. brachyurus positivos no ELISA indireto foram avaliados por Western blotting e identificaram 22 bandas, sendo imunodominantes as de peso molecular de 19, 22, 24, 45 e 66 kDa. Os testes ELISA com a proteína A e o conjugado anti-IgG de cão apresentaram respectivamente concordância excelente (Kappa = 1; p<0,001 e moderada (Kappa = 0,8; p<0,0015, com o Western blotting. Ambos foram, portanto, considerados adequados a avaliações de triagem de animais cuja resposta humoral de anticorpos indica contato com o parasito, úteis para subsidiar estudos para adequação de metodologias específicas para os canídeos silvestres.

  2. Teste de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres Indirect ELISA for the serological diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in wild canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R.B. Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Na América do Sul, alguns canídeos silvestres são considerados reservatórios naturais da Leishmania chagasi. A resposta imunológica desses animais à Leishmania é pouco conhecida, havendo a necessidade de métodos diagnósticos adequados para esse fim. No presente estudo, é descrita a padronização do ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA para o diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres brasileiros. Foram estudadas amostras de soro e plasma de 12 canídeos cativos: sete lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, três raposinhas (Lycalopex vetulus e dois cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. As amostras de um C. brachyurus e uma L. vetulus, cativos em área endêmica para LV, que apresentavam doença clínica e positividade em testes de Imunofluorescência Indireta e Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase, foram utilizadas como controles positivos. Foram comparados os conjugados anti-IgG de cão e proteína A, ambos ligados a peroxidase, cujos testes detectaram quatro (04/12 e três (03/12 C. brachyurus soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leishmania sp., respectivamente. As médias das densidades ópticas (DOs das amostras negativas foram nitidamente mais baixas do que as médias das DOs dos positivos tanto no ELISA com anti-IgG de cão (4,8 vezes como com proteína A (15,5 vezes. Os soros de três C. brachyurus positivos no ELISA indireto foram avaliados por Western blotting e identificaram 22 bandas, sendo imunodominantes as de peso molecular de 19, 22, 24, 45 e 66 kDa. Os testes ELISA com a proteína A e o conjugado anti-IgG de cão apresentaram respectivamente concordância excelente (Kappa = 1; pIn South America, some wild canids are considered natural reservoirs of Leishmania chagasi. The immunological response of wild canids to Leishmania is not well understood, and the development of diagnostic methods is necessary for such purpose. In the present study, the standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent

  3. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  4. Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids in six canid and four ursid species at four zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissey, S; Ange, K; Slifka, K; Bowen, P; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M; Langman, C; Sadler, W; Ward, A

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional status for six captive canid species (n=34) and four captive ursid species (n=18) were analyzed. The species analyzed included: African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), gray wolf (Canis lupus), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baleiyi), red wolf (Canis rufus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), and sun bear (Ursus malayanus). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diet for each species at each institution met probable dietary requirements. Blood samples were collected from each animal and analyzed for vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D, vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Family differences were found for 25(OH)D, retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol. Species differences were found for all detectable measurements. Carotenoids were not detected in any species. The large number of animals contributing to these data, provides a substantial base for comparing the nutritional status of healthy animals and the differences among them.

  5. Genetic variability in maned wolf based on heterologous short-tandem repeat markers from domestic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, D C; Akimoto, A A; Carvalho, C B; Oliveira, S F; Grisolia, C K; Moreira, J R; Klautau-Guimarães, M N

    2007-06-20

    The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest South American canid. Habitat loss and fragmentation, due to agricultural expansion and predatory hunting, are the main threats to this species. It is included in the official list of threatened wildlife species in Brazil, and is also protected by IUCN and CITES. Highly variable genetic markers such as microsatellites have the potential to resolve genetic relationships at all levels of the population structure (among individuals, demes or metapopulations) and also to identify the evolutionary unit for strategies for the conservation of the species. Tests were carried out to verify whether a class of highly polymorphic tetranucleotide repeats described for the domestic dog effectively amplifies DNA in the maned wolf. All five loci studied were amplified; however, one of these, was shown to be monomorphic in 69 maned wolf samples. The average allele number and estimated heterozygosity per polymorphic locus were 4.3 and 67%, respectively. The genetic variability found for this species, which is considered threatened with extinction, showed similar results when compared to studies of other canids.

  6. COMPOSITION OF MEDIUM AND LARGE MAMMALS IN FOREST RESERVE IN THE CERRADO OF BRAZIL CENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Jose Viana Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge about fauna location and distribution is very important for animal biology understanding. Conservation Units are relevant to biodiversity when considering factors such as hunting, agricultural expansion and forest fires. The conservation of native vegetation fragments under more suitable management plans, recovery areas and surveys are essential to the mammals preservation. This study aimed to survey the mammals of medium and large size of the Brasilia National Forest Area 1. To carry out this study it was performed weekly rounds in search for direct and indirect mammals traces existing at forest reserve. It is reported the presence of 27 species in the study area. According to the IUCN Red List, four species are vulnerable to extinction: tapir (Tapirus terrestris, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus and oncilla (Leopardus guttulus. Two species were recorded nearly threatened species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus. Also according to the same list, 48% (n=13 of species are declining in population trend and 26% (n=7 for this data is unknown. Differences in the area were observed, with mammal species presence associated to Cerrado vegetation types and in distribution of records over the period.

  7. SEROPREVALENCE OF NINE LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVARS IN WILD CARNIVORES, UNGULATES, AND PRIMATES FROM A ZOO POPULATION IN A METROPOLITAN REGION OF CHILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Beas, Eduardo; Abalos, Pedro; Hidalgo-Hermoso, Ezequiel

    2015-12-01

    Serum samples from 130 individuals representing 42 species of carnivores, ungulates, and primates from a population of captive mammals in Metropolitan Region in Chile were tested for antibodies against nine serovars of Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test. Ten percent of the animals were seropositive to one or more serovars. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in ungulates (20.4%) compared to carnivores (3.8%) and primates (3.4%). There were no significant differences in seroprevalence among sex and age ranges. The most frequent serovar detected was Autumnalis, present in 53.4% of antibody-positive animals. Most positive animals had titers of ≤1 : 200, except for a maned wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) with titers of 1 : 400 against serovar Hardjo. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Leptospira exposure detected in native endangered pudu ( Pudu puda ) and the first confirmation of exposure to L. interrogans in captive wild mammals in Chile. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in future disease presentation for hepatitis or abortions in captive mammals in Chile.

  8. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazilian wildlife revealed abundant new genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Vitaliano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from Brazilian wildlife. For this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by PCR based on 18S rRNA sequences. A total of 15 T. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three Dasypus novemcinctus, one Euphractus sexcinctus, three collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla, three whited-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari, one spotted paca (Cuniculus paca, one oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, one lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus and one maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus. DNA from the isolates, originated from mice bioassay, and from the tissues of the wild animal, designated as “primary samples”, were genotyped by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP, using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L258, PK1, CS3 and Apico. A total of 17 genotypes were identified, with 13 identified for the first time and four already reported in published literature. Results herein obtained corroborate previous studies in Brazil, confirming high diversity and revealing unique genotypes in this region. Given most of genotypes here identified are different from previous studies in domestic animals, future studies on T. gondii from wildlife is of interest to understand population genetics and structure of this parasite.

  9. Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii exposure in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, D A; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; André, M R; Gonçalves, L R; Machado, R Z

    2015-02-01

    SUMMARY Wild canids are potential hosts for numerous species of Bartonella, yet little research has been done to quantify their infection rates in South America. We sought to investigate Bartonella seroprevalence in captive wild canids from 19 zoos in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves (Canis lupus). Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. henselae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. rochalimae. Overall, Bartonella antibodies were detected in 11 of the canids, including five (12·8%) of 39 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three (11·1%) of 27 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), two (8·7%) of 23 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one (12·5%) of eight hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:512. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. tested for, it will be important to conduct further research in non-captive wild canids to gain an accurate understanding of Bartonella infection in free-ranging wild canids in South America.

  10. Chromosomal evolution of the Canidae. I. Species with high diploid numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, R K; Nash, W G; O'Brien, S J

    1987-01-01

    The Giemsa banding patterns of seven canid species, including the grey wolf (Canis lupus), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), the grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), and the fennec (Fennecus zerda), are presented and compared. Relative to other members of Canidae, these species have high diploid complements (2n greater than 64) consisting of largely acrocentric chromosomes. They show a considerable degree of chromosome homoeology, but relative to the grey wolf, each species is either missing chromosomes or has unique chromosomal additions and rearrangements. Differences in chromosome morphology among the seven species were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic history. The results suggest that the South American canids are closely related to each other and are derived from a wolf-like progenitor. The fennec and the bat-eared fox seem to be recent derivatives of a lineage that branched early from the wolf-like canids and which also includes the grey fox.

  11. [Seroprevalence of antibodies anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii in captive wild canids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Bianca C; Patrício, Lia L F; Plugge, Nicolle F; Lange, Rogério R; Richartz, Rosária R T B; Dittrich, Rosângela Locatelli

    2008-09-01

    Neosporosis is considered one of the main cause of abortion in dairy cattle in the world. The prevalence of Neospora caninum in wild species has been studied since the coyote (Canis latrans), a North American wild canid specie was discovered as definitive host of this parasite. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in wild native canids species from Brazil. Serum samples of 25 crab-eating dogs (Cerdocyon thous), five pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), six bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) e 14 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) were tested. The animals were from zoos and sanctuaries from the states of Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro and the Federal District. The total prevalence obtained for N. caninum was 36% (18/50) and for T. gondii was 40% (20/50). The present study demonstrated for the first time the presence of antibodies to N. caninum in bush dogs and the prevalence found was 33,3% (2/6). This study showed the presence of these protozoans in captive wild canids species and to alert about possible contamination sources.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi TcI and TcII transmission among wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs in a conservation unit and surrounding areas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa; Santos, Jean Pierre; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Cordeir-Estrela, Pedro; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2013-02-01

    Aiming to better understand the ecological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles, wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs were examined for T. cruzi infection in the Serra da Canastra National Park region, Brazil. Isolates were genotyped using mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8 and H3) genomic targets. Trypanosoma cruzi transmission was well established in the area and occurred in both wild and peridomestic environments. Dog seroprevalence was 29·4% (63/214) and TcI and TcII genotypes, besides mixed infections were observed. Only TcI was detected in wild mammals. Marsupials displayed lower relative abundance, but a high prevalence of positive haemocultures (4/22), whereas rodents displayed positive haemocultures (9/113) mainly in the abundant Akodon montensis and Cerradomys subflavus species. The felid Leopardus pardalis was the only carnivore to display positive haemoculture and was captured in the same region where the small mammal prevalence of T. cruzi infection was high. Two canid species, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Cerdocyon thous, were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection (4/8 and 8/39, respectively), probably related to their capacity to exploit different ecological niches. Herein, dog infection not only signals T. cruzi transmission but also the genotypes present. Distinct transmission strategies of the T. cruzi genotypes are discussed.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pus_brachyurus_L.png Lepus_brachyurus_NL.png Lepus_brachyurus_S.png Lepus_brachyurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus...+brachyurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyuru...s&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=138 ...

  14. Ceratapion basicorne (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): laboratory and open field trials to assess its specificity as biocontrol agent of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae: Cardueae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospective biological control agents generally must be demonstrated to not pose risks to non-target plants. Laboratory experiments evaluating host plant specificity are the most common method of evaluating such risk; however, they are constrained by limitations of space and number of replicates, gi...

  15. First results on the distribution of Nosema chaetocnemae Yaman et Radek, 2003 (Microspora) in the populations of Chaetocnema tibialis Illiger, 1807 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the first report on the distribution of Nosema chaetocnemae infection of Chaetocnema tibialis populations in Turkey is given. Of the 1751 beetles collected from ten provinces, 193 were infected by the parasite. The infection average was 11.02% in Turkey. Nosema infection was found in C. tibialis adults from two (Samsun and Trabzon) of the ten provinces studied. In eight localities in different regions of Turkey, the infection was not observed. The highest percentage of beetles infected with a Nosema isolate was recorded in Samsun. The infection average in Samsun was 25.20%. The results showed that the infection level of N. chaetocnemae was relatively stable during the observation period between the years 2000-2006.

  16. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  17. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil Parasitos de canídeos domésticos e silvestres na região do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lúcia Costa Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park. The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.Nas últimas décadas, as doenças têm sido apontadas como importantes causas de extinção de espécies silvestres. Maior ênfase tem sido dada às doenças transmitidas por animais domésticos que crescem em número, bem como as populações humanas, em áreas naturais. O presente estudo objetivou verificar a presença de helmintos intestinais de canídeos silvestres (lobo-guará - Chrysocyon brachyurus e cachorro-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (43-44º W e 19-20º S e endo e ectoparasitos de cães domésticos da Área de Proteção Ambiental Morro da Pedreira (entorno do

  18. A importância das plantações de eucalipto na conservação da biodiversidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner de Araujo Gabriel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas a expansão de plantações de Eucalyptus sp. foi notável no Brasil, destacando-se no cenário mundial. Diversos estudos revelam que tais plantações, especialmente aquelas respaldadas por instrumentos de certificação, podem trazer benefícios de cunho social e ambiental. Este trabalho apresenta dados coletados no período de 2002 a 2011 sobre a riqueza de plantas, aves e mamíferos em fazendas de plantação de eucalipto no Brasil. Discute-se sobre a importância dessas fazendas na conservação da biodiversidade, em que já foram registradas diversas espécies de plantas arbustivo-arbóreas, aves e mamíferos de médio e grande porte, respectivamente. Foi registrada a ocorrência de regeneração de plantas ameaçadas de extinção nos talhões de eucalipto: Araucaria angustifolia, Couratari asterotricha, Buchenavia hoehneana, Dalbergia nigra, Ocotea catharinensis e Ocotea porosa. Quanto às espécies da fauna ameaçadas de extinção, a águia-cinzenta (Urubitinga coronata, o chauá (Amazona rhodochorytha, o lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, o tamanduá (Myrmecophaga tridactyla e a anta (Tapirus terrestris já foram observados. Plantações florestais e fragmentos compostos por vegetação secundária figurarão entre os principais elementos das paisagens tropicais futuras. Desta forma, não se pode negligenciar a contribuição das plantações de eucalipto na conservação da biodiversidade.

  19. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  20. Occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept in captivity at the zoo from Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua, three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, six crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, three ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, one cougar (Puma concolor and three wild cats (Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii and Leopardus colocolo were reviewed. The most frequent lesions were dental absences 21/31 (67.7%, dental fractures 20/31 (64.5% and tooth wear 19/31 (61.3%, which were suggestive of trauma caused from stress. Of lesser importance, we also observed occurrence of dental calculus grade I in 18/31 (58%, caries 1/31 (3.2%, foreign bodies 2/31 (6.4%, orofacial fistulas 1/31 (3.2%, hyperplasia in the oral mucosa 1/31 (3.2%, dental dimming 3/31 (9.7% and chafing of the soft tissue 5/31 (16.1%. Therefore, it was concluded that environmental enrichment strategies and oral routine evaluation must be implemented to ensure the welfare of these animals, reducing local and systemic adverse effects of oral lesions. The diet has been successful in preventing periodontal disease, suggesting that this diet for the captive animals in the institution should be maintained.

  1. Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlák, K; Bártová, E

    2006-03-31

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), fennec (Vulpes zerda), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis), fisher (Martes pennanti), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), European bison (Bison bonasus), lechwe (Kobus leche), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris), Eastern elk (C. elaphus canadensis), Vietnam sika deer (C. nippon pseudaxis) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Titres ranged from 1:40 to 1:2560. The highest prevalence 50% was found in family mustelidae of the order carnivora. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 193 of 556 zoo animals (34.7%) representing 72 of 114 species tested, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:40960. The highest prevalence 100% was found in families: hyaenidae, mustelidae, ursidae and viveridae of the order carnivora. The results of this study indicate that zoo animals have more exposure to T. gondii than to N. caninum. It is the first report of seroprevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in European zoo animals.

  2. The multiple and complex and changeable scenarios of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle in the sylvatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ana Maria; Xavier, Samanta C C; Roque, André Luiz R

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report and discuss the results generated from over 20 years of studies of the Trypanosoma cruzi sylvatic transmission cycle. Our results have uncovered new aspects and reviewed old concepts on issues including reservoirs, true generalist species, association of mammalian species with distinct discrete typing units - DTUs, distribution of T. cruzi genotypes in the wild, mixed infections, and T. cruzi transmission ecology. Using parasitological and serological tests, we examined T. cruzi infection in 7,285 mammalian specimens from nine mammalian orders dispersed all over the Brazilian biomes. The obtained T. cruzi isolates were characterized by mini-exon gene sequence polymorphism and PCR RFLP to identify DTUs. Infection by T. cruzi was detected by serological methods in 20% of the examined animals and isolated from 41% of those infected, corresponding to 8% of all the examined mammals. Each mammal taxon responded uniquely to T. cruzi infection. Didelphis spp. are able to maintain high and long-lasting parasitemias (positive hemocultures) caused by TcI but maintain and rapidly control parasitemias caused by TcII to almost undetectable levels. In contrast, the tamarin species Leontopithecus rosalia and L. chrysomelas maintain long-lasting and high parasitemias caused by TcII similarly to Philander sp. The coati Nasua nasua maintains high parasitemias by both parental T. cruzi DTUs TcI or TcII and by TcII/TcIV (formerly Z3) at detectable levels. Wild and domestic canidae seem to display only a short period of reservoir competence. T. cruzi infection was demonstrated in the wild canid species Cerdocyon thous and Chrysocyon brachyurus, and positive hemoculture was obtained in one hyper carnivore species (Leopardus pardalis), demonstrating that T. cruzi transmission is deeply immersed in the trophic net. T. cruzi DTU distribution in nature did not exhibit any association with a particular biome or habitat. TcI predominates throughout (58% of the T. cruzi

  3. Effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in determining species presence in a tropical savanna landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Skalski, John R; Machado, Ricardo B; Groom, Martha J; Jácomo, Anah T A; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Ramos Neto, Mario B; Pomilla, Cristina; Silveira, Leandro; Smith, Heath; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-02-01

    Most protected areas are too small to sustain populations of wide-ranging mammals; thus, identification and conservation of high-quality habitat for those animals outside parks is often a high priority, particularly for regions where extensive land conversion is occurring. This is the case in the vicinity of Emas National Park, a small protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado. Over the last 40 years the native vegetation surrounding the park has been converted to agriculture, but the region still supports virtually all of the animals native to the area. We determined the effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in detecting presence of five species of mammals threatened with extinction by habitat loss: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), puma (Puma concolor), jaguar (Panthera onca), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), and giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus). The probability of scat detection varied among the five species and among survey quadrats of different size, but was consistent across team, season, and year. The probability of occurrence, determined from the presence of scat, in a randomly selected site within the study area ranged from 0.14 for jaguars, which occur primarily in the forested areas of the park, to 0.91 for maned wolves, the most widely distributed species in our study area. Most occurrences of giant armadillos in the park were in open grasslands, but in the agricultural matrix they tended to occur in riparian woodlands. At least one target species occurred in every survey quadrat, and giant armadillos, jaguars, and maned wolves were more likely to be present in quadrats located inside than outside the park. The effort required for detection of scats was highest for the two felids. We were able to detect the presence for each of five wide-ranging species inside and outside the park and to assign occurrence probabilities to specific survey sites. Thus, scat dogs provide an effective survey tool for rare species even when accurate detection

  4. Avaliação do perfil eletrocardiográfico pré e trans-anestesia em lobos-guará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.O. Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o efeito da administração do Zolazepam/Tiletamina nas funções cardiorrespiratórias e eletrocardiográficas em lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus mantidos em cativeiro. Foram utilizados dez lobos-guará clinicamente saudáveis (seis machos e quatro fêmeas, com média de peso 23,5±3,5kg, e idade de 6,5±2,8 anos. Os lobos eram mantidos em cativeiro e foram capturados pelos tratadores, proporcionando o mínimo de estresse possível para avaliação dos parâmetros pré-anestésicos. Foram avaliadas frequência cardíaca e respiratória, temperatura retal, pressão arterial média e eletrocardiografia. Após coleta dos parâmetros fisiológicos e eletrocardiográficos pré-anestesia, foi administrada a dose de 5,1±0,7mg/kg de Zolazepam/Tiletamina intramuscular. Depois da anestesia, colocaram-se os eletrodos do eletrocardiograma nos membros torácicos e pélvicos. Os animais eram monitorados durante uma hora, sendo que, a cada 10 minutos, era realizado o registro dos valores eletrocardiográficos, assim como os valores dos parâmetros fisiológicos e cardiorrespiratórios. Os resultados mostraram alteração significativa na amplitude da onda P entre 10 a 50 minutos pós-anestesia. Frequência cardíaca (153±20bmp, frequência respiratória (29±6mpm, temperatura corporal (38,4±1oC, pressão arterial média (114±20mmHg e as outras variáveis eletrocardiográficas não apresentaram alterações. O aumento da amplitude da onda P nos animais deste trabalho sugeriu um aumento atrial, oriundo de doenças cardíacas ou simplesmente pelo aumento da frequência cardíaca durante a contenção.

  5. Effect of light quality on movement of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allema, A.B.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Van der Werf, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Steingrover, E.; Van Lenteren, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Behaviour of nocturnal insects is routinely observed under red light, but it is unclear how the behaviour under red light compares to behaviour in complete darkness, or under a source of white light. Here, we measure movement behaviour of the nocturnal carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius Illiger

  6. Revision of the Genus Hybosorus Macleay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Hybosorinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijten, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the scarabaeoid genus Hybosorus is given, including descriptions, nomenclatorial notes, figures of genital apparatus and other relevant parts, a key, and notes on distribution and bionomics. Lectotypes are designated for Hybosorus carolinus LeConte, H. crassus Klug, H. nitidus Lansberge, H. pinguis Westwood, H. roei Westwood, and Hybosoroides alluaudi Benderitter. Hybosorus arator (Illiger), H. carolinus LeConte, H. nitidus Lansberge (nov. syn.), H. illigeri var. nossi...

  7. Larval development of japanese "conchostracans"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jorgen; Fritsch, Martin; Grygier, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    For comparison with the remarkable larvae of the laevicaudatan (clam shrimp) Lynceus brachyurus, a basic description of the larval sequence of another laevicaudatan branchiopod, the Japanese Lynceus biformis, is provided. Four larval stages have been identified, ranging in size from 258 to 560 mu m...

  8. Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965 (Trypanorhyncha: Dasyrhynchidae) description of the adult form

    OpenAIRE

    São Clemente,Sergio Carmona de; Gomes,Delir Corrêa

    1989-01-01

    One out of four specimens of sharks, Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860), captured off the southern Brazilian Coast, harboured cestodes identified as Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965, of which the adult form is now described and referred as ocurring in Brazil.

  9. Densidade populacional de Pratylenchus spp. em pastagens de Brachiaria spp. e sua influência na disponibilidade e na qualidade da forragem Population density of Pratylenchus spp. in pastures of Brachiaria spp. and its influence on the forage availability and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia de Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a densidade populacional de Pratylenchus brachyurus e Pratylenchus zeae, associados à Brachiaria brizantha, B. decumbens e B. humidicola, e sua influência na disponibilidade e na qualidade da forragem, realizou-se este trabalho. O experimento foi conduzido na Agropecuária Hisaeda, em Terenos, MS. Coletaram-se amostras de solo, raízes e parte aérea, em dez repetições ao acaso, de 1 m² cada, dos seguintes tratamentos: Bom, Intermediário e Ruim, caracterizados visualmente, considerando-se a percentagem de material verde das plantas. As densidades de P. brachyurus e P. zeae foram avaliadas nas amostras de solo e raízes. Na parte aérea, avaliou-se a disponibilidade de matéria seca dos materiais verde, morto e da rebrota, estado nutricional das plantas e qualidade da forragem. A fertilidade do solo foi determinada em todas as unidades amostrais. Ambos os nematoides foram identificados em todas as amostras, com maior número nas raízes (entre 87-311 P. brachyurus e 1-61 P. zeae.10 g-1 que no solo (de 0-8 P. brachyurus a 1-39 P. zeae.200 cm-3, no entanto, não houve diferenças significativas, na quantidade de espécimes, entre os tratamentos. Considerando-se que essas forrageiras são perenes e hospedam Pratylenchus spp., há tendência ao aumento da população desses patógenos, ao longo do tempo, podendo se tornar um sério problema fitossanitário.The aim of this work was to evaluate the population density of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Pratylenchus zeae associated with Brachiaria brizantha, B. decumbens and B. humidicola and their influence on forage availability and quality. The experiment was conducted in the Hisaeda Farm, Terenos, MS, Brazil. Soil, roots and plant aerial part were harvest, with ten replications each, in one square meter randomized sets encompassing three treatments: Good, Intermediary and Bad, visually characterized, considering the percentage of green material. P. brachyurus and P. zeae density

  10. Nematodes associated with five fruit trees in the state of Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to conduct a survey on nematodes associated with five cultivated fruit trees growing in the Agroforestry System (AFS of the municipality of Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil. Rhizosphere samples were collected from three points at the base of murici ( Byrsonima sp., soursop ( Annona muricata , cupuaçu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , passion fruit ( Passiflora sp. and peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes trees. Four species of phytonematodes were identified, namely Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema xenoplax and Rotylenchulus reniformis . The most prevalent and abundant species was R. reniformis , which was found in the rhizospheres of passion fruit, cupuaçu, soursop, and peach palm. The first record in Brazil of the nematode P. brachyurus , found in the roots of murici is reported here, and all of the nematode species identified here are the first records for fruit trees in the state of Amapá.

  11. Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965 (Trypanorhyncha: Dasyrhynchidae description of the adult form Descrição da forma adulta de Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965 (Trypanorhyncha: Dasynrhynchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carmona de São Clemente

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available One out of four specimens of sharks, Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860, captured off the southern Brazilian Coast, harboured cestodes identified as Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965, of which the adult form is now described and referred as ocurring in Brazil.Um entre quatro espécimes de Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860, coletados na costa sul brasileira, estava parasitado por cestóides pertencentes ao gênero Dasyrhynchus Pintner, 1928. Os espécimes foram identificados como D. pacificus Ribinson, 1965, sendo este o primeiro registo da ocorrência desta espécie no Brasil. Nesta oportunidade, é pela primeira vez apresentada a descrição da forma adulta, embora sem o proglotide grávido.

  12. Densidade populacional de Pratylenchus spp. em pastagens de Brachiaria spp. e sua influência na disponibilidade e na qualidade da forragem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia de Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a densidade populacional de Pratylenchus brachyurus e Pratylenchus zeae, associados à Brachiaria brizantha, B. decumbens e B. humidicola, e sua influência na disponibilidade e na qualidade da forragem, realizou-se este trabalho. O experimento foi conduzido na Agropecuária Hisaeda, em Terenos, MS. Coletaram-se amostras de solo, raízes e parte aérea, em dez repetições ao acaso, de 1 m² cada, dos seguintes tratamentos: Bom, Intermediário e Ruim, caracterizados visualmente, considerando-se a percentagem de material verde das plantas. As densidades de P. brachyurus e P. zeae foram avaliadas nas amostras de solo e raízes. Na parte aérea, avaliou-se a disponibilidade de matéria seca dos materiais verde, morto e da rebrota, estado nutricional das plantas e qualidade da forragem. A fertilidade do solo foi determinada em todas as unidades amostrais. Ambos os nematoides foram identificados em todas as amostras, com maior número nas raízes (entre 87-311 P. brachyurus e 1-61 P. zeae.10 g-1 que no solo (de 0-8 P. brachyurus a 1-39 P. zeae.200 cm-3, no entanto, não houve diferenças significativas, na quantidade de espécimes, entre os tratamentos. Considerando-se que essas forrageiras são perenes e hospedam Pratylenchus spp., há tendência ao aumento da população desses patógenos, ao longo do tempo, podendo se tornar um sério problema fitossanitário.

  13. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE NEMATODE PRATYLENCHUSBRACHYURUS IN DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ferrari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different cultures second crop on the population of the nematode P. brachyurus, and the soybean crop productivity. The experiment was conducted at Embrapaagrosilvopastoral during agricultural year 2012/13, 2013/2014 and 2014/15, 0.4 ha of tracks. During the 2012/2013 crop soybeans planted in every area, in the off-season in 2013, two corn cultivars, two soybean and corn consortium with B. ruziziensis in 2013/14 crop was sown soybeans again in the off-season 2014 They were sown three soybean cultivars, a cultivar of corn and intercropping of millet with C. ochroleuca. In the season 2014/15 soybean was sown in every area and in the off-season 2 cultivars of maize and 3 soybean cultivars. Productivity was determined and the population of the P. brachyurus in roots. It was observed that millet consortium and C. ochroleuca were efficient in controlling the nematode. There were differences of reactions not only among species but within species and between the genotypes and soybeans, interfering with the population of the P. brachyurus. In the season 2013/2014 the soybean yield was influenced by the treatments, but the harvest 2014/2015 there was no statistical difference.

  14. 江苏省杨树根际几种垫刃目和矛线目线虫种类记述%Description of Several Nematode Species of Tylenchida and Dorylaimida from Poplar Rhizosphere in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玉雯; 谈家金; 叶建仁

    2012-01-01

    Five species of Tylenchida nematodes and two species of Dorylaimida nematodes were identified in 54 samples collected in roots and rhizosphere soil of poplar trees from Zhenjiang, Yangzhou , Huaian, Lianyungang, Suzhou and Wuxi city of Jiangsu Province from June to November in 2008. These species included Filenchus orbus, Filenchus vulgaris, Tylenchorhynchus brassicae, Helicotylenchus digitiformis, Scutellonema brachyurus, Xiphinema americanum and Xiphinema hunaniense. Among those nematodes, Filenchus vulgaris was new records in Jiangsu Province, and the poplar tree was new host of Filenchus vulgaris, Tylenchorhynchus brassicae and Xiphinema hunaniense.

  15. Utilização de pelos de animais silvestres para monitoramento ambiental de Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb e Zn Utilization of wild animal hair for the environmental monitoring of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb e Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Hoff Brait

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of wild animal hair of C. brachyurus, C. thous and L. pardalis as biomonitors of trace metal at Parque Nacional das Emas, Brazil. Results reveal a strong correlation between Cd and Pb as well as Cu and Zn, which suggests a single source of emission. Most metals showed a lower or equal concentration than those obtained in previous studies. The research shows that monitoring may be performed only with Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cr because of statistical similarity and of a non-natural occurrence of large amounts of the material under analysis.

  16. Influence of plant-parasitic nematodes on longleaf pine seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, J L

    1973-01-01

    Seedlings of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) were grown in 20-cm pots for 5 to 7 months in the greenhouse following inoculation with a high or low level of one of seven species of plant-parasitic nematodes. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus dihystera had no effect on seedling growth. High inoculum densities of Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni caused a significant reduction of fresh weight of seedling roots. Root and top weights of seedlings grown in soil infested with Meloidodera floridensis or Pratylenchus brachyurus were significantly less than those of seedlings in noninfested soil. Root growth of seedlings was stimulated by the higher inoculum density of Scutellonema brachyurum.

  17. Herança da resistência de milho a Pratylenchus spp. Inheritance of corn resistance to Pratylenchus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sawazaki

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de nematóides que mais causam problemas na cultura do milho no Brasil são Pratylenchus zeae e P. brachyurus. O uso de variedades resistentes é o método ideal de controle, sendo que já foram identificadas fontes de resistência em alguns genótipos de milho. Utilizou-se a linhagem Col 2(22, considerada como resistente, e a Ip 48-5-3, como suscetível, mais as gerações F1, F2 e retrocruzamentos com o objetivo de obter informações sobre a herança da resistência. Avaliaram-se esses genótipos em campo, em área infestada por P. zeae (76% e P. brachyurus (24%, em Pindorama. Plantou-se o experimento em janeiro de 1986 e, após oitenta dias, coletaram-se amostras de raízes dos tratamentos para avaliação do número de nematóides por grama de raiz. Os resultados mostraram que a diferença observada quanto à resistência entre as linhagens Col 2(22 e Ip 48-5-3 é, provavelmente, devida a dois pares de genes dominantes de efeitos genéticos aditivos. As herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito foram altas, respectivamente 82,0 e 80,8%.The species Pratylenchus zeae and P. brachyurus are the most important nematodes in Brazilian corn fields. Their control with systemic nematicides is efficient but frequently not economic. Previous work indicated that resistance to these nematodes could be found in some corn genotypes. The inheritance of corn resistance to the nematodes was studied using lines of Col 2(22 (resistant and Ip 48-5-3 (susceptible, the generations F1, F2 and backcrosses. The genotypes were sowed in a field infested with P. zeae (76% and P. brachyurus (24%. The experiment was carried out at the Pindorama Experimental Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in January of 1986. Eighty days after planting the number of nematodes per gram of roots was determined. The results indicated that the resistance to this pest for the line Col 2(22 was due to two dominant genes with additive effect. The heritability was high in broad

  18. Composição e caracterização da fauna de mamíferos do Parque Nacional das Emas, Goiás, Brasil Composition and characterization of the mammal fauna of Emas National Park, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio H.G. Rodrigues

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Emas National Park is a very importam Conservation Unit in the Cerrado Biome. Nevertheless the fauna of this region is still poorly known. In this study, a revised list of the mammal fauna of the Emas National Park with comments about the composition and the number of species surveyed is presented. Eighty six species of mammals were recorded in the Park and neighboring area, including several rare and threatened species, like the bush dog (Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842, Marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815 and others. The giant rat (Kunsia tomentosus (Lichtenstein, 1830 was recorded for the first time in a conservation unit. On the other hand, species usually very common in the Cerrado biome, don't occur in Emas National Park: the brazilian rabbit (Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758, marmosets (Callithrix spp., and the punaré (Thrichomys apereoides (Lund, 1841.

  19. Taxonomic notes on the species of the genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Vietnam, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-02-02

    A taxonomic study on the solitary wasps in the vespid genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863, from Vietnam is presented. One species previously identified as A. (Anterhynchium) abdominale abdominale (Illiger, 1802) is described as new, namely A. punctatum Nguyen, sp. nov. Antechynchium (Dirhynchium) flavolineatum flavolineatum (Smith, 1857) and A. (Dirhynchium) flavomarginatum flavomarginatum (Smith, 1852) are newly recorded from Vietnam. New synonymy is proposed for A. flavolineatum flavolineatum (Smith, 1857) =A. flavolineatum malaisei van der Vecht, 1963, syn. nov. A. coracinum van der Vecht sensu Girish Kumar (2013) is a misidentification of A. f. flavomarginatum (Smith), and the record of this species from Pakistan and India belongs to A. f. flavolineatum. A key to species of the genus from Vietnam is provided. 

  20. [Effects of management level on community characteristics of arthropod and on population numbers of target insect pest and its natural enemies in graperies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changgen; Zou, Yunding; Bi, Shoudong; Wu, Houchang; Chen, Xiangyang; Li, Fen; Zhou, Xiazhi; Lin, Xuefei

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, an investigation on the grape tree and ground vegetation was conducted in two graperies with intensive and extensive management, aimed to study the effects of different management level on the community characteristics of arthropod, and the population numbers of target pest Halticinae chalybca (Illiger) and its natural enemies Erigonidium gram inicolum and Tetragnathidae. The results showed that between the two graperies, the individual number, concentration value, evenness, and Hill diversity index of arthropod community had no significant difference, but its species number and abundance was significantly different (P number of arthropod on the grape trees in intensive management grapery was not significantly different from that in extensive management grapery, while on the ground vegetation, it was significantly different (P numbers of H. chalybca and its natural enemies on the trees and ground vegetations of the two graperies.

  1. Trophic relations of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera, Carabidae with dominant species of invertebrates in forest ecosystems of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Korolev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of interrelations of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798 with the soil and litter mesofauna species are considered. In the conditions of forest ecosystems of steppe Dnieper region P. melanarius demonstrates trophic preference for І order zoofagoes (body mass 8.0–31.9 mg and also sapro- and phytofagoes (more than 128 mg of body mass. P. melanarius is able to change the trophic load between invertebrates’ populations depending on their number in the ecosystem. In comparison with the other ground beetle species, the P. melanarius has an extraordinarily wide trophic niche. That is one of principal reasons of the high quantity of P. melanarius in many anthropogenic and transformed ecosystems.

  2. 番禺口岸从进境原木中截获的长蠹科害虫%Bostrichidae pests in imported timber intercepted at Panyu port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟卫华; 翁丽琼; 刘权叨

    2007-01-01

    本文用图文描述了番禺口岸近3年来从进口原木中截获的8种长蠹科害虫,包括电缆斜坡长蠹Xylopsocus capucinus(Fabricius)、黄足长棒长蠹Xylothrips flavipes(Illiger)、竹蠹Dinoderus minutus(Fabricius)、三胝双棘长蠹Sinoxylon senegalense Karsch、双棘长蠹Sinoxylon anale Lesne、双钩异翅长蠹Heterobostrychus aequalis(Waterhouse)、大竹蠹Bostrychopsis parallela(Lesne)和红艳长蠹Xylothrips religiosus(Boisduval)等重要长蠹成虫的主要形态特征,并编制了分种检索表.

  3. Aquatic Coleoptera from two protected areas of the Humid Chaco eco-region (Chaco Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. LIBONATTI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta por primera vez una lista de las especies de coleópteros acuáticos que habitan en el parque nacional Chaco y en el refugio de vida silvestre El Cachapé, dos áreas protegidas pertenecientes a la ecorregión Chaco Húmedo. Se identificaron 122 especies incluidas en 45 géneros y 10 familias. Dos especies se citan por primera vez para la Argentina: Ora atroapicalis Pic y Ora semibrunnea Pic (Scirtidae. Once géneros (Dytiscidae: Anodocheilus Babington, Bidessonotus Régim - bart, Hemibidessus Zimmermann; Noteridae: Mesonoterus Sharp, Notomicrus Sharp; Hydraenidae: Hydraena Kugelann, Gymnochthebius Orchymont; Hydrophilidae: Chasmogenus Sharp, Chaetarthria Stephens; Scirtidae: Ora Clark, Scirtes Illiger y 41 especies son citados por primera vez en la provincia del Chaco. La alta diversidad de coleópteros acuáticos registrada destaca la importancia de estas áreas protegidas.

  4. Influence de la rotation culturale, de la fertilisation et du labour sur les populations de nématodes phytoparasites du sorgho (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traoré, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of crop rotation, fertilization and tillage on populations of plant parasitic nematodes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. The soil nematodes of three long-term trials (1960, 1980 and 1990 representing the production of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench under different agricultural practices (rotation, tillage and fertilization in the Center West of Burkina Faso, have been explored in the wake of the harvest during the agricultural season 2007/2008. The objective was to identify these nematodes and to study the influence of agricultural practices on this nematofauna. Nematodes were extracted by the method of Seinhorst elutriator. Plant-parasitic nematodes identified are Pratylenchus brachyurus, Tylenchorhynchus martini, Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Scutellonema Caveness, Criconemoides curvatum, Telotylenchus indicus and Xiphinema sp. The first three species represent approximately 98% of individuals surveyed. On the first site, the treatments involving mineral fertilizer and recycling of sorghum straw were favorable for the control of nematodes instead of treatments involving manure. As for rotations, monoculture of sorghum was more infested by nematodes than the rotations sorghum – cowpea and sorghum – cotton. On the second site, the nitrogen has increased of infestation by the two major nematodes in comparison to treatments without nitrogen, with the exception of treatment with anaerobic compost incorporation. On the third site, deep plowing has been unfavorable to the main nematode sorghum compared to shallow tillage. The nematofauna in fallow was more diversified than in cultivated sites and P. brachyurus, the main nematode related to sorghum has fallen sharply in fallow.

  5. REVISION OF THE TEETH OF THE GENUS CARCHARHINUS (ELASMOBRANCHII; CARCHARHINIDAE FROM THE PLIOCENE OF TUSCANY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFANO MARSILI

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The great similar tooth morphologies that characterized the sharks of the genus Carcharhinus have suggested that the Neogene Mediterranean Sea were inhabited by only one or two widespread carcharhinid taxa, Carcharhinus egertoni and C. priscus. The first Mediterranean Pliocene record of five new shark species included into Carcharhinus, C. aff. brachyurus, C. falciformis, C. leucas, C. perezi, and C. plumbeus, have been identified by the review of some shark teeth from Tuscany (Italy and housed in the Italian Museums of the Universities of Firenze, Bologna, and Pisa. Moreover, the Mediterranean records of the two Recent C. longimanus and C. obscurus has been confirmed too. Paleobiogeographic and palaeoecologic analysis have been produced on the presence of some species absent or doubtful for the extant Mediterranean shark community. 

  6. Efeito do controle de nematóides na qualidade da fibra do algodoeiro Effect of nematode control on fiber properties of upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento com torta de mamona e com nematicidas sistêmicos (aldicarb, carbofurã, oxamil e sulfona de aldicarb, na qualidade das fibras do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 cultivado em área infestada por Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides e Xiphinema sp., no nunicípio de Paranapanema, no Estado de São Paulo. As características afetadas foram: o comprimento das fibras, no qual só o carbofurã produziu aumento significativo; a resistência das fibras, que aumentou com os tratamentos torta de mamona e aldicarb; e a maturidade das fibras, onde, com exceção do oxamil, todos os tratamentos foram superiores à testemunha. As características de uniformidade e índice de finura das fibras não diferiram da testemunha em nenhum dos tratamentos.The effect of nematode control using castor bean cake and systemic nematicide treatments (Aldicarb, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and Sulfon Aldicarb, on the fiber properties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 was evaluated. The crop was grown in Paranapanema - SP, Brazil, in a field infested with Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides and Xiphinema sp. The properties affected were: fiber length, which improved only with Carbofuran; fiber strength, that improved with the treatments castor bean calce and Aldicarb; and fiber maturity, in which all treatments showed superior results than the check, except Oxamyl. No treatment effects on fiber fineness and uniformity were observed.

  7. Revisión de los mantíspidos de la Península Ibérica y Baleares (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera, Mantispidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat, Víctor J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review all existing information on the four species of mantispids lacewings (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera: Mantispidae present in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands is reported. Based on the known general data on this family and on these species, an identification key to the Iberian species is included. On the basis of this Iberian information and of the new material now studied, new data on their morphology, biology and geographical, phenological and altitudinal distribution in the study area are noted. It is suggested that there are at least two annual cycles in most of the Iberian species. New and interesting data on the biology and reproductive behavior of imagoes and on the pre-imaginal stages of some species are recorded, and some previously known data are discussed. A new species, Mantispa incorrupta n. sp., is described, which seems to represent the vicariant species in the western Mediterranean of Mantispa scabricollis McLachlan, 1875, a Pontomediterranean species recorded from Europe in the Greek islands of Lesbos, Chios and Rhodes. A new synonymy: Mantispa Illiger en Kugelann, 1798 = Afromantispa Snyman & Ohl, 2012 n. syn. is propossed.En esta revisión se recopila toda la información existente sobre las cuatro especies de mantíspidos (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera: Mantispidae presentes en la Península Ibérica y Baleares. Partiendo de los datos generales conocidos sobre esta familia y estas especies, se incluye una clave de identificación para las especies ibéricas y, en base a esta información ibérica y al nuevo material ahora estudiado, se anotan nuevos datos sobre su morfología, su biología y su distribución geográfica, fenológica y altitudinal en la zona estudiada. Se sugieren al menos dos ciclos anuales en la mayoría de las especies ibéricas. Se anotan nuevos e interesantes datos sobre la biología y el comportamiento reproductor de los imagos y sobre los estadios pre-imaginales de alguna

  8. Observaciones sobre algunos comportamientos de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Iliiger (Hym. Apidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Soto Gilberto

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas sin aguijón del género Trigona constituyen uno de los grupos de insectos más amplios v diversos de la región tropical. Aunque su origen parece haber sido África, su mayor especiación ocurrió en el Trópico Americano, con cerca de 300 especies. En la región Neotropical, estas abejas son el grupo más importante de polinizadores de muchas plantas ornamentales, frutales y maderables. La interdependencia entre dichas plantas y las abejas, es en muchos casos altamente compleja y la ruptura de esa estrecha asociación por la intervención errónea del hombre, podría implicar la desaparición de unas otras respectivamente. Existen estudios sobre los hábitos de nidifación y arquitectura de los nidos de las trigonas y se posee conocimientos al respecto sobre la especia Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula Illiger. Sin embargo, los trabajos sobre comportamiento e importancia económica de este grupo de insectos son muy escasos y en el medio prácticamente inexistentes.

  9. [The history of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques.

  10. Habitat-specific movement and edge-mediated behavior of the saproxylic insect Odontotaenius disjunctus (Coleoptera: Passalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Heather Bird; Baum, Kristen A; Robert, Tristan; Cronin, James T

    2009-10-01

    The ability to disperse among patches is central to population dynamics in fragmented landscapes. Although saproxylic (=dead wood dependent) insects live in extremely fragmented forest ecosystems and comprise a significant proportion of the biodiversity therein, few studies have focused on dispersal of members in this group. We quantified the terrestrial movements of Odontotaenius disjunctus Illiger, a common saproxylic beetle in eastern North American forests. Movement behavior of individual beetles was measured in deciduous forest and two common matrix (=unsuitable) habitats (urban lawn and cattle pasture). Probability of emigrating from a forest fragment was assessed at the high-contrast boundary between forest and pasture. Seasonal, diurnal, and sex-biased patterns of O. disjunctus dispersal were determined from captures at drift fences encircling inhabited logs. Movement was 1.6 and 2.7 times faster and 1.1 and 1.5 times more linear in suitable habitat (forest) than in unsuitable matrix (lawn and pasture, respectively). Net displacement in the forest exceeded predictions of a correlated random walk, but net displacement in matrix habitats was less than expected. When confronted with a high-contrast boundary, O. disjunctus was 14 times more likely to move toward the forest than the pasture. The importance of temperature was indicated by its positive relationship with movement rate and increased diurnal and warm season dispersal activity. Reluctance to cross boundaries into open fields and slow movement within open fields suggest a low likelihood of terrestrial O. disjunctus movement among forest fragments.

  11. Direct effects of tillage on the activity density of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) weed seed predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearin, A F; Reberg-Horton, S C; Gallandt, E R

    2007-10-01

    Ground beetles are well known as beneficial organisms in agroecosystems, contributing to the predation of a wide range of animal pests and weed seeds. Tillage has generally been shown to have a negative effect on ground beetles, but it is not known whether this is because of direct mortality or the result of indirect losses resulting from dispersal caused by habitat deterioration. In 2005, field experiments measured direct, tillage-induced mortality, of four carabid weed seed predators, Harpalus rufipes DeGeer, Agonum muelleri Herbst, Anisodactylus merula Germar, and Amara cupreolata Putzeys, and one arthropod predator, Pterostichus melanarius Illiger, common to agroecosystems in the northeastern United States. Three tillage treatments (moldboard plow, chisel plow, and rotary tillage) were compared with undisturbed controls at two sites (Stillwater and Presque Isle) and at two dates (July and August) in Maine. Carabid activity density after disturbance was measured using fenced pitfall traps installed immediately after tillage to remove any effects of dispersal. Rotary tillage and moldboard plowing reduced weed seed predator activity density 52 and 54%, respectively. Carabid activity density after chisel plowing was similar to the undisturbed control. This trend was true for each of the weed seed predator species studied. However, activity density of the arthropod predator P. melanarius was reduced by all tillage types, indicating a greater sensitivity to tillage than the four weed seed predator species. These results confirm the need to consider both direct and indirect effects of management in studies of invertebrate seed predators.

  12. Fitonematoides associados a frutíferas na região Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil Plant parasitic nematodes associated with fruit crops in the Northwest of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a ocorrência de nematoides fitoparasitos em frutíferas cultivadas na região noroeste do Paraná, realizou-se um levantamento, envolvendo 124 amostras de solo e raízes coletadas de 19 espécies de frutíferas, em 15 municípios, no período de dezembro/2007 a fevereiro/2009. As amostras foram submetidas a extrações e avaliadas sob microscópio óptico. Foram constatados nove diferentes gêneros de nematoides. Em citros, a espécie mais frequente e abundante foi Tylenchulus semipenetrans, sendo também recuperados das amostras os gêneros Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema e Dolichodorus. Nas demais frutíferas, os gêneros observados foram Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus e Hemicycliophora. A maior abundância de Pratylenchus brachyurus ocorreu em abacaxizeiro, Meloidogyne incognita em figueira e caquizeiro, e Helicotylenchus dihystera e H. multicinctus em bananeira. Os principais gêneros de fitonematoides foram constatados em aproximadamente 50% das amostras, podendo representar risco para fruteiras da região se não manejados adequadamente.A survey was carried out in order to study the occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes in fruit crops in the Northwest of Paraná, from December 2007 to February 2009. A hundred and twenty four soil and roots samples were collected from 19 species of fruit crops in 15 different municipalities. Nematodes were extracted from the samples and identified under an optical microscope. Nine genera of plant parasitic nematodes were found. In citrus, the most abundant species was Tylenchulus semipenetrans, but it was also recovered Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema and Dolichodorus. In the other fruit crops, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus and Hemicycliophora were recovered. Pratylenchus brachyurus was most abundant in pineapple crops, Meloidogyne incognita in fig and

  13. Voltage controlled magnetism in 3d transitional metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang

    2015-03-01

    Despite having attracted much attention in multiferroic materials and diluted magnetic semiconductors, the impact of an electric field on the magnetic properties remains largely unknown in 3d transitional ferromagnets (FMs) until recent years. A great deal of effort has been focused on the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect where the modulation of anisotropy field is understood by the change of electron density among different d orbitals of FMs in the presence of an electric field. Here we demonstrate another approach to alter the magnetism by electrically controlling the oxidation state of the 3d FM at the FM/oxide interface. The thin FM film sandwiched between a heavy metal layer and a gate oxide can be reversibly changed from an optimally-oxidized state with a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy to a metallic state with an in-plane magnetic anisotropy, or to a fully-oxidized state with nearly zero magnetization, depending on the polarity and time duration of the applied electric fields. This is a voltage controlled magnetism (VCM) effect, where both the saturation magnetization and anisotropy field of the 3d FM layer can be simultaneously controlled by voltage in a non-volatile fashion. We will also discuss the impact of this VCM effect on magnetic tunnel junctions and spin Hall switching experiments. This work, in collaboration with C. Bi, Y.H. Liu, T. Newhouse-Illige, M. Xu, M. Rosales, J.W. Freeland, O. Mryasov, S. Zhang, and S.G.E. te Velthuis, was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  14. Mechanisms driving the density-area relationship in a saproxylic beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Heather B; Zeccarias, Amanuel; Cronin, James T

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms underlying density-area relationships (correlations between population density and patch size) have rarely been tested experimentally. It is often assumed that higher density on large patches is evidence that large patches are high quality (i.e. have greater survival and reproduction), but the same pattern could result from disproportionate movement from small to large patches. Movement-based and within-patch processes must be experimentally separated to show that large patches are indeed of higher quality, but few studies have done so. We experimentally tested movement-based and within-patch hypotheses to explain the positive density-area relationship observed for a saproxylic (decayed wood-dependent) beetle, Odontotaenius disjunctus Illiger (Coleoptera: Passalidae). In separate experiments we quantified (1) immigration into and (2) finite growth rate within logs (=patches) that varied in size and density of conspecific beetles. A log was 11.7-fold [95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.4-40.8) and 10.5-fold (95 % CI 2.7-40.9) more likely to contain a new immigrant if it was large or contained a conspecific pair of beetles, respectively. Neither log size nor conspecific density was associated with changes in finite growth rate that would lead to higher density: decreased log size and increased conspecific density reduced finite growth rate in direct proportion to the loss in available resources per mating pair. We conclude that movement behavior rather than habitat quality is responsible for the positive density-area relationship for O. disjunctus. An important implication of our results is that population density is an imperfect indicator of habitat quality.

  15. Movement behaviour of the carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius in crops and at a habitat interface explains patterns of population redistribution in the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Allema

    Full Text Available Animals may respond to habitat quality and habitat edges and these responses may affect their distribution between habitats. We studied the movement behaviour of a ground-dwelling generalist predator, the carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger. We performed a mark-recapture experiment in two adjacent habitats; a large plot with oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus and a plot with rye (Secale cereale. We used model selection to identify a minimal model representing the mark-recapture data, and determine whether habitat-specific motility and boundary behaviour affected population redistribution. We determined movement characteristics of P. melanarius in laboratory arenas with the same plant species using video recording. Both the field and arena results showed preference behaviour of P. melanarius at the habitat interface. In the field, significantly more beetles moved from rye to oilseed radish than from radish to rye. In the arena, habitat entry was more frequent into oilseed radish than into rye. In the field, movement was best described by a Fokker-Planck diffusion model that contained preference behaviour at the interface and did not account for habitat specific motility. Likewise, motility calculated from movement data using the Patlak model was not different between habitats in the arena studies. Motility (m2 d-1 calculated from behavioural data resulted in estimates that were similar to those determined in the field. Thus individual behaviour explained population redistribution in the field qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The findings provide a basis for evaluating movement within and across habitats in complex agricultural landscapes with multiple habitats and habitat interfaces.

  16. Preliminary Survey and Identification of Rhizosphere Parasitic Nematodes of Poplar Tree in Jiangsu Province%江苏省杨树根际寄生线虫种类的初步调查与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    怀意君; 谈家金; 叶建仁; 瞿红叶

    2010-01-01

    2007-2008年,对江苏省杨树根际寄生线虫种群进行了初步调查,根据形态特征和测量值共鉴定出杨树根际寄生线虫7属9种,分别是南方丝尾垫刃线虫Filenchus australis Xie & Feng、圆形丝尾垫刃线虫Filenchus orbus Andrassy、指状螺旋线虫Helicotylenchus digitiformis Ivanova、小尾盾线虫Scutellonema brachyurus Strine、微小针线虫Paratylenchus minutus Linford、同形真滑刃线虫Aphelenchus isomerus Anderson & Hoopper、林伯滑刃线虫Aphelenchoides limberi Steiner、双尾滑刃线虫Aphelenchoides bicaudatus Filipjuv & Schuurmans,Stekhoven和美洲剑线虫Xiphinema americanum Cobb.这9种线虫除同形真滑刃线虫外,杨树是其余8种线虫的新寄主.

  17. Fitonematoides associados a frutíferas na região Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a ocorrência de nematoides fitoparasitos em frutíferas cultivadas na região noroeste do Paraná, realizou-se um levantamento, envolvendo 124 amostras de solo e raízes coletadas de 19 espécies de frutíferas, em 15 municípios, no período de dezembro/2007 a fevereiro/2009. As amostras foram submetidas a extrações e avaliadas sob microscópio óptico. Foram constatados nove diferentes gêneros de nematoides. Em citros, a espécie mais frequente e abundante foi Tylenchulus semipenetrans, sendo também recuperados das amostras os gêneros Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema e Dolichodorus. Nas demais frutíferas, os gêneros observados foram Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus e Hemicycliophora. A maior abundância de Pratylenchus brachyurus ocorreu em abacaxizeiro, Meloidogyne incognita em figueira e caquizeiro, e Helicotylenchus dihystera e H. multicinctus em bananeira. Os principais gêneros de fitonematoides foram constatados em aproximadamente 50% das amostras, podendo representar risco para fruteiras da região se não manejados adequadamente.

  18. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: effects of combinations of cropping systems and nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, W S; Brodie, B B; Good, J M

    1974-07-01

    The population density of Meloidogyne incognita was significantly reduced in land that was fallowed or cropped to crotalaria, marigold, bermudagrass, or bahiagrass. The rate of population decline caused by different cropping systems was influenced by initial population densities. Crotalaria, marigold, and bare fallow were about equally effective in reducing the density of M. incognita below dctectable lcvels, usually requiring 1-3 yr. Bahiagrass and bcrmudagrass required 4-5 yr or longer to reduce M. incognita below a detectable level. A high population density of Trichodorus christiei developed in land cropped 5 yr to bermudagrass, bahiagrass, okra, and marigold. Population densities of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Xiphinema americanum increased in land cropped to crotalaria or bermudagrass. Belonolabnus Iongicaudatus was detected only in land cropped to bermudagrass, The effectiveness of nematicides in reducing M. incognita infection was rclatcd to nematode population density resulting from 5 yr of different cropping systems. Treatment with aldicarb reduced M. incognita below detectable levels following all cropping systems; treatment with ethoprop following all cropping systems except okra, treatment wflh ethylene dibromide following bahiagrass or fallow; and treatment with DBCP only after 5 yr of fallow. Tomato transplant growth was affected .by both cropping systems and nematicide treatment. Transplants grown after crotalaria and bahiagrass were significantly larger than those grown after other crops. Also, treatment with aldicarb and ethoprop significantly increased transplant size.

  19. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  20. Indigenous fish species in the modern ichthyofauna of the Balkhash basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.

  1. Biological nematicide, fungicides and insecticides applied through seed, in of the soybean crop performance in the North of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Baggio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the phytonematodes Pratylenchus brachyurus, is becoming a major concern for producers due to reduction in soybean yield. Thus, there was the effect of biological nematicide and fungicide; applied to seeds (individually or associated, performance of soybean in commercial area infested with P. brachyurous. The treatments were: T1-No control; T2-Grafinat Plus (Paecilomyces sp. + Arthrobotrys sp. + Trichoderma sp., Biological nematicide; T3-Cropstar FS; T4-Avicta Complete; T5-Standak® Top; T6-Plus Grafinat + Cropstar FC; T7-Grafinat-Plus + Avicta Complete and T8-Grafinat Plus + Top Standak®. The results obtained showed that there was no statistical difference between treatments in plant stand, height (cm of plants at 20, 40 and 60 days after emergence, the stem diameter (mm, the number of pods and seeds per plant, the weight of 1000 grains (g and density. However, the application of Standak Top® (individually and Complete Avicta in association with Grafinat Plus increased height (cm of first pod in the plant, facilitating at harvest by reducing the grain loss. But, the greatest productivity gains (bags ha-¹ were obtained by applying Standak ® Top and Full Avicta (applied individually.

  2. Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela D'Arc de Lima Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorrentes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.. As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s espécie(s e, ou da(s raça(s de Meloidogyne presente(s nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2, seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3 e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2. A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp.Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG, and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. The main species

  3. Axenizing and Culturing Endomigratory Plant-Parasitic Nematodes using Pluronic F127, Including its Effects, on Population Dynamics of Pratylenchus penetrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, M P; Schmitt, D P; Sipes, B S

    1996-03-01

    A non-chemical technique for surface sterilizing plant-parasitic nematodes for aseptic cultures is described. The method is most applicable to nematodes with active migratory infective stages and requires only a few starting specimens. Rate of achieving a primary aseptic culture with the technique ranged from 60%-100% depending on the conditions of the specimens collected for culturing. Aseptic cultures of species of Meloidogyne, Rotylenchuluz, Pratylenchus, and Radopholus initiated with the method remained contamination-free after 12 months of maintenance in tomato root explant or alfalfa callus cultures. Further studies of Pluronic F127, a polyol gel medium employed in the technique to confine the spread of contaminating bacteria or fungi associated with the nematodes, showed that the polyol gel was a suitable support medium for culturing corn root explant, alfalfa callus tissues, and consequently Pratylenchus species including P. agilis, P. brachyurus, P. scribneri, and P. penetrans. During the course of 10 months, P. penetrans reared in polyol-base medium followed a standard biological growth curve, multiplied to a higher population density, maintained a similar female-to-male ratio, and possessed a similar tendency to reside inside or outside host tissues as did P. penetrans reared in agar-base medium. The percentages of P. penetrans juveniles in the sub-populations residing outside or inside the host tissues reared in polyol-base medium also were similar to and fluctuated temporally in like manner as those reared in agar-base medium. Members of these sub-populations from the polyol- or agar-base were equally infective and reproductive after 9 months of culturing.

  4. Mating behaviour in laevicaudatan clam shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda and functional morphology of male claspers in a phylogenetic context: a video-based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra M S Sigvardt

    Full Text Available Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males. Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata. It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable "finger" of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable "finger", possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the "finger" position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding.

  5. Identification of novel Babesia and Theileria genotypes in the endangered marsupials, the woylie (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi) and boodie (Bettongia lesueur).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparini, Andrea; Ryan, Una M; Warren, Kris; McInnes, Linda M; de Tores, Paul; Irwin, Peter J

    2012-05-01

    Piroplasms, which include the genera Theileria and Babesia, are blood-borne parasites transmitted mainly by tick vectors. Relatively little is known about their prevalence and clinical impact in Australian marsupials. In the present study the occurrence and molecular phylogeny of these parasites were studied in both wild and captive marsupials from Western Australia (WA) and Queensland (QLD). Blood samples were screened by microscopy and molecular methods, using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Overall, 7.1% of the blood samples (8/113) were positive for piroplasm 18S rDNA. Theileria and Babesia rDNA was detected in 0.9% (1/113) and 6.2% (7/113) of the animals, respectively. The single Theileria positive was identified in one of three boodies (Bettongia lesueur) screened from a wildlife rehabilitation centre in WA, while all seven Babesia positives were detected in WA in wild captured woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi). Small intraerythrocytic inclusions were observed in blood films made from six of these individuals. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. in woylies, and Theileria sp. in boodies. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the woylie-derived Babesia was genetically distinct and most closely related to Babesia occultans, the causative agent of a benign form of cattle babesiosis (genetic similarity 98.4%). The Theileria identified was most closely related to the marsupial-derived species Theileria penicillata from the woylie, Theileria brachyuri from the quokka (Setonix brachyurus), and Theileria sp. from the long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus).

  6. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-06-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identified to species level. Of these, 70.6% were blue sharks (Prionace glauca), 28.4% short-fin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus), and 1% were other species (including thresher (Alopias vulpinus), hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena), porbeagle (Lamnus nasus), and other Carcharhinidae species (Carcharhinus brachyurus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeorhinus galeus). Mean ± SD catch per unit effort of 33.6 ± 10.9 sharks per 1000 hooks was calculated for the shark season and 1.9 ± 3.1 sharks per 1000 hooks were caught in the dolphinfish season. An average of 83.7% of sharks caught (74.7% blue sharks; 93.3% mako sharks) were deemed sexually immature and under the legal minimum landing size, which for species exhibiting k-selected life history traits can result in susceptibility to over exploitation. As these growing fisheries operate along the entire Peruvian coast and may catch millions of sharks per annum, we conclude that their continued expansion, along with ineffective legislative approaches resulting in removal of immature individuals, has the potential to threaten the sustainability of the fishery, its target species, and ecosystem. There is a need for additional monitoring and research to inform novel management strategies for sharks while maintaining fisher livelihoods.

  7. AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Terry; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Ikerd, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes AnthWest, a large dataset that represents one of the outcomes of a comprehensive, broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of Anthidium Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere. In this dataset a total of 22,648 adult occurrence records comprising 9657 unique events are documented for 92 species of Anthidium, including the invasive range of two introduced species from Eurasia, A. oblongatum (Illiger) and A. manicatum (Linnaeus). The geospatial coverage of the dataset extends from northern Canada and Alaska to southern Argentina, and from below sea level in Death Valley, California, USA, to 4700 m a.s.l. in Tucumán, Argentina. The majority of records in the dataset correspond to information recorded from individual specimens examined by the authors during this project and deposited in 60 biodiversity collections located in Africa, Europe, North and South America. A fraction (4.8%) of the occurrence records were taken from the literature, largely California records from a taxonomic treatment with some additional records for the two introduced species. The temporal scale of the dataset represents collection events recorded between 1886 and 2012. The dataset was developed employing SQL server 2008 r2. For each specimen, the following information is generally provided: scientific name including identification qualifier when species status is uncertain (e.g. “Questionable Determination” for 0.4% of the specimens), sex, temporal and geospatial details, coordinates, data collector, host plants, associated organisms, name of identifier, historic identification, historic identifier, taxonomic value (i.e., type specimen, voucher, etc.), and repository. For a small portion of the database records, bees associated with threatened or endangered plants (~ 0.08% of total records) as well as specimens collected as part of unpublished biological inventories (~17%), georeferencing is presented only to nearest

  8. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculiosticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapionvaripes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculioflavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacercurculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchusundatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculiofulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribusroboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachyceruscristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculiocaninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitonalineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculioinnocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinusbarcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchusrufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchusrufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonusincisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonusilligeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonusvulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonuscanaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculiocanaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonuscanaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonusincisus. Salpingusfulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingusplanirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculioplanirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomuserinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchusferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchusglandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchusnivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchussparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus), Coelocephalapionatrirostre (Fabricius, 1802

  9. Por que Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae forrageia sob alta umidade relativa do ar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília D. e Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Há evidências de que a temperatura do ar e a umidade relativa afetam a atividade de voo de espécies de abelhas sociais Meliponini. Em particular, as espécies grandes do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806 responderiam de maneira mais estreita à variação na umidade relativa. Neste estudo defende-se o argumento de que a umidade relativa seja uma variável de confusão. Nesta linha de argumentação, também foi analisado o papel da coleta de pólen sobre o ritmo diário de forrageio. A robusta Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811 foi usada como modelo e a atividade diária de voo e de forrageio de pólen foi medida em 12 colônias (4 colônias/hábitat, em três tipos de hábitats, que variam principalmente quanto à pluviosidade, na área de distribuição natural desta espécie (Floresta Pluvial, Floresta Sazonal e Transição Floresta Tropical-Cerrados. A maioria da atividade de voo acontece durante a manhã. A atividade de forrageio das colônias foi mais elevada nas primeiras horas do alvorecer, quando a umidade relativa também era alta, frequentemente associada a picos de coleta de pólen. A atividade de voo decresceu abruptamente durante as temperaturas altas ao redor do meio dia. A relação da atividade de voo com a umidade relativa foi altamente significativa e linear, contrastando com a relação significativa e unimodal com a temperatura. Na relação com o forrageio de M. scutellaris, a umidade relativa se configura como uma variável contingente, em hábitats tropicais úmidos, considerando os padrões diários de variação do microclima e de forrageio de pólen. Este último padrão também sustenta a hipótese de partição temporal de fontes florais de pólen.

  10. Measuring the strength of the horned passalus beetle, Odontotaenius disjunctus: revisiting an old topic with modern technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Attarha, Barrett; Piefke, Taylor J

    2013-01-01

    Over a century ago, a pioneering researcher cleverly devised a means to measure how much weight the horned passalus beetle, Odontotaenius disjunctus (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Passalidae), could pull using a series of springs, pulleys, and careful observation. The technology available in modern times now allows for more rigorous data collection on this topic, which could have a number of uses in scientific investigations. In this study, an apparatus was constructed using a dynamometer and a data logger in an effort to ascertain the pulling strength of this species. By allowing beetles to pull for 10 min, each beetle's mean and maximum pulling force (in Newtons) were obtained for analyses, and whether these measures are related was determined. Then, whether factors such as body length, thorax size, horn size, or gender affect either measure of strength was investigated. Basic body measurements, including horn size, of males versus females were compared. The measurements of 38 beetles (20 females, 18 males) showed there was no difference in overall body length between sexes, but females had greater girth (thorax width) than males, which could translate into larger muscle mass. A total of 21 beetles (10 females, 11 males) were tested for pulling strength. The grand mean pulling force was 0.14 N, and the grand mean maximum was 0.78 N. Despite the fact that beetles tended to pull at 20% of their maximum capacity most of the time, and that maximum force was over 5 times larger than the mean force, the 2 measures were highly correlated, suggesting they may be interchangeable for research purposes. Females had twice the pulling strength (both maximum and mean force) as males in this species overall, but when the larger thorax size of females was considered, the effect of gender was not significant. Beetle length was not a significant predictor of pulling force, but horn size was associated with maximum force. The best predictor of both measures of strength appeared to be

  11. A quarter of a century succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages in remnant habitats in an urbanized matrix (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Gandhi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied the long-term (23-24 years species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindellidae in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp. and oak (Quercus spp. stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in two sampling years: 1980 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2-3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields and 1.4-1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields, there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say, P. mutus (Say, Calathus gregarius (Say, and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus and P. melanarius (Illiger, that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our sampled areas are among some of the

  12. Metabolic effects of cortisol, ACTH, adrenalin and insulin in the marsupial sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A J; Stoddart, D M

    1990-11-01

    but contrast with the pattern described for two macropodid marsupials, the red kangaroo Macropus rufus and the quokka Setonix brachyurus.

  13. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808 in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817 is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae, Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae, and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797. Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792 (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791. Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787, a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802 (from Curculio, Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840 (from Hipporhinus, Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792 (from Curculio, Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785 (from Curculio, Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833 (from Hipporhinus, Coelocephalapion

  14. Addenda and Corrigenda to the Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera, volumes 7 and 8 (Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Additions, corrections, comments and nomenclatural novelties for the volumes 7 and 8 of the Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera are provided. For the exact authorship of these check the text. One new species is described: Mecinus tavaresi Caldara & Fogato, sp. nov. from Portugal and Spain. New synonymies are: Compsapoderus (Compsapoderus erythropterus (Gmelin, 1790 = Attelabus intermedius Hellwig, 1795, syn. nov.; Paroplapoderus (Erycapoderus angulipennis (Kolbe, 1886 = Paroplapoderus (Erycapoderus angulipennis shaanxinsis Legalov, 2004, syn. nov. (Attelabidae; Aspidapion (Koestlinia aeneum (Fabricius, 1775 = Aspidapion (Koestlinia motschulskyi (Hochhuth, 1847, syn. nov., Taeniapion rufescens (Gyllenhal, 1833 = Taeniapion notatum (Wagner, 1912, syn. nov. (Apionidae; Larinus (Larinomesius scolymi (Olivier, 1807 = Curculio teres Hellwig, 1795, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Lixus paraplecticus (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio phellandrii Linnaeus, 1764, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Curculio alternans Hellwig, 1795= Curculio alternans Herbst, 1795, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Sibinia lyrata Faust, 1889= Sibinia attalica var. judea Pic, 1901, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Phyllobius (Metaphyllobius pomaceus Gyllenhal, 1834= Curculio prasinus Olivier, 1791, syn. nov. (Curculionidae. New homonymies are: Attelabus intermedius Hellwig, 1795 (non Attelabus intermedius Illiger, 1794; Baris marshalli Ramesha & Ramamurthy, 2011 (non Baris marshalli Hustache, 1938. New replacement names are: Baris ramamurthyi Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Baris bimaculata Pajni & Kohli, 1990 (non Hustache, 1932; Archarius (Archarius kwonleeanus Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Archarius (Archarius parvus (Kwon & Lee, 1990 (non Archarius (Archarius parvus (Hong & Wang, 1987, a fossil species; Curculio (Curculio zhangianus Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Curculio (Curculio helleri Pelsue & Zhang, 2002 (non Curculio (Curculio helleri (Voss, 1932; Lixus trichromus Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Lixus

  15. Eimeria collieie n. sp. (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) from the western long-necked turtle (Chelodina colliei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Lee, Elvina; Ryan, Una

    2015-07-01

    A new species, Eimeria collieie n. sp., is described from the western long-necked turtle (Chelodina colliei). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) are spherical to subspherical, with colourless single layer oocyst wall, 0.6 ± 0.2 (0.4-0.7) µm thick. Oocyst with elongated ellipsoid sporocysts. Oocyst length, 29.8 ± 0.4 (28.2-31.0) µm; oocyst width, 29.4 ± 0.3 (28.0-30.8) µm; oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.0 ± 0.03 (1.0-1.05). Micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts with sporocyst residuum and 2 sporozoites. Sporocyst length, 21.6 ± 0.4 (21.2-22.0) µm; sporocyst width, 6.0 ± 0.3 (5.7-6.3) µm; sporocyst L/W ratio, 3.6 ± 0.2 (3.4-3.8). Stieda, parastieda and substieda bodies were absent. Sporozoite length, 14.0 ± 0.2 (13.8-14.2) µm; sporozoite width, 2.6 ± 0.2 (2.4-2.8) µm; sporozoite L/W ratio, 5.46 ± 0.10 (5.4-5.6). Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci: the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S rRNA locus, E. collieie n. sp. shared 96.4% and 98.3% genetic similarity to E. ranae (GenBank accession number: EU717219) and E. arnyi (AY613853) respectively. At the 28S rRNA locus, E. collieie n. sp. shared 91.6% genetic similarity to E. papillata (GenBank accession number: GU593706) and phylogenetic analysis at this locus placed E. collieie n. sp. in aseparateclade. At the COI locus, E. collieie n. sp. shared 92.7% genetic similarity to Eimeria setonicis (GenBankaccession number: KF225638) from a quokka (Setonix brachyurus) in Western Australia. Reptile-derived sequences were not available for the 28S rRNA and the COI loci. Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of coccidian parasite that, to date, has only been found in western long-necked turtles.