WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronomics human time

  1. Chronomics, human time estimation, and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Halberg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Franz Halberg, Robert B Sothern, Germaine Cornélissen, Jerzy Czaplicki1Halberg Chronobiology Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 1Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, FranceBackground: Circadian rhythm stage affects many outcomes, including those of mental aging.Methods: Estimations of 1 minute ∼5 times/day for a year, 25 years apart, by a healthy male biomedical scientist (RBS, are analyzed by the extended cosinor.Results: Cycles of a half-week, a week, ∼30 days, a half-year and a year, in self-assessed 1-minute estimation by RBS between 25 and 60 years of age in health, are mapped for the first time, compared and opposite effects are found. For RBS at 60 vs at 25 years of age, it takes less time in the morning around 10:30 (P < 0.001, but not in the evening around 19:30 (P = 0.956, to estimate 1 minute.Discussion: During the intervening decades, the time of estimating 1 minute differed greatly, dependent on circadian stage, being a linear decrease in the morning and increase in the evening, the latter modulated by a ∼33.6-year cycle.Conclusion: Circadian and infradian rhythm mapping is essential for a scrutiny of effects of aging. A ∼30-day and a circannual component apparent at 25 years of age are not found later; cycles longer than a year are detected. Rhythm stages await tests as markers for timing therapy in disease.Keywords: circadian rhythm, mental function, time estimation

  2. Chronomics and ``Glocal'' (Combined Globaland Local) Assessment of Human Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, K.; Cornélissen, G.; Norboo, T.; Takasugi, E.; Halberg, F.

    Most organisms, from cyanobacteria to mammals, are known to use circadian mechanisms to coordinate their activities with the natural 24-hour light/dark cycle and/or interacting socio-ecologic schedules. When the human clock gene was discovered in 1997, it was surprising to see that it was very similar in all earthly life. Recent findings suggest that organisms which evolved on Earth acquired many of the visible and invisible cycles of their habitat and/or of their cosmos. While circadian systems are well documented both time-macroscopically and time-microscopically, the temporal organization of physiological function is much more extensive. Long-term physiological quasi-ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate, among other variables, such as those of the ECG and other tools of the neuroendocrinologic armamentarium, have already yielded information, among others, on circaseptan (about 7-day), transyears and cisyears (with periods slightly longer or shorter tha n one year, respectively), and circadecennian (about 10-year) cycles; the nervous system displays rhythms, chaos and trends, mapped as chronomes. Chronomes are time structures consisting of multifrequency rhythms covering frequencies over 18 orders of magnitude, elements of chaos, trends in chaotic and rhythmic endpoints, and other, as-yet unresolved variability. These resolvable time structures, chronomes, in us have counterparts around us, also consisting of rhythms, trends and chaos, as is increasingly being recognized. In 2000, we began a community-based study, relying on 7-day/24-hour monitoring of blood pressure as a public service. Our goal was the prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction and of the decline in cognitive function of the elderly in a community. Chronomic detection of elevated illness-risks aim at the prevention of diseases of individuals, such as myocardial infarctions and strokes, and, equally important, chronomics resolves illness of societies, such as crime and war

  3. Are human interactivity times lognormal?

    CERN Document Server

    Blenn, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are analyzing the interactivity time, defined as the duration between two consecutive tasks such as sending emails, collecting friends and followers and writing comments in online social networks (OSNs). The distributions of these times are heavy tailed and often described by a power-law distribution. However, power-law distributions usually only fit the heavy tail of empirical data and ignore the information in the smaller value range. Here, we argue that the durations between writing emails or comments, adding friends and receiving followers are likely to follow a lognormal distribution. We discuss the similarities between power-law and lognormal distributions, show that binning of data can deform a lognormal to a power-law distribution and propose an explanation for the appearance of lognormal interactivity times. The historical debate of similarities between lognormal and power-law distributions is reviewed by illustrating the resemblance of measurements in this paper with the historical...

  4. Who creates the Time: Nature or Human?

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    The paper defends the thesis that analysis of time meaning in a context of philosophy of physical and mathematical natural sciences and philosophical anthropology allows to clear basis of human being and to construct special model of general understanding of time as a creation of nature or creation of human. Regulations on discretization and virtual nature of cultural interaction, mutual tension of limits of cultural and historical process allow connecting philosophy of the nature and philosophical anthropology with system of categories (energy, weight, distance, etc.). It finds application both in the physical and mathematical sphere and in the field of humanitarian studies. We can make a conclusion that neither nature nor human create the time. Time is an imaginary phenomenon connecting human activity and natural processes in the limits of human consciousness.

  5. Visualizing Human Migration Trhough Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambotti, G.; Guan, W.; Gest, J.

    2015-07-01

    Human migration has been an important activity in human societies since antiquity. Since 1890, approximately three percent of the world's population has lived outside of their country of origin. As globalization intensifies in the modern era, human migration persists even as governments seek to more stringently regulate flows. Understanding this phenomenon, its causes, processes and impacts often starts from measuring and visualizing its spatiotemporal patterns. This study builds a generic online platform for users to interactively visualize human migration through space and time. This entails quickly ingesting human migration data in plain text or tabular format; matching the records with pre-established geographic features such as administrative polygons; symbolizing the migration flow by circular arcs of varying color and weight based on the flow attributes; connecting the centroids of the origin and destination polygons; and allowing the user to select either an origin or a destination feature to display all flows in or out of that feature through time. The method was first developed using ArcGIS Server for world-wide cross-country migration, and later applied to visualizing domestic migration patterns within China between provinces, and between states in the United States, all through multiple years. The technical challenges of this study include simplifying the shapes of features to enhance user interaction, rendering performance and application scalability; enabling the temporal renderers to provide time-based rendering of features and the flow among them; and developing a responsive web design (RWD) application to provide an optimal viewing experience. The platform is available online for the public to use, and the methodology is easily adoptable to visualizing any flow, not only human migration but also the flow of goods, capital, disease, ideology, etc., between multiple origins and destinations across space and time.

  6. Duration channels mediate human time perception

    OpenAIRE

    Heron, James; Aaen-Stockdale, Craig; Hotchkiss, John; Neil W. Roach; Paul V. McGraw; Whitaker, David

    2011-01-01

    The task of deciding how long sensory events seem to last is one that the human nervous system appears to perform rapidly and, for sub-second intervals, seemingly without conscious effort. That these estimates can be performed within and between multiple sensory and motor domains suggest time perception forms one of the core, fundamental processes of our perception of the world around us. Given this significance, the current paucity in our understanding of how this process operates is surpris...

  7. Human Thanatomicrobiome Succession and Time Since Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, Gulnaz T; Finley, Sheree J; Can, Ismail; Wilkinson, Jeremy E; Hanson, J Delton; Tarone, Aaron M

    2016-01-01

    The thanatomicrobiome (thanatos, Greek for death) is a relatively new term and is the study of the microbes colonizing the internal organs and orifices after death. Recent scientific breakthroughs in an initial study of the thanatomicrobiome have revealed that a majority of the microbes within the human body are the obligate anaerobes, Clostridium spp., in the internal postmortem microbial communities. We hypothesized that time-dependent changes in the thanatomicrobiome within internal organs can estimate the time of death as a human body decays. Here we report a cross-sectional study of the sampling of 27 human corpses from criminal cases with postmortem intervals between 3.5-240 hours. The impetus for examining microbial communities in different internal organs is to address the paucity of empirical data on thanatomicrobiomic succession caused by the limited access to these organs prior to death and a dearth of knowledge regarding the movement of microbes within remains. Our sequencing results of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of 27 postmortem samples from cadavers demonstrated statistically significant time-, organ-, and sex-dependent changes. These results suggest that comprehensive knowledge of the number and abundance of each organ's signature microorganisms could be useful to forensic microbiologists as a new source of data for estimating postmortem interval. PMID:27412051

  8. Time trends in human fecundability in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H; Rylander, Lars; Carstensen, Lisbeth;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trends in biologic fertility are elusive. Possible negative trends in male reproductive health are still debated, and their effect on human fertility might be negligible. Time-to-pregnancy (TTP) is a functional measure of couple fecundability. METHODS: We analyzed data on TTP among 832......,000 primiparous women 20 years of age and older in the nationwide Swedish Medical Birth Registry from 1983 through 2002. This age restriction led to an exclusion of 10% of primiparous pregnancies. Subfertility (TTP > or =1 year) was analyzed as a function of maternal age, calendar time at initiation of attempt...... increased with age, except that for women in their late 1930s, an apparent decrease was observed, particularly among the early cohorts. CONCLUSION: We found decreasing subfertility over time. We speculate that these patterns might be related to a Sweden-specific decrease over time in sexually transmitted...

  9. VISUALIZING HUMAN MIGRATION TRHOUGH SPACE AND TIME

    OpenAIRE

    G. Zambotti; Guan, W.; Gest, J

    2015-01-01

    Human migration has been an important activity in human societies since antiquity. Since 1890, approximately three percent of the world’s population has lived outside of their country of origin. As globalization intensifies in the modern era, human migration persists even as governments seek to more stringently regulate flows. Understanding this phenomenon, its causes, processes and impacts often starts from measuring and visualizing its spatiotemporal patterns. This study builds a g...

  10. Visualizing Human Migration Through Space and Time

    OpenAIRE

    Zambotti, Giovanni; Guan, Wendy; Gest, Justin Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Human migration has been an important activity in human societies since antiquity. Since 1890, approximately three percent of the world’s population has lived outside of their country of origin. As globalization intensifies in the modern era, human migration persists even as governments seek to more stringently regulate flows. Understanding this phenomenon, its causes, processes and impacts often starts from measuring and visualizing its spatiotemporal patterns. This study builds a generic on...

  11. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.

  12. Human response times in a graphic environment

    CERN Document Server

    Yule, A

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the results obtained from measuring the response times of the users of an interactive graphics system available on the CERN central computers is presented. These results are then used to find an optimum time to wait before rolling the user's program to disc.

  13. HUMAN RIGHTS IN TIME OF GLOBALIZING SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Garb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of processes in the contemporary international environment and the attendant effects, including security risks bring rapid changes in society. On the other hand, new opportunities and challenges are characterized by globalization of security and modern security paradigm, triggered by the overwhelming number of processes within existing systems of national security that modify the state's role in ensuring the safety of its citizens or residents.In the contemporary security paradigm appears a tendency to provide individual security or deviation to the concept of ensuring security of the individual. Security is becoming a fundamental civil right which requires the synthesis of a wide range of state and social policies, including respect of human rights.International terrorism, as one of the security risks, against which many countries have accepted anti-terrorism laws, which intervene in the free exercise of individual rights and that leads to an imbalance between freedom and security.

  14. Virtual Space Communication based on Real-time Human Proxy

    OpenAIRE

    Arita, Daisaku; Yoshimatsu, Hisato; Hayama, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Rin-ichiro

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a concept of real-time human proxy for avatar-based interaction systems, which virtualizes a human in the real world in real-time and which lets the virtualized human behave as if he/she was present at a distant place. For estimating RHP, we apply it to VEIDL, which is a virtual classroom system. The experimental results show us that RHP is useful for avatar-based interaction.

  15. 'Human paced' walking: Followers adopt stride time dynamics of leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmelat, V.C.M.; Delignières, D.; Torre, K.; Beek, P.J.; Daffertshofer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Isochronous cueing is widely used in gait rehabilitation even though it alters the stride-time dynamics toward anti-persistent rather than the persistent, fractal fluctuations characteristic of human walking. In the present experiment we tested an alternative cueing method: pacing by a human. To thi

  16. Resolving human object recognition in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Oliva, Aude

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive picture of object processing in the human brain requires combining both spatial and temporal information about brain activity. Here we acquired human magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to 92 object images. Multivariate pattern classification applied to MEG revealed the time course of object processing: whereas individual images were discriminated by visual representations early, ordinate and superordinate category levels emerged relatively late. Using representational similarity analysis, we combined human fMRI and MEG to show content-specific correspondence between early MEG responses and primary visual cortex (V1), and later MEG responses and inferior temporal (IT) cortex. We identified transient and persistent neural activities during object processing with sources in V1 and IT. Finally, we correlated human MEG signals to single-unit responses in monkey IT. Together, our findings provide an integrated space- and time-resolved view of human object categorization during the first few hundred milliseconds of vision.

  17. Noise-induced transition in human reaction times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M.; Díaz, José A.

    2016-09-01

    The human reaction/response time can be defined as the time elapsed from the onset of stimulus presentation until a response occurs in many sensory and cognitive processes. A reaction time model based on Piéron’s law is investigated. The model shows a noise-induced transition in the moments of reaction time distributions due to the presence of strong additive noise. The model also demonstrates that reaction times do not follow fluctuation scaling between the mean and the variance but follow a generalized version between the skewness and the kurtosis. The results indicate that noise-induced transitions in the moments govern fluctuations in sensory-motor transformations and open an insight into the macroscopic effects of noise in human perception and action. The conditions that lead to extreme reaction times are discussed based on the transfer of information in neurons.

  18. Structured Time Series Analysis for Human Action Segmentation and Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dian Gong; Medioni, Gerard; Xuemei Zhao

    2014-07-01

    We address the problem of structure learning of human motion in order to recognize actions from a continuous monocular motion sequence of an arbitrary person from an arbitrary viewpoint. Human motion sequences are represented by multivariate time series in the joint-trajectories space. Under this structured time series framework, we first propose Kernelized Temporal Cut (KTC), an extension of previous works on change-point detection by incorporating Hilbert space embedding of distributions, to handle the nonparametric and high dimensionality issues of human motions. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, which yields realtime segmentation, and produces high action segmentation accuracy. Second, a spatio-temporal manifold framework is proposed to model the latent structure of time series data. Then an efficient spatio-temporal alignment algorithm Dynamic Manifold Warping (DMW) is proposed for multivariate time series to calculate motion similarity between action sequences (segments). Furthermore, by combining the temporal segmentation algorithm and the alignment algorithm, online human action recognition can be performed by associating a few labeled examples from motion capture data. The results on human motion capture data and 3D depth sensor data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in automatically segmenting and recognizing motion sequences, and its ability to handle noisy and partially occluded data, in the transfer learning module. PMID:26353312

  19. Extreme reaction times determine fluctuation scaling in human color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M.; Díaz, José A.

    2016-11-01

    In modern mental chronometry, human reaction time defines the time elapsed from stimulus presentation until a response occurs and represents a reference paradigm for investigating stochastic latency mechanisms in color vision. Here we examine the statistical properties of extreme reaction times and whether they support fluctuation scaling in the skewness-kurtosis plane. Reaction times were measured for visual stimuli across the cardinal directions of the color space. For all subjects, the results show that very large reaction times deviate from the right tail of reaction time distributions suggesting the existence of dragon-kings events. The results also indicate that extreme reaction times are correlated and shape fluctuation scaling over a wide range of stimulus conditions. The scaling exponent was higher for achromatic than isoluminant stimuli, suggesting distinct generative mechanisms. Our findings open a new perspective for studying failure modes in sensory-motor communications and in complex networks.

  20. Estimating Time Since Death from Postmortem Human Gut Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauther, Kathleen A; Cobaugh, Kelly L; Jantz, Lee Meadows; Sparer, Tim E; DeBruyn, Jennifer M

    2015-09-01

    Postmortem succession of human-associated microbial communities ("human microbiome") has been suggested as a possible method for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) for forensic analyses. Here we evaluate human gut bacterial populations to determine quantifiable, time-dependent changes postmortem. Gut microflora were repeatedly sampled from the proximal large intestine of 12 deceased human individuals as they decayed under environmental conditions. Three intestinal bacterial genera were quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using group-specific primers targeting 16S rRNA genes. Bacteroides and Lactobacillus relative abundances declined exponentially with increasing PMI at rates of Nt=0.977e(-0.0144t) (r2=0.537, pPMI. PMID:26096156

  1. Time and temporality: linguistic distribution in human life-games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    culture, individuals developed a knack of using linguistic distribution to link metabolism with collective ways of assessing and managing experience. Of human temporal management, the best known case is the mental time travel enabled by, among other functions, autobiographical memory. One contribution......, cognitive and subjective....

  2. Forming Human-Robot Teams Across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambuchen, Kimberly; Burridge, Robert R.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Bluethmann, William J.; Diftler, Myron A.; Radford, Nicolaus A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA pushes telerobotics to distances that span the Solar System. At this scale, time of flight for communication is limited by the speed of light, inducing long time delays, narrow bandwidth and the real risk of data disruption. NASA also supports missions where humans are in direct contact with robots during extravehicular activity (EVA), giving a range of zero to hundreds of millions of miles for NASA s definition of "tele". . Another temporal variable is mission phasing. NASA missions are now being considered that combine early robotic phases with later human arrival, then transition back to robot only operations. Robots can preposition, scout, sample or construct in advance of human teammates, transition to assistant roles when the crew are present, and then become care-takers when the crew returns to Earth. This paper will describe advances in robot safety and command interaction approaches developed to form effective human-robot teams, overcoming challenges of time delay and adapting as the team transitions from robot only to robots and crew. The work is predicated on the idea that when robots are alone in space, they are still part of a human-robot team acting as surrogates for people back on Earth or in other distant locations. Software, interaction modes and control methods will be described that can operate robots in all these conditions. A novel control mode for operating robots across time delay was developed using a graphical simulation on the human side of the communication, allowing a remote supervisor to drive and command a robot in simulation with no time delay, then monitor progress of the actual robot as data returns from the round trip to and from the robot. Since the robot must be responsible for safety out to at least the round trip time period, the authors developed a multi layer safety system able to detect and protect the robot and people in its workspace. This safety system is also running when humans are in direct contact with the robot

  3. John Steinbeck's Wrath. Human Behavior During Desperate Times

    OpenAIRE

    Guðrún S. Gröndal 1988

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines John Steinbeck’s novel The Grapes of Wrath and how he, as a writer, approached the subject of human behavior during desperate times. Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath was well received and immediately became a bestseller. In his novel Steinbeck explores the effects the Great Depression on human life, having researched intimately the life and situations of the economic refugees of the period. Some of most effective scenes in the novel deal with the harsh reality these people ...

  4. Human's choices in situations of time-based diminishing returns.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackenberg, T D; Axtell, S A

    1993-01-01

    Three experiments examined adult humans' choices in situations with contrasting short-term and long-term consequences. Subjects were given repeated choices between two time-based schedules of points exchangeable for money: a fixed schedule and a progressive schedule that began at 0 s and increased by 5 s with each point delivered by that schedule. Under "reset" conditions, choosing the fixed schedule not only produced a point but it also reset the requirements of the progressive schedule to 0...

  5. Limitations in simulator time-based human reliability analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments in human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have evolved slowly. Current methods are little changed from those of almost a decade ago, particularly in the use of time-reliability relationships. While these methods were suitable as an interim step, the time (and the need) has come to specify the next evolution of HRA methods. As with any performance-oriented data source, power plant simulator data have no direct connection to HRA models. Errors reported in data are normal deficiencies observed in human performance; failures are events modeled in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Not all errors cause failures; not all failures are caused by errors. Second, the times at which actions are taken provide no measure of the likelihood of failures to act correctly within an accident scenario. Inferences can be made about human reliability, but they must be made with great care. Specific limitations are discussed. Simulator performance data are useful in providing qualitative evidence of the variety of error types and their potential influences on operating systems. More work is required to combine recent developments in the psychology of error with the qualitative data collected at stimulators. Until data become openly available, however, such an advance will not be practical

  6. Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Hebden, Jeremy C.; Schweiger, Martin; Dehghani, Hamid; Schmidt, Florian E. W.; Delpy, David T.; Arridge, Simon R.

    2001-04-01

    A 32-channel time-resolved optical imaging instrument has been developed principally to study functional parameters of the new-born infant brain. As a prelude to studies on infants, the device and image reconstruction methodology have been evaluated on the adult human forearm. Cross-sectional images were generated using time-resolved measurements of transmitted light at two wavelengths. All data were acquired using a fully automated computer-controlled protocol. Images representing the internal scattering and absorbing properties of the arm are presented, as well as images that reveal physiological changes during a simple finger flexion exercise. The results presented in this paper represent the first simultaneous tomographic reconstruction of the internal scattering and absorbing properties of a clinical subject using purely temporal data, with additional co-registered difference images showing repeatable absorption changes at two wavelengths in response to exercise.

  7. 24 Hours chronomics of ambulatory blood pressure and its relation with circadian rhythm of 6-sulfatoxy melatonin in night shift health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anjum

    2015-08-01

    Results: Ambulatory BP and HR were recorded at every 30 min intervals in day time and each hour in night time synchronically with circadian pattern of 6 sulfatoxy melatonin during shift duties. Highly Significant difference was found in double amplitude (2DA of blood pressure between night and day shift (p<0.001. In night shift, hyperbaric index (HBI of mean systolic blood pressure was found to be increased at 00-03 am (midnight while during day shift, peak was found at 06-09 am. Peak melatonin was to be found in early morning as compared to mid night in both the shift. Conclusions: The present study concluded that the desynchronization was appeared during night shift and entrainment of circadian rhythm in the day shift. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1922-1931

  8. Forward-time simulations of human populations with complex diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing power of personal computers, as well as the availability of flexible forward-time simulation programs like simuPOP, it is now possible to simulate the evolution of complex human diseases using a forward-time approach. This approach is potentially more powerful than the coalescent approach since it allows simulations of more than one disease susceptibility locus using almost arbitrary genetic and demographic models. However, the application of such simulations has been deterred by the lack of a suitable simulation framework. For example, it is not clear when and how to introduce disease mutants-especially those under purifying selection-to an evolving population, and how to control the disease allele frequencies at the last generation. In this paper, we introduce a forward-time simulation framework that allows us to generate large multi-generation populations with complex diseases caused by unlinked disease susceptibility loci, according to specified demographic and evolutionary properties. Unrelated individuals, small or large pedigrees can be drawn from the resulting population and provide samples for a wide range of study designs and ascertainment methods. We demonstrate our simulation framework using three examples that map genes associated with affection status, a quantitative trait, and the age of onset of a hypothetical cancer, respectively. Nonadditive fitness models, population structure, and gene-gene interactions are simulated. Case-control, sibpair, and large pedigree samples are drawn from the simulated populations and are examined by a variety of gene-mapping methods.

  9. Impaired Performance Criteria and Human Helplessness: Time to Give Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Irwin N.; And Others

    The view that humans fail to solve certain types of problems because they are helpless and passive originated from a series of studies with animals; subsequent research attempted to replicate the findings of the learned helplessness behavior with humans. In an attempt to replicate and extend the Hiroto and Seligman (1975) study of humans exposed…

  10. The time course of shape discrimination in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ales, Justin M; Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cottereau, Benoit R; Norcia, Anthony M

    2013-02-15

    The lateral occipital cortex (LOC) activates selectively to images of intact objects versus scrambled controls, is selective for the figure-ground relationship of a scene, and exhibits at least some degree of invariance for size and position. Because of these attributes, it is considered to be a crucial part of the object recognition pathway. Here we show that human LOC is critically involved in perceptual decisions about object shape. High-density EEG was recorded while subjects performed a threshold-level shape discrimination task on texture-defined figures segmented by either phase or orientation cues. The appearance or disappearance of a figure region from a uniform background generated robust visual evoked potentials throughout retinotopic cortex as determined by inverse modeling of the scalp voltage distribution. Contrasting responses from trials containing shape changes that were correctly detected (hits) with trials in which no change occurred (correct rejects) revealed stimulus-locked, target-selective activity in the occipital visual areas LOC and V4 preceding the subject's response. Activity that was locked to the subjects' reaction time was present in the LOC. Response-locked activity in the LOC was determined to be related to shape discrimination for several reasons: shape-selective responses were silenced when subjects viewed identical stimuli but their attention was directed away from the shapes to a demanding letter discrimination task; shape-selectivity was present across four different stimulus configurations used to define the figure; LOC responses correlated with participants' reaction times. These results indicate that decision-related activity is present in the LOC when subjects are engaged in threshold-level shape discriminations.

  11. The Cell Cycle Timing of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinson, Tormi; Henno, Liisi; Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Ustav, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Viruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell to optimize conditions for more efficient viral genome replication. One strategy utilized by DNA viruses is to replicate their genomes non-concurrently with the host genome; in this case, the viral genome is amplified outside S phase. This phenomenon has also been described for human papillomavirus (HPV) vegetative genome replication, which occurs in G2-arrested cells; however, the precise timing of viral DNA replication during initial and stable replication phases has not been studied. We developed a new method to quantitate newly synthesized DNA levels and used this method in combination with cell cycle synchronization to show that viral DNA replication is initiated during S phase and is extended to G2 during initial amplification but follows the replication pattern of cellular DNA during S phase in the stable maintenance phase. E1 and E2 protein overexpression changes the replication time from S only to both the S and G2 phases in cells that stably maintain viral episomes. These data demonstrate that the active synthesis and replication of the HPV genome are extended into the G2 phase to amplify its copy number and the duration of HPV genome replication is controlled by the level of the viral replication proteins E1 and E2. Using the G2 phase for genome amplification may be an important adaptation that allows exploitation of changing cellular conditions during cell cycle progression. We also describe a new method to quantify newly synthesized viral DNA levels and discuss its benefits for HPV research. PMID:26132923

  12. The Cell Cycle Timing of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormi Reinson

    Full Text Available Viruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell to optimize conditions for more efficient viral genome replication. One strategy utilized by DNA viruses is to replicate their genomes non-concurrently with the host genome; in this case, the viral genome is amplified outside S phase. This phenomenon has also been described for human papillomavirus (HPV vegetative genome replication, which occurs in G2-arrested cells; however, the precise timing of viral DNA replication during initial and stable replication phases has not been studied. We developed a new method to quantitate newly synthesized DNA levels and used this method in combination with cell cycle synchronization to show that viral DNA replication is initiated during S phase and is extended to G2 during initial amplification but follows the replication pattern of cellular DNA during S phase in the stable maintenance phase. E1 and E2 protein overexpression changes the replication time from S only to both the S and G2 phases in cells that stably maintain viral episomes. These data demonstrate that the active synthesis and replication of the HPV genome are extended into the G2 phase to amplify its copy number and the duration of HPV genome replication is controlled by the level of the viral replication proteins E1 and E2. Using the G2 phase for genome amplification may be an important adaptation that allows exploitation of changing cellular conditions during cell cycle progression. We also describe a new method to quantify newly synthesized viral DNA levels and discuss its benefits for HPV research.

  13. A Real-Time Model-Based Human Motion Tracking and Analysis for Human-Computer Interface Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lin Huang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time model-based human motion tracking and analysis method for human computer interface (HCI. This method tracks and analyzes the human motion from two orthogonal views without using any markers. The motion parameters are estimated by pattern matching between the extracted human silhouette and the human model. First, the human silhouette is extracted and then the body definition parameters (BDPs can be obtained. Second, the body animation parameters (BAPs are estimated by a hierarchical tritree overlapping searching algorithm. To verify the performance of our method, we demonstrate different human posture sequences and use hidden Markov model (HMM for posture recognition testing.

  14. [The human embryo after Dolly: new practices for new times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo

    2008-01-01

    The possiblity of cloning human beings introduced a lot of issues in our ethical and legal frameworks. In this paper, we will put the focus into the necessary changes in the concept of embryo that our legal systems will have to implement in order to face the new situation. The description of the embryo as a group of cells able to develop into a human being will be defended here as the best way of doing so. PMID:19334406

  15. Public Participation in Times of Privatisation: A Human Rights Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Temperman, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Privatisation may not only affect the enjoyment of the right to public participation itself, but might also impact other substantive rights. This article charts some of the ramifications of privatisation in relation to individual human rights as enshrined in international human rights conventions, with a particular focus on the impact privatisation has on the right to public participation. The right to public participation can be seen as both an example of a funda...

  16. [The human embryo after Dolly: new practices for new times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo

    2008-01-01

    The possiblity of cloning human beings introduced a lot of issues in our ethical and legal frameworks. In this paper, we will put the focus into the necessary changes in the concept of embryo that our legal systems will have to implement in order to face the new situation. The description of the embryo as a group of cells able to develop into a human being will be defended here as the best way of doing so.

  17. Human movement analysis with image processing in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvet, Eric; Paindavoine, Michel; Cannard, F.

    1991-04-01

    In the field of the human sciences, a lot of applications needs to know the kinematic characteristics of the human movements Psycology is associating the characteristics with the control mechanism, sport and biomechariics are associating them with the performance of the sportman or of the patient. So the trainers or the doctors can correct the gesture of the subject to obtain a better performance if he knows the motion properties. Roherton's studies show the children motion evolution2 . Several investigations methods are able to measure the human movement But now most of the studies are based on image processing. Often the systems are working at the T.V. standard (50 frame per secund ). they permit only to study very slow gesture. A human operator analyses the digitizing sequence of the film manually giving a very expensive, especially long and unprecise operation. On these different grounds many human movement analysis systems were implemented. They consist of: - markers which are fixed to the anatomical interesting points on the subject in motion, - Image compression which is the art to coding picture data. Generally the compression Is limited to the centroid coordinates calculation tor each marker. These systems differ from one other in image acquisition and markers detection.

  18. Real-time human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radars can be used to observe persons. Animation of an observed human on the basis of Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar measurements in virtual reality considerably facilitates the interpretation of the radar measurements. These radar measurements give detailed information of the moti

  19. Real-time Animation of Interactive Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last years, there has been a lot of interest in the area of Interactive Virtual Humans (IVHs). Virtual characters who interact naturally with users in mixed realities have many different applications, such as interactive video games, virtual training and rehabilitation, or virtual heritage.

  20. Public Participation in Times of Privatisation: A Human Rights Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Temperman (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Privatisation may not only affect the enjoyment of the right to public participation itself, but might also impact other substantive rights. This article charts some of the ramifications of privatisation in relation to individual human rights as enshrined in internation

  1. Human time perception in temporal isolation : Effects of illumination intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschoff, J; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Living in isolation from time cues under relatively high and low light intensities for a total (on average) of 24 days, 18 subjects estimated the passage of time by ''producing'' short (10 to 120 seconds) and long (1h) intervals throughout the experiments. The 1h productions were independent of ligh

  2. Temporal sensitivity. [time dependent human perception of visual stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1986-01-01

    Human visual temporal sensitivity is examined. The stimuli used to measure temporal sensitivity are described and the linear systems theory is reviewed in terms of temporal sensitivity. A working model which represents temporal sensitivity is proposed. The visibility of a number of temporal wave forms, sinusoids, rectangular pulses, and pulse pairs, is analyzed. The relation between spatial and temporal effects is studied. Temporal variations induced by image motion and the effects of light adaptation on temporal sensitivity are considered.

  3. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partner...

  4. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus as...... possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects are...... rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role of...

  5. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  6. Human Activity Recognition as Time-Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyesuk Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a system that can recognize daily human activities with a Kinect-style depth camera. Our system utilizes a set of view-invariant features and the hidden state conditional random field (HCRF model to recognize human activities from the 3D body pose stream provided by MS Kinect API or OpenNI. Many high-level daily activities can be regarded as having a hierarchical structure where multiple subactivities are performed sequentially or iteratively. In order to model effectively these high-level daily activities, we utilized a multiclass HCRF model, which is a kind of probabilistic graphical models. In addition, in order to get view-invariant, but more informative features, we extract joint angles from the subject’s skeleton model and then perform the feature transformation to obtain three different types of features regarding motion, structure, and hand positions. Through various experiments using two different datasets, KAD-30 and CAD-60, the high performance of our system is verified.

  7. Human time perception in temporal isolation: effects of illumination intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschoff, J; Daan, S

    1997-11-01

    Living in isolation from time cues under relatively high and low light intensities for a total (on average) of 24 days, 18 subjects estimated the passage of time by "producing" short (10 to 120 seconds) and long (1h) intervals throughout the experiments. The 1h productions were independent of light intensity and highly positively correlated with the duration of wake times. The short-interval productions were markedly increased under high light intensity. In a subsample of 6 subjects, the interaction between effects of body temperature and light condition on 10-second production was analyzed. Productions were negatively correlated with body temperature. In both dim and bright light, productions decreased by a factor of 0.7 per degree C. In bright light, production was increased by a factor of 1.2 relative to dim light. This effect was not mediated by body temperature, which itself was on average slightly increased in bright light. Since subjective time is slowed by bright light, objective time seems to pass faster in bright light.

  8. Human Time Allocation in Time-based Analog of Concurrent Interval-ratio Schedules

    OpenAIRE

    TAJIMA, HIROYUKI

    1999-01-01

    Six undergraduates participated in concurrent-choice experiment with monetary reinforcers. Each subject was exposed to a time-based analog of concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedule with equal time interval values. The time-based analog of variable-interval schedule arranged reinforcers throughout the session, and delivered them while the schedule was chosen. The time-based analog of variable-ratio schedule arranged and immediately delivered reinforcers only while the schedule wa...

  9. Time-Dependent Kinematics of Complex Human Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2013-03-01

    The human body can be arranged in numerous geometrical configurations, including many interesting scenarios from the sport of gymnastics. One particularly challenging analytical example among these is the forward flip with maximum separation from the ground at the apex of the flight. The temporal aspects of this move involve the evaluation of multiple different positions during the trajectory, which adds significantly to the effort required. When a forward flip was executed during a football game, ready access to the recording of this allowed a detailed kinematic examination to be performed. Careful application of highly intricate protocols produces results which are consistent with similar athletic environments. The emphasis in this research is to transcend standard approaches elsewhere, which are severely limited to generic athletes and/or generic circumstances. Pedagogical benefits of the rigorous methodology adopted here are explored beyond what was introduced in a recent related study.

  10. Time-dependent accident sequences including human actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During an accident, transitions between plant states can occur due to operator intervention and the failure of systems while running. The latter cause of transition is much less likely than the first, which includes errors of commission and omission as well as recovery of lost functions. A methodology has been developed to model these transitions in the time domain. As an example, it is applied to the analysis of Three-Mile-Island-type accidents. Statistical evidence is collected and used in assessing the frequency of stuck-open power-operated relief valves at Babcock and Wilcox plants as well as the frequency of misdiagnosis. Statistical data are also used in modeling the timing of operator actions during the accident, i.e., turning off and on the high-pressure injection system and closing the block valves

  11. Investing in early human development: timing and economic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Harmon, Colm P; Heckman, James J; Tremblay, Richard E

    2009-03-01

    Policy discussions to ameliorate socioeconomic (SES) inequalities are increasingly focused on investments in early childhood. Yet such interventions are costly to implement, and clear evidence on the optimal time to intervene to yield a high economic and social return in the future is meagre. The majority of successful early childhood interventions start in the preschool years. However socioeconomic gradients in cognitive skills, socio-emotional functioning and health can be observed by age three, suggesting that preventative programmes starting earlier in childhood may be even more effective. We discuss the optimal timing of early childhood intervention with reference to recent research in developmental neuroscience. We motivate the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse risk factors during the antenatal and early childhood periods on outcomes later in life. We provide a brief review of the economic rationale for investing early in life and propose the "antenatal investment hypothesis". We conclude by discussing a suite of new European interventions that will inform this optimal timing debate.

  12. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

  13. An Evolutionary Genomic Approach to Identify Genes Involved in Human Birth Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Jevon Plunkett; Scott Doniger; Guilherme Orabona; Thomas Morgan; Ritva Haataja; Mikko Hallman; Hilkka Puttonen; Ramkumar Menon; Edward Kuczynski; Errol Norwitz; Victoria Snegovskikh; Aarno Palotie; Leena Peltonen; Vineta Fellman; DeFranco, Emily A

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of fetal maturation with birth timing is essential for mammalian reproduction. In humans, preterm birth is a disorder of profound global health significance. The signals initiating parturition in humans have remained elusive, due to divergence in physiological mechanisms between humans and model organisms typically studied. Because of relatively large human head size and narrow birth canal cross-sectional area compared to other primates, we hypothesized that genes involved in par...

  14. Real-time Human Proxy: An Avatar-based Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    Arita, Daisaku; Taniguchi, Rin-ichiro

    2007-01-01

    We propose a concept of real-time human proxy for avatar-based communication systems, which virtualizes a human in the real world in real-time and which lets the virtualized human behave as if he/she was present at a distant place. For estimating RHP, we apply it to a simple game and a virtual classroom system. The experimental results shows us that RHP is useful for avatar-based communication.

  15. Enter the Anthropocene : an epoch of time characterised by humans

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Mark; Zalasiewicz, Jan

    2009-01-01

    In the first years of the 21st century Earth was being influenced by forces greater than our own and yet as vulnerable. With infinite complacency men and women went to and fro over this globe about their affairs, serene in their assurance of their empire over matter. And yet, across the vastness of time Earth viewed the actions of people with increasing despair. And slowly, but surely, she drew her plans against us….. We have borrowed these words, with some poetic licence, from...

  16. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine......Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  17. Real-time monitoring for human clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harker, Y.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-11-01

    On August 3-4, 1994, an INEL team made measurements related to a real-time monitoring system for use on the epithermal beam facility at the BMRR. BNL has installed two fission chambers in front of the beam collimator, which are to monitor the beam coming from the reactor. These two monitors are located with one just above the 16-cm dia. front aperture and the other is just below. The fission chambers contain depleted uranium, but because of the small amount of U-235 present, they respond to thermal and near thermal neutrons rather than fast neutrons. This feature combined with their relatively small size (0.6 cm dia x 4 cm long) makes them very good monitors in the BMRR epithermal neutron beam. The INEL team worked with H.B. Lui (BNL) in performing initial tests of these monitors and established the settings to achieve stable operation. The main purpose of the measurement studies was to establish a basis for a monitoring method that tracks the dose the patient is receiving rather than the neutron fluence being delivered down the beam line.

  18. Double loop control strategy with different time steps based on human characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gwang Min; Lee, Jinoh; Kim, Jung

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a cooperative control strategy in consideration of the force sensitivity of human. The strategy consists of two loops: one is the intention estimation loop whose sampling time can be variable in order to investigate the effect of the sampling time; the other is the position control loop with fixed time step. A high sampling rate is not necessary for the intention estimation loop due to the bandwidth of the mechanoreceptors in humans. In addition, the force sensor implemented in the robot is sensitive to the noise induced from the sensor itself and tremor of the human. Multiple experiments were performed with the experimental protocol using various time steps of the intention estimation loop to find the suitable sampling times in physical human robot interaction. The task involves pull-and-push movement with a two-degree-of-freedom robot, and the norm of the interaction force was obtained for each experiment as the measure of the cooperative control performance.

  19. An Augmented Discrete-Time Approach for Human-Robot Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peidong Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-robot collaboration (HRC is a key feature to distinguish the new generation of robots from conventional robots. Relevant HRC topics have been extensively investigated recently in academic institutes and companies to improve human and robot interactive performance. Generally, human motor control regulates human motion adaptively to the external environment with safety, compliance, stability, and efficiency. Inspired by this, we propose an augmented approach to make a robot understand human motion behaviors based on human kinematics and human postural impedance adaptation. Human kinematics is identified by geometry kinematics approach to map human arm configuration as well as stiffness index controlled by hand gesture to anthropomorphic arm. While human arm postural stiffness is estimated and calibrated within robot empirical stability region, human motion is captured by employing a geometry vector approach based on Kinect. A biomimetic controller in discrete-time is employed to make Baxter robot arm imitate human arm behaviors based on Baxter robot dynamics. An object moving task is implemented to validate the performance of proposed methods based on Baxter robot simulator. Results show that the proposed approach to HRC is intuitive, stable, efficient, and compliant, which may have various applications in human-robot collaboration scenarios.

  20. Real Time Detection and Tracking of Human Face using Skin Color Segmentation and Region Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar G.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Real time faces detection and face tracking is one of the challenging problems in application like computer human interaction, video surveillance, biometrics etc. In this paper we are presenting an algorithm for real time face detection and tracking using skin color segmentation and region properties. First segmentation of skin regions from an image is done by using different color models. Skin regions are separated from the image by using thresholding. Then to decide whether these regions contain human face or not we used face features. Our procedure is based on skin color segmentation and human face features (knowledge-based approach. We have used RGB, YCbCr, and HSV color models for skin color segmentation. These color models with thresholds, help to remove non skin like pixel from an image. Each segmented skin regions are tested to know whether region is human face or not, by using human face features based on knowledge of geometrical properties of human face.

  1. Human perception of short and long time intervals: its correlation with body temperature and the duration of wake time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschoff, J

    1998-10-01

    Time estimation was studied in seven human subjects during prolonged sojourn is isolation from time cues. They wore rectal temperature probes throughout the experiments, and during wakefulness recorded each time they thought one hour had passed. At the end of each of these subjective hours they produced a subjective 5 or 10 sec interval. The produced intervals on the 1-h task were not related to body temperature but were correlated with and proportional to the duration of waketime in all subjects. The produced 5 and 10 sec intervals were in all subjects negatively correlated with rectal temperature, but were not associated with wake time. Brief and long time intervals are subjectively experienced via different mechanisms.

  2. Human synapses show a wide temporal window for spike-timing-dependent plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme T Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout our lifetime, activity-dependent changes in neuronal connection strength enable the brain to refine neural circuits and learn based on experience. Synapses can bi-directionally alter strength and the magnitude and sign depend on the millisecond timing of presynaptic and postsynaptic action potential firing. Recent findings on laboratory animals have shown that neurons can show a variety of temporal windows for spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP. It is unknown what synaptic learning rules exist in human synapses and whether similar temporal windows for STDP at synapses hold true for the human brain. Here, we directly tested in human slices cut from hippocampal tissue removed for surgical treatment of deeper brain structures in drug-resistant epilepsy patients, whether adult human synapses can change strength in response to millisecond timing of pre- and postsynaptic firing. We find that adult human hippocampal synapses can alter synapse strength in response to timed pre- and postsynaptic activity. In contrast to rodent hippocampal synapses, the sign of plasticity does not sharply switch around 0 millisecond timing. Instead, both positive timing intervals, in which presynaptic firing preceded the postsynaptic action potential, and negative timing intervals, in which postsynaptic firing preceded presynaptic activity down to -80 ms, increase synapse strength (tLTP. Negative timing intervals between -80 to -130 ms induce a lasting reduction of synapse strength (tLTD. Thus, similar to rodent synapses, adult human synapses can show spike-timing-dependent changes in strength. The timing rules of STDP in human hippocampus, however, seem to differ from rodent hippocampus, and suggest a less strict interpretation of Hebb’s predictions.

  3. Nonlinear time-domain cochlear model for transient stimulation and human otoacoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Dau, Torsten; Shera, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and performance of a nonlinear time-domain model of the cochlea for transient stimulation and human otoacoustic emission generation. The nonlinearity simulates compressive growth of measured basilar-membrane impulse responses. The model accounts for reflect......This paper describes the implementation and performance of a nonlinear time-domain model of the cochlea for transient stimulation and human otoacoustic emission generation. The nonlinearity simulates compressive growth of measured basilar-membrane impulse responses. The model accounts...

  4. Time to smell: a cascade model of human olfactory perception based on response-time (RT) measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Jonas K

    2014-01-01

    The timing of olfactory behavioral decisions may provide an important source of information about how the human olfactory-perceptual system is organized. This review integrates results from olfactory response-time (RT) measurements from a perspective of mental chronometry. Based on these findings, a new cascade model of human olfaction is presented. Results show that main perceptual decisions are executed with high accuracy within about 1~s of sniff onset. The cascade model proposes the existence of distinct processing stages within this brief time-window. According to the cascade model, different perceptual features become accessible to the perceiver at different time-points, and the output of earlier processing stages provides the input for later processing stages. The olfactory cascade starts with detecting the odor, which is followed by establishing an odor object. The odor object, in turn, triggers systems for determining odor valence and edibility. Evidence for the cascade model comes from studies showing that RTs for odor valence and edibility assessment are predicted by the shorter RTs needed to establish the odor object. Challenges for future research include innovative task designs for olfactory RT experiments and the integration of the behavioral processing sequence into the underlying cortical processes using complementary RT measures and neuroimaging methods.

  5. Abbreviated incubation times for human prions in mice expressing a chimeric mouse–human prion protein transgene

    OpenAIRE

    Korth, Carsten; Kaneko, Kiyotoshi; Groth, Darlene; Heye, Norbert; Telling, Glenn; Mastrianni, James; Parchi, Piero; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Will, Robert; Ironside, James; Heinrich, Cornelia; Tremblay, Patrick; Stephen J DeArmond; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic (Tg) mouse lines that express chimeric mouse–human prion protein (PrP), designated MHu2M, are susceptible to prions from patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD). With the aim of decreasing the incubation time to fewer than 200 days, we constructed transgenes in which one or more of the nine human residues in MHu2M were changed to mouse. The construct with murine residues at positions 165 and 167 was expressed in Tg(MHu2M,M165V,E167Q) mice and resulted in shortening ...

  6. Perceived Human Resource Management Practices: Their Effect on Employee Absenteeism and Time Allocation at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Boon; F.D. Belschak; D.N. den Hartog; M. Pijnenburg

    2014-01-01

    How employees spend their work time can have important consequences for organizations. Although some research has examined the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and employee absence, we know less about whether HRM also affects employees’ time allocation at work. This study examine

  7. Developmental and Cognitive Perspectives on Humans' Sense of the Times of Past and Future Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mental time travel in human adults includes a sense of when past events occurred and future events are expected to occur. Studies with adults and children reveal that a number of distinct psychological processes contribute to a temporally differentiated sense of the past and future. Adults possess representations of multiple time patterns, and…

  8. Nonlinear time-varying potential bistable energy harvesting from human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junyi; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Shengxi; Inman, Daniel J.; Lin, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation into nonlinear bistable energy harvesting with time-varying potential energy is presented. The motivation for examining time-varying potentials comes from the desire to harvest energy from human motion. Time-varying potential energy function of bistable oscillator with respect to the swing angle are established to derive the governing electromechanical model for harvesting vibration energy from the swaying motion during human walking or running. Numerical simulations show good agreement with the experimental potential energy function under different swing angles. Various motion speed treadmill tests are performed to demonstrate the advantage of time-varying bistable harvesters over linear and monostable ones in harvesting energy from human motion.

  9. Time-invariant person-specific frequency templates in human brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    Doron, Itai; Hulata, Eyal; Baruchi, Itay; Towle, Vernon L.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2006-01-01

    The various human brain tasks are performed at different locations and time scales. Yet, we discovered the existence of time-invariant (above an essential time scale) partitioning of the brain activity into personal state-specific frequency bands. For that, we perform temporal and ensemble averaging of best wavelet packet bases from multi-electrode EEG recordings. These personal frequency-bands provide new templates for quantitative analyses of brain function, e.g., normal vs. epileptic activ...

  10. Remote detection of human toxicants in real time using a human-optimized, bioluminescent bacterial luciferase gene cassette bioreporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Dan; Webb, James; Ripp, Steven; Patterson, Stacey; Sayler, Gary

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally, human toxicant bioavailability screening has been forced to proceed in either a high throughput fashion using prokaryotic or lower eukaryotic targets with minimal applicability to humans, or in a more expensive, lower throughput manner that uses fluorescent or bioluminescent human cells to directly provide human bioavailability data. While these efforts are often sufficient for basic scientific research, they prevent the rapid and remote identification of potentially toxic chemicals required for modern biosecurity applications. To merge the advantages of high throughput, low cost screening regimens with the direct bioavailability assessment of human cell line use, we re-engineered the bioluminescent bacterial luciferase gene cassette to function autonomously (without exogenous stimulation) within human cells. Optimized cassette expression provides for fully endogenous bioluminescent production, allowing continuous, real time monitoring of the bioavailability and toxicology of various compounds in an automated fashion. To access the functionality of this system, two sets of bioluminescent human cells were developed. The first was programed to suspend bioluminescent production upon toxicological challenge to mimic the non-specific detection of a toxicant. The second induced bioluminescence upon detection of a specific compound to demonstrate autonomous remote target identification. These cells were capable of responding to μM concentrations of the toxicant n-decanal, and allowed for continuous monitoring of cellular health throughout the treatment process. Induced bioluminescence was generated through treatment with doxycycline and was detectable upon dosage at a 100 ng/ml concentration. These results demonstrate that leveraging autonomous bioluminescence allows for low-cost, high throughput direct assessment of toxicant bioavailability.

  11. Plasticity of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available Human expeditions to Mars will require adaptation to the 24.65-h Martian solar day-night cycle (sol, which is outside the range of entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker under lighting intensities to which astronauts are typically exposed. Failure to entrain the circadian time-keeping system to the desired rest-activity cycle disturbs sleep and impairs cognitive function. Furthermore, differences between the intrinsic circadian period and Earth's 24-h light-dark cycle underlie human circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as advanced sleep phase disorder and non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders. Therefore, first, we tested whether exposure to a model-based lighting regimen would entrain the human circadian pacemaker at a normal phase angle to the 24.65-h Martian sol and to the 23.5-h day length often required of astronauts during short duration space exploration. Second, we tested here whether such prior entrainment to non-24-h light-dark cycles would lead to subsequent modification of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system. Here we show that exposure to moderately bright light ( approximately 450 lux; approximately 1.2 W/m(2 for the second or first half of the scheduled wake episode is effective for entraining individuals to the 24.65-h Martian sol and a 23.5-h day length, respectively. Estimations of the circadian periods of plasma melatonin, plasma cortisol, and core body temperature rhythms collected under forced desynchrony protocols revealed that the intrinsic circadian period of the human circadian pacemaker was significantly longer following entrainment to the Martian sol as compared to following entrainment to the 23.5-h day. The latter finding of after-effects of entrainment reveals for the first time plasticity of the period of the human circadian timing system. Both findings have important implications for the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders and human space exploration.

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Human-Water Interactions: The Role of Time-Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloeschl, G.; Sivapalan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the interest in hydrological modeling in the past decades revolved around resolving spatial variability. With the rapid changes brought about by human impacts on the hydrologic cycle, there is now an increasing need to refocus on time dependency. We present a co-evolutionary view of hydrologic systems, in which every part of the system including human systems, co-evolve, albeit at different rates. The resulting coupled human-nature system is framed as a dynamical system, characterized by interactions of fast and slow time scales and feedbacks between environmental and social processes. This gives rise to emergent phenomena such as the levee effect, adaptation to change and system collapse due to resource depletion. Changing human values play a key role in the emergence of these phenomena and should therefore be considered as internal to the system in a dynamic way. The co-evolutionary approach differs from the traditional view of water resource systems analysis as it allows for path dependence, multiple equilibria, lock-in situations and emergent phenomena. The approach may assist strategic water management for long time scales through facilitating stakeholder participation, exploring the possibility space of alternative futures, and helping to synthesise the observed dynamics of different case studies. Future research opportunities include the study of how changes in human values are connected to human-water interactions, historical analyses of trajectories of system co-evolution in individual places and comparative analyses of contrasting human-water systems in different climate and socio-economic settings. Reference Sivapalan, M. and G. Blöschl (2015) Time Scale Interactions and the Co-evolution of Humans and Water. Water Resour. Res., 51, in press.

  13. Domesticated animals and human infectious diseases of zoonotic origins: domestication time matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The rate of emergence for emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically over the last century, and research findings have implicated wildlife as an importance source of novel pathogens. However, the role played by domestic animals as amplifiers of pathogens emerging from the wild could also be significant, influencing the human infectious disease transmission cycle. The impact of domestic hosts on human disease emergence should therefore be ascertained. Here, using three independent datasets we showed positive relationships between the time since domestication of the major domesticated mammals and the total number of parasites or infectious diseases they shared with humans. We used network analysis, to better visualize the overall interactions between humans and domestic animals (and amongst animals) and estimate which hosts are potential sources of parasites/pathogens for humans (and for all other hosts) by investigating the network architecture. We used centrality, a measure of the connection amongst each host species (humans and domestic animals) in the network, through the sharing of parasites/pathogens, where a central host (i.e. high value of centrality) is the one that is infected by many parasites/pathogens that infect many other hosts in the network. We showed that domesticated hosts that were associated a long time ago with humans are also the central ones in the network and those that favor parasites/pathogens transmission not only to humans but also to all other domesticated animals. These results urge further investigation of the diversity and origin of the infectious diseases of domesticated animals in their domestication centres and the dispersal routes associated with human activities. Such work may help us to better understand how domesticated animals have bridged the epidemiological gap between humans and wildlife.

  14. Real-time multiple human perception with color-depth cameras on a mobile robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Reardon, Christopher; Parker, Lynne E

    2013-10-01

    The ability to perceive humans is an essential requirement for safe and efficient human-robot interaction. In real-world applications, the need for a robot to interact in real time with multiple humans in a dynamic, 3-D environment presents a significant challenge. The recent availability of commercial color-depth cameras allow for the creation of a system that makes use of the depth dimension, thus enabling a robot to observe its environment and perceive in the 3-D space. Here we present a system for 3-D multiple human perception in real time from a moving robot equipped with a color-depth camera and a consumer-grade computer. Our approach reduces computation time to achieve real-time performance through a unique combination of new ideas and established techniques. We remove the ground and ceiling planes from the 3-D point cloud input to separate candidate point clusters. We introduce the novel information concept, depth of interest, which we use to identify candidates for detection, and that avoids the computationally expensive scanning-window methods of other approaches. We utilize a cascade of detectors to distinguish humans from objects, in which we make intelligent reuse of intermediary features in successive detectors to improve computation. Because of the high computational cost of some methods, we represent our candidate tracking algorithm with a decision directed acyclic graph, which allows us to use the most computationally intense techniques only where necessary. We detail the successful implementation of our novel approach on a mobile robot and examine its performance in scenarios with real-world challenges, including occlusion, robot motion, nonupright humans, humans leaving and reentering the field of view (i.e., the reidentification challenge), human-object and human-human interaction. We conclude with the observation that the incorporation of the depth information, together with the use of modern techniques in new ways, we are able to create an

  15. Real-time multiple human perception with color-depth cameras on a mobile robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Reardon, Christopher; Parker, Lynne E

    2013-10-01

    The ability to perceive humans is an essential requirement for safe and efficient human-robot interaction. In real-world applications, the need for a robot to interact in real time with multiple humans in a dynamic, 3-D environment presents a significant challenge. The recent availability of commercial color-depth cameras allow for the creation of a system that makes use of the depth dimension, thus enabling a robot to observe its environment and perceive in the 3-D space. Here we present a system for 3-D multiple human perception in real time from a moving robot equipped with a color-depth camera and a consumer-grade computer. Our approach reduces computation time to achieve real-time performance through a unique combination of new ideas and established techniques. We remove the ground and ceiling planes from the 3-D point cloud input to separate candidate point clusters. We introduce the novel information concept, depth of interest, which we use to identify candidates for detection, and that avoids the computationally expensive scanning-window methods of other approaches. We utilize a cascade of detectors to distinguish humans from objects, in which we make intelligent reuse of intermediary features in successive detectors to improve computation. Because of the high computational cost of some methods, we represent our candidate tracking algorithm with a decision directed acyclic graph, which allows us to use the most computationally intense techniques only where necessary. We detail the successful implementation of our novel approach on a mobile robot and examine its performance in scenarios with real-world challenges, including occlusion, robot motion, nonupright humans, humans leaving and reentering the field of view (i.e., the reidentification challenge), human-object and human-human interaction. We conclude with the observation that the incorporation of the depth information, together with the use of modern techniques in new ways, we are able to create an

  16. The Human Placenta Project: placental structure, development, and function in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, A E; Maddox, Y T; Spong, C Y

    2014-05-01

    Despite its crucial role in the health of both the fetus and the pregnant woman, the placenta is the least understood human organ. Since a growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental development in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring, this lack of knowledge about placental structure and function is particularly concerning. Given modern approaches and technologies and the ability to develop new methods, we propose a coordinated "Human Placenta Project", with the ultimate goal of understanding human placental structure, development, and function in real time.

  17. Timing Behavior and Development: Comments on Some Animal and Human Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lejeune, Helga; Richelle, Marc

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses timing behavior as measured by Fixed (FI), Differential Reinforcement of Low rate (DRL) or Differential Reinforcement Response Duration (DRRD) performances, in humans and animals at different develop stages. Infants and rats display similar behavior patterns in FI and childhood on, humans develop species-specific behavior patterns in FI, which differ from those of animal species. However, DRL patterns do follow similar trends in animals and humans. These discrepancies and...

  18. Human factors in continuous time-concerned cooperative systems represented by NΣ-labeled calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya MIZUTANI; Shigeru IGARASH; Masayuki SHIO; Yasuwo IKEDA

    2008-01-01

    N-E-labeled calculus is a generalization of N-labeled calculus so as to describe time-concerned recog-nition, knowledge, belief and decision of humans or com-puter programs together with related external physical or logical phenomena. N-labeled calculus is the smallest for-mal system applicable to verification and analysis of coop-erative real-timing systems on natural number time introduced as an adaptation of tense arithmetic (TA). A merging problem of vehicles with misunderstanding or incorrect recognition is discussed as an example of coop-erating systems controlling continuously changing objects including human factor. Euler's approximation is intro-duced in order to represent the continuously changing objects. Through this example, relationship among arti-ficial intelligence, external environment and human fac-tors is investigated.

  19. WiFi-Based Real-Time Calibration-Free Passive Human Motion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liangyi; Yang, Wu; Man, Dapeng; Dong, Guozhong; Yu, Miao; Lv, Jiguang

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of WLAN technology, wireless device-free passive human detection becomes a newly-developing technique and holds more potential to worldwide and ubiquitous smart applications. Recently, indoor fine-grained device-free passive human motion detection based on the PHY layer information is rapidly developed. Previous wireless device-free passive human detection systems either rely on deploying specialized systems with dense transmitter-receiver links or elaborate off-line training process, which blocks rapid deployment and weakens system robustness. In the paper, we explore to research a novel fine-grained real-time calibration-free device-free passive human motion via physical layer information, which is independent of indoor scenarios and needs no prior-calibration and normal profile. We investigate sensitivities of amplitude and phase to human motion, and discover that phase feature is more sensitive to human motion, especially to slow human motion. Aiming at lightweight and robust device-free passive human motion detection, we develop two novel and practical schemes: short-term averaged variance ratio (SVR) and long-term averaged variance ratio (LVR). We realize system design with commercial WiFi devices and evaluate it in typical multipath-rich indoor scenarios. As demonstrated in the experiments, our approach can achieve a high detection rate and low false positive rate. PMID:26703612

  20. WiFi-Based Real-Time Calibration-Free Passive Human Motion Detection †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liangyi; Yang, Wu; Man, Dapeng; Dong, Guozhong; Yu, Miao; Lv, Jiguang

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of WLAN technology, wireless device-free passive human detection becomes a newly-developing technique and holds more potential to worldwide and ubiquitous smart applications. Recently, indoor fine-grained device-free passive human motion detection based on the PHY layer information is rapidly developed. Previous wireless device-free passive human detection systems either rely on deploying specialized systems with dense transmitter-receiver links or elaborate off-line training process, which blocks rapid deployment and weakens system robustness. In the paper, we explore to research a novel fine-grained real-time calibration-free device-free passive human motion via physical layer information, which is independent of indoor scenarios and needs no prior-calibration and normal profile. We investigate sensitivities of amplitude and phase to human motion, and discover that phase feature is more sensitive to human motion, especially to slow human motion. Aiming at lightweight and robust device-free passive human motion detection, we develop two novel and practical schemes: short-term averaged variance ratio (SVR) and long-term averaged variance ratio (LVR). We realize system design with commercial WiFi devices and evaluate it in typical multipath-rich indoor scenarios. As demonstrated in the experiments, our approach can achieve a high detection rate and low false positive rate. PMID:26703612

  1. WiFi-Based Real-Time Calibration-Free Passive Human Motion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyi Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of WLAN technology, wireless device-free passive human detection becomes a newly-developing technique and holds more potential to worldwide and ubiquitous smart applications. Recently, indoor fine-grained device-free passive human motion detection based on the PHY layer information is rapidly developed. Previous wireless device-free passive human detection systems either rely on deploying specialized systems with dense transmitter-receiver links or elaborate off-line training process, which blocks rapid deployment and weakens system robustness. In the paper, we explore to research a novel fine-grained real-time calibration-free device-free passive human motion via physical layer information, which is independent of indoor scenarios and needs no prior-calibration and normal profile. We investigate sensitivities of amplitude and phase to human motion, and discover that phase feature is more sensitive to human motion, especially to slow human motion. Aiming at lightweight and robust device-free passive human motion detection, we develop two novel and practical schemes: short-term averaged variance ratio (SVR and long-term averaged variance ratio (LVR. We realize system design with commercial WiFi devices and evaluate it in typical multipath-rich indoor scenarios. As demonstrated in the experiments, our approach can achieve a high detection rate and low false positive rate.

  2. An evolutionary genomic approach to identify genes involved in human birth timing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevon Plunkett

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Coordination of fetal maturation with birth timing is essential for mammalian reproduction. In humans, preterm birth is a disorder of profound global health significance. The signals initiating parturition in humans have remained elusive, due to divergence in physiological mechanisms between humans and model organisms typically studied. Because of relatively large human head size and narrow birth canal cross-sectional area compared to other primates, we hypothesized that genes involved in parturition would display accelerated evolution along the human and/or higher primate phylogenetic lineages to decrease the length of gestation and promote delivery of a smaller fetus that transits the birth canal more readily. Further, we tested whether current variation in such accelerated genes contributes to preterm birth risk. Evidence from allometric scaling of gestational age suggests human gestation has been shortened relative to other primates. Consistent with our hypothesis, many genes involved in reproduction show human acceleration in their coding or adjacent noncoding regions. We screened >8,400 SNPs in 150 human accelerated genes in 165 Finnish preterm and 163 control mothers for association with preterm birth. In this cohort, the most significant association was in FSHR, and 8 of the 10 most significant SNPs were in this gene. Further evidence for association of a linkage disequilibrium block of SNPs in FSHR, rs11686474, rs11680730, rs12473870, and rs1247381 was found in African Americans. By considering human acceleration, we identified a novel gene that may be associated with preterm birth, FSHR. We anticipate other human accelerated genes will similarly be associated with preterm birth risk and elucidate essential pathways for human parturition.

  3. Effects of a pretarget distractor on saccade reaction times across space and time in monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aarlenne Z; Munoz, Douglas P; Takahashi, Naomi; Blohm, Gunnar; McPeek, Robert M

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the influence of a behaviorally irrelevant distractor on saccade reaction times (SRTs) varies depending on the temporal and spatial relationship between the distractor and the saccade target. We measured distractor influence on SRTs to a subsequently presented target, varying the spatial location and the timing between the distractor and the target. The distractor appeared at one of four equally eccentric locations, followed by a target (either 50 ms or 200 ms after) at one of 136 different locations encompassing an area of 20° square. We extensively tested two humans and two monkeys on this task to determine interspecies similarities and differences, since monkey neurophysiology is often used to interpret human behavioral findings. Results were similar across species; for the short interval (50 ms), SRTs were shortest to a target presented close to or at the distractor location and increased primarily as a function of the distance from the distractor. There was also an effect of distractor-target direction and visual field. For the long interval (200 ms) the results were inverted; SRTs were longest for short distances between the distractor and target and decreased as a function of distance from distractor. Both SRT patterns were well captured by a two-dimensional dynamic field model with short-distance excitation and long-distance inhibition, based upon known functional connectivity found in the superior colliculus that includes wide-spread excitation and inhibition. Based on these findings, we posit that the different time-dependent patterns of distractor-related SRTs can emerge from the same underlying neuronal mechanisms common to both species.

  4. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R E; Fragola, J; Wreathall, J

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations.

  5. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations

  6. STABILITY AND BIFURCATION OF A HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM MODEL WITH TIME DELAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈启宏; 魏俊杰

    2004-01-01

    The stability and bifurcation of the trivial solution in the two-dimensional differential equation of a model describing human respiratory system with time delay were investigated. Formulas about the stability of bifurcating periodic solution and the direction of Hopf bifurcation were exhibited by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Furthermore, numerical simulation was carried out.

  7. Dating the time of birth: A radiocarbon calibration curve for human eye-lens crystallines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heinemeier, Jan; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2010-01-01

    Radiocarbon bomb-pulse dating has been used to measure the formation age of human eye-lens crystallines. Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye-lens that consist of virtually inert tissue. The experimental data show that the radiocarbon ages to a large extent reflect the time of birth...

  8. Real-time trace gas sensing of ethylene, propanal and acetaldehyde from human skin in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, B.W.M.; Steeghs, M.M.L.; Swam, K. van; Cristescu, S.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trace gases emitted by human skin in vivo are monitored non-invasively and in real time using laser-based photoacoustic detection and proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry. A small quartz cuvette is placed on the skin to create a headspace from which a carrier gas transports the skin emissions

  9. Interevent time distributions of human multi-level activity in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mryglod, O.; Fuchs, B.; Szell, M.; Holovatch, Yu.; Thurner, S.

    2015-02-01

    Studying human behavior in virtual environments provides extraordinary opportunities for a quantitative analysis of social phenomena with levels of accuracy that approach those of the natural sciences. In this paper we use records of player activities in the massive multiplayer online game Pardus over 1238 consecutive days, and analyze dynamical features of sequences of actions of players. We build on previous work where temporal structures of human actions of the same type were quantified, and provide an empirical understanding of human actions of different types. This study of multi-level human activity can be seen as a dynamic counterpart of static multiplex network analysis. We show that the interevent time distributions of actions in the Pardus universe follow highly non-trivial distribution functions, from which we extract action-type specific characteristic 'decay constants'. We discuss characteristic features of interevent time distributions, including periodic patterns on different time scales, bursty dynamics, and various functional forms on different time scales. We comment on gender differences of players in emotional actions, and find that while males and females act similarly when performing some positive actions, females are slightly faster for negative actions. We also observe effects on the age of players: more experienced players are generally faster in making decisions about engaging in and terminating enmity and friendship, respectively.

  10. Is the time right for in vitro neurotoxicity testing using human iPSC-derived neurons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukker, Anke M; de Groot, Martje W G D M; Wijnolts, Fiona M J; Kasteel, Emma E J; Hondebrink, Laura; Westerink, Remco H S

    2016-01-01

    Current neurotoxicity testing heavily relies on expensive, time consuming and ethically debated in vivo animal experiments that are unsuitable for screening large number of chemicals. Consequently, there is a clear need for (high-throughput) in vitro test strategies, preferably using human cells as this increases relevance and eliminates the need for interspecies translation. However, human stem cell-derived neurons used to date are not well characterised, require prolonged differentiation and are potentially subject to batch-to-batch variation, ethical concerns and country-specific legislations. Recently, a number of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons became commercially available that may circumvent these concerns. We therefore used immunofluorescent stainings to demonstrate that human iPSC-derived neurons from various suppliers form mixed neuronal cultures, consisting of different types of (excitatory and inhibitory) neurons. Using multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) recordings, we demonstrate that these human iPSC-derived cultures develop spontaneous neuronal activity over time, which can be modulated by different physiological, toxicological and pharmacological compounds. Additional single cell calcium imaging illustrates the presence of functional GABA, glutamate, and acetylcholine receptors as well as voltage-gated calcium channels. While human iPSC-derived neuronal cultures appear not yet suitable to fully replace the rat primary cortical model, our data indicate that these rapidly differentiating, commercially available human iPSC-derived neuronal cultures are already suitable for in vitro prioritisation and effect screening studies. Further characterisation and toxicological validation is now required to facilitate acceptance and large-scale implementation of these animal-free, physiologically-relevant human iPSC-based modelsfor future neurotoxicity testing. PMID:27010910

  11. Colonic transit time relates to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the human gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain;

    Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic...... transit time and the gut microbial composition and metabolism, we assessed the colonic transit time of 98 subjects using radiopaque markers, and profiled their gut microbiota by16S rRNA gene sequencingand their urine metabolome by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based...... on correlation analyses,we show that colonic transit time is associated with overall gutmicrobial composition, diversity and metabolism. A relatively prolonged colonic transit time associates with high microbial species richness and a shift in colonic metabolismfrom carbohydrate fermentation to protein...

  12. Time reversibility of intracranial human EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M. J.; Diks, C.; Pijn, J. P. M.; Velis, D. N.

    1996-02-01

    Intracranial electroencephalograms from patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were tested for time reversibility. If the recorded time series is irreversible, the input of the recording system cannot be a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. We confirmed experimentally that the measurement equipment did not introduce irreversibility in the recorded output when the input was a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. In general, the non-seizure recordings are reversible, whereas the seizure recordings are irreversible. These results suggest that time reversibility is a useful property for the characterisation of human intracranial EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  13. Phase-shifting human circadian rhythms: influence of sleep timing, social contact and light exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. F.; Kronauer, R. E.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. Both the timing of behavioural events (activity, sleep and social interactions) and the environmental light-dark cycle have been reported to contribute to entrainment of human circadian rhythms to the 24 h day. Yet, the relative contribution of those putative behavioural synchronizers to that of light exposure remains unclear. 2. To investigate this, we inverted the schedule of rest, sedentary activity and social contact of thirty-two young men either with or without exposure to bright light. 3. On this inverted schedule, the endogenous component of the core temperature rhythm of subjects who were exposed to bright light showed a significant phase shift, demonstrating that they were adapting to the new schedule. In contrast, the core temperature rhythm of subjects who were not exposed to bright light moved on average 0.2 h later per day and after 10 days had not significantly adapted to the new schedule. 4. The direction of phase shift in the groups exposed to bright light was dependent on the time of bright light exposure, while control subjects drifted to a later hour regardless of the timing of their schedule of sleep timing, social contact and meals. 5. These results support the concept that the light-dark cycle is the most important synchronizer of the human circadian system. They suggest that inversion of the sleep-wake, rest-activity and social contact cycles provides relatively minimal drive for resetting the human circadian pacemaker. 6. These data indicate that interventions designed to phase shift human circadian rhythms for adjustment to time zone changes or altered work schedules should focus on properly timed light exposure.

  14. Real-time face and gesture analysis for human-robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhoff, Frank; Rehrl, Tobias; Mayer, Christoph; Radig, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Human communication relies on a large number of different communication mechanisms like spoken language, facial expressions, or gestures. Facial expressions and gestures are one of the main nonverbal communication mechanisms and pass large amounts of information between human dialog partners. Therefore, to allow for intuitive human-machine interaction, a real-time capable processing and recognition of facial expressions, hand and head gestures are of great importance. We present a system that is tackling these challenges. The input features for the dynamic head gestures and facial expressions are obtained from a sophisticated three-dimensional model, which is fitted to the user in a real-time capable manner. Applying this model different kinds of information are extracted from the image data and afterwards handed over to a real-time capable data-transferring framework, the so-called Real-Time DataBase (RTDB). In addition to the head and facial-related features, also low-level image features regarding the human hand - optical flow, Hu-moments are stored into the RTDB for the evaluation process of hand gestures. In general, the input of a single camera is sufficient for the parallel evaluation of the different gestures and facial expressions. The real-time capable recognition of the dynamic hand and head gestures are performed via different Hidden Markov Models, which have proven to be a quick and real-time capable classification method. On the other hand, for the facial expressions classical decision trees or more sophisticated support vector machines are used for the classification process. These obtained results of the classification processes are again handed over to the RTDB, where other processes (like a Dialog Management Unit) can easily access them without any blocking effects. In addition, an adjustable amount of history can be stored by the RTDB buffer unit.

  15. Continuous, real-time bioimaging of chemical bioavailability and toxicology using autonomously bioluminescent human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan M.; Webb, James D.; Price, Sarah L.; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2013-05-01

    Bioluminescent imaging is an emerging biomedical surveillance strategy that uses external cameras to detect in vivo light generated in small animal models of human physiology or in vitro light generated in tissue culture or tissue scaffold mimics of human anatomy. The most widely utilized of reporters is the firefly luciferase (luc) gene; however, it generates light only upon addition of a chemical substrate, thus only generating intermittent single time point data snapshots. To overcome this disadvantage, we have demonstrated substrate-independent bioluminescent imaging using an optimized bacterial bioluminescence (lux) system. The lux reporter produces bioluminescence autonomously using components found naturally within the cell, thereby allowing imaging to occur continuously and in real-time over the lifetime of the host. We have validated this technology in human cells with demonstrated chemical toxicological profiling against exotoxin exposures at signal strengths comparable to existing luc systems (~1.33 × 107 photons/second). As a proof-in-principle demonstration, we have engineered breast carcinoma cells to express bioluminescence for real-time screening of endocrine disrupting chemicals and validated detection of 17β-estradiol (EC50 = ~ 10 pM). These and other applications of this new reporter technology will be discussed as potential new pathways towards improved models of target chemical bioavailability, toxicology, efficacy, and human safety.

  16. A remote compact sensor for the real-time monitoring of human heartbeat and respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung Han Choi; Dong Kyun Kim

    2009-06-01

    A remote compact sensor system for the detection of human vital signs (heartbeat and respiration rate) is presented. The frequency band of 24 GHz is employed for remote sensing. For the compact size, the developed sensor uses a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave with a single antenna. The sensor system is composed of radio-frequency circuits, a signal conditioning block, a data-acquisition unit, and a signal-processing part. The peak detection of the power spectral density with a tracking algorithm is utilized for the real-time detection of human vital signs. The measurement result is compared with the commercial fingertip sensor. The comparison result shows excellent agreement. PMID:23853219

  17. Circadian variation of the human metabolome captured by real-time breath analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martinez-Lozano Sinues

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks play a significant role in the correct timing of physiological metabolism, and clock disruption might lead to pathological changes of metabolism. One interesting method to assess the current state of metabolism is metabolomics. Metabolomics tries to capture the entirety of small molecules, i.e. the building blocks of metabolism, in a given matrix, such as blood, saliva or urine. Using mass spectrometric approaches we and others have shown that a significant portion of the human metabolome in saliva and blood exhibits circadian modulation; independent of food intake or sleep/wake rhythms. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have introduced completely non-invasive breathprinting; a method to instantaneously assess small metabolites in human breath. In this proof-of-principle study, we extend these findings about the impact of circadian clocks on metabolomics to exhaled breath. As previously established, our method allows for real-time analysis of a rich matrix during frequent non-invasive sampling. We sampled the breath of three healthy, non-smoking human volunteers in hourly intervals for 24 hours during total sleep deprivation, and found 111 features in the breath of all individuals, 36-49% of which showed significant circadian variation in at least one individual. Our data suggest that real-time mass spectrometric "breathprinting" has high potential to become a useful tool to understand circadian metabolism, and develop new biomarkers to easily and in real-time assess circadian clock phase and function in experimental and clinical settings.

  18. Impact of ethanol, dry care and human milk on the time for umbilical cord separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the extraction time and infection rate of umbilical cord by applying ethanol, human milk or dry care. Method: The parallel single-blinded randomised clinical trial was performed on 300 neonates at Shahid Sadougi University of Medical Sciences and Health Service, Yazd, Iran, between March and September 2010. The neonates were divided into three random but numerically equal groups. Each group was assigned the application of ethanol or mother's milk or to keep the stump dry. The neonates were visited on the 3rd and the 7th day after birth and follow-up was maintained telephonically until umbilical separation. Umbilical separation time and umbilical local infection frequency were considered as the study outcome, which was compared among the three groups according to age, gender and delivery type of the neonates. Results: Umbilical separation time in neonates of the human milk group had significant difference with the ethanol group (p=0.0001) and drying groups (p=0.003). Frequency of omphalitis had no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion: Topical usage of human milk on umbilical cord stamp decreased separation time and incidence rate of omphalitis. (author)

  19. Tolerance of disturbance by humans in long-time resident and recent colonist urban doves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jemma; Gendall; Alan; Lill; Juliey; Beckman

    2015-01-01

    Background: A critical trait for successful urban dwelling by birds is the ability to tolerate high levels of disturbing stimulation by humans. If such tolerance is partly acquired gradually after colonization, species with a long history of residence in cities are likely to be more tolerant of such stimulation than recent urban colonists, but this has not often been tested.Methods: We tested whether introduced Rock(Columba livia) and Spotted(Streptopelis chinensis) Doves, historically long-term residents of Melbourne, Australia, were more tolerant of disturbance by humans than the very recent colonist, the native Crested Pigeon(Ochyphaps lophotes) by comparing the Flight Initiation Distances(FID) and time allocations to vigilance during foraging of all three species in urban Melbourne. That all three species are members of the Columbiformes reduces the possibility that any species differences in tolerance are simply phylogenetic in origin.Results: Flight initiation distance was shorter in Rock Doves than in the other two species, which did not differ in approachability by a human. Rock Doves retreated from an approaching human mainly by walking a relatively short distance, Crested Pigeons mainly by running a relatively short distance and Spotted Doves primarily by flying a comparatively long distance. The time allocation to anti-predator vigilance of Rock Doves was smaller than that of the other two species, whose allocations were similar.Conclusions: The very recent colonist of eastern Melbourne, the Crested Pigeon, was not the least tolerant of disturbance by humans of the three related species. Natural selection for tolerance therefore probably cannot entirely explain the pattern of tolerance evident among these urban dove species and behavioural flexibility is probably involved. Length of residency in a city is not an infallible guide to a species’ level of tolerance of disturbance by humans.

  20. Tolerance of disturbance by humans in long-time resident and recent colonist urban doves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jemma Gendall; Alan Lill; Juliey Beckman

    2015-01-01

    Background:A critical trait for successful urban dwelling by birds is the ability to tolerate high levels of disturbing stimulation by humans. If such tolerance is partly acquired gradually after colonization, species with a long history of residence in cities are likely to be more tolerant of such stimulation than recent urban colonists, but this has not often been tested. Methods:We tested whether introduced Rock (Columba livia) and Spotted (Streptopelis chinensis) Doves, historically long-term residents of Melbourne, Australia, were more tolerant of disturbance by humans than the very recent colonist, the native Crested Pigeon (Ochyphaps lophotes) by comparing the Flight Initiation Distances (FID) and time allocations to vigilance during foraging of all three species in urban Melbourne. That al three species are members of the Columbiformes reduces the possibility that any species differences in tolerance are simply phylogenetic in origin. Results:Flight initiation distance was shorter in Rock Doves than in the other two species, which did not differ in approachability by a human. Rock Doves retreated from an approaching human mainly by walking a relatively short distance, Crested Pigeons mainly by running a relatively short distance and Spotted Doves primarily by flying a comparatively long distance. The time allocation to anti-predator vigilance of Rock Doves was smaller than that of the other two species, whose allocations were similar. Conclusions:The very recent colonist of eastern Melbourne, the Crested Pigeon, was not the least tolerant of disturbance by humans of the three related species. Natural selection for tolerance therefore probably cannot entirely explain the pattern of tolerance evident among these urban dove species and behavioural flexibility is probably involved. Length of residency in a city is not an infallible guide to a species’ level of tolerance of disturbance by humans.

  1. A Novel Bioinspired Vision System: A Step toward Real-Time Human-Robot Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Hafiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a human-like robot that could be involved in our daily lives is a dream of many scientists. Achieving a sophisticated robot's vision system, which can enhance the robot's real-time interaction ability with the human, is one of the main keys toward realizing such an autonomous robot. In this work, we are suggesting a bioinspired vision system that helps to develop an advanced human-robot interaction in an autonomous humanoid robot. First, we enhance the robot's vision accuracy online by applying a novel dynamic edge detection algorithm abstracted from the rules that the horizontal cells play in the mammalian retina. Second, in order to support the first algorithm, we improve the robot's tracking ability by designing a variant photoreceptors distribution corresponding to what exists in the human vision system. The experimental results verified the validity of the model. The robot could have a clear vision in real time and build a mental map that assisted it to be aware of the frontal users and to develop a positive interaction with them.

  2. Evidence for a time-invariant phase variable in human ankle control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Gregg

    Full Text Available Human locomotion is a rhythmic task in which patterns of muscle activity are modulated by state-dependent feedback to accommodate perturbations. Two popular theories have been proposed for the underlying embodiment of phase in the human pattern generator: a time-dependent internal representation or a time-invariant feedback representation (i.e., reflex mechanisms. In either case the neuromuscular system must update or represent the phase of locomotor patterns based on the system state, which can include measurements of hundreds of variables. However, a much simpler representation of phase has emerged in recent designs for legged robots, which control joint patterns as functions of a single monotonic mechanical variable, termed a phase variable. We propose that human joint patterns may similarly depend on a physical phase variable, specifically the heel-to-toe movement of the Center of Pressure under the foot. We found that when the ankle is unexpectedly rotated to a position it would have encountered later in the step, the Center of Pressure also shifts forward to the corresponding later position, and the remaining portion of the gait pattern ensues. This phase shift suggests that the progression of the stance ankle is controlled by a biomechanical phase variable, motivating future investigations of phase variables in human locomotor control.

  3. Amplified Immunoassay of Human IgG Using Real-time Biomolecular Interaction Analysis (BIA) Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI,Ren-Jun(裴仁军); CUI,Xiao-Qiang(崔小强); YANG,Xiu-Rong(杨秀荣); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    An automated biomolecular interaction analysis instrument (BIAcore) based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been used to determine human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in real time. Polyclonal anti-human IgG antibody was covalently immobilized to a carboxymethyldextran-modified gold film surface. The samples of human IgG prepared in HBS buffer were poured over the immobilized surface. The signal amplification antibody was applied to amplify the response signal. After each measurement, the surface was regenerated with 0.1 mol/L H3PO4. The assay was rapid, requiring only 30 min for antibody immobilization and 20 min for each subsequent process of immune binding, antibody amplification and regeneration. The antibody immobilized surface had good response to human IgG in the range of 0.12-60 nmol/L with a detection limit of 60 pmoL/L. The same antibody immobilized surface could be used for more than 110 cycles of binding, amplificafion and regeneration. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of amplified immunoassay using real-time BIA technology are satisfactory.

  4. Developing a Crew Time Model for Human Exploration Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Shyface, Hilary; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2015-01-01

    Candidate human missions to Mars require mission lengths that could extend beyond those that have previously been demonstrated during crewed Lunar (Apollo) and International Space Station (ISS) missions. The nature of the architectures required for deep space human exploration will likely necessitate major changes in how crews operate and maintain the spacecraft. The uncertainties associated with these shifts in mission constructs - including changes to habitation systems, transit durations, and system operations - raise concerns as to the ability of the crew to complete required overhead activities while still having time to conduct a set of robust exploration activities. This paper will present an initial assessment of crew operational requirements for human missions to the Mars surface. The presented results integrate assessments of crew habitation, system maintenance, and utilization to present a comprehensive analysis of potential crew time usage. Destination operations were assessed for a short (approx. 50 day) and long duration (approx. 500 day) surface habitation case. Crew time allocations are broken out by mission segment, and the availability of utilization opportunities was evaluated throughout the entire mission progression. To support this assessment, the integrated crew operations model (ICOM) was developed. ICOM was used to parse overhead, maintenance and system repair, and destination operations requirements within each mission segment - outbound transit, Mars surface duration, and return transit - to develop a comprehensive estimation of exploration crew time allocations. Overhead operational requirements included daily crew operations, health maintenance activities, and down time. Maintenance and repair operational allocations are derived using the Exploration Maintainability and Analysis Tool (EMAT) to develop a probabilistic estimation of crew repair time necessary to maintain systems functionality throughout the mission.

  5. Optimal time for human umbilical cord blood cell transplantation in rats with myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yun-li; SHEN Lu-hua; LI Hong-wei; ZHANG Yu-chen; ZHAO Lin; ZHAO Shu-mei; XU Qing

    2009-01-01

    Background Cell therapy for cardiac regeneration is still under investigation. To date there have been a limited number of studies describing the optimal time for cell injection. The present study aimed to examine the optimal time for human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) transplantation after myocardial infarction (MI).Methods The animals underwent MI by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and received an intravenous injection of equal volumes of HUCBCs or phosphate buffered saline at days 1,5,10 and 30 after MI. HUCBCs were detected by immunostaining against human human leucocyte antigen (HLA). Cardiac function, histological analysis and measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were performed 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Results HUCBCs transplantation could improve cardiac function in rats that received transplantation at 5 and 10 days after MI. The best benefit was achieved in rats that received cells at 10-day after MI. Survival of engrafted HUCBCs, angiogenesis and VEGF expression were more obvious in the 10-day transplantation group than in the other transplantation groups. No evidence of cardiomyocyte regeneration was detected in any transplanted rats. Conclusions HUCBCs transplantation could improve cardiac function in rats that received HUCBCs at days 5 and 10 after MI with the optimal time for transplantation being 10 days post MI. Angiogenesis, but not cardiomyocyte regeneration, played a key role in the cardiac function improvement.

  6. UWB micro-doppler radar for human gait analysis using joint range-time-frequency representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazhou; Fathy, Aly E.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel, standalone ultra wideband (UWB) micro-Doppler radar sensor that goes beyond simple range or micro-Doppler detection to combined range-time-Doppler frequency analysis. Moreover, it can monitor more than one human object in both line-of-sight (LOS) and through wall scenarios, thus have full human objects tracking capabilities. The unique radar design is based on narrow pulse transceiver, high speed data acquisition module, and wideband antenna array. For advanced radar post-data processing, joint range-time-frequency representation has been performed. Characteristics of human walking activity have been analyzed using the radar sensor by precisely tracking the radar object and acquiring range-time-Doppler information simultaneously. The UWB micro-Doppler radar prototype is capable of detecting Doppler frequency range from -180 Hz to +180 Hz, which allows a maximum target velocity of 9 m/s. The developed radar sensor can also be extended for many other applications, such as respiration and heartbeat detection of trapped survivors under building debris.

  7. Gene expression time course in the human skin during elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil;

    2007-01-01

    to be differentially expressed in the patients over time revealed that the patient samples may be categorized into two groups: an early time-point group (no clinical reaction) and a late time-point group (clinical reaction). Bioinformatics analyses unraveled the potential involvement of signal transducers......Genes involved in the inflammatory response resulting in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are only partly known. In this study, we introduce the use of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling in human skin during the elicitation of ACD. Skin biopsies from normal...... and nickel-exposed skin were obtained from seven nickel-allergic patients and five nonallergic controls at four different time points during elicitation of eczema. Each gene expression profile was analyzed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Cluster analysis of 74 genes found...

  8. Quantifying the Human Impacts on Papua New Guinea Reef Fish Communities across Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Joshua A; Amatangelo, Kathryn L; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    Describing the drivers of species loss and of community change are important goals in both conservation and ecology. However, it is difficult to determine whether exploited species decline due to direct effects of harvesting or due to other environmental perturbations brought about by proximity to human populations. Here we quantify differences in species richness of coral reef fish communities along a human population gradient in Papua New Guinea to understand the relative impacts of fishing and environmental perturbation. Using data from published species lists we categorize the reef fishes as either fished or non-fished based on their body size and reports from the published literature. Species diversity for both fished and non-fished groups decreases as the size of the local human population increases, and this relationship is stronger in species that are fished. Additionally, comparison of modern and museum collections show that modern reef communities have proportionally fewer fished species relative to 19th century ones. Together these findings show that the reef fish communities of Papua New Guinea experience multiple anthropogenic stressors and that even at low human population levels targeted species experience population declines across both time and space.

  9. Quantifying the Human Impacts on Papua New Guinea Reef Fish Communities across Space and Time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A Drew

    Full Text Available Describing the drivers of species loss and of community change are important goals in both conservation and ecology. However, it is difficult to determine whether exploited species decline due to direct effects of harvesting or due to other environmental perturbations brought about by proximity to human populations. Here we quantify differences in species richness of coral reef fish communities along a human population gradient in Papua New Guinea to understand the relative impacts of fishing and environmental perturbation. Using data from published species lists we categorize the reef fishes as either fished or non-fished based on their body size and reports from the published literature. Species diversity for both fished and non-fished groups decreases as the size of the local human population increases, and this relationship is stronger in species that are fished. Additionally, comparison of modern and museum collections show that modern reef communities have proportionally fewer fished species relative to 19th century ones. Together these findings show that the reef fish communities of Papua New Guinea experience multiple anthropogenic stressors and that even at low human population levels targeted species experience population declines across both time and space.

  10. Enhanced homology-directed human genome engineering by controlled timing of CRISPR/Cas9 delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven; Staahl, Brett T; Alla, Ravi K; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-12-15

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a robust genome editing technology that works in human cells, animals and plants based on the RNA-programmed DNA cleaving activity of the Cas9 enzyme. Building on previous work (Jinek et al., 2013), we show here that new genetic information can be introduced site-specifically and with high efficiency by homology-directed repair (HDR) of Cas9-induced site-specific double-strand DNA breaks using timed delivery of Cas9-guide RNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Cas9 RNP-mediated HDR in HEK293T, human primary neonatal fibroblast and human embryonic stem cells was increased dramatically relative to experiments in unsynchronized cells, with rates of HDR up to 38% observed in HEK293T cells. Sequencing of on- and potential off-target sites showed that editing occurred with high fidelity, while cell mortality was minimized. This approach provides a simple and highly effective strategy for enhancing site-specific genome engineering in both transformed and primary human cells.

  11. DNA methylation dynamics in human induced pluripotent stem cells over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Nishino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic reprogramming is a critical event in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Here, we determined the DNA methylation profiles of 22 human iPSC lines derived from five different cell types (human endometrium, placental artery endothelium, amnion, fetal lung fibroblast, and menstrual blood cell and five human embryonic stem cell (ESC lines, and we followed the aberrant methylation sites in iPSCs for up to 42 weeks. The iPSCs exhibited distinct epigenetic differences from ESCs, which were caused by aberrant methylation at early passages. Multiple appearances and then disappearances of random aberrant methylation were detected throughout iPSC reprogramming. Continuous passaging of the iPSCs diminished the differences between iPSCs and ESCs, implying that iPSCs lose the characteristics inherited from the parent cells and adapt to very closely resemble ESCs over time. Human iPSCs were gradually reprogrammed through the "convergence" of aberrant hyper-methylation events that continuously appeared in a de novo manner. This iPS reprogramming consisted of stochastic de novo methylation and selection/fixation of methylation in an environment suitable for ESCs. Taken together, random methylation and convergence are driving forces for long-term reprogramming of iPSCs to ESCs.

  12. The impact of communication on human behaviour in times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrew

    Decision makers have constantly sought to find the most appropriate ways to use communication to influence behaviour during times of crises to assist in their recovery. This paper will investigate why policy makers wish to utilise effective crisis communications and explore the importance of crisis communication on influencing human behaviour in a time of crisis as well as the influence that the medium of communication can have. It will be noted that the medium of the message is important to ensure that the correct audience has been reached. This paper will suggest that, for decision makers to maximise the impact of crisis communications during a crisis, they must utilise rhetoric and cognitive response theory. It will also be suggested that the most importance factor in influencing behaviour in a time of crisis is that communications are provided from a credible source and are empathic in nature.

  13. Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Dando, Robin; Huang, Y Anthony; Berggren, Per-Olof; Roper, Stephen D; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2012-05-03

    Neurons, sensory cells and endocrine cells secrete neurotransmitters and hormones to communicate with other cells and to coordinate organ and system function. Validation that a substance is used as an extracellular signaling molecule by a given cell requires a direct demonstration of its secretion. In this protocol we describe the use of biosensor cells to detect neurotransmitter release from endocrine cells in real-time. Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor M3 were used as ACh biosensors to record ACh release from human pancreatic islets. We show how ACh biosensors loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator Fura-2 and pressed against isolated human pancreatic islets allow the detection of ACh release. The biosensor approach is simple; the Ca(2+) signal generated in the biosensor cell reflects the presence (release) of a neurotransmitter. The technique is versatile because biosensor cells expressing a variety of receptors can be used in many applications. The protocol takes ∼3 h.

  14. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughton, Christian G., E-mail: daughton.christian@epa.gov

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disciplines, including medicine, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and environmental science. Accurate measures of human populations are fundamental to numerous disciplines, including economics, marketing, politics, sociology, public health and safety (e.g., disease management; assessment of natural hazards; disaster prevention and response), quality of life, and the environment. Knowing the size, distribution, and flow of a small-area (local) population facilitates understanding the numerous and complex linkages and interactions between humans and the environment. Examples include material-flow (substance-flow) analysis, determining the magnitude of per capita contribution of pollutant loadings to watersheds, or forecasting future impacts of local populations on the environment or a population's demands on resources. While no definitive approach exists for measuring small-area populations, census-taking is a long-established convention. No approach exists, however, for gauging small-area populations in real-time, as none is able to capture population dynamics, which involve transient changes (e.g., daily influx and efflux) and lasting changes (e.g., births, deaths, change in residence). Accurate measurement of small-area populations in real time has never been possible but is essential for facilitating the design of more sustainable communities. Real-time measurement would provide communities the capability of testing what-if scenarios in design and policy decisions. After evaluation of a range of biomarkers (including the nitrogenous waste product creatinine, which has been long used in clinical chemistry as a parameter to normalize the concentrations of other urinary excretion products to

  15. Human hippocampus represents space and time during retrieval of real-world memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dylan M; Smith, Troy A; Sreekumar, Vishnu; Dennis, Simon; Sederberg, Per B

    2015-09-01

    Memory stretches over a lifetime. In controlled laboratory settings, the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe brain structures have been shown to represent space and time on the scale of meters and seconds. It remains unclear whether the hippocampus also represents space and time over the longer scales necessary for human episodic memory. We recorded neural activity while participants relived their own experiences, cued by photographs taken with a custom lifelogging device. We found that the left anterior hippocampus represents space and time for a month of remembered events occurring over distances of up to 30 km. Although previous studies have identified similar drifts in representational similarity across space or time over the relatively brief time scales (seconds to minutes) that characterize individual episodic memories, our results provide compelling evidence that a similar pattern of spatiotemporal organization also exists for organizing distinct memories that are distant in space and time. These results further support the emerging view that the anterior, as opposed to posterior, hippocampus integrates distinct experiences, thereby providing a scaffold for encoding and retrieval of autobiographical memories on the scale of our lives.

  16. Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Bocavirus in Human Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Olsen, Sonja J.; Mackay, Ian M.; Sloots, Theo P.; Fry, Alicia M.; Erdman, Dean D.

    2006-01-01

    The recently discovered human bocavirus (HBoV) is the first member of the family Parvoviridae, genus Bocavirus, to be potentially associated with human disease. Several studies have identified HBoV in respiratory specimens from children with acute respiratory disease, but the full spectrum of clinical disease and the epidemiology of HBoV infection remain unclear. The availability of rapid and reliable molecular diagnostics would therefore aid future studies of this novel virus. To address this, we developed two sensitive and specific real-time TaqMan PCR assays that target the HBoV NS1 and NP-1 genes. Both assays could reproducibly detect 10 copies of a recombinant DNA plasmid containing a partial region of the HBoV genome, with a dynamic range of 8 log units (101 to 108 copies). Eight blinded clinical specimen extracts positive for HBoV by an independent PCR assay were positive by both real-time assays. Among 1,178 NP swabs collected from hospitalized pneumonia patients in Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand, 53 (4.5%) were reproducibly positive for HBoV by one or both targets. Our data confirm the possible association of HBoV infection with pneumonia and demonstrate the utility of these real-time PCR assays for HBoV detection. PMID:16954253

  17. Dynamic engagement of human motion detectors across space-time coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Peter

    2014-06-18

    Motion detection is a fundamental property of the visual system. The gold standard for studying and understanding this function is the motion energy model. This computational tool relies on spatiotemporally selective filters that capture the change in spatial position over time afforded by moving objects. Although the filters are defined in space-time, their human counterparts have never been studied in their native spatiotemporal space but rather in the corresponding frequency domain. When this frequency description is back-projected to spatiotemporal description, not all characteristics of the underlying process are retained, leaving open the possibility that important properties of human motion detection may have remained unexplored. We derived descriptors of motion detectors in native space-time, and discovered a large unexpected dynamic structure involving a >2× change in detector amplitude over the first ∼100 ms. This property is not predicted by the energy model, generalizes across the visual field, and is robust to adaptation; however, it is silenced by surround inhibition and is contrast dependent. We account for all results by extending the motion energy model to incorporate a small network that supports feedforward spread of activation along the motion trajectory via a simple gain-control circuit. PMID:24948800

  18. Physiological and Molecular Genetic Effects of Time-Varying Electromagnetic Fields on Human Neuronal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    The present investigation details the development of model systems for growing two- and three-dimensional human neural progenitor cells within a culture medium facilitated by a time-varying electromagnetic field (TVEMF). The cells and culture medium are contained within a two- or three-dimensional culture vessel, and the electromagnetic field is emitted from an electrode or coil. These studies further provide methods to promote neural tissue regeneration by means of culturing the neural cells in either configuration. Grown in two dimensions, neuronal cells extended longitudinally, forming tissue strands extending axially along and within electrodes comprising electrically conductive channels or guides through which a time-varying electrical current was conducted. In the three-dimensional aspect, exposure to TVEMF resulted in the development of three-dimensional aggregates, which emulated organized neural tissues. In both experimental configurations, the proliferation rate of the TVEMF cells was 2.5 to 4.0 times the rate of the non-waveform cells. Each of the experimental embodiments resulted in similar molecular genetic changes regarding the growth potential of the tissues as measured by gene chip analyses, which measured more than 10,000 human genes simultaneously.

  19. Human Activity Recognition in Real-Times Environments using Skeleton Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, we proposed a most effective noble approach for Human activity recognition in real-time environments. We recognize several distinct dynamic human activity actions using kinect. A 3D skeleton data is processed from real-time video gesture to sequence of frames and getter skeleton joints (Energy Joints, orientation, rotations of joint angles from selected setof frames. We are using joint angle and orientations, rotations information from Kinect therefore less computation required. However, after extracting the set of frames we implemented several classification techniques Principal Component Analysis (PCA with several distance based classifiers and Artificial Neural Network (ANN respectively with some variants for classify our all different gesture models. However, we conclude that use very less number of frame (10-15% for train our system efficiently from the entire set of gesture frames. Moreover, after successfully completion of our classification methods we clinch an excellent overall accuracy 94%, 96% and 98% respectively. We finally observe that our proposed system is more useful than comparing to other existing system, therefore our model is best suitable for real-time application such as in video games for player action/gesture recognition.

  20. Cleaning time and fate of phosphoric acid as conditioning agent on human dental enamel and dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the cleaning time and fate of phosphoric acid on human dental enamel and dentin have been investigated, using the radioactive tracer technique with 32P as an indicator of phosphorus. Twenty seconds were found to be sufficient for cleaning the enamel from phosphoric acid used for conditioning, and from formulations produced from its interaction with enamel. It was also found that dentin protection is necessary before conditioning with phosphoric acid due to the retention penetration of the latter through subsurface dentinal tubules. In addition, there seems to be an interaction between phosphoric acid and Ca(OH)2 leading to the formation of a sparingly soluble compound. (author)

  1. Detection of human parvovirus B19 in cancer patients using ELISA and real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Parvovirus B19 (B19) is associated with a wide range of diseases in humans, whose severity depends on the immunological and haematological status of the host. Objective: To determine the incidence of B19 DNA and specific IgM and IgG frequency among patients suffering from different haematological malignancies and to determine the viral load using real-time PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 patients were included in the study, in addition to a control group consisting of 20 ap...

  2. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

    2007-07-09

    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  3. Real-time Human Pose Estimation from Video with Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Linna, Marko; Kannala, Juho; Rahtu, Esa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for real-time multi-person human pose estimation from video by utilizing convolutional neural networks. Our method is aimed for use case specific applications, where good accuracy is essential and variation of the background and poses is limited. This enables us to use a generic network architecture, which is both accurate and fast. We divide the problem into two phases: (1) pre-training and (2) finetuning. In pre-training, the network is learned with highly...

  4. Replication Timing of Human Telomeres is Conserved during Immortalization and Influenced by Respective Subtelomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueret-Stephan, Laure; Ricoul, Michelle; Hempel, William M; Sabatier, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are specific structures that protect chromosome ends and act as a biological clock, preventing normal cells from replicating indefinitely. Mammalian telomeres are replicated throughout S-phase in a predetermined order. However, the mechanism of this regulation is still unknown. We wished to investigate this phenomenon under physiological conditions in a changing environment, such as the immortalization process to better understand the mechanism for its control. We thus examined the timing of human telomere replication in normal and SV40 immortalized cells, which are cytogenetically very similar to cancer cells. We found that the timing of telomere replication was globally conserved under different conditions during the immortalization process. The timing of telomere replication was conserved despite changes in telomere length due to endogenous telomerase reactivation, in duplicated homologous chromosomes, and in rearranged chromosomes. Importantly, translocated telomeres, possessing their initial subtelomere, retained the replication timing of their homolog, independently of the proportion of the translocated arm, even when the remaining flanking DNA is restricted to its subtelomere, the closest chromosome-specific sequences (inferior to 500 kb). Our observations support the notion that subtelomere regions strongly influence the replication timing of the associated telomere. PMID:27587191

  5. Real-time algorithms for human versus animal classification using a pyroelectric sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Jakir; Jacobs, Eddie; Chari, Srikant

    2013-06-01

    Classification of human and animal targets imaged by a linear pyroelectic array senor presents some unique challenges especially in target segmentation and feature extraction. In this paper, we apply two approaches to address this problem. Both techniques start with the variational energy functional level set segmentation technique to separate the object from background. After segmentation, in the first technique, we extract features such as texture, invariant moments, edge, shape information, and spectral contents of the segmented object. These features are fed to classifiers including Naïve Bayesian (NB), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for human against animal classification. In the second technique, the speeded up robust feature (SURF) extraction algorithm is applied to the segmented objects. A code book technique is used to classify objects based on SURF features. Human and animal data acquired-using the pyroelectric sensor in different terrains, are used for performance evaluation of the algorithms. The evaluation indicates that the features extracted in the first technique in conjunction with the NB classifier provide the highest classification rates. While the SURF feature plus code book approach provides a slightly lower classification rate, it provides better computational efficiency lending itself to real time implementation.

  6. An ultrasensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of human epidermal growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, K; Alfthan, H; Stenman, U H; Viinikka, L; Perheentupa, J

    1986-09-01

    We have developed a sandwich-type time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TR-IFMA) for human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) in body fluids. A two-step solid-phase technique was used. The assay utilizes a polyclonal anti-hEGF attached to the solid phase, and a monoclonal anti-hEGF labeled with Europium (III) as a tracer. The sensitivity of the assay (2.5 pg/ml) is at least 20 times better than what has been achieved by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the measuring range is much wider: 2.5-5000 pg/ml. The feasibility of TR-IFMA was tested by assaying urine containing large amounts and amniotic fluid containing small amounts (mostly undetectable by RIA) of immunoreactive hEGF. The correlation between urine hEGF concentrations (1-100 ng/ml) measured by RIA and TR-IFMA was good: r = 0.96.

  7. Steady state and time-resolved autofluorescence studies of human colonic tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Buhong Li; Zhenxi Zhang; Shusen Xie

    2006-01-01

    Steady state and time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopies are employed to study the autofluorescence characteristics of human colonic tissues in vitro. The excitation wavelength varies from 260 to 540 nm, and the corresponding fluorescence emission spectra are acquired from 280 to 800 nm. Significant difference in fluorescence intensity of excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) is observed between normal and tumor colonic tissues. Compared with normal colonic tissue, low nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and high amino acids and protoporphyrin Ⅸ (PpⅨ) fluorescences characterize high-grade malignant tissue. Moreover, the autofluorescence lifetimes of normal and carcinomatous colonic tissues at 635 nm under 397-nm excitation are about 4.32±0.12 and 18.45±0.05 ns, respectively. The high accumulation of endogenous PpⅨ in colonic cancers is demonstrated in both steady state and time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopies.

  8. Distortion effects in a switch array UWB radar for time-lapse imaging of human heartbeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Aardal, Åyvind; Lande, Tor S.; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of deaths all over the world. Microwave radar can be an alternative sensor for heart diagnostics and monitoring in modern healthcare that aids early detection of CVD symptoms. In this paper measurements from a switch array radar system are presented. This UWB system operates below 3 GHz and does time-lapse imaging of the beating heart inside the human body. The array consists of eight fat dipole elements. With a switch system, every possible sequence of transmit/receive element pairs can be selected to build a radar image from the recordings. To make the radar waves penetrate the human tissue, the antenna array is placed in contact with the body. Removal of the direct signal leakage through the antennas and body surface are done by high-pass (HP) filtering of the data prior to image processing. To analyze the results, measurements of moving spheres in air and simulations are carried out. We see that removal of the direct signal introduces amplitude distortion in the images. In addition, the effect of small target motion between the collection times of data from the individual elements is analyzed. With low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) this motion will distort the image. By using data from real measurements of heart motion in simulations, we analyze how the PRF and the antenna geometry influence this distortions.

  9. Development of a real-time PCR for identification of brachyspira species in human colonic biopsies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens J Westerman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brachyspira species are fastidious anaerobic microorganisms, that infect the colon of various animals. The genus contains both important pathogens of livestock as well as commensals. Two species are known to infect humans: B. aalborgi and B. pilosicoli. There is some evidence suggesting that the veterinary pathogenic B. pilosicoli is a potential zoonotic agent, however, since diagnosis in humans is based on histopathology of colon biopsies, species identification is not routinely performed in human materials. METHODS: The study population comprised 57 patients with microscopic evidence of Brachyspira infection and 26 patients with no histopathological evidence of Brachyspira infection. Concomitant faecal samples were available from three infected patients. Based on publically available 16S rDNA gene sequences of all Brachyspira species, species-specific primer sets were designed. DNA was extracted and tested by real-time PCR and 16S rDNA was sequenced. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity for identification of Brachyspira species in colon biopsies was 100% and 87.7% respectively. Sequencing revealed B. pilosicoli in 15.4% of patients, B. aalborgi in 76.9% and a third species, tentatively named "Brachyspira hominis", in 26.2%. Ten patients (12.3% had a double and two (3.1% a triple infection. The presence of Brachyspira pilosicoli was significantly associated with inflammatory changes in the colon-biopsy (p=0.028. CONCLUSIONS: This newly designed PCR allows for sub-differentiation of Brachyspira species in patient material and thus allows large-scaled surveillance studies to elucidate the pathogenicity of human Brachyspira infections. One-third of affected patients appeared to be infected with a novel species.

  10. In a Time of Change: Integrating the Arts and Humanities with Climate Change Science in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, M.; Golux, S.; Franzen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The arts and humanities have a powerful capacity to create lines of communication between the public, policy and scientific spheres. A growing network of visual and performing artists, writers and scientists has been actively working together since 2007 to integrate scientific and artistic perspectives on climate change in interior Alaska. These efforts have involved field workshops and collaborative creative processes culminating in public performances and a visual art exhibit. The most recent multimedia event was entitled In a Time of Change: Envisioning the Future, and challenged artists and scientists to consider future scenarios of climate change. This event included a public performance featuring original theatre, modern dance, Alaska Native Dance, poetry and music that was presented concurrently with an art exhibit featuring original works by 24 Alaskan visual artists. A related effort targeted K12 students, through an early college course entitled Climate Change and Creative Expression, which was offered to high school students at a predominantly Alaska Native charter school and integrated climate change science, creative writing, theatre and dance. Our program at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site is just one of many successful efforts to integrate arts and humanities with science within and beyond the NSF LTER Program. The efforts of various LTER sites to engage the arts and humanities with science, the public and policymakers have successfully generated excitement, facilitated mutual understanding, and promoted meaningful dialogue on issues facing science and society. The future outlook for integration of arts and humanities with science appears promising, with increasing interest from artists, scientists and scientific funding agencies.

  11. Real-Time Hand Posture Recognition for Human-Robot Interaction Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Belmonte, Uriel Haile; Ayala-Ramirez, Victor

    2016-01-04

    In this work, we present a multiclass hand posture classifier useful for human-robot interaction tasks. The proposed system is based exclusively on visual sensors, and it achieves a real-time performance, whilst detecting and recognizing an alphabet of four hand postures. The proposed approach is based on the real-time deformable detector, a boosting trained classifier. We describe a methodology to design the ensemble of real-time deformable detectors (one for each hand posture that can be classified). Given the lack of standard procedures for performance evaluation, we also propose the use of full image evaluation for this purpose. Such an evaluation methodology provides us with a more realistic estimation of the performance of the method. We have measured the performance of the proposed system and compared it to the one obtained by using only the sampled window approach. We present detailed results of such tests using a benchmark dataset. Our results show that the system can operate in real time at about a 10-fps frame rate.

  12. Real-Time Hand Posture Recognition for Human-Robot Interaction Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Belmonte, Uriel Haile; Ayala-Ramirez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a multiclass hand posture classifier useful for human-robot interaction tasks. The proposed system is based exclusively on visual sensors, and it achieves a real-time performance, whilst detecting and recognizing an alphabet of four hand postures. The proposed approach is based on the real-time deformable detector, a boosting trained classifier. We describe a methodology to design the ensemble of real-time deformable detectors (one for each hand posture that can be classified). Given the lack of standard procedures for performance evaluation, we also propose the use of full image evaluation for this purpose. Such an evaluation methodology provides us with a more realistic estimation of the performance of the method. We have measured the performance of the proposed system and compared it to the one obtained by using only the sampled window approach. We present detailed results of such tests using a benchmark dataset. Our results show that the system can operate in real time at about a 10-fps frame rate. PMID:26742041

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TIME-SERIES HUMAN SETTLEMENT MAPPING SYSTEM USING HISTORICAL LANDSAT ARCHIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miyazaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodology of automated human settlement mapping is highly needed for utilization of historical satellite data archives for urgent issues of urban growth in global scale, such as disaster risk management, public health, food security, and urban management. As development of global data with spatial resolution of 10-100 m was achieved by some initiatives using ASTER, Landsat, and TerraSAR-X, next goal has targeted to development of time-series data which can contribute to studies urban development with background context of socioeconomy, disaster risk management, public health, transport and other development issues. We developed an automated algorithm to detect human settlement by classification of built-up and non-built-up in time-series Landsat images. A machine learning algorithm, Local and Global Consistency (LLGC, was applied with improvements for remote sensing data. The algorithm enables to use MCD12Q1, a MODIS-based global land cover map with 500-m resolution, as training data so that any manual process is not required for preparation of training data. In addition, we designed the method to composite multiple results of LLGC into a single output to reduce uncertainty. The LLGC results has a confidence value ranging 0.0 to 1.0 representing probability of built-up and non-built-up. The median value of the confidence for a certain period around a target time was expected to be a robust output of confidence to identify built-up or non-built-up areas against uncertainties in satellite data quality, such as cloud and haze contamination. Four scenes of Landsat data for each target years, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010, were chosen among the Landsat archive data with cloud contamination less than 20%.We developed a system with the algorithms on the Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS in the University of Tokyo and processed 5200 scenes of Landsat data for cities with more than one million people worldwide.

  14. Malnutrition has no effect on the timing of human tooth formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil Elamin

    Full Text Available The effect of nutrition on the timing of human tooth formation is poorly understood. Delays and advancements in dental maturation have all been reported as well as no effect. We investigated the effect of severe malnutrition on the timing of human tooth formation in a large representative sample of North Sudanese children. The sample (1102 males, 1013 females consisted of stratified randomly selected healthy individuals in Khartoum, Sudan, aged 2-22 years using a cross-sectional design following the STROBE statement. Nutritional status was defined using WHO criteria of height and weight. Body mass index Z-scores and height for age Z-scores of ≤-2 (cut-off were used to identify the malnourished group (N = 474 while the normal was defined by Z-scores of ≥0 (N = 799. Clinical and radiographic examination of individuals, with known ages of birth was performed including height and weight measurements. Mandibular left permanent teeth were assessed using eight crown and seven root established tooth formation stages. Mean age at entry and mean age within tooth stages were calculated for each available tooth stage in each group and compared using a t-test. Results show the mean age at entry and mean age within tooth stages were not significantly different between groups affected by severe malnutrition and normal children (p>0.05. This remarkable finding was evident across the span of dental development. We demonstrate that there is little measurable effect of sustained malnutrition on the average timing of tooth formation. This noteworthy finding supports the notion that teeth have substantial biological stability and are insulated from extreme nutritional conditions compared to other maturing body systems.

  15. Effect of time of extraction on the biocompatibility of endodontic sealers with primary human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Zaccaro Scelza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different times of extraction on the cytotoxicity of six representatives of different root canal sealer groups-Real Seal SE, AH Plus, GuttaFlow, Sealapex, Roth 801, and ThermaSeal Plus-with human gingival fibroblasts. The materials were prepared according to manufacturers' specifications, and were incubated in culture medium (DMEM at 37ºC for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, with daily washing, to simulate periodontal ligament clearance. Human fibroblasts were exposed to the final extracts at 24 hours, and cell viability was determined by MTT assay, with exposure to unconditioned DMEM as a negative control. Statistical analysis comparing cytotoxicities at each exposure time was performed by ANOVA with Scheffé adjustment for multiple comparisons at a 95% confidence level. Results indicated that GuttaFlow was significantly less cytotoxic than all other sealers (p < 0.05 at 1 day of extraction. After 7 days of extraction, cell viability for GuttaFlow was significantly increased as compared with that of all groups except sealer AH Plus. At day 14, cytotoxicity of Sealapex was significantly higher than that of all other sealers (p < 0.05. At days 21 and 28, there were no significant differences in cytotoxicity among sealer groups. All materials presented some level of cytotoxicity to fibroblasts, while GuttaFlow was the least cytotoxic sealer tested. However, the cytotoxicity of all materials seemed to decrease similarly in a time-dependent manner.

  16. Development of Time-Series Human Settlement Mapping System Using Historical Landsat Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, H.; Nagai, M.; Shibasaki, R.

    2016-06-01

    Methodology of automated human settlement mapping is highly needed for utilization of historical satellite data archives for urgent issues of urban growth in global scale, such as disaster risk management, public health, food security, and urban management. As development of global data with spatial resolution of 10-100 m was achieved by some initiatives using ASTER, Landsat, and TerraSAR-X, next goal has targeted to development of time-series data which can contribute to studies urban development with background context of socioeconomy, disaster risk management, public health, transport and other development issues. We developed an automated algorithm to detect human settlement by classification of built-up and non-built-up in time-series Landsat images. A machine learning algorithm, Local and Global Consistency (LLGC), was applied with improvements for remote sensing data. The algorithm enables to use MCD12Q1, a MODIS-based global land cover map with 500-m resolution, as training data so that any manual process is not required for preparation of training data. In addition, we designed the method to composite multiple results of LLGC into a single output to reduce uncertainty. The LLGC results has a confidence value ranging 0.0 to 1.0 representing probability of built-up and non-built-up. The median value of the confidence for a certain period around a target time was expected to be a robust output of confidence to identify built-up or non-built-up areas against uncertainties in satellite data quality, such as cloud and haze contamination. Four scenes of Landsat data for each target years, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010, were chosen among the Landsat archive data with cloud contamination less than 20%.We developed a system with the algorithms on the Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS) in the University of Tokyo and processed 5200 scenes of Landsat data for cities with more than one million people worldwide.

  17. Characterization of the replication timing program of 6 human model cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjadj, Djihad; Denecker, Thomas; Maric, Chrystelle; Fauchereau, Fabien; Baldacci, Giuseppe; Cadoret, Jean-Charles

    2016-09-01

    During the S-phase, the DNA replication process is finely orchestrated and regulated by two programs: the spatial program that determines where replication will start in the genome (Cadoret et al. (2008 Oct 14), Cayrou et al. (2011 Sep), Picard et al. (2014 May 1) [1], [2], [3]), and the temporal program that determines when during the S phase different parts of the genome are replicated and when origins are activated. The temporal program is so well conserved for each cell type from independent individuals [4] that it is possible to identify a cell type from an unknown sample just by determining its replication timing program. Moreover, replicative domains are strongly correlated with the partition of the genome into topological domains (determined by the Hi-C method, Lieberman-Aiden et al. (2009 Oct 9), Pope et al. (2014 Nov 20) [5], [6]). On the one hand, replicative areas are well defined and participate in shaping the spatial organization of the genome for a given cell type. On the other hand, studies on the timing program during cell differentiation showed a certain plasticity of this program according to the stage of cell differentiation Hiratani et al. (2008 Oct 7, 2010 Feb) [7], [8]. Domains where a replication timing change was observed went through a nuclear re-localization. Thus the temporal program of replication can be considered as an epigenetic mark Hiratani and Gilbert (2009 Feb 16) [9]. We present the genomic data of replication timing in 6 human model cell lines: U2OS (GSM2111308), RKO (GSM2111309), HEK 293T (GSM2111310), HeLa (GSM2111311), MRC5-SV (GSM2111312) and K562 (GSM2111313). A short comparative analysis was performed that allowed us to define regions common to the 6 cell lines. These replication timing data can be taken into account when performing studies that use these model cell lines. PMID:27508120

  18. Characterization of the replication timing program of 6 human model cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djihad Hadjadj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During the S-phase, the DNA replication process is finely orchestrated and regulated by two programs: the spatial program that determines where replication will start in the genome (Cadoret et al. (2008 Oct 14, Cayrou et al. (2011 Sep, Picard et al. (2014 May 1 [1–3], and the temporal program that determines when during the S phase different parts of the genome are replicated and when origins are activated. The temporal program is so well conserved for each cell type from independent individuals [4] that it is possible to identify a cell type from an unknown sample just by determining its replication timing program. Moreover, replicative domains are strongly correlated with the partition of the genome into topological domains (determined by the Hi-C method, Lieberman-Aiden et al. (2009 Oct 9, Pope et al. (2014 Nov 20 [5,6]. On the one hand, replicative areas are well defined and participate in shaping the spatial organization of the genome for a given cell type. On the other hand, studies on the timing program during cell differentiation showed a certain plasticity of this program according to the stage of cell differentiation Hiratani et al. (2008 Oct 7, 2010 Feb [7,8]. Domains where a replication timing change was observed went through a nuclear re-localization. Thus the temporal program of replication can be considered as an epigenetic mark Hiratani and Gilbert (2009 Feb 16 [9]. We present the genomic data of replication timing in 6 human model cell lines: U2OS (GSM2111308, RKO (GSM2111309, HEK 293T (GSM2111310, HeLa (GSM2111311, MRC5-SV (GSM2111312 and K562 (GSM2111313. A short comparative analysis was performed that allowed us to define regions common to the 6 cell lines. These replication timing data can be taken into account when performing studies that use these model cell lines.

  19. Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Carter, Olivia; Hasler, Felix; Cahn, B Rael; Grimberg, Ulrike; Spring, Philipp; Hell, Daniel; Flohr, Hans; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-01-01

    Hallucinogenic psilocybin is known to alter the subjective experience of time. However, there is no study that systematically investigated objective measures of time perception under psilocybin. Therefore, we studied dose-dependent effects of the serotonin (5-HT)2A/1A receptor agonist psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) on temporal processing, employing tasks of temporal reproduction, sensorimotor synchronization and tapping tempo. To control for cognitive and subjective changes, we assessed spatial working memory and conscious experience. Twelve healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, medium (115 microg/kg), and high (250 microg/kg) dose conditions, in a double-blind experimental design. Psilocybin was found to significantly impair subjects' ability to (1) reproduce interval durations longer than 2.5 sec, (2) to synchronize to inter-beat intervals longer than 2 sec and (3) caused subjects to be slower in their preferred tapping rate. These objective effects on timing performance were accompanied by working-memory deficits and subjective changes in conscious state, namely increased reports of 'depersonalization' and 'derealization' phenomena including disturbances in subjective 'time sense.' Our study is the first to systematically assess the impact of psilocybin on timing performance on standardized measures of temporal processing. Results indicate that the serotonin system is selectively involved in duration processing of intervals longer than 2 to 3 seconds and in the voluntary control of the speed of movement. We speculate that psilocybin's selective disruption of longer intervals is likely to be a product of interactions with cognitive dimensions of temporal processing -presumably via 5-HT2A receptor stimulation.

  20. Time resolved dosimetry of human brain exposed to low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffi, Alessandra; Camera, Francesca; Lucano, Elena; Apollonio, Francesca; Liberti, Micaela

    2016-06-01

    An accurate dosimetry is a key issue to understanding brain stimulation and related interaction mechanisms with neuronal tissues at the basis of the increasing amount of literature revealing the effects on human brain induced by low-level, low frequency pulsed magnetic fields (PMFs). Most literature on brain dosimetry estimates the maximum E field value reached inside the tissue without considering its time pattern or tissue dispersivity. Nevertheless a time-resolved dosimetry, accounting for dispersive tissues behavior, becomes necessary considering that the threshold for an effect onset may vary depending on the pulse waveform and that tissues may filter the applied stimulatory fields altering the predicted stimulatory waveform’s size and shape. In this paper a time-resolved dosimetry has been applied on a realistic brain model exposed to the signal presented in Capone et al (2009 J. Neural Transm. 116 257–65), accounting for the broadband dispersivity of brain tissues up to several kHz, to accurately reconstruct electric field and current density waveforms inside different brain tissues. The results obtained by exposing the Duke’s brain model to this PMF signal show that the E peak in the brain is considerably underestimated if a simple monochromatic dosimetry is carried out at the pulse repetition frequency of 75 Hz.

  1. Time course of the angiogenic response during normotrophic and hypertrophic scar formation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Willem M; Niessen, Frank B; Ferreira, José A; Zwiers, Peter J; de Jong, Etty H; Middelkoop, Esther; Molema, Grietje

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that in hypertrophic scars (HSs), an excess of microvessels is present compared with normotrophic scars (NSs). The aim of our study was to quantify vascular densities in HSs and normotrophic scars and to provide an insight into the kinetics of changes in the expression of angiogenic factors in time during wound healing and HS formation. Human presternal wound healing after cardiothoracic surgery through a sternotomy incision was investigated in a standardized manner. Skin biopsies were collected at consecutive time points, i.e., during surgery and 2, 4, 6, 12, and 52 weeks postoperatively. The expression levels of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, Tie-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Quantification of angiogenesis and cellular localization of the proteins of interest were based on immunohistochemical analysis. Microvessel densities were higher in the HSs compared with the normotrophic scars 12 weeks (p=0.017) and 52 weeks (p=0.030) postoperatively. Angiopoietin-1 expression was lower in the hypertrophic group (pdecrease in the angiopoietin-1/angiopoietin-2 ratio in the hypertrophic group 4 weeks (p=0.053), 12 weeks (pscars.

  2. Cortical Components of Reaction-Time during Perceptual Decisions in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek P Dmochowski

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of perceptual decision-making are frequently studied through measurements of reaction time (RT. Classical sequential-sampling models (SSMs of decision-making posit RT as the sum of non-overlapping sensory, evidence accumulation, and motor delays. In contrast, recent empirical evidence hints at a continuous-flow paradigm in which multiple motor plans evolve concurrently with the accumulation of sensory evidence. Here we employ a trial-to-trial reliability-based component analysis of encephalographic data acquired during a random-dot motion task to directly image continuous flow in the human brain. We identify three topographically distinct neural sources whose dynamics exhibit contemporaneous ramping to time-of-response, with the rate and duration of ramping discriminating fast and slow responses. Only one of these sources, a parietal component, exhibits dependence on strength-of-evidence. The remaining two components possess topographies consistent with origins in the motor system, and their covariation with RT overlaps in time with the evidence accumulation process. After fitting the behavioral data to a popular SSM, we find that the model decision variable is more closely matched to the combined activity of the three components than to their individual activity. Our results emphasize the role of motor variability in shaping RT distributions on perceptual decision tasks, suggesting that physiologically plausible computational accounts of perceptual decision-making must model the concurrent nature of evidence accumulation and motor planning.

  3. Time-resolved fluorimetric probing of DNA structure in irradiated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in situ technique has been developed that detects genomic conformational changes in irradiated human cells. Cells are treated on ice with detergent, mild alkali and ethidium bromide (EB) and the resulting intact nuclei are examined using kinetic spectrofluorimetry. In the nuclei of unirradiated lymphocytes the fluorescence decay profile is tri-exponential with a long-lived component (∼23 ns) attributable to EB intercalated within double-stranded DNA, an intermediate life-time component (∼6 ns) indicative of a loosely bound DNA biomolecular-EB complex, and a short-lived component (∼2 ns) corresponding to unbound EB. Irradiated fresh human lymphocytes show three similar components but their relative contributions are changed. Results from a typical donor, show that after 1 Gy the intermediate component decreased with a concomitant increase in the long-lived component while the short-lived component remained essentially unchanged. Fresh whole blood from healthy donors was irradiated at doses of 0.1-1 Gy, and the samples analyzed with or without post-irradiation incubation at 37 deg. C for 24 h prior to lymphocyte extraction. For doses of 1.0 Gy in the absence of incubation there is good agreement between multiple samples of the same individual, or among the six donors, as compared with the results from irradiated isolated lymphocytes. Whole blood incubation was unreliable but results from one individual at 0.1 and 1.0 Gy were similar to those observed without incubation. Fluorescence lifetime analysis can detect DNA structural/topological damage in irradiated human lymphoid cells, and it may have potential application to in vivo bio-dosimetry and bio-monitoring

  4. A human fecal contamination index for ranking impaired recreational watersusing the HF183 quantitative real-time PCR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human fecal pollution of surface water remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for recreational water quality risk managem...

  5. Acquisition and processing method for human sensorial, sensitive, motory and phonatory circuits reaction times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes a storage and acquisition device and a method for human sensorial and sensitive motory and phonatory reaction times. The considered circuits are those made with the visual, auditory and sensory receptor organs and the motory or phonatory effector organs. The anatomo-physiological localization of these circuits allows us to appreciate the possibilities of the central nervous system for different angles. The experimental population is made of normal and pathological individuals (individuals having tumoral or vascular, localized or diffused cerebral lesions or parkinsonian individuals). The parameter processing method is based on the multivariate analysis results and allows us to position each individual compared to a normal individual and to appreciate the weight of each circuit in this positioning. Clinical exploitation results give to this method a prognosis and therapeutic interest. It seems though untimely to talk about its diagnosis value. (author)

  6. Real time detection of exhaled human breath using quantum cascade laser based sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Liu, Kun; Risby, Terence H.; Solga, Steven; Schwartz, Tim

    2012-02-01

    The development and performance of a cw, TE-cooled DFB quantum cascade laser based sensor for quantitative measurements of ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations present in exhaled breath will be reported. Human breath contains ~ 500 different chemical species, usually at ultra low concentration levels, which can serve as biomarkers for the identification and monitoring of human diseases or wellness states. By monitoring NH3 concentration levels in exhaled breath a fast, non-invasive diagnostic method for treatment of patients with liver and kidney disorders, is feasible. The NH3 concentration measurements were performed with a 2f wavelength modulation quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique, which is suitable for real time breath measurements, due to the fast gas exchange inside a compact QEPAS gas cell. A Hamamatsu air-cooled high heat load (HHL) packaged CW DFB-QCL is operated at 17.5°C, targeting the optimum interference free NH3 absorption line at 967.35 cm-1 (λ~10.34 μm), with ~ 20 mW of optical power. The sensor architecture includes a reference cell, filled with a 2000 ppmv NH3 :N2 mixture at 130 Torr, which is used for absorption line-locking. A minimum detection limit (1σ) for the line locked NH3 sensor is ~ 6 ppbv (with a 1σ 1 sec time resolution of the control electronics). This NH3 sensor was installed in late 2010 and is being clinically tested at St. Luke's Hospital in Bethlehem, PA.

  7. Human Exploration Using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO)- Crew Telerobotic Control Vehicle (CTCV) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Chato, David; Fincannon, James; Landis, Geoff; Sandifer, Carl; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; Packard, Tom; McCurdy, Dave; Gyekenyesi, John

    2010-01-01

    The HERRO concept allows real time investigation of planets and small bodies by sending astronauts to orbit these targets and telerobotically explore them using robotic systems. Several targets have been put forward by past studies including Mars, Venus, and near Earth asteroids. A conceptual design study was funded by the NASA Innovation Fund to explore what the HERRO concept and it's vehicles would look like and what technological challenges need to be met. This design study chose Mars as the target destination. In this way the HERRO studies can define the endpoint design concepts for an all-up telerobotic exploration of the number one target of interest Mars. This endpoint design will serve to help planners define combined precursor telerobotics science missions and technology development flights. A suggested set of these technologies and demonstrator missions is shown in Appendix B. The HERRO concept includes a crewed telerobotics orbit vehicle as well three Truck rovers, each supporting two teleoperated geologist robots Rockhounds (each truck/Rockhounds set is landed using a commercially launched aeroshell landing system.) Options include a sample ascent system teamed with an orbital telerobotic sample rendezvous and return spacecraft (S/C) (yet to be designed). Each truck rover would be landed in a science location with the ability to traverse a 100 km diameter area, carrying the Rockhounds to 100 m diameter science areas for several week science activities. The truck is not only responsible for transporting the Rockhounds to science areas, but also for relaying telecontrol and high-res communications to/from the Rockhound and powering/heating the Rockhound during the non-science times (including night-time). The Rockhounds take the place of human geologists by providing an agile robotic platform with real-time telerobotics control to the Rockhound from the crew telerobotics orbiter. The designs of the Truck rovers and Rockhounds will be described in other

  8. Assimilation of Real-Time Satellite And Human Sensor Networks for Modeling Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulov, O.; Halem, M.; Lary, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of underlying technologies needed to address the merging of a web of real time satellite sensor Web (SSW) and Human Sensor Web (HSW) needed to augment the US response to extreme events. As an initial prototyping step and use case scenario, we consider the development of two major system tools that can be transitioned from research to the responding operational agency for mitigating coastal oil spills. These tools consist of the capture of Situation Aware (SA) Social Media (SM) Data, and assimilation of the processed information into forecasting models to provide incident decision managers with interactive virtual spatial temporal animations superimposed with probabilistic data estimates. The system methodologies are equally applicable to the wider class of extreme events such as plume dispersions from volcanoes or massive fires, major floods, hurricane impacts, radioactive isotope dispersions from nuclear accidents, etc. A successful feasibility demonstration of this technology has been shown in the case of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill where Human Sensor Networks have been combined with a geophysical model to perform parameter assessments. Flickr images of beached oil were mined from the spill area, geolocated and timestamped and converted into geophysical data. This data was incorporated into General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME), a Lagrangian forecast model that uses near real-time surface winds, ocean currents, and satellite shape profiles of oil to generate a forecast of plume movement. As a result, improved estimates of diffusive coefficients and rates of oil spill were determined. Current approaches for providing satellite derived oil distributions are collected from a satellite sensor web of operational and research sensors from many countries, and a manual analysis is performed by NESDIS. A real time SA HSW processing system based on geolocated SM data from sources such as Twitter, Flickr, YouTube etc., greatly

  9. Influence of Breastfeeding Time on Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Milk of a Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Sampedro-Rosas, Laura; López-Silva, Saúl; Santiago-Moreno, Agustín; Rosas-Acevedo, José L; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of determining whether there is a depuration of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk according to breastfeeding time. In total, 171 samples from mothers that lived in the State of Guerrero, Mexico were analyzed. There was a weak negative relationship between pp'DDE (r = -0.216) and Σ-DDT (r = -0.222) concentrations with the days of lactation. In a comparison analysis, a statistically significant decrease of pp'DDT and pp'DDE levels was observed, as well as the Σ-DDT from the first to the fifth week of lactation. A reduction of 0.188 mg/kg lipid of pp'DDE and 0.181 mg/kg lipid of Σ-DDT per week was obtained. HCB, β-HCH and op'DDT concentrations were low and had no major fluctuations between subgroups. The low levels found and the observed reduction in time involve less exposure to the infant to these pollutants. Through this methodology changes in levels of certain organochlorine pesticides in various stages of human milk production may be shown.

  10. Time course of human motoneuron recovery after sustained low-level voluntary activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Martin E; Butler, Annie A; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L; Butler, Jane E

    2016-02-01

    Motoneurons often fire repetitively and for long periods. In sustained voluntary contractions the excitability of motoneurons declines. We provide the first detailed description of the time course of human motoneuron recovery after sustained activity at a constant discharge rate. We recorded the discharge of single motor units (MUs, n = 30) with intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in triceps brachii during weak isometric contractions. Subjects (n = 15) discharged single MUs at a constant frequency (∼10 Hz) with visual feedback for prolonged durations (3-7 min) until rectified surface electromyogram (sEMG) of triceps brachii increased by ∼100%. After a rest of 1-2, 15, 30, 60, 120, or 240 s, subjects briefly resumed the contraction with the target MU at the same discharge rate. Each MU was tested with three to four rest periods. The magnitude of sEMG was increased when contractions were resumed, and the target motoneuron discharged at the test frequency following rest intervals of 2-60 s (P = 0.001-0.038). The increased sEMG indicates that greater excitatory drive was needed to discharge the motoneuron at the test rate. The increase in EMG recovered exponentially with a time constant of 28 s but did not return to baseline even after a rest period of ∼240 s. Thus the decline in motoneuron excitability from a weak contraction takes several minutes to recover fully.

  11. The Effect of Sex and Age on Small Intestinal Transit Times in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Monika; Fadda, Hala M

    2016-02-01

    This study utilizes a novel approach of small bowel video capsule endoscopy for investigating the influence of sex and age on small intestinal transit times (SITT) in humans. A total of 81 outpatients undergoing investigations with the small bowel video capsule endoscope (SB-VCE) and meeting inclusion criteria were included in this study. Following an overnight fast, patients swallowed the SB-VCE with a glass of water. SITT were calculated from the first duodenal image to the first cecal image. This study showed that the SB-VCE provides accurate and reliable measurements of SITT under real-life conditions. A large inter-individual variability in SITT was observed, with times ranging from 50 to 460 min. This variability can have implications on drug absorption and bioavailability. The median SITT were 219 min for females and 191 min for males. Although SITT were 28 min longer in females than males, this difference was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.66). No correlation was found between age and SITT (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.19). Therefore, any drug bioavailability differences of modified release dosage preparations that are observed between adult patient groups of different age or sex are unlikely to be attributable to SITT. PMID:26308649

  12. Human travel and time spent at destination: impact on the epidemic invasion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Chiara; Tizzoni, Michele; Colizza, Vittoria

    2012-02-01

    Human mobility has a strong impact on the spatial spread of infectious diseases. Analyses of metapopulation models, that consider the epidemic spreading on a network of populations, show that topological and traffic fluctuations favor the global epidemic invasion. These studies consider markovian mobility (i.e. the memory of the origin of traveling individuals is lost) or non-markovian mobility with homogeneous timescales (i.e. individuals travel to a destination and come back with a homogenous rate). However, the time spent at destination is found to exhibit wide fluctuations. Such varying length of stay crucially affects the mixing among individuals and hence the disease transmission dynamics. In order to explore this aspect, we present a modeling framework that, by using a time-scale separation technique, allows analyzing the behavior of spreading processes on a complex metapopulation network with non-markovian mobility characterized by heterogeneously distributed timescales. Analytical and numerical results show how the degree of heterogeneity of the length of stay is able, alone, to drive a phase transition between local outbreak and global invasion. This highlights the importance of the interplay between mobility and disease timescales in the propagation of an epidemic.

  13. The cardiac cycle time effect revisited: Temporal dynamics of the central-vagal modulation of heart rate in human reaction time tasks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M. Somsen; J.R. Jennings; M.W. van der Molen

    2004-01-01

    Lacey and Lacey (1974) suggested that during reaction time tasks higher brain centers dynamically adjust efferent vagal nerve pulses to the sino-atrial node of the heart, inducing phase-dependent heart rate changes. Since then, animal and human neuro-physiological results have provided evidence for

  14. Evaluating the Human Damage of Tsunami at Each Time Frame in Aggregate Units Based on GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ogawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of the human damage caused by the tsunami are required in order to consider disaster prevention at such a regional level. Hence, there is an increasing need for the assessments of human damage caused by earthquakes. However, damage assessments in japan currently usually rely on static population distribution data, such as statistical night time population data obtained from national census surveys. Therefore, human damage estimation that take into consideration time frames have not been assessed yet. With these backgrounds, the objectives of this study are: to develop a method for estimating the population distribution of the for each time frame, based on location positioning data observed with mass GPS loggers of mobile phones, to use a evacuation and casualties models for evaluating human damage due to the tsunami, and evaluate each time frame by using the data developed in the first objective, and 3 to discuss the factors which cause the differences in human damage for each time frame. By visualizing the results, we clarified the differences in damage depending on time frame, day and area. As this study enables us to assess damage for any time frame in and high resolution, it will be useful to consider provision for various situations when an earthquake may hit, such as during commuting hours or working hours and week day or holiday.

  15. Evaluating the Human Damage of Tsunami at Each Time Frame in Aggregate Units Based on GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y.; Akiyama, Y.; Kanasugi, H.; Shibasaki, R.; Kaneda, H.

    2016-06-01

    Assessments of the human damage caused by the tsunami are required in order to consider disaster prevention at such a regional level. Hence, there is an increasing need for the assessments of human damage caused by earthquakes. However, damage assessments in japan currently usually rely on static population distribution data, such as statistical night time population data obtained from national census surveys. Therefore, human damage estimation that take into consideration time frames have not been assessed yet. With these backgrounds, the objectives of this study are: to develop a method for estimating the population distribution of the for each time frame, based on location positioning data observed with mass GPS loggers of mobile phones, to use a evacuation and casualties models for evaluating human damage due to the tsunami, and evaluate each time frame by using the data developed in the first objective, and 3) to discuss the factors which cause the differences in human damage for each time frame. By visualizing the results, we clarified the differences in damage depending on time frame, day and area. As this study enables us to assess damage for any time frame in and high resolution, it will be useful to consider provision for various situations when an earthquake may hit, such as during commuting hours or working hours and week day or holiday.

  16. Evidence for high-fidelity timing-dependent synaptic plasticity of human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, R F H; Mastaglia, F L; Thickbroom, G W

    2013-01-01

    A single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse typically evokes a short series of spikes in corticospinal neurons [known as indirect (I)-waves] which are thought to arise from transynaptic input. Delivering a second pulse at inter-pulse intervals (IPIs) corresponding to the timing of these I-waves leads to a facilitation of the response, and if stimulus pairs are delivered repeatedly, a persistent LTP-like increase in excitability can occur. This has been demonstrated at an IPI of 1.5 ms, which corresponds to the first I-wave interval, in an intervention referred to as ITMS (I-wave TMS), and it has been argued that this may have similarities with timing-dependent plasticity models. Consequently, we hypothesized that if the second stimulus is delivered so as not to coincide with I-wave timing, it should lead to LTD. We performed a crossover study in 10 subjects in which TMS doublets were timed to coincide (1.5-ms IPI, ITMS(1.5)) or not coincide (2-ms IPI, ITMS(2)) with I-wave firing. Single pulse motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, resting motor threshold (RMT), and short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI) were measured from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. After ITMS(1.5) corticomotor excitability was increased by ~60% for 15 min (P < 0.05) and returned to baseline by 20 min. Increasing the IPI by just 500 μs to 2 ms reversed the aftereffect, and MEP amplitude was significantly reduced (~35%, P < 0.05) for 15 min before returning to baseline. This reduction was not associated with an increase in SICI, suggesting a reduction in excitatory transmission rather than an increase in inhibitory efficacy. RMT also remained unchanged, suggesting that these changes were not due to changes in membrane excitability. Amplitude-matching ITMS(2) did not modulate excitability. The results are consistent with timing-dependent synaptic LTP/D-like effects and suggest that there are plasticity mechanisms operating in the human motor cortex with a temporal

  17. Humans, Tectonics and Climate, Changing S2S Systems over Time: Waipaoa River Margin Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, S. A.; Alexander, C. R.; Corbett, D. R.; Harris, C. K.; Ogston, A. S.; Orpin, A. R.; Walsh, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies of the Waipaoa River margin, New Zealand North Island, provide a clear picture of human and natural signal propagation and preservation in Holocene and contemporary sedimentary sequences of the continental shelf and slope. This active margin setting presents both extraordinary high sediment yields and high sediment accommodation which are controlled, in part, by tectonic uplift and deformation. Unlike many passive margins, the resulting sediment deposits on the Waipaoa shelf and slope provide a high-resolution record of changing climate and landscape since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Giant piston cores collected using the Marion Dufresne reveal definitive textural and carbon isotopic downcore trends that clearly reflect the transgressive and regressive phases of relative sea-level since the LGM. Moreover, A distinct coarsening in sediment texture around 3ka reflects the intensification of the El Nino Southern Oscillation in the western Pacific Ocean at that time, either through increased landsliding caused by enhanced precipitation, or by higher significant wave heights and resuspension that may have accompanied increased cyclonic storm activity. A distinct signature of fine sediment in the upper sections of the Marion Dufresne cores is thought to herald the Anthropocene period, reflecting deforestation and an increase both in sediment load and the release of fine sediment from the catchment from runaway gully formation. Sediment budgets indicate that whereas the continental shelf off the Waipaoa was a very efficient sediment trap during much of the Holocene, the Anthropocene is marked by the dominance of off- and along-shelf sediment escape. Contemporary sediment transport studies, seabed observations and modeling suggest a strong disconnect with average Holocene dispersal patterns, with much sediment currently escaping along the shelf to the north. It appears that this dramatic shift in sediment dispersal on the Waipaoa margin

  18. Time course of post-excitatory effects separates afferent human C fibre classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, C; Schmidt, R; Schmelz, M; Hilliges, M; Handwerker, H O; Torebjörk, H E

    2000-08-15

    1. To study post-excitatory changes of conduction velocity, action potentials were recorded from 132 unmyelinated nerve fibres (C fibres) in cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve using microneurography in healthy human subjects. The 'marking' technique was used to assess responsiveness to mechanical and heat stimuli or sympathetic reflex provocation. 2. C fibres were classified into three major classes: mechano-responsive afferent (n = 76), mechano-insensitive afferent (n = 48) and sympathetic efferent C fibres (n = 8). 3. During regular stimulation at 0.25 Hz, conditioning pulses were intermittently interposed. Changes of conduction velocity were assessed for different numbers of conditioning impulses and varying interstimulus intervals (ISIs). For all three fibre classes the latency shift following conditioning pulses at an ISI of 1000 ms increased linearly with their number (n = 1, 2 and 4). However, the absolute degree of conduction velocity slowing was much higher in the 32 mechano-insensitive fibres as compared with 56 mechano-responsive or 8 sympathetic fibres. 4. Single additional pulses were interposed at different ISIs from 20 to 2000 ms. For 20 mechano-responsive fibres conduction velocity slowing increased with decreasing ISI (subnormal phase). In contrast, for 16 mechano-insensitive C fibres the conduction velocity slowing decreased with shorter ISIs, and at values lower than 417 +/- 49 ms (mean +/- s.e.m.) the conduction velocity of the conditioned action potential was faster than before (conduction velocity speeding). This supernormal phase had its maximum at 69 +/- 10 ms. 5. In this study we provide, for the first time, direct evidence of relative supernormal conduction in human mechano-insensitive C fibres. The implications for temporal coding in different afferent C fibre classes are discussed. PMID:10944181

  19. Performance Assessment of Human and Cattle Associated Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation overview is (1) Single laboratory performance assessment of human- and cattle associated PCR assays and (2) A Field Study: Evaluation of two human fecal waste management practices in Ohio watershed.

  20. Education in Responsibility in Order to Secure Human Rights in Times of Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrigan, Michaël

    2014-01-01

    Education in and awareness about human rights is generally seen as one of the less contentious elements of citizenship education. However, it would seem that, for the concept of human rights to have a real impact in today's world, theoretical knowledge of human rights standards should be complemented by an understanding of the ethical concept of…

  1. Human transformations of the Wadden Sea ecosystem through time : a synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotze, HK; Reise, K; Worm, B; van Beusekom, J; Busch, M; Ehlers, A; Heinrich, D; Hoffmann, RC; Holm, P; Jensen, C; Knottnerus, OS; Langhanki, N; Prummel, W; Vollmer, M; Wolff, WJ

    2005-01-01

    Todays Wadden Sea is a heavily human-altered ecosystem. Shaped by natural forces since its origin 7,500 years ago, humans gradually gained dominance in influencing ecosystem structure and functioning. Here, we reconstruct the timeline of human impacts and the history of ecological changes in the Wad

  2. In vivo measurements of T1 relaxation times of 31P-metabolites in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    The T1 relaxation times were estimated for 31P-metabolites in human skeletal muscle. Five healthy volunteers were examined in a 1.5 Tesla wholebody imaging system using an inversion recovery pulse sequence. The calculated T1 relaxation times ranged from 5.517 sec for phosphocreatine to 3.603 sec...

  3. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Erk Marjan J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an anti-oxidant and it can act as an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms and effect of curcumin in colon cancer cells using gene expression profiling. Methods Gene expression changes in response to curcumin exposure were studied in two human colon cancer cell lines, using cDNA microarrays with four thousand human genes. HT29 cells were exposed to two different concentrations of curcumin and gene expression changes were followed in time (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Gene expression changes after short-term exposure (3 or 6 hours to curcumin were also studied in a second cell type, Caco-2 cells. Results Gene expression changes (>1.5-fold were found at all time points. HT29 cells were more sensitive to curcumin than Caco-2 cells. Early response genes were involved in cell cycle, signal transduction, DNA repair, gene transcription, cell adhesion and xenobiotic metabolism. In HT29 cells curcumin modulated a number of cell cycle genes of which several have a role in transition through the G2/M phase. This corresponded to a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as was observed by flow cytometry. Functional groups with a similar expression profile included genes involved in phase-II metabolism that were induced by curcumin after 12 and 24 hours. Expression of some cytochrome P450 genes was downregulated by curcumin in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. In addition, curcumin affected expression of metallothionein genes, tubulin genes, p53 and other genes involved in colon carcinogenesis. Conclusions This study has extended knowledge on pathways or processes already reported to be affected by curcumin (cell cycle arrest, phase

  4. Estimation of gastric residence time of the Heidelberg capsule in humans: effect of varying food composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In animal and human studies, the gastric emptying of large (greater than 1 mm) indigestible solids is due to the activity of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex. The gastric residence time (GRT) of an orally administered, nondigestible, pH-sensitive, radiotelemetric device (Heidelberg capsule) was evaluated in three studies in healthy volunteers. In 6 subjects, the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule was compared with the half-emptying time (t1/2) of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with technetium 99m after a 4-ml/kg liquid fatty meal. The mean (+/-SD) GRT (4.3 +/- 1.4 h) was significantly (p less than 0.001) longer than the mean t1/2 (1.1 +/- 0.3 h); the GRT was prolonged compared with the t1/2 in each subject. In a randomized, crossover trial in 10 subjects, frequent feeding caused a dramatic prolongation in mean GRT of the capsule compared with the fasting state (greater than 14.5 vs. 0.5 h, p less than 0.005). In another crossover study in 6 subjects, the GRT of the capsule was evaluated after an overnight fast, a standard breakfast including solid food, and a liquid meal (i.e., 200 ml of diluted light cream). The mean GRT was 2.6 +/- 0.9 h after the liquid meal vs. 1.2 +/- 0.8 h after fasting (p less than 0.025). The mean GRT after the breakfast was 4.8 +/- 1.5 h, which was significantly greater than that after fasting (p less than 0.001) and after the liquid meal (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule is a marker of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in humans, the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex can be markedly delayed by frequent feedings with solids, and the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex is delayed by both liquid and solid meals

  5. A Human Sensor Network Framework in Support of Near Real Time Situational Geophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulov, O.; Price, A.; Smith, J. A.; Halem, M.

    2013-12-01

    The area of Disaster Management is well established among Federal Agencies such as FEMA, EPA, NOAA and NASA. These agencies have well formulated frameworks for response and mitigation based on near real time satellite and conventional observing networks for assimilation into geophysical models. Forecasts from these models are used to communicate with emergency responders and the general public. More recently, agencies have started using social media to broadcast warnings and alerts to potentially affected communities. In this presentation, we demonstrate the added benefits of mining and assimilating the vast amounts of social media data available from heterogeneous hand held devices and social networks into established operational geophysical modeling frameworks as they apply to the five cornerstones of disaster management - Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery. Often, in situations of extreme events, social media provide the earliest notification of adverse extreme events. However, various forms of social media data also can provide useful geolocated and time stamped in situ observations, complementary to directly sensed conventional observations. We use the concept of a Human Sensor Network where one views social media users as carrying field deployed "sensors" whose posts are the remotely "sensed instrument measurements.' These measurements can act as 'station data' providing the resolution and coverage needed for extreme event specific modeling and validation. Here, we explore the use of social media through the use of a Human Sensor Network (HSN) approach as another data input source for assimilation into geophysical models. Employing the HSN paradigm can provide useful feedback in near real-time, but presents software challenges for rapid access, quality filtering and transforming massive social media data into formats consistent with the operational models. As a use case scenario, we demonstrate the value of HSN for disaster management

  6. Timing of Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)–Associated Tuberculous Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, M. Estee; Yen, Nguyen Thi Bich; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Mai, Pham Phuong; Dung, Nguyen Thi; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Bang, Nguyen Duc; Tien, Nguyen Anh; Minh, N. H.; Hien, Nguyen Quang; Thai, Phan Vuong Khac; Dong, Doan The; Anh, Do Thi Tuong; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Cam; Hai, Nguyen Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Quy, Hoang Thi; Dung, Nguyen Huy; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Simmons, Cameron Paul; de Jong, Menno; Wolbers, Marcel; Farrar, Jeremy James

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal time to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated tuberculous meningitis is unknown. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of immediate versus deferred ART in patients with HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis to determine whether immediate ART reduced the risk of death. Antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz) were started either at study entry or 2 months after randomization. All patients were treated with standard antituberculosis treatment, adjunctive dexamethasone, and prophylactic co-trimoxazole and were followed up for 12 months. We conducted intention-to-treat, per-protocol, and prespecified subgroup analyses. Results A total of 253 patients were randomized, 127 in the immediate ART group and 126 in the deferred ART group; 76 and 70 patients died within 9 months in the immediate and deferred ART groups, respectively. Immediate ART was not significantly associated with 9-month mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], .81–1.55; P = .50) or the time to new AIDS events or death (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, .87–1.55; P = .31). The percentage of patients with severe (grade 3 or 4) adverse events was high in both arms (90% in the immediate ART group and 89% in the deferred ART group; P = .84), but there were significantly more grade 4 adverse events in the immediate ART arm (102 in the immediate ART group vs 87 in the deferred ART group; P = .04). Conclusions Immediate ART initiation does not improve outcome in patients presenting with HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis. There were significantly more grade 4 adverse events in the immediate ART arm, supporting delayed initiation of ART in HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis. Clinical Trials Registration ISRCTN63659091. PMID:21596680

  7. Real-time determination of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hua Hu; Feng-Hua Chen; Yi-Rong Li; Lin Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To set up a real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay,to detect human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)messenger RNA in gastric carcinomas, and to evaluate quantitative determination of hTERT mRNA in the diagnostic value of gastric carcinomas, and to analyze the correlation between the expression level of hTERT mRNA and dinicopathological parameters in patients with gastric cancer.METHODS: A real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RQ-PCR)based on TaqMan fluorescence methodoloogy and the LightCyder system was used to quantify the full range of hTERT mRNA copy numbers in 35 samples of gastric carcinomas and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The normalized hTERT (NhTERT) was standardized by quantifying the number of GAPDH transcripts as internal control and expressed as 100× (hTERT/GAPDH) ratio. Variables were analyzed by the Student's t-test, χ2 test and Fisher's exact test.RESULTS: NhTERT from gastric carcinomas and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues was 6.27±0.89 and 0.93±0.18,respectively (t= 12.76, P<0.001). There was no significant association between gastric cancer hTERT mRNA expression level and patient's age, gender, tumor size, location and stage (pTNM), but a significant correlation was found between hTERT mRNA expression level in gastric carcinomas and the degree of differentiation.CONCLUSION: Quantitative determination of hTERT mRNA by RQ-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. hTERT might be a potential biomarker for the early detection of gastric cancer.

  8. Ultrasensitive quantitation of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 oncogene sequences by nested real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Revilla Rubén

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed an ultrasensitive method based on conventional PCR preamplification followed by nested amplification through real time PCR (qPCR in the presence of the DNA intercalating agent EvaGreen. Results Amplification mixtures calibrated with a known number of pHV101 copies carrying a 645 base pair (bp-long insert of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 E6 oncogene were used to generate the E6-1 amplicon of 645 bp by conventional PCR and then the E6-2 amplicon of 237 bp by nested qPCR. Direct and nested qPCR mixtures for E6-2 amplification corresponding to 2.5 × 102-2.5 × 106 initial pHV101 copies had threshold cycle (Ct values in the ranges of 18.7-29.0 and 10.0-25.0, respectively. The Ct of qPCR mixtures prepared with 1/50 volumes of preamplified mixtures containing 50 ng of DNA of the SiHa cell line (derived from an invasive cervical cancer with one HPV16 genome per cell was 19.9. Thermal fluorescence extinction profiles of E6-2 amplicons generated from pHV101 and SiHa DNA were identical, with a peak at 85.5°C. Conclusions Our method based on conventional preamplification for 15 cycles increased 10,750 times the sensitivity of nested qPCR for the quantitation of the E6 viral oncogene and confirmed that the SiHa cell line contains one E6-HPV16 copy per cell.

  9. Self-Organizing Wearable Device Platform for Assisting and Reminding Humans in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most older persons would prefer “aging in my place,” that is, to remain in good health and live independently in their own home as long as possible. For assisting the independent living of older people, the ability to gather and analyze a user’s daily activity data would constitute a significant technical advance, enhancing their quality of life. However, the general approach based on centralized server has several problems such as the usage complexity, the high price of deployment and expansion, and the difficulty in identifying an individual person. To address these problems, we propose a wearable device platform for the life assistance of older persons that automatically records and analyzes their daily activity without intentional human intervention or a centralized server (i.e., cloud server. The proposed platform contains self-organizing protocols, Delay-Tolerant Messaging system, knowledge-based analysis and alerting for daily activities, and a hardware platform that provides low power consumption. We implemented a prototype smart watch, called Personal Activity Assisting and Reminding (PAAR, as a testbed for the proposed platform, and evaluated the power consumption and the service time of example scenarios.

  10. Real Time Metastatic Route Tracking of Orthotopic PC-3-GFP Human Prostate Cancer Using Intravital Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xiaoen; Hoffman, Robert M; Seki, Naohiko

    2016-04-01

    The cellular basis of metastasis is poorly understood. An important step to understanding this process is to be able to visualize the routes by which cancer cells migrate from the primary tumor to various distant sites to eventually form metastasis. Our laboratory previously developed single-cell in vivo imaging using fluorescent proteins to label cancer cells. In the present study, using PC-3 human prostate cancer cells labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and orthotopic tumor transplantation, we have imaged in live mice various highly diverse routes by which PC-3 cells metastasize superiorly and inferiorly to distant sites, including in the portal area, stomach area, and urogenital system. Imaging began at day 9, at which time distant metastasis had already occurred, and increased at each imaging point at days 10, 13, 14, and 16. Metastatic cells were observed migrating superiorly and inferiorly from the primary tumor as well as in lymphatic channels and trafficking in various organ systems demonstrating that PC-3 has multiple metastatic routes similar to hormone-independent advanced-stage prostate cancer in the clinic. PMID:26515240

  11. Forecasting Human African Trypanosomiasis Prevalences from Population Screening Data Using Continuous Time Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasker, Epco; Lumbala, Crispin; Lutumba, Pascal; de Vlas, Sake J.; van de Klundert, Joris

    2016-01-01

    To eliminate and eradicate gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), maximizing the effectiveness of active case finding is of key importance. The progression of the epidemic is largely influenced by the planning of these operations. This paper introduces and analyzes five models for predicting HAT prevalence in a given village based on past observed prevalence levels and past screening activities in that village. Based on the quality of prevalence level predictions in 143 villages in Kwamouth (DRC), and based on the theoretical foundation underlying the models, we consider variants of the Logistic Model—a model inspired by the SIS epidemic model—to be most suitable for predicting HAT prevalence levels. Furthermore, we demonstrate the applicability of this model to predict the effects of planning policies for screening operations. Our analysis yields an analytical expression for the screening frequency required to reach eradication (zero prevalence) and a simple approach for determining the frequency required to reach elimination within a given time frame (one case per 10000). Furthermore, the model predictions suggest that annual screening is only expected to lead to eradication if at least half of the cases are detected during the screening rounds. This paper extends knowledge on control strategies for HAT and serves as a basis for further modeling and optimization studies. PMID:27657937

  12. Conformational dynamics of the human propeller telomeric DNA quadruplex on a microsecond time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Barira; Sgobba, Miriam; Laughton, Charlie; Orozco, Modesto; Sponer, Jiri; Neidle, Stephen; Haider, Shozeb

    2013-01-01

    The human telomeric DNA sequence with four repeats can fold into a parallel-stranded propeller-type topology. NMR structures solved under molecular crowding experiments correlate with the crystal structures found with crystal-packing interactions that are effectively equivalent to molecular crowding. This topology has been used for rationalization of ligand design and occurs experimentally in a number of complexes with a diversity of ligands, at least in the crystalline state. Although G-quartet stems have been well characterized, the interactions of the TTA loop with the G-quartets are much less defined. To better understand the conformational variability and structural dynamics of the propeller-type topology, we performed molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent up to 1.5 μs. The analysis provides a detailed atomistic account of the dynamic nature of the TTA loops highlighting their interactions with the G-quartets including formation of an A:A base pair, triad, pentad and hexad. The results present a threshold in quadruplex simulations, with regards to understanding the flexible nature of the sugar-phosphate backbone in formation of unusual architecture within the topology. Furthermore, this study stresses the importance of simulation time in sampling conformational space for this topology. PMID:23293000

  13. Studying the replication history of human B lymphocytes by real-time quantitative (RQ)-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Menno C; Berkowska, Magdalena A; van Dongen, Jacques J M

    2013-01-01

    The cells of the adaptive immune system, B and T lymphocytes, each generate a unique antigen receptor through V(D)J recombination of their immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) loci, respectively. Such rearrangements join coding elements to form a coding joint and delete the intervening DNA as circular excision products containing the signal joint. These excision circles are stable structures that cannot replicate and have no function in the cell. Since the coding joint in the genome is replicated with each cell division, the ratio between coding joints and signal joints in a population of B cells can be used as a measure for proliferation. This chapter describes a real-time quantitative (RQ-)PCR-based approach to quantify proliferation through calculating the ratio between coding joints and signal joints of the frequently occurring intronRSS-Kde rearrangements in the IGK light chain locus. The approach is useful to study basic B-cell biology as well as abnormal proliferation in human diseases.

  14. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with high pregnancy rates during ovarian stimulation and timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Razeq Sonya; Mitwally Mohamed F; Casper Robert F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background There are different factors that influence treatment outcome after ovarian stimulation and timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI). After patient age, it has been suggested that timing of insemination in relation to ovulation is probably the most important variable affecting the success of treatment. The objective of this study is to study the value of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and occurrence of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in timing ...

  15. Time to accelerate integration of human factors and ergonomics in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Ayse P; Ozok, A Ant; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Progress toward improving patient safety has been slow despite engagement of the health care community in improvement efforts. A potential reason for this sluggish pace is the inadequate integration of human factors and ergonomics principles and methods in these efforts. Patient safety problems are complex and rarely caused by one factor or component of a work system. Thus, health care would benefit from human factors and ergonomics evaluations to systematically identify the problems, prioritize the right ones, and develop effective and practical solutions. This paper gives an overview of the discipline of human factors and ergonomics and describes its role in improving patient safety. We provide examples of how human factors and ergonomics principles and methods have improved both care processes and patient outcomes. We provide five major recommendations to better integrate human factors and ergonomics in patient safety improvement efforts: build capacity among health care workers to understand human factors and ergonomics, create market forces that demand the integration of human factors and ergonomics design principles into medical technologies, increase the number of human factors and ergonomic practitioners in health care organizations, expand investments in improvement efforts informed by human factors and ergonomics, and support interdisciplinary research to improve patient safety. In conclusion, human factors and ergonomics must play a more prominent role in health care if we want to increase the pace in improving patient safety.

  16. It is time to talk about people: a human-centered healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgi Lea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Examining vulnerabilities within our current healthcare system we propose borrowing two tools from the fields of engineering and design: a Reason's system approach 1 and b User-centered design 23. Both approaches are human-centered in that they consider common patterns of human behavior when analyzing systems to identify problems and generate solutions. This paper examines these two human-centered approaches in the context of healthcare. We argue that maintaining a human-centered orientation in clinical care, research, training, and governance is critical to the evolution of an effective and sustainable healthcare system.

  17. The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. non- GBM control ...

  18. Human life history evolution explains dissociation between the timing of tooth eruption and peak rates of root growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Christopher Dean

    Full Text Available We explored the relationship between growth in tooth root length and the modern human extended period of childhood. Tooth roots provide support to counter chewing forces and so it is advantageous to grow roots quickly to allow teeth to erupt into function as early as possible. Growth in tooth root length occurs with a characteristic spurt or peak in rate sometime between tooth crown completion and root apex closure. Here we show that in Pan troglodytes the peak in root growth rate coincides with the period of time teeth are erupting into function. However, the timing of peak root velocity in modern humans occurs earlier than expected and coincides better with estimates for tooth eruption times in Homo erectus. With more time to grow longer roots prior to eruption and smaller teeth that now require less support at the time they come into function, the root growth spurt no longer confers any advantage in modern humans. We suggest that a prolonged life history schedule eventually neutralised this adaptation some time after the appearance of Homo erectus. The root spurt persists in modern humans as an intrinsic marker event that shows selection operated, not primarily on tooth tissue growth, but on the process of tooth eruption. This demonstrates the overarching influence of life history evolution on several aspects of dental development. These new insights into tooth root growth now provide an additional line of enquiry that may contribute to future studies of more recent life history and dietary adaptations within the genus Homo.

  19. Human life history evolution explains dissociation between the timing of tooth eruption and peak rates of root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M Christopher; Cole, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between growth in tooth root length and the modern human extended period of childhood. Tooth roots provide support to counter chewing forces and so it is advantageous to grow roots quickly to allow teeth to erupt into function as early as possible. Growth in tooth root length occurs with a characteristic spurt or peak in rate sometime between tooth crown completion and root apex closure. Here we show that in Pan troglodytes the peak in root growth rate coincides with the period of time teeth are erupting into function. However, the timing of peak root velocity in modern humans occurs earlier than expected and coincides better with estimates for tooth eruption times in Homo erectus. With more time to grow longer roots prior to eruption and smaller teeth that now require less support at the time they come into function, the root growth spurt no longer confers any advantage in modern humans. We suggest that a prolonged life history schedule eventually neutralised this adaptation some time after the appearance of Homo erectus. The root spurt persists in modern humans as an intrinsic marker event that shows selection operated, not primarily on tooth tissue growth, but on the process of tooth eruption. This demonstrates the overarching influence of life history evolution on several aspects of dental development. These new insights into tooth root growth now provide an additional line of enquiry that may contribute to future studies of more recent life history and dietary adaptations within the genus Homo. PMID:23342167

  20. DNA-Based Sensor for Real-Time Measurement of the Enzymatic Activity of Human Topoisomerase I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lærke Bay; Jepsen, Morten Leth; Kristoffersen, Emil Laust;

    2013-01-01

    . The basic design of the sensor relies on two DNA strands that hybridize to form a hairpin structure with a fluorophore-quencher pair. The quencher moiety is released from the sensor upon reaction with human topoisomerase I thus enabling real-time optical measurement of enzymatic activity. The sensor......Sensors capable of quantitative real-time measurements may present the easiest and most accurate way to study enzyme activities. Here we present a novel DNA-based sensor for specific and quantitative real-time measurement of the enzymatic activity of the essential human enzyme, topoisomerase I...... is specific for topoisomerase I even in raw cell extracts and presents a simple mean of following enzyme kinetics using standard laboratory equipment such as a qPCR machine or fluorimeter. Human topoisomerase I is a well-known target for the clinically used anti-cancer drugs of the camptothecin family...

  1. Effect of time pressure and human judgment on decision making in three public sector organizations of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Saleem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to widen the effect of time pressure and human judgment on decision making. A census of three organizations named Project Management Organization (PMO, Accountant General Pakistan Revenues (AGPR and Controller General of Accountant (CGA was occupied. To demeanor this study a questionnaire tagged Decision Making, Time Pressure and Human Judgment was used for the assortment of data. The questionnaire was predominantly designed to accomplish the objectives of the study. The total number of observations was eighty two and the Arithmetic Mean Score of decision making, time pressure and human judgment were 2.532, 2.527 and 2.395 respectively. The significance level of the model was 0.000 which illustrates maximum significant level. As p-value is less than .05 so it can be assumed that the variables elected for the study are decidedly significant.

  2. Vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments of wintering hooded cranes, Grus monacha, in human-dominated foraging habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    Full Text Available Due to loss and degradation of natural wetlands, waterbirds increasingly rely on surrounding human-dominated habitats to obtain food. Quantifying vigilance patterns, investigating the trade-off among various activities, and examining the underlying mechanisms will help us understand how waterbirds adapt to human-caused disturbances. During two successive winters (November-February of 2012-13 and 2013-14, we studied the hooded crane, Grus monacha, in the Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve (NNR, China, to investigate how the species responds to human disturbances through vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments. Our results showed striking differences in the behavior of the cranes when foraging in the highly disturbed rice paddy fields found in the buffer zone compared with the degraded natural wetlands in the core area of the NNR. Time spent vigilant decreased with flock size and cranes spent more time vigilant in the human-dominated buffer zone. In the rice paddy fields, the birds were more vigilant but also fed more at the expense of locomotion and maintenance activities. Adult cranes spent more time vigilant and foraged less than juveniles. We recommend habitat recovery in natural wetlands and community co-management in the surrounding human-dominated landscape for conservation of the hooded crane and, generally, for the vast numbers of migratory waterbirds wintering in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River floodplain.

  3. Vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments of wintering hooded cranes, Grus monacha, in human-dominated foraging habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Zhou, Lizhi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Niannian; Beauchamp, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Due to loss and degradation of natural wetlands, waterbirds increasingly rely on surrounding human-dominated habitats to obtain food. Quantifying vigilance patterns, investigating the trade-off among various activities, and examining the underlying mechanisms will help us understand how waterbirds adapt to human-caused disturbances. During two successive winters (November-February of 2012-13 and 2013-14), we studied the hooded crane, Grus monacha, in the Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve (NNR), China, to investigate how the species responds to human disturbances through vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments. Our results showed striking differences in the behavior of the cranes when foraging in the highly disturbed rice paddy fields found in the buffer zone compared with the degraded natural wetlands in the core area of the NNR. Time spent vigilant decreased with flock size and cranes spent more time vigilant in the human-dominated buffer zone. In the rice paddy fields, the birds were more vigilant but also fed more at the expense of locomotion and maintenance activities. Adult cranes spent more time vigilant and foraged less than juveniles. We recommend habitat recovery in natural wetlands and community co-management in the surrounding human-dominated landscape for conservation of the hooded crane and, generally, for the vast numbers of migratory waterbirds wintering in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River floodplain. PMID:25768111

  4. Real-time Quantitative RT-PCR for CT9 Level in Human Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    CT9 is a recently cloned cancer-testis antigen, which is a member of the bromodomain and extraterminal family.Each member of this protein family contains two N-terminal bromodomain motifs. We investigated the distribution of CT9 in different tissues and the possibility for it to be used as a potential therapeutic target in cancer treament. By using the real-time RT-PCR method and 18SrRNA as an internal standard, we analyzed the CT9 expression in several normal human tissues and in the tissues of patients suffering from cancer. The result of this study shows that the highest level of mRNA is only present in testis tissue because the CT9 expression has not been detected in other normal tissues. In 6 of 10 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma, in 3 of 10 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, in 2 of 9 cases of endometrial carcinoma and only in 1 of 12 cases of brain cancer, the low level expression of CT9 was detected. In none of the 12 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, the expression of CT9 was detected. Since the high level expression of CT9 is only found in the normal testis tissue, but the low expression in cancer tissues, for example tissues of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, brain cancer, endometrial adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we conclude that CT9 cannot be used as a cancer therapeutic target molecule for cervical squamous cell carcinoma, brain cancer, endometrial adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Baseflow mean transit times in natural and human-altered catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Elliot, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Baseflow is one of the most important components of the ecosystem since it provides continuous habitat to aquatic biota; regulates water chemistry, temperature, and dissolved oxygen during summer; and functions as an essential supply for drinking water and food production worldwide. This study will evaluate baseflow mean transit times (MTTs) in five natural (i.e. pristine forest) and human-altered (i.e. agricultural, urban, and mining) catchments in eastern Washington and northern Idaho during 2011-2013. Drainage area ranges from small (6.35 km2) to meso scale (342 km2) and mean annual precipitation varies from 670 mm to 1,313 mm. MTTs were evaluated by applying d18O input precipitation and output stream waters to a lumped parameter model (FlowPC 3.2) using four main theoretical distribution models: piston flow, exponential, dispersion, and piston-exponential. Precipitation samples (N=307) were collected on weekly to biweekly basis and stream samples (N=690) were collected weekly using automated samplers. Precipitation showed a strong seasonal periodicity with a sine-wave modeled amplitude of 3.03‰ and a mean annual average of d18O= -15.13‰. Mean annual stream d18O ranged from -14.87‰ to -15.80‰ across the study catchments. Our modeling results will show information for examining solute transport and water availability under current and future land use practices and climate variability within a variety of watersheds in the inland Pacific Northwest that share similar underlying geology and climate attributes.

  6. Near Real Time Analytics of Human Sensor Networks in the Realm of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulov, O.; Halem, M.

    2012-12-01

    With the prolific development of social media, emergency responders have an increasing interest in harvesting social media from outlets such as Flickr, Twitter, and Facebook, in order to assess the scale and specifics of extreme events including wild fires, earthquakes, terrorist attacks, oil spills, etc. A number of experimental platforms have successfully been implemented to demonstrate the utilization of social media data in extreme events, including Twitter Earthquake Detector, which relied on tweets for earthquake monitoring; AirTwitter, which used tweets for air quality reporting; and our previous work, using Flickr data as boundary value forcings to improve the forecast of oil beaching in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The majority of these platforms addressed a narrow, specific type of emergency and harvested data from a particular outlet. We demonstrate an interactive framework for monitoring, mining and analyzing a plethora of heterogeneous social media sources for a diverse range of extreme events. Our framework consists of three major parts: a real time social media aggregator, a data processing and analysis engine, and a web-based visualization and reporting tool. The aggregator gathers tweets, Facebook comments from fan pages, Google+ posts, forum discussions, blog posts (such as LiveJournal and Blogger.com), images from photo-sharing platforms (such as Flickr, Picasa), videos from video-sharing platforms (youtube, Vimeo), and so forth. The data processing and analysis engine pre-processes the aggregated information and annotates it with geolocation and sentiment information. In many cases, the metadata of the social media posts does not contain geolocation information—-however, a human reader can easily guess from the body of the text what location is discussed. We are automating this task by use of Named Entity Recognition (NER) algorithms and a gazetteer service. The visualization and reporting tool provides a web-based, user

  7. Learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of body joints for real-time human activity understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qi

    Full Text Available Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications.

  8. Preliminary study on the time-related changes of the infrared thermal images of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng; Lin, Gang; Chen, Zhigang

    2009-08-01

    It is of great importance to study the manifestations and the influencing factors of the time-related changes of infrared thermal images (ITI) of human body since the variable body surface temperature distribution seriously affected the application of ITI in medicine. In this paper, manifestations of time-related changes of the ITI of human body from three double-blind randomized trials and their correlation with meteorological factors (e.g. temperature, pressure, humidity, cold front passage and tropical cyclone landing) were studied. The trials were placebo or drug controlled studying the influences of Chinese medicine health food (including Shengsheng capsule with immunity adjustment function, Shengan capsule with sleep improvement function and Shengyi capsule with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid) on the ITI of human body. In the first thirty-six days of the trials images were scanned every six days and image data in the seven observation time spots (including the 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 day of the trial) were used for the time-related study. For every subject the scanned time was fixed in the day within two hours. The ITI features which could reflect the functions of the health foods were studied. The indexes of the features were relative magnitude (temperature difference between the viewing area and the reference area). Results showed that the variation tendencies of the trial group and control group were basically the same in placebo controlled trials and some of the long-term effects of Chinese medicine health food could be reflected significantly in certain time spots in the first thirty-six days. Time-related changes of the ITI of human body were closely related with meteorological factors but there were other influencing factors still need to be studied. As the ITI of human body could reflect the influences of Chinese medicine health foods and are closely related with meteorology, there are bright prospects for the application of ITI in

  9. Human Exploration using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO): A space exploration strategy for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration strategy for human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the Moon that combines the best features of human and robotic spaceflight. This "Human Exploration using Real-time Robotic Operations" (HERRO) strategy refrains from placing humans on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars in the near-term. Rather, it focuses on sending piloted spacecraft and crews into orbit around Mars and other exploration targets of interest, and conducting astronaut exploration of the surfaces using telerobots and remotely-controlled systems. By eliminating the significant communications delay or "latency" with Earth due to the speed of light limit, teleoperation provides scientists real-time control of rovers and other sophisticated instruments. This in effect gives them a "virtual presence" on planetary surfaces, and thus expands the scientific return at these destinations. HERRO mitigates several of the major issues that have hindered the progress of human spaceflight beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by: (1) broadening the range of destinations for near-term human missions; (2) reducing cost and risk through less complexity and fewer man-rated elements; (3) offering benefits of human-equivalent in-situ cognition, decision-making and field-work on planetary bodies; (4) providing a simpler approach to returning samples from Mars and planetary surfaces; and (5) facilitating opportunities for international collaboration through contribution of diverse robotic systems. HERRO provides a firm justification for human spaceflight—one that expands the near-term capabilities of scientific exploration while providing the space transportation infrastructure needed for eventual human landings in the future.

  10. Haemoglobin mass and running time trial performance after recombinant human erythropoietin administration in trained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durussel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo increases haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass and maximal oxygen uptake (v O(2 max. PURPOSE: This study defined the time course of changes in Hb(mass, v O(2 max as well as running time trial performance following 4 weeks of rHuEpo administration to determine whether the laboratory observations would translate into actual improvements in running performance in the field. METHODS: 19 trained men received rHuEpo injections of 50 IU•kg(-1 body mass every two days for 4 weeks. Hb(mass was determined weekly using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method until 4 weeks after administration. v O(2 max and 3,000 m time trial performance were measured pre, post administration and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, running performance significantly improved by ∼6% after administration (10:30±1:07 min:sec vs. 11:08±1:15 min:sec, p<0.001 and remained significantly enhanced by ∼3% 4 weeks after administration (10:46±1:13 min:sec, p<0.001, while v O(2 max was also significantly increased post administration (60.7±5.8 mL•min(-1•kg(-1 vs. 56.0±6.2 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p<0.001 and remained significantly increased 4 weeks after rHuEpo (58.0±5.6 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p = 0.021. Hb(mass was significantly increased at the end of administration compared to baseline (15.2±1.5 g•kg(-1 vs. 12.7±1.2 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. The rate of decrease in Hb(mass toward baseline values post rHuEpo was similar to that of the increase during administration (-0.53 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, 95% confidence interval (CI (-0.68, -0.38 vs. 0.54 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, CI (0.46, 0.63 but Hb(mass was still significantly elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline (13.7±1.1 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Running performance was improved following 4 weeks of rHuEpo and remained elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline. These field performance effects coincided with r

  11. Climate and humans set the place and time of Proboscidean extinction in late Quaternary of South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Nogues, David Bravo; Terribile, Levi Carina;

    2013-01-01

    The late Quaternary extinctions have been widely debated for a long time, but the varying magnitude of human vs. climate change impacts across time and space is still an unresolved question. Here we assess the geographic range shifts in response to climate change based on Ecological Niche Models...... Proboscideans. Our results herein support a strong effect of climatic changes on geographical range dynamics of Proboscideans throughout late Quaternary, although this does not fully support climate change as the single cause of their extinctions. We show that both Proboscideans were narrowly distributed...... of these impacts vary across space and time. Indeed, climate changes set the place where the Proboscideans were extinct in South America, whereas the humans set the time of these extinctions. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays of the complete set of secreted phospholipases A2 in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Timo J; Eerola, Leena I; Rintala, Esa; Laine, V Jukka O; Lambeau, Gérard; Gelb, Michael H

    2005-04-15

    Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays (TR-FIA) were developed for all human secreted phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)), viz. group (G) IB, GIIA, GIID, GIIE, GIIF, GIII, GV, GX and GXIIA PLA(2) and the GXIIB PLA(2)-like protein. Antibodies were raised in rabbits against recombinant human PLA(2) proteins and used in sandwich-type TR-FIAs as both catching and detecting antibodies, the latter after labeling with Europium. The antibodies were non-cross-reactive. The analytical sensitivities were 1 microg/L for the TR-FIA for GIB PLA(2), 1 microg/L (GIIA), 35 microg/L (GIID), 3 microg/L (GIIE), 4 microg/L (GIIF), 14 microg/L (GIII), 11 microg/L (GV), 2 microg/L (GX), 92 microg/L (GXIIA) and 242 microg/L (GXIIB). All secreted PLA(2)s were assayed by these TR-FIAs in serum samples from 34 patients (23 men and 11 women, mean age 53.2 years) treated in an intensive care unit for septic infections, and in control samples from 28 volunteer blood donors (14 men and 14 women, mean age 57.0 years). Five serum samples (3 in the sepsis group and 2 in the blood donor group) gave high TR-FIA signals that were reduced to background (blank) levels by the addition of non-immune rabbit IgG to the sera. This reactivity was assumed to be due to the presence of heterophilic antibodies in these subjects. In all other subjects, including septic patients and healthy blood donors, the TR-FIA signals for GIID, GIIE, GIIF, GIII, GV, GX and GXIIA PLA(2) and the GXIIB PLA(2)-like protein were at background (blank) levels. Four patients in the sepsis group had pancreatic involvement and elevated concentration of GIB PLA(2) in serum (median 19.0 microg/L, range 13.1-33.7 microg/L, n = 4) as compared to the healthy blood donors (median 1.8 microg/L, range 0.8-3.4 microg/L, n = 28, P < 0.0001). The concentration of GIIA PLA(2) in the sera of septic patients (median 315.7 microg/L, range 15.9-979.6 microg/L, n = 34) was highly elevated as compared to that of the blood donors (median 1.8 microg/L, range 0

  13. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus among healthy voluntary first-time blood donors in Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Das, B. K.; B K Gayen; Subhra Aditya; Sumit Kumar Chakrovorty; P.K. Datta; Ajay Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) threaten safety of the recipients and the community as a whole and are a subject of real concern worldwide. Aims and Objectives: To know prevalence of Hepatitis-B (HBV), Hepatitis-C (HCV), and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in voluntary first-time blood donors. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional observational study done in a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 3 745 voluntary first-time blood donors were recruited and...

  14. APOPTOSIS GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN EPDERMAL KERATINOCYTES TREATED WITH SODIUM ARSENITE USING REAL TIME PCR ARRAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure via contaminated drinking water is a great public health concern worldwide. Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with human skin, lung and bladder cancer and other chronic effects. We have previous reported that sodium arsenite stimulated cell proliferati...

  15. Do Monkeys Think in Metaphors? Representations of Space and Time in Monkeys and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Casasanto, Daniel; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the relationship between the representation of space and time has produced two contrasting proposals. ATOM posits that space and time are represented via a common magnitude system, suggesting a symmetrical relationship between space and time. According to metaphor theory, however, representations of time depend on representations of…

  16. Time-dependent effect of tamoxifen on melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Matamá, Maria Teresa; Guimarães, Diana; Costa, Cristiana; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Gomes, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In medical literature, occasional case reports describe gray hair re-pigmentation in patients after administration of certain drugs, such as tamoxifen, supporting the possibility of reversing pigmentation loss associated with ageing. This work aimed to study, in vitro, the effect on melanin production in primary human melanocytes of tamoxifen, an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue, and of its most bioactive derivative, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen. Adult normal human epidermal mel...

  17. Improving real-time human pose estimation from multi-view video

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Rune Havnung

    2013-01-01

    Capturing human motion is a key problem in computer vision, because of the wide range of applications that can benefit from the acquired data. Motion capture is used to identify people by their gait, for interacting with computers using gestures, for improving the performance of athletes, for diagnosis of orthopaedic patients, and for creating virtual characters with more natural looking motions in movies and games. These are but a few of the possible applications of human motion capture.In s...

  18. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal sourceidentification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data q...

  19. Testing vaccines in human experimental malaria: statistical analysis of parasitemia measured by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, C.C.; Vlas, S.J. de; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Telgt, D.S.C.; Verhage, D.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Clinical trials are an essential step in evaluation of safety and efficacy of malaria vaccines, and human experimental malaria infections have been used for evaluation of protective immunity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In this study, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used

  20. STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gachuiri Njau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

  1. Accurate measurement of circulating mitochondrial DNA content from human blood samples using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaz, Saima; Czajka, Anna; Malik, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol to accurately measure the amount of human mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) in peripheral blood samples which can be modified to quantify MtDNA from other body fluids, human cells, and tissues. This protocol is based on the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the amount of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (designated the Mt/N ratio). In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible. As more than 95 % of the human mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the human nuclear genome, it is important to avoid co-amplification of nuclear pseudogenes. Furthermore, template preparation protocols can also affect the results because of the size and structural differences between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here we describe how to (1) prepare DNA from blood samples; (2) pretreat the DNA to prevent dilution bias; (3) prepare dilution standards for absolute quantification using the unique primers human mitochondrial genome forward primer (hMitoF3) and human mitochondrial genome reverse primer(hMitoR3) for the mitochondrial genome, and human nuclear genome forward primer (hB2MF1) and human nuclear genome reverse primer (hB2MR1) primers for the human nuclear genome; (4) carry out qPCR for either relative or absolute quantification from test samples; (5) analyze qPCR data; and (6) calculate the sample size to adequately power studies. The protocol presented here is suitable for high-throughput use.

  2. Education in Responsibility in Order to Secure Human Rights in Times of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Merrigan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Education in and awareness about human rights is generally seen as one of the less contentious elements of citizenship education. However, it would seem that, for the concept of human rights to have a real impact in today's world, theoretical knowledge of human rights standards should be complemented by an understanding of the ethical concept of individual responsibility. This concept could, moreover, prove to be a valuable tool in conceiving creative answers to some of the consequences of the crisis Europe has been facing. This crisis has affected especially the protection and realisation of socio-economic rights, as many States were left with increasingly less budgetary space to meet increasingly urgent societal demands. Over the last few decades, and already prior to the current crisis, many have called for a greater stress on ‘duties and responsibilities’, as it was perceived that ‘rights-talk’ alone did not provide all the answers. From a legal perspective, as well as from the side of human rights advocacy groups, however, these appeals were often met with scepticism and hostility. In answer to the often justified criticism, it is essential to make a distinction between the ‘legal’, the ‘moral’ and the ‘ethical’ realms. While an unnuanced greater focus on moral duties is potentially dangerous, education based on the proposed notion of ethical ‘responsibility’ would seem, on the contrary, essential for the survival of human rights and, hence, of the democratic society.

  3. The Hybrid Design: Integrating the Human and Technical Components of Just-In-Time Knowledge Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nabie Y. Conteh

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the right balance of human and technical resources in the design of Just-in-Time knowledge delivery. It also examines and analyzes the case study: “Teltech: The business of Knowledge Management” by Davenport. It further attempts to depict the characteristics of the hybrid. The paper describes how the hybrid can be applied to Just-In-Time knowledge delivery. It also seeks to analyze and explore its interplay with knowledge splits with a view to designing Just-In- Time Knowl...

  4. Strong Memory in Time Series of Human Magnetoencephalograms Can Identify Photosensitive Epilepsy

    CERN Document Server

    Yulmetyev, R M; Hänggi, P; Khusaenova, E V; Shimojo, S; Yulmetyeva, D G

    2006-01-01

    o discuss the salient role of the statistical memory effects in the human brain functioning we have analyzed a set of stochastic memory quantifiers that reflects the dynamical characteristics of neuromagnetic brain responses to a flickering stimulus of different color combinations from a group of control subjects which is contrasted with those from a patient with photosensitive epilepsy (PSE). We have discovered the emergence of strong memory and the accompanying transition to a regular and robust regime of chaotic behavior of the signals in the separate areas for a patient with PSE. This finding most likely identifies the regions of the location the protective mechanism in a human organism against occurrence of PSE.

  5. Strong memory in time series of human magnetoencephalograms can identify photosensitive epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulmetyev, R. M.; Yulmetyeva, D. G.; Hänggi, P.; Shimojo, S.; Bhattacharya, J.

    2007-04-01

    To discuss the salient role of the statistical memory effects in the human brain functioning we have analyzed a set of stochastic memory quantifiers that reflects the dynamical characteristics of neuromagnetic brain responses to a flickering stimulus of different color combinations from a group of control subjects which is contrasted with those from a patient with photosensitive epilepsy (PSE). We have discovered the emergence of strong memory and the accompanying transition to a regular and robust regime of chaotic behavior of the signals in the separate areas for a patient with PSE. This finding most likely identifies the regions of the location the protective mechanism in a human organism against occurrence of PSE.

  6. [Experiences in prevention and treatment of human rabies with acupuncture and moxibustion in ancient time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Pi; Chen, Jia-Zhi

    2011-03-01

    By consulting the literatures relevant with the prevention and treatment of human rabies from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty, it was discovered that rabies was caused by wind toxin in mad dog injuring human being. The pathogenesis of rabies was the invasion of dog toxin into the heart. The latent period was ranged from 7 to 100 days. Acupuncture-moxibustion, bloodletting, cupping and other therapies could be used in treatment. But of those different therapies, the various moxibustion methods achieved unique efficacy on the disease. PMID:21644321

  7. Disruptive camouflage tricks the human eye: a study of detection times of two near-similar targets in natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, Gorm K.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of camouflage, in military as well as in evolutionary perspectives, has been developing over the last 100 years. In that period of time several underlying principles have emerged. It has turned out in the recent decade that background pattern matching alone may not be sufficient to conceal targets because of the ubiquitous and revealing information contained by the edges of a target. In this paper we have studied one concealment strategy, the so-called disruptive coloration, further as it predicts that high contrast patches placed at the target's outline will impede detection, by creating false target edges when exposed to the observer. Such disruptive coloration is contra-intuitive as it may impede detection in spite of the fact that the patches themselves may be poorly concealed. In military environments the "disruptive approach" within camouflage has been textbook material for decades. Still, very little has been reported, supporting this idea, especially when it comes to the concealment of human targets in natural sceneries. We report here experimental evidence from a field study, containing detection data from 12 unique natural scenes (5 testing the disruptive effect, 7 as reference tests), with both human targets and human observers, showing that disruptively colored camouflage patches along a human's outline (its head) may increase detection time significantly as when compared to a similar (human) target concealed only with background matching. Hence, our results support the idea that disruptive coloration may impede detection and similarly that the best concealment is achieved when disruptive coloration is added to a target that matches the background (reasonably) well. This study raises important question to the current understanding of human vision and concealment as well as to any approach to describe the human visual system mathematically.

  8. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for human-dog-cat species identification and nuclear DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S; Premasuthan, A; Ng, J; Satkoski, J; Goyal, V

    2012-03-01

    In the United States, human forensic evidence collected from crime scenes is usually comingled with biomaterial of canine and feline origins. Knowledge of the concentration of nuclear DNA extracted from a crime scene biological sample and the species from which the sample originated is essential for DNA profiling. The ability to accurately detect and quantify target DNA in mixed-species samples is crucial when target DNA may be overwhelmed by non-target DNA. We have designed and evaluated a species-specific (human, dog and cat) nuclear DNA identification assay based on the TaqMan(®) quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technology that can simultaneously detect and measure minute quantities of DNA specific to either humans, dogs and/or cats. The fluorogenic triplex assay employs primers and hydrolysis probes that target the human TH01 locus as well as the dog and cat Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) sequences in a species-specific manner. We also demonstrate that the assay is a highly sensitive, reliable and robust method for identifying and quantifying mixed-species templates of human-dog-cat origin with as little as 0.4 pg of human and cat nuclear DNA, respectively, and 4.0 pg of dog nuclear DNA.

  9. The Reallocation of Human Resources to Improve Student Achievement in a Time of Fiscal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the allocation of human resources of a K-12 unified school district in Southern California to the Evidence-Based model (Odden & Picus, 2008). Using document analysis and interviews of key administrators of the district, data was input into a spreadsheet to identify gaps between current practice and the Evidence-Based model.…

  10. Development of a real-time PCR for identification of brachyspira species in human colonic biopsies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.; Stel, H.V.; Schipper, M.E.I.; Bakker, L.J.; Neefjes-Borst, E.A.; Brande, J.M.H. van den; Boel, C.H.E.; Seldenrijk, K.A.; Siersema, P.D.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Kusters, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brachyspira species are fastidious anaerobic microorganisms, that infect the colon of various animals. The genus contains both important pathogens of livestock as well as commensals. Two species are known to infect humans: B. aalborgi and B. pilosicoli. There is some evidence suggesting

  11. Visual P2-N2 complex and arousal at the time of encoding predict the time domain characteristics of amnesia for multiple intravenous anesthetic drugs in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Kane O.; Reinsel, Ruth A.; Mehta, Meghana; Li, Yuelin; Wixted, John T.; Veselis, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Intravenous anesthetics have marked effects on memory function, even at subclinical concentrations. Fundamental questions remain in characterizing anesthetic amnesia and identifying affected systems-level processes. We applied a mathematical model to evaluate time-domain components of anesthetic amnesia in human subjects. Methods 61 volunteers were randomized to receive propofol (n = 12), thiopental (13), midazolam (12), dexmedetomidine (12), or placebo (12). With drug present, subjects encoded pictures into memory using a 375-item continuous recognition task, with subsequent recognition later probed with drug absent. Memory function was sampled at up to 163 time points, and modeled over the time domain using a two-parameter, first-order negative power function. The parietal event-related P2-N2 complex was derived from electroencephalography, and arousal repeatedly sampled. Each drug was evaluated at two concentrations. Results The negative power function consistently described the course of amnesia (mean R2 = 0.854), but there were marked differences between drugs in the modulation of individual components (P < 0.0001). Initial memory strength was a function of arousal (P = 0.005), while subsequent decay was related to reaction time (P < 0.0001) and the P2-N2 complex (P = 0.007/0.002 for discrete components). Conclusions In humans, the amnesia caused by multiple intravenous anesthetic drugs is characterized by arousal-related effects on initial trace strength, and a subsequent decay predicted by attenuation of the P2-N2 complex at encoding. We propose that failure of normal memory consolidation follows drug-induced disruption of interregional synchrony critical for neuronal plasticity, and discuss our findings in the framework of memory systems theory. PMID:20613477

  12. Time-effect relationship of mitochondrial DNA 4977bp deletion in human peripheral blood cell after X ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the time-effect of mitochondrial DNA 4977bp deletion in human peripheral blood cells exposed to X ray, human peripheral whole blood samples were collected from two healthy individuals, and exposed to X rays with dose from 0 to 10 Gy. The genomic DNAs were isolated from the whole-blood samples, and the levels of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and copy number of total mtDNA in the DNA samples were detected by Real-time PCR after irradiation at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that the copy number of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and total mtDNA, and the rates of mtDNA 4977bp deletion increase with incubation time with dose at 5 Gy after irradiation. Moreover, they increased with dose from 0 to 10 Gy after irradiation at 24 h and 72 h, respectively. The results suggested that the levels of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and the copy number of total mtDNA in human peripheral blood cells exposed to X ray were accumulated with incubation time and dose increase, respectively. (authors)

  13. A methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission signals to identify fracture timing from human cadaver spine impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mike W J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    While studies have used acoustic sensors to determine fracture initiation time in biomechanical studies, a systematic procedure is not established to process acoustic signals. The objective of the study was to develop a methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission data using signal processing techniques to identify fracture initiation time. The methodology was developed from testing a human cadaver lumbar spine column. Acoustic sensors were glued to all vertebrae, high-rate impact loading was applied, load-time histories were recorded (load cell), and fracture was documented using CT. Compression fracture occurred to L1 while other vertebrae were intact. FFT of raw voltage-time traces were used to determine an optimum frequency range associated with high decibel levels. Signals were bandpass filtered in this range. Bursting pattern was found in the fractured vertebra while signals from other vertebrae were silent. Bursting time was associated with time of fracture initiation. Force at fracture was determined using this time and force-time data. The methodology is independent of selecting parameters a priori such as fixing a voltage level(s), bandpass frequency and/or using force-time signal, and allows determination of force based on time identified during signal processing. The methodology can be used for different body regions in cadaver experiments.

  14. Relaxational Singularities of Human Motor System at Aging Due to Short-Range and Long-Range Time Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Yulmetyev, Renat M; Gafarov, Fail M; Demin, Sergey A; Panischev, Oleg Yu; Hänggi, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the relaxation singularities of human motor system at aging. Our purpose is to examine the structure of force output variability as a function of human aging in the time and frequency domains. For analysis of experimental data we have developed here the statistical theory of relaxation of force output fluctuation with taking into account the effects of two relaxation channels. The first of them contains the contribution of short-range correlation whereas other relaxation component reflects the effect of long-range correlation. The analysis of experimental data shows, that the general behavior of relaxation processes at human aging is determined by a complicated combination and nonlinear interactions two above stated relaxation processes as a whole.

  15. Reliability of the interval death rate analysis for estimating the time course of the motoneurone afterhyperpolarization in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Christopher William; Ivanova, Tanya Dimitrova; Garland, S Jayne

    2007-05-15

    The reliability of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) time course, as estimated by the interval death rate (IDR) analysis was evaluated both within and between investigators. The IDR analysis uses the firing history of a single motor unit train at low tonic firing rates to calculate an estimate of the AHP time course [Matthews PB. Relationship of firing intervals of human motor units to the trajectory of post-spike after-hyperpolarization and synaptic noise. J Physiol 1996;492:597-628]. Single motor unit trains were collected from the tibialis anterior (TA) to determine intra-rater reliability (within investigator). Data from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI), collected in a previous investigation [Gossen ER, Ivanova TD, Garland SJ. The time course of the motoneurone afterhyperpolarization is related to motor unit twitch speed in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol 2003;552:657-64], were used to examine the inter-rater reliability (between investigators). The lead author was blinded to the original time constants and file identities for the re-analysis. The intra-rater reliability of the AHP time constant in the TA data was high (r(2)=0.88; pFDI data was also strong (r(2)=0.92; pFDI. It is concluded that the interval death rate analysis is a reliable tool for estimating the AHP time course with experienced investigators.

  16. Losses of Humanity in Times of War: The Actions of Alternative Subjects of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Monárrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses loss of humanity due to violence in Ciudad Juarez (2008–2014 and the actions of alternative subjects of justice – the organized civil society – seeking to address it. This paper resonates with theoretical currents of feminism and humanism, both of which have created a critical apparatus for thinking about social inequality in the context of life, death, and injustice. The discussion draws on the theoretical concepts of discourse societies, necropolitics, private government and actions. With this theoretical structure, the paper seeks to understand the political actions of eight civil society organizations aiming to recover the right to the body, to space and to be a political subject for a community shattered by violence. The paper argues that, through these actions, they helped to prevent crime, enhance public safety and stabilise a society suffering from continued violence due in large part to the war on drugs.

  17. Time allocation in social networks: correlation between social structure and human communication dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Miritello, Giovanna; Moro, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.

  18. Importance of measuring the time course of flow-mediated dilatation in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, M.A.; Cable, N.T.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Green, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is widely used to describe conduit artery endothelial function. The traditional approaches to FMD calculation assess diameter change at arbitrary time points after occluding cuff deflation. The aim of this study was to examine the time course of brachial artery FMD aft

  19. Techniques for optimizing human-machine information transfer related to real-time interactive display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for the development of real-time displays are reviewed. Of particular interest are the psychological aspects of design such as the layout, color selection, real-time response rate, and the interactivity of displays. Some existing Western Aeronautical Test Range displays are analyzed.

  20. A non linear analysis of human gait time series based on multifractal analysis and cross correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Diosdado, A [Department of Mathematics, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnologia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Acueducto s/n, 07340, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed databases with gait time series of adults and persons with Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseases. We obtained the staircase graphs of accumulated events that can be bounded by a straight line whose slope can be used to distinguish between gait time series from healthy and ill persons. The global Hurst exponent of these series do not show tendencies, we intend that this is because some gait time series have monofractal behavior and others have multifractal behavior so they cannot be characterized with a single Hurst exponent. We calculated the multifractal spectra, obtained the spectra width and found that the spectra of the healthy young persons are almost monofractal. The spectra of ill persons are wider than the spectra of healthy persons. In opposition to the interbeat time series where the pathology implies loss of multifractality, in the gait time series the multifractal behavior emerges with the pathology. Data were collected from healthy and ill subjects as they walked in a roughly circular path and they have sensors in both feet, so we have one time series for the left foot and other for the right foot. First, we analyzed these time series separately, and then we compared both results, with direct comparison and with a cross correlation analysis. We tried to find differences in both time series that can be used as indicators of equilibrium problems.

  1. Is sport participation an investment in human capital or a consumption of leasure time?

    OpenAIRE

    Smrčková, Hana Marie

    2012-01-01

    Students who participated in athletics are estimated to receive 20% better grades than their non-athletes colleagues. These findings suggest that athletic participation may enhance the development of motivation, competitive spirit, confidence, discipline and team spirit. Sport participation seems to be a form of human capital investments. We can see stronger effect of individual than collective sport participation. Based on these findings we can assume that wage premium for athletes, as previ...

  2. Selection of housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in human reticulocytes using real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Thein Swee; Jiang Jie; Best Steve; Silver Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Control genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes, are frequently used to normalise mRNA levels between different samples. However, the expression level of these genes may vary among tissues or cells and may change under certain circumstances. Thus, the selection of housekeeping genes is critical for gene expression studies. To address this issue, 7 candidate housekeeping genes including several commonly used ones were investigated in isolated human reticulo...

  3. Linguistic embodiment and verbal constraints: human cognition and the scales of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    with experience of wordings. The latter arise in making and tracking phonetic gestures that, crucially, mesh use of artifice, cultural products and impersonal experience. As observers, living human beings gain dispositions to display and use social subjectivity. Far from using brains to “process” verbal content......, linguistic symbiosis grants access to diachronic resources. On this distributed-ecological view, language can thus be redefined as: “activity in which wordings play a part.”...

  4. Timing of Extinction Relative to Acquisition: A Parametric Analysis of Fear Extinction in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Norrholm, Seth D.; Vervliet, Bram; Jovanovic, Tanja; Boshoven, William; Myers, Karyn M.; Davis, Michael; Rothbaum, Barbara; Duncan, Erica J.

    2008-01-01

    Fear extinction is a reduction in conditioned fear following repeated exposure to the feared cue in the absence of any aversive event. Extinguished fear often reappears after extinction through spontaneous recovery. Animal studies suggest that spontaneous recovery can be abolished if extinction occurs within minutes of acquisition. However, a limited number of human extinction studies have shown that short interval extinction does not prevent the return of fear. For this reason, we performed ...

  5. Control of Dog Mediated Human Rabies in Haiti: No Time to Spare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max F Millien

    Full Text Available The American region has pledged to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies by 2015. As part of these efforts, we describe the findings of a desk and field mission review of Haiti's rabies situation by the end of 2013. While government officials recognize the importance of dog-mediated rabies control, and the national rabies plan adequately contemplates the basic capacities to that effect, regular and sufficient implementation, for example, of dog vaccination, is hampered by limited funding. Compounding insufficient funding and human resources, official surveillance figures do not accurately reflect the risk to the population, as evidenced by the large number of rabid dogs detected by focalized and enhanced surveillance activities conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development (MARNDR and the Health and Population Ministry (MSPP with the technical assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although international support is common, either in the form of on-the-ground technical support or donations of immunobiologicals, it is not comprehensive. In addition, there is limited coordination with MARNDR/MSPP and with other actors at the strategic or operational level due to human resources limitations. Given these findings, the 2015 elimination goal in the region is compromised by the situation in Haiti where control of the disease is not yet in sight despite the best efforts of the resolute national officials. More importantly, dog-mediated rabies is still a threat to the Haitian population.

  6. A direct assessment of human prion adhered to steel wire using real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tsuyoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Furukawa, Kana; Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accidental transmission of prions during neurosurgery has been reported as a consequence of re-using contaminated surgical instruments. Several decontamination methods have been studied using the 263K-hamster prion; however, no studies have directly evaluated human prions. A newly developed in vitro amplification system, designated real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), has allowed the activity of abnormal prion proteins to be assessed within a few days. RT-QuIC using human recombinant prion protein (PrP) showed high sensitivity for prions as the detection limit of our assay was estimated as 0.12 fg of active prions. We applied this method to detect human prion activity on stainless steel wire. When we put wires contaminated with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brain tissue directly into the test tube, typical PrP-amyloid formation was observed within 48 hours, and we could detect the activity of prions at 50% seeding dose on the wire from 10(2.8) to 10(5.8) SD50. Using this method, we also confirmed that the seeding activities on the wire were removed following treatment with NaOH. As seeding activity closely correlated with the infectivity of prions using the bioassay, this wire-QuIC assay will be useful for the direct evaluation of decontamination methods for human prions. PMID:27112110

  7. Generalized Multiscale Entropy Analysis: Application to Quantifying the Complex Volatility of Human Heartbeat Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Madalena D.; Ary L Goldberger

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a generalization of multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis. The method is termed MSE n , where the subscript denotes the moment used to coarse-grain a time series. MSE μ , described previously, uses the mean value (first moment). Here, we focus on MSE σ 2 , which uses the second moment, i.e., the variance. MSE σ 2 quantifies the dynamics of the volatility (variance) of a signal over multiple time scales. We use the method to analyze the structure of heartbeat time series. We find that...

  8. Associative stimulation of the supraorbital nerve fails to induce timing-specific plasticity in the human blink reflex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Kirsten E; Knutzen, Arne; Al-Ali, Asmaa;

    2010-01-01

    Associative high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the supraorbital nerve in five healthy individuals induced long-term potentiation (LTP)-like or depression (LTD)-like changes in the human blink reflex circuit according to the rules of spike timing-dependent plasticity (Mao and Evinger...... the orbicularis oculi muscles, HFS(LTP) induced excessive LTP-like associative plasticity relative to healthy controls, which was normalized after botulinum toxin (BTX) injections (Quartarone et al, 2006)....

  9. Biological properties of differently-aged human keratinocytes:population doubling time growth curve and cell cycle analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the biological properties of keratinocytes from differently-aged healthy human beings. Methods Keratinocytes from fetus,teenager and middle-aged groups were separated and cultured. The population doubling time (PDT) and cell growth curve in different cells were compared,and the cell cycles were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results ① In primary culture of keratinocytes,the adherence time in middle-aged group was longer than that in fetus and teenager groups. However,all cell morphology sh...

  10. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.;

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time corona...... angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p...

  11. Efficient method for near real-time diffuse optical tomography of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Culver, Joseph P.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have showed only regions with a sensitivity higher that 1% of the maximum value can affect the recovery result for diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Two methods of efficient sensitivity map generation based on Finite Element Models (FEM) are developed based on (1) reduced sensitivity matrix and (2) parallelisation process. Time and memory efficiency of these processes are evaluated and compared with conventional methods. It is shown that the computational time for a full head model containing 200k nodes is reduced from 3 hours to 48 minutes and the required memory is reduced from 5.5 GB to 0.5 GB. For a range of mesh densities up to 320k nodes, the required memory is improved by ~1000% and computational time by ~400% to allow near real-time image recovery.

  12. Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jirí; Wittmann, Marc; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-04-11

    Action of a hallucinogenic substance, psilocybin, on internal time representation was investigated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: Experiment 1 with 12 subjects and graded doses, and Experiment 2 with 9 subjects and a very low dose. The task consisted in repeated reproductions of time intervals in the range from 1.5 to 5s. The effects were assessed by parameter kappa of the 'dual klepsydra' model of internal time representation, fitted to individual response data and intra-individually normalized with respect to initial values. The estimates kappa were in the same order of magnitude as in earlier studies. In both experiments, kappa was significantly increased by psilocybin at 90 min from the drug intake, indicating a higher loss rate of the internal duration representation. These findings are tentatively linked to qualitative alterations of subjective time in altered states of consciousness.

  13. Timing of human preimplantation embryonic development is confounded by embryo origin

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkegaard, K; Sundvall, L.; M. Erlandsen; Hindkjær, J.J.; Knudsen, U.B.; Ingerslev, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION To what extent do patient- and treatment-related factors explain the variation in morphokinetic parameters proposed as embryo viability markers? SUMMARY ANSWER Up to 31% of the observed variation in timing of embryo development can be explained by embryo origin, but no single factor elicits a systematic influence. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Several studies report that culture conditions, patient characteristics and treatment influence timing of embryo development, which have promote...

  14. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Birkett, Anne; Hulshof, Toine; Verbeke, Kristin; Gibes, Kernon

    2016-03-01

    Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993. PMID:26950143

  15. Involvement of DNA polymerase δ in DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts at late times after ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA repair synthesis following UV irradiation of confluent human fibroblasts has a biphasic time course with an early phase of rapid nucleotide incorporation and a late phase of much slower nucleotide incorporation. The biphasic nature of this curve suggests that two distinct DNA repair systems may be operative. Previous studies have specifically implicated DNA polymerase δ as the enzyme involved in DNA repair synthesis occurring immediately after UV damage. In this paper, the authors describe studies of DNA polymerase involvement in DNA repair synthesis in confluent human fibroblasts at late times after UV irradiation. Late UV-induced DNA repair synthesis in both intact and permeable cells was found to be inhibited by aphidicolin, indicating the involvement of one of the aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerases, α or δ. In permeable cells, the process was further analyzed by using the nucleotide analogue (butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate, which inhibits DNA polymerase α several hundred times more strongly than it inhibits DNA polymerase δ. The (butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate inhibition curve for late UV-induced repair synthesis was very similar to that for polymerase δ. It appears that repair synthesis at late time after UV irradiation, like repair synthesis at early times, is mediated by DNA polymerase δ

  16. A model for Huanglongbing spread between citrus plants including delay times and human intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilamiu, Raphael G. d'A.; Ternes, Sonia; Braga, Guilherme A.; Laranjeira, Francisco F.

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this work was to present a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delay in the disease's incubation phase in the plants, and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the most important HLB insect vector in Brazil. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the possible impacts of human detection efficiency of symptomatic plants, as well as the influence of a long incubation period of HLB in the plant.

  17. Nanoparticle Albumin Bound Paclitaxel in the Treatment of Human Cancer: Nanodelivery Reaches Prime-Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Cucinotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel represents the first nanotechnology-based drug in cancer treatment. We discuss the development of this innovative compound and report the recent changing-practice results in breast and pancreatic cancer. A ground-breaking finding is the demonstration that nab-paclitaxel can not only enhance the activity and reduce the toxicity of chromophore-diluted compound, but also exert activity in diseases considered refractory to taxane-based treatment. This is the first clinical demonstration of major activity of nanotechnologically modified drugs in the treatment of human neoplasms.

  18. Refined Assessment of Human PM2.5 Exposure in Chinese city by Incorporating Time-activity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Since urban residents tend to spend a majority of time indoors throughout a day, it has been widely discussed in recent years, whether fixed-site monitoring PM2.5 ambient concentration is feasible as a surrogate of human PM2.5 exposure. Comprehensive understanding of residents' daily time-activity patterns (TAP) and possible indoor behavior are urgently needed to perform a more accurate estimate of human PM2.5exposure, especially in China, where is experiencing rapid urbanization.Field surveys of TAP were carried out in a Chinese city of Suzhou from 2014 to 2015 to evaluate PM2.5 exposure in various micro-environments (ME, e.g., residence, outdoors and in-transit). We gathered and analyzed urban residents' seasonal time-activity data using 24h retrospective time-location diaries, as well as diversified exposure-related indoor information (e.g. ventilation, environment tobacco smoke and cooking). PM2.5exposure is calculated through the incorporation of ambient concentration data, modified indoor/outdoor empirical functions and TAP. The spatial distributions of TAP-based exposure and static-population based exposure are also compared.Residents in Suzhou urban area spend over 65% of time at home and 90% indoors. There are significant temporal (season, day type) and socioeconomic differences (gender, age, education, living alone, having children at home, employment status, etc.) of time-activity distributions, which makes the sum of PM2.5 ME exposure differs notably from static-population based ambient exposure. People prefer to spend more time at home both in winter (Peducation and living alone are negative associated with time spent home, while age, children at home and employment status are positively related. On the other hand, due to lack of monitoring stations in unban Suzhou, the inverse distance squared weighting method is not ideally performed and may be less representative of the ambient PM2.5characteristics than satellite data.

  19. Rapid telomere motions in live human cells analyzed by highly time-resolved microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xueying

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomeres cap chromosome ends and protect the genome. We studied individual telomeres in live human cancer cells. In capturing telomere motions using quantitative imaging to acquire complete high-resolution three-dimensional datasets every second for 200 seconds, telomere dynamics were systematically analyzed. Results The motility of individual telomeres within the same cancer cell nucleus was widely heterogeneous. One class of internal heterochromatic regions of chromosomes analyzed moved more uniformly and showed less motion and heterogeneity than telomeres. The single telomere analyses in cancer cells revealed that shorter telomeres showed more motion, and the more rapid telomere motions were energy dependent. Experimentally increasing bulk telomere length dampened telomere motion. In contrast, telomere uncapping, but not a DNA damaging agent, methyl methanesulfonate, significantly increased telomere motion. Conclusion New methods for seconds-scale, four-dimensional, live cell microscopic imaging and data analysis, allowing systematic tracking of individual telomeres in live cells, have defined a previously undescribed form of telomere behavior in human cells, in which the degree of telomere motion was dependent upon telomere length and functionality.

  20. Inadequate treatment of pain: time for the South African courts to redress this human rights violation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rita-Marié

    2010-12-01

    In the case of 90 per cent of patients, pain can be relieved adequately, but in 80 per cent of these cases this is not done, despite the fact that effective pain medication is available. More than three decades ago, the under-treatment of pain had already been identified as a major global problem. Human dignity requires that treatable pain be relieved. Although attempts have been made to address this unnecessary human suffering, there are a number of reasons why little progress has been made. Fear of the regulatory authority has been mentioned, but in South Africa this is not the case. A lack of knowledge and archaic views have resulted in the standard practice of mismanaging pain. Diverging views on whether the health care system's failure to treat patient pain adequately needs corrective action by the judiciary will be discussed. An argument will be made out that the courts should reconsider the standard practice and the question of what is reasonable in regard to pain treatment. The "failure to treat pain adequately" should be recognised as a separate and independent form of medical negligence. Other possible causes of action will also be discussed. Improvements in pain management require simultaneous initiatives in medicine, law and ethics. PMID:22145547

  1. Generalized Multiscale Entropy Analysis: Application to Quantifying the Complex Volatility of Human Heartbeat Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena D. Costa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalization of multiscale entropy (MSE analysis. The method is termed MSEn, where the subscript denotes the moment used to coarse-grain a time series. MSEμ, described previously, uses the mean value (first moment. Here, we focus on MSEσ2 , which uses the second moment, i.e., the variance. MSEσ2 quantifies the dynamics of the volatility (variance of a signal over multiple time scales. We use the method to analyze the structure of heartbeat time series. We find that the dynamics of the volatility of heartbeat time series obtained from healthy young subjects is highly complex. Furthermore, we find that the multiscale complexity of the volatility, not only the multiscale complexity of the mean heart rate, degrades with aging and pathology. The “bursty” behavior of the dynamics may be related to intermittency in energy and information flows, as part of multiscale cycles of activation and recovery. Generalized MSE may also be useful in quantifying the dynamical properties of other physiologic and of non-physiologic time series.

  2. Model cortical association fields account for the time course and dependence on target complexity of human contour perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadas Gintautas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Can lateral connectivity in the primary visual cortex account for the time dependence and intrinsic task difficulty of human contour detection? To answer this question, we created a synthetic image set that prevents sole reliance on either low-level visual features or high-level context for the detection of target objects. Rendered images consist of smoothly varying, globally aligned contour fragments (amoebas distributed among groups of randomly rotated fragments (clutter. The time course and accuracy of amoeba detection by humans was measured using a two-alternative forced choice protocol with self-reported confidence and variable image presentation time (20-200 ms, followed by an image mask optimized so as to interrupt visual processing. Measured psychometric functions were well fit by sigmoidal functions with exponential time constants of 30-91 ms, depending on amoeba complexity. Key aspects of the psychophysical experiments were accounted for by a computational network model, in which simulated responses across retinotopic arrays of orientation-selective elements were modulated by cortical association fields, represented as multiplicative kernels computed from the differences in pairwise edge statistics between target and distractor images. Comparing the experimental and the computational results suggests that each iteration of the lateral interactions takes at least [Formula: see text] ms of cortical processing time. Our results provide evidence that cortical association fields between orientation selective elements in early visual areas can account for important temporal and task-dependent aspects of the psychometric curves characterizing human contour perception, with the remaining discrepancies postulated to arise from the influence of higher cortical areas.

  3. Effect of pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and colonic transit time in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, M; Salles, J P; Fallet, M; Frileux, P; Cugnenc, P H; Barbier, J P

    1992-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide is a specific calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for its spasmolytic activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and total and segmental colonic transit time in control subjects. Gastrointestinal studies were performed in 10 healthy volunteers (30 +/- 3 years), before and after a treatment phase of 14 days (150 mg/d). Jejunal motility was measured by prolonged manometry (14 h) and colonic transit time by a multiple ingestion, single marker technique. No significant modification of phase III of the migrating motor complexes was demonstrated. On the contrary, a significant (p < 0.01) but weak decrease of the frequency of contraction was found. Unlike previous studies, no decrease of total or segmental colonic transit time was demonstrated. PMID:1421047

  4. Human mobility and time spent at destination: Impact on spatial epidemic spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria

    2013-01-01

    Host mobility plays a fundamental role in the spatial spread of infectious diseases. Previous theoretical works based on the integration of network theory into the metapopulation framework have shown that the heterogeneities that characterize real mobility networks favor the propagation of epidemics. Nevertheless, the studies conducted so far assumed the mobility process to be either Markovian or non-Markovian with a fixed traveling time scale. Available statistics however show that the time spent by travelers at destination is characterized by wide fluctuations, ranging between a single day up to several months. Such varying length of stay crucially affects the chance and duration of mixing events among hosts and may therefore have a strong impact on the spread of an emerging disease. Here, we present an analytical and computational study of epidemic processes on a complex subpopulation network where travelers have memory of their origin and spend a heterogeneously distributed time interval at their destinat...

  5. Extracting message inter-departure time distributions from the human electroencephalogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratislav Mišić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex is a topic of much study, yet the link between structure and function is still unclear. The processing capacity and throughput of information at individual brain regions remains an open question and one that could potentially bridge these two aspects of neural organization. The rate at which information is emitted from different nodes in the network and how this output process changes under different external conditions are general questions that are not unique to neuroscience, but are of interest in multiple classes of telecommunication networks. In the present study we show how some of these questions may be addressed using tools from telecommunications research. An important system statistic for modeling and performance evaluation of distributed communication systems is the time between successive departures of units of information at each node in the network. We describe a method to extract and fully characterize the distribution of such inter-departure times from the resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG. We show that inter-departure times are well fitted by the two-parameter Gamma distribution. Moreover, they are not spatially or neurophysiologically trivial and instead are regionally specific and sensitive to the presence of sensory input. In both the eyes-closed and eyes-open conditions, inter-departure time distributions were more dispersed over posterior parietal channels, close to regions which are known to have the most dense structural connectivity. The biggest differences between the two conditions were observed at occipital sites, where inter-departure times were significantly more variable in the eyes-open condition. Together, these results suggest that message departure times are indicative of network traffic and capture a novel facet of neural activity.

  6. Real-time Human Activity Recognition using a Body Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Chen, Hanhua;

    2010-01-01

    . In this model, we first use a fast, lightweight template matching algorithm to detect gestures at the sensor node level, and then use a discriminative pattern based real-time algorithm to recognize high-level activities at the portable device level. We evaluate our algorithms over a real-world dataset....... The results show that the proposed system not only achieves good performance (an average precision of 94.9%, an average recall of 82.5%, and an average real-time delay of 5.7 seconds), but also significantly reduces the network communication cost by 60.2%....

  7. Refining Time-Activity Classification of Human Subjects Using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maogui; Li, Wei; Li, Lianfa; Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Detailed spatial location information is important in accurately estimating personal exposure to air pollution. Global Position System (GPS) has been widely used in tracking personal paths and activities. Previous researchers have developed time-activity classification models based on GPS data, most of them were developed for specific regions. An adaptive model for time-location classification can be widely applied to air pollution studies that use GPS to track individual level time-activity patterns. Methods Time-activity data were collected for seven days using GPS loggers and accelerometers from thirteen adult participants from Southern California under free living conditions. We developed an automated model based on random forests to classify major time-activity patterns (i.e. indoor, outdoor-static, outdoor-walking, and in-vehicle travel). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of the accelerometer data and the supplemental spatial data (i.e. roadway and tax parcel data) to the accuracy of time-activity classification. Our model was evaluated using both leave-one-fold-out and leave-one-subject-out methods. Results Maximum speeds in averaging time intervals of 7 and 5 minutes, and distance to primary highways with limited access were found to be the three most important variables in the classification model. Leave-one-fold-out cross-validation showed an overall accuracy of 99.71%. Sensitivities varied from 84.62% (outdoor walking) to 99.90% (indoor). Specificities varied from 96.33% (indoor) to 99.98% (outdoor static). The exclusion of accelerometer and ambient light sensor variables caused a slight loss in sensitivity for outdoor walking, but little loss in overall accuracy. However, leave-one-subject-out cross-validation showed considerable loss in sensitivity for outdoor static and outdoor walking conditions. Conclusions The random forests classification model can achieve high accuracy for the four major time

  8. Development of real-time PCR array for simultaneous detection of eight human blood-borne viral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pripuzova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Real-time PCR array for rapid detection of multiple viral pathogens should be highly useful in cases where the sample volume and the time of testing are limited, i.e. in the eligibility testing of tissue and organ donors. FINDINGS: We developed a real-time PCR array capable of simultaneously detecting eight human viral pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and -2, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, human T-cell leukemia virus-1 and -2 (HTLV-1 and -2, vaccinia virus (VACV and West Nile virus (WNV. One hundred twenty (120 primers were designed using a combination of bioinformatics approaches, and, after experimental testing, 24 primer sets targeting eight viral pathogens were selected to set up the array with SYBR Green chemistry. The specificity and sensitivity of the virus-specific primer sets selected for the array were evaluated using analytical panels with known amounts of viruses spiked into human plasma. The array detected: 10 genome equivalents (geq/ml of HIV-2 and HCV, 50 geq of HIV-1 (subtype B, HBV (genotype A and WNV. It detected 100-1,000 geq/ml of plasma of HIV-1 subtypes (A - G, group N and CRF (AE and AG isolates. Further evaluation with a panel consisting of 28 HIV-1 and HIV-2 clinical isolates revealed no cross-reactivity of HIV-1 or HIV-2 specific primers with another type of HIV. All 28 viral isolates were identified with specific primer sets targeting the most conserved genome areas. The PCR array correctly identified viral infections in a panel of 17 previously quantified clinical plasma samples positive for HIV-1, HCV or HBV at as low as several geq per PCR reaction. CONCLUSIONS: The viral array described here demonstrated adequate performance in the testing of donors' clinical samples. Further improvement in its sensitivity for the broad spectrum of HIV-1 subtypes is under development.

  9. Time-resolved phosphorous magnetization transfer of the human calf muscle at 3 T and 7 T: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovič, Ladislav, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Chmelík, Marek, E-mail: marek.chmelik@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Just Kukurova, Ivica, E-mail: ivica.kukurova@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Krššák, Martin, E-mail: martin.krssak@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Gruber, Stephan, E-mail: stephan@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Frollo, Ivan, E-mail: umerollo@savba.sk [Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Trattnig, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Bogner, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    Phosphorous ({sup 31}P) magnetization transfer (MT) experiments enable the non-invasive investigation of human muscle metabolism in various physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of time-resolved MT, and to compare the results of MT experiments at 3 T and 7 T. Six healthy volunteers were examined on a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner using the same setup and identical measurement protocols. In the calf muscle of all volunteers, four separate MT experiments (each ∼10 min duration) were performed in one session. The forward rate constant of the ATP synthesis reaction (k{sub ATP}) and creatine kinase reaction (k{sub CK}), as well as corresponding metabolic fluxes (F{sub ATP}, F{sub CK}), were estimated. A comparison of these exchange parameters, apparent T{sub 1}s, data quality, quantification precision, and reproducibility was performed. The data quality and reproducibility of the same MT experiments at 7 T was significantly higher (i.e., k{sub ATP} 2.7 times higher and k{sub CK} 3.4 times higher) than at 3 T (p < 0.05). The values for k{sub ATP} (p = 0.35) and k{sub CK} (p = 0.09) at both field strengths were indistinguishable. Even a single MT experiment at 7 T provided better data quality than did a 4 times-longer MT experiment at 3 T. The minimal time-resolution to reliably quantify both F{sub ATP} and F{sub CK} at 7 T was ∼6 min. Our results show that MT experiments at 7 T can be at least 4 times faster than 3 T MT experiments and still provide significantly better quantification. This enables time-resolved MT experiments for the observation of slow metabolic changes in the human calf muscle at 7 T.

  10. Time-resolved phosphorous magnetization transfer of the human calf muscle at 3 T and 7 T: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorous (31P) magnetization transfer (MT) experiments enable the non-invasive investigation of human muscle metabolism in various physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of time-resolved MT, and to compare the results of MT experiments at 3 T and 7 T. Six healthy volunteers were examined on a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner using the same setup and identical measurement protocols. In the calf muscle of all volunteers, four separate MT experiments (each ∼10 min duration) were performed in one session. The forward rate constant of the ATP synthesis reaction (kATP) and creatine kinase reaction (kCK), as well as corresponding metabolic fluxes (FATP, FCK), were estimated. A comparison of these exchange parameters, apparent T1s, data quality, quantification precision, and reproducibility was performed. The data quality and reproducibility of the same MT experiments at 7 T was significantly higher (i.e., kATP 2.7 times higher and kCK 3.4 times higher) than at 3 T (p < 0.05). The values for kATP (p = 0.35) and kCK (p = 0.09) at both field strengths were indistinguishable. Even a single MT experiment at 7 T provided better data quality than did a 4 times-longer MT experiment at 3 T. The minimal time-resolution to reliably quantify both FATP and FCK at 7 T was ∼6 min. Our results show that MT experiments at 7 T can be at least 4 times faster than 3 T MT experiments and still provide significantly better quantification. This enables time-resolved MT experiments for the observation of slow metabolic changes in the human calf muscle at 7 T

  11. Relaxation and phase space singularities in time series of human magnetoencephalograms as indicator of photosensitive epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulmetyev, R. M.; Hänggi, P.; Yulmetyeva, D. G.; Shimojo, S.; Khusaenova, E. V.; Watanabe, K.; Bhattacharya, J.

    2007-09-01

    To analyze the crucial role of fluctuation and relaxation effects for the function of the human brain we studied some statistical quantifiers that support the information characteristics of neuromagnetic brain responses (magnetoencephalogram, MEG). The signals to a flickering stimulus of different color combinations have been obtained from a group of control subjects which is then contrasted with those of a patient suffering photosensitive epilepsy (PSE). We found that the existence of the specific stratification of the phase clouds and the concomitant relaxation singularities of the corresponding nonequilibrium dynamics of the chaotic behavior of the signals in separate areas in a patient provide likely indicators for the zones which are responsible for the appearance of PSE.

  12. The impact of early human data on clinical development: there is time to win.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Piet; Lozac'h, Frederic; Simon, Marjorie; van Duijn, Esther; Vaes, Wouter H J

    2016-06-01

    Modern accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) methods enable the routine application of this technology in drug development. By the administration of a (14)C-labelled microdose or microtrace, pharmacokinetic (PK) data, such as mass balance, metabolite profiling, and absolute bioavailability (AB) data, can be generated easier, faster, and at lower costs. Here, we emphasize the advances and impact of this technology for pharmaceutical companies. The availability of accurate intravenous (iv) PK and human absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) information, even before or during Phase I trials, can improve the clinical development plan. Moreover, applying the microtrace approach during early clinical development might impact the number of clinical pharmacology and preclinical safety pharmacology studies required, and shorten the overall drug discovery program.

  13. Europe’s Constitutional Law in Times of Crisis: A Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to survey representative constitutional amendments in the European Union’s area, whether attempted or accomplished, as well as significant adjudications by constitutional bodies, since the outset of the ongoing international economic crisis, 2008-2015. We assess these legal phenomena in light of human rights jurisprudence. Pivotal reference in our work is the recently released 7th volume of the Annuaire international des droits de l’homme, edited by G. Katrougalos, M. Figueiredo and P. Pararas under the aegis of the International Association of Constitutional Law. Have European constitutions continued to function qua civil commons in the crisis years? That, at the deepest level of value scrutiny, is the question that our joint survey and analysis aim to answer.

  14. The impact of early human data on clinical development: there is time to win.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Piet; Lozac'h, Frederic; Simon, Marjorie; van Duijn, Esther; Vaes, Wouter H J

    2016-06-01

    Modern accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) methods enable the routine application of this technology in drug development. By the administration of a (14)C-labelled microdose or microtrace, pharmacokinetic (PK) data, such as mass balance, metabolite profiling, and absolute bioavailability (AB) data, can be generated easier, faster, and at lower costs. Here, we emphasize the advances and impact of this technology for pharmaceutical companies. The availability of accurate intravenous (iv) PK and human absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) information, even before or during Phase I trials, can improve the clinical development plan. Moreover, applying the microtrace approach during early clinical development might impact the number of clinical pharmacology and preclinical safety pharmacology studies required, and shorten the overall drug discovery program. PMID:27046542

  15. Effect of oxygen concentration on human embryo development evaluated by time-lapse monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Kirkegaard, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    by using a statistical programme (STATA) to random choose half of the embryos from each patient, generating group 2 consisting of 98 IVF embryos from 21 patients and group 3 consisting of 109 ICSI embryos from 38 patients. Automated image recording was performed every 20 min. Key events such as time...

  16. Measurement of vascular water transport in human subjects using time-resolved pulsed arterial spin labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibic, Adnan; Knutsson, Linda; Schmidt, Anders; Henningsson, Erik; Månsson, Sven; Abul-Kasim, Kasim; Åkeson, Jonas; Gunther, Matthias; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Wirestam, Ronnie

    2015-08-01

    Most approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) data analysis aim to provide a quantitative measure of the cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study, however, focuses on the measurement of the transfer time of blood water through the capillaries to the parenchyma (referred to as the capillary transfer time, CTT) as an alternative parameter to characterise the haemodynamics of the system. The method employed is based on a non-compartmental model, and no measurements need to be added to a common time-resolved ASL experiment. Brownian motion of labelled spins in a potential was described by a one-dimensional general Langevin equation as the starting point, and as a Fokker-Planck differential equation for the averaged distribution of labelled spins at the end point, which takes into account the effects of flow and dispersion of labelled water by the pseudorandom nature of the microvasculature and the transcapillary permeability. Multi-inversion time (multi-TI) ASL data were acquired in 14 healthy subjects on two occasions in a test-retest design, using a pulsed ASL sequence and three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (3D-GRASE) readout. Based on an error analysis to predict the size of a region of interest (ROI) required to obtain reasonably precise parameter estimates, data were analysed in two relatively large ROIs, i.e. the occipital lobe (OC) and the insular cortex (IC). The average values of CTT in OC were 260 ± 60 ms in the first experiment and 270 ± 60 ms in the second experiment. The corresponding IC values were 460 ± 130 ms and 420 ± 139 ms, respectively. Information related to the water transfer time may be important for diagnostics and follow-up of cerebral conditions or diseases characterised by a disrupted blood-brain barrier or disturbed capillary blood flow. PMID:26147641

  17. A New Profile Shape Matching Stereovision Algorithm for Real-time Human Pose and Hand Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new profile shape matching stereovision algorithm that is designed to extract 3D information in real time. This algorithm obtains 3D information by matching profile intensity shapes of each corresponding row of the stereo image pair. It detects the corresponding matching patterns of the intensity profile rather than the intensity values of individual pixels or pixels in a small neighbourhood. This approach reduces the effect of the intensity and colour variations caused by lighting differences. As with all real-time vision algorithms, there is always a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed. This algorithm achieves a balance between the two to produce accurate results for real-time applications. To demonstrate its performance, the proposed algorithm is tested for human pose and hand gesture recognition to control a smart phone and an entertainment system.

  18. Large-scale time-lapse microscopy of Oct4 expression in human embryonic stem cell colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadriraju, Kiran; Halter, Michael; Amelot, Julien; Bajcsy, Peter; Chalfoun, Joe; Vandecreme, Antoine; Mallon, Barbara S; Park, Kye-Yoon; Sista, Subhash; Elliott, John T; Plant, Anne L

    2016-07-01

    Identification and quantification of the characteristics of stem cell preparations is critical for understanding stem cell biology and for the development and manufacturing of stem cell based therapies. We have developed image analysis and visualization software that allows effective use of time-lapse microscopy to provide spatial and dynamic information from large numbers of human embryonic stem cell colonies. To achieve statistically relevant sampling, we examined >680 colonies from 3 different preparations of cells over 5days each, generating a total experimental dataset of 0.9 terabyte (TB). The 0.5 Giga-pixel images at each time point were represented by multi-resolution pyramids and visualized using the Deep Zoom Javascript library extended to support viewing Giga-pixel images over time and extracting data on individual colonies. We present a methodology that enables quantification of variations in nominally-identical preparations and between colonies, correlation of colony characteristics with Oct4 expression, and identification of rare events.

  19. The Hybrid Design: Integrating the Human and Technical Components of Just-In-Time Knowledge Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabie Y. Conteh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the right balance of human and technical resources in the design of Just-in-Time knowledge delivery. It also examines and analyzes the case study: “Teltech: The business of Knowledge Management” by Davenport. It further attempts to depict the characteristics of the hybrid. The paper describes how the hybrid can be applied to Just-In-Time knowledge delivery. It also seeks to analyze and explore its interplay with knowledge splits with a view to designing Just-In- Time Knowledge Management. These include: “tacit versus explicit knowledge”, “in-process” versus “after action” documentation, “process-centered versus product-centered approach”, “knowledge versus information” and the “culture of sharing versus hoarding.”

  20. Time course of sleep inertia dissipation in human performance and alertness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, M. E.; Wyatt, J. K.; Ritz-De Cecco, A.; Khalsa, S. B.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Alertness and performance on a wide variety of tasks are impaired immediately upon waking from sleep due to sleep inertia, which has been found to dissipate in an asymptotic manner following waketime. It has been suggested that behavioural or environmental factors, as well as sleep stage at awakening, may affect the severity of sleep inertia. In order to determine the time course of sleep inertia dissipation under normal entrained conditions, subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were measured during the first 4 h after habitual waketime from a full 8-h sleep episode on 3 consecutive days. We investigated whether this time course was affected by either sleep stage at awakening or behavioural/environmental factors. Sleep inertia dissipated in an asymptotic manner and took 2-4 h to near the asymptote. Saturating exponential functions fitted the sleep inertia data well, with time constants of 0.67 h for subjective alertness and 1.17 h for cognitive performance. Most awakenings occurred out of stage rapid eye movement (REM), 2 or 1 sleep, and no effect of sleep stage at awakening on either the severity of sleep inertia or the time course of its dissipation could be detected. Subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were significantly impaired upon awakening regardless of whether subjects got out of bed, ate breakfast, showered and were exposed to ordinary indoor room light (approximately 150 lux) or whether subjects participated in a constant routine (CR) protocol in which they remained in bed, ate small hourly snacks and were exposed to very dim light (10-15 lux). These findings allow for the refinement of models of alertness and performance, and have important implications for the scheduling of work immediately upon awakening in many occupational settings.

  1. Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Cain, Sean W.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Münch, Mirjam Y.; Gronfier, Claude; Wyatt, James K.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Wright, Kenneth P.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature are set to an earlier hour in women than in men, even when the women and men maintain nearly identical and consistent bedtimes and wake times. Moreover, women tend to wake up earlier than men and exhibit a greater preference for morning activities than men. Although the neurobiological mechanism underlying this sex difference in circadian alignment is unknown, multiple studies in nonhuman animals have demonstrated a sex difference in cir...

  2. Calcium detection of human hair and nail by the nanosecond time-gated spectroscopy of laser-ablation plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Ohmi, Masato; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Morimoto, Shigeto

    2000-04-01

    We demonstrate the nanosecond time-gated spectroscopy of plume in laser ablation of biological tissue, which allows us to detect calcium (Ca) with high sensitivity by the use of either a UV or a near-IR laser pulse. Clear and sharp peaks of Ca+ appear in the luminescence spectrum of laser-ablation plume although the Ca content is only 0.1 percent in human hair and nail. Luminescence peaks of sodium atom (Na) and ionized carbon are also detectable. This specific spectroscopy is low invasive because a single low-energy laser pulse illuminates the tissue sample, and it does not require any poisonous sensititizers like fluorescence dye. This method, therefore, is a promising candidate for optical biopsy in the near future. In particular, Ca detection of human hair may lead to new diagnosis, including monitor of daily intake of Ca and a screening diagnosis of osteoporosis.

  3. Real-Time Multiview Recognition of Human Gestures by Distributed Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Kosuke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since a gesture involves a dynamic and complex motion, multiview observation and recognition are desirable. For the better representation of gestures, one needs to know, in the first place, from which views a gesture should be observed. Furthermore, it becomes increasingly important how the recognition results are integrated when larger numbers of camera views are considered. To investigate these problems, we propose a framework under which multiview recognition is carried out, and an integration scheme by which the recognition results are integrated online and in realtime. For performance evaluation, we use the ViHASi (Virtual Human Action Silhouette public image database as a benchmark and our Japanese sign language (JSL image database that contains 18 kinds of hand signs. By examining the recognition rates of each gesture for each view, we found gestures that exhibit view dependency and the gestures that do not. Also, we found that the view dependency itself could vary depending on the target gesture sets. By integrating the recognition results of different views, our swarm-based integration provides more robust and better recognition performance than individual fixed-view recognition agents.

  4. ASAR15, A cis-acting locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and stability of human chromosome 15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Donley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along each mammalian chromosome at different times during each S phase, following a temporal replication program. We have used a Cre/loxP-based strategy to identify cis-acting elements that control this replication-timing program on individual human chromosomes. In this report, we show that rearrangements at a complex locus at chromosome 15q24.3 result in delayed replication and structural instability of human chromosome 15. Characterization of this locus identified long, RNA transcripts that are retained in the nucleus and form a "cloud" on one homolog of chromosome 15. We also found that this locus displays asynchronous replication that is coordinated with other random monoallelic genes on chromosome 15. We have named this locus ASynchronous replication and Autosomal RNA on chromosome 15, or ASAR15. Previously, we found that disruption of the ASAR6 lincRNA gene results in delayed replication, delayed mitotic condensation and structural instability of human chromosome 6. Previous studies in the mouse found that deletion of the Xist gene, from the X chromosome in adult somatic cells, results in a delayed replication and instability phenotype that is indistinguishable from the phenotype caused by disruption of either ASAR6 or ASAR15. In addition, delayed replication and chromosome instability were detected following structural rearrangement of many different human or mouse chromosomes. These observations suggest that all mammalian chromosomes contain similar cis-acting loci. Thus, under this scenario, all mammalian chromosomes contain four distinct types of essential cis-acting elements: origins, telomeres, centromeres and "inactivation/stability centers", all functioning to promote proper replication, segregation and structural stability of each chromosome.

  5. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmarck, Birgitte; Olsen, Steen Schytte

    2001-01-01

    1. Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake...... remains unresolved. 2. The study investigated the importance of immediate (P0) or delayed (P2) intake of an oral protein supplement upon muscle hypertrophy and strength over a period of resistance training in elderly males. 3. Thirteen men (age, 74 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI), 25 ± 1 kg m−2 (means...... %, respectively (P important...

  6. Time and motion, experiment M151. [human performance and space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, J. F.; Elrod, J. T.; Rusnak, R.; Mcbride, G. H.; Barnes, J. E.; Saxon, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut work performance during the preparation and execution of experiments in simulated Skylab tests was analyzed according to time and motion in order to evaluate the efficiency and consistency of performance (adaptation function) for several different types of activity over the course of the mission; to evaluate the procedures to be used by the same experiment in Skylab; to generate characteristic adaptation functions for later comparison with Skylab data; and to examine astronaut performance for any behavioral stress due to the environment. The overall results indicate that the anticipated adaptation function was obtained both for individual and for averaged data.

  7. One-dimensional modelling of pulse wave propagation in human airway bifurcations in space-time variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavica, Francesco; Alastruey, Jordi; Sherwin, Spencer J; Khir, Ashraf W

    2009-01-01

    Airflow in the respiratory system is complicated as it goes through various regions with different geometries and mechanical properties. Three-dimensional (3-D) simulations are typically limited to local areas of the system because of their high computational cost. On the other hand, the one-dimensional (1-D) equations of flow in compliant tubes offer a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost when a global assessment of airflow in the system is required. The aim of the current study is to apply the 1-D formulation in space and time variables to study the propagation of a pulse wave in human airways; first in a simple system composed of just one bifurcation, trachea-main bronchi, according to the symmetrical Weibel model. Then extending the system to include a further generation, the bronchi branches. Pulse waveforms carry information about the functionality and morphology of the respiratory system and the 1-D modelling, in terms of space and time variables, represents an innovative approach for respiratory response interpretation. 1-D modelling in space-time variables has been extensively applied to simulate blood pressure and flow in the cardiovascular system. This work represents the first attempt to apply this formulation to study pulse waveforms in the human bronchial tree. PMID:19965046

  8. Age and dose as determinants of times of appearance of radium-induced osteosarcomas in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determinants of time-until-tumor for bone sarcomas in US radium cases have been reevaluated. For the 57 measured female bone sarcoma cases exposed to 226Ra and/or 228Ra, ages at appearance of tumor are more strongly correlated with radium intake doses than are latency periods. Ages at appearance of tumor increase as initial radium intakes decrease. As many lower dose cases were iatrogenic cases exposed in mid-adult life, rather than about age 22 as for the dial worker cases, these results may be artifactual, resulting from an increased susceptability to sarcoma induction at older ages. Alternatively the time of appearance of a sarcoma may be in part directly determined by age. Both explanations find support in the literature. These results suggest that 226228Ra-induced bone sarcomas do have an expression period. The downturn in sarcoma incidence at very high doses may result from truncation of the expression period on its early side by the minimum induction period

  9. Human strategies for solving a time-place learning task: the role of counting and following verbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallardo, Daniel; Aguilar, Francisco; Armenta, Benjamín; Carpio, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the emergence of time-place learning in humans. In experiment 1, a computer based software was designed in which participants had to choose to enter one of four rooms in an abandoned house search for a zombie every 3-15s. Zombies could be found in only one of these rooms every trial in 3 min periods during the 12 min sessions. After 4 training sessions, participants were exposed to a probe session in which zombies could be found in any room on every trial. Almost all participants behaved as if they were timing the availability intervals: they anticipated the changes in the location of the zombie and they persisted in their performance patterns during the probe session; however, verbal reports revealed that they were counting the number of trials in each period in order to decide when to switch between rooms. In the second experiment, the task was modified in two ways: counting was made harder by using three different intertrial ranges within each session: 2-6s, 2-11s and 2-16s. Second, labels were displaced during the final session to assess whether participants learned to click on a given place or to follow a set of verbal cues. We found that participants did not notice the label changes suggesting that they learned to click on a given place, and that a win/stay-lose/shift strategy was clearly used to decide when to switch rooms in the second experiment. The implications of verbal behavior when assessing time-place learning with humans and the possible differences in this process between humans and animals are discussed.

  10. Human strategies for solving a time-place learning task: the role of counting and following verbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallardo, Daniel; Aguilar, Francisco; Armenta, Benjamín; Carpio, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the emergence of time-place learning in humans. In experiment 1, a computer based software was designed in which participants had to choose to enter one of four rooms in an abandoned house search for a zombie every 3-15s. Zombies could be found in only one of these rooms every trial in 3 min periods during the 12 min sessions. After 4 training sessions, participants were exposed to a probe session in which zombies could be found in any room on every trial. Almost all participants behaved as if they were timing the availability intervals: they anticipated the changes in the location of the zombie and they persisted in their performance patterns during the probe session; however, verbal reports revealed that they were counting the number of trials in each period in order to decide when to switch between rooms. In the second experiment, the task was modified in two ways: counting was made harder by using three different intertrial ranges within each session: 2-6s, 2-11s and 2-16s. Second, labels were displaced during the final session to assess whether participants learned to click on a given place or to follow a set of verbal cues. We found that participants did not notice the label changes suggesting that they learned to click on a given place, and that a win/stay-lose/shift strategy was clearly used to decide when to switch rooms in the second experiment. The implications of verbal behavior when assessing time-place learning with humans and the possible differences in this process between humans and animals are discussed. PMID:25650791

  11. Associative Stimulation of the Supraorbital Nerve Fails to Induce Timing-Specific Plasticity in the Human Blink Reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Zeuner, Kirsten E.; Arne Knutzen; Asmaa Al-Ali; Mark Hallett; Günther Deuschl; Bergmann, Til O.; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associative high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the supraorbital nerve in five healthy individuals induced long-term potentiation (LTP)-like or depression (LTD)-like changes in the human blink reflex circuit according to the rules of spike timing-dependent plasticity (Mao and Evinger, 2001). HFS given at the onset of the R2 component of the blink reflex (HFS(LTP)) produced a lasting facilitation of the R2, whereas HFS given shortly before R2 (HFS(LTD)) caused a lasting ...

  12. Comparison of Real-Time Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) PCR Assays with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Assay▿

    OpenAIRE

    Else, Elizabeth A.; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J.; Bryan, Janine T.; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and H...

  13. On the space and time evolution of regular or irregular human heart or brain signals

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2011-01-01

    A coupled map is suggested to investigate various spatial or temporal designs in biology: Several cells (or tissues) in an organ are considered as connected to each other in terms of some molecular diffusions or electrical potential differences and so on. The biological systems (groups of cells) start from various initial conditions for spatial designs (or initial signals for temporal designs) and they evolve in time in terms of the mentioned interactions (connections) besides some individual feedings. The basic aim of the present contribution is to mimic various empirical data for the heart (in normal, quasi-stable, unstable and post operative physiological conditions) or brain (regular or irregular; for epilepsy) signals. The mentioned empirical data are borrowed from various literatures which are cited. The suggested model (to be used besides or instead of the artificial network models) involves simple mathematics and the related software is easy. The results may be considered as in good agreement with the...

  14. Using Machine Learning to Enable Big Data Analysis within Human Review Time Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, B.; Rebbapragada, U.; Wagstaff, K.; Thompson, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The quantity of astronomical observations collected by today's instruments far exceeds the capability of manual inspection by domain experts. Scientists often have a fixed time budget of a few hours spend to perform the monotonous task of scanning through a live stream or data dump of candidates that must be prioritized for follow-up analysis. Today's and next generation astronomical instruments produce millions of candidate detection per day, and necessitate the use of automated classifiers that serve as "data triage" in order to filter out spurious signals. Automated data triage enables increased science return by prioritizing interesting or anomalous observations for follow-up inspection, while also expediting analysis by filtering out noisy or redundant observations. We describe three specific astronomical investigations that are currently benefiting from data triage techniques in their respective processing pipelines.

  15. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmarck, Birgitte; Olsen, Steen Schytte

    2001-01-01

    1. Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake...... remains unresolved. 2. The study investigated the importance of immediate (P0) or delayed (P2) intake of an oral protein supplement upon muscle hypertrophy and strength over a period of resistance training in elderly males. 3. Thirteen men (age, 74 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI), 25 ± 1 kg m−2 (means...... %, respectively (P protein intake at 0 and 2 h postexercise. 5. We conclude that early intake of an oral protein supplement after resistance training is important...

  16. Time-dependent labelling course of human eosinophilic granulocytes after 3H thymidine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After intravenous injection of 0.1 μCi/g body weight 3H-Thymidine and taking of blood samples in intervals of 6-12 hrs. on three test persons with healthy blood, the labelling course of the eosinophilic granulocytes was studied. The cells were classified in four groups, according to the relative frequency of the different degrees of labelling. The time-dependent labelling index curves showed a nawe-sheped course. Elimination of the eosinophilics from the blood is carried out according to the 'At-random'-principle. 12 hrs. p.i. already 10% of the eosinophilics in the blood were labelled with maximally 5 grains. The cell flow-in phase of 13 hrs. was succeeded by a flow-out phase of nearly the same duration, afthr the first labelling maximum of 17%. 80 hrs. p.i. the first massive in-flow of high-labelled cells containing more than 30 grains. After reaching the labelling maximum of 58%, the labelling index values decreased continuously. Until the 11th day p.i., appr. 50% of the eosinophilics were still labelled, after 17 days appr. 25%, more than 65% of which consisted of cells with only 2-4 grains. Comparison of the labelling index curves of the grain groups with each other shows at first a synchronous, then an increasingly asynchronous course, according to the desynchronization of the several eosinophilic generation cycles in the bone marrow which gets more significant in the course of time. (orig.)

  17. Model for interevent times with long tails and multifractality in human communications: An application to financial trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Josep; Masoliver, Jaume; Kasprzak, Andrzej; Kutner, Ryszard

    2008-09-01

    Social, technological, and economic time series are divided by events which are usually assumed to be random, albeit with some hierarchical structure. It is well known that the interevent statistics observed in these contexts differs from the Poissonian profile by being long-tailed distributed with resting and active periods interwoven. Understanding mechanisms generating consistent statistics has therefore become a central issue. The approach we present is taken from the continuous-time random-walk formalism and represents an analytical alternative to models of nontrivial priority that have been recently proposed. Our analysis also goes one step further by looking at the multifractal structure of the interevent times of human decisions. We here analyze the intertransaction time intervals of several financial markets. We observe that empirical data describe a subtle multifractal behavior. Our model explains this structure by taking the pausing-time density in the form of a superstatistics where the integral kernel quantifies the heterogeneous nature of the executed tasks. A stretched exponential kernel provides a multifractal profile valid for a certain limited range. A suggested heuristic analytical profile is capable of covering a broader region.

  18. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with high pregnancy rates during ovarian stimulation and timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razeq Sonya

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are different factors that influence treatment outcome after ovarian stimulation and timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI. After patient age, it has been suggested that timing of insemination in relation to ovulation is probably the most important variable affecting the success of treatment. The objective of this study is to study the value of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration and occurrence of luteinizing hormone (LH surge in timing insemination on the treatment outcome after follicular monitoring with timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination, with or without ovarian stimulation. Methods Retrospective analysis of 2000 consecutive completed treatment cycles (637 timed-intercourse and 1363 intrauterine insemination cycles. Stimulation protocols included clomiphene alone or with FSH injection, letrozole (an aromatase inhibitor alone or with FSH, and FSH alone. LH-surge was defined as an increase in LH level ≥200% over mean of preceding two days. When given, hCG was administered at a dose of 10,000 IU. The main outcome was clinical pregnancy rate per cycle. Results Higher pregnancy rates occurred in cycles in which hCG was given. Occurrence of an LH-surge was associated with a higher pregnancy rate with clomiphene treatment, but a lower pregnancy rate with FSH treatment. Conclusions hCG administration is associated with a favorable outcome during ovarian stimulation. Awaiting occurrence of LH-surge is associated with a better outcome with CC but not with FSH treatment.

  19. Refined Assessment of Human PM2.5 Exposure in Chinese city by Incorporating Time-activity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Since urban residents tend to spend a majority of time indoors throughout a day, it has been widely discussed in recent years, whether fixed-site monitoring PM2.5 ambient concentration is feasible as a surrogate of human PM2.5 exposure. Comprehensive understanding of residents' daily time-activity patterns (TAP) and possible indoor behavior are urgently needed to perform a more accurate estimate of human PM2.5exposure, especially in China, where is experiencing rapid urbanization.Field surveys of TAP were carried out in a Chinese city of Suzhou from 2014 to 2015 to evaluate PM2.5 exposure in various micro-environments (ME, e.g., residence, outdoors and in-transit). We gathered and analyzed urban residents' seasonal time-activity data using 24h retrospective time-location diaries, as well as diversified exposure-related indoor information (e.g. ventilation, environment tobacco smoke and cooking). PM2.5exposure is calculated through the incorporation of ambient concentration data, modified indoor/outdoor empirical functions and TAP. The spatial distributions of TAP-based exposure and static-population based exposure are also compared.Residents in Suzhou urban area spend over 65% of time at home and 90% indoors. There are significant temporal (season, day type) and socioeconomic differences (gender, age, education, living alone, having children at home, employment status, etc.) of time-activity distributions, which makes the sum of PM2.5 ME exposure differs notably from static-population based ambient exposure. People prefer to spend more time at home both in winter (PGender, education and living alone are negative associated with time spent home, while age, children at home and employment status are positively related. On the other hand, due to lack of monitoring stations in unban Suzhou, the inverse distance squared weighting method is not ideally performed and may be less representative of the ambient PM2.5characteristics than satellite data.

  20. What neuropsychology tells us about human tool use? The four constraints theory (4CT): mechanics, space, time, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiurak, François

    2014-06-01

    Our understanding of human tool use comes mainly from neuropsychology, particularly from patients with apraxia or action disorganization syndrome. However, there is no integrative, theoretical framework explaining what these neuropsychological syndromes tell us about the cognitive/neural bases of human tool use. The goal of the present article is to fill this gap, by providing a theoretical framework for the study of human tool use: The Four Constraints Theory (4CT). This theory rests on two basic assumptions. First, everyday tool use activities can be formalized as multiple problem situations consisted of four distinct constraints (mechanics, space, time, and effort). Second, each of these constraints can be solved by the means of a specific process (technical reasoning, semantic reasoning, working memory, and simulation-based decision-making, respectively). Besides presenting neuropsychological evidence for 4CT, this article shall address epistemological, theoretical and methodological issues I will attempt to resolve. This article will discuss how 4CT diverges from current cognitive models about several widespread hypotheses (e.g., notion of routine, direct and automatic activation of tool knowledge, simulation-based tool knowledge).

  1. Noncontacting diffuse VIS-NIR spectroscopy of human skin for evaluation of skin type and time-dependent microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Fassler, Dieter; Zimmermann, Gabi; Liebold, Kristin; Wollina, Uwe

    2000-11-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of the VIS-NIR range allow the objective determination of pigmentation, blood microcirculation and water content of human skin. Non- contacting in vivo measurements of the human skin of 50 volunteers reflect the clinical skin type well. Our correlation analysis yields that the red/infrared spectral range can be used for a determination of skin type. The observed strong spectral variations within the same group of skin type are likely based on the high biological variability of human skin and subjective clinically observed skin type. Therefore it can be useful to measure the full spectral range and to calculate a non-observed skin score with multivariate spectral methods. By multivariate analysis a correct classification of remittance spectra can be obtained. Time- depending spectral variations of dermal microcirculation can be measured at defined locations of the body, for instance the dynamics of oxygenation or blood volume in the skin of the fingertip. The cardial, pulmonal and vasomotoric waves of the micro- and macrocirculation are clearly visible at different wavelengths. The spectroscopic informations are important as an objective measure for the skin type evaluation, the penetration behavior of pharmaca, laser surgery, and therapy.

  2. Dose- and time-dependent benefits of iPad technology in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Marcella A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the impact of iPad integration on performance in an undergraduate gross anatomy course. Two out of six course sections were assigned to one of the following conditions: control (no iPad, n = 61); limited access (laboratory iPads, n = 58); and unlimited access (personal iPads, n = 47). Student knowledge was assessed over time during the semester with two practical examinations in laboratory and four multiple choice/essay examinations in lecture. The same PowerPoint presentations and examinations were utilized for all conditions. Mixed ANOVA analysis identified an interaction effect between time and condition for both laboratory (F2,153  = 16.12; P learning curve, tablet devices and relevant applications can be useful tools in human anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 367-377. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26606529

  3. A real-time human-perception interface for task-level control of a robot in unfamiliar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Eric Scott

    Recent advances in the development of semi-autonomous robotic systems offer numerous potential advantages in many engineering and science endeavors. Significant reductions in cost, time and risk, as well as increased capability, can be obtained by utilizing intelligent machines to assist humans. However, the use of robots also introduces many challenging issues, including the need for high-bandwidth stable control despite communication delays and operator fatigue. In response to these challenges, the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory has pioneered the Task-Level Control architecture, which enables humans to direct, from a strategic level, sophisticated tasks that a robot then executes autonomously. The research reported here is intended to extend the Task-Level Control architecture significantly--by using human perception in a natural way--to work well in unfamiliar environments. An unfamiliar environment is defined to be one about which it is impossible to have perfect and complete knowledge before developing and deploying a robotic system. Clearly, every work environment is, to some extent, unfamiliar. This research has shown that drawing intimately, in real time, upon a human's deep visual perception is extremely effective in overcoming such unfamiliarity. A novel interactive vision-based operator interface for directing a highly autonomous robot operating in an unfamiliar environment is presented. Intuitive interaction with a live-video display from cameras on board the robot is used in combination with stereo-vision algorithms to maintain the operator's attention at the overall object-level during the modeling process. With this interface, the human's remarkable ability to discern entire object-level constructs is utilized to produce quick, cogent and robust models of unexpected and unknown objects in the environment. Once unfamiliar objects have been suitably modeled, tasks involving those objects can be directed via the Task-Level Control architecture

  4. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biliński Szczepan M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later.

  5. Human impact on erosion and burial of soil carbon through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Amelung, Wulf; Bornemann, Ludger; Gerlach, Renate; Lang, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The effects of soil erosion on atmospheric carbon is governed by three key mechanisms that are i) the replacement of soil organic carbon (SOC) at eroding sites, ii) the mineralization of SOC during erosion and transport and iii) the stability of buried SOC at depositional sites. Markedly different assumptions have been made about the relative importance of the key mechanisms, resulting in a global release of 1 Pg C/a to a global uptake of 1 Pg C/a. Here we present results of a sediment-associated carbon budget in a small headwater catchment in Germany, to highlight the importance of the timescale in controlling the relative importance of the key mechanisms. Therefore, we estimate the loss of SOC through land use change from forests to arable land and compare it with SOC losses at degraded sites and burial of SOC in colluvial deposits. Our results show that the transition of forest to arable land (without erosion and deposition of soils and sediments) resulted in a rapid loss of SOC from 11.8 kg C/m² to 7.2 kg C/m² in our study site. Eroded sites are characterized by carbon stocks of 6.9 kg C/m² compared to depositional sites with 27.9 kg C/m². Thus the combined effect of soil erosion and deposition results in a slow net withdrawal of atmospheric CO2, which compensates land use driven losses. We show that the net effect of SOC degradation and burial depends on the rate of soil erosion and time since the erosion commenced. Given the erosion history in the study site, the removal of SOC through land use change will be compensated after approx. 120 years of erosion and deposition.

  6. Detection of an extended human volatome with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF MS has been proposed as a powerful new tool for multidimensional analysis of complex chemical mixtures. We investigated GCxGC-TOF MS as a new method for identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs in normal human breath. METHODS: Samples of alveolar breath VOCs and ambient room air VOC were collected with a breath collection apparatus (BCA onto separate sorbent traps from 34 normal healthy volunteers (mean age = 40 yr, SD = 17 yr, male/female = 19/15. VOCs were separated on two serial capillary columns separated by a cryogenic modulator, and detected with TOF MS. The first and second dimension columns were non-polar and polar respectively. RESULTS: BCA collection combined with GC×GC-TOF MS analysis identified approximately 2000 different VOCs in samples of human breath, many of which have not been previously reported. The 50 VOCs with the highest alveolar gradients (abundance in breath minus abundance in ambient room air mostly comprised benzene derivatives, acetone, methylated derivatives of alkanes, and isoprene. CONCLUSIONS: Collection and analysis of breath VOCs with the BCA-GC×GC-TOF MS system extended the size of the detectable human volatile metabolome, the volatome, by an order of magnitude compared to previous reports employing one-dimensional GC-MS. The size of the human volatome has been under-estimated in the past due to coelution of VOCs in one-dimensional GC analytical systems.

  7. EyeFrame: Real-time memory aid improves human multitasking via domain-general eye tracking procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. eTaylor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We developed an extensively general closed-loop system to improve human interaction in various multitasking scenarios, with semi-autonomous agents, processes, and robots. BACKGROUND: Much technology is converging toward semi-independent processes with intermittent human supervision distributed over multiple computerized agents. Human operators multitask notoriously poorly, in part due to cognitive load and limited working memory. To multitask optimally, users must remember task order, e.g., the most neglected task, since longer times not monitoring an element indicates greater probability of need for user input. The secondary task of monitoring attention history over multiple spatial tasks requires similar cognitive resources as primary tasks themselves. Humans can not reliably make more than ~2 decisions/s. METHODS: Participants managed a range of 4-10 semi-autonomous agents performing rescue tasks. To optimize monitoring and controlling multiple agents, we created an automated short term memory aid, providing visual cues from users' gaze history. Cues indicated when and where to look next, and were derived from an inverse of eye fixation recency. RESULTS: Contingent eye tracking algorithms drastically improved operator performance, increasing multitasking capacity. The gaze aid reduced biases, and reduced cognitive load, measured by smaller pupil dilation. CONCLUSIONS: Our eye aid likely helped by delegating short-term memory to the computer, and by reducing decision making load. Past studies used eye position for gaze-aware control and interactive updating of displays in application-specific scenarios, but ours is the first to successfully implement domain-general algorithms. Procedures should generalize well to: process control, factory operations, robot control, surveillance, aviation, air traffic control, driving, military, mobile search and rescue, and many tasks where probability of utility is predicted by duration since last

  8. Evidence for sequential and increasing activation of replication origins along replication timing gradients in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, Guillaume; Rappailles, Aurélien; Baker, Antoine; Chen, Chun-Long; Arneodo, Alain; Goldar, Arach; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Thermes, Claude; Audit, Benjamin; Hyrien, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    Genome-wide replication timing studies have suggested that mammalian chromosomes consist of megabase-scale domains of coordinated origin firing separated by large originless transition regions. Here, we report a quantitative genome-wide analysis of DNA replication kinetics in several human cell types that contradicts this view. DNA combing in HeLa cells sorted into four temporal compartments of S phase shows that replication origins are spaced at 40 kb intervals and fire as small clusters whose synchrony increases during S phase and that replication fork velocity (mean 0.7 kb/min, maximum 2.0 kb/min) remains constant and narrowly distributed through S phase. However, multi-scale analysis of a genome-wide replication timing profile shows a broad distribution of replication timing gradients with practically no regions larger than 100 kb replicating at less than 2 kb/min. Therefore, HeLa cells lack large regions of unidirectional fork progression. Temporal transition regions are replicated by sequential activation of origins at a rate that increases during S phase and replication timing gradients are set by the delay and the spacing between successive origin firings rather than by the velocity of single forks. Activation of internal origins in a specific temporal transition region is directly demonstrated by DNA combing of the IGH locus in HeLa cells. Analysis of published origin maps in HeLa cells and published replication timing and DNA combing data in several other cell types corroborate these findings, with the interesting exception of embryonic stem cells where regions of unidirectional fork progression seem more abundant. These results can be explained if origins fire independently of each other but under the control of long-range chromatin structure, or if replication forks progressing from early origins stimulate initiation in nearby unreplicated DNA. These findings shed a new light on the replication timing program of mammalian genomes and provide a general

  9. Quantification of resting myocardial blood flow velocity in normal humans using real-time contrast echocardiography. A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slordahl Stig

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE is a novel method for assessing myocardial perfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a very low-power real-time MCE for quantification of regional resting myocardial blood flow (MBF velocity in normal human myocardium. Methods Twenty study subjects with normal left ventricular (LV wall motion and normal coronary arteries, underwent low-power real-time MCE based on color-coded pulse inversion Doppler. Standard apical LV views were acquired during constant IV. infusion of SonoVue®. Following transient microbubble destruction, the contrast replenishment rate (β, reflecting MBF velocity, was derived by plotting signal intensity vs. time and fitting data to the exponential function; y (t =A (1-e-β(t-t0 + C. Results Quantification was feasible in 82%, 49% and 63% of four-chamber, two-chamber and apical long-axis view segments, respectively. The LAD (left anterior descending artery and RCA (right coronary artery territories could potentially be evaluated in most, but contrast detection in the LCx (left circumflex artery bed was poor. Depending on localisation and which frames to be analysed, mean values of were 0.21–0.69 s-1, with higher values in medial than lateral, and in basal compared to apical regions of scan plane (p = 0.03 and p Conclusion Low-power real-time MCE did have the potential to give contrast enhancement for quantification of resting regional MBF velocity. However, the technique is difficult and subjected to several limitations. Significant variability in β suggests that this parameter is best suited for with-in patient changes, comparing values of stress studies to baseline.

  10. Development and evaluation of a real-time method for testing human enteroviruses and coxsackievirus A16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Qihua; Yu, Minghui

    2016-05-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by a group of the human enteroviruses (HEV), including coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). In recent years, another HEV-A serotype, CA6 or CA10, has emerged to be one of the major etiologic agents that can induce HFMD worldwide. The objective of this study is to develop specific, sensitive, and rapid methods to help diagnose HEV and CA16 specifically by using simultaneous amplification testing (SAT) based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time detection of fluorescence technique, which were named as SAT-HEV and SAT-CA16, respectively (SAT-HEV/SAT-CA16). The specificity and sensitivity of SAT were tested here. SAT-HEV/SAT-CA16 could measure viral titers that were at least 10-fold lower than those measured by real-time PCR. Non-false cross-reactive amplification indicated that SAT-HEV/SAT-CA16 were highly specific with the addition of internal control (IC) RNA (5000 copies/reaction). A total of 198 clinical specimens were assayed by SAT comparing with real-time PCR. The statistically robust assessment of SAT-HEV and HEV-specific real-time PCR plus sequencing reached 99.0% (196/198), with a kappa value of 0.97, and 99.5% (197/198) and a kappa value of 0.99 for CA16, respectively. Additionally, IC prevented false-negative readings and assured the SAT-HEV/SAT-CA16 method's accuracy. Overall, SAT-HEV/SAT-CA16 method may serve as a platform for the simple and rapid detection of HEV/CA16 in time of HFMD outbreak. PMID:26971632

  11. New Potential Biomarker for Methasterone Misuse in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianli; Lu, Jianghai; Wu, Yun; Wang, Xiaobing; Xu, Youxuan; Zhang, Yinong; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, methasterone urinary metabolic profiles were investigated by liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) in full scan and targeted MS/MS modes with accurate mass measurement. A healthy male volunteer was asked to take the drug and liquid–liquid extraction was employed to process urine samples. Chromatographic peaks for potential metabolites were hunted out with the theoretical [M − H]− as a target ion in a full scan experiment and actual deprotonated ions were studied in targeted MS/MS experiment. Fifteen metabolites including two new sulfates (S1 and S2), three glucuronide conjugates (G2, G6 and G7), and three free metabolites (M2, M4 and M6) were detected for methasterone. Three metabolites involving G4, G5 and M5 were obtained for the first time in human urine samples. Owing to the absence of helpful fragments to elucidate the steroid ring structure of methasterone phase II metabolites, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to obtain structural information of the trimethylsilylated phase I metabolite released after enzymatic hydrolysis and the potential structure was inferred using a combined MS method. Metabolite detection times were also analyzed and G2 (18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl-2α, 17α-dimethyl-androst-13-en-3α-ol-ξ-O-glucuronide) was thought to be new potential biomarker for methasterone misuse which can be detected up to 10 days. PMID:27669235

  12. Simulating plastic surgery: from human skin tensile tests, through hyperelastic finite element models to real-time haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeer, R J; Gasson, P D; Karri, V

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we provide a summary of a number of experiments we conducted to arrive at a prototype real-time simulator for plastic surgical interventions such as skin flap repair and inguinal herniotomy. We started our research with a series of in-vitro tensile stress tests on human skin, harvested from female patients undergoing plastic reconstructive surgery. We then used the acquired stress-strain data to fit hyperelastic models. Three models were considered: General Polynomial, Reduced Polynomial and Ogden. Only Reduced Polynomial models were found to be stable, hence they progressed to the next stage to be used in an explicit finite element model aimed at real-time performance in conjunction with a haptic feedback device. A total Lagrangian formulation with the half-step central difference method was employed to integrate the dynamic equation of motion of the mesh. The mesh was integrated into two versions of a real-time skin simulator: a single-threaded version running on a computer's main central processing unit and a multi-threaded version running on the computer's graphics card. The latter was achieved by exploiting recent advances in programmable graphics technology.

  13. New Potential Biomarker for Methasterone Misuse in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianli; Lu, Jianghai; Wu, Yun; Wang, Xiaobing; Xu, Youxuan; Zhang, Yinong; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, methasterone urinary metabolic profiles were investigated by liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) in full scan and targeted MS/MS modes with accurate mass measurement. A healthy male volunteer was asked to take the drug and liquid-liquid extraction was employed to process urine samples. Chromatographic peaks for potential metabolites were hunted out with the theoretical [M - H](-) as a target ion in a full scan experiment and actual deprotonated ions were studied in targeted MS/MS experiment. Fifteen metabolites including two new sulfates (S1 and S2), three glucuronide conjugates (G2, G6 and G7), and three free metabolites (M2, M4 and M6) were detected for methasterone. Three metabolites involving G4, G5 and M5 were obtained for the first time in human urine samples. Owing to the absence of helpful fragments to elucidate the steroid ring structure of methasterone phase II metabolites, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to obtain structural information of the trimethylsilylated phase I metabolite released after enzymatic hydrolysis and the potential structure was inferred using a combined MS method. Metabolite detection times were also analyzed and G2 (18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl-2α, 17α-dimethyl-androst-13-en-3α-ol-ξ-O-glucuronide) was thought to be new potential biomarker for methasterone misuse which can be detected up to 10 days. PMID:27669235

  14. Biological properties of differently-aged human keratinocytes:population doubling time growth curve and cell cycle analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qun Ma; Jie Feng; Lech Chyczewski; Jacek Niklinski

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the biological properties of keratinocytes from differently-aged healthy human beings. Methods Keratinocytes from fetus, teenager and middle-aged groups were separated and cultured. The population doubling time (PDT) and cell growth curve in different cells were compared, and the cell cycles were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results ① In primary culture of keratinocytes, the adherence time in middle-aged group was longer than that in fetus and teenager groups. However, all cell morphology showed no obvioas differences. In subculture of kecatinocytes, with donator's age increasing, time of cell adherence prolonged, passage number decreused and differences in cell morphology were obrioas. ② The average PDT of keratinocytes was shorter in fetus group than in teenager and middle-aged groups. Bat difference in cell growth curve between different passages was not observed. ③ Keratinocytes showed G2/M period in fetus group but G0/G1 period in teenager and middle-aged groups mainly. Conclusion As age increases, the biological properties of keratinocytes change obviously.

  15. Time course of effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on a human pancreatic cancer cell line (SUIT-2) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate time course of effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on pancreatic cancer, we used the monolayer culture of a human pancreatic cancer cell line, SUIT-2 which produces CEA and CA19-9. Into the culture various kinds of anti-cancer drugs (MMC, ADR, FAR, 5FU, FT, CDDP, CPT-11) were administered for a period of 2 days, followed by irradiation with 60Co. Observation period was 20 days, during which we measured LDH, CEA and Ca19-9 in medium, DNA, protein, CEA and CA19-9 in cells in addition to observation of cells through microscope. Effects of anti-cancer drugs on pancreatic cancer cells were greater than those of irradiation when doses of anti-cancer drugs were enough. By using a lot of anti-cancer drugs, LDH value in medium increased at early time and decreased later. CEA and Ca19-9 values in medium decreased with the lapse of time, while they were increased later when small doses of the drugs had been administered. DNA, protein, CEA and Ca19-9 values in cells showed a decrease in accordance with increased doses of the drugs. Effects of FT and CPT-11 were marginal compared with the other drugs. (author)

  16. Assessment of human embryos by time-lapse videography: A comparison of quantitative and qualitative measures between two independent laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhe; Copeland, Christopher; Stevens, Adam; Feenan, Katie; Chapple, Vincent; Myssonski, Kim; Roberts, Peter; Matson, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    A total of 488 Day 3 human embryos with known implantation data from two independent in vitro fertilization laboratories were included for analysis, with 270 from Fertility North (FN) and 218 from Canberra Fertility Centre (CFC). Implanting embryos grew at different rates between FN and CFC as indicated in hours of the time intervals between pronuclear fading and the 4- (13.9 ± 1.1 vs. 14.9 ± 1.8), 5- (25.7 ± 1.9 vs. 28.4 ± 3.7) and 8-cell stages (29.0 ± 3.2 vs. 32.2 ± 4.6), as well as the durations of 2- (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 11.6 ± 1.1), 3- (0.4 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 1.2), and 4-cell stages (11.8 ± 1.4 vs. 13.6 ± 2.9), all pqualitative measures including poor conventional morphology, direct cleavage, reverse cleavage and 0.05) or non-implanting embryos (30.4% vs. 38.3%, p>0.05) between FN and CFC. Furthermore, implanting embryos favored lower proportions of the above biological events compared to the non-implanting ones in both laboratories (both pquantitative timing parameters may have reduced inter-laboratory transferability; qualitative measures are independent of cell division timings, with potentially improved inter-laboratory reproducibility.

  17. Understanding Human Development Potentials and Demands for Greenhouse Gas Emissions:with Empirical Analysis using time series and cross-sectional data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiahua

    2004-01-01

    Based on an investigation of the meaning of development, the neo-dassical economic approach to development, and the post-welfarist theory of development, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for understanding human development potentials, while undertaking empirical analysis using cross-sectional and time series data on human development. Human development is associated with basic necessities for subsistence, the quality of life,and political and civil rights, in addition to income indicators. Our analysis suggests that the concept of human development potentials has two dimensions:the rights of development and limits to human development. Both are largely ignored in the neoclassical theory of development. However, human development is not unbounded, which approaches to a relatively fixed constant at given economic,technological and institutional conditions. This conceptual understanding is supported by results from the empirical examination of the relationships between demands for carbon emissions and other elements of human development.

  18. Expression Levels of RFP in Normal and Cancer Human Tissues via Real-time RT-PCR Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ret finger protein(RFP) is a member of the tripartite motif family, which is characterized by a conserved RING finger of motif, a B-box, and a coiled-coil domain(they are called RBCC generally). Although RFP was known to be an oncogene when its RBCC moiety was connected with a tyrosine kinase domain by DNA rearrangement, its biological function was not well defined. In this study, by using real-time RT-PCR, the RFP expressions in human and mouse normal tissues, and in the cervical squamous cell carcinoma, endometrial adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and brain cancer tissues were analyzed. The result of the study proved that the highest level of mRNA reverse transcription appeared in the normal testical tissue, whereas that in other normal tissues of human and mice were low. The mRNA reverse transcription level of RFP was higher in the endometrial adenocarcinoma tissue than in the cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue; the mRNA reverse transcription level of RFP in the gastric adenocarcinoma tissue was significantly higher than that in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. It was also found that the mRNA reverse transcription level of RFP in the brain cancer tissue was higher than that in the normal brain tissue. These results suggested that RFP could possibly be a useful molecular target for the development of new therapeutics for malignant tumors.

  19. Quantification of viral genome in cord blood donors by real time PCR to investigate human herpesvirus type 8 active infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Neda; Kheirandish, Maryam; Sharifi, Zohreh; Samiee, Shahram; Kokhaei, Parviz; Pourpak, Zahra

    2015-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is one of the most important sources of hematopoietic stem cells which can be used for transplantation. The transplanted CB stem cells might cause infections in recipients. The aim of this study is to evaluate Human Herpes Virus8 (HHV8) as a Rhadinovirus among CB samples in order to assess safety of cord blood stem cells transplantation. To assess this aim, we surveyed 800 cord blood specimens by Real Time PCR.The overall HHV8 incidence in cord blood mononuclear cells was 1.38% and none of them was in lytic phase of HHV8. The authors suggest further HHV8 study on CB samples for transplantation.

  20. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry-based molecular distribution distinguishing healthy and osteoarthritic human cartilage

    CERN Document Server

    Cillero-Pastor, Berta; Kiss, Andras; Blanco, Francisco J; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a pathology that ultimately causes joint destruction. The cartilage is one of the principal affected tissues. Alterations in the lipid mediators and an imbalance in the metabolism of cells that form the cartilage (chondrocytes) have been described as contributors to the OA development. In this study, we have studied the distribution of lipids and chemical elements in healthy and OA human cartilage. Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) allows us to study the spatial distribution of molecules at a high resolution on a tissue section. TOF-SIMS revealed a specific peak profile that distinguishes healthy from OA cartilages. The spatial distribution of cholesterol-related peaks exhibited a remarkable difference between healthy and OA cartilages. A distinctive colocalization of cholesterol and other lipids in the superficial area of the cartilage was found. A higher intensity of oleic acid and other fatty acids in the OA cartilages exhibited a similar localization. On the ...

  1. The Humanity Marches into the Low-Carbon Time%人类步入低碳时代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国莲

    2011-01-01

    The low-carbon time's arrival, is international big background making to cause to so, particularly the energy crisis, the climate crisis and financial crisis's superimposed effect, its bright attribute is the iow-carbon which fierce disputes' climate politics,engulfs the entire world economical, the vigorous development low-carbon science and technology, the aware showing low-carbon culture, this indicates the human culture jump.%低碳时代的到来,是国际大背景使然,尤其是能源危机、气候危机和金融危机的叠加效应,其鲜明表征是激烈交锋的气候政治、席卷全球的低/碳经济、蓬勃发展的低碳科技、自觉彰显的低/碳文化,这预示着人类文明的跃迁.

  2. Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hontelez Jan AC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years, availability of human resources may now be the most important barrier to achieving universal access to HIV treatment in Africa. We quantify the number of HIV health workers (HHWs required to be added to the current HIV workforce to achieve universal access to HIV treatment in South Africa, under different eligibility criteria. Methods We performed a time and motion study in three HIV clinics in a rural, primary care-based HIV treatment program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to estimate the average time per patient visit for doctors, nurses, and counselors. We estimated the additional number of HHWs needed to achieve universal access to HIV treatment within one year. Results For universal access to HIV treatment for all patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl, an additional 2,200 nurses, 3,800 counselors, and 300 doctors would be required, at additional annual salary cost of 929 million South African rand (ZAR, equivalent to US$ 141 million. For universal treatment (‘treatment as prevention’, an additional 6,000 nurses, 11,000 counselors, and 800 doctors would be required, at an additional annual salary cost of ZAR 2.6 billion (US$ 400 million. Conclusions Universal access to HIV treatment for patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl in South Africa may be affordable, but the number of HHWs available for HIV treatment will need to be substantially increased. Treatment as prevention strategies will require considerable additional financial and human resources commitments.

  3. Real-time in vivo imaging of early mucosal changes during ischemia-reperfusion in human jejunum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep Grootjans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR is a frequent, potentially life threatening phenomenon. There is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic modalities. For many intestinal diseases, visualizing the intestinal mucosa using endoscopy is gold standard. However, limited knowledge exists on small intestinal IR-induced, early mucosal changes. The aims of this study were to investigate endoscopic changes in human jejunum exposed to IR, and to study concordance between endoscopic appearance and histology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 23 patients a part of jejunum, to be removed for surgical reasons, was isolated and selectively exposed to ischemia with 0, 30 or 120 minutes of reperfusion. In 3 patients, a videocapsule was inserted in the isolated segment before exposure to IR, to visualize the mucosa. Endoscopic view at several time points was related to histology (Heamatoxylin & Eosin obtained from 20 patients. RESULTS: Ischemia was characterized by loss of villous structure, mucosal whitening and appearance of punctate lesions. This was related to appearance of subepithelial spaces and breaches in the epithelial lining in the histological view. Early during reperfusion, the lumen filled with IR-damaged, shed cells and VCE showed mucosal erosions, hemorrhage and intraluminal debris. At 60 minutes of reperfusion, the only remaining signs of IR were loss of villous structure and small erosions, indicating rapid mucosal healing. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a unique, real-time in vivo endoscopic view of early mucosal changes during IR of the human small intestine. Future studies should evaluate its usefulness in diagnosis of patients suspected of IR.

  4. Time of correlation of low-frequency fluctuations in the regional laser Doppler flow signal from human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgosi-Correa, M. S.; Nogueira, G. E. C.

    2012-06-01

    The laser Doppler flowmetry allows the non-invasive assessment of the skin perfusion in real-time, being an attractive technique to study the human microcirculation in clinical settings. Low-frequency oscillations in the laser Doppler blood flow signal from the skin have been related to the endothelial, endothelial-metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic mechanisms of microvascular flow control, in the range 0.005-0.0095 Hz, 0.0095-0.021 Hz, 0.021-0.052 Hz and 0.052- 0.145 Hz respectively. The mean Amplitude (A) of the periodic fluctuations in the laser Doppler blood flow signal, in each frequency range, derived from the respective wavelet-transformed coefficients, has been used to assess the function and dysfunctions of each mechanism of flow control. Known sources of flow signal variances include spatial and temporal variability, diminishing the discriminatory capability of the technique. Here a new time domain method of analysis is proposed, based on the Time of Correlation (TC) of flow fluctuations between two adjacent sites. Registers of blood flow from two adjacent regions, for skin temperature at 32 0C (basal) and thermally stimulated (42 0C) of volar forearms from 20 healthy volunteers were collected and analyzed. The results obtained revealed high time of correlation between two adjacent regions when thermally stimulated, for signals in the endothelial, endothelial-metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic frequency ranges. Experimental data also indicate lower variability for TC when compared to A, when thermally stimulated, suggesting a new promising parameter for assessment of the microvascular flow control.

  5. Highly sensitive detection of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA using time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and long lifetime probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue F.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Wodnicki, Pawel; Siadat-Pajouh, M.; Herman, Brian

    1995-04-01

    We have been interested in the role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer and its diagnosis; to that end we have been developing microscopic imaging and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques to genotype and quantitate the amount of HPV present at a single cell level in cervical PAP smears. However, we have found that low levels of HPV DNA are difficult to detect accurately because theoretically obtainable sensitivity is never achieved due to nonspecific autofluorescence, fixative induced fluorescence of cells and tissues, and autofluorescence of the optical components in the microscopic system. In addition, the absorption stains used for PAP smears are intensely autofluorescent. Autofluorescence is a rapidly decaying process with lifetimes in the range of 1-100 nsec, whereas phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence have lifetimes in the range of 1 microsecond(s) ec-10 msec. The ability to discriminate between specific fluorescence and autofluorescence in the time-domain has improved the sensitivity of diagnostic test such that they perform comparably to, or even more sensitive than radioisotopic assays. We have developed a novel time-resolved fluorescence microscope to improve the sensitivity of detection of specific molecules of interest in slide based specimens. This time-resolved fluorescence microscope is based on our recently developed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FILM) in conjunction with the use of long lifetime fluorescent labels. By using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the long lifetime probe (europium), we have demonstrated the utility of this technique for detection of HPV DNA in cervicovaginal cells. Our results indicate that the use of time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and long lifetime probes increases the sensitivity of detection by removing autofluorescence and will thus lead to improved early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Since the highly sensitive detection of DNA in clinical samples using

  6. Detection and identification of human Plasmodium species with real-time quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kager Piet A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions concerning malaria treatment depend on species identification causing disease. Microscopy is most frequently used, but at low parasitaemia (Plasmodium antigen detection do often not allow for species discrimination as microscopy does, but also become insensitive at Methods This paper reports the development of a sensitive and specific real-time Quantitative Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (real-time QT-NASBA assays, based on the small-subunit 18S rRNA gene, to identify the four human Plasmodium species. Results The lower detection limit of the assay is 100 – 1000 molecules in vitro RNA for all species, which corresponds to 0.01 – 0.1 parasite per diagnostic sample (i.e. 50 μl of processed blood. The real-time QT-NASBA was further evaluated using 79 clinical samples from malaria patients: i.e. 11 Plasmodium. falciparum, 37 Plasmodium vivax, seven Plasmodium malariae, four Plasmodium ovale and 20 mixed infections. The initial diagnosis of 69 out of the 79 samples was confirmed with the developed real-time QT-NASBA. Re-analysis of seven available original slides resolved five mismatches. Three of those were initially identified as P. malariae mono-infection, but after re-reading the slides P. falciparum was found, confirming the real-time QT-NASBA result. The other two slides were of poor quality not allowing true species identification. The remaining five discordant results could not be explained by microscopy, but may be due to extreme low numbers of parasites present in the samples. In addition, 12 Plasmodium berghei isolates from mice and 20 blood samples from healthy donors did not show any reaction in the assay. Conclusion Real-time QT-NASBA is a very sensitive and specific technique with a detection limit of 0.1 Plasmodium parasite per diagnostic sample (50 μl of blood and can be used for the detection, identification and quantitative measurement of low parasitaemia of Plasmodium species, thus

  7. Functional Stability of the Human Kappa Opioid Receptor Reconstituted in Nanodiscs Revealed by a Time-Resolved Scintillation Proximity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Randi Westh; Wang, Xiaole; Golab, Agnieszka; Bornert, Olivier; Oswald, Christine; Wagner, Renaud; Martinez, Karen Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term functional stability of isolated membrane proteins is crucial for many in vitro applications used to elucidate molecular mechanisms, and used for drug screening platforms in modern pharmaceutical industry. Compared to soluble proteins, the understanding at the molecular level of membrane proteins remains a challenge. This is partly due to the difficulty to isolate and simultaneously maintain their structural and functional stability, because of their hydrophobic nature. Here we show, how scintillation proximity assay can be used to analyze time-resolved high-affinity ligand binding to membrane proteins solubilized in various environments. The assay was used to establish conditions that preserved the biological function of isolated human kappa opioid receptor. In detergent solution the receptor lost high-affinity ligand binding to a radiolabelled ligand within minutes at room temperature. After reconstitution in Nanodiscs made of phospholipid bilayer the half-life of high-affinity ligand binding to the majority of receptors increased 70-fold compared to detergent solubilized receptors—a level of stability that is appropriate for further downstream applications. Time-resolved scintillation proximity assay has the potential to screen numerous conditions in parallel to obtain high levels of stable and active membrane proteins, which are intrinsically unstable in detergent solution, and with minimum material consumption. PMID:27035823

  8. High-resolution Time-lapse Imaging and Automated Analysis of Microtubule Dynamics in Living Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Alexander; Caesar, Nicole M; Dang, Kyvan; Myers, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    The physiological process by which new vasculature forms from existing vasculature requires specific signaling events that trigger morphological changes within individual endothelial cells (ECs). These processes are critical for homeostatic maintenance such as wound healing, and are also crucial in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. EC morphology is defined by the organization of the cytoskeleton, a tightly regulated system of actin and microtubule (MT) dynamics that is known to control EC branching, polarity and directional migration, essential components of angiogenesis. To study MT dynamics, we used high-resolution fluorescence microscopy coupled with computational image analysis of fluorescently-labeled MT plus-ends to investigate MT growth dynamics and the regulation of EC branching morphology and directional migration. Time-lapse imaging of living Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) was performed following transfection with fluorescently-labeled MT End Binding protein 3 (EB3) and Mitotic Centromere Associated Kinesin (MCAK)-specific cDNA constructs to evaluate effects on MT dynamics. PlusTipTracker software was used to track EB3-labeled MT plus ends in order to measure MT growth speeds and MT growth lifetimes in time-lapse images. This methodology allows for the study of MT dynamics and the identification of how localized regulation of MT dynamics within sub-cellular regions contributes to the angiogenic processes of EC branching and migration. PMID:27584860

  9. Self-regulation of human brain activity using simultaneous real-time fMRI and EEG neurofeedback

    CERN Document Server

    Zotev, Vadim; Yuan, Han; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a promising approach for non-invasive modulation of human brain activity with applications for treatment of mental disorders and enhancement of brain performance. Neurofeedback techniques are commonly based on either electroencephalography (EEG) or real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI). Advances in simultaneous EEG-fMRI have made it possible to combine the two approaches. Here we report the first implementation of simultaneous multimodal rtfMRI and EEG neurofeedback (rtfMRI-EEG-nf). It is based on a novel system for real-time integration of simultaneous rtfMRI and EEG data streams. We applied the rtfMRI-EEG-nf to training of emotional self-regulation in healthy subjects performing a positive emotion induction task based on retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. The participants were able to simultaneously regulate their BOLD fMRI activation of the left amygdala and frontal EEG power asymmetry in the high-beta band using the rtfMRI-EEG-nf. Our proof-of-concept results...

  10. START or SMART? Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Cardiovascular Risk for People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection (START) study has reinforced the benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, a notable secondary finding from that study was that immediate initiation of ART did not prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (0.17 vs 0.20 events/1000 person-years, P = .65). This result appears to contradict a body of evidence, most notably from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study, which reported a 70% increased hazard of cardiovascular events for those deferring or interrupting treatment. Thus, an important unresolved question is whether the timing of ART impacts CVD risk. In this review, published data on relationships between timing of ART and CVD risk are reviewed. The data support a role for ART in mitigating CVD risk at lower CD4 counts, but data also suggests that, among those initiating therapy early, ART alone appears to suboptimally mitigate CVD risk. Additional interventions to address CVD risk among human immunodeficiency virus-infected populations are likely to be needed. PMID:26989755

  11. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus among healthy voluntary first-time blood donors in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs threaten safety of the recipients and the community as a whole and are a subject of real concern worldwide. Aims and Objectives: To know prevalence of Hepatitis-B (HBV, Hepatitis-C (HCV, and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in voluntary first-time blood donors. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional observational study done in a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 3 745 voluntary first-time blood donors were recruited and tested for HBV, HCV, and HIV with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results and Analysis: Among 3 745 blood donors, majority (90.95% were male and 18 to 39 years age group. Prevalence of HBV was higher than HCV and HIV. HBV was maximum in 40 to 49 years (2.25% and 18 to 29 years (1.86% age group, whereas HCV and HIV were maximum in >50 years age group (0.93% and 1.86%, respectively. HIV positivity showed increasing prevalence with increase in age. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using %, Chi square test, and Chi square for trend analysis. Conclusion: Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in voluntary blood donors is high in Kolkata and is high throughout this decade. Prevalence is even higher in other parts of India and Indian subcontinent. As voluntary blood donations are the major source of blood supply, chance of TTIs are very high in this part of the world.

  12. Investigation of Non-Enzymatic Glycosylation of Human Serum Albumin Using Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianli Chi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-enzymatic glycosylation or glycation involves covalent attachment of reducing sugar residues to proteins without enzyme participation. Glycation of glucose to human serum albumin in vivo is related to diabetes and many other diseases. We present an approach using liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization source of a hybrid ion trap-time of flight (IT-TOF-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometer to identify the glycation sites on serum albumin from both a healthy person and a diabetic patient. The MetID software, which is commonly used for screening metabolites, is adapted for peptide fingerprinting based on both m/z values and isotopic distribution profiles. A total of 21 glycation sites from the healthy person and 16 glycation sites from the diabetic patient were identified successfully. We also demonstrate the use of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to estimate the incorporation ratio of glucose to albumin during glycation. Results from this study show that the glycation in healthy person is more complicated than previously thought. Further analysis of incorporation ratio distribution may be necessary to accurately reflect the change of serum albumin glycation in diabetic patients.

  13. Discriminating between camouflaged targets by their time of detection by a human-based observer assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, G. K.; Søderblom, M.

    2015-10-01

    Detection of a camouflaged object in natural sceneries requires the target to be distinguishable from its local background. The development of any new camouflage pattern therefore has to rely on a well-founded test methodology - which has to be correlated with the final purpose of the pattern - as well as an evaluation procedure, containing the optimal criteria for i) discriminating between the targets and then eventually ii) for a final rank of the targets. In this study we present results from a recent camouflage assessment trial where human observers were used in a search by photo methodology to assess generic test camouflage patterns. We conducted a study to investigate possible improvements in camouflage patterns for battle dress uniforms. The aim was to do a comparative study of potential, and generic patterns intended for use in arid areas (sparsely vegetated, semi desert). We developed a test methodology that was intended to be simple, reliable and realistic with respect to the operational benefit of camouflage. Therefore we chose to conduct a human based observer trial founded on imagery of realistic targets in natural backgrounds. Inspired by a recent and similar trial in the UK, we developed new and purpose-based software to be able to conduct the observer trial. Our preferred assessment methodology - the observer trial - was based on target recordings in 12 different, but operational relevant scenes, collected in a dry and sparsely vegetated area (Rhodes). The scenes were chosen with the intention to span as broadly as possible. The targets were human-shaped mannequins and were situated identically in each of the scenes to allow for a relative comparison of camouflage effectiveness in each scene. Test of significance, among the targets' performance, was carried out by non-parametric tests as the corresponding time of detection distributions in overall were found to be difficult to parameterize. From the trial, containing 12 different scenes from

  14. Natural vs human-induced changes at the Tauranga Harbour area (New Zealand): a time -series acoustic seabed classification comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capperucci, Ruggero Maria; Bartholomä, Alexander; Renken, Sabrina; De Lange, Willem

    2013-04-01

    The Tauranga Harbour Bay (New Zealand) is a mesotidal estuary system, enclosed by the Matakana barrier island. It hosts the leading export port in New Zealand and the second largest import port by value. Coastal changes are well documented over the last decades, mainly at the southern entrance of the area, between Matakana Island and Mt. Maunganui. It is an extremely dynamic environment, where natural processes are strongly influenced by human activities. In particular, the understanding of the recent evolution of the system is crucial for policymakers. In fact, the cumulative impact due to the maintenance of the port (mainly dredging activities, shipping, facilities construction, but also increasing tourism) and its already approved expansion clashes with the claim of the local Maori communities, which recently leaded to a court action. A hydroacoustic multiple-device survey (Side-scan Sonar SSS, Multibeam Echo-sounder MBES and Single Beam Echo-sounder) coupled with sediment sampling was carried out in March 2011 over an area of 0.8 km2, southern Matakana Island, along the Western Channel. The area is not directly impacted by dredging activities, resulting in an optimal testing site for assessing indirect effects of human disturbance on coastal dynamics. The main goals were: 1. To test the response of different acoustic systems in such a highly dynamic environment; 2. To study the influence of dredging activities on sediment dynamics and habitat changes, by means of comparing the current data with existing ones, in order to distinguish between natural and human induced changes Results demonstrate a good agreement between acoustic classifications from different systems. They seem to be mainly driven by the sediment distribution, with a distinctive fingerprint given by shells and shell fragments. Nevertheless, the presence of relevant topographic features (i.e. large bedform fields) influences swath-looking systems (SSS and MBES). SSS and MBES classifications tend

  15. Sensitive PCR method for the detection and real-time quantification of human cells in xenotransplantation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, M.; A. Nitsche; Neumann, C.; Aumann, J.; Junghahn, I; Fichtner, I.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitive detection of human cells in immunodeficient rodents is a prerequisite for the monitoring of micrometastasis of solid tumours, dissemination of leukaemic cells, or engraftment of haematological cells. We developed a universally applicable polymerase chain reaction method for the detection of a human-specific 850-bp fragment of the α-satellite DNA on human chromosome 17. The method allows the detection of one human cell in 106 murine cells and could be established as both, a conve...

  16. Recording human electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals for neuroscientific research and real-time functional cortical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N Jeremy; Gupta, Disha; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Adamo, Matthew A; Ritaccio, Anthony; Schalk, Gerwin

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of human cognitive, sensory, and motor processes are usually based on noninvasive techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography or functional magnetic-resonance imaging. These techniques have either inherently low temporal or low spatial resolution, and suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and/or poor high-frequency sensitivity. Thus, they are suboptimal for exploring the short-lived spatio-temporal dynamics of many of the underlying brain processes. In contrast, the invasive technique of electrocorticography (ECoG) provides brain signals that have an exceptionally high signal-to-noise ratio, less susceptibility to artifacts than EEG, and a high spatial and temporal resolution (i.e., tracked using a monitor with a built-in Tobii T-60 eye-tracking system (Tobii Tech., Stockholm, Sweden). Additional accessories such as joystick, bluetooth Wiimote (Nintendo Co.), data-glove (5(th) Dimension Technologies), keyboard, microphone, headphones, or video camera are connected depending on the requirements of the particular experiment. Data collection, stimulus presentation, synchronization with the different input/output accessories, and real-time analysis and visualization are accomplished using our BCI2000 software. BCI2000 is a freely available general-purpose software system for real-time biosignal data acquisition, processing and feedback. It includes an array of pre-built modules that can be flexibly configured for many different purposes, and that can be extended by researchers' own code in C++, MATLAB or Python. BCI2000 consists of four modules that communicate with each other via a network-capable protocol: a Source module that handles the acquisition of brain signals from one of 19 different hardware systems from different manufacturers; a Signal Processing module that extracts relevant ECoG features and translates them into output signals; an Application module that delivers stimuli and feedback to the subject; and

  17. Comparison of real-time PCR and conventional PCR with two DNA targets for detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum infection in human and dog blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadiha, A; Mohebali, M; Haghighi, A; Mahdian, R; Abadi, A R; Zarei, Z; Yeganeh, F; Kazemi, B; Taghipour, N; Akhoundi, B

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in northwestern Iran. Real-time PCR, conventional PCR, and the direct agglutination test (DAT) were used to diagnose Leishmania infantum infection in blood samples from 100 domestic dogs and 100 humans. Based on clinical evaluation, 82 humans and 72 dogs from the endemic area were categorized as having asymptomatic infection, DAT positive with no clinical signs of VL, or symptomatic infection, DAT positive with at least one sign of VL. Eighteen human samples containing no Leishmania antibodies (DAT(-)) and 28 dog DAT(-) sera from non-endemic areas with no history of VL constituted negative controls. All 46 DAT(-) samples were also negative by Dipstick rK39. Bone marrow material was used for parasitological examinations in symptomatic VL, and peripheral blood samples were used for detection of L. infantum infection using conventional PCR and real-time PCR in non-symptomatic subjects. Two DNA targets (ITS1 kDNA) were used for conventional PCR. L. infantum antibodies in sera were detected by DAT. Parasitemia was measured by real-time PCR targeting kDNA using Taqman Assay. All 72 (100%) symptomatic (38/38) and asymptomatic (34/34) dog DAT(+)samples, 45 of 48 (93.8%) symptomatic human DAT(+) samples, and 32 of 34 (94.1%) human asymptomatic cases were identified by real-time PCR. The mean (59.19 vs 12.38 parasite equivalents/mL of blood) and median (16.15 vs 1 parasite equivalents/mL of blood) ranges of parasitemia were higher in dogs than in humans (PPCR and DAT (99% in dogs and 95% in humans). Sensitivity of 100% and 93.9%, specificity of 96.4% and 100%, positive predictive values of 98.6% and 100%, and negative predictive values of 100% and 78.3% were found by real-time PCR for dog and human samples, respectively.

  18. Analysis of recombinant human erythropoietin glycopeptides by capillary electrophoresis electrospray-time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Estela; Ramos-Hernan, Raquel; Benavente, Fernando; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis electrospray-mass spectrometry was used to detect and characterize the great variety of O- and N-glycopeptide glycoforms of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) using an orthogonal accelerating time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their exact molecular masses (CE-TOF-MS). rhEPO was digested with trypsin and Glu-C and analyzed by CE-TOF-MS to detect O(126), N(83), N(24)-N(38) and N(24) and N(38) glycopeptide glycoforms, respectively. Neuraminidase was first used to enhance the detection of the glycopeptides and detect all possible glycoforms contained in each glycosylation site. O(126) and N(83) glycopeptides were extensively characterized. Twelve sialoforms corresponding to 5 different glycoforms were detected in N(83), and for the first time, a sulfated sialoform of this glycopeptide was also detected. In the case of O(126), different sialoforms with different types of sialic acids (Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac) were detected and an estimation of the relative percentage of Neu5Gc versus Neu5Ac was also carried out for this glycopeptide. N(24) and N(38) glycosylation sites were also characterized by CE-TOF-MS after Glu-C digestion and these results permitted to rule out some glycan combinations for N(24)-N(38) glycopeptide glycoforms. This study provided a reliable glycopeptide map of rhEPO and may be regarded as an excellent starting point to analyze rhEPO glycopeptides in biological fluids and detect the use of this hormone in sports. PMID:22122935

  19. The susceptive alendronate-treatment timing and dosage for osteogenesis enhancement in human bone marrow-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Chang

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicated that alendronate enhanced osteogenesis in osteoblasts and human bone marrow-derived stem cells. However, the time- and dose-dependent effects of Aln on osteogenic differentiation and cytotoxicity of hBMSCs remain undefined. In present study, we investigated the effective dose range and timing of hBMSCs. hBMSCs were treated with various Aln doses (1, 5 and 10 µM according to the following groups: group A was treated with Aln during the first five days of bone medium, groups B, C and D were treated during the first, second, and final five days of osteo-induction medium and group E was treated throughout the entire experiment. The mineralization level and cytotoxicity were measured by quantified Alizarin Red S staining and MTT assay. In addition, the reversal effects of farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate replenishment in group B were also investigated. The results showed that Aln treatment in groups A, B and E enhanced hBMSC mineralization in a dose-dependent manner, and the most pronounced effects were observed in groups B and E. The higher dose of Aln simultaneously enhanced mineralization and caused cytotoxicity in groups B, C and E. Replenishment of FPP or GGPP resulted in partial or complete reverse of the Aln-induced mineralization respectively. Furthermore, the addition of FPP or GGPP also eliminated the Aln-induced cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that hBMSCs are susceptible to 5 µM Aln during the initiation stage of osteogenic differentiation and that a 10 µM dose is cytotoxic.

  20. Full genotyping of a highly polymorphic human gene trait by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Totè

    Full Text Available The ability of detecting the subtle variations occurring, among different individuals, within specific DNA sequences encompassed in highly polymorphic genes discloses new applications in genomics and diagnostics. DQB1 is a gene of the HLA-II DQ locus of the Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA system. The polymorphisms of the trait of the DQB1 gene including codons 52-57 modulate the susceptibility to a number of severe pathologies. Moreover, the donor-receiver tissue compatibility in bone marrow transplantations is routinely assessed through crossed genotyping of DQB and DQA. For the above reasons, the development of rapid, reliable and cost-effective typing technologies of DQB1 in general, and more specifically of the codons 52-57, is a relevant although challenging task. Quantitative assessment of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET efficiency between chromophores labelling the opposite ends of gene-specific oligonucleotide probes has proven to be a powerful tool to type DNA polymorphisms with single-nucleotide resolution. The FRET efficiency can be most conveniently quantified by applying a time-resolved fluorescence analysis methodology, i.e. time-correlated single-photon counting, which allows working on very diluted template specimens and in the presence of fluorescent contaminants. Here we present a full in-vitro characterization of the fluorescence responses of two probes when hybridized to oligonucleotide mixtures mimicking all the possible genotypes of the codons 52-57 trait of DQB1 (8 homozygous and 28 heterozygous. We show that each genotype can be effectively tagged by the combination of the fluorescence decay constants extrapolated from the data obtained with such probes.

  1. Comparison of DNA extraction kits for detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in spiked human whole blood using real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Podnecky

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three manual kits: the QIAamp DNA Mini kit, the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit, and the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit; and four automated systems: the MagNAPure LC using the DNA Isolation Kit I, the MagNAPure Compact using the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and the QIAcube using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA extracted by each kit was performed using the B. pseudomallei specific type III secretion real-time PCR (TTS1 assay. Crossing threshold (C T values were used to compare the limit of detection and reproducibility of each kit. This study also compared the DNA concentrations and DNA purity yielded for each kit. The following kits consistently yielded DNA that produced a detectable signal from blood spiked with 5.5×10(4 colony forming units per mL: the High Pure PCR Template Preparation, QIAamp DNA Mini, MagNA Pure Compact, and the QIAcube running the QIAamp DNA Mini and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kits. The High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit yielded the lowest limit of detection with spiked blood, but when this kit was used with blood from patients with confirmed cases of melioidosis, the bacteria was not reliably detected indicating blood may not be an optimal specimen.

  2. Real-time measurements of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in live human trabecular meshwork cells: Effects of acute oxidative stress✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masihzadeh, Omid; Ammar, David A.; Lei, Tim C.; Gibson, Emily A.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2016-01-01

    The trabecular meshwork (TM) region of the eye is exposed to a constant low-level of oxidative insult. The cumulative damage may be the reason behind age-dependent risk for developing primary open angle glaucoma. Chronic and acute effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on TM endothelial cells include changes in viability, protein synthesis, and cellular adhesion. However, little if anything is known about the immediate effect of H2O2 on the biochemistry of the TM cells and the initial response to oxidative stress. In this report, we have used two-photon excitation autofluorescence (2PAF) to monitor changes to TM cell nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH). 2PAF allows non-destructive, real-time analysis of concentration of intracellular NADPH. Coupled to reduced glutathione, NADPH, is a major component in the anti-oxidant defense of TM cells. Cultured human TM cells were monitored for over 30 min in control and H2O2-containing solutions. Peroxide caused both a dose- and time-dependent decrease in NADPH signal. NADPH fluorescence in control and in 4 mM H2O2 solutions showed little attenuation of NADPH signal (4% and 9% respectively). TM cell NADPH fluorescence showed a linear decrease with exposure to 20 mM H2O2 (−29%) and 100 mM H2O2 (37%) after a 30 min exposure. Exposure of TM cells to 500 mM H2O2 caused an exponential decrease in NADPH fluorescence to a final attenuation of 46% of starting intensity. Analysis of individual TM cells indicates that cells with higher initial NADPH fluorescence are more refractive to the apparent loss of viability caused by H2O2 than weakly fluorescing TM cells. We conclude that 2PAF of intracellular NADPH is a valuable tool for studying TM cell metabolism in response to oxidative insult. PMID:21354135

  3. A two-step real-time PCR assay for quantitation and genotyping of human parvovirus 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, E; Lahtinen, A; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Lappalainen, M; Hedman, K; Söderlund-Venermo, M

    2014-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) of the family Parvoviridae was discovered in a plasma sample of a patient with an undiagnosed acute infection in 2005. Currently, three PARV4 genotypes have been identified, however, with an unknown clinical significance. Interestingly, these genotypes seem to differ in epidemiology. In Northern Europe, USA and Asia, genotypes 1 and 2 have been found to occur mainly in persons with a history of injecting drug use or other parenteral exposure. In contrast, genotype 3 appears to be endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where it infects children and adults without such risk behaviour. In this study, a novel straightforward and cost-efficient molecular assay for both quantitation and genotyping of PARV4 DNA was developed. The two-step method first applies a single-probe pan-PARV4 qPCR for screening and quantitation of this relatively rare virus, and subsequently, only the positive samples undergo a real-time PCR-based multi-probe genotyping. The new qPCR-GT method is highly sensitive and specific regardless of the genotype, and thus being suitable for studying the clinical impact and occurrence of the different PARV4 genotypes.

  4. Detection of human papillomavirus in normal oral cavity in a group of Pakistani subjects using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichki, Abdul Samad; Buajeeb, Waranun; Doungudomdacha, Sombhun; Khovidhunkit, Siribang-on Pibooniyom

    2012-01-01

    Since there is evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) may play some role in oral carcinogenesis, we investigated the presence of HPV in a group of Pakistani subjects with normal oral cavity using real-time PCR analysis. Two-hundred patients attending the Dental Department, Sandaman Provincial Hospital, Balochistan, Pakistan, were recruited. After interview, oral epithelial cells were collected by scraping and subjected to DNA extraction. The HPV-positive DNA samples were further analyzed using primer sets specific for HPV-16 and -18. It was found that out of 200 DNA samples, 192 were PCR-positive for the β-globin gene and these were subsequently examined for the presence of HPV DNA. Among these, 47 (24.5%) were HPV-positive with the virus copy number ranged between 0.43-32 copies per 1 μg of total DNA (9-99 copies per PCR reaction). There were 4 and 11 samples containing HPV-16 and -18, respectively. Additionally, one sample harbored both types of HPV. Among the investigated clinical parameters, smoking habit was associated with the presence of HPV (p=0.001) while others indicated no significant association. The prevalence of HPV in normal oral cavity in our Pakistani subjects appears to be comparable to other studies. However, the association between the presence of HPV and smoking warrants further investigations whether both of these factors can cooperate in inducing oral cancer in this group of patients.

  5. Engineered Biomaterials Control Differentiation and Proliferation of Human-Embryonic-Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes via Timed Notch Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Tung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For cell-based treatments of myocardial infarction, a better understanding of key developmental signaling pathways and more robust techniques for producing cardiomyocytes are required. Manipulation of Notch signaling has promise as it plays an important role during cardiovascular development, but previous studies presented conflicting results that Notch activation both positively and negatively regulates cardiogenesis. We developed surface- and microparticle-based Notch-signaling biomaterials that function in a time-specific activation-tunable manner, enabling precise investigation of Notch activation at specific developmental stages. Using our technologies, a biphasic effect of Notch activation on cardiac differentiation was found: early activation in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs promotes ectodermal differentiation, activation in specified cardiovascular progenitor cells increases cardiac differentiation. Signaling also induces cardiomyocyte proliferation, and repeated doses of Notch-signaling microparticles further enhance cardiomyocyte population size. These results highlight the diverse effects of Notch activation during cardiac development and provide approaches for generating large quantities of cardiomyocytes.

  6. A magnetic nanoparticle-based time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for determination of the cytokeratin 19 fragment in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guanfeng; Liu, Tiancai; Hou, Jingyuan; Ren, Zhiqi; Zhou, Jianwei; Liang, Qianni; Chen, Zhenhua; Dong, Wenqi; Wu, Yingsong

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive, rapid and novel measurement method for cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) in human serum by magnetic particle-based time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) is described. Built on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, analytes in samples were captured by one monoclonal antibody coating onto the surface of magnetic beads and "sandwiched" by another monoclonal antibody labeled with europium chelates. The coefficient variations of the method were lower than 7%, and the recoveries were in the range of 90-110% for serum samples. The lower limit of quantitation of the present method for CYFRA 21-1 was 0.78 ng/ml. The correlation coefficient of CYFRA 21-1 values obtained by our novel TRFIA and CLIA was 0.980. The present novel TRFIA demonstrated high sensitivity, wider effective detection range and excellent reproducibility for determination of CYFRA 21-1 can be useful for early screening and prognosis evaluation of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:25666714

  7. Cycling probe-based real-time PCR for the detection of Human herpesvirus 6A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihira, Masaru; Yamaki, Ayumi; Kato, Yuri; Higashimoto, Yuki; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2016-09-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is classified as two distinct species: HHV-6A and B. HHV-6B infection can cause several clinical manifestations in transplant recipients including encephalitis, bone marrow suppression, and pneumonitis. In contrast to HHV-6B, the clinical features of HHV-6A infection remain largely undefined. Herein, we developed a multiplex cycling probe real-time PCR that discriminated between HHV-6A and HHV-6B. The assay was HHV-6-specific and no cross amplification was demonstrated for other herpesviruses. Moreover, the assay had a broad, linear dynamic range of detection between 1 and 10(6) copies of viral DNA. The quantification of HHV-6A DNA was suppressed by an excess amount of HHV-6B DNA (1 × 10(6) copies/tube) in the multiplex PCR assay; however, 1 × 10(6) copies/tube of HHV-6A DNA did not affect the quantification of 1 × 10(4) copies/tube of HHV-6B DNA. To determine the reliability of the assay for analysis of clinical specimens, DNAs extracted from the peripheral blood of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients were assayed using our multiplex real-time PCR versus the standard TaqMan PCR. Strong correlations were demonstrated between the two different assay systems for both HHV-6A (R(2)  = 0.913) and HHV-6B (R(2)  = 0.909). Therefore, our multiplex HHV-6 species-specific cycling probe real-time PCR is useful for evaluating the precise copy numbers of HHV-6A and B in transplant recipients. However, as HHV-6A copy numbers was affected by presence of high copies of HHV-6B DNA (1 × 10(6) copies/tube), it may be difficult to measure precise copy numbers of HHV-6A in inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6B patient. J. Med. Virol. 88:1628-1635, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945690

  8. Recording human electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals for neuroscientific research and real-time functional cortical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N Jeremy; Gupta, Disha; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Adamo, Matthew A; Ritaccio, Anthony; Schalk, Gerwin

    2012-06-26

    Neuroimaging studies of human cognitive, sensory, and motor processes are usually based on noninvasive techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography or functional magnetic-resonance imaging. These techniques have either inherently low temporal or low spatial resolution, and suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and/or poor high-frequency sensitivity. Thus, they are suboptimal for exploring the short-lived spatio-temporal dynamics of many of the underlying brain processes. In contrast, the invasive technique of electrocorticography (ECoG) provides brain signals that have an exceptionally high signal-to-noise ratio, less susceptibility to artifacts than EEG, and a high spatial and temporal resolution (i.e., intentions to enhance or improve communication and control. Nevertheless, human ECoG data are often hard to obtain because of the risks and limitations of the invasive procedures involved, and the need to record within the constraints of clinical settings. Still, clinical monitoring to localize epileptic foci offers a unique and valuable opportunity to collect human ECoG data. We describe our methods for collecting recording ECoG, and demonstrate how to use these signals for important real-time applications such as clinical mapping and brain-computer interfacing. Our example uses the BCI2000 software platform and the SIGFRIED method, an application for real-time mapping of brain functions. This procedure yields information that clinicians can subsequently use to guide the complex and laborious process of functional mapping by electrical stimulation. PREREQUISITES AND PLANNING: Patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy may be candidates for resective surgery of an epileptic focus to minimize the frequency of seizures. Prior to resection, the patients undergo monitoring using subdural electrodes for two purposes: first, to localize the epileptic focus, and second, to identify nearby critical brain areas (i.e., eloquent cortex) where

  9. Optical tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial and picosecond time resolution using intense near infrared femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Karsten; Wollina, Uwe; Riemann, Iris; Peukert, Christiane; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen; Konrad, Helga; Fischer, Peter; Fuenfstueck, Veronika; Fischer, Tobias W.; Elsner, Peter

    2002-06-01

    We describe the novel high resolution imaging tool DermaInspect 100 for non-invasive diagnosis of dermatological disorders based on multiphoton autofluorescence imaging (MAI)and second harmonic generation. Femtosecond laser pulses in the spectral range of 750 nm to 850 nm have been used to image in vitro and in vivo human skin with subcellular spatial and picosecond temporal resolution. The non-linear induced autofluorescence originates mainly from naturally endogenous fluorophores/protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, keratin, collagen, elastin, porphyrins and melanin. Second harmonic generation was observed in the stratum corneum and in the dermis. The system with a wavelength-tunable compact 80 MHz Ti:sapphire laser, a scan module with galvo scan mirrors, piezoelectric objective positioner, fast photon detector and time-resolved single photon counting unit was used to perform optical sectioning and 3D autofluorescence lifetime imaging (t-mapping). In addition, a modified femtosecond laser scanning microscope was involved in autofluorescence measurements. Tissues of patients with psoriasis, nevi, dermatitis, basalioma and melanoma have been investigated. Individual cells and skin structures could be clearly visualized. Intracellular components and connective tissue structures could be further characterized by tuning the excitation wavelength in the range of 750 nm to 850 nm and by calculation of mean fluorescence lifetimes per pixel and of particular regions of interest. The novel non-invasive imaging system provides 4D (x,y,z,t) optical biopsies with subcellular resolution and offers the possibility to introduce a further optical diagnostic method in dermatology.

  10. Probing orientation of immobilized humanized anti-lysozyme variable fragment by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, J E; Cheng, Fang; Ratner, Daniel M; Stayton, Patrick S; Castner, David G

    2011-04-01

    As methods to orient proteins are conceived, techniques must also be developed that provide an accurate characterization of immobilized protein orientation. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used to probe the orientation of a surface immobilized variant of the humanized anti-lysozyme variable fragment (HuLys Fv, 26 kDa). This protein contained both a hexahistidine tag and a cysteine residue, introduced at opposite ends of the HuLys Fv, for immobilization onto nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and maleimide oligo(ethylene glycol) (MEG)-terminated substrates, respectively. The thiol group on the cysteine residue selectively binds to the MEG groups, while the his-tag selectively binds to the Ni-loaded NTA groups. XPS was used to monitor protein coverage on both surfaces by following the change in the nitrogen atomic %. SPR results showed a 10-fold difference in lysozyme binding between the two different HuLys Fv orientations. The ToF-SIMS data provided a clear differentiation between the two samples due to the intensity differences of secondary ions originating from asymmetrically located amino acids in HuLys Fv (histidine: 81, 82, and 110 m/z; phenylalanine: 120 and 131 m/z). An intensity ratio of the secondary ion peaks from the histidine and phenylalanine residues at either end of the protein was then calculated directly from the ToF-SIMS data. The 45% change in this ratio, observed between the NTA and MEG substrates with similar HuLys Fv surface coverages, indicates that the HuLys Fv fragment has opposite orientations on two different surfaces.

  11. Reproducibility of creatine kinase reaction kinetics in human heart: a (31) P time-dependent saturation transfer spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Adil; Gropler, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) is essential for the buffering and rapid regeneration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in heart tissue. Herein, we demonstrate a (31) P MRS protocol to quantify CK reaction kinetics in human myocardium at 3 T. Furthermore, we sought to quantify the test-retest reliability of the measured metabolic parameters. The method localizes the (31) P signal from the heart using modified one-dimensional image-selected in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS), and a time-dependent saturation transfer (TDST) approach was used to measure CK reaction parameters. Fifteen healthy volunteers (22 measurements in total) were tested. The CK reaction rate constant (kf ) was 0.32 ± 0.05 s(-1) and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 15.62%. The intrinsic T1 for phosphocreatine (PCr) was 7.36 ± 1.79 s with CV = 24.32%. These values are consistent with those reported previously. The PCr/ATP ratio was equal to 1.94 ± 0.15 with CV = 7.73%, which is within the range of healthy subjects. The reproducibility of the technique was tested in seven subjects and inferred parameters, such as kf and T1 , exhibited good reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.90 and 0.79 for kf and T1 , respectively). The reproducibility data provided in this study will enable the calculation of the power and sample sizes required for clinical and research studies. The technique will allow for the examination of cardiac energy metabolism in clinical and research studies, providing insight into the relationship between energy deficit and functional deficiency in the heart.

  12. Real-time imaging of ATP release induced by mechanical stretch in human airway smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Norihiro; Ito, Satoru; Furuya, Kishio; Naruse, Keiji; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-12-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells within the airway walls are continually exposed to mechanical stimuli, and exhibit various functions in response to these mechanical stresses. ATP acts as an extracellular mediator in the airway. Moreover, extracellular ATP is considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, it is not known whether ASM cells are cellular sources of ATP secretion in the airway. We therefore investigated whether mechanical stretch induces ATP release from ASM cells. Mechanical stretch was applied to primary human ASM cells cultured on a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Concentrations of ATP in cell culture supernatants measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence were significantly elevated by cyclic stretch (12 and 20% strain). We further visualized the stretch-induced ATP release from the cells in real time using a luminescence imaging system, while acquiring differential interference contrast cell images with infrared optics. Immediately after a single uniaxial stretch for 1 second, strong ATP signals were produced by a certain population of cells and spread to surrounding spaces. The cyclic stretch-induced ATP release was significantly reduced by inhibitors of Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular exocytosis, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl ester, monensin, N-ethylmaleimide, and bafilomycin. In contrast, the stretch-induced ATP release was not inhibited by a hemichannel blocker, carbenoxolone, or blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 by short interfering RNA transfection or ruthenium red. These findings reveal a novel property of ASM cells: mechanically induced ATP release may be a cellular source of ATP in the airway. PMID:24885163

  13. Suitable reference genes for real-time PCR in human HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma with different clinical prognoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housekeeping genes are routinely used as endogenous references to account for experimental differences in gene expression assays. However, recent reports show that they could be de-regulated in different diseases, model animals, or even under varied experimental conditions, which may lead to unreliable results and consequently misinterpretations. This study focused on the selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative PCR in human hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with different clinical outcomes. We evaluated 6 commonly used housekeeping genes' expression levels in 108 HBV-related HCCs' matched tumor and non-tomor tissue samples with different clinical outcomes and 26 normal liver specimens by real-time PCR. The expression stability of the 6 genes was compared using the software programs geNorm and NormFinder. To show the impact of reference genes on data analysis, we took PGK1 as a target gene normalized by each reference gene, and performed one-way ANOVA and the equivalence test. With the geNorm and NormFinder software programs, analysis of TBP and HPRT1 showed the best stability in all tissue samples, while 18s and ACTB were less stable. When 18s or ACTB was used for normalization, no significant difference of PGK1 expression (p > 0.05) was found among HCC tissues with and without metastasis, and normal liver specimens; however, dramatically differences (p < 0.001) were observed when either TBP or the combination of TBP and HPRT1 were selected as reference genes. TBP and HPRT1 are the most reliable reference genes for q-PCR normalization in HBV-related HCC specimens. However, the well-used ACTB and 18S are not suitable, which actually lead to the misinterpretation of the results in gene expression analysis

  14. Novel Method Based on Real-Time Cell Analysis for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jocelyne; Goyette, Nathalie; Boivin, Guy

    2016-08-01

    The plaque reduction assay (PRA) is the gold standard phenotypic method to determine herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) susceptibilities to antiviral drugs. However, this assay is subjective and labor intensive. Here, we describe a novel antiviral phenotypic method based on real-time cell analysis (RTCA) that measures electronic impedance over time. The effective drug concentrations that reduced by 50% (EC50s) the cytopathic effects induced by HSV-1 and HCMV were evaluated by both methods. The EC50s of acyclovir and foscarnet against a reference wild-type (WT) HSV-1 strain in Vero cells were, respectively, 0.5 μM and 32.6 μM by PRA and 0.8 μM and 93.6 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir against several HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) mutants were 101.8×, 73.4×, 28.8×, and 35.4× (PRA) and 18.0×, 52.0×, 5.5×, and 87.8× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir and foscarnet against the HSV-1 TK/DNA polymerase mutant were 182.8× and 9.7× (PRA) and >125.0× and 10.8× (RTCA) compared to the WT. The EC50s of ganciclovir and foscarnet against WT HCMV strain AD169 in fibroblasts were, respectively, 1.6 μM and 27.8 μM by PRA and 5.0 μM and 111.4 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir against the HCMV UL97 mutant were 3.8× (PRA) and 8.2× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir and foscarnet against the HCMV UL97/DNA polymerase mutant were 17.1× and 12.1× (PRA) and 14.7× and 4.6× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. RTCA allows objective drug susceptibility testing of HSV and HCMV and could permit high-throughput screening of new antivirals. PMID:27252463

  15. T2* and proton density measurement of normal human lung parenchyma using submillisecond echo time gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatabu, Hiroto; Alsop, David C.; Listerud, John; Bonnet, Mathieu; Gefter, Warren B

    1999-03-01

    Objective: To obtain T2* and proton density measurements of normal human lung parenchyma in vivo using submillisecond echo time (TE) gradient echo (GRE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and methods: Six normal volunteers were scanned using a 1.5-T system equipped with a prototype enhanced gradient (GE Signa, Waukausha, WI). Images were obtained during breath-holding with acquisition times of 7-16 s. Multiple TEs ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 ms were tested. Linear regression was performed on the logarithmic plots of signal intensity versus TE, yielding measurements of T2* and proton density relative to chest wall muscle. Measurements in supine and prone positions were compared, and effects of the level of lung inflation on lung signal were also evaluated. Results: The signal from the lung parenchyma diminished exponentially with prolongation of TE. The measured T2* in six normal volunteers ranged from 0.89 to 2.18 ms (1.43{+-}0.41 ms, mean{+-}S.D.). The measured relative proton density values ranged between 0.21 and 0.45 (0.29{+-}0.08, mean{+-}S.D.). Calculated T2* values of 1.46{+-}0.50, 1.01{+-}0.29 and 1.52{+-}0.18 ms, and calculated relative proton densities of 0.20{+-}0.03, 0.32{+-}0.13 and 0.35{+-}0.10 were obtained from the anterior, middle and posterior portions of the supine right lung, respectively. The anterior-posterior proton density gradient was reversed in the prone position. There was a pronounced increase in signal from lung parenchyma at maximum expiration compared with maximum inspiration. The ultrashort TE GRE technique yielded images demonstrating signal from lung parenchyma with minimal motion-induced noise. Conclusion: Quantitative in vivo measurements of lung T2* and relative proton density in conjunction with high-signal parenchymal images can be obtained using a set of very rapid breath-hold images with a recently developed ultrashort TE GRE sequence.

  16. Beaming into the rat world: enabling real-time interaction between rat and human each at their own scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Normand

    Full Text Available Immersive virtual reality (IVR typically generates the illusion in participants that they are in the displayed virtual scene where they can experience and interact in events as if they were really happening. Teleoperator (TO systems place people at a remote physical destination embodied as a robotic device, and where typically participants have the sensation of being at the destination, with the ability to interact with entities there. In this paper, we show how to combine IVR and TO to allow a new class of application. The participant in the IVR is represented in the destination by a physical robot (TO and simultaneously the remote place and entities within it are represented to the participant in the IVR. Hence, the IVR participant has a normal virtual reality experience, but where his or her actions and behaviour control the remote robot and can therefore have physical consequences. Here, we show how such a system can be deployed to allow a human and a rat to operate together, but the human interacting with the rat on a human scale, and the rat interacting with the human on the rat scale. The human is represented in a rat arena by a small robot that is slaved to the human's movements, whereas the tracked rat is represented to the human in the virtual reality by a humanoid avatar. We describe the system and also a study that was designed to test whether humans can successfully play a game with the rat. The results show that the system functioned well and that the humans were able to interact with the rat to fulfil the tasks of the game. This system opens up the possibility of new applications in the life sciences involving participant observation of and interaction with animals but at human scale.

  17. Beaming into the Rat World: Enabling Real-Time Interaction between Rat and Human Each at Their Own Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Jean-Marie; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.; Waechter, Christian; Giannopoulos, Elias; Grosswindhager, Bernhard; Spanlang, Bernhard; Guger, Christoph; Klinker, Gudrun; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.; Slater, Mel

    2012-01-01

    Immersive virtual reality (IVR) typically generates the illusion in participants that they are in the displayed virtual scene where they can experience and interact in events as if they were really happening. Teleoperator (TO) systems place people at a remote physical destination embodied as a robotic device, and where typically participants have the sensation of being at the destination, with the ability to interact with entities there. In this paper, we show how to combine IVR and TO to allow a new class of application. The participant in the IVR is represented in the destination by a physical robot (TO) and simultaneously the remote place and entities within it are represented to the participant in the IVR. Hence, the IVR participant has a normal virtual reality experience, but where his or her actions and behaviour control the remote robot and can therefore have physical consequences. Here, we show how such a system can be deployed to allow a human and a rat to operate together, but the human interacting with the rat on a human scale, and the rat interacting with the human on the rat scale. The human is represented in a rat arena by a small robot that is slaved to the human’s movements, whereas the tracked rat is represented to the human in the virtual reality by a humanoid avatar. We describe the system and also a study that was designed to test whether humans can successfully play a game with the rat. The results show that the system functioned well and that the humans were able to interact with the rat to fulfil the tasks of the game. This system opens up the possibility of new applications in the life sciences involving participant observation of and interaction with animals but at human scale. PMID:23118987

  18. Time-of-day-dependent effects of bright light exposure on human psychophysiology : comparison of daytime and nighttime exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruger, M; Gordijn, MCM; Beersma, DGM; de Vries, B; Daan, S

    2006-01-01

    Bright light can influence human psychophysiology instantaneously by inducing endocrine ( suppression of melatonin, increasing cortisol levels), other physiological changes ( enhancement of core body temperature), and psychological changes ( reduction of sleepiness, increase of alertness). Its broad

  19. Real-time non-invasive eyetracking and gaze-point determination for human-computer interaction and biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Monacos, S.; Lam, R.; Lebaw, C.; Bond, A.

    2004-01-01

    Eyetracking is one of the latest technologies that has shown potential in several areas including human-computer interaction for people with and without disabilities, and for noninvasive monitoring, detection, and even diagnosis of physiological and neurological problems in individuals.

  20. Protein C Activity in Dogs: Adaptation of a Commercial Human Colorimetric Assay and Evaluation of Effects of Storage Time and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Fry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were to adapt a commercial human protein C (PC colorimetric assay for use in dogs and to investigate effects of various storage conditions. The human assay was modified by using pooled canine plasma for calibration and by increasing the activation time. PC activity was measured in fresh canine plasma and in plasma stored under various conditions. PC activity of some stored samples was significantly different from that of fresh plasma; however, differences were small. No difference was detected in samples stored under similar conditions but analyzed in different laboratories using similar methodology. Results of this study indicate that the human colorimetric assay is suitable for canine samples if pooled canine plasma is used for calibration, that Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute sample storage guidelines developed for testing in humans are appropriate for dogs, and that comparisons of results from laboratories using similar methodology are legitimate.

  1. Vigilance and Activity Time-Budget Adjustments of Wintering Hooded Cranes, Grus monacha, in Human-Dominated Foraging Habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlin Li; Lizhi Zhou; Li Xu; Niannian Zhao; Guy Beauchamp

    2015-01-01

    Due to loss and degradation of natural wetlands, waterbirds increasingly rely on surrounding human-dominated habitats to obtain food. Quantifying vigilance patterns, investigating the trade-off among various activities, and examining the underlying mechanisms will help us understand how waterbirds adapt to human-caused disturbances. During two successive winters (November-February of 2012-13 and 2013-14), we studied the hooded crane, Grus monacha, in the Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve ...

  2. Soluble CD163 does not predict first-time myocardial infarction in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Møller, Holger Jon; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with arterial inflammation and non-calcified plaques in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has therefore been suggested as a predictive biomarker of myocardial infarction (MI).......Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with arterial inflammation and non-calcified plaques in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has therefore been suggested as a predictive biomarker of myocardial infarction (MI)....

  3. Identification of fipronil metabolites by time-of-flight mass spectrometry for application in a human exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahen, Rebecca L; Strynar, Mark J; Dagnino, Sonia; Herr, David W; Moser, Virginia C; Garantziotis, Stavros; Andersen, Erik M; Freeborn, Danielle L; McMillan, Larry; Lindstrom, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide commonly used in residential and agricultural applications. To understand more about the potential risks for human exposure associated with fipronil, urine and serum from dosed Long Evans adult rats (5 and 10mg/kg bw) were analyzed to identify metabolites as potential biomarkers for use in human biomonitoring studies. Urine from treated rats was found to contain seven unique metabolites, two of which had not been previously reported-M4 and M7 which were putatively identified as a nitroso compound and an imine, respectively. Fipronil sulfone was confirmed to be the primary metabolite in rat serum. The fipronil metabolites identified in the respective matrices were then evaluated in matched human urine (n=84) and serum (n=96) samples from volunteers with no known pesticide exposures. Although no fipronil or metabolites were detected in human urine, fipronil sulfone was present in the serum of approximately 25% of the individuals at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 4ng/mL. These results indicate that many fipronil metabolites are produced following exposures in rats and that fipronil sulfone is a useful biomarker in human serum. Furthermore, human exposure to fipronil may occur regularly and require more extensive characterization.

  4. Comparison of a Real-Time PCR Method with Serology and Blood Smear Analysis for Diagnosis of Human Anaplasmosis: Importance of Infection Time Course for Optimal Test Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Schotthoefer, A. M.; Meece, J. K.; Ivacic, L. C.; Bertz, P. D.; Zhang, K.; Weiler, T.; Uphoff, T S; Fritsche, T R

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are emerging tick-borne diseases with clinically similar presentations caused by closely related pathogens. Currently, laboratories rely predominantly on blood smear analysis (for the detection of intracellular morulae) and on serologic tests, both of which have recognized limitations, for diagnostic purposes. We compared the performance of a published real-time PCR assay that incorporates melt curve analysis to differentiate Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species with ...

  5. Real-time tracking of CO migration and binding in the α and β subunits of human hemoglobin via 150-ps time-resolved Laue crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schotte, Friedrich; Cho, Hyun Sun [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0520 (United States); Soman, Jayashree [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, and W.M. Keck Center for Computational Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States); Wulff, Michael [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Olson, John S. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, and W.M. Keck Center for Computational Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States); Anfinrud, Philip A., E-mail: anfinrud@nih.gov [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0520 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► 150-ps Time-resolved Laue crystallography has unveiled ligand dynamics in hemoglobin. ► Significant kinetic differences are observed in the α and β subunits of hemoglobin. ► The B-site lifetime is ∼1.6 ns in β, and ∼18 ns in α. ► The B-site location in β is ∼0.25 Å closer to the binding site than in α. ► The correlation between CO position and rebinding rate suggests distal control. - Abstract: We have developed the method of picosecond Laue crystallography and used this capability to probe ligand dynamics in tetrameric R-state hemoglobin (Hb). Time-resolved, 2 Å-resolution electron density maps of photolyzed HbCO reveal the time-dependent population of CO in the binding (A) and primary docking (B) sites of both α and β subunits from 100 ps to 10 μs. The proximity of the B site in the β subunit is about 0.25 Å closer to its A binding site, and its k{sub BA} rebinding rate (∼300 μs{sup −1}) is six times faster, suggesting distal control of the rebinding dynamics. Geminate rebinding in the β subunit exhibits both prompt and delayed geminate phases. We developed a microscopic model to quantitatively explain the observed kinetics, with three states for the α subunit and four states for the β subunit. This model provides a consistent framework for interpreting rebinding kinetics reported in prior studies of both HbCO and HbO{sub 2}.

  6. Comparison of microscopy, real-time PCR and a rapid immunoassay for the detection of Giardia lamblia in human stool specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, T.; Lankamp, P.; van Belkum, A.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; van Zwet, A.

    2007-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal parasites worldwide, with microscopy being the diagnostic reference standard for use with human stools. However, microscopy is time-consuming, labour-intensive and lacks sensitivity when single stools are examined. In the present study, microscopy

  7. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, M; Peters, D; Back, N K T; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K; Foulongne, V; Geretti, A-M; Pandiani, L; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H G M

    2007-01-01

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS TaqMa

  8. Monitoring time course of human whole blood coagulation using a microfluidic dielectric sensor with a 3D capacitive structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Debnath; Suster, Michael A; Stavrou, Evi; Gurkan, Umut A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfluidic sensor for dielectric spectroscopy (DS) of human whole blood during coagulation. The sensor employs a three-dimensional (3D), parallel-plate, capacitive sensing structure with a floating electrode integrated into a microfluidic channel. Using an impedance analyzer and after a 5-point calibration, the sensor is shown to measure the real part of complex relative dielectric permittivity of human whole blood in a frequency range of 10kHz to 100MHz. The temporal variation of dielectric permittivity at 1MHz for human whole blood from three different healthy donors shows a peak in permittivity at ~ 4 to 5 minutes, which also corresponds to the onset of CaCl2-initiated coagulation of the blood sample verified visually. PMID:26737635

  9. Three Experiments Examining the Use of Electroencephalogram,Event-Related Potentials, and Heart-Rate Variability for Real-Time Human-Centered Adaptive Automation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Parasuraman, Raja; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Mikulka, Peter J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive automation represents an advanced form of human-centered automation design. The approach to automation provides for real-time and model-based assessments of human-automation interaction, determines whether the human has entered into a hazardous state of awareness and then modulates the task environment to keep the operator in-the-loop , while maintaining an optimal state of task engagement and mental alertness. Because adaptive automation has not matured, numerous challenges remain, including what the criteria are, for determining when adaptive aiding and adaptive function allocation should take place. Human factors experts in the area have suggested a number of measures including the use of psychophysiology. This NASA Technical Paper reports on three experiments that examined the psychophysiological measures of event-related potentials, electroencephalogram, and heart-rate variability for real-time adaptive automation. The results of the experiments confirm the efficacy of these measures for use in both a developmental and operational role for adaptive automation design. The implications of these results and future directions for psychophysiology and human-centered automation design are discussed.

  10. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of YKL-40 and Its Comparison with Mammalian Chitinase mRNAs in Normal Human Tissues Using a Single Standard DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Ohno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available YKL-40 (YKL for the first three N-terminal residues of a 40 kDa protein belongs to a group of human chitinase-like proteins (CLPs, which are similar to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. YKL-40 mRNA and its protein levels have been reported elevated in multiple disorders including asthma, cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors. Here, we quantified the YKL-40 mRNA levels and compared them with chitinases and housekeeping genes in normal human tissues. To establish the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR system for evaluation of relative YKL-40 mRNA levels, we constructed a human standard DNA molecule by ligating cDNAs of YKL-40, two mammalian chitinases and two housekeeping genes in a one-to-one ratio. We generated cDNAs from various normal human tissues and analyzed the YKL-40 mRNA expression levels using a qPCR system with the standard DNA. We found that YKL-40 mRNA is present widely in human tissues while its expression patterns exhibit clear tissue specificity. Highest YKL-40 mRNA levels were detected in the liver, followed by kidney, trachea and lung. The levels of YKL-40 mRNA in the kidney and liver were more than 100-times higher than those of chitotriosidase mRNA. Our study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the relative expression levels of YKL-40 mRNA versus mammalian chitinases in normal human tissues.

  11. Multi-frequency time-difference complex conductivity imaging of canine and human lungs using the KHU Mark1 EIT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the performance of the lately developed electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system KHU Mark1 through time-difference imaging experiments of canine and human lungs. We derived a multi-frequency time-difference EIT (mftdEIT) image reconstruction algorithm based on the concept of the equivalent homogeneous complex conductivity. Imaging experiments were carried out at three different frequencies of 10, 50 and 100 kHz with three different postures of right lateral, sitting (or prone) and left lateral positions. For three normal canine subjects, we controlled the ventilation using a ventilator at three tidal volumes of 100, 150 and 200 ml. Three human subjects were asked to breath spontaneously at a normal tidal volume. Real- and imaginary-part images of the canine and human lungs were reconstructed at three frequencies and three postures. Images showed different stages of breathing cycles and we could interpret them based on the understanding of the proposed mftdEIT image reconstruction algorithm. Time series of images were further analyzed by using the functional EIT (fEIT) method. Images of human subjects showed the gravity effect on air distribution in two lungs. In the canine subjects, the morphological change seems to dominate the gravity effect. We could also observe that two different types of ventilation should have affected the results. The KHU Mark1 EIT system is expected to provide reliable mftdEIT images of the human lungs. In terms of the image reconstruction algorithm, it would be worthwhile including the effects of three-dimensional current flows inside the human thorax. We suggest clinical trials of the KHU Mark1 for pulmonary applications

  12. Real-time PCR-based assay to quantify the relative amount of human and mouse tissue present in tumor xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcoser Sergio Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenograft samples used to test anti-cancer drug efficacies and toxicities in vivo contain an unknown mix of mouse and human cells. Evaluation of drug activity can be confounded by samples containing large amounts of contaminating mouse tissue. We have developed a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay using TaqMan technology to quantify the amount of mouse tissue that is incorporated into human xenograft samples. Results The forward and reverse primers bind to the same DNA sequence in the human and the mouse genome. Using a set of specially designed fluorescent probes provides species specificity. The linearity and sensitivity of the assay is evaluated using serial dilutions of single species and heterogeneous DNA mixtures. We examined many xenograft samples at various in vivo passages, finding a wide variety of human:mouse DNA ratios. This variation may be influenced by tumor type, number of serial passages in vivo, and even which part of the tumor was collected and used in the assay. Conclusions This novel assay provides an accurate quantitative assessment of human and mouse content in xenograft tumors. This assay can be performed on aberrantly behaving human xenografts, samples used in bioinformatics studies, and periodically for tumor tissue frequently grown by serial passage in vivo.

  13. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  14. Gender Homophily, Ph.D. Completion, and Time to Degree in the Humanities and Humanistic Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Joyce B.

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs in the humanities and humanistic social sciences contend with relatively lower graduation rates and longer duration to degree. While reforming graduate education can include changes to financial aid awards and program requirements, enhancements in the area of advising can also improve student educational experiences and outcomes…

  15. The Best Time to Acquire New Skills: Age-Related Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning across the Human Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…

  16. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization apllied to human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, F.G.; Rechtman, D.J.; Lee, M.L.; Hoeij, K. van; Berg, H.; Engelenberg, F.A.C. van; Wout, A.B. van 't

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, concerns over the transmission of infectious diseases have led to donor human milk generally being subjected to pasteurization prior to distribution and use. The standard method used by North American milk banks is Holder pasteurization (63°C for 30 minutes). The authors undert

  17. Direct B0 field monitoring and real-time B0 field updating in the human breast at 7 Tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, V.O.; Bank, B.L. van de; Vliet, G. van; Luijten, P.R.; Klomp, D.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Large dynamic fluctuations of the static magnetic field (B(0)) are observed in the human body during MR scanning, compromising image quality and detection sensitivity in several MR imaging and spectroscopy sequences. Partially, these dynamic B(0) fluctuations are due to physiological motion such as

  18. Comparison of different pulse sequences for in vivo determination of T1 relaxation times in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Henriksen, O

    1988-01-01

    ). T1 measurements were performed on the human brain using a whole body MR scanner operating at 1.5 tesla. Three different pulse sequences were compared including two 6-points inversion recovery (IR) sequences with TR = 2.0 s and 4.0, respectively, and a 12-points partial saturation inversion recovery...

  19. Identification of fipronil metabolites in rodents by time-of-flight mass spectrometry for application in a human exposure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide commonly used in residential and agricultural applications. To understand more about the potential risks associated with fipronil, dosed Long Evans rats were evaluated for metabolites to develop a set of biomarkers for use in human exposur...

  20. Human body reaction time measurement instrument and application%人体全身反应时间测量仪研制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾信文; 高俊; 张笑昆; 陶成

    2013-01-01

    为提高人体全身反应时间测量的效率和准确度,研制了人体全身反应时间测量仪。该仪器由信号发出装置、承重装置、时间和压力纪录装置以及反应判断装置组成。实验表明,利用该仪器可以完成人体反应时信号的测量、纪录与判别处理等过程,能够满足运动科研实验及教学的需要。%In order to improve the human body reaction time measurement efficiency and accuracy ,this paper discusses how to develop the human body reaction time measuring instrument . The system consists of a signaling device ,and bearing device ,time pressure recording device and reaction judging device .Experimental results show that the system can complete the human reaction time signal measurement ,record and judging process ,and can meet the needs of teaching and scientific research experiment of movement .

  1. Real-time measurement of human salivary cortisol for the assessment of psychological stress using a smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoyeon Choi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple smartphone-based measurement system consisting of a smartphone, a holder, and a lateral flow immune strip. The smartphone camera and light source were used to read the colorimetric signal from the lateral flow assay. A smartphone application was written and installed onto the smartphone. Various concentrations of cortisol were successfully measured using the images captured by the smartphone. Measurement of human salivary cortisol was then demonstrated using the lateral flow assay and the quantitative analysis was validated with the smartphone. The system was further evaluated using human saliva, demonstrating an accurate and reproducible platform for rapid and point-of-care quantification of cortisol using a smartphone-based measurement system.

  2. Searching for anthropogenic contaminants in human breast adipose tissues using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, Félix; Portolés Nicolau, Tania; Pitarch Arquimbau, María Elena; López Benet, Francisco José

    2008-01-01

    The potential of GC-TOF MS for screening anthropogenic organic contaminants in human breast adipose tissues has been investigated. Initially a target screening was performed for a list of 125 compounds which included persistent halogen pollutants (OC pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs), PAHs, alkylphenols, and a notable number of pesticides from the different fungicide, herbicide and insecticide families. Searching for target pollutants was done by evaluating the presence of up to five representative io...

  3. Analysis of simultaneous space-time clusters of Campylobacter spp. in humans and in broiler flocks using a multiple dataset approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norström Madelaine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU and the epidemiology of sporadic campylobacteriosis, especially the routes of transmission, is to a great extent unclear. Poultry easily become colonised with Campylobacter spp., being symptom-less intestinal carriers. Earlier it was estimated that internationally between 50% and 80% of the cases could be attributed to chicken as a reservoir. In a Norwegian surveillance programme all broiler flocks under 50 days of age were tested for Campylobacter spp. The aim of the current study was to identify simultaneous local space-time clusters each year from 2002 to 2007 for human cases of campylobacteriosis and for broiler flocks testing positive for Campylobacter spp. using a multivariate spatial scan statistic method. A cluster occurring simultaneously in humans and broilers could indicate the presence of common factors associated with the dissemination of Campylobacter spp. for both humans and broilers. Results Local space-time clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. occurring simultaneously were identified in all investigated years. All clusters but one were identified from May to August. Some municipalities were included in clusters all years. Conclusions The simultaneous occurrence of clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. combined with the knowledge that poultry meat has a nation-wide distribution indicates that campylobacteriosis cases might also be caused by other risk factors than consumption and handling of poultry meat. Broiler farms that are positive could contaminate the environment with further spread to new broiler farms or to humans living in the area and local environmental factors, such as climate, might influence the spread of Campylobacter spp. in an area. Further studies to clarify the role of such factors are needed.

  4. Feedback effect of human physical and psychological adaption on time period of thermal adaption in naturally ventilated building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing;

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...... of the time period of thermal adaption were obtained on the basis of the data from a long-term field survey conducted in two typical naturally ventilated offices located in Changsha, China. The results showed that the occupants need to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air temperature......, under the synergistic feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes. The time period of thermal adaption increased to 13 days, if only the feedback effect of the physical adaption mode was accounted for. The difference between the two values of the time period of thermal adaption...

  5. IgG subclass antibodies to human and bacterial HSP60 are not associated with disease activity and progression over time in axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Hjelholt, Astrid Johannesson; Jurik, Anne Grethe;

    2013-01-01

    and patient follow-up. In this study, we have focused on these parameters in a cohort of axial SpA patients with a well-established set of clinical characteristics, including MRI changes and human leukocyte antigen B27. METHODS: IgG subclass antibodies (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) against recombinant HSP60...... and the disease parameters. RESULTS: Elevated levels of IgG1 and IgG3 to human HSP60 and IgG1 to HSP60 of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis were observed in SpA patients compared with healthy controls at both time points. The antibody levels were almost constant over time for IgG1, whereas high levels of IgG3...

  6. Human induced dryland degradation in Ordos Plateau, China, revealed by multilevel statistical modeling of normalized difference vegetation index and rainfall time-series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing ZHANG; JianMing NIU; Tongliga BAO; Alexander BUYANTUYEV; Qing ZHANG; JianJun DONG; XueFeng ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Land degradation causes serious environmental problems in many regions of the world, and although it can be effectively assessed and monitored using a time series of rainfall and a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from remotely-sensed imagery, dividing human-induced land degradation from vegetation dynamics due to climate change is not a trivial task. This paper presented a multilevel statistical modeling of the NDVI-rainfall relationship to detect human-induced land degradation at local and landscape scales in the Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia, China, and recognized that anthropogenic activities result in either positive (land restoration and re-vegetation) or negative (degradation) trends. Linear regressions were used to assess the accuracy of the multi-level statistical model. The results show that:(1) land restoration was the dominant process in the Ordos Plateau between 1998 and 2012;(2) the effect of the statistical removal of precipitation revealed areas of human-induced land degradation and improvement, the latter reflecting successful restoration projects and changes in land man-agement in many parts of the Ordos; (3) compared to a simple linear regression, multilevel statistical modeling could be used to analyze the relationship between the NDVI and rainfall and improve the accuracy of detecting the effect of human activities. Additional factors should be included when analyzing the NDVI-rainfall relationship and detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in drylands to improve the accuracy of the approach and elimi-nate some observed non-significant residual trends.

  7. Analysis of Individual Human Trigeminal Ganglia for Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Varicella-Zoster Virus Nucleic Acids Using Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Randall, Jessica; Smith, John; Gilden, Donald H.; Dabrowski, Christine; van der Keyl, Harjeet; Tal-Singer, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establish latent infections in the peripheral nervous system following primary infection. During latency both virus genomes exhibit limited transcription, with the HSV-1 LATs and at least four VZV transcripts consistently detected in latently infected human ganglia. In this study we used real-time PCR quantitation to determine the viral DNA copy number in individual trigeminal ganglia (TG) from 17 subjects. The number of HSV...

  8. Detection and quantification of neurotensin in human brain tissue by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobom, J; Kraeuter, K O; Persson, R;

    2000-01-01

    A method was developed for mass spectrometric detection of neurotensin (NT)-like immunoreactivity and quantification of NT in human brain tissue. The method is based on immunoprecipitation followed by analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI......-TOF-MS). The identity of the major component of the immunoprecipitates as neurotensin was confirmed by fragment ion analysis on an electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight instrument. MALDI-TOF-MS quantification of NT was achieved using stable-isotope-labeled NT as the internal standard, yielding an error...

  9. Real-Time Human in the Loop MBS Simulation in the Fraunhofer Robot-Based Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleer Michael

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper encompasses the overview of hardware architecture and the systems characteristics of the Fraunhofer driving simulator. First, the requirements of the real-time model and the real-time calculation hardware are defined and discussed in detail. Aspects like transport delay and the parallel computation of complex real-time models are presented. In addition, the interfacing of the models with the simulator system is shown. Two simulator driving tests, including a fully interactive rough terrain driving with a wheeled excavator and a test drive with a passenger car, are set to demonstrate system characteristics. Furthermore, the simulator characteristics of practical significance, such as simulator response time delay, simulator acceleration signal bandwidth obtained from artificial excitation and from the simulator driving test, will be presented and discussed.

  10. Effects of diffusion time and diffusion gradient strength on the mean diffusivity of water molecules in healthy human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Song; WANG Xiaoying; BAO Shanglian

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion time and diffusion gradient strength are two important parameters of pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) that is the most commonly used method in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. However, the effects of the diffusion time on the mean diffusivity (MD) in previous studies are controversial. In this study, a new experimental protocol was designed to evaluate the effects of the two parameters on the results of PGSE. It was found that MD decreased significantly with the increased diffusion time or increased diffusion gradient strength, which cannot be explained by the previous theories. Through theoretical analysis, we found the flaw in the pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) method, which is the explanation for the controversial results of diffusion time obtained by others.

  11. Cytotoxicity evaluation of nanoclays in human epithelial cell line A549 using high content screening and real-time impedance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Navin K. [Trinity College Dublin, Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine (Ireland); Moore, Edward; Blau, Werner [Trinity College Dublin, School of Physics (Ireland); Volkov, Yuri [Trinity College Dublin, Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine (Ireland); Ramesh Babu, P., E-mail: babup@tcd.ie [Trinity College Dublin, Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (Ireland)

    2012-09-15

    Continuously expanding use of products containing nanoclays for wide range of applications have raised public concerns about health and safety. Although the products containing nanoclays may not be toxic, it is possible that nanomaterials may come in contact with humans during handling, manufacture, or disposal, and cause adverse health impact. This necessitates biocompatibility evaluation of the commonly used nanoclays. Here, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of platelet (Bentone MA, ME-100, Cloisite Na{sup +}, Nanomer PGV, and Delite LVF) and tubular (Halloysite, and Halloysite MP1) type nanoclays on cultured human lung epithelial cells A549. For the first time with this aim, we employed a cell-based automated high content screening in combination with real-time impedance sensing. We demonstrate varying degree of dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects of both nanoclay types. Overall, platelet structured nanoclays were more cytotoxic than tubular type. A low but significant level of cytotoxicity was observed at 25 {mu}g/mL of the platelet-type nanoclays. A549 cells exposed to high concentration (250 {mu}g/mL) of tubular structured nanoclays showed inhibited cell growth. Confocal microscopy indicated intracellular accumulation of nanoclays with perinuclear localization. Results indicate a potential hazard of nanoclay-containing products at significantly higher concentrations, which warrant their further biohazard assessment on the actual exposure in humans.

  12. Cytotoxicity evaluation of nanoclays in human epithelial cell line A549 using high content screening and real-time impedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuously expanding use of products containing nanoclays for wide range of applications have raised public concerns about health and safety. Although the products containing nanoclays may not be toxic, it is possible that nanomaterials may come in contact with humans during handling, manufacture, or disposal, and cause adverse health impact. This necessitates biocompatibility evaluation of the commonly used nanoclays. Here, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of platelet (Bentone MA, ME-100, Cloisite Na+, Nanomer PGV, and Delite LVF) and tubular (Halloysite, and Halloysite MP1) type nanoclays on cultured human lung epithelial cells A549. For the first time with this aim, we employed a cell-based automated high content screening in combination with real-time impedance sensing. We demonstrate varying degree of dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects of both nanoclay types. Overall, platelet structured nanoclays were more cytotoxic than tubular type. A low but significant level of cytotoxicity was observed at 25 μg/mL of the platelet-type nanoclays. A549 cells exposed to high concentration (250 μg/mL) of tubular structured nanoclays showed inhibited cell growth. Confocal microscopy indicated intracellular accumulation of nanoclays with perinuclear localization. Results indicate a potential hazard of nanoclay-containing products at significantly higher concentrations, which warrant their further biohazard assessment on the actual exposure in humans.

  13. DNA replication timing is maintained genome-wide in primary human myoblasts independent of D4Z4 contraction in FSH muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Pope

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is linked to contraction of an array of tandem 3.3-kb repeats (D4Z4 at 4q35.2 from 11-100 copies to 1-10 copies. The extent to which D4Z4 contraction at 4q35.2 affects overall 4q35.2 chromatin organization remains unclear. Because DNA replication timing is highly predictive of long-range chromatin interactions, we generated genome-wide replication-timing profiles for FSHD and control myogenic precursor cells. We compared non-immortalized myoblasts from four FSHD patients and three control individuals to each other and to a variety of other human cell types. This study also represents the first genome-wide comparison of replication timing profiles in non-immortalized human cell cultures. Myoblasts from both control and FSHD individuals all shared a myoblast-specific replication profile. In contrast, male and female individuals were readily distinguished by monoallelic differences in replication timing at DXZ4 and other regions across the X chromosome affected by X inactivation. We conclude that replication timing is a robust cell-type specific feature that is unaffected by FSHD-related D4Z4 contraction.

  14. In vivo field dependence of proton relaxation times in human brain, liver and skeletal muscle: a multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; de Certaines, J D; Spisni, A;

    1993-01-01

    and MRS, the in vivo field dispersion of T1 and T2 has been measured in order to evaluate whether ex vivo data are representative for the in vivo situation. Brain, skeletal muscle, and liver of healthy human volunteers were studied. Fifteen MR units with a field strength ranging from 0.08 T to 1.5 T took...... part in the trial, which comprised 218 volunteers. All the MR systems were tested for measurement accuracy using the Eurospin TO5 test object. The measured relaxation data were subsequently corrected according to the obtained calibration curves. The results showed a clear field dispersion of T1...

  15. Dose- and Time-Dependent Apoptosis Induced by Avian H9N2 Influenza Virus in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Shahsavandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand human response to avian H9N2 influenza, we investigated the effects of the viral infection on A549, HepG2, and HeLa cells at low and high MOIs. To identify virus-host interplay, expression of Mx and NP genes was measured in the cells supernatants. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, and florescent staining. The virus titration and NP gene transcript levels indicate lower susceptibility of HeLa cell to H9N2 replication than other cells. Although H9N2 did produce a faster CPE in HepG2, high dose of the virus induced apoptosis within early stage of A549 infection. The DNA laddering was enhanced in the cell correlated with increase in virus transcripts. The undetectable to different regulation levels of Mx gene were observed in response to H9N2 infection suggesting that an insufficient antiviral defense in the noncompetent-IFN HepG2 cell promotes efficient viral replication. These results showed that the permissivity of HepG2 for H9N2 is comparable with A549; however, liver cells are not target tissue respond to the infection. These data revealed that the H9N2 virus induced apoptosis signaling via mitochondrial pathway in human alveolar epithelial cells, indicating that the induction may be associated with a dose-dependent manner.

  16. Systematic Evaluation of Wajima Superposition (Steady-State Concentration to Mean Residence Time) in the Estimation of Human Intravenous Pharmacokinetic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Franco; Berellini, Giuliano; Labonte, Laura R; Liang, Guiqing; Kim, Sean

    2016-03-01

    We present a systematic evaluation of the Wajima superpositioning method to estimate the human intravenous (i.v.) pharmacokinetic (PK) profile based on a set of 54 marketed drugs with diverse structure and range of physicochemical properties. We illustrate the use of average of "best methods" for the prediction of clearance (CL) and volume of distribution at steady state (VDss) as described in our earlier work (Lombardo F, Waters NJ, Argikar UA, et al. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;53(2):178-191; Lombardo F, Waters NJ, Argikar UA, et al. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;53(2):167-177). These methods provided much more accurate prediction of human PK parameters, yielding 88% and 70% of the prediction within 2-fold error for VDss and CL, respectively. The prediction of human i.v. profile using Wajima superpositioning of rat, dog, and monkey time-concentration profiles was tested against the observed human i.v. PK using fold error statistics. The results showed that 63% of the compounds yielded a geometric mean of fold error below 2-fold, and an additional 19% yielded a geometric mean of fold error between 2- and 3-fold, leaving only 18% of the compounds with a relatively poor prediction. Our results showed that good superposition was observed in any case, demonstrating the predictive value of the Wajima approach, and that the cause of poor prediction of human i.v. profile was mainly due to the poorly predicted CL value, while VDss prediction had a minor impact on the accuracy of human i.v. profile prediction. PMID:26886320

  17. Complexities in the Use of Bomb-Curve Radiocarbon to Determine Time Since Death of Human Skeletal Remains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubelaker, D H; Buchholz, B A

    2005-04-26

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the level of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the atmosphere. From the peak in 1963, the level of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} has decreased exponentially with a mean life of about 16 years, not due to radioactive decay, but due to mixing with large marine and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Since radiocarbon is incorporated into all living things, the bomb-pulse is an isotopic chronometer of the past half century. The absence of bomb radiocarbon in skeletonized human remains generally indicates a date of death before 1950. Comparison of the radiocarbon values with the post 1950 bomb-curve may also help elucidate when in the post 1950 era, the individual was still alive. Such interpretation however, must consider the age at death of the individual and the type of tissue sampled.

  18. Relaxation and phase space singularities in time series of human magnetoencephalograms can serve as an indicator of the photosensitive epilepsy

    CERN Document Server

    Yulmetyev, R M; Hänggi, P; Khusaenova, E V; Shimojo, S; Yulmetyeva, D G

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the crucial role of the fluctuation and relaxational effects in the human brain functioning we have studied a some statistical quantifiers that support the informational characteristics of neuromagnetic responses of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals. The signals to a flickering stimulus of different color combinations has been obtained from a group of control subjects which is contrasted with those for a patient with photosensitive epilepsy (PSE). We have revealed that the existence of the specific stratification of the phase clouds and the concomitant relaxation singularities of the corresponding nonequilibrium processes of chaotic behavior of the signals in the separate areas for a patient most likely shows the pronounced zones responsible the appearance of PSE.

  19. Combined use of real-time PCR and nested sequence-based typing in survey of human Legionella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, T; Zhou, H; Ren, H; Shi, W; Jin, H; Jiang, X; Xu, Y; Zhou, M; Li, J; Wang, J; Shao, Z; Xu, X

    2016-07-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a globally distributed systemic infectious disease. The burden of LD in many regions is still unclear, especially in Asian countries including China. A survey of Legionella infection using real-time PCR and nested sequence-based typing (SBT) was performed in two hospitals in Shanghai, China. A total of 265 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens were collected from hospital A between January 2012 and December 2013, and 359 sputum specimens were collected from hospital B throughout 2012. A total of 71 specimens were positive for Legionella according to real-time PCR focusing on the 5S rRNA gene. Seventy of these specimens were identified as Legionella pneumophila as a result of real-time PCR amplification of the dotA gene. Results of nested SBT revealed high genetic polymorphism in these L. pneumophila and ST1 was the predominant sequence type. These data revealed that the burden of LD in China is much greater than that recognized previously, and real-time PCR may be a suitable monitoring technology for LD in large sample surveys in regions lacking the economic and technical resources to perform other methods, such as urinary antigen tests and culture methods. PMID:26790498

  20. Time pattern of exercise-induced changes in type I collagen turnover after prolonged endurance exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Asp, S;

    2000-01-01

    Type I collagen is known to adapt to physical activity, and biomarkers of collagen turnover indicate that synthesis can be influenced by a single intense exercise bout, but the exact time pattern of these latter changes are largely undescribed. In the present study, 17 healthy young males had...

  1. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  2. Detection and identification of human Plasmodium species with real-time quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.F. Mens; G.J. Schoone; P.A. Kager; H.D.F.H. Schallig

    2006-01-01

    Background: Decisions concerning malaria treatment depend on species identification causing disease. Microscopy is most frequently used, but at low parasitaemia (< 20 parasites/mu l) the technique becomes less sensitive and time consuming. Rapid diagnostic tests based on Plasmodium antigen detection

  3. Rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by real-time PCR on paraffin-embedded human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Seung; Park, Kyoung Un; Park, Jung Ok; Chang, Ho Eun; Song, Junghan; Choe, Gheeyoung

    2011-07-01

    The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) in clinical specimens is important for diagnosing and caring for patients in whom tuberculosis is clinically suspected. We collected 129 FFPE specimens, including 56 nontuberculosis cases, 63 MTB cases, and 10 nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cases determined by acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture. We performed AFB staining; nested MTB PCR, targeting the IS6110 gene; and real-time MTB PCR, targeting the senX3-regX3 intergenic region in the 129 FFPE specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of AFB staining were 37.0% and 98.2%, respectively, using AFB culture results as the reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting MTB were 68.3% and 98.5%, respectively, by nested PCR; and 74.6% and 98.5% by real-time PCR, respectively. Among the 129 specimens, four were positive by AFB staining but negative by nested or real-time PCR. NTM grew in all four of these cases by AFB culture. AFB density in FFPE tissue sections significantly correlated with MTB DNA load. Thus, real-time PCR is a useful diagnostic tool for rapid and sensitive MTB detection in FFPE specimens, whereas NTM should be included in differential diagnoses of cases positive by AFB staining but negative by PCR.

  4. Shortening of alkaline DNA unwinding time does not interfere with detecting DNA damage to mouse and human spermatozoa in the comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirokazu Kusakabe; Hiroyuki Tateno

    2011-01-01

    The comet assay was performed on mouse and human spermatozoa to examine the effect of alkaline DNA unwinding time.The spermatozoa were treated in vitrowith the DNA-damaging agents,methyl methanesulfonate(MMS)or hydrogen peroxide(H2O2),and then embedded in agarose gel on glass slides.The slides were immersed in alkaline solution(>pH 1.3)for 1,5,10 and 20 min,and then subjected to the electrophoresis under neutral conditions.In mouse spermatozoa,comet tails seen in solvent controls became brighter and longer as the alkaline DNA unwinding time increased.However,in the MMS-treated mouse spermatozoa,a smaller difference in the damage from that in the solvent control was seen with time within a dose.DNA damage induced by H2O2 could also be detected accurately after alkali treatment for 1-20 min.In human spermatozoa,DNA damage induced by MMS and H2O2 could be detected in a dose-dependent manner after alkali treatment for 1 min.The ability of the comet assay to detect DNA damage was not adversely affected by the short period(1 min)of the alkaline DNA unwinding time.

  5. Effects of mean luminance changes on human contrast perception: contrast dependence, time-course and spatial specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Kilpeläinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When we are viewing natural scenes, every saccade abruptly changes both the mean luminance and the contrast structure falling on any given retinal location. Thus it would be useful if the two were independently encoded by the visual system, even when they change simultaneously. Recordings from single neurons in the cat visual system have suggested that contrast information may be quite independently represented in neural responses to simultaneous changes in contrast and luminance. Here we test to what extent this is true in human perception. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Small contrast stimuli were presented together with a 7-fold upward or downward step of mean luminance (between 185 and 1295 Td, corresponding to 14 and 98 cd/m(2, either simultaneously or with various delays (50-800 ms. The perceived contrast of the target under the different conditions was measured with an adaptive staircase method. Over the contrast range 0.1-0.45, mainly subtractive attenuation was found. Perceived contrast decreased by 0.052±0.021 (N = 3 when target onset was simultaneous with the luminance increase. The attenuation subsided within 400 ms, and even faster after luminance decreases, where the effect was also smaller. The main results were robust against differences in target types and the size of the field over which luminance changed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Perceived contrast is attenuated mainly by a subtractive term when coincident with a luminance change. The effect is of ecologically relevant magnitude and duration; in other words, strict contrast constancy must often fail during normal human visual behaviour. Still, the relative robustness of the contrast signal is remarkable in view of the limited dynamic response range of retinal cones. We propose a conceptual model for how early retinal signalling may allow this.

  6. Advances in time course extracellular production of human pre-miR-29b from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia; Pedro, Augusto Q; Tomás, Joana; Maia, Cláudio J; Queiroz, João A; Figueiras, Ana; Sousa, Fani

    2016-04-01

    The present study reports the successful production of human pre-miR-29b both intra- and extracellularly in the marine phototrophic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum using recombinant RNA technology. In a first stage, the optimal transformation conditions (0.025 μg of plasmid DNA, with a heat-shock of 2 min at 35 °C) were established, in order to transfer the pre-miR-29b encoding plasmid to R. sulfidophilum host. Furthermore, the extracellular recovery of this RNA product from the culture medium was greatly improved, achieving quantities that are compatible with the majority of applications, namely for in vitro or in vivo studies. Using this system, the extracellular human pre-miR-29b concentration was approximately 182 μg/L, after 40 h of bacterial growth, and the total intracellular pre-miR-29b was of about 358 μg/L, at 32 h. At the end of the fermentation, it was verified that almost 87 % of cells were viable, indicating that cell lysis is minimized and that the extracellular medium is not highly contaminated with the host intracellular ribonucleases (RNases) and endotoxins, which is a critical parameter to guarantee the microRNA (miRNA) integrity. These findings demonstrate that pre-miRNAs can be produced by recombinant RNA technology, offering novel clues for the production of natural pre-miRNA agents for functional studies and RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics. PMID:26860940

  7. Targeted profiling of oral bacteria in human saliva and in vitro biofilms with quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R R; Viscount, H B; Stanley, M C; Leung, K-P

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro plaque model based on the use of human salivary bacteria and tooth-like surfaces was previously developed for studying the formation of oral biofilm and its use for pre-clinical testing of candidate antimicrobial or antiplaque agents. In this study, a quantitative Taqman PCR assay (QPCR) was developed to compare the bacterial compositions of in vitro biofilms to parent saliva samples, and to determine the relative contributions of different species in the formation of the oral biofilm. In addition, the growth inhibition of saliva-derived plaque was evaluated by chlorhexidine. With this assay, which consisted of primer/probe sets targeting either 16S rDNA sequences present in public databases or cloned ribosomal intergenic spacer region (ISR) sequences, 15 oral bacteria derived from saliva as well as those that were responsible for biofilm formation in an in vitro plaque model were rapidly identified and quantified. Among the target organisms were Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Micromonas micros, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Tannerella forsythensis, and Veillonella parvula. Primer and probe sets developed were both sensitive and specific. The relative profiles of a number of bacteria in 45-h-old biofilms were determined and, when compared to saliva samples, it was found that most of the bacteria identified in saliva also populated the in vitro plaque, including some anaerobes. Brief exposure of biofilms to chlorhexidine resulted in significant losses in viability. This new broad spectrum QPCR assay in combination with the in vitro plaque model will be of significant value in the quantitative study of the microbial composition of human saliva, saliva-derived plaque, and pre-clinical evaluation of potential antimicrobial and antiplaque molecules.

  8. The human body retention time of environmental organically bound tritium. Preliminary analysis of results from a volunteer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium in the UK environment causes low radiation doses to the public, but uncertainty exists in the dose coefficient for the organically-bound component of tritium (OBT). This can affect the assessment of effective doses to representative persons. Contributing to that uncertainty is poor knowledge of the body retention time of OBT and how this varies for different OBT compounds in food. This study was undertaken to measure the retention time of tritium by volunteers after eating sole from Cardiff Bay, which may contain OBT from discharges from the GE Healthcare Ltd. plant. Five volunteers provided samples of excreta over periods up to 150 days after intake. Preliminary analysis of the results suggests retention of total tritium with body half-times ranging from 4 to 11 days, with no evidence of a significant contribution due to retention with a longer half-time. This range covers the half-time of 10 days used by the ICRP for tritiated water. The short timescale could be due to rapid hydrolysis in body tissues of the particular form of OBT used in this study. Implications for the dose coefficient for OBT are that the use of the ICRP value of 4.2 10-11 Sv Bq-1 may be cautious in this specific situation, and the value of 1.6 10-11 Sv Bq-1 used by the ICRP for tritiated water might even be more appropriate. These observations on dose coefficients are separate from any implications of recent discussion on whether the tritium radiation weighting factor should be increased from 1 to 2. (author)

  9. Uric acid promotes neuronal differentiation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nailong Yang; Lili Xu; Peng Lin; Jing Cui

    2012-01-01

    Uric acid is an important, naturally occurring serum antioxidant. The present study investigates the use of uric acid for promoting proliferation and neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta tissue. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were pre-induced in the presence of either 0, 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 mM uric acid in combination with 1 mM β-mercaptoethanol for 24 hours, followed by exposure to identical uric acid concentrations and 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol for 6 and 10 hours. Cells developed a neuronal-like morphology, with formation of interconnected process extensions, typical of neural cells. Immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining showed neuron specific enolase positive cells were present in each group except the control group. A greater number of neuron specific enolase positive cells were observed in 0.8 mM uric acid in combination with 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol at 10 hours. After 24 hours of induction, Nissl bodies were detected in the cytoplasm of all differentiated cell groups except the control group and Nissl body numbers were greatest in human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in the presence of 0.8 mM uric acid and 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol. These results suggest uric acid accelerates differentiation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner.

  10. Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-test kits: time to explore their use for men who have sex with men in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A. Lippman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing access and frequency of human immunodeficiency virus testing are critical to stemming the epidemic. In Brazil's concentrated epidemic, human immunodeficiency virus prevalence in the men who have sex with men/transgender population far exceeds that in the general population, but testing rates fall below what is needed to ensure early detection and treatment. Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-testing kits, now available in stores in the U.S., have enormous potential to increase testing access and frequency and to facilitate early detection and treatment. With the advent of human immunodeficiency virus self-testing upon us, it is timely to engage the scientific community, government, and civil society in a dialog around how to best utilize this technology in Brazil. We summarize recent research on over-the-counter testing among men who have sex with men, raise potential questions and challenges to using self-tests, suggest implementation strategies, and outline a research agenda moving forward.

  11. Development of triplex real-time PCR and detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in infected mice tissues and spiked human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahumatullah, A; Khoo, B Y; Noordin, R

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in veterinary and human medicine. In this study, a new multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR for detection of T. gondii DNA was developed. This assay consisted of new sets of primers and probes which targeted B1 gene and ITS-1 region of T. gondii, with Vibrio cholera gene as internal control. The B1 gene primers were designed to detect T. gondii RH strain, while the ITS-1 region primers detected most T. gondii strains. Specificity test using common protozoal and bacterial DNA revealed that the assay was very specific to T. gondii. Standard curves constructed using human body fluids spiked with T. gondii (RH and ME49 strains) showed that the sensitivity of the assay was one parasite, with R² value of 0.975 to 0.999 and efficiency of 97% to 99% for all types of samples. The assay performed on DNA extracted from tissues of mice infected with T. gondii showed that liver contained the highest parasite load for both strains of T. gondii. The multiplex real-time PCR developed in this study would be potentially useful for detection of T. gondii in human and animal samples. PMID:26691266

  12. No evidence for a different magnitude of the time factor for continuously fractionated irradiation and protocols including gaps in two human squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To study whether the magnitude of the time factor is different for continuously fractionated irradiation and for fractionation protocols including gaps. Materials and methods: Two human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), FaDu and GL, were transplanted subcutaneously into the right hindleg of NMRI (nu/nu) mice and irradiated with 30 fractions under ambient conditions within 2, 6 and 10 weeks. Irradiations within 6 and 10 weeks were given either as a continuous course or with a mid-course gap of 3 weeks. The end-point of the experiments was local tumor control at day 120 (FaDu) or day 180 (GL) after the end of treatment. Results: In FaDu tumors, two experimental cohorts (A, B) yielded significantly different results and were analyzed separately. In cohort A, the tumor control dose 50% (TCD50) increased from 37 to 89 Gy when the treatment time of continuous fractionated irradiation was extended from 2 to 10 weeks. The recovered dose/day (Dr) was 0.98 Gy (95% confidence interval, 0.72; 1.27). In cohort B, the TCD50 increased from 35 to 63 Gy, and the Dr was 0.51 Gy (0.24; 0.75). In GL tumors, the TCD50 for continuously fractionated irradiation increased from 41 to 48 Gy. This increase was not significant, and the Dr was 0.15 Gy (0; 0.30). None of the TCD50 and Dr values obtained in both tumor models for continuous irradiation vs. irradiation with a gap were significantly different. Conclusions: Prolongation of the overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation resulted in a pronounced decrease of local control in human FaDu SCC and little decrease of local control in human GL SCC. No evidence was found that the magnitude of the time factor in these tumors is different for continuous fractionation or fractionation protocols including gaps

  13. Comparison of real time RT-PCR and flow cytometry methods for evaluation of biological activity of recombinant human erythropoietin

    OpenAIRE

    Sepehrizadeh Z; Tabatabaei Yazdi M; Zarrini GH; Hashemi Bozchlou S; Khoshakhlagh P

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of bioactivity of recombinant erythropoietin is essential for pharmaceutical industry, quality control authorities and researchers. The purpose of this study was to compare real time RT-PCR and flow cytometry for the assay of biological activity of recombinant erythropoietin. Methods: Three concentrations of recombinant erythropoietin BRP (80, 40 and 20 IU/ml) were injected subcutaneously to mice. After 4 days the blood was collected and used for reticulocyte counts by ...

  14. The advantages, disadvantages, and policies for part-time radiologists: report of the ACR Commission on Human Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay A; Coleman, Beverly G; Recht, Michael P; Bluth, Edward I

    2014-07-01

    The employment of part-time radiologists (PTRs) has both advantages and disadvantages in various practice settings. The authors examine the pros and cons of PTRs and review the literature regarding PTRs both within and outside the specialty of radiology. The complexity of this issue is manifested in our inability to reach consensus on many policy issues for PTRs. Nevertheless, this article should be helpful in offering an objective, nonbiased background to initiating a discussion on employing PTRs in various radiology practices.

  15. Circadian regulation of human sleep and age-related changes in its timing, consolidation and EEG characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.; Duffy, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    The light-entrainable circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates the timing and consolidation of sleep by generating a paradoxical rhythm of sleep propensity; the circadian drive for wakefulness peaks at the end of the day spent awake, ie close to the onset of melatonin secretion at 21.00-22.00 h and the circadian drive for sleep crests shortly before habitual waking-up time. With advancing age, ie after early adulthood, sleep consolidation declines, and time of awakening and the rhythms of body temperature, plasma melatonin and cortisol shift to an earlier clock hour. The variability of the phase relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms increases, and in old age sleep is more susceptible to internal arousing stimuli associated with circadian misalignment. The propensity to awaken from sleep advances relative to the body temperature nadir in older people, a change that is opposite to the phase delay of awakening relative to internal circadian rhythms associated with morningness in young people. Age-related changes do not appear to be associated with a shortening of the circadian period or a reduction of the circadian drive for wake maintenance. These changes may be related to changes in the sleep process itself, such as reductions in slow-wave sleep and sleep spindles as well as a reduced strength of the circadian signal promoting sleep in the early morning hours. Putative mediators and modulators of circadian sleep regulation are discussed.

  16. Characterization of ornidazole metabolites in human bile after intraveneous doses by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangbo Du

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS was used to characterize ornidazole metabolites in human bile after intravenous doses. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS assay was developed for the determination of the bile level of ornidazole. Bile samples, collected from four patients with T-tube drainage after biliary tract surgery, were prepared by protein precipitation with acetonitrile before analysis. A total of 12 metabolites, including 10 novel metabolites, were detected and characterized. The metabolites of ornidazole in human bile were the products of hydrochloride (HCl elimination, oxidative dechlorination, hydroxylation, sulfation, diastereoisomeric glucuronation, and substitution of NO2 or Cl atom by cysteine or N-acetylcysteine, and oxidative dechlorination followed by further carboxylation. The bile levels of ornidazole at 12 h after multiple intravenous infusions were well above its minimal inhibitory concentration for common strains of anaerobic bacteria.

  17. A controlled study of human chorionic gonadotrophin induced ovulation versus urinary luteinizing hormone surge for timing of intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A R; Bernadus, R E; Voorhorst, F J; Vermeiden, J P; Schoemaker, J

    1991-10-01

    Forty-eight patients in a programme of intrauterine insemination (IUI) were randomized in a cross-over study. All were stimulated with clomiphene citrate (CC) and inseminated either after follicular rupture induced by human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) or after a spontaneous urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The HCG was administered when follicles of 18-22 mm in diameter were observed on ultrasound and IUI was performed 37-40 h thereafter. The monitoring of a urinary LH peak was carried out using a rapid urinary LH test. IUI took place approximately 22 h after detection of the LH surge. Overall, the pregnancy rates were 9.3% (4/43) after HCG induced ovulation and 20.5% (9/44) after spontaneous ovulation (P = 0.12). Analysis of mid-cycle events showed that following sonographic criteria, the HCG injection was performed significantly earlier in the cycle compared with the spontaneous LH surge. In addition, the mean diameter of the preovulatory follicles was significantly smaller and insemination was substantially earlier in the HCG induced cycles. These findings suggest that a beneficial effect arises from allowing the natural process of final follicular maturation to occur. PMID:1752926

  18. Multiplex real-time PCR monitoring of intestinal helminths in humans reveals widespread polyparasitism in Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2015-06-01

    The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures. PMID:25858090

  19. Younger age at initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series is associated with higher rates of on-time completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) have remained disappointingly low. It is critical to identify methods to increase on-time vaccine series completion rates (before 13 or 15years). To determine whether younger age (9 to 10years of age) at HPV vaccine series initiation was associated with improved on-time completion rates compared to initiation at 11 to 12years, we examined the prevalence of on-time HPV vaccine series completion rates from August 2006 through December 2012 in a large, population-based cohort of children and adolescents (aged 9.5 to 27years) residing in Olmsted County, MN on December 31, 2012 (n=36,223). We compared age at vaccine initiation between individuals who successfully completed both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccination series on-time (before age 13.5 or 15.0years) using multivariate logistic regression. On-time completion of both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine series by age 13.5 or 15.0years was significantly associated with initiation at 9 to 10years as compared to 11 to 12years after adjusting for sex, race, insurance status, frequent health care visits, and year of first vaccination (all pvaccination series at 9 to 10years of age may result in higher rates of timely series completion. PMID:26930513

  20. A UWB Radar Signal Processing Platform for Real-Time Human Respiratory Feature Extraction Based on Four-Segment Linear Waveform Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chi-Hsuan; Chiu, Yu-Fang; Shen, Yi-Hsiang; Chu, Ta-Shun; Huang, Yuan-Hao

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse-radio radar signal processing platform used to analyze human respiratory features. Conventional radar systems used in human detection only analyze human respiration rates or the response of a target. However, additional respiratory signal information is available that has not been explored using radar detection. The authors previously proposed a modified raised cosine waveform (MRCW) respiration model and an iterative correlation search algorithm that could acquire additional respiratory features such as the inspiration and expiration speeds, respiration intensity, and respiration holding ratio. To realize real-time respiratory feature extraction by using the proposed UWB signal processing platform, this paper proposes a new four-segment linear waveform (FSLW) respiration model. This model offers a superior fit to the measured respiration signal compared with the MRCW model and decreases the computational complexity of feature extraction. In addition, an early-terminated iterative correlation search algorithm is presented, substantially decreasing the computational complexity and yielding negligible performance degradation. These extracted features can be considered the compressed signals used to decrease the amount of data storage required for use in long-term medical monitoring systems and can also be used in clinical diagnosis. The proposed respiratory feature extraction algorithm was designed and implemented using the proposed UWB radar signal processing platform including a radar front-end chip and an FPGA chip. The proposed radar system can detect human respiration rates at 0.1 to 1 Hz and facilitates the real-time analysis of the respiratory features of each respiration period.

  1. Timing and modality of the sclerosing agents binding to the human proteins: laboratory analysis and clinical evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tessari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing agents (SA are blood inactivated. Nevertheless, investigations concerning the interaction among SA and blood components have never been deeply investigated. Aim of the study is to precisely identify SA blood ligands, to determine their binding time and to highlight the clinical consequences. Thirty-one blood samples were collected from chronic venous disease patients and tested by capillary and agarose gel (AGE electrophoresis before and after adding polidocanol (POL and sodiumtetradecylsulphate (STS. The two different types of electrophoresis allowed an evaluation of the blood proteins binding with the sclerosing agents, with a reaction time lower than 8 seconds for the AGE. Subsequently six patients underwent foam sclerotherapy and then were subdivided in group A (4 patients and B (2 patients. In group A blood sample was obtained from the ipsilateral brachial vein immediately before (T0 and repeated 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes after injection of STS 3% injection into the GSV. In group B, the same procedure was performed with the same timing from the ipsilateral femoral vein. Free STS (fSTS and total proteinbound STS (bSTS were measured. POL mainly binds to β-globulins (11%, while STS to albumin and α-globulins (62.6% and 30.7% on the protidogram, respectively. Both in the brachial and in the femoral vein, the average fSTS was always 0. STS binds to albumin (62.6% and α-globulins (30.7%, while POL is bound mainly by the b-globulins (11%. The present paper demonstrates how the vast majority of the sclerosing agent is bound to the blood proteins, suggesting the need to look for possible sclerotherapy complications factors also in the used gas and/or in the subsequent cathabolites release.

  2. Real-time upper-body human pose estimation from depth data using Kalman filter for simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Chi, S.; Park, C.; Yoon, H.; Kim, J.; Park, C. H.

    2014-08-01

    Recently, many studies show that an indoor horse riding exercise has a positive effect on promoting health and diet. However, if a rider has an incorrect posture, it will be the cause of back pain. In spite of this problem, there is only few research on analyzing rider's posture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate a rider pose from a depth image using the Asus's Xtion sensor in real time. In the experiments, we show the performance of our pose estimation algorithm in order to comparing the results between our joint estimation algorithm and ground truth data.

  3. The current crisis in human resources for health in Africa: the time to adjust our focus is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Simon C

    2014-09-01

    The challenges as we strive towards universal health coverage are many, but the need for an improved health workforce is chief among them. Unfortunately the global deficit in skilled professionals continues to increase. Nevertheless, there are potential solutions, and success stories are well documented when the approach is on system building and sustainability. As we approach 2015 and the Millennium Development Goals, we must shift our focus to a more distant time point in order to achieve the dramatic gains in global health that are possible. However, we must understand that there can be no health without a workforce.

  4. Quantification of metabolites from single-voxel in vivo 1H NMR data of normal human brain by means of time-domain data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Korpela, M; Usenius, J P; Keisala, J; van den Boogaart, A; Vainio, P; Jokisaari, J; Soimakallio, S; Kauppinen, R

    1995-01-01

    We present here a combination of time-domain signal analysis procedures for quantification of human brain in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy (MRS) data. The method is based on a separate removal of a residual water resonance followed by a frequency-selective time-domain line-shape fitting analysis of metabolite signals. Calculation of absolute metabolite concentrations was based on the internal water concentration as a reference. The estimated average metabolite concentrations acquired from six regions of normal human brain with a single-voxel spin-echo technique for the N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and choline-containing compounds were 11.4 +/- 1.0, 6.5 +/- 0.5, and 1.7 +/- 0.2 mumol kg-1 wet weight, respectively. The time-domain analyses of in vivo 1H MRS data from different brain regions with their specific characteristics demonstrate a case in which the use of frequency-domain methods pose serious difficulties. PMID:8749730

  5. Temperature-Dependent Postmortem Changes in Human Cardiac Troponin-T (cTnT): An Approach in Estimation of Time Since Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachil; Ali, Wahid; Singh, Uma S; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sandeep; Verma, Anoop K; Rupani, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of time of death is an indispensible requirement of every medico-legal autopsy, but unfortunately, there is not a single method by which it could be determined accurately. This study focused on the temperature-dependent postmortem degradation of cardiac troponin-T and its association with postmortem interval (PMI) in human. The analysis involved extraction of the protein, separation by denaturing gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and visualization by Western blot using cTnT-specific monoclonal antibodies. The area of the bands within a lane was quantified by scanning and digitizing the image using Gel Doc (Universal Hood). The results indicate a characteristic banding pattern among human cadavers (n = 6) and a pseudo-linear relationship between percentage of cTnT degradation and the log of the time since death (r > 0.95), which can be used to estimate the postmortem interval. The data presented demonstrate that this technique can provide an extended time range during which PMI can be more accurately estimated. PMID:26352514

  6. [Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Günter; Schick, Fritz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486-1874 ms, T2: 163-281 ms, T2*: 2.3-3.2 ms; pears: T1: 1631-1969 ms, T2: 119-133 ms, T2* : 10.1-10.6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055-2632 ms, T2: 497-998 ms, T2* : 151-182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561-1669 ms, T2: 93-119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011-1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2* : 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2* values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes.

  7. Comparison of real time RT-PCR and flow cytometry methods for evaluation of biological activity of recombinant human erythropoietin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehrizadeh Z

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of bioactivity of recombinant erythropoietin is essential for pharmaceutical industry, quality control authorities and researchers. The purpose of this study was to compare real time RT-PCR and flow cytometry for the assay of biological activity of recombinant erythropoietin. Methods: Three concentrations of recombinant erythropoietin BRP (80, 40 and 20 IU/ml were injected subcutaneously to mice. After 4 days the blood was collected and used for reticulocyte counts by flow cytometry and also for the RNA extraction. Real time RT-PCR amplification was carried out for β-globin. Results and conclusion: There was a significant correlation between the total RNA amounts (R2= 0.9995, relative quantity of β-globin mRNA (R2= 0.984 and reticulocyte counts (R2= 0.9742 with rhEpo concentrations. Total RNA and quantitative RT-PCR showed significant dose dependent results as well the reticulocyte counts by flow cytometry for the biological activity assay of rhEpo and so these methods could be considered as alternatives for flow cytometry.

  8. A method for assessing real time rates of dissolution and absorption of carbohydrate and other food matrices in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, R G; Sequeira, I R; Hardacre, A K; Reynolds, G

    2016-06-15

    We prepared pasta of differing physical dimensions but identical chemical composition that contained two monosaccharide probes (lactulose and mannitol) that are absorbed passively and promptly excreted in urine. We showed that the rates of their liberation from the pasta under simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions largely depended upon the rate of digestion of the starchy matrix. We showed, in 20 female subjects, that excretion of mannitol was slower from the pasta with the larger particle size. Hence, after consumption of either the powdered pasta or the simple solution of probe sugars, the mass of mannitol excreted between 1 and 2½ hours was greater than that excreted between 2½ and 4 hours. However these masses did not differ significantly after consumption of the pasta pellets. These differences were not reflected in the concurrent patterns of variation in either serum glucose or insulin taken over 120 minutes, their levels being similar for pasta pellets and powder with their peak values occurring synchronously during the first hour. Hence feeding test foods impregnated with lactulose and mannitol probes provided a reproducible and practical means of assessing the timing of digestion of the carbohydrate matrix and showed that this was more protracted than suggested by post prandial glucose levels. Further, the transit times calculated on a basis of the ratios of the two marker sugars could identify that the prolongation of digestion of larger particles was not accompanied by retention of digesta in particular segments of the gut. PMID:27228950

  9. Comparative Study on Real-time PCR and RT-PCR Testing Methods for Detecting human Metapneumo Virus%Real-time PCR与RT-PCR检测儿童人偏肺病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鑫; 崔玉霞; 诸葛姝芮; 刘兴梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较荧光定量PCR( real-time PCR)与普通反转录酶-聚合酶链锁反应( RT-PCR)对人偏肺病毒( hMPV)的检测价值。方法:Real-time PCR和RT-PCR同时对500例急性下呼吸道感染( ALRTI)患儿鼻咽部分泌物进行hMPV检测,分析两种方法的特异性和灵敏性。结果:Real-time PCR和RT-PCR的检出率分别为16%及9.8%,RT-PCR与Real-time PCR比较,灵敏度为31.3%(25/80),特异度为94.3%(396/420)。结论:Real-time PCR检测hMPV敏感性高于RT-PCR,是临床检测儿童鼻咽部分泌物hMPV感染的有效的方法。%Objective:To investigate the effect of real-time quantitative PCR and RT-PCR in detec-tion of human metapneumo virus. Methods:Real-time PCR and RT-PCR are adopted to test hMPV on throat exudate of 500 acute lower respiratory tract infection( ALRTI)child patients,analyzing the spe-cificity and sensitivity of both assays. Results:Comparing Real-time PCR and RT-PCR,the detection rates were 16 % to 9. 8%. Comparing Real-time PCR and RT-PCR,the sensitivity and specificity were 31. 3 %(25/80)and 94. 3%(396/420)respectively. Conclusion:The sensitivity of Real-time PCR is significantly higher than RT-PCR in detection of hMPV,which provid an effective method for detection of hMPV.

  10. Time Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilov, Todor, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The time management is worthy goal of many human activities. It concerns variety problems related to goals definition, assessment of available resources, control of management policies, scheduling of decisions. This book is an attempt to illustrate the decision making process in time management for different success stories, which can be used as…

  11. Time course analysis reveals gene-specific transcript and protein kinetics of adaptation to short-term aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan Egan; Paul L O'Connor; Juleen R. Zierath; Donal J O'Gorman

    2013-01-01

    Repeated bouts of episodic myofibrillar contraction associated with exercise training are potent stimuli for physiological adaptation. However, the time course of adaptation and the continuity between alterations in mRNA expression and protein content are not well described in human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy, sedentary males cycled for 60 min at 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) each day for fourteen consecutive days, resulting in an increase in VO2peak of 17.5±3.8%. Skeletal musc...

  12. Multicenter Evaluation of the New Abbott RealTime Assays for Quantitative Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus RNA▿

    OpenAIRE

    Schutten, M.; Peters, D.; Back, N.K.T.; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K.; Foulongne, V.; Geretti, A.-M.; Pandiani, L.; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS TaqMan assays. Two different protocols used during the testing period with and without a pre-m1000 RNA isolation spin were compared. The difference proved to be nonsignificant. A uracil-N-glycosylase (U...

  13. Real-time Human Pose and Shape Estimation for Virtual Try-On Using a Single Commodity Depth Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Wang, Huamin; Deng, Nianchen; Yang, Xubo; Yang, Ruigang

    2014-04-01

    We present a system that allows the user to virtually try on new clothes. It uses a single commodity depth camera to capture the user in 3D. Both the pose and the shape of the user are estimated with a novel real-time template-based approach that performs tracking and shape adaptation jointly. The result is then used to drive realistic cloth simulation, in which the synthesized clothes are overlayed on the input image. The main challenge is to handle missing data and pose ambiguities due to the monocular setup, which captures less than 50 percent of the full body. Our solution is to incorporate automatic shape adaptation and novel constraints in pose tracking. The effectiveness of our system is demonstrated with a number of examples. PMID:24650982

  14. On the time course of short-term forgetting: a human experimental model for the sense of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to establish whether the decline of the memory of an angular displacement, detected by the semicircular canals, is best characterized by an exponential function or by a power function. In 27 subjects a conflict was created between the semicircular canals and the graviceptive systems. Subjects were seated, facing forwards, in the gondola of a large centrifuge. The centrifuge was accelerated from stationary to 2.5Gz. While the swing out of the gondola (66°) during acceleration constitutes a frontal plane angular-displacement stimulus to the semicircular canals, the graviceptive systems persistently signal that the subject is upright. During 6 min at 2.5Gz the perceived head and body position was recorded; in darkness the subject repeatedly adjusted the orientation of a luminous line so that it appeared to be horizontal. Acceleration of the centrifuge induced a sensation of tilt which declined with time in a characteristic way. A three-parameter exponential function (Y = Ae(-bt) + C) and a power function (Y = At(-b) + C) were fitted to the data points. The inter-individual variability was considerable. In the vast majority of cases, however, the exponential function provided a better fit (in terms of RMS error) than the power function. The mean exponential function was: y = 27.8e(-0.018t) + 0.5°, where t is time in seconds. Findings are discussed with connection to possible underlying neural mechanisms; in particular, the head-direction system and short-term potentiation and persistent action potential firing in the hippocampus are considered. PMID:26834858

  15. About time

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Adam

    2012-01-01

    From Stonehenge to beyond the Big Bang, an exhilarating scientific exploration of how we make time Time is the grandest conception of the universe that we humans have been able to imagine – and its most intimate, the very frame of human life. In About Time, astrophysicist and award-winning writer Adam Frank tells the scientific story of this wonderful and tyrannical invention. A Palaeolithic farmer moved through the sun-fuelled day and star-steered night in a radically different way than the Elizabethan merchants who set their pace to the clocks newly installed in their town squares. Since th

  16. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR as diagnostic tools for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, Violeta T; Sebah, Daniela; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Cârstina, Dumitru; Ţăţulescu, Doina F; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin M; Leucuţa, Daniel; Meyer, Fabian; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Huber, Ingrid

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods used for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks: immunohistochemistry followed by focus floating microscopy (FFM) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) targeting the ospA and hbb genes. Additionally, an optimized ospA real-time PCR assay was developed with an integrated internal amplification control (IAC) for the detection of inhibition in the PCR assay and was validated as an improved screening tool for B. burgdorferi. One hundred and thirty-six ticks collected from humans in a hospital from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, were investigated regarding genus, stage of development and sex, and then tested by all three assays. A poor quality of agreement was found between FFM and each of the two real-time PCR assays, as assessed by concordance analysis (Cohen's kappa), whereas the agreement between the two real-time PCR assays was moderate. The present study argues for a low sensitivity of FFM and underlines that discordant results of different assays used for detection of B. burgdorferi in ticks are frequent. PMID:26801157

  17. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Shuting; Gong, Fei; Lu, Changfu; Zhang, Shuoping; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles, n = 799) were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42). Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively). In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas division behaviors. In NB embryos, the blastocyst formation rate increased with cell number from 7.4% (10C). In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  18. 2-D finite difference time domain model of ultrasound reflection from normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleva, Erna; Liukkonen, Jukka; Toyras, Juha; Saarakkala, Simo; Kiviranta, Panu; Jurvelin, Jukka

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative high-frequency ultrasonic evaluation of articular cartilage has shown a potential for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis, where the roughness of the surface, collagen and proteoglycan contents, and the density and mechanical properties of cartilage change concurrently. Experimentally, these factors are difficult to investigate individually and thus a numerical model is needed. The present study is the first one to use finite difference time domain modeling of pulse-echo measurements of articular cartilage. Ultrasound reflection from the surface was investigated with varying surface roughness, material parameters (Young's modulus, density, longitudinal, and transversal velocities) and inclination of the samples. The 2-D simulation results were compared with the results from experimental measurements of the same samples in an identical geometry. Both the roughness and the material parameters contributed significantly to the ultrasound reflection. The angular dependence of the ultrasound reflection was strong for a smooth cartilage surface but disappeared for the samples with a rougher surface. These results support the findings of previous experimental studies and indicate that ultrasound detects changes in the cartilage that are characteristic of osteoarthritis. In the present study there are differences between the results of the simulations and the experimental measurements. However, the systematic patterns in the experimental behavior are correctly reproduced by the model. In the future, our goal is to develop more realistic acoustic models incorporating inhomogeneity and anisotropy of the cartilage. PMID:20378451

  19. Analysis of Human Rotaviruses from a Single Location Over an 18-Year Time Span Suggests that Protein Coadaption Influences Gene Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; McDonald, Paul W.; Thompson, Travis A.; Dennis, Allison F.; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Patton, John T.

    2014-01-01

    acquiring new genes from other strains via a process called reassortment. However, little is known about the relationship between mutation accumulation and gene reassortment for rotaviruses and how it impacts viral evolution. In this study, we analyzed the genome sequences of human strains found in clinical fecal specimens that were collected at a single hospital over an 18-year time span. We found that many rotaviruses did not reassort their genes but instead maintained them as specific sets (i.e., constellations). By analyzing the encoded proteins, we discovered concurrent amino acid changes among them, which suggests that they are functionally coadapted to operate best when kept together. This study increases our understanding of how rotaviruses evolve over time in the human population. PMID:24942570

  20. 一种深度图像中人体的实时跟踪算法%A Human Body Real-time Tracking Algorithm in Depth Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹昊; 诸宸辰; 李杨

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an improving Camshift algorithm based on depth data in order to realize real-time human body objects tracking in depth image. This algorithm computes depth probability distribution function of human body objects, combining the morphological characteristics of people. Different weight factors are given to the different part of human on depth probability distribution function. It finds human body objects in a frame after several times of iterations, uses the modified Camshift algorithm. Kalman filter is also applied in this work to predict the position of people in 3D space. Doing experiments on 1 200 frames of depth image, results present that this algorithm are effective to track moving human body on depth image even though the objects are partly covered or the shapes are regular changed. For the common one or two people situation, the tracking accuracy rate is over 95%, which is better than traditional Camshift algorithm.%针对深度图像中的人体目标跟踪问题,提出一种基于深度图像的改进Camshift算法。利用人体目标的深度信息计算概率分布,结合人体形态学特征,对深度的概率分布赋予不同的权重,通过Camshift算法进行迭代,从而寻找目标,使用卡尔曼滤波器在三维空间中对运动人体目标的位置实现预测和更新。采集1200帧图像进行测试,结果表明,该算法能实时准确地跟踪深度图像中的运动人体目标,有效克服遮挡等干扰,单人和双人跟踪准确率均在95%以上,高于传统Camshift算法。

  1. Adaptation mechanism of interlimb coordination in human split-belt treadmill walking through learning of foot contact timing: a robotics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Soichiro; Aoi, Shinya; Funato, Tetsuro; Tomita, Nozomi; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    Human walking behaviour adaptation strategies have previously been examined using split-belt treadmills, which have two parallel independently controlled belts. In such human split-belt treadmill walking, two types of adaptations have been identified: early and late. Early-type adaptations appear as rapid changes in interlimb and intralimb coordination activities when the belt speeds of the treadmill change between tied (same speed for both belts) and split-belt (different speeds for each belt) configurations. By contrast, late-type adaptations occur after the early-type adaptations as a gradual change and only involve interlimb coordination. Furthermore, interlimb coordination shows after-effects that are related to these adaptations. It has been suggested that these adaptations are governed primarily by the spinal cord and cerebellum, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Because various physiological findings suggest that foot contact timing is crucial to adaptive locomotion, this paper reports on the development of a two-layered control model for walking composed of spinal and cerebellar models, and on its use as the focus of our control model. The spinal model generates rhythmic motor commands using an oscillator network based on a central pattern generator and modulates the commands formulated in immediate response to foot contact, while the cerebellar model modifies motor commands through learning based on error information related to differences between the predicted and actual foot contact timings of each leg. We investigated adaptive behaviour and its mechanism by split-belt treadmill walking experiments using both computer simulations and an experimental bipedal robot. Our results showed that the robot exhibited rapid changes in interlimb and intralimb coordination that were similar to the early-type adaptations observed in humans. In addition, despite the lack of direct interlimb coordination control, gradual changes and after-effects in the

  2. Research on model of human evacuation time based on safety psychology perspective of human factors%基于人因安全心理视角下人员疏散时间模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟珂; 陈红

    2014-01-01

    为提高疏散时间模型的可靠度,基于人因工程中安全心理因素理论对高校宿舍疏散时间模型进行研究。采用了多元线性回归分析和曲线估计方法,通过疏散演习获取实验数据,构建安全疏散心理因素指标,在人员疏散时间回归模型的基础上,结合SPSS软件的回归分析,建立了疏散时间回归方程。在考虑群集疏散速度的前提下,对疏散时间方程进行优化,并利用Origin等高线图直观地表现了疏散时间、速度、人数三个变量的关系。结果表明:疏散时间主要受性别、楼层、指挥者和环境熟悉度的影响,疏散人数与疏散时间呈三次曲线关系,研究结果可为人员疏散设计和疏散方案的制定、疏散路径的优化提供参考。%In order to improve the reliability of evacuation time model , based on safety psychological factor theory of human engineering , the evacuation time model of university dormitories was studied .Using multiple linear re-gression analysis and curve estimation method , the experimental data were obtained through evacuation drills .The safe evacuation indicators of psychological factors were constructed .Based on the regression model of evacuation time, combining with regression analysis by SPSS software , the regression equation of evacuation time was estab-lished .In consideration of the speed of cluster evacuation prerequisite , the evacuation time equation was optimized , and using Origin contour maps , the relationship between three variables , including the evacuation time , speed , and number , was visually expressed .The results showed that the evacuation time is mainly affected by gender , residen-tial floors, conductor and environmental familiarity , the relationship of human quantity and evacuation time shows cubic curve .The results can provide a reference for designing evacuation programs and optimizing evacuation route .

  3. Stratification of the phase clouds and statistical effects of the non-Markovity in chaotic time series of human gait for healthy people and Parkinson patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulmetyev, Renat; Demin, Sergey; Emelyanova, Natalya; Gafarov, Fail; Hänggi, Peter

    2003-03-01

    In this work we develop a new method of diagnosing the nervous system diseases and a new approach in studying human gait dynamics with the help of the theory of discrete non-Markov random processes (Phys. Rev. E 62 (5) (2000) 6178, Phys. Rev. E 64 (2001) 066132, Phys. Rev. E 65 (2002) 046107, Physica A 303 (2002) 427). The stratification of the phase clouds and the statistical non-Markov effects in the time series of the dynamics of human gait are considered. We carried out the comparative analysis of the data of four age groups of healthy people: children (from 3 to 10 year olds), teenagers (from 11 to 14 year olds), young people (from 21 up to 29 year olds), elderly persons (from 71 to 77 year olds) and Parkinson patients. The full data set are analyzed with the help of the phase portraits of the four dynamic variables, the power spectra of the initial time correlation function and the memory functions of junior orders, the three first points in the spectra of the statistical non-Markov parameter. The received results allow to define the predisposition of the probationers to deflections in the central nervous system caused by Parkinson's disease. We have found out distinct differences between the five submitted groups. On this basis we offer a new method of diagnostics and forecasting Parkinson's disease.

  4. Stratification of the phase clouds and statistical effects of the non-Markovity in chaotic time series of human gait for healthy people and Parkinson patients

    CERN Document Server

    Yulmetyev, R M; Emelyanova, N; Gafarov, F; Hänggi, P; Yulmetyev, Renat; Demin, Sergey; Emelyanova, Natalya; Gafarov, Fail; Hanggi, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this work we develop a new method of diagnosing the nervous system diseases and a new approach in studying human gait dynamics with the help of the theory of discrete non-Markov random processes. The stratification of the phase clouds and the statistical non-Markov effects in the time series of the dynamics of human gait are considered. We carried out the comparative analysis of the data of four age groups of healthy people: children (from 3 to 10 year olds), teenagers (from 11 to 14 year oulds), young people (from 21 up to 29 year oulds), elderly persons (from 71 to 77 year olds) and Parkinson patients. The full data set are analyzed with the help of the phase portraits of the four dynamic variables, the power spectra of the initial time correlation function and the memory functions of junior orders, the three first points in the spectra of the statistical non-Markov parameter. The received results allow to define the predisposition of the probationers to deflections in the central nervous system caused b...

  5. Prototype Systems Containing Human Cytochrome P450 for High-Throughput Real-Time Detection of DNA Damage by Compounds That Form DNA-Reactive Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Palma, Bernardo; Fisher, Charles W; Rueff, José; Kranendonk, Michel

    2016-05-16

    The formation of reactive metabolites through biotransformation is the suspected cause of many adverse drug reactions. Testing for the propensity of a drug to form reactive metabolites has increasingly become an integral part of lead-optimization strategy in drug discovery. DNA reactivity is one undesirable facet of a drug or its metabolites and can lead to increased risk of cancer and reproductive toxicity. Many drugs are metabolized by cytochromes P450 in the liver and other tissues, and these reactions can generate hard electrophiles. These hard electrophilic reactive metabolites may react with DNA and may be detected in standard in vitro genotoxicity assays; however, the majority of these assays fall short due to the use of animal-derived organ extracts that inadequately represent human metabolism. The current study describes the development of bacterial systems that efficiently detect DNA-damaging electrophilic reactive metabolites generated by human P450 biotransformation. These assays use a GFP reporter system that detects DNA damage through induction of the SOS response and a GFP reporter to control for cytotoxicity. Two human CYP1A2-competent prototypes presented here have appropriate characteristics for the detection of DNA-damaging reactive metabolites in a high-throughput manner. The advantages of this approach include a short assay time (120-180 min) with real-time measurement, sensitivity to small amounts of compound, and adaptability to a microplate format. These systems are suitable for high-throughput assays and can serve as prototypes for the development of future enhanced versions. PMID:27031942

  6. Early detection of abnormal prion protein in genetic human prion diseases now possible using real-time QUIC assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Sano

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The definitive diagnosis of genetic prion diseases (gPrD requires pathological confirmation. To date, diagnosis has relied upon the finding of the biomarkers 14-3-3 protein and total tau (t-tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, but many researchers have reported that these markers are not sufficiently elevated in gPrD, especially in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS. We recently developed a new in vitro amplification technology, designated "real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC", to detect the abnormal form of prion protein in CSF from sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the presence of biomarkers and evaluate RT-QUIC assay in patients with gPrD, as the utility of RT-QUIC as a diagnostic tool in gPrD has yet to be determined. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 56 CSF samples were obtained from gPrD patients, including 20 cases of GSS with P102L mutation, 12 cases of fatal familial insomnia (FFI; D178N, and 24 cases of genetic CJD (gCJD, comprising 22 cases with E200K mutation and 2 with V203I mutation. We subjected all CSF samples to RT-QUIC assay, analyzed 14-3-3 protein by Western blotting, and measured t-tau protein using an ELISA kit. The detection sensitivities of RT-QUIC were as follows: GSS (78%, FFI (100%, gCJD E200K (87%, and gCJD V203I (100%. On the other hand the detection sensitivities of biomarkers were considerably lower: GSS (11%, FFI (0%, gCJD E200K (73%, and gCJD V203I (67%. Thus, RT-QUIC had a much higher detection sensitivity compared with testing for biomarkers, especially in patients with GSS and FFI. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: RT-QUIC assay is more sensitive than testing for biomarkers in gPrD patients. RT-QUIC method would thus be useful as a diagnostic tool when the patient or the patient's family does not agree to genetic testing, or to confirm the diagnosis in the presence of a positive result for genetic testing.

  7. LEPTIN STIMULATING PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN OSTEOBLAST-LIKE CELL LINE MG63 IN DOSE-DEPENDENT AND TIME-DEPENDENT MANNERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Mian; YU Xue-tao; CHEN Shu; CAI Xiao-hua; PENG Yi-chao; PENG Xiao-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the direct effect of leptin on osteoblast-like cell line MG63. Methods Human osteoblast-like cell line MG63 was incubated with leptin of different doses for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively.The proliferation of MG63 was determined by methylene blue assay. Alpha1 (Ⅰ) collagen gene expression in MG63was determined by real time flourescence quantitive PCR (FQ-PCR), both with 17β-E2 as positive control.Results Leptin accelerated the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 in dose and time-dependent manners,with the best effect at 10-7 mol/L at 72 h. Compared with 17β-E2 , leptin showed a weaker promoting effect at all of the three time point: 24, 48 and 72 h. While the effects of the two hormones have an approaching trend the time prolonged. Conclusion Leptin has the effects of accelerating the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro, which is more enduring and later than that of 17β-E2.

  8. The effect of the overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on the tumor control probability of a human soft tissue sarcoma xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the impact of the overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on the tumor control probability (TCP) of a human soft tissue sarcoma xenograft growing in nude mice, as well as to compare the pretreatment potential doubling time (Tpot) of this tumor to the effective doubling time (Teff) derived from three different schedules of irradiation using the same total number of fractions with different overall treatment times. Methods and Materials: The TCP was assessed using the TCD50 value (the 50% tumor control dose) as an end point. A total of 240 male nude mice, 7-8 weeks old were used in three experimental groups that received the same total number of fractions (30 fractions) with different overall treatment times. In group 1, the animals received three equal fractions/day for 10 consecutive days, in group 2 they received two equal fractions/day for 15 consecutive days, and in group 3 one fraction/day for 30 consecutive days. All irradiations were given under normal blood flow conditions to air breathing animals. The mean tumor diameter at the start of irradiation was 7-8 mm. The mean interfraction intervals were from 8-24 h. The Tpot was measured using Iododeoxyuridine (IudR) labeling and flow cytometry and was compared to Teff. Results: The TCD50 values of the three different treatment schedules were 58.8 Gy, 63.2 Gy, and 75.6 Gy for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This difference in TCD50 values was significant (p pot (2.4 days) was longer than the calculated Teff in groups 2 and 3 (1.35 days). Conclusion: Our data show a significant loss in TCP with prolongation of the overall treatment time. This is most probably due to an accelerated repopulation of tumor clonogens. The pretreatment Tpot of this tumor model does not reflect the actual doubling of the clonogens in a protracted regimen

  9. TIME- AND DOSE-DEPENDENT UP-REGULATION OF TNF-α mRNA AFTER IRRADIATION OF HUMAN NSCLC CELL LINES IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Even though radiotherapy plays a major role in the local treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), little is known about the molecular effects of irradiation in this tumor. In the present study, we examined two NSCLC cell lines for their endogenous production of TNF-α after irradiation. To investigate the radiation-induced TNF-α production in NSCLC cell lines. Methods: Two human NSCLC cell lines (A549: squamous; NCI-H596: adenosquamous) were investigated for their TNF-α mRNA (real-time RT-PCR) after exposure to different irradiation doses (2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 Gy) and time intervals (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 or 72 h). The TNF-α mRNA expression was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. The clonogenic survival was evaluated after irradiation with 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy. Results: Non-irradiated NSCLC cells exhibited no or very low TNF-α expression. For the NCI-H596 cell line, TNF-α expression was significantly elevated 1~12 h (maximum 6h: 568fold increase relative to unirradiated cells) in a time-dependent manner. The radiation-induced increase could be observed after irradiation with 2 Gy reaching maximal at 40 Gy, with 83 times higher than normal controls. The clonogenic survival of these cell lines was nearly identical. Conclusion: NCI-H596 cells produce significant quantities of TNF-α following irradiation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α is a key mediator for the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. Radiation-induced endogenous TNF-α expression in NSCLC cells may affect the normal lung adjacent to the tumor and may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome of the patient.

  10. Studies on time of death estimation in the early post mortem period -- application of a method based on eyeball temperature measurement to human bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliszan, Michał

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a verification of the thermodynamic model allowing an estimation of the time of death (TOD) by calculating the post mortem interval (PMI) based on a single eyeball temperature measurement at the death scene. The study was performed on 30 cases with known PMI, ranging from 1h 35min to 5h 15min, using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer (Dostmann-electronic). The measured eye temperatures ranged from 20.2 to 33.1°C. Rectal temperature was measured at the same time and ranged from 32.8 to 37.4°C. Ambient temperatures which ranged from -1 to 24°C, environmental conditions (still air to light wind) and the amount of hair on the head were also recorded every time. PMI was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously derived and successfully tested in comprehensive studies on pigs and a few human cases. Thanks to both the significantly faster post mortem decrease of eye temperature and a residual or nonexistent plateau effect in the eye, as well as practically no influence of body mass, TOD in the human death cases could be estimated with good accuracy. The highest TOD estimation error during the post mortem intervals up to around 5h was 1h 16min, 1h 14min and 1h 03min, respectively in three cases among 30, while for the remaining 27 cases it was not more than 47min. The mean error for all 30 cases was ±31min. All that indicates that the proposed method is of quite good precision in the early post mortem period, with an accuracy of ±1h for a 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the presented method, TOD can be also calculated at the death scene with the use of a proposed portable electronic device (TOD-meter).

  11. Network Dynamics with BrainX3: A Large-Scale Simulation of the Human Brain Network with Real-Time Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xerxes D. Arsiwalla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BrainX3 is a large-scale simulation of human brain activity with real-time interaction, rendered in 3D in a virtual reality environment, which combines computational power with human intuition for the exploration and analysis of complex dynamical networks. We ground this simulation on structural connectivity obtained from diffusion spectrum imaging data and model it on neuronal population dynamics. Users can interact with BrainX3 in real-time by perturbing brain regions with transient stimulations to observe reverberating network activity, simulate lesion dynamics or implement network analysis functions from a library of graph theoretic measures. BrainX3 can thus be used as a novel immersive platform for real-time exploration and analysis of dynamical activity patterns in brain networks, both at rest or in a task-related state, for discovery of signaling pathways associated to brain function and/or dysfunction and as a tool for virtual neurosurgery. Our results demonstrate these functionalities and shed insight on the dynamics of the resting-state attractor. Specifically, we found that a noisy network seems to favor a low firing attractor state. We also found that the dynamics of a noisy network is less resilient to lesions. Our simulations on TMS perturbations show that even though TMS inhibits most of the network, it also sparsely excites a few regions. This is presumably, due to anti-correlations in the dynamics and suggests that even a lesioned network can show sparsely distributed increased activity compared to healthy resting-state, over specific brain areas.

  12. CyProQuant-PCR: a real time RT-PCR technique for profiling human cytokines, based on external RNA standards, readily automatable for clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercereau-Puijalon Odile

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is becoming a common tool for detecting and quantifying expression profiling of selected genes. Cytokines mRNA quantification is widely used in immunological research to dissect the early steps of immune responses or pathophysiological pathways. It is also growing to be of clinical relevancy to immuno-monitoring and evaluation of the disease status of patients. The techniques currently used for "absolute quantification" of cytokine mRNA are based on a DNA standard curve and do not take into account the critical impact of RT efficiency. Results To overcome this pitfall, we designed a strategy using external RNA as standard in the RT-PCR. Use of synthetic RNA standards, by comparison with the corresponding DNA standard, showed significant variations in the yield of retro-transcription depending the target amplified and the experiment. We then developed primers to be used under one single experimental condition for the specific amplification of human IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-18, IFN-γ, MIF, TGF-β1 and TNF-α mRNA. We showed that the beta-2 microglobulin (β2-MG gene was suitable for data normalisation since the level of β2-MG transcripts in naïve PBMC varied less than 5 times between individuals and was not affected by LPS or PHA stimulation. The technique, we named CyProQuant-PCR (Cytokine Profiling Quantitative PCR was validated using a kinetic measurement of cytokine transcripts under in vitro stimulation of human PBMC by lipopolysaccharide (LPS or Staphylococcus aureus strain Cowan (SAC. Results obtained show that CyProQuant-PCR is powerful enough to precociously detect slight cytokine induction. Finally, having demonstrated the reproducibility of the method, it was applied to malaria patients and asymptomatic controls for the quantification of TGF-β1 transcripts and showed an increased capacity of cells from malaria patients to accumulate TGF-β1 mRNA in response to LPS. Conclusion

  13. Surveillance of active human cytomegalovirus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HLA sibling identical donor: search for optimal cutoff value by real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranha Francisco JP

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (CMV infection still causes significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Therefore, it is extremely important to diagnosis and monitor active CMV infection in HSCT patients, defining the CMV DNA levels of virus replication that warrant intervention with antiviral agents in order to accurately prevent CMV disease and further related complications. Methods During the first 150 days after allogeneic HSTC, thirty patients were monitored weekly for active CMV infection by pp65 antigenemia, nested-PCR and real-time PCR assays. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC plot analysis was performed to determine a threshold value of the CMV DNA load by real-time PCR. Results Using ROC curves, the optimal cutoff value by real-time PCR was 418.4 copies/104 PBL (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 89.7%. Twenty seven (90% of the 30 analyzed patients had active CMV infection and two (6.7% developed CMV disease. Eleven (40.7% of these 27 patients had acute GVHD, 18 (66.7% had opportunistic infection, 5 (18.5% had chronic rejection and 11 (40.7% died - one died of CMV disease associated with GVHD and bacterial infection. Conclusions The low incidence of CMV disease in HSCT recipients in our study attests to the efficacy of CMV surveillance based on clinical routine assay. The quantification of CMV DNA load using real-time PCR appears to be applicable to the clinical practice and an optimal cutoff value for guiding timely preemptive therapy should be clinically validated in future studies.

  14. Chronoastrobiology: proposal, nine conferences, heliogeomagnetics, transyears, near-weeks, near-decades, phylogenetic and ontogenetic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Franz; Cornélissen, Germaine; Regal, Philip; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Wang, Zhengrong; Katinas, George Silvestrovitch; Siegelova, Jarmila; Homolka, Pavel; Prikryl, Pavel; Chibisov, Sergey Mikhailovich; Holley, Daniel C; Wendt, Hans W; Bingham, Christopher; Palm, Sally L; Sonkowsky, Robert P; Sothern, Robert B; Pales, Emil; Mikulecky, Miroslav; Tarquini, Roberto; Perfetto, Federico; Salti, Roberto; Maggioni, Cristina; Jozsa, Rita; Konradov, Alexander A; Kharlitskaya, Elena Valentinovna; Revillam, Miguel; Wan, Chaomin; Herold, Manfred; Syutkina, Elena Vasilievna; Masalov, Anatoly Viktorovich; Faraone, Piero; Singh, Ram Bahadur; Singh, R K; Kumar, Adarsh; Singhs, Ranjana; Sundaram, Sasikumar; Sarabandi, Tina; Pantaleoni, Giancarlo; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Kumagai, Yuji; Gubin, Denis; Uezono, Keiko; Olah, Andras; Borer, Katarina; Kanabrockia, Eugene A; Bathina, Srilakshmi; Haus, Erhard; Hillman, Dewayne; Schwartzkopff, Othild; Bakken, Earl E; Zeman, Michal

    2004-10-01

    structure to the magnetic fields in organisms. Likewise in humans, and in at least those other species that have been studied, computer power has enabled us to discover statistically defined endogenous physiological rhythms and further direct effects that are associated with these invisible geo- and heliomagnetic cycles. Thus, what once might have been dismissed as noise in both magnetic and physiological data does in fact have structure. And we may be at the threshold of understanding the biological and medical meaning and consequences of these patterns and biological-astronomical linkages as well. Structures in time are called chronomes; their mapping in us and around us is called chronomics. The scientific study of chronomes is chronobiology. And the scientific study of all aspects of biology related to the cosmos has been called astrobiology. Hence we may dub the new study of time structures in biology with regard to influences from cosmo- helio- and geomagnetic rhythms chronoastrobiology. It has, of course, been understood for centuries that the movements of the earth in relation to the sun produce seasonal and daily cycles in light energy and that these have had profound effects on the evolution of life. It is now emerging that rhythmic events generated from within the sun itself, as a large turbulent magnet in its own right, can have direct effects upon life on earth. Moreover, comparative studies of diverse species indicate that there have also been ancient evolutionary effects shaping the endogenous chronomic physiological characteristics of life. Thus the rhythms of the sun can affect us not only directly, but also indirectly through the chronomic patterns that solar magnetic rhythms have created within our physiology in the remote past. For example, we can document the direct exogenous effects of given specific solar wind events upon human blood pressure and heart rate. We also have evidence of endogenous internal rhythms in blood pressure and heart rate that are

  15. Liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with metabolic profiling of human urine as a tool for environmental analysis of dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma

    2012-10-12

    We use the combination of liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) and urine metabolic profiling to find and identify the metabolites of dextromethorphan, a common over-the-counter (OTC) cough suppressant. Next, we use the combination of ion masses, their MS/MS fragmentation, and retention times to determine dextromethorphan and its metabolites in surface water impacted by wastewater. Prior to this study, neither dextromethorphan nor its metabolites have been reported in surface water; in spite of its common use in over 100 various OTC medications. We found that the concentration of the dextrorphan metabolite in surface water greatly exceeded the parent compound by factors of 5-10 times, which reflects the urine profile, where parent compound is approximately <2% of the total excreted drug based on ion intensities. Urine profiling also indicated that glucuronide metabolites are major phase 2 products (92% of the total) in urine and then are completely hydrolyzed in wastewater to dextrorphan and N-demethyldextrorphan, which are phase 1 metabolites-a "kind of reversal" of human metabolism. PMID:22443892

  16. Heading date 1 (Hd1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS, is a possible target of human selection during domestication to diversify flowering times of cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Shimamoto, Ko

    2011-01-01

    During the domestication of rice (Oryza sativa L.), diversification of flowering time was important in expanding the areas of cultivation. Rice is a facultative short day (SD) plant and requires certain periods of dark to induce flowering. Heading date 1 (Hd1), a regulator of the florigen gene Hd3a, is one of the main factors used to generate diversity in flowering. Loss-of-function alleles of Hd1 are common in cultivated rice and cause the diversity of flowering time. However, it is unclear how these functional nucleotide polymorphisms of Hd1 accumulated in the course of evolution. Nucleotide polymorphisms within Hd1 and Hd3a were analyzed in 38 accessions of ancestral wild rice Oryza rufipogon and compared with those of cultivated rice. In contrast to cultivated rice, no nucleotide changes affecting Hd1 function were found in 38 accessions of wild rice ancestors. No functional changes were found in Hd3a in either cultivated or ancestral rice. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that evolution of the Hd1 alleles may have occurred independently in cultivars descended from various accessions of ancestral rice. The non-functional Hd1 alleles found in cultivated rice may be selected during domestication, because they were not found or very rare in wild ancestral rice. In contrast with Hd3a, which has been highly conserved, Hd1 may have undergone human selection to diversify the flowering times of rice during domestication or the early stage of the cultivation period.

  17. New Resolution Strategy for Multi-scale Reaction Waves using Time Operator Splitting and Space Adaptive Multiresolution: Application to Human Ischemic Stroke*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louvet Violaine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion equations modeling multi-scale reaction waves. This type of problems induces peculiar difficulties and potentially large stiffness which stem from the broad spectrum of temporal scales in the nonlinear chemical source term as well as from the presence of large spatial gradients in the reactive fronts, spatially very localized. A new resolution strategy was recently introduced ? that combines a performing time operator splitting with high oder dedicated time integration methods and space adaptive multiresolution. Based on recent theoretical studies of numerical analysis, such a strategy leads to a splitting time step which is not restricted neither by the fastest scales in the source term nor by stability limits related to the diffusion problem, but only by the physics of the phenomenon. In this paper, the efficiency of the method is evaluated through 2D and 3D numerical simulations of a human ischemic stroke model, conducted on a simplified brain geometry, for which a simple parallelization strategy for shared memory architectures was implemented, in order to reduce computing costs related to “detailed chemistry” features of the model.

  18. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT. PMID:26798766

  19. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT.

  20. Modeling cyclic variations in sustained human performance as measured by reaction time and the flash visual evoked potential-P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jason L; Arruda, James E; VanWormer, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    Recent research suggests that sustained attention is punctuated by periodic lapses that produce cyclic variations in sustained human performance. Research conducted by our laboratory (Arruda, Zhang, Amoss, Coburn, & Aue, 2009) and by the laboratories of others (Aue, Arruda, Kass, & Stanny, 2009; Smith, Valentino, & Arruda, 2003) suggests that sustained human performance cycles approximately every 1.5 and 5.2min. Further, it has been suggested that a norepinephrine based arousal system may be responsible for these variations. Unfortunately, both cholinergic and noradrenergic pathways are known to mediate attention and it is unclear from previous research whether one or both of the identified cycles is related to cholinergic functioning. Consequently, the purpose of the present investigation was to assess the validity of the 1.5 and the 5.2mincycles using both reaction time and a cortical marker of cholinergic activity-the flash visual evoked potential P2 (FVEP-P2). Twenty-seven participants performed a 15-min continuous performance task. A spectral analysis procedure was used to detect the prevalence of the 1.5 and 5.2mincycles in both performance and cortical activity. While the results of these analyses support the validity of the 1.5 and 5.2mincycles in sustained human performance, only the 5.2mincycle was detected in cortical activity (i.e., the FVEP-P2 amplitudes) using model fitting. Consequently, the results of the present investigation support the validity of the 1.5 and 5.2mincycles and extend the findings of previous research by implicating acetylcholine in the 5.2mincycle. PMID:26825236

  1. Quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA in testicular germ cell tumors by quantitative fluorescence real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Mark; Burger, Angelika M; Müller, Markus; Krause, Hans; Straub, Bernd; Smith, Gilian L; Newlands, Eward S; Miller, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme which is endogenously expressed in germ, stem and tumor cells, but absent in benign somatic cells. The two major telomerase components are human telomerase RNA (hTR) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). It has been shown that hTERT is rate-limiting for telomerase activity and that it plays a central role in human carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the potential of hTERT and hTR gene expression as diagnostic markers in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). hTERT mRNA and hTR expression were quantified in 55 testicular germ cell tumors comprising 36 primary and 19 germ cell tumors from retroperitonal sides by fluorescence real-time RT-PCR using the LightCycler technology. Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) was used as housekeeping gene and to enable relative quantification. For comparison to TGCTs, 38 benign testicular biopsies from patients with fertility disorders were assayed. hTERT expression was detected in all examined undifferentiated TGCTs and in the benign testicular tissue specimens with germ cell content (N(hTERT) 38-127). In contrast, mature teratomas from primary and post-chemotherapy masses, which are characterized by well-differentiated tissue components showed a nearly complete downregulation of hTERT expression (N(hTERT) 2-4, pmRNA is expressed in all undifferentiated TGCTs but repressed in mature teratomas. This suggests an inverse correlation between the differentiation status of germ cell tumors and hTERT expression. Thus, detection of hTERT expression in tumors histopathologically classified as mature teratomas enables a molecular-diagnostic confirmation and might aid decision making for treatment of patients presenting with this tumor subtype.

  2. Hyperspectral Imaging Using Intracellular Spies: Quantitative Real-Time Measurement of Intracellular Parameters In Vivo during Interaction of the Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus with Human Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Sara; Erfurth, Florian; Hennersdorf, Philipp; Brakhage, Axel A.; Saluz, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a technique based on the combination of classical spectroscopy and conventional digital image processing. It is also well suited for the biological assays and quantitative real-time analysis since it provides spectral and spatial data of samples. The method grants detailed information about a sample by recording the entire spectrum in each pixel of the whole image. We applied HSI to quantify the constituent pH variation in a single infected apoptotic monocyte as a model system. Previously, we showed that the human-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus conidia interfere with the acidification of phagolysosomes. Here, we extended this finding to monocytes and gained a more detailed analysis of this process. Our data indicate that melanised A. fumigatus conidia have the ability to interfere with apoptosis in human monocytes as they enable the apoptotic cell to recover from mitochondrial acidification and to continue with the cell cycle. We also showed that this ability of A. fumigatus is dependent on the presence of melanin, since a non-pigmented mutant did not stop the progression of apoptosis and consequently, the cell did not recover from the acidic pH. By conducting the current research based on the HSI, we could measure the intracellular pH in an apoptotic infected human monocyte and show the pattern of pH variation during 35 h of measurements. As a conclusion, we showed the importance of melanin for determining the fate of intracellular pH in a single apoptotic cell. PMID:27727286

  3. Real-time monitoring of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, representative odor compounds in water pollution using bioelectronic nose with human-like performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Manki; Cho, Dong-guk; Lim, Jong Hyun; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun; Ko, Hwi Jin; Park, Tai Hyun

    2015-12-15

    A bioelectronic nose for the real-time assessment of water quality was constructed with human olfactory receptor (hOR) and single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (swCNT-FET). Geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), mainly produced by bacteria, are representative odor compounds and also indicators of contamination in the water supply system. For the screening of hORs which respond to these compounds, we performed CRE-luciferase assays of the two odorants in heterologous cell system. Human OR51S1 for GSM and OR3A4 for MIB were selected, and nanovesicles expressing the hORs on surface were produced from HEK-293 cell. Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor was functionalized with the nanovesicles. The bioelectronic nose was able to selectively detect GSM and MIB at concentrations as low as a 10 ng L(-1). Furthermore, detection of these compounds from the real samples such as tap water, bottled water and river water was available without any pretreatment processes. PMID:26143459

  4. Real-time monitoring of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, representative odor compounds in water pollution using bioelectronic nose with human-like performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Manki; Cho, Dong-guk; Lim, Jong Hyun; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun; Ko, Hwi Jin; Park, Tai Hyun

    2015-12-15

    A bioelectronic nose for the real-time assessment of water quality was constructed with human olfactory receptor (hOR) and single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (swCNT-FET). Geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), mainly produced by bacteria, are representative odor compounds and also indicators of contamination in the water supply system. For the screening of hORs which respond to these compounds, we performed CRE-luciferase assays of the two odorants in heterologous cell system. Human OR51S1 for GSM and OR3A4 for MIB were selected, and nanovesicles expressing the hORs on surface were produced from HEK-293 cell. Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor was functionalized with the nanovesicles. The bioelectronic nose was able to selectively detect GSM and MIB at concentrations as low as a 10 ng L(-1). Furthermore, detection of these compounds from the real samples such as tap water, bottled water and river water was available without any pretreatment processes.

  5. Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for the Expression of Tob mRNA in Human Colorectal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian-chao WU

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Tob is a member of Tob/BTG antiproliferative family. To date, Tob expression in human carcinoma using clinical specimens has not been studied in depth except for lung carcinoma and thyroid carcinoma. This study is the first to investigate the expression levels of Tob gene in human colorectal cancer tissues,and their corresponding para-cancerous tissues. The correlation of expression of the Tob gene with clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancer was also analyzed.METHODS Quantitative real time RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of Tob mRNA in 31 colorectal cancers.RESULTS Compared with normal tissues, up-regulation of Tob mRNA was observed in 31 colorectal cancer tissues (P = 0.020).The expression level of Tob at Dukes C + D phase was higher than Dukes A + B phase, and the difference was signifi cant (P < 0.05).However, in this study, it was found that the expression of Tob mRNA was not related with age, gender, and pathological type of colorectal cancer.CONCLUSION The up-regulation of Tob may be closely associated with tumorigenesis of colorectal carcinoma.

  6. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Human-in-the-Loop Controller and Pilot Acceptability Study: Collision Avoidance, Self-Separation, and Alerting Times (CASSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Vincent, Michael J.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Munoz, Cesar; Chamberlain, James P.; Volk, Paul; Arthur, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been mandated by the Congressional funding bill of 2012 to open the National Airspace System (NAS) to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). With the growing use of unmanned systems, NASA has established a multi-center "UAS Integration in the NAS" Project, in collaboration with the FAA and industry, and is guiding its research efforts to look at and examine crucial safety concerns regarding the integration of UAS into the NAS. Key research efforts are addressing requirements for detect-and-avoid (DAA), self-separation (SS), and collision avoidance (CA) technologies. In one of a series of human-in-the-loop experiments, NASA Langley Research Center set up a study known as Collision Avoidance, Self-Separation, and Alerting Times (CASSAT). The first phase assessed active air traffic controller interactions with DAA systems and the second phase examined reactions to the DAA system and displays by UAS Pilots at a simulated ground control station (GCS). Analyses of the test results from Phase I and Phase II are presented in this paper. Results from the CASSAT study and previous human-in-the-loop experiments will play a crucial role in the FAA's establishment of rules, regulations, and procedures to safely, efficiently, and effectively integrate UAS into the NAS.

  7. Sb(V) and Sb(III) distribution in human erythrocytes: speciation methodology and the influence of temperature, time and anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; Aguilar, Luis; Barría, Macarena; Veneciano, Jocelyn; Martínez, Daniel; Bravo, Manuel; Lobos, María Gabriela; Mercado, Luis

    2013-10-15

    In this research a new method was developed and optimized for the determination of Sb(V) and Sb(III) in human erythrocytes fractions (plasma and cytoplasm) by high performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The method considers the first step of samples cleaning by protein precipitation by salting out followed by C18 solid phase extraction, EDTA elution, and finally a chromatographic separation by using anion exchange PRPX-100 (100 mm × 4.1mm) and EDTA 20 mmol L(-1) as mobile phase. The method was optimized by experimental design with a recovery of 90% for Sb(V) and 55-75% for Sb(III) approximately. The analytical method was applied to study the distribution of Sb(V) and Sb(III) in human erythrocytes considering temperature and time of incubations and with special attention about the influence of the anticoagulant. Results showed that both Sb(V) and Sb(III) are capable to enter the red blood cell in a proportion of approximately 40-60%. On the other hand, both species are then excreted from the interior of the cell, where the percentage considerably decreased from approximately 60 to less than 30% within the cell. An increase in the culture temperature increases the capacity of Sb(V) and Sb(III) to penetrate the membrane barrier and reach the cytoplasm. In order to preserve the original distribution of Sb in blood, heparin seems to be the best anticoagulant for sample preservation.

  8. Recovery of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) with high time-resolution from a moderate monaural-exposure to 2-kHz in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen;

    2008-01-01

    The amplitude of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) decreases temporarily after exposure to a sound of moderate level. These changes show similarities to the changes observed in absolute hearing thresholds after similar sound exposures. This paper presents the experimental protocol...... to study how DPOAEs in human subjects are affected after a monaural exposure of ten minutes to a pure tone of 2 kHz. The experimental protocol allows to measure fine structures of the DPOAE with high time-resolution in a limited frequency range. Thus, the results give a detailed description of the DPOAE...... recovery process and can be used to develop a mathematical model of the recovery. This is the first approximation to study the recovery of more complex exposures. [Work supported by the Danish Research Council for Technology and Production.]...

  9. Chemical and biological differentiation of three human breast cancer cell types using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulp, K S; Berman, E F; Knize, M G; Shattuck, D L; Nelson, E J; Wu, L; Montgomery, J L; Felton, J S; Wu, K J

    2006-01-09

    We use Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to image and classify individual cells based on their characteristic mass spectra. Using statistical data reduction on the large data sets generated during TOF-SIMS analysis, similar biological materials can be differentiated based on a combination of small changes in protein expression, metabolic activity and cell structure. We apply this powerful technique to image and differentiate three carcinoma-derived human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231). In homogenized cells, we show the ability to differentiate the cell types as well as cellular compartments (cytosol, nuclear and membrane). These studies illustrate the capacity of TOF-SIMS to characterize individual cells by chemical composition, which could ultimately be applied to detect and identify single aberrant cells within a normal cell population. Ultimately, we anticipate characterizing rare chemical changes that may provide clues to single cell progression within carcinogenic and metastatic pathways.

  10. Triple Quadrupole Versus High Resolution Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative LC-MS/MS Analysis of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Timon; Sleno, Lekha; Hall, Rabea A.; Stokes, Caroline S.; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a systematic comparison of high and low resolution LC-MS/MS assays for quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum. Identical sample preparation, chromatography separations, electrospray ionization sources, precursor ion selection, and ion activation were used; the two assays differed only in the implemented final mass analyzer stage; viz. high resolution quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF) versus low resolution triple quadrupole instruments. The results were assessed against measured concentration levels from a routine clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. Isobaric interferences prevented the simple use of TOF-MS spectra for extraction of accurate masses and necessitated the application of collision-induced dissociation on the QqTOF platform. The two mass spectrometry assays provided very similar analytical figures of merit, reflecting the lack of relevant isobaric interferences in the MS/MS domain, and were successfully applied to determine the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for patients with chronic liver disease.

  11. Application of laser postionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry/time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry in nanotoxicology: visualization of nanosilver in human macrophages and cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Andrea; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F; Tentschert, Jutta; Jungnickel, Harald; Graf, Philipp; Mantion, Alexandre; Draude, Felix; Galla, Sebastian; Plendl, Johanna; Goetz, Mario E; Masic, Admir; Meier, Wolfgang; Thünemann, Andreas F; Taubert, Andreas; Luch, Andreas

    2011-04-26

    Silver nanoparticles (SNP) are the subject of worldwide commercialization because of their antimicrobial effects. Yet only little data on their mode of action exist. Further, only few techniques allow for visualization and quantification of unlabeled nanoparticles inside cells. To study SNP of different sizes and coatings within human macrophages, we introduce a novel laser postionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (Laser-SNMS) approach and prove this method superior to the widely applied confocal Raman and transmission electron microscopy. With time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) we further demonstrate characteristic fingerprints in the lipid pattern of the cellular membrane indicative of oxidative stress and membrane fluidity changes. Increases of protein carbonyl and heme oxygenase-1 levels in treated cells confirm the presence of oxidative stress biochemically. Intriguingly, affected phagocytosis reveals as highly sensitive end point of SNP-mediated adversity in macrophages. The cellular responses monitored are hierarchically linked, but follow individual kinetics and are partially reversible. PMID:21456612

  12. Standardization of a TaqMan-based real-time PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex in human sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Francesca; Vandelannoote, Koen; Collantes, Jimena; Evans, Carlton A; Arévalo, Jorge; Rigouts, Leen

    2014-10-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was optimized for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum. Sputum was collected from patients (N = 112) with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis, tested by smear microscopy, decontaminated, and split into equal aliquots that were cultured in Löwenstein-Jensen medium and tested by qPCR for the small mobile genetic element IS6110. The human ERV3 sequence was used as an internal control. 3 of 112 (3%) qPCR failed. For the remaining 109 samples, qPCR diagnosed tuberculosis in 79 of 84 patients with culture-proven tuberculosis, and sensitivity was greater than microscopy (94% versus 76%, respectively, P tuberculosis mycobacteria. The qPCR cost ∼5US$ per sample and provided same-day results compared with 2-6 weeks for culture.

  13. Interaction of Cm(III) and Am(III) with human serum transferrin studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence and EXAFS spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nicole; Fröhlich, Daniel R; Panak, Petra J

    2014-05-14

    The complexation of Cm(III) with human serum transferrin was investigated in a pH range from 3.5 to 11.0 using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). At pH ≥ 7.4 Cm(III) is incorporated at the Fe(III) binding site of transferrin whereas at lower pH a partially bound Cm(III) transferrin species is formed. At physiological temperature (310 K) at pH 7.4, about 70% of the partially bound and 30% of the incorporated Cm(III) transferrin species are present in solution. The Cm(III) results obtained by TRLFS are in very good agreement with Am(III) EXAFS results, confirming the incorporation of Am(III) at the Fe(III) binding site at pH 8.5.

  14. Development and testing of real-time PCR assays for determining fecal loading and source identification (cattle, human, etc.) in surface water and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, L. D.; Layton, A.; Gentry, R.

    2004-12-01

    A multi-disciplinary group of researchers at the University of Tennessee is developing and testing a series of microbial assay methods based on real-time PCR to detect fecal bacterial concentrations and host sources in water samples. Real-time PCR is an enumeration technique based on the unique and conserved nucleic acid sequences present in all organisms. The first research task was development of an assay (AllBac) to detect total amount of Bacteroides, which represents up to 30 percent of fecal mass. Subsequent assays were developed to detect Bacteroides from cattle (BoBac) and humans (HuBac) using 16sRNA genes based on DNA sequences in the national GenBank, as well as sequences from local fecal samples. The assays potentially have significant advantages over conventional bacterial source tracking methods because: 1. unlike traditional enumeration methods, they do not require bacterial cultivation; 2. there are no known non-fecal sources of Bacteroides; 3. the assays are quantitative with results for total concentration and for each species expressed in mg/l; and 4. they show little regional variation within host species, meaning that they do not require development of extensive local gene libraries. The AllBac and BoBac assays have been used in a study of fecal contamination in a small rural watershed (Stock Creek) near Knoxville, TN, and have proven useful in identification of areas where cattle represent a significant fecal input and in development of BMPs. It is expected that these types of assays (and future assays for birds, hogs, etc.) could have broad applications in monitoring fecal impacts from Animal Feeding Operations, as well as from wildlife and human sources.

  15. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of human rhino- and enteroviruses in clinical specimens by real-time PCR with locked nucleic Acid probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterback, Riikka; Tevaluoto, Tuire; Ylinen, Tiina; Peltola, Ville; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo; Waris, Matti

    2013-12-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and human enteroviruses (HEVs) are significant respiratory pathogens. While HRV infections are restricted to the respiratory tract, HEV infections may spread to secondary target organs. The method of choice for sensitive specific detection of these viruses is reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with primers targeting the conserved 5' noncoding region of the viral RNA. On the other hand, sequence similarities between HRVs and HEVs complicate their differential detection. In this study, we describe the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) analogues in short double-dye probes which contained only two selectively HRV- or HEV-specific bases. The double-stranded DNA dye BOXTO (4-[6-(benzoxazole-2-yl-(3-methyl-)-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-thiazole)-2-methylidene)]-1-methyl-quinolinium chloride) was used with the LNA probes in a tricolor real-time PCR assay to allow specific detection of HRVs (probes labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein [FAM] [green]) and HEVs (Cy5 [red]) with additional melting curve analysis (BOXTO [yellow]). The functionality of the probes was validated in PCR and RT-PCR assays using plasmids containing viral cDNA, quantified viral RNA transcripts, cultivated rhino- and enterovirus prototypes, and clinical specimens. Of 100 HRV and 63 HEV prototypes, the probes correctly identified all HEVs except one that produced only a BOXTO signal. Among 118 clinical specimens with sequencing results, concordant results were obtained for 116 specimens. Two specimens were reactive with both probes, but sequencing yielded only a single virus. Real-time PCR with LNA probes allowed sensitive group-specific identification of HRVs and HEVs and would enable relative copy number determination. The assay is suitable for rapid and accurate differential detection of HRVs and HEVs in a diagnostic laboratory setting.

  16. Development and optimization of a sensitive TaqMan® real-time PCR with synthetic homologous extrinsic control for quantitation of Human cytomegalovirus viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Svetoslav Nanev; Otaguiri, Katia Kaori; de Figueiredo, Glauciane Garcia; Yamamoto, Aparecida Yulie; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa Marcia; Kashima, Simone; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2016-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (Human herpesvirus 5, HCMV) causes frequent asymptomatic infections in the general population. However, in immunosuppressed patients or congenitally infected infants, HCMV is related to high morbidity and mortality. In such cases, a rapid viral detection is crucial for monitoring the clinical outcome and the antiviral treatment. In this study, we optimized a sensitive biplex TaqMan® real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of a partial HCMV UL97 sequence and homologous extrinsic control (HEC) in the same tube. HEC was represented by a plasmid containing a modified HCMV sequence retaining the original primer binding sites, while the probe sequence was substituted by a phylogenetically divergent one (chloroplast CF0 subunit plant gene). It was estimated that the optimal HEC concentration, which did not influence the HCMV amplification is 1,000 copies/reaction. The optimized TaqMan® PCR demonstrated high analytical sensitivity (6.97 copies/reaction, CI = 95%) and specificity (100%). Moreover, the reaction showed adequate precision (repeatability, CV = 0.03; reproducibility, CV = 0.0027) and robustness (no carry-over or cross-contamination). The diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.8%) were adequate for the clinical application of the molecular platform. The optimized TaqMan® real-time PCR is suitable for HCMV detection and quantitation in predisposed patients and monitoring of the applied antiviral therapy. J. Med. Virol. 88:1604-1612, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890091

  17. Time series analysis performed on nephropathia epidemica in humans of northern Sweden in relation to bank vole population dynamic and the NAO index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, R Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Time series analysis was performed on two data series of human nephropathia epidemica (NE) infections in northern Sweden between the years 1959-1975 and 1985-2006. The analysis confirms that the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), the main reservoir species, shows regular peaks in population density approximately every fourth year. The periodicity in NE cases of the more recent time period (1985-2006) is 2.8-3.3 years and the older period shows a periodicity ranging 3.4-4.2 years, but this is not significantly different from that expected by vole dynamics. A comparison of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index between the two periods reveals higher mean winter NAO index in the period 1985-2006 than in 1959-1975. No difference was found in frequency of the NAO index between the older period (2.8-3.4 years) compared with the recent period (2.4-2.8 years). Cross-correlation revealed a delayed effect by NAO index on vole abundance but a multivariate model showed that NAO index did not explain the variation in NE cases. Vole index was the only factor that contributed significantly to the variation in numbers of NE cases and that no climate effect could be detected. The climate signal from NAO index does not appear to significantly affect the human NE cases and this suggests that the transmission of disease to man is not particularly sensitive to variations in weather factors. The results favour the hypothesis that higher NAO index will not increase the likelihood of virus transmission from voles to man in northern Sweden under present climatic conditions.

  18. Detection of the pediocin gene pedA in strains from human faeces by real-time PCR and characterization of Pediococcus acidilactici UVA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cereghetti Tania

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria are commonly used as natural protective cultures. Among them, strains of the genus Pediococcus are particularly interesting for their ability to produce pediocin, a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide with a strong antagonistic activity against the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in isolating new bacteriocin-producing strains of human intestinal origin that could be developed for probiotic effects and inhibition of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. In this work, we typed a new strain, co-isolated from baby faeces together with a Bifidobacterium thermophilum strain, and characterized its proteinaceous compound with strong antilisterial activity. Results The newly isolated strain UVA1 was identified as a Pediococcus acidilactici by carbohydrate fermentation profile, growth at 50°C and 16S rDNA sequencing. The partially purified bacteriocin was heat resistant up to 100°C, active over a wide range of pH (2 to 9 and susceptible to proteolytic enzymes. The molecular weight, estimated by SDS-PAGE, was similar to that of pediocin AcH/PA-1 (4.5 kDa. P. acidilactici UVA1 harboured a 9.5-kb plasmid that could be cured easily, which resulted in the loss of the antimicrobial activity. Southern hybridization using the DIG-labelled pedA-probe established that the bacteriocin gene was plasmid-borne as for all pediocin described so far. Nucleotide sequence of the whole operon (3.5 kb showed almost 100 % similarity to the pediocin AcH/PA-1 operon. The mRNA transcript for pedA could be detected in P. acidilactici UVA1 but not in the cured derivative, confirming the expression of the pedA-gene in UVA1. Using a new real-time PCR assay, eleven out of seventeen human faecal samples tested were found to contain pedA-DNA. Conclusion We identified and characterised the first pediocin produced by a human intestinal Pediococcus acidilactici isolate and

  19. Microelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Differentiation between Normal and Cancerous Human Urothelial Cell Lines: Real-Time Electrical Impedance Measurement at an Optimal Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangkyu Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To distinguish between normal (SV-HUC-1 and cancerous (TCCSUP human urothelial cell lines using microelectrical impedance spectroscopy (μEIS. Materials and Methods. Two types of μEIS devices were designed and used in combination to measure the impedance of SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells flowing through the channels of the devices. The first device (μEIS-OF was designed to determine the optimal frequency at which the impedance of two cell lines is most distinguishable. The μEIS-OF trapped the flowing cells and measured their impedance at a frequency ranging from 5 kHz to 1 MHz. The second device (μEIS-RT was designed for real-time impedance measurement of the cells at the optimal frequency. The impedance was measured instantaneously as the cells passed the sensing electrodes of μEIS-RT. Results. The optimal frequency, which maximized the average difference of the amplitude and phase angle between the two cell lines (p<0.001, was determined to be 119 kHz. The real-time impedance of the cell lines was measured at 119 kHz; the two cell lines differed significantly in terms of amplitude and phase angle (p<0.001. Conclusion. The μEIS-RT can discriminate SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells by measuring the impedance at the optimal frequency determined by the μEIS-OF.

  20. Microelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Differentiation between Normal and Cancerous Human Urothelial Cell Lines: Real-Time Electrical Impedance Measurement at an Optimal Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yangkyu; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Yun, Joho; Seo, Seungwan; Park, Chang-Ju; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To distinguish between normal (SV-HUC-1) and cancerous (TCCSUP) human urothelial cell lines using microelectrical impedance spectroscopy (μEIS). Materials and Methods. Two types of μEIS devices were designed and used in combination to measure the impedance of SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells flowing through the channels of the devices. The first device (μEIS-OF) was designed to determine the optimal frequency at which the impedance of two cell lines is most distinguishable. The μEIS-OF trapped the flowing cells and measured their impedance at a frequency ranging from 5 kHz to 1 MHz. The second device (μEIS-RT) was designed for real-time impedance measurement of the cells at the optimal frequency. The impedance was measured instantaneously as the cells passed the sensing electrodes of μEIS-RT. Results. The optimal frequency, which maximized the average difference of the amplitude and phase angle between the two cell lines (p < 0.001), was determined to be 119 kHz. The real-time impedance of the cell lines was measured at 119 kHz; the two cell lines differed significantly in terms of amplitude and phase angle (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The μEIS-RT can discriminate SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells by measuring the impedance at the optimal frequency determined by the μEIS-OF. PMID:26998490

  1. Time-Lapse Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Reveals Multiple Bottlenecks Restricting Colony Formation and Their Relief upon Culture Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barbaric

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using time-lapse imaging, we have identified a series of bottlenecks that restrict growth of early-passage human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and that are relieved by karyotypically abnormal variants that are selected by prolonged culture. Only a minority of karyotypically normal cells divided after plating, and these were mainly cells in the later stages of cell cycle at the time of plating. Furthermore, the daughter cells showed a continued pattern of cell death after division, so that few formed long-term proliferating colonies. These colony-forming cells showed distinct patterns of cell movement. Increasing cell density enhanced cell movement facilitating cell:cell contact, which resulted in increased proportion of dividing cells and improved survival postplating of normal hESCs. In contrast, most of the karyotypically abnormal cells reentered the cell cycle on plating and gave rise to healthy progeny, without the need for cell:cell contacts and independent of their motility patterns.

  2. Human Face as human single identity

    OpenAIRE

    Warnars, Spits

    2014-01-01

    Human face as a physical human recognition can be used as a unique identity for computer to recognize human by transforming human face with face algorithm as simple text number which can be primary key for human. Human face as single identity for human will be done by making a huge and large world centre human face database, where the human face around the world will be recorded from time to time and from generation to generation. Architecture database will be divided become human face image ...

  3. Rapid and sensitive screening and selective quantification of antibiotics in human urine by two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-Xing; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the screening and selective quantification of antibiotics in urine by two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed. This method allowed the injection of 200 μL urine extract. The 200-μL injection volume used in this method increased the absolute sensitivity for target antibiotics in solvent by an average 13.3 times, with a range from 8.4 to 28.5 times, compared with the 10-μL conventional injection volume. A 96-well solid phase extraction procedure was established to eliminate the contamination on the chromatographic column resulting from the large-volume injection and increase the throughput of sample preparation. Fourteen target antibiotics from six common categories (β-lactams, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides, and chloramphenicols) were selected as model compounds, and a database containing an additional 74 antibiotics was compiled for posttarget screening. The limit of detection of the target antibiotics, defined as a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 0.04 to 1.99 ng/mL. The mean interday recoveries ranged between 79.6 and 121.3 %, with a relative standard deviation from 2.9 to 18.3 % at three spiking levels of 20 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied in 60 real urine samples from schoolchildren aged 8-11 years, and four target antibiotics (azithromycin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and oxytetracycline) and two posttarget antibiotics (sulfadimidine and cefaclor) were found in the urine samples. This method can be used as a large-scale biomonitoring tool for exposure of the human population to antibiotics. PMID:25354887

  4. Real time analysis of β2-adrenoceptor-mediated signaling kinetics in Human Primary Airway Smooth Muscle Cells reveals both ligand and dose dependent differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Ian P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β2-adrenoceptor agonists elicit bronchodilator responses by binding to β2-adrenoceptors on airway smooth muscle (ASM. In vivo, the time between drug administration and clinically relevant bronchodilation varies significantly depending on the agonist used. Our aim was to utilise a fluorescent cyclic AMP reporter probe to study the temporal profile of β2-adrenoceptor-mediated signaling induced by isoproterenol and a range of clinically relevant agonists in human primary ASM (hASM cells by using a modified Epac protein fused to CFP and a variant of YFP. Methods Cells were imaged in real time using a spinning disk confocal system which allowed rapid and direct quantification of emission ratio imaging following direct addition of β2-adrenoceptor agonists (isoproterenol, salbutamol, salmeterol, indacaterol and formoterol into the extracellular buffer. For pharmacological comparison a radiolabeling assay for whole cell cyclic AMP formation was used. Results Temporal analysis revealed that in hASM cells the β2-adrenoceptor agonists studied did not vary significantly in the onset of initiation. However, once a response was initiated, significant differences were observed in the rate of this response with indacaterol and isoproterenol inducing a significantly faster response than salmeterol. Contrary to expectation, reducing the concentration of isoproterenol resulted in a significantly faster initiation of response. Conclusions We conclude that confocal imaging of the Epac-based probe is a powerful tool to explore β2-adrenoceptor signaling in primary cells. The ability to analyse the kinetics of clinically used β2-adrenoceptor agonists in real time and at a single cell level gives an insight into their possible kinetics once they have reached ASM cells in vivo.

  5. 应用real-time PCR法快速定量人类粪便中双歧杆菌的研究%A fast quantification for Bifidobacteria in human feces by real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静; 文姝; 唐立

    2009-01-01

    Objective To build a fast and accurate method of quantification for Bifidobacteria in human feces. Method Traditional culture, common PCR, real-time PCR were used. Result (1) The inhibitors in the feces samples were removed when the samples were centrifuged, washed and diluted,so that the Bifidobacteria in the feces samples could be directly quantitated by PCR and real-time PCR. (2) The direct semiquantitation by PCR established in this study showed a satisfactory distinguishability when Bifidobacteria in feces samples was between 10~3 ~10~7CFU /ml. There was no obvious difference between the result from RT-PCR quantification and that from cultured method (P > 0.05); The direct quantita-tion by PCR showed a satisfactory distinguishability when Bifidobacteria in feces samples was between 10~1 ~ 10~7CFU /ml, without obvious difference between the result from RT-PCR and that from cultured method (P > 0. 05). Conclusion Bifidobacteria in feces samples can be directly quantitated or semiquantitated by real-time PCR method or common PCR method.%目的 建立快速、准确从粪便标本中定量双歧杆菌的RT-PCR技术.方法 传统培养定量法,普通PCR定量法,real-time PCR 比较测量.结果 (1)粪便标本前处理采取简单的离心和清洗、稀释步骤能去除粪便标本中的抑制物,实现不提取 DNA直接进行PCR、real-time定量粪便中双歧杆菌.(2)本实验建立的PCR方法直接半定量粪便双歧杆菌技术在双歧杆菌值介于10~3~10~7CFU/ml时具有较好的分辨率,粪便标本普通PCR得理论菌数与培养得菌数值之间差异无显著性(P>0.05);real-time PCR直接定量双歧杆菌技术在双歧杆菌值介于10~1~10~7CFU /ml时具有较好的分辨率,粪便标本RT-PCR得理论菌数与培养得菌数值之间差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 利用PCR、real-time PCR直接半定量和定量粪便中的双歧杆菌可行.

  6. Real-time imaging of resident T cells in human lung and ovarian carcinomas reveals how different tumor microenvironments control T lymphocyte migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine eBougherara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available T cells play a key role in the battle against cancer. To perform their antitumor activities, T cells need to adequately respond to tumor antigens by establishing contact with either malignant cells or antigen-presenting cells. These latter functions rely on a series of migratory steps that go from entry of T cells into the tumor followed by their locomotion in the tumor stroma. Our knowledge of how T cells migrate within tumors mainly comes from experiments performed in mouse models. Whereas such systems have greatly advanced our understanding, they do not always faithfully recapitulate the disease observed in cancer patients. We previously described a technique based on tissue slices that enables to track with real-time imaging microscopy the motile behavior of fluorescent T cells plated onto fresh sections of human lung tumors. We have now refined this approach to monitor the locomotion of resident tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells labeled with fluorescently-coupled antibodies. Using this approach, our findings reveal that CD8 T cells accumulate in the stroma of ovarian and lung carcinomas but move slowly in this compartment. Conversely, even though less populated, tumors islets were found to be zones of faster migration for resident CD8 T cells. We also confirm the key role played by collagen fibers which, by their orientation, spacing and density, control the distribution and migration of resident CD8 T cells within the tumor stroma. We have subsequently demonstrated that under some physical tissue constraints CD8 T cells exhibited a mode of migration characterized by alternate forward and backward movements. In sum, using an ex vivo assay to track CD8 T cells in fresh human tumor tissues, we have identified the extracellular matrix as a major stromal component in influencing T cell migration, thereby impacting control of tumor growth. This approach will aid in the development and testing of novel immunotherapy strategies to promote T cell

  7. Real-Time Imaging of Resident T Cells in Human Lung and Ovarian Carcinomas Reveals How Different Tumor Microenvironments Control T Lymphocyte Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougherara, Houcine; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Alifano, Marco; Ngô, Charlotte; Damotte, Diane; Le Frère-Belda, Marie-Aude; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Peranzoni, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    T cells play a key role in the battle against cancer. To perform their antitumor activities, T cells need to adequately respond to tumor antigens by establishing contacts with either malignant cells or antigen-presenting cells. These latter functions rely on a series of migratory steps that go from entry of T cells into the tumor followed by their locomotion in the tumor stroma. Our knowledge of how T cells migrate within tumors mainly comes from experiments performed in mouse models. Whereas such systems have greatly advanced our understanding, they do not always faithfully recapitulate the disease observed in cancer patients. We previously described a technique based on tissue slices that enables to track with real-time imaging microscopy the motile behavior of fluorescent T cells plated onto fresh sections of human lung tumors. We have now refined this approach to monitor the locomotion of resident tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells labeled with fluorescently coupled antibodies. Using this approach, our findings reveal that CD8 T cells accumulate in the stroma of ovarian and lung carcinomas but move slowly in this compartment. Conversely, even though less populated, tumors islets were found to be zones of faster migration for resident CD8 T cells. We also confirm the key role played by collagen fibers, which, by their orientation, spacing and density, control the distribution and migration of resident CD8 T cells within the tumor stroma. We have subsequently demonstrated that, under some physical tissue constraints, CD8 T cells exhibited a mode of migration characterized by alternate forward and backward movements. In sum, using an ex vivo assay to track CD8 T cells in fresh human tumor tissues, we have identified the extracellular matrix as a major stromal component in influencing T cell migration, thereby impacting the control of tumor growth. This approach will aid in the development and testing of novel immunotherapy strategies to promote T cell migration in

  8. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Level Forensic Science, Biochemistry, or Molecular Biology Courses: Human DNA Amplification Using STR Single Locus Primers by Real-Time PCR with SYBR Green Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M.; Kadunc, Raelynn E.

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) was conducted using published human TPOX single-locus DNA primers for validation and various student-designed short tandem repeat (STR) primers for Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) loci. SYBR Green was used to detect the amplification of the expected amplicons. The…

  9. Development of Human Face Detection System Based on Real-time Camera Image%摄像头实时图像人脸检测系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅琪; 刘羽

    2013-01-01

    人脸检测是计算机视觉领域中一个重要的研究热点,也是人脸识别、表情识别等研究的基础.论文首先通过截取摄像头实时图像,然后通过转换彩色空间、人脸肤色建模、图像处理和人脸定位算法实现了人脸检测功能.详细介绍了基于摄像头的人脸图像采集开发和人脸检测等主要步骤,并由此开发了摄像头实时图像的人脸检测系统.试验结果表明,论文提出的方法是可行的.%Human face detection is an important research in the field of computer vision.It also is a basic research of face recognition and expression recognition etc.Firstly,the camera real-time image is captured,and then the face detection function is realized through conversing of color space,skin color model,image processing and face location algorithm are built.The main steps of developing the face images acquisition based on camera and face detection are introduced in detail.At last,the face detection system based on real-time camera image is developed.The test results show that,the proposed method is feasible.

  10. Non-invasive in vivo time-dependent strain measurement method in human abdominal aortic aneurysms: Towards a novel approach to rupture risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Róbert; Csobay-Novák, Csaba; Lovas, Attila; Sótonyi, Péter; Bojtár, Imre

    2015-07-16

    We aim to introduce a novel, inverse method for in vivo material parameter identification of human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), which could overcome one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in patient-specific simulations, and could also serve as a rapid, patient-calibrated, novel measure of aneurysm rupture risk. As an initial step, the determination of the kinematic fields is presented here. Images of the AAA lumen, acquired in 10 discrete time-steps through a stabilized cardiac cycle by electrocardiogram-gated computer tomography angiography, are used to approximate the in vivo, time dependent kinematic fields of the arterial wall using a novel, incompressible Kirchhoff-Love shell element implemented into the isogeometric analysis framework. Defining a smoothing parametric surface via 2D bicubic spline fitting in the spatial, and by harmonic regression in the temporal domain, we are able to adequately mitigate the measurement inaccuracy. The ill-posedness of the problem requires certain assumptions on the displacement. In our case, based on numerical fluid structure interaction simulation observations, we hypothesized the incremental displacement vector of the reference surface to coincide with its corrected normal; hence the periodic movement was assured. Finally, we present two examples: an AAA and an undilated calcificated aorta. Strains in the diseased part were compared to those in a healthy arterial section of the same patient and found to have significant differences in both specimens. In the case of AAAs, high spatial gradients surrounding the dilated part indicate abrupt changes in material properties, a phenomenon less significant for the atherosclerotic case. PMID:25980555

  11. Validation of reliable reference genes for real-time PCR in human umbilical vein endothelial cells on substrates with different stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanical properties of cellular microenvironments play important roles in regulating cellular functions. Studies of the molecular response of endothelial cells to alterations in substrate stiffness could shed new light on the development of cardiovascular disease. Quantitative real-time PCR is a current technique that is widely used in gene expression assessment, and its accuracy is highly dependent upon the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. This study aimed to evaluate and identify optimal reference genes for use in studies of the response of endothelial cells to alterations in substrate stiffness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four algorithms, GeNorm(PLUS, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the Comparative ΔCt method, were employed to evaluate the expression of nine candidate genes. We observed that the stability of potential reference genes varied significantly in human umbilical vein endothelial cells on substrates with different stiffness. B2M, HPRT-1, and YWHAZ are suitable for normalization in this experimental setting. Meanwhile, we normalized the expression of YAP and CTGF using various reference genes and demonstrated that the relative quantification varied according to the reference genes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Consequently, our data show for the first time that B2M, HPRT-1, and YWHAZ are a set of stably expressed reference genes for accurate gene expression normalization in studies exploring the effect of subendothelial matrix stiffening on endothelial cell function. We furthermore caution against the use of GAPDH and ACTB for gene expression normalization in this experimental setting because of the low expression stability in this study.

  12. Identification of Human Adenovirus in Respiratory Samples with Luminex Respiratory Virus Panel Fast V2 Assay and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Scala, Alessia; Bianchini, Sonia; Zampiero, Alberto; Fossali, Emilio; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the last version of the Respiratory Virus Panel (RVP) Fast assay for human Adenovirus (hAdv) detection with a specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which is considered the gold standard for hAdv detection, nasopharyngeal samples collected from 309 children (age range, four months to eight years) with respiratory tract infection were tested using the RVP Fast v2 assay (Luminex Molecular Diagnostics, Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada) and a specific TaqMan qPCR to identify hAdv DNA. The RVP Fast v2 assay detected 30/61 (49.2%) hAdv infections that had been identified by real-time qPCR, demonstrating a significantly lower detection rate (p < 0.001). The sensitivity of the RVP Fast v2 assay in comparison to qPCR was lower in younger children (42.9% vs. 57.7%; Cohen's kappa coefficient, 0.53); in samples with co-infections (40.0% vs. 56.7%; Cohen's kappa coefficient, 0.52); and in samples with hAdv type C (45.9% vs. 57.1%; Cohen's kappa coefficient, 0.60). Samples with lower viral loads were associated with a significantly lower sensitivity of the RVP Fast v2 assay (35.1% vs. 68.2%, p = 0.01; Cohen's kappa coefficients, 0.49). The RVP Fast v2 assay has important limitations for the detection of hAdv and cannot be used to evaluate whether hAdvs are the main etiologic agent responsible for an outbreak or when epidemiological studies are performed. PMID:26927078

  13. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ► The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ► method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L−1 and became 0.003 mIU L−1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L−1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  14. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  15. Technical advance: introducing a novel metric, directionality time, to quantify human neutrophil chemotaxis as a function of matrix composition and stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Xian M; Loosley, Alex J; Oakley, Katie E; Tang, Jay X; Reichner, Jonathan S

    2014-06-01

    A direct consequence of cellular movement and navigation, migration incorporates elements of speed, direction, and persistence of motion. Current techniques to parameterize the trajectory of a chemotaxing cell most commonly pair migration speed with some measure of persistence by calculating MSD, RMS speed, TAD, and/or CI. We address inherent limitations in TAD and CI for comparative analysis by introducing two new analytical tools to quantify persistence: directionality index and directionality time. With the use of these tools, we show that the mechanical properties of the underlying substrate contribute significantly to the regulation of human neutrophil chemotaxis toward fMLP on Fgn-, Col-, and Fn-coated gels of varying elasticity. The β₁-integrin ligand Col demonstrated mechanosensitive speed. In contrast, β₂-integrin ligand Fgn supported mechanosensitive persistence. Fn, recognized by β₁ and β₂ integrins, mechanoregulated speed and persistence. Blocking β₂ integrins of cells migrating on Fn identified an underlying β₂-integrin-directed modulation of persistence. These data demonstrate that individual components of the neutrophil chemotactic response show integrin dependence and are finely tunable with different ligand, mechanotactic, and chemotactic cues, underscoring the need for sensitive analytical methods.

  16. Time-dependent c-Myc transactomes mapped by Array-based nuclear run-on reveal transcriptional modules in human B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshui Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The definition of transcriptional networks through measurements of changes in gene expression profiles and mapping of transcription factor binding sites is limited by the moderate overlap between binding and gene expression changes and the inability to directly measure global nuclear transcription (coined "transactome". METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a method to measure nascent nuclear gene transcription with an Array-based Nuclear Run-On (ANRO assay using commercial microarray platforms. This strategy provides the missing component, the transactome, to fully map transcriptional networks. ANRO measurements in an inducible c-Myc expressing human P493-6 B cell model reveals time-dependent waves of transcription, with a transactome early after c-Myc induction that does not persist at a late, steady-state phase, when genes that are regulated by c-Myc and E2F predominate. Gene set matrix analysis further uncovers functionally related groups of genes putatively regulated by waves of transcription factor motifs following Myc induction, starting with AP1 and CREB that are followed by EGR1, NFkB and STAT, and ending with E2F, Myc and ARNT/HIF motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By coupling ANRO with previous global mapping of c-Myc binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP in P493-6 cells, we define a set of transcriptionally regulated direct c-Myc target genes and pave the way for the use of ANRO to comprehensively map any transcriptional network.

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in 5,072 consecutive cervical SurePath samples evaluated with the Roche cobas HPV real-time PCR assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Sarah; Rebolj, Matejka; Untermann, Anette;

    2013-01-01

    New commercially available Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays need to be evaluated in a variety of cervical screening settings. Cobas HPV Test (cobas) is a real-time PCR-based assay allowing for separate detection of HPV genotypes 16 and 18 and a bulk of 12 other high-risk genotypes. The aim...... of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer, where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for cervical screening. We collected 6,258 consecutive cervical samples from the largest cervical screening laboratory...... in Denmark serving the whole of Copenhagen. All samples were stored in SurePath media. In total, 5,072 samples were tested with cobas, Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2) and liquid-based cytology. Of these, 27% tested positive on cobas. This proportion decreased by age, being 43% in women aged 23...

  18. The limits of human endurance: what is the greatest endurance performance of all time? Which factors regulate performance at extreme altitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Timothy David

    2007-01-01

    Humans evolved as an athletic species able to run in the midday heat, to throw with exquisite accuracy and to strike powerfully despite relatively weak upper arms compared to those of the great apes. The true extent to which humans could run long distances was first tested in a unique series of 6-day foot races contested between 1874 and 1888 by professional athletes from England and the United States. These athletes typically would have expended approximately 60,000 kcal (24.12 MJ) of energy during these races. The discovery of the bicycle soon caused the replacement of these races by 6-day cycling races which, in turn, led to the modern day Tour de France, the cycling race across America (RaAM) and two running races across the width of the United States in 1928 and 1929. The total energy expenditures during these different events can be estimated at approximately 168,000, 180,000 and 340,000 kcal respectively. But, in terms of the total energy expenditure, all these performances pale somewhat when compared to that of Robert Falcon Scott's Polar party during the 1911/12 British Antarctic Expedition. For most of 159 consecutive days, Scott's team man-hauled for 10 hours a day to the South Pole and back covering a distance of 2500 km. Their predicted total energy expenditure per individual would have been about 1 million kcal, making theirs, by some margin, the greatest sustained endurance athletic performance of all time. Interestingly, the dogs that provided the pulling power for Norwegian Roald Amundsen's team that was the first to reach the South Pole, 35 days before Scott's party, would have expended about 500,000 kcal in their 97 day trip, making theirs the greatest animal "sporting" performance on record. By contrast, mountain climbers expend only approximately 4000 kcal/day when climbing at extreme altitudes (above 4000 m). This relatively low rate of energy expenditure results from the low exercise intensities that can be sustained at extreme altitude. Here

  19. Time : space.

    OpenAIRE

    M Crang

    2005-01-01

    Spaces of Geographical Thought examines key ideas like space and place - which inform the geographic imagination. The text: discusses the core conceptual vocabulary of human geography: agency: structure; state: society; culture: economy; space: place; black: white; man: woman; nature: culture; local: global; and time: space; explains the significance of these binaries in the constitution of geographic thought; and shows how many of these binaries have been interrogated and re-imagined in more...

  20. Time course analysis reveals gene-specific transcript and protein kinetics of adaptation to short-term aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Egan

    Full Text Available Repeated bouts of episodic myofibrillar contraction associated with exercise training are potent stimuli for physiological adaptation. However, the time course of adaptation and the continuity between alterations in mRNA expression and protein content are not well described in human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy, sedentary males cycled for 60 min at 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak each day for fourteen consecutive days, resulting in an increase in VO2peak of 17.5±3.8%. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, and on the morning following (+16 h after exercise the first, third, seventh, tenth and fourteenth training sessions. Markers of mitochondrial adaptation (Cyt c and COXIV expression, and citrate synthase activity were increased within the first week of training, but the mtDNA/nDNA ratio was unchanged by two weeks of training. Accumulation of PGC-1α and ERRα protein during training suggests a regulatory role for these factors in adaptations of mitochondrial and metabolic gene expression. A subset of genes were transiently increased after one training session, but returned to baseline levels thereafter, which is supportive of the concept of transcriptional capacity being particularly sensitive to the onset of a new level of contractile activity. Thus, gene-specific temporal patterns of induction of mRNA expression and protein content are described. Our results illustrate the phenomenology of skeletal muscle plasticity and support the notion that transcript level adjustments, coupled to accumulation of encoded protein, underlie the modulation of skeletal muscle metabolism and phenotype by regular exercise.

  1. Magnetization transfer in human achilles tendon assessed by a 3D ultrashort echo time sequence. Quantitative examinations in healthy volunteers at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syha, R.; Grosse, U.; Springer, F. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology; Martirosian, P.; Schick, F. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology; Ketelsen, D.; Claussen, C.D. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2011-11-15

    Magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) imaging provides insight into interactions between free and bounded water. Newly developed ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences implemented on whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) scanners allow MTC imaging in tissues with extremely fast signal decay such as tendons. The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the quantification of the MT effect in healthy Achilles tendons in-vivo at 3 Tesla. 16 normal tendons of volunteers with no history of tendinopathy were examined using a 3D-UTE sequence with a rectangular on-resonant excitation pulse and a Fermi-shaped off-resonant MT preparation pulse. The frequency of the MT pulse was varied from 1 to 5 kHz. MT effects were calculated in terms of the MT ratio (MTR) between measurements without and with MT preparation. Direct saturation effects of MT preparation on the signal intensity were evaluated using numerical simulation of Bloch equations. One patient with tendinopathy was examined to exemplarily show changes of MTR under pathologic conditions. Calculation of MTR data was feasible in all examined tendons and showed a decrease from 0.53 {+-} 0.05 to 0.25 {+-} 0.03 (1 kHz to 5 kHz) for healthy volunteers. Evaluation of variation with gender and dominance of ankle revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In contrast, the patient with confirmed tendinopathy showed MTR values between 0.36 (1 kHz) and 0.19 (5 kHz). MT effects in human Achilles tendons can be reliably assessed in-vivo using a 3D UTE sequence at 3 T. All healthy tendons showed similar MTR values (coefficient of variation 10.0 {+-} 1.2 %). The examined patient showed a clearly different MT effect revealing a changed microstructure in the case of tendinopathy. (orig.)

  2. Obesity-Related Metabolomic Analysis of Human Subjects in Black Soybean Peptide Intervention Study by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography and Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify key metabolites related to weight reduction in humans by studying the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from 34 participants who underwent dietary intervention with black soybean peptides (BSP for 12 weeks. This research is a sequel to our previous work in which the effects of BSP on BMI and blood composition of lipid were investigated. Sera of the study were subjected to ultra performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA score plots. Body mass index and percent body fat of the test group were reduced. Levels of betaine, benzoic acid, pyroglutamic acid, pipecolic acid, N-phenylacetamide, uric acid, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine, and lysophosphatidyl cholines (lysoPCs (C18:1, C18:2, C20:1, and C20:4 showed significant increases. Levels of l-proline, valine, l-leucine/isoleucine, hypoxanthine, glutamine, l-methionine, phenylpyruvic acid, several carnitine derivatives, and lysoPCs (C14:0, PC16:0, C15:0, C16:0, C17:1, C18:0, and C22:0 were significantly decreased. In particular, lysoPC 16:0 with a VIP value of 12.02 is esteemed to be the most important metabolite for evaluating the differences between the 2 serum samples. Our result confirmed weight-lowering effects of BSP, accompanied by favorable changes in metabolites in the subjects’ blood. Therefore, this research enables us to better understand obesity and increases the predictability of the obesity-related risk by studying metabolites present in the blood.

  3. New Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Initiated PCR Assay with Single-Copy Sensitivity for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sarah; Wiegand, Ann P.; Maldarelli, Frank; Bazmi, Holly; Mican, JoAnn M.; Polis, Michael; Dewar, Robin L.; Planta, Angeline; Liu, Shuying; Metcalf, Julia A.; Mellors, John W.; Coffin, John M.

    2003-01-01

    More sensitive assays for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA are needed to detect, quantify, and characterize persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose plasma HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to less than 50 to 75 copies/ml. We therefore developed an internally controlled real-time reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR assay that quantifies HIV-1 RNA concentrations down to 1 copy per ml of plasma. This assay with single-copy sensitivity (the single-copy assay) generates a reproducible linear regression plot of input copy number versus threshold cycle by using HIV-1 RNA transcripts at copy numbers ranging from 1 to 106 per reaction mixture. The single-copy assay was compared to the ultrasensitive AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR assay and a more sensitive modification of the ultrasensitive assay by repeatedly testing a low-copy-number panel containing 200 to 0.781 copies of HIV-1 RNA per ml of plasma. This comparison showed that the single-copy assay had a greater sensitivity than the other assays and was the only assay that detected HIV-1 RNA at levels as low as 0.781 copies/ml. Testing of plasma samples from 15 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and who had <75 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml revealed persistent viremia in all 15 patients, with HIV-1 RNA levels ranging from 1 to 32 copies/ml (median, 13 copies/ml). The greater sensitivity of the single-copy assay should allow better characterization of persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to below the detection limits of present assays. PMID:14532178

  4. Typing of human adenoviruses in specimens from immunosuppressed patients by PCR-fragment length analysis and real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Karin; Rauch, Margit; Preuner, Sandra; Lion, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Currently, 51 human adenovirus (AdV) serotypes, which are divided into six species (A to F), are known. AdV infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed individuals, particularly in allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. Any AdV species may cause life-threatening disease, but little information is available on the clinical relevance of individual serotypes. The use of serological testing for serotype identification is limited due to the impaired immune response during the posttransplant period. A new molecular approach to serotype identification is presented here that exploits variable regions within the hexon gene. All serotypes belonging to the species A, B, C, E, and F can be determined by fragment length analysis of a single PCR product. For species C, which is the most prevalent in many geographic regions, an alternative technique based on serotype-specific real-time quantitative PCR was established. Of 135 consecutive pediatric patients screened for AdV infections after allogeneic SCT, 40 tested positive. Detailed analysis revealed the presence of 10 different serotypes; serotypes 1 and 2 from species C (C01 and C02) showed the highest prevalence, accounting for 77% of the AdV-positive cases. Representatives of other species were observed less commonly: serotype A12 in 6.5%; serotype A31 in 4.5%; and B03, B16, C05, C06, D19, and F41 in 2%. The approach to rapid molecular serotype analysis presented here provides a basis for detailed studies on adenovirus epidemiology and on the transmission of nosocomial infections. Moreover, in view of the increasing importance of tailored therapy approaches, serotype identification may in the future have implications for the selection of the most appropriate antiviral treatment. PMID:16891496

  5. Comparison of a triple-quadrupole and a quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer to quantify 16 opioids in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, Johan; Lanckmans, Katrien; Dejaegher, Bieke; Mangelings, Debby; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study whether a quadrupole time-of-flight (QToF) mass analyzer, coupled to an ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system, can be a valuable alternative for a triple-quadrupole (QqQ) mass analyzer, for quantitative toxicological purposes. The case study considered was the quantification of 16 opioids (6-monoacetylmorphine, buprenorphine, codeine, dihydrocodeine, ethylmorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, norbuprenorphine, norcodeine, norfentanyl, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pholcodine and tilidine) in human plasma. Both methods were validated in parallel in terms of selectivity, matrix effects, extraction recovery, carry-over, bias, precision and sensitivity. Accuracy-profile methodology was used to determine the optimal calibration model, and to estimate bias, repeatability, intermediate precision and total error. Selectivity was demonstrated for all opioids and deuterated analogues, except for codeine-d3 on the UHPLC-QTOF. For most compounds, extraction recoveries were in the range 60 to 80% on both systems, except for the synthetic analogues, buprenorphine, fentanyl and tilidine, where large variability is observed. Carry-over was negligible on both systems. For different opioids, the optimal calibration model was different between the systems. The accuracy profiles of the majority of the opioids indicated that, over the entire tested concentration range, for more than 5% of the future measurements, total errors are expected to exceed the a priori defined 15% acceptance limit. For some exceptions, however, the measurements even suffer from total errors above 30%, which can be attributed to the solid phase extraction procedure that was applied as sample pretreatment technique. Sensitivity was generally tenfold better on the LC-QToF system, probably due to the difference in ion choice for quantification between both systems. In conclusion, the best performing system seemed to depend on the compound, on the

  6. A journey of a thousand miles begins with one small step – human agency, hydrological processes and time in socio-hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.; Murphy, J.T.; Purdue, L.E.; Zhu, T.

    2013-01-01

    When simulating social action in modeling efforts, as in socio-hydrology, an issue of obvious importance is how to ensure that social action by human agents is wellrepresented in the analysis and the model. Generally, human decision-making is either modeled on a yearly basis or lumped together as co

  7. A journey of a thousand miles begins with one small step – human agency, hydrological processes and time in socio-hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.; Murphy, J.T.; Purdue, L.E.; Zhu, T.

    2014-01-01

    When simulating social action in modeling efforts, as in socio-hydrology, an issue of obvious importance is how to ensure that social action by human agents is well-represented in the analysis and the model. Generally, human decision-making is either modeled on a yearly basis or lumped together as c

  8. Study on the interaction of phthalate esters to human serum albumin by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoyun [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Zhaowei [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, Ximin; Wang, Xiaoru [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Xingguo, E-mail: chenxg@lzu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Molecular docking revealed PAEs to be located in the hydrophobic pocket of HSA. {center_dot} HSA-DMP had one class of binding sites while HSA-BBP and HSA-DEHP had two types. {center_dot} Hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions dominated in the association of HSA-PAEs. {center_dot} The lifetime of Trp residue of HSA decreased after the addition of PAEs. {center_dot} The presences of PAEs could alter the second structure of HSA. - Abstract: Phthalate esters (PAEs) are globally pervasive contaminants that are considered to be endocrine disruptor chemicals and toxic environmental priority pollutants. In this paper, the interactions between PAEs and human serum albumin (HSA) were examined by molecular modelling, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The association constants between PAEs and HSA were determined using the Stern-Volmer and Scatchard equations. The binding of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) to HSA has a single class of binding site and its binding constants (K) are 4.08 x 10{sup 3}, 3.97 x 10{sup 3}, 3.45 x 10{sup 3}, and 3.20 x 10{sup 3} L mol{sup -1} at 289, 296, 303, and 310 K, respectively. The Stern-Volmer and Scatchard plots both had two regression curves for HSA-butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and HSA-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which indicated that these bindings were via two types of binding sites: the numbers of binding site for the first type were lower than for the second type. The binding constants of the first type binding site were higher than those of the second type binding site at corresponding temperatures, the results suggesting that the first type of binding site had high affinity and the second binding site involved other sites with lower binding affinity and selectivity. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding reactions ({Delta}G{sup o}, {Delta}H{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o}) were measured, and they indicated the presences

  9. Time-lapse in Human Assisted Reproductive Technology%延时摄像在人类辅助生殖技术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石江霞; 张硕屏; 龚斐

    2013-01-01

    体外受精-胚胎移植(in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer,IVF-ET)是广泛应用于不孕治疗的人类辅助生殖技术之一.由于单次促排卵治疗可以获得多个胚胎,临床上如何选择具有发育潜能的胚胎进行移植,以保证在一定临床妊娠率的前提下减少移植胚胎数目,一直是辅助生殖技术研究的一大热点.目前评价胚胎质量的方法主要是选取特定的时间点观察胚胎,依据形态学指标对胚胎质量进行评估.而近年来出现的胚胎延时摄像技术(time-lapse)能够对胚胎体外发育过程进行全程监控,获取胚胎发育的动态信息,建立胚胎行为学指标从而更有效地评估胚胎的发育潜能.延时摄像技术在临床上的应用优势正在逐渐彰显.%One of the most extensively used methods in human assisted reproductive technology (ART) is in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET).Due to the multiple embryos obtained per ovulation induction treatment,how to select the most potential embryo for clinical transfer in order to guarantee clinical pregnancy rate and simultaneously reduce the number of transferred embryos remains the hotspot in ART area.At present,embryo evaluation is based on morphology,which is static.The newly developed time-lapse technology is available to monitor the whole development process so as to more precisely evaluate the embryo quality.And its advantages are gradually manifested.

  10. Cell Signaling and Trafficking of Human Melanocortin Receptors in Real Time Using Two-photon Fluorescence and Confocal Laser Microscopy: Differentiation of Agonists and Antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Minying; Varga, Eva V.; Stankova, Magda; Mayorov, Alexander; Perry, Joseph W.; Yamamura, Henry I.; Trivedi, Dev; Victor J. Hruby

    2006-01-01

    Melanocortin hormones and neurotransmitters regulate a vast array of physiologic processes by interacting with five G-protein-coupled melanocortin receptor types. In the present study, we have systematically studied the regulation of individual human melanocortin receptor wild subtypes using a synthetic rhodamine-labeled human melanotropin agonist and antagonist, arrestins fused to green fluorescent protein in conjunction with two-photon fluorescence laser scanning microscopy and confocal mic...

  11. THE TISSUE HYDRATION STATE IN UW-PRESERVED HUMAN DONOR LIVERS - A CLINICAL-STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE RELAXATION-TIMES, DONOR CONDITION, PRESERVATION PROCEDURE, AND EARLY GRAFT FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; DENBUTTER, G; KAMMAN, RL; DEKETH, HP; SLUTTER, WJ; SLOOFF, MJH

    1994-01-01

    To determine the relation between tissue hydration state-as indicated by tissue proton magnetic resonance relaxation times-in UW-preserved human donor livers and viability parameters of the donor and early graft function, ''ex vivo'' magnetic resonance relaxometry was performed with a clinical MR im

  12. Time and man

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, LRB

    2014-01-01

    Time and Man focuses on the endeavors of humans to probe the mysteries of time and to elucidate its properties. The discussions are both philosophical and factual in nature and encompass science as well as the physical sciences, biology and related disciplines (for example, evolution), and the humanities (for example, religion). Factual information is presented to help the reader gain a better understanding of the concepts associated with time.Comprised of nine chapters, this volume first considers the passage of time and the experiences which humans associate with the concept of time before r

  13. Yet another time about time

    CERN Document Server

    Simeonov, Plamen L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents yet another personal reflection on one the most important concepts in both science and the humanities: time. This elusive notion has been not only bothering philosophers since Plato and Aristotle and goes throughout human history embracing all analytical and creative (anthropocentric) disciplines from mathematics through physical and life sciences to philosophy, psychology, music and art, with a vast body of knowledge across different theories and categories concerning its nature (rational, irrational, arational), appearances/qualia, degrees, dimensions and scales of conceptualization (internal, external, rational, irrational, fractal, discrete, continuous, mechanical, quantum, local, global, etc.), duration ranges, resolutions, modes (present, now, past, future), variety of tenses (e.g. present perfect, present progressive, etc.) and some intuitive, but also fancy phenomenological characteristics such as arrow, stream, texture, width, depth, and perhaps the most distinct one of them, the ...

  14. Space-Time--Time

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, H G

    2002-01-01

    Space-time--time is a natural hybrid of Kaluza's five-dimensional geometry and Weyl's conformal space-time geometry. Translations along the secondary time dimension produce the electromagnetic gauge transformations of Kaluza--Klein theory and the metric gauge transformations of Weyl theory, related as Weyl postulated. Geometrically, this phenomenon resides in an exponential-expansion producing ``conformality constraint'', which replaces Kaluza's ``cylinder condition''. The curvature tensors exhibit a wealth of ``interactions'' among geometrical entities with physical interpretations. Unique to the conformally constrained geometry is a sectionally isotropic, ultralocally determined ``residual curvature'', useful in construction of an action density for field equations. A space-time--time geodesic describes a test particle whose rest mass m and electric charge q evolve according to definite laws. The particls's motion is governed by four apparent forces: the Einstein gravitational force, the Lorentz electromagn...

  15. UV dependent vitamin D syntheses. UV exposure time balancing for optimum production of the vitamins D3 status in the human body. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV-dependent vitamin D3 synthesis - balancing of UV exposure time and the production of an optimal vitamin D3 status in men The adverse health effects on human skin and eyes by UV radiation have been well known for years. They are known to the public, too. Increased exposures by the UV-B fraction of solar radiation cause e.g. sun burn as an acute skin reaction or an increased risk on skin cancer as a chronic effect. Radiation of the same spectral UV-B range is necessary to induce the essential vitamin D metabolism in men. The UV-induced vitamin D synthesis in the skin supplies the body with more than 90 % while our typical nutrition contributes no more than 10 %. These photobiological effects are diametrically opposed. Therefore, up to now there are contradictory recommendations to the public concerning the health effects of solar UV exposure. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative relations of UV exposure and the vitamin D status in men taking into account different conditions in the population. In result, well-balanced recommendations on optimal UV exposures for the different fractions of the population should be elaborated, realizing health protection aspects against detrimental UV effects. A literature survey (updated in 2011) summarizes the current knowledge on the vitamin D metabolism, on the effects of the hormone vitamin D and on the stage of the current discussion on the optimal vitamin D status. In a number of studies of this project the effects of UV exposure on the vitamin D status (25OH-vitamin D3 und 1,25OH-vitamin D3) were investigated. Exposure parameters were the photobiologically effective UV dose (with respect to the minimal erythema dose MED = individual sun burn dose in each investigated volunteer) and the extent of the exposed skin area: face and hands (like everyday conditions) or whole body respectively. Serial UV exposures were applied by natural solar UV radiation or by simulated solar radiation

  16. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Radial Glia Recapitulate Developmental Events and Provide Real-Time Access to Cortical Neurons and Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chian-Yu; Pan, Liuliu; Kessler, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of human cerebral cortex development are limited by difficulties in accessing and manipulating human neural tissue at specific development stages. We have derived human radial glia (hRG), which are responsible for most cerebral cortex neurogenesis, from human pluripotent stem cells. These hRG display the hallmark morphological, cellular, and molecular features of radial glia in vitro. They can be passaged and generate layer-specific subtypes of cortical neurons in a temporal and passage-dependent fashion. In later passages, they adopt a distinct progenitor phenotype that gives rise to cortical astrocytes and GABAergic interneurons. These hRG are also capable of following developmental cues to engraft, differentiate, migrate, and integrate into the embryonic mouse cortex when injected into E14 lateral ventricles. Moreover, hRG-derived cells can be cryopreserved at specific stages and retain their stage-specific phenotypes and competence when revived. Our study demonstrates that cultured hRG maintain a cell-intrinsic clock that regulates the progressive generation of stage-specific neuronal and glial subtypes. It also describes an easily accessible cell source for studying hRG lineage specification and progression and an on-demand supply of specific cortical neuron subtypes and astrocytes. PMID:25834120

  17. Pyrolysed 3D-Carbon Scaffolds Induce Spontaneous Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells and Facilitate Real-Time Dopamine Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amato, Letizia; Heiskanen, Arto; Caviglia, Claudia;

    2014-01-01

    Structurally patterned pyrolysed three-dimensional carbon scaffolds (p3Dcarbon) are fabricated and applied for differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) developed for cell replacement therapy and sensing of released dopamine. In the absence of differentiation factors (DF) the pyrolysed...

  18. Human choices and environmental constraints: deciphering the variability of large game procurement from Mousterian to Aurignacian times (MIS 5-3) in southwestern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discamps, Emmanuel; Jaubert, Jacques; Bachellerie, François

    2011-09-01

    The evolution in the selection of prey made by past humans, especially the Neandertals and the first anatomically modern humans, has been widely debated. Between Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 and 3, the accuracy of absolute dating is still insufficient to precisely correlate paleoclimatic and archaeological data. It is often difficult, therefore, to estimate to what extent changes in species procurement are correlated with either climate fluctuations or deliberate cultural choices in terms of subsistence behavior. Here, the full development of archeostratigraphy and Bayesian statistical analysis of absolute dates allows the archeological and paleoclimatic chronologies to be compared. The variability in hunted fauna is investigated using multivariate statistical analysis of quantitative faunal lists of 148 assemblages from 39 archeological sequences from MIS 5 through MIS 3. Despite significant intra-technocomplex variability, it is possible to identify major shifts in the human diet during these stages. The integration of archeological data, paleoclimatic proxies and the ecological characteristics of the different species of prey shows that the shifts in large game hunting can be explained by an adaptation of the human groups to climatic fluctuations. However, even if Middle and Early Upper Paleolithic men adapted to changes in their environment and to contrasting landscapes, they ultimately belonged to the ecosystems of the past and were limited by environmental constraints.

  19. A new method to study changes in microvascular blood volume in muscle and adipose tissue: Real time imaging in humans and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Rattigan, Stephen; Hiscock, Natalie J;

    2011-01-01

    We employed and evaluated a new application of contrast enhanced ultrasound for real time imaging of changes in microvascular blood volume (MVB) in tissues in females, males and rat. Continuous real time imaging was performed using contrast enhanced ultrasound to quantify infused gas filled micro...

  20. Time until initiation of tumor growth is an effective measure of the anti-angiogenic effect of TNP-470 on human glioblastoma in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, M; Spang-Thomsen, M; Kristjansen, P E

    1999-01-01

    , 11, or 15 days after inoculation. The time from inoculation until initiation of exponential tumor growth was determined along with the post-therapeutic growth delay and the initial tumor doubling time (TD) for each individual tumor (n=103) on the basis of tumor volume growth curves. We found that: i...