WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronic tobacco smoke

  1. Tobacco smoking and chronic destructive periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jan

    2004-09-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor associated with chronic destructive periodontal disease. No other known factor can match the strength of smoking in causing harm to the periodontium. The harmful effects manifest themselves by interfering with vascular and immunologic reactions, as well as by undermining the supportive functions of the periodontal tissues. The typical characteristic of smoking-associated periodontal disease is the destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth, with the ensuing clinical symptoms of bone loss, attachment loss, pocket formation, and eventually tooth loss. A review of the international literature that has accumulated over the past 20 years offers convincing evidence that smokers exhibit greater bone loss and attachment loss, as well as more pronounced frequencies of periodontal pockets, than non-smokers do. In addition, tooth loss is more extensive in smokers. Smoking, thus, considerably increases the risk for destructive periodontal disease. Depending on the definition of disease and the exposure to smoking, the risk is 5- to 20-fold elevated for a smoker compared to a never-smoker. For a smoker exposed to heavy long-life smoking, the risk of attracting destructive periodontal disease is equivalent to that of attracting lung cancer. The outcome of periodontal treatment is less favorable or even unfavorable in smokers. Although long-term studies are rare, available studies unanimously agree that treatment failures and relapse of disease are predominantly seen in smokers. This contention is valid irrespective of treatment modality, suggesting that smoking will interfere with an expected normal outcome following commonplace periodontal therapies. The majority of available studies agree that the subgingival microflora of smokers and non-smokers are no different given other conditions. As a consequence, the elevated morbidity in smokers does not depend on particular microflora. The mechanisms behind the destructive effects of

  2. The effect of chronic exposure to tobacco smoke on the antibacterial defenses of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, G L; Pochay, V E; Mahajan, V K; McCarthy, C R; Hinds, W C; Davies, P; Drath, D B; Sornberger, G C

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on the host defenses of the lung, male CD rats were exposed to fresh whole smoke for up to 60 consecutive days. Intrapulmonary deposition of smoke and animal exposure levels, quantified with decachlorobiphenyl and other smoke tracers, indicated a daily cigarette exposure equivalent to approximately a pack and a half per day in man. Pulmonary alveolar macrophage function in situ was quantified by the inactivation of an aerosolized challenge of Staphylococcus aureus six hours after inoculation. Controls (n=120) inactivated 88.8+/-0.64% of the staphylococci. Exposure to whole smoke did not impair intrapulmonary antistaphylococcal defenses, with inactivation rates of 89.8+/-0.97% (n=49) and 89.1+/-0.46% (n=74) at 30 and 60 days, respectively. Inactivation distribution frequency analysis in controls revealed that 7% of animals had inactivation values greater than two standard deviations from the mean. With prolonged exposure mean with less skewing towards the abnormal. Alveolar macrophages harvested from smoked animals were comparable in viability and in vitro antistaphylococcal activity to controls, appeared to be metabolically activated and had specific stereologic ultrastructural alterations. These studies indicate that chronic exposure to tobacco smoke does not impair, and in fact may stimulate, the host defenses of the lung, as evaluated by in vivo and in vitro pulmonary alveolar macrophage function. PMID:843645

  3. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing COPD. Participants were recruited from all 48 contiguous U.S. states by random digit dialing. Lifetime ETS exposure was ascertained by structured telephone interview. We used a standard epidemiologic approach to define COPD based on a self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD. Results Higher cumulative lifetime home and work exposure were associated with a greater risk of COPD. The highest quartile of lifetime home ETS exposure was associated with a greater risk of COPD, controlling for age, sex, race, personal smoking history, educational attainment, marital status, and occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dusts, or fumes during the longest held job (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.21. The highest quartile of lifetime workplace ETS exposure was also related to a greater risk of COPD (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.84. The population attributable fraction was 11% for the highest quartile of home ETS exposure and 7% for work exposure. Conclusion ETS exposure may be an important cause of COPD. Consequently, public policies aimed at preventing public smoking may reduce the burden of COPD-related death and disability, both by reducing direct smoking and ETS exposure.

  4. Tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kolappan, C.; Gopi, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of tuberculosis in adult men in India is 2–4 times higher than in women. Tobacco smoking is prevalent almost exclusively among men, so it is possible that tobacco smoking may be a risk factor for developing pulmonary tuberculosis. A nested case control study was carried out to study the association between tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis.

  5. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I;

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...

  6. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the burning of tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars or pipes and the smoke exhaled by smokers. ... Exit The 1992 EPA Risk Assessment, “Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking” concluded that environmental tobacco smoke ...

  7. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is associated with lung problems. Back to top Hookahs Hookahs—sometimes called water pipes—are used to smoke ... that is available in a variety of flavors. Hookahs originated in ancient Persia and India and have ...

  8. Identification of nuclear phosphoproteins as novel tobacco markers in mouse lung tissue following short-term exposure to tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Kanako Niimori-Kita; Kiyoshi Ogino; Sayaka Mikami; Shinji Kudoh; Daikai Koizumi; Noritaka Kudoh; Fumiko Nakamura; Masahiro Misumi; Tadasuke Shimomura; Koki Hasegawa; Fumihiko Usui; Noriyuki Nagahara; Takaaki Ito

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of these diseases remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify signaling pathways activated by tobacco-smoke exposure, by analyzing nuclear phosphoprotein expression using phosphoproteomic analysis of lung tissue from mice exposed to tobacco smoke. Sixteen mice were exposed to tobacco smoke for 1 or 7 days, and the express...

  9. Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, J

    1999-01-01

    One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death s...

  10. Tobacco smoke and the pulmonary alveolar macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Davies, P; Karnovsky, M L; Huber, G L

    1979-01-01

    Our results indicate that tobacco smoke exposure to varying duration causes morphological, biochemical and functional alterations in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The results of these changes is a population of alveolar macrophages made up of larger cells, with a reduced nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio, which are heavily loaded with heterolysosomes containing lipid. Though their fractional complement of mitochondria remains the same, an increase in the inner mitochondrial membrane surface area may be related to an enhanced oxidative metabolism. The cell is biochemically activated particularly following chronic exposure and is functionally impaired with respect to phagocytosis. PMID:232822

  11. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  12. Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Groner, Judith; Walley, Susan; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, in addition to increasing the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, placental abruption, and sudden infant death, has been found to increase the risk of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Actions by pediatricians can help to reduce children's risk of developing tobacco dependence and reduce children's involuntary tobacco smoke exposure. Public policy actions to protect children from tobacco are essential to reduce the toll that the tobacco epidemic takes on our children. PMID:26504135

  13. Tobacco smoke: unraveling a controversial subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Anja; Klus, Hubert; Müller, Lutz

    2008-06-01

    Cigarettes are a modern and industrial form of tobacco use and obviously involve more than just tobacco. A multitude of physical processes and chemical reactions occur inside the burning zone of a cigarette. Cigarette smoke is an aerosol of liquid droplets (the particulate phase) suspended within a mixture of gases and semi-volatile compounds. Two kinds of smoke with different composition and properties are produced during smoking: mainstream smoke inhaled by the smoker and sidestream smoke, which is released into the environment between puffs from the lit end of the cigarette. Several techniques and modifications have altered the design of the cigarette during the last 50 years and changed smoke composition, with the effect of lower tar and nicotine smoke yields. An enormous amount of research has been done since the 1950s on smoke composition. With regard to the numerous toxic or carcinogenic constituents identified in tobacco smoke, there is a strong focus in the industry and with the authorities on the over 40 compounds, called "Hoffmann analytes". The yields of tar and nicotine in mainstream smoke of a cigarette brand as printed on the pack are measured with smoking machines under highly standardized conditions. Yields must comply with regulatory limits set in a number of countries. Smoking by machine is different from the smoking behavior of humans. There is a growing movement to develop more "realistic" methods to estimate smoke yields. But it is unclear whether alternative smoking regimens are more representative of human smoking behavior and provide better predictions of human exposure. Tobacco smoke has strong biological and toxicological effects in vitro and in vivo. There is an obvious need for developing a unified and validated testing approach particularly for the assessment of additives and the evaluation of new potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs). This paper gives a comprehensive overview of cigarette design, the composition and toxicity

  14. Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | “Why do I smoke?" Quiz Why do I smoke? If you learn the answer to this question, it will be easier to ... m hooked." In addition to having a psychological addiction to smoking, you may also be physically addicted ...

  15. Tobacco smoke. Effects on pulmonary host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Karnovsky, M L; Huber, G L

    1979-07-01

    Tobacco smoke affected both the metabolism and function of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM). Phagocytosis of viable Staphylococcus aureus and inert starch particles was minimally but consistently depressed in PAM from rats exposed to tobacco smoke for six months. Oxygen consumption, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide release, and hexose monophosphate shunt activity were elevated in cells from smokers. Oxidation of glucose, labelled in the carbon-six position, remained unchanged. All observed effects of tobacco smoke on oxygen metabolism occurred during phagocytosis and did not affect the basal metabolism of the nonstimulated cell. PMID:225267

  16. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m3 (N = 5) and 0.0007/m3 (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m3 (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m3 (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: ► Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. ► Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. ► LPS from mainstream smoke contains 3-hydroxy 14:0 and 12:0 fatty acids in similar proportion as in

  17. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  18. Tobacco smoke-induced lung fibrosis and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Danielle; Rosas, Ivan O

    2014-01-01

    Despite public health campaigns discouraging smoking, 1,000 American children every day become smokers, ensuring that tobacco-related health complications will be with us for decades to come. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for both chronic obstructive lung disease and interstitial lung disease. The facts that not every smoker develops chronic lung disease and that lung pathology differs markedly among smokers indicate that individual susceptibility must be a central determinant of lung injury responses to cigarette smoke. Comparative examination of pathogenic mechanisms of smoke-induced lung disease can shed light on the homeostatic pathways critical to maintaining lung health. In this review, we explore common and divergent biological forces tilting the lung homeostatic balance away from health and toward emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis. We emphasize recent insights that highlight the greatest contrasts or similarities in the pathogenesis of these two chronic lung disease phenotypes. PMID:24274738

  19. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinasek MP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mary P Martinasek,1 Linda M Gibson-Young,2 Janiece N Davis,3 Robert J McDermott41Public Health Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Kennedy Boulevard, Tampa, FL, 2College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas A&M University: Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 3Department of Health – Palm Beach County, West Palm beach, FL, 4Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USABackground: Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods: Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results: States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion: Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations.Keywords: health policy, waterpipe tobacco, hookah smoking, tobacco regulation

  20. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Secondhand Smoke Kills Research shows that even a little secondhand ...

  1. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  2. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  3. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence William Gill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  4. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    OpenAIRE

    Melamede Robert

    2005-01-01

    Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke c...

  5. Tobacco smoking and oxidative stress to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2016-01-01

    studies on 3668 persons using ELISA methodology showed a non-significant effect of 8.7% [95% CL −1.2;18.6]. Tobacco smoke induces oxidative damage to DNA; however, this is not detected with ELISA methodology. Currently, the use of existing ELISA methodology to measure urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7...

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Polanska; W. Hanke; R. Ronchetti; P. van den Hazel; M. Zuurbier; J.G. Koppe; A. Bartonova

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear dise

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips Tobacco Use Smoking & Secondhand Smoke Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... 10 nonsmokers(88 million people) are exposed to secondhand smoke. 54% More than 1 out of 2 kids( ...

  8. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    from the Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for up to 34years and in 56,211 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study followed for up to 7years. RESULTS: During follow-up, 335 and 169 individuals developed aortic aneurysm outcomes in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen...... General Population Study, respectively. According to the magnitude of the hazard ratios, tobacco consumption was the most important risk factor for hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm, followed by male sex and hypertension in both cohorts. The population attributable risk of aortic aneurysm...... outcomes due to tobacco consumption was 64% and 47% in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively, and ranked highest among population attributable risks of aortic aneurysm in both cohorts. The absolute 10-year risk for hospitalization or death from aortic...

  9. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking r

  10. A prospective study of tobacco smoking and mortality in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on smoking-related mortality in low-income countries, where both chronic disease burden and prevalence of smoking are increasing. METHODS: Using data on 20,033 individuals in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS in Bangladesh, we prospectively evaluated the association between tobacco smoking and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality during ∼7.6 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs for deaths from all-cause, cancer, CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD, and stroke, in relation to status, duration, and intensity of cigarette/bidi and hookah smoking. RESULTS: Among men, cigarette/bidi smoking was positively associated with all-cause (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 1.86 and cancer mortality (HR 2.91, 1.24 6.80, and there was a dose-response relationship between increasing intensity of cigarette/bidi consumption and increasing mortality. An elevated risk of death from ischemic heart disease (HR 1.87, 1.08 3.24 was associated with current cigarette/bidi smoking. Among women, the corresponding HRs were 1.65 (95% CI 1.16 2.36 for all-cause mortality and 2.69 (95% CI 1.20 6.01 for ischemic heart disease mortality. Similar associations were observed for hookah smoking. There was a trend towards reduced risk for the mortality outcomes with older age at onset of cigarette/bidi smoking and increasing years since quitting cigarette/bibi smoking among men. We estimated that cigarette/bidi smoking accounted for about 25.0% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was responsible for substantial proportion of premature deaths in the Bangladeshi population, especially among men. Stringent measures of tobacco control and cessation are needed to reduce tobacco-related deaths in Bangladesh.

  11. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    OpenAIRE

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts...

  12. Smoking Cessation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2015-08-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective strategy for slowing down the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reducing mortality in the approximately 50% of patients with diagnosed COPD who continue to smoke. While behavioral interventions (including simple advice) have modest efficacy in improving smoking quit rates, the combination of counseling and pharmacotherapy is more effective than either alone. When combined with even brief counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion SR, and varenicline have all been shown to be effective in promoting smoking cessation and sustained abstinence in smokers with COPD to a degree comparable to that observed in the general smoking population. However, the recidivism rate is high after initial quitting so that at the end of 1 year, approximately 80% or more of patients are still smoking. Thus, new approaches to smoking cessation are needed. One approach is to combine different pharmacotherapies, for example, nicotine patch plus rapidly acting NRT (e.g., gum or nasal spray) and/or bupropion or even varenicline plus either NRT or bupropion, in a stepwise approach over a varying duration depending on the severity of nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during the quit attempt, as proposed in the American College of Chest Physicians Tobacco Dependence Took Kit. Electronic (e)-cigarettes, which deliver vaporized nicotine without most of the noxious components in the smoke from burning tobacco cigarettes, also has potential efficacy as a smoking cessation aid, but their efficacy and safety as either substitutes for regular cigarettes or smoking cessation aids require additional study. This task is complicated because e-cigarettes are currently unregulated and hundreds of different brands are currently available. PMID:26238637

  13. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

  14. Exposure to carbon monoxide from second-hand tobacco smoke in Polish pubs

    OpenAIRE

    Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Czogała, Jan; Kośmider, Leon; Koszowski, Bartosz; Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the more toxic agents present in the gas phase of second-hand tobacco smoke. There is sufficient evidence suggesting that passive smokers are involuntarily poisoned by low CO concentrations. At lower doses, CO affects the central nervous system leading to deterioration in visual perception, manual dexterity, learning, driving performance, and attention level. The effects of chronic inhalation of CO at doses corresponding to tobacco smoking on the cardiovascular ...

  15. Sub-chronic exposure to second hand smoke induces airspace leukocyte infiltration and decreased lung elastance

    OpenAIRE

    Hartney, John M.; Chu, HongWei; Pelanda, Roberta; Torres, Raul M.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to second hand tobacco smoke is associated with the development and/or exacerbation of several different pulmonary diseases in humans. To better understand the possible effects of second hand smoke exposure in humans, we sub-chronically (4 weeks) exposed mice to a mixture of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke at concentrations similar to second hand smoke exposure in humans. The inflammatory response to smoke exposures was assessed at the end of this time by enumeration of pulmo...

  16. A surveillance summary of smoking and review of tobacco control in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The burden of smoking-related diseases in Jordan is increasingly evident. During 2006, chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs accounted for more than 50% of all deaths in Jordan. With this evidence in hand, we highlight the prevalence of smoking in Jordan among youth and adults and briefly review legislation that governs tobacco control in Jordan. The prevalence of smoking in Jordan remains unacceptably high with smoking and use of tobacco prevalences ranging from 15% to 30% among students aged 13-15 years and a current smoking prevalence near 50% among men. Opportunities exist to further reduce smoking among both youth and adults; however, combating tobacco use in Jordan will require partnerships and long-term commitments between both private and public institutions as well as within local communities.

  17. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking. PMID:16904804

  18. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

  19. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N;

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  20. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement

  1. Smoking inequalities and tobacco control policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.G. Kuipers

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the worlds’ leading avoidable cause of mortality and kills 6 million people each year. Individuals of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to initiate smoking and less likely to quit smoking. Tobacco control policies have been implemented in the last decades, but although smoking pr

  2. Identification of nuclear phosphoproteins as novel tobacco markers in mouse lung tissue following short-term exposure to tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Niimori-Kita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a risk factor for lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of these diseases remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify signaling pathways activated by tobacco-smoke exposure, by analyzing nuclear phosphoprotein expression using phosphoproteomic analysis of lung tissue from mice exposed to tobacco smoke. Sixteen mice were exposed to tobacco smoke for 1 or 7 days, and the expression of phosphorylated peptides was analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 253 phosphoproteins were identified, including FACT complex subunit SPT16 in the 1-day exposure group, keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 18 (K18, and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, in the 7-day exposure group, and peroxiredoxin-1 (OSF3 and spectrin β chain brain 1 (SPTBN1, in both groups. Semi-quantitative analysis of the identified phosphoproteins revealed that 33 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the control and exposed groups. The identified phosphoproteins were classified according to their biological functions. We found that the identified proteins were related to inflammation, regeneration, repair, proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and response to stress and nicotine. In conclusion, we identified proteins, including OSF3 and SPTBN1, as candidate tobacco smoke-exposure markers; our results provide insights into the mechanisms of tobacco smoke-induced diseases.

  3. Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

  4. Induction of the interleukin 6/ signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway in the lungs of mice sub-chronically exposed to mainstream tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is associated with lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. However, little is known about the global molecular changes that precede the appearance of clinically detectable symptoms. In this study, the effects of mainstream tobacco smoke (MTS on global transcription in the mouse lung were investigated. Methods Male C57B1/CBA mice were exposed to MTS from two cigarettes daily, 5 days/week for 6 or 12 weeks. Mice were sacrificed immediately, or 6 weeks following the last cigarette. High density DNA microarrays were used to characterize global gene expression changes in whole lung. Microarray results were validated by Quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Further analysis of protein synthesis and function was carried out for a select set of genes by ELISA and Western blotting. Results Globally, seventy nine genes were significantly differentially expressed following the exposure to MTS. These genes were associated with a number of biological processes including xenobiotic metabolism, redox balance, oxidative stress and inflammation. There was no differential gene expression in mice exposed to smoke and sampled 6 weeks following the last cigarette. Moreover, cluster analysis demonstrated that these samples clustered alongside their respective controls. We observed simultaneous up-regulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6 and its antagonist, suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS3 mRNA following 12 weeks of MTS exposure. Analysis by ELISA and Western blotting revealed a concomitant increase in total IL-6 antigen levels and its downstream targets, including phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3, basal cell-lymphoma extra large (BCL-XL and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1 protein, in total lung tissue extracts. However, in contrast to gene expression, a subtle decrease in total SOCS3 protein was observed after 12 weeks of MTS exposure. Conclusion Global transcriptional analysis identified a set

  5. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  6. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer: Perception-changing facts

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and mole...

  7. The Impact of Tobacco Legislation on Restaurant Workers Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Reijula, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke significantly increases the risk of several diseases including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Prohibition of smoking in workplaces effectively protects workers against occupational exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). However, Finnish restaurant employees have still been exposed to SHS at work until recent years. In 2000, a reform in tobacco legislation was launched in Finland according to which restaurants had to reserve non-smoking areas for their cl...

  8. Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Lopes; Marcella Gameiro; Beatriz Massa; Nicolly Gudayol; Alessandra S. Durante; Beatriz Pucci

    2013-01-01

    The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old) urine. Sixty students ...

  9. Effects of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Childhood on Atopic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaccio, Christina E.; Gentile, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Although the smoking prevalence in the United States continues to decline since the Surgeon General’s first report in 1964, certain vulnerable populations continue to be disproportionately affected by the adverse consequences of tobacco smoke exposure. Children are particularly vulnerable to exposure and are likely to suffer from both short- and long-term adverse consequences after early life tobacco smoke exposure. An overwhelming amount of evidence supports an association between asthma dev...

  10. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T.; Oliffe, John L.; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Carole A. Robinson; Ensom, Mary HH; Okoli, Chizimuzo TC; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-01-01

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women’s tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men’s smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men’s tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary...

  11. Tobacco smoking cessation management: integrating varenicline in current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence M Galanti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Laurence M GalantiClinique Universitaire UCL, Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: Tobacco smoking is widespread and is one of the world’s most prevalent modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is important to facilitate smoking cessation better in order to reduce the health consequences of tobacco use. The most effective approach assisting smokers in their quit attempts combines both pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological interventions. This review summarizes the latest international epidemiological data available on tobacco use, considers the associated effects on health, and reviews existing policies against tobacco use. Among the interventions for smoking cessation, the three major pharmacotherapies (which have demonstrated efficacy when combined with behavioral support are discussed: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline. As the newest pharmacotherapy made available in this area, particular consideration is given to varenicline, and a review of our clinical experience is offered.Keywords: tobacco smoking cessation, nicotinic substitution, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, varenicline

  12. Associations between hookah tobacco smoking knowledge and hookah smoking behavior among US college students

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah’s appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking and to determine associations between this knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Students (N = 852) at the University of Florida were randomly sampl...

  13. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  14. Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the ′American India′ to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils - the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free.

  15. Tobacco smoking and hand eczema - is there an association?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jennifer A; Clemmensen, Kim K; Nixon, Rosemary L;

    2015-01-01

    databases were searched up to 27 January 2015 for articles on the association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema, including human studies in English and German only. Experimental studies, studies on tobacco allergy, case reports, reviews and studies on second-hand smoking were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty......BACKGROUND: Numerous risk factors have been suggested for hand eczema. This systematic review evaluates the association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature systematically on the association between smoking and hand eczema. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE...... articles were included. Among studies in occupational settings, three of seven found a statistically significant positive association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema prevalence rate, as did four of eight population-based studies. The association was stronger for studies in occupational settings...

  16. Identification of bacterial and fungal components in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutkiewicz Jacek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The microbiological composition of tobacco products was studied using culture and chemical analysis (of tobacco leaves or chemical analysis only (tobacco and tobacco smoke. The chemical analyses utilized gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining 3-hydroxy fatty acids, muramic acid, and ergosterol as markers of respectively lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peptidoglycan, and fungal biomass. Mesophilic bacteria dominated in both fresh and cured tobacco leaves; a range of additional bacteria and fungi were also found albeit in minor amounts. The peptidoglycan and LPS concentrations were approximately the same in tobacco leaves as in cigarette tobacco. The concentrations of the measured microbial components were much lower in some cigarettes locally produced in China, Korea, and Vietnam than in cigarettes of international brands purchased in the same countries, and the concentrations in the smoke were in general agreement with the concentrations in cigarette tobacco. No differences in microbial load in tobacco of "light" and "full flavor" cigarettes were seen. Storing cigarettes at high humidity resulted in elevated levels of fungi in the cigarette tobacco leading to increased ergosterol concentrations in the smoke. The fact that tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol may help to explain the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers and non-smokers exposed to second hand smoke since the same symptoms are also commonly associated with exposure to bioaerosols.

  17. Smoking cessation and reduction in people with chronic mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mollie E

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of cigarette smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality in people with chronic mental illness is well documented. This review summarizes results from studies of smoking cessation treatments in people with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It also summarizes experimental studies aimed at identifying biopsychosocial mechanisms that underlie the high smoking rates seen in people with these disorders. Research indicates that smokers with chronic mental illness can quit with standard cessation approaches with minimal effects on psychiatric symptoms. Although some studies have noted high relapse rates, longer maintenance on pharmacotherapy reduces rates of relapse without untoward effects on psychiatric symptoms. Similar biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be involved in the initiation and persistence of smoking in patients with different disorders. An appreciation of these common factors may aid the development of novel tobacco treatments for people with chronic mental illness. Novel nicotine and tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and very low nicotine content cigarettes may also be used to improve smoking cessation rates in people with chronic mental illness. PMID:26391240

  18. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, mos...

  19. Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking…

  20. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy.

  1. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  2. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies. PMID:24598274

  3. Dynamics of smoking prevalence and tobacco products market in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, Belarus ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and then adopted several governmental documents aimed to decrease the population tobacco use. The aim of the paper is to review available data to estimate trends of smoking prevalence and tobacco market in Belarus and to evaluate impact of policies implemented since 2005 on population tobacco use.METHODS: The explorative study was conducted including online search of data on tobacco use and tobacco market and estimation of the revealed indicators dynamics by year.RESULTS: Surveys conducted by the National Statistical Committee and by the Institute of Sociology provide rather different levels of smoking rates, especially in women. However, both groups of surveys indicate that in 1995-2011 smoking prevalence in men and women had the opposite trends: an increase among women and a decrease among men. Both groups of surveys also indicate that for the adult population in general the current smoking rates were increasing in early 2000s and decreasing in late 2000s, having returned by the end of the decade to the rates observed at its beginning. However, the sales of cigarettes increased by 59% in 2005-2010 and continued to grow in 2011.DISCUSSION: The differences of smoking prevalence indicators of various survey agencies are caused by differences in sampling, interviewing procedure, questionnaires and other methodological features. The tobacco control policies introduced since 2005 resulted in a decrease of total population smoking prevalence by about 5% in 2006-2010. For further tobacco use decline, all tobacco control policies should be implemented in line with the FCTC provisions and guidelines. The steep increase of cigarette sales in Belarus in 2005-2010 cannot be explained by tobacco use increase within the country. A probable cause of sales increase is smuggling of large amounts of Belarus-produced cigarettes to other countries.

  4. Scientific Quality of Original Research Articles on Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah; Bero, Lisa A. Ph.D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the scientific quality of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke; to determine whether poor article quality is associated with publication in non-peer-reviewed symposium proceedings or with other article characteristics. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke published in peer reviewed journals and non-peer-reviewed symposium proceedings from 1980 to ...

  5. Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ylli Vakeffliu; Silvana Bala; Rudina Pirushi; Kujtime Vakeffliu; Jul Bushati; Melani, Andrea S

    2013-01-01

    Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questio...

  6. Designating Smoking Room to Control Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Nursing Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh; Samuel H. Windom; Farideh Golbabaei

    2011-01-01

    This study was initiated to assess the effectiveness of designating smoking rooms to control environmental tobacco smoke in nursing homes. Of the 39 nursing homes located in Toledo (a city in Ohio, USA) included in the preliminary survey, 33 facilities (85%) allowed smoking, 14 facilities (36%) allowed indoor smoking, and 13 facilities (33%) provided a designated smoking area. Three of these 13 nursing homes with similar levels of care agreed to participate in study that was more comprehensiv...

  7. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places. PMID:23482366

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke and children`s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Hwang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of longterm, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

  9. Potential health effects of tobacco smoking in Uganda and how to overcome them through an appropraite communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semakula, Henry M; Haq, Shah Md Atiqul

    2010-06-01

    This paper rigourolys analyses literature on tobacco smoking and provides a historical perspective of tobacco smoking and the prevalence of smoking in different parts of the world. The dangerous chemical ingredients in cigarettes and their associated health effects are indentified and rigouroulsy analysed. Later, this paper suggests a communication strategy which can be adopted to convey scientific evidence to the public about the dangers of smoking. The analyse of literature shows that today, tobacco is one of the greatest causes of preventable deaths in the world. Smoking causes various diseases like various types of cancer (Lung, Oral, Stomach, Kidney, Breast, Larynx, Pancreas, and Eophagus cancers). Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD), heart diseases, miscarriages, poor sperm quality, impotence, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and low birth weight. Significant evidence of such diseases has been observed in United States and South Africa which is one of the top smoking countries in Africa. Despite the existence of World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as well as national laws restricting tobacco use in various countries, the rate of smoking is increasing at a tremendous state especially in developing countries among the adolescents. This means that many tobacco's future victims are today's children. The reason for the high rates of smoking is attribute to the complex marketing skills and strategies of tobacco companies which hinder tobacco smoking control programs. Therefore, if we are to achieve sustainable development as well as the Mellinium Development Goals, we should stand up jointly to stop the smoking habits among the people through collective efforts and collaborative campaigns. An appropriate communication strategy as suggested in this paper is required to counteract the persuasive smoking evil adverts of tobacco companies. PMID:21413590

  10. The impact of tobacco smoke on women’s fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka M. Sitarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the regularity laws about smoking in public places have been more and more restrictive due to the growing awareness of health problems caused by smoking tobacco. Despite that, the global number of smokers is increasing. Men are still the majority of addicted people but the number of women smoking is also high. Among them are pregnant women, in which case, the negative health effects of tobacco smoke also affect the fetus. It is well known that active as well as passive smoking can lead to cardiovascular diseases, strokes, lung and laryngeal cancers and promotes atherosclerosis. Recently, there has been a growing scientific interest in dysfunction of endocrine system and fertility observed in smokers. Women addicted to smoking often have menstrual cycle disorders, ovulatory dysfunction and early menopause. In the case of pregnant women exposed to tobacco smoke, the risk of miscarriage or complication during the childbirth is higher. Harmful tobacco smoke components delivered to the maternal organism cause disruption of the placenta and abnormal fetus development.

  11. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  12. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. [/sup 14/C]NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned

  13. Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke and Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Avci, Zekai; ALİOĞLU, Bülent; ÖZBEK, Emel ÖZYÜREK Namık

    2008-01-01

    We present the case reports of two children with a parasitic infestation associated with hypereosinophilia. One of those patients, who had been exposed to excessive second-hand tobacco smoke, was diagnosed as having acute eosinophilic pneumonia. The second patient had neither a history of exposure to second-hand smoke nor a prior diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. We suggest that passive smoking may trigger acute eosinophilic pneumonia, a condition that develops frequently in children...

  14. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  15. Tobacco smoking: From 'glamour' to 'stigma'. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review, we explore the history of tobacco smoking, its associations and portrayal of its use with luxury and glamour in the past, and intriguingly, its subsequent transformation into a mass consumption industrialized product encouraged by advertising and film. Then, we describe the next phase where tobacco in parts of the world has become an unwanted product. However, the number of smokers is still increasing, especially in new markets, and increasingly younger individuals are being attracted to it, despite the well-known health consequences of tobacco use. We also explore current smoking behaviors, looking at trends in the prevalence of consumption throughout the world, discrimination against smokers, light and/or intermittent smokers, and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We place these changes in the context of neuroscience, which may help explain why the cognitive effects of smoking can be important reinforcers for its consumption despite strong anti-smoking pressure in Western countries. PMID:26449875

  16. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  17. What Does the “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” Mean to Tobacco Growers?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Kelly; Starnes, Jane H.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.

    2010-01-01

    The “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” was signed into law on June 22, 2009. The bill grants the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco leaf is not subject to the regulation. As a result, it is not apparent what it does mean to tobacco growers. However, since the demand for tobacco is in large part determined by the demand for cigarettes, a change in demand for cigarettes due to the FDA ...

  18. An Analysis of the Role of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Carcinogenicity of Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Buddy G.; Borschke, August J.; Doolittle, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture consisting of more than 4500 chemicals, including several tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). TSNA typically form in tobacco during the post-harvest period, with some fraction being transferred into mainstream smoke when a cigarette is burned during use. The most studied of the TSNA is 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). NNK has been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Studies examining the carcinogenicity of NNK frequently ...

  19. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-08-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry's goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:17600260

  20. Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Nicotine Exposure on Lung Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Kevin; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco smoke and nicotine exposure during prenatal and postnatal life can impair lung development, alter the immune response to viral infections, and increase the prevalence of wheezing during childhood. The following review examines recent discoveries in the fields of lung development and tobacco and nicotine exposure, emphasizing studies published within the last 5 years. In utero tobacco and nicotine exposure remains common, occurring in approximately 10% of pregnancies within the United States. Exposed neonates are at increased risk for diminished lung function, altered central and peripheral respiratory chemoreception, and increased asthma symptoms throughout childhood. Recently, genomic and epigenetic risk factors, such as alterations in DNA methylation, have been identified that may influence the risk for long-term disease. This review examines the impact of prenatal tobacco and nicotine exposure on lung development with a particular focus on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In addition, this review examines the role of prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke and nicotine exposure and its association with augmenting infection risk, skewing the immune response toward a T-helper type 2 bias and increasing risk for developing an allergic phenotype and asthmalike symptoms during childhood. Finally, this review outlines the respiratory morbidities associated with childhood secondhand smoke and nicotine exposure and examines genetic and epigenetic modifiers that may influence respiratory health in infants and children exposed to in utero or postnatal tobacco smoke. PMID:26502117

  1. Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lopes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE (cotinine urine levels ≥ 5.0 ng/mL and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean reduction observed in TEOAE of tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development.

  2. Tobacco smoking policy and indoor air quality: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadud, M.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Architectural Engineering Dept.); Rock, B.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Architectural Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Policy on environmental tobacco smoke and its effect on indoor air quality are discussed in this paper. Passive (secondhand) smoke is examined in aspects ranging from health effects to laws surrounding smoking within public buildings in the United States. Engineering and administrative solutions to these indoor air quality problems are considered. A case study of a smoking area within an institutional building is presented and potential improvements and administrative actions are discussed. The results of this study should be helpful to those faced with or anticipating technical and legal indoor air quality problems and policy decisions. (orig.)

  3. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  4. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p < 0.001). ETS levels in Greek designated non-smoking areas are similar to those found in the smoking sections of UK hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 – 96% lower than levels in Greece. Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted. PMID:17956612

  6. Youth Advocates’ Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-sale (POS advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma’s tobacco control youth empowerment program members’ perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years, identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.

  7. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Pukkala, E;

    1997-01-01

    Active smoking is causally associated with cancers of the lung, larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and urinary bladder, and passive smoking appears to be causally associated with cancer of the lung. Information on smoking habits for the years 1965......,000 in women) are caused annually by active smoking, yielding a total of 16,000 new cases each year around the turn of the century. This implies that 14% (19% in men and 9% in women) of all incident cancers in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 will be caused by active tobacco smoking. In......, 1975 and 1985 shows that more men than women in the Nordic countries were current smokers. The rates of women were stable over time and those of men were decreasing, approaching those of women. Lung cancer, in particular, is strongly associated with active smoking: by increasing the number of...

  8. Prospective study of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and dysmenorrhea.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.; Cho, S. I.; Damokosh, A I; Chen, D.; Li, G.; Wang, X.; Xu, X.

    2000-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecologic disorder in women of reproductive age. Previous studies have found an association between current cigarette smoking and prevalence of dysmenorrhea. This study investigated the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the occurrence of dysmenorrhea among women without a history of this disorder. The study population consisted of 165 newly wed, nonsmoking Chinese women (in Shenyang, China), who intended to get pregnant and who ha...

  9. Measurement of environmental tobacco smoke exposure among adults with asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, M D; Katz, P P; Yelin, E. H.; Hammond, S K; Blanc, P. D.

    2001-01-01

    Because the morbidity and mortality from adult asthma have been increasing, the identification of modifiable environmental exposures that exacerbate asthma has become a priority. Limited evidence suggests that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) may adversely affect adults with asthma. To study the effects of ETS better, we developed a survey instrument to measure ETS exposure in a cohort of adults with asthma living in northern California, where public indoor smoking is limited. To...

  10. Functional and metabolic properties of alveolar macrophages in response to the gas phase of tobacco smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Drath, D B; Shorey, J M; Huber, G L

    1981-01-01

    The effect of whole tobacco smoke and the gas phase of tobacco smoke on the metabolism and phagocytic ability of alveolar macrophages was monitored over a 30-day exposure period. It was demonstrated that both the gas phase and whole tobacco smoke induced a weight loss in exposed rats. Alveolar macrophage oxygen consumption was markedly increased by both exposure regimens. Superoxide generation was not affected by whole tobacco smoke exposure but was increased in response to the filtered gas p...

  11. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  12. Fighting Tobacco Smoking - a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Lun Ellis Hon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, tobacco-related disease is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing around 5.4 million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds. The total number of death caused by tobacco consumption is higher than that of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. Unlike other communicable diseases, however, tobacco-related disease has a man-made consensus vector – the tobacco companies that play an active role to promote tobacco consumption, which directly heightens the disease morbidity. Any public health policy designed to curb smoking behavior has to prepare for opposite lobbying actions from tobacco companies that undermine the effects of the health measures. Another unique nature of the tobacco epidemic is that it can be cured, not by medicines or vaccines, but on the concerted actions of government and civil society. Many countries with a history of tobacco control measures indeed experienced a reduction of tobacco consumption. As most of these governments launched a range of measures simultaneously, it is hard to quantify the relative merits of different control strategies that contributed to the drop in the number of smokers. These packages of strategies can come in different forms but with some common features. Political actions with government support, funding, and protection are crucial. Without these, antismoking efforts in any part of the world are unlikely to be successful.

  13. Biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M; Bisgaard, H; Stage, M; Loft, S

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive biomonitoring of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by means of hair is attractive in children, although systematic evaluation is required in infants. The objective was to compare nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair and plasma and parentally reported exposure to ETS...

  14. Effect of maternal tobacco smoke exposure on the placental transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruchová, H.; Vašíková, A.; Merkerová, M.; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Balaščak, I.; Pastorková, Anna; Šrám, Radim; Brdička, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2010), s. 186-191. ISSN 0143-4004 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : placenta * gene expression * tobacco smoke exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.985, year: 2010

  15. Waterpipe tobacco smoking and its human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-11-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS, also known as hookah, shisha, narghile, and many other names) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation by the consumer. As the number of waterpipe smokers is rising rapidly, there is growing concern over the use of WTS, particularly as there has been a widely held misconception that WTS is free from health hazards. In reality, it is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes on both a short- and long-term basis. Hence, it is desirable to develop advanced techniques for surveillance, intervention, and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to the production and use of waterpipe tobacco. This review is written to survey the types and extent of pollutants released from its use and their potential health risks. A review of the present regulation guidelines is also included. PMID:27285594

  16. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R [Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Engineering and Physics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Str. 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); McAughey, J, E-mail: Werner.Hofmann@sbg.ac.a [British American Tobacco, Group R and D Centre, Southampton SO15 8TL (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with {sup 212}Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  17. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-08-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. PMID:25961814

  18. Metabolites of tobacco smoking and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Boca, Simina; Freedman, Neal D; Caporaso, Neil E; Huang, Wen-Yi; Sinha, Rashmi; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C

    2014-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is not strictly considered a tobacco-related malignancy, but modest associations have emerged from large meta-analyses. Most studies, however, use self-reported data, which are subject to misclassification. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure may reduce misclassification and provide insight into metabolic variability that potentially influences carcinogenesis. Our aim was to identify metabolites that represent smoking habits and individual variation in tobacco metabolism, and investigate their association with colorectal cancer. In a nested case-control study of 255 colorectal cancers and 254 matched controls identified in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial, baseline serum was used to identify metabolites by ultra-high-performance liquid-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Self-reported current smoking was associated with serum cotinine, O-cresol sulfate and hydroxycotinine. Self-reported current smoking of any tobacco (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.02-3.54) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.75-3.04) were associated with elevated colorectal cancer risks, although the latter was not statistically significant. Individuals with detectable levels of hydroxycotinine had an increased colorectal cancer risk compared with those with undetectable levels (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.33-5.40). Although those with detectable levels of cotinine had a suggestive elevated risk of this malignancy (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.98-3.33), those with detectable levels of O-cresol sulfate did not (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.57-2.37). Biomarkers capturing smoking behavior and metabolic variation exhibit stronger associations with colorectal cancer than self-report, providing additional evidence for a role for tobacco in this malignancy. PMID:24648381

  19. Designating Smoking Room to Control Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to assess the effectiveness of designating smoking rooms to control environmental tobacco smoke in nursing homes. Of the 39 nursing homes located in Toledo (a city in Ohio, USA included in the preliminary survey, 33 facilities (85% allowed smoking, 14 facilities (36% allowed indoor smoking, and 13 facilities (33% provided a designated smoking area. Three of these 13 nursing homes with similar levels of care agreed to participate in study that was more comprehensive. The levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide (CO2, respirable suspended particulate matter, nicotine, and solanesol were monitored at three locations within three nursing homes: a designated smoking room with an independent ventilation system, the adjacent hallway and outside the building. The concentrations of air contaminants, except CO2, inside the designated smoking rooms were significantly higher than those in the hallways or outside. The concentration of CO2 was similar in the smoking rooms and the hallways but significantly higher than the concentration outside. The levels of ambient air temperature or relative humidity within the three locations were not generally different. The results indicated that the designation of a smoking room with an independent ventilation system was effective in controlling the environmental tobacco smoke in these nursing homes.

  20. Systemic Inflammatory Response to Smoking in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence of a Gender Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Faner, Rosa; Gonzalez, Nuria; Cruz, Tamara; Kalko, Susana Graciela; Agustí, Alvar

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but not all smokers develop the disease. An abnormal pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response to smoking is thought to play a major pathogenic role in COPD, but this has never been tested directly. Methods We studied the systemic biomarker and leukocyte transcriptomic response (Affymetrix microarrays) to smoking exposure in 10 smokers with COPD and 10 smokers with normal spirometry. We also ...

  1. Effect of Acupuncture on Smoking Cessation and Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking, and chronic neck and shoulder pain are major public health problems in the modern society, and both lack effective treatments. This thesis presents two trials focusing on acupuncture as a treatment for these two problems. Objectives Study A was undertaken to examine the effects of acupuncture on smoking reduction and cessation, and to examine whether some ‘real’ acupoints are more effective than ‘sham’ acupoints for smoking cessation. An additional aim was to examine w...

  2. Impact of the "Tobacco control law" on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorrilla Belén

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial evaluations of the introduction of legislation that regulates smoking in enclosed public places in European countries, describe an important effect in the control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, the evidence is still limited. The objective of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of the comprehensive "Tobacco control law" introduced in Spain on January 2006, which includes a total ban of smoking in workplaces and a partial limitation of smoking in bars and restaurants. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study. The self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home, at work, in bars and restaurants of the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Madrid Region during a period prior to the law (October and November 2005; n = 1750 was compared to that of the period immediately after the law came into force (January-July 2006; n = 1252. Adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated using logistic regression models. Results Passive exposure to tobacco smoke at home has hardly changed. However, at indoor workplaces there has been a considerable reduction: after the law came into force the OR for daily exposure > 0–3 hours versus non-exposure was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17 and for more than 3 hours, 0.12 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.18. For fairly high exposure in bars and restaurants versus non-exposure, the OR in the former was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44 and in the latter was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.32; for very high exposure versus non-exposure they were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24 and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.19, respectively. These results were similar for the smoking and non-smoking populations. Conclusion A considerable reduction in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in bars and restaurants, is related to the implementation of the "Tobacco control law". Although only initial figures, these results already demonstrate the effectiveness of

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

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    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  4. Tobacco smoking – popularity and main trends on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bartoń

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year smoking leads to the premature death of over 5 million people around the world. However, the tobacco industry took actions like introducing cigarettes which contain less nicotine and tar aimed at not only maintaining the old clientele, but also attracting a new one. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking became widespread in the second half of the 20th century and changed attitudes towards smoking. In recent years, in many markets in the world a new device representing an alternative to tobacco products was introduced. Electronic cigarettes are designed to deliver nicotine into the respiratory system in the form of an aerosol. They have been gaining more and more popularity, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of users as well as in the numbers of publications about them. Currently, opinions are divided and the e-cigarette has almost as many supporters as opponents. All this resembles the situation concerning conventional cigarettes in the 20th century. The aim of the study is to gather the most significant information concerning, on the one hand, the spreading popularity of tobacco smoking and, on the other, the research topics undertaken by contemporary scientists, as well as the government actions meant to protect from dangers of nicotine addiction in the 20th and 21st century. New developments of products containing this highly addictive substance call for systematic research in the interest of public health.

  5. Correlation of tobacco smoke exposure to intelligence quotient in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Natalia; Nurhayati Masloman; Jeanette C. Manoppo

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to tobacco smoke at home happens in 29-69% of children globally and 43% of Indonesian children. Smoke exposure during the developmental stage may affect cognitive abilities, as measured by intelligence quotient (IQ). There have been few studies conducted on the correlation of tobacco smoke exposure to IQ. This is the first study of this type in Indonesia. Objectives To assess the correlation between tobacco smoke exposure and IQ in preschool children and to assess the ...

  6. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the respiratory health of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infections of the respiratory tract are the most common acute illness of childhood. Apart from the morbidity (and occasional mortality) attributable to respiratory infections, they also represent risk factors for asthma and possibly other chronic respiratory effects in later life. Children's exposure to harmful substances of tobacco smoke begins at prenatal period, if pregnant woman smokes after the delivery, it continues postnatally to be paced. Children are especially sensitive to the respiratory effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. ETS exposure is an significant and avoidable risk factor for respiratory diseases among children. ETS is a wide-spread environmental pollutant that has been long linked with respiratory problems. In children of all ages ETS exposure has been found to be associated with increased respiratory symptoms such as wheeze and cough. The role ETS plays in the development of atopy is of great interest, as atopy is closely related to the development of childhood asthma. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is preventable. This review discusses primarily on impact of ETS on during the fetal period and infancy and childhood.This paper reviews of several articles between year 1992- 2009 obtained from the internet; Pubmed and Medline. (author)

  7. Tobacco smoke induced COPD/emphysema in the animal model—are we all on the same page?

    OpenAIRE

    MaikeLeberl; AdelheidKratzer

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the foremost causes of death worldwide. It is primarily caused by tobacco smoke, making it an easily preventable disease, but facilitated by genetic α-1 antitrypsin deficiency. In addition to active smokers, health problems also occur in people involuntarily exposed to second hand smoke (SHS). Currently, the relationship between SHS and COPD is not well established. Knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms is limited, thereby halting the advanc...

  8. An international review of tobacco smoking among medical students

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    Smith D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic international review of tobacco smoking habits among medical students. Particular attention was paid to countries where smoking rates have been historically well-documented in local journals, but were less often included in larger international review articles. The methodology involved a search of relevant medical subject headings, after which the reference lists of journal papers were also examined to find additional publications. A total of 66 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. The most common countries previously studied included India, the United States, Australia, Japan, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Overall, our review suggests that the prevalence of smoking among medical students varies widely amongst different countries and also between male and female students within the same areas. Consistently low smoking rates were found in Australia and the United States, while generally high rates were reported in Spain and Turkey. Given their important future role as exemplars, more effective measures to help reduce tobacco smoking among medical students are clearly needed worldwide.

  9. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  10. Association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and dementia syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ruoling; Wilson, Kenneth; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Dongmei; Qin, Xia; He, Meizi; Hu, Zhi; Ma, Ying; Copeland, John R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has a range of adverse health effects, but its association with dementia remains unclear and with dementia syndromes unknown. We examined the dose–response relationship between ETS exposure and dementia syndromes. Methods Using a standard method of GMS, we interviewed 5921 people aged ≥60 years in five provinces in China in 2007–2009 and characterised their ETS exposure. Five levels of dementia syndrome were diagnosed using the Automated Geriatric ...

  11. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the...

  12. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Scott J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactan...

  13. Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdo Abdurahman; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes ...

  14. Disparities in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution at Romanian worksites

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    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Differences in the risk of being exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS in the workplace may occur not only between countries, but also within a country among socio-economic groups. [b]Objectives. [/b]The aim of the study was to examine the associations of exposure to SHS at worksites with selected factors in non-smoking Romanian employees. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. Data on exposure to SHS at worksites and other characteristics of respondents came from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years of age or older, using a standard protocol. [b]Results[/b]. Among 4,517 respondents who completed the questionnaire there were 1,333 subjects, including 859 non-smokers who worked in an indoor area outside the home. The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 31.2% among non-smoking male and 23.9% among non-smoking female employees (p<0.05. Employees with primary education had odds of exposure to SHS at work nearly twice as high, compared to the respondents having high education attainment (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–2.9. Moreover, exposure to SHS at worksites was significantly associated with a low level of support for tobacco control policies among workers (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2–2.8. [b]Conclusions[/b]. In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.

  15. A Zero-vision for Children’s Tobacco Smoke Exposure : Tobacco prevention in Child Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Noomi

    2012-01-01

    Adverse health effects in children caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are well known. Children are primarily exposed by their parents’ smoking in their homes. A comprehensive evidence base shows that parental smoking during pregnancy and ETS exposure in early childhood are associated with an increased risk for a range of adverse health problems. Child Health Care nurses, who meet nearly all families in Sweden with children aged 0-6 years, have thus an important role in tobacco preven...

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  17. Screening for pre-malignant conditions in the oral cavity of chronic tobacco chewers

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    Priyanka Mahawar, Shweta Anand, Umesh Sinha, Madhav Bansal, Sanjay Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a major health problem in tobacco users all over the world. It is one of the ten most common cancers in the world. Oral cancer is almost always preceded by some type of precancerous lesion. The precancerous lesions can be detected upto 15years, prior to their change to an invasive carcinoma. It usually affects between the ages of 15 and 40 years. It may be triggered by factors like frequency and duration of tobacco consumption, alcohol, poor oral hygiene etc. This study was conducted primarily to screen chronic tobacco chewers for the presence of oral pre-malignant conditions and secondly to educate them about the hazards of tobacco and motivate them to quit the habit. This was a cross sectional study conducted at Badi gawaltoli area of Indore. Tobacco chewers using tobacco for more than 5yrs were included in the study. Chronic tobacco chewers were screened for oral pre-malignant lesions followed by an educational intervention about the harmful effects of tobacco. Two follow ups were made to motivate them to quit the habit and to get treatment for their lesions. An open ended semi-structured questionnaire was administered to chronic tobacco chewers to assess their habit of tobacco chewing, smoking, their knowledge regarding lesions in their mouth, hazards of tobacco and any cessation efforts. Among the 80 identified chronic tobacco chewers, 60 were males and 20 were females. Lesions such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia and oral sub-mucosal fibrosis were found in 10 females (50% and 24 males (40%.

  18. Effects of tobacco-smoke on radiation-induced pneumonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) on the development of irradiation-induced pneumonitis in rats, five groups of animals were investigated including controls (C), tobacco smoke exposed (S), irradiated (RNS) and irradiated and tobacco smoke exposed (RS). An additional group (RS/NS) was exposed to tobacco before irradiation but not afterwards. Results indicate that smoking suppresses the radiation-induced inflammation but to a lesser degree affects the radiation-induced increase in membrane permeability as reflected by increased protein levels in BAL. Moreover, the marked effects on the numbers of mast cells and neutrophils in the RS group may indicate that these cells play an important role in the mechanism by which tobacco smoke modulates the effects of irradiation. When exposure to tobacco smoke was terminated immediately after irradiation (RS/NS), the inflammatory response was unaffected. (author)

  19. Smoking reduction and cessation reduce chronic cough in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background: Chronic cough can be the first sign of chronic obstructive disease. A few, and mostly selected, studies exploring the effect of reduced daily tobacco consumption have shown a small effect on pulmonary symptoms. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine if smoking reduction (SR) (>= 50......% of daily tobacco consumption) or smoking cessation (SC) had an effect on chronic cough and phlegm. Methods: A total of 2408 daily smokers were included in a Danish population-based intervention study, Inter99. In the analyses, we included smokers with self-reported chronic cough or phlegm at baseline...... who also attended the 1-year follow-up. We investigated if SR or SC had improved the self-reported pulmonary symptoms, using logistic regression analyses. Results: Almost 34% of the smokers had chronic cough at baseline and 24.5% had chronic phlegm. Thirty-seven persons with cough at baseline and 24...

  20. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012

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    Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.

  1. Tobacco smoking is causally associated with antipsychotic medication use and schizophrenia, but not with antidepressant medication use or depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is more common among patients with schizophrenia and depression than among healthy individuals. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco smoking intensity is causally associated with antipsychotic medication use, schizophrenia, antidepressant medication use and....../or depression in the general population, and compared results with those for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We used self-reported smoking intensity in cigarettes/day and a polymorphism in the CHRNA3 gene cluster (rs1051730) associated with smoking intensity, on 63,296 20-100-year...... compared with non-carriers (CC). Furthermore, in ever-smokers homozygotes had increased risk of antipsychotic medication with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.31] compared with non-carriers, whereas in never-smokers the corresponding OR was 1.07 (0.87-1.31) (P-interaction: 0...

  2. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh

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    Krishna Mohan Palipudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. Results: The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9% (male-58.2% and female-51.7%, in workplace (63% (male-67.8% and female-30.4%, and in any public place (57.8% (male-90.4% and female-25.1% 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3% and health care facilities (5.8%; however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%, and restaurants (27.6%. SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Conclusions: Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on

  3. Sub-chronic exposure to second hand smoke induces airspace leukocyte infiltration and decreases lung elastance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Hartney

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to second hand tobacco smoke is associated with the development and/or exacerbation of several different pulmonary diseases in humans. To better understand the possible effects of second hand smoke exposure in humans, we sub-chronically (4 weeks exposed mice to a mixture of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke at concentrations similar to second hand smoke exposure in humans. The inflammatory response to smoke exposures was assessed at the end of this time by enumeration of pulmonary leukocyte infiltration together with measurements of lung elastance and pathology. This response was measured in both healthy wild type (C57BL/6 mice as well as mouse mutants deficient in the expression of Arhgef1 (Arhgef1–/– that display constitutive pulmonary inflammation and decreased lung elastance reminiscent of emphysema. The results from this study show that sub-chronic second hand smoke exposure leads to significantly increased numbers of airspace leukocytes in both healthy and mutant animals. While sub-chronic cigarette smoke exposure is not sufficient to induce changes in lung architecture as measured by mean linear intercept, both groups exhibit a significant decrease in lung elastance. Together these data demonstrate that even sub-chronic exposure to second hand smoke is sufficient to induce pulmonary inflammation and decrease lung elastance in both healthy and diseased animals and in the absence of tissue destruction.

  4. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer RM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

  5. Portuguese children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the family car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo D. Vitória

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car is frequent, especially if one or both parents smoke. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to prevent this severe health hazard.

  6. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Minicucci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Methods: Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C, Pentoxifylline (PX, Tobacco Smoke (TS, and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. Results: TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt, and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA and citrate synthase (CS. PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. Conclusion: TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.

  7. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

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    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  8. Tobacco Smoking Among School Personnel in Romania, Teaching Practices and Resources Regarding Tobacco Use Prevention

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    Sorina IRIMIE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to collect baseline information on tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes of school personnel toward tobacco, to evaluate the existence and effectiveness of tobacco control policies in schools, and to assess training and materials requirements for implementing tobacco prevention and control interventions. All schools from Romania containing 6th, 7th, and 8th grade that contained 40 or more students were included in the sampling frame. 50 schools were sampled to participate in the study. All school personnel in the selected schools were eligible to participate in the survey. The survey procedure was designed to ensure confidentiality and voluntary participation. We found that more than two thirds of school personnel had ever smoked tobacco, with men significantly outnumbering women, and more than one thirds of them are current smokers. Also, it appears that school policies regarding tobacco use are not being translated into effective measures for implementation. Despite school policies, tobacco products could still be purchased either within school premises or close by. An important aspect brought out is the need to train teachers on these issues, and the importance of providing specific teaching and learning material on related topics. Only a small proportion of teachers had ever received such training. This is an area where is a need to build infrastructure as well as put capacity building measures in place. The study conducted with the methodology provided by CDC offers comparable data at international level and, also a national start point in the process of monitoring tobacco use among school personnel.

  9. Tobacco Smoking Using a Waterpipe (Hookah): What You Need to Know

    OpenAIRE

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Smoking tobacco using a waterpipe (hookah) is increasing worldwide and is remarkably common among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Contrary to misperceptions that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents fewer health risks than cigarette smoking, recent data demonstrate clearly that the smoke from a waterpipe contains many of the same toxicants that are in cigarettes, including the dependence-producing drug nicotine, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pulmonary disea...

  10. Beliefs and Norms Associated with Smoking Tobacco Using a Waterpipe among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This web-based, cross-sectional survey guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), examined behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe in a sample of 223 undergraduate college students. Beliefs and norms associated with waterpipe smoking intention were captured using the investigator-developed TRA Waterpipe Questionnaire. Significant behavioral beliefs that contributed to the prediction of smoking intentions included smoking tobacco with a wa...

  11. Tobacco smoking during pregnancy and risk of adverse behaviour in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dürr, Dorte Wiwe; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Christensen, Line Høgenhof; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Zinchuk, Andrii; Jönsson, Bo Ag; Lindh, Christian H; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examines associations between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking and adverse behaviour in the offspring. METHODS: We included 1016 pregnant women from Greenland and Ukraine (526 from Greenland and 490 from Ukraine). Serum cotinine measurements were used to identify smoking...... non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: In utero exposure to tobacco smoking was not associated with a significant higher risk of adverse behaviour in the offspring, but elevated risk of adverse behaviour among children prenatally exposed to smoking cannot be excluded....

  12. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  13. Does breathing other people's tobacco smoke cause lung cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Nanchahal, K; Thompson, S. G.; Cuckle, H S

    1986-01-01

    The available epidemiological studies of lung cancer and exposure to other people's tobacco smoke, in which exposure was assessed by whether or not a person classified as a non-smoker lived with a smoker, were identified and the results combined. There were 10 case-control studies and three prospective studies. Overall, there was a highly significant 35% increase in the risk of lung cancer among non-smokers living with smokers compared with non-smokers living with non-smokers (relative risk 1...

  14. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  15. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doku David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. Methods A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%. Results In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths’ future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  16. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p contrast, smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to widespread white matter loss. PMID:27286935

  17. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  18. Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies. PMID:23912156

  19. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. PMID:22361239

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke particles in multizone indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. L.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. To better understand the factors that affect exposure, and to investigate the potential effectiveness of technical control measures, a series of experiments was conducted in a two-room test facility. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and airflow rates were measured during and after combustion of a cigarette. Experiments were varied to obtain information about the effects on exposure of smoker segregation, ventilation modification, and air filtration. The experimental data were used to test the performance of an analytical model of the two-zone environment and a numerical multizone aerosol dynamics model. A respiratory tract particle deposition model was also applied to the results to estimate the mass of ETS particles that would be deposited in the lungs of a nonsmoker exposed in either the smoking or nonsmoking room. Comparisons between the experimental data and model predictions showed good agreement. For time-averaged particle mass concentration, the average bias between model and experiments was less than 10%. The average absolute error was typically 35%, probably because of variability in particle emission rates from cigarettes. For the conditions tested, the use of a portable air filtration unit yielded 65-90% reductions in predicted lung deposition relative to the baseline scenario. The use of exhaust ventilation in the smoking room reduced predicted lung deposition in the nonsmoking room by more than 80%, as did segregating the smoker from nonsmokers with a closed door.

  1. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poluyi EO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1% of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%, Yoruba (50.2% or Igbo (40.3% ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%. A majority (90.1% of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8% were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4% and esophageal (68.9% cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%, bladder cancer (47.2%, peripheral vascular disease (35.8% and sudden death (31.1%. Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC. A little over half of the respondents (53.8% were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%, in public places (79.2%, and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%. For

  2. Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Material and Methods: Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. Results: The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.1–13.8, p < 0.001 and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5–11.8, p < 0.001 who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Conclusions: Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations.

  3. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rennen; G.E. Nagelhout; B. van den Putte; E. Janssen; U. Mons; R. Guignard; F. Beck; H. de Vries; J.F. Thrasher; M.C. Willemsen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  4. Household environmental tobacco smoke and risks of asthma, wheeze and bronchitic symptoms among children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Bing-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies show that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risks of respiratory outcomes in childhood, evidence concerning the effects of household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure remains inconsistent. Methods We conducted a population-based study comprised of 5,019 seventh and eighth-grade children in 14 Taiwanese communities. Questionnaire responses by parents were used to ascertain children's exposure and disease status. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of ETS exposures on the prevalence of asthma, wheeze, and bronchitic symptoms. Results The lifetime prevalence of wheeze was 11.6% and physician-diagnosed asthma was 7.5% in our population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in utero exposure showed the strongest effect on all respiratory outcomes. Current household ETS exposure was significantly associated with increased prevalence of active asthma, ever wheeze, wheeze with nighttime awakening, and bronchitis. Maternal smoking was associated with the increased prevalence of a wide range of wheeze subcategories, serious asthma, and chronic cough, but paternal smoking had no significant effects. Although maternal smoking alone and paternal smoking alone were not independently associated with respiratory outcomes, joint exposure appeared to increase the effects. Furthermore, joint exposure to parental smoking showed a significant effect on early-onset asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.00-4.02, but did not show a significant effect on late-onset asthma (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.36-3.87. Conclusion We concluded that prenatal and household ETS exposure had significant adverse effects on respiratory health in Taiwanese children.

  5. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  6. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  7. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  8. Youth Advocates’ Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    OpenAIRE

    Malinda Douglas; Andie Chan; Marilyn Sampilo

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-sale (POS) advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understa...

  9. Retailer Adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Shyanika W; Myers, Allison E.; D’Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act’s provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. Methods We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco ...

  10. Results of survey for assessing awareness level regarding radiological hazards of tobacco smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human consumption of tobacco is as old as human history. However, injurious health effects due to tobacco smoking may not be evident to the public at large. This article presents results of a questionnaire based on a survey carried out in the metropolitan city of Lahore of Pakistan with an aim to understand the awareness level of the general population about the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking. Some 3600 participants from different educational backgrounds from all segments of the society participated in this survey. Analysis of the data collected concluded that the awareness level of the representative participants regarding the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking was alarmingly poor. These results suggest that a nationwide mass media campaign may be launched by the government authorities in Health and Environment departments to enlighten the general public in this respect to avoid tobacco-smoking-associated health risks. (authors)

  11. Tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution and tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Ho Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB infection, disease, and death. Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between these exposures and the risk of infection, disease, and death from TB. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies reporting effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals on how tobacco smoking, passive smoke exposure, and indoor air pollution are associated with TB. We identified 33 papers on tobacco smoking and TB, five papers on passive smoking and TB, and five on indoor air pollution and TB. We found substantial evidence that tobacco smoking is positively associated with TB, regardless of the specific TB outcomes. Compared with people who do not smoke, smokers have an increased risk of having a positive tuberculin skin test, of having active TB, and of dying from TB. Although we also found evidence that passive smoking and indoor air pollution increased the risk of TB disease, these associations are less strongly supported by the available evidence. CONCLUSIONS: There is consistent evidence that tobacco smoking is associated with an increased risk of TB. The finding that passive smoking and biomass fuel combustion also increase TB risk should be substantiated with larger studies in future. TB control programs might benefit from a focus on interventions aimed at reducing tobacco and indoor air pollution exposures, especially among those at high risk for exposure to TB.

  12. Functional and metabolic properties of alveolar macrophages in response to the gas phase of tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drath, D.B.; Shorey, J.M.; Huber, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    The effect of whole tobacco smoke and the gas phase of tobacco smoke on the metabolism and phagocytic ability of alveolar macrophages was monitored over a 30-day exposure period. It was demonstrated that both the gas phase and whole tobacco smoke induced a weight loss in exposed rats. Alveolar macrophage oxygen consumption was markedly increased by both exposure regimens. Superoxide generation was not affected by whole tobacco smoke exposure but was increased in response to the filtered gas phase. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was not altered by either treatment. When metabolic alterations were seen in response to the separate exposures, they were seen only after a phagocytic challenge to the macrophage and not when the cell was unchallenged. Neither whole tobacco smoke nor the gas phase had any significant effect on the ability of alveolar macrophages to phagocytize a viable challenge of Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that many of the metabolic and functional effects of tobacco smoke on alveolar macrophages can be attributed to the gas-phase component of whole tobacco smoke.

  13. Functional and metabolic properties of alveolar macrophages in response to the gas phase of tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Shorey, J M; Huber, G L

    1981-10-01

    The effect of whole tobacco smoke and the gas phase of tobacco smoke on the metabolism and phagocytic ability of alveolar macrophages was monitored over a 30-day exposure period. It was demonstrated that both the gas phase and whole tobacco smoke induced a weight loss in exposed rats. Alveolar macrophage oxygen consumption was markedly increased by both exposure regimens. Superoxide generation was not affected by whole tobacco smoke exposure but was increased in response to the filtered gas phase. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was not altered by either treatment. When metabolic alterations were seen in response to the separate exposures, they were seen only after a phagocytic challenge to the macrophage and not when the cell was unchallenged. Neither whole tobacco smoke nor the gas phase had any significant effect on the ability of alveolar macrophages to phagocytize a viable challenge of Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that many of the metabolic and functional effects of tobacco smoke on alveolar macrophages can be attributed to the gas-phase component of whole tobacco smoke. PMID:6271676

  14. Attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control among pre-clinical medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, G H; Hairi, N N; Hairi, F

    2012-08-01

    Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures. PMID:22668450

  15. Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiloha, Ram C

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

  16. Reaction of tobacco smoke aldehydes with human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, H D; San George, R C

    1988-01-01

    Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, and acrolein, all of which are constituents of tobacco smoke, were reacted in 5 mM concentration with the purified major fraction of normal adult human hemoglobin (hemoglobin Ao) in 1 mM concentration. A cigarette smoke condensate, diluted to contain 5 mM total aldehydes, was also reacted with 1 mM hemoglobin Ao. Cationic exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the products formed from simple aliphatic aldehydes, with the exception of formaldehyde, were analogues of those formed from acetaldehyde, earlier shown by us to be imidazolidinone derivatives, that is, cyclic addition products of the N-terminal aminoamide function of alpha and beta chains. Formaldehyde and acrolein produced a heterogeneous mixture of derivatives including cross-linked hemoglobin dimers. The greater proportion of modified hemoglobins produced by condensate aldehydes resembled those formed from acetaldehyde, the most abundant aldehyde in the condensate. A smaller fraction consisted of cross-linked hemoglobin dimers, presumably due to the action of formaldehyde. Mass spectrometric and HPLC analyses of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones precipitated from the condensate documented the presence of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, furfural, and methylfurfural. The toxicity of aldehydes is briefly discussed in the context of the findings of this study. PMID:3236330

  17. Risk of chronic bronchitis in twin pairs discordant for smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Harmsen, Lotte;

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that smoking is a major risk factor for lung disease and respiratory symptoms. We examined the association between smoking and the risk of chronic bronchitis in a large twin sample....

  18. Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Chaouachi

    2009-01-01

    Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah devi...

  19. Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant

    OpenAIRE

    California Environmental Protection Agency: Air Resources Board

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke) as of mid-2005 produced by the California Air Resources Board and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as part of the process of identifying ETS as a toxic air contaminant. Part A of the report includes information about the chemical composition of secondhand smoke and exposure of the public to secondhand smoke, including outdoor exposures. Part B of t...

  20. Glutathione-S-transferase P protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; Prough, Russell A.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke impairs endothelium-dependent arterial dilation. Reactive constituents of cigarette smoke are metabolized and detoxified by glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs). Although polymorphisms in GST genes are associated with the risk of cancer in smokers, the role of these enzymes in regulating the cardiovascular effects of smoking has not been studied. The P isoform of GST (GSTP), which catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic molecules in cigarette smoke such as acrolein, ...

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.

  2. Teens Using E-cigarettes May Be More Likely to Start Smoking Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are more likely than others to start smoking traditional cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products within the ... regular cigarettes, they do carry a risk of addiction.” Data were collected as part of a longitudinal ...

  3. Smoking in Ghana: a study of the history of tobacco industry activity, current prevalence and risk factors for smoking, and implementation of tobacco control policy

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been relatively little research on the prevalence and use of tobacco products in developing countries, where the majority of morbidity and mortality from tobacco use in this century is expected to occur. This is particularly true of countries in Africa. I conducted this study in the Ashanti region of Ghana, primarily to measure prevalence and risk factors for smoking, and secondarily to develop a template for national surveys in similar settings in developing countrie...

  4. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Akl, Elie A; Jawad, Mohammed; Lam, Wai Yim; Co, Christopher N; Obeid, Rawad; Irani, Jihad

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science in January 2012. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies. We selected studies and abstracted data using standard systematic review method...

  5. Combined effects of ionizing radiation and tobacco smoke in lung carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the combined effects of ionizing radiation and tobacco smoke observed in epidemiological studies of miners exposed to radon and its daughter products. The intensified action of both factors, which was found in miners, allows to suggest an increased danger to all smokers because of the radiation exposure of the respiratory tract resulting from natural background radiation, from radioactivity released from fossil-fuelled power stations, and from the 210Pb and 210Po content of tobacco smoke. (author)

  6. [Smoking prevalence and associated factors among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Nadia Spada; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of smoking and associated factors in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 2,464 tobacco farmers in 2011. Multivariate analysis in men assessed the association between smoking and socioeconomic, behavioral, and occupational variables. Some 31.2% of men and 3.1% of women were current smokers. In men, smoking was directly associated with age, schooling, income, heavy drinking, time at work in tobacco farming, and time of exposure to pesticides. Employment relationship was a risk factor for smoking, and participation in religious activities was a protective factor. Male tobacco farmers showed multiple risk behaviors and higher smoking prevalence than other farmers. Ignoring the risk and cultural legacy may be common factors for these behaviors and suggest combined approaches. PMID:27487442

  7. Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Taştı, Enver; Erşahin, Yılmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

    2014-05-30

    Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups. PMID:24871250

  8. Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places

    OpenAIRE

    Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments.

  9. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities. PMID:21690316

  10. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  11. TOBACCO SMOKING IN ADULTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY FROM A RURAL AREA OF KASHMIR J&K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Tobacco is a major risk factor of numerous adult chronic non - communicable diseases. In India, the GATS Survey revealed that the prevalence of smoking is more than one - third in the adults (35%, the overall prevalence in males being 48% and among females it is 20%. AIM : The aim of our study was to determine the socio - demography of tobacco use in rural setting and to assess the knowledge, attitude & practices of tobacco use in the rural area. METHODS : All patients aged 18 years or above attending subcentre at village Panzinara of Block Sumbal. The data was collected on a semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS : 71 patients attending the sub center for various health states were taken up for the study. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 58 - 68 years (23.9%. Males comprised 56.3%. 63.4% gave positive response to ever any tobacco use & amongst the tobacco users 80% were daily users. Tob acco use was significantly associated with male sex. 51.1% of the patients had started tobacco use in adolescent age of 10 - 19 years. 62.2% were Hookah smokers, 24.4% cigarette smokers. Tobacco being injurious to health was known by 39.4% patients, 21.1% kn ew it lead to some cancers, 4.2% were aware that it can cause hypertension, diabetes & cancers. 35.3% were aware that it is to be avoided. CONCLUSION : In spite of awareness about hazards of tobacco use & knowledge of non - communicable diseases, this high pr evalence calls for more active psychological, social & medical interventions for tobacco users. Targeting the adolescent population for raising awareness would be additionally beneficial.

  12. Characterization of Indian cigarette tobacco and its smoke aerosol by nuclear and allied techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty brands of tobacco used in Indian cigarettes, 20 brands of bidis (tobacco rolled in wrapper leaves), 15 brands of chewing tobacco and 15 brands of snuff tobacco were analyzed by nuclear and allied techniques. The elements measured into tobacco can be grouped into seven categories from less than 1 ppm to 5% by weight. Concentration level varied from 0.5-5% for (Ca, K, Cl), 400-1500 ppm (Fe), 200-600 ppm (Na), 100-300 ppm (Ti, Mn, Br and Sr), 10-100 ppm (Cu, Zn and Rb), 1-10 ppm (Cr, Ni, Pb and La) and less than 1 ppm (As, Co, Cd, Sb, Hg and Eu). Among the above elements Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, Hg and Sb are considered toxic. The percentage transfer of the elements from cigarette tobacco to smoke particles during smoking was also estimated using a smoking machine and collecting the smoke particles on a filter paper. The results show that Br, Cr, Sb and Zn have high percentage transfer from tobacco to its smoke of the order of 2-15%. Out of these Sb has the highest 15%. Cobalt, Fe and Sc have lowest percentage of transfer of the order of less than 1%. The percent transfer of these elements from tobacco to tobacco smoke is higher in case of bidis (1.5-3.0 times) as compared to cigarettes. In cigarettes also non-filter cigarettes have higher transfer (2-3 times) as compared to filter tip cigarettes. (author)

  13. Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background: School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this…

  14. Parental smoking in the vicinity of children and tobacco control policies in the European region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess, V.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Boyd, A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Carta, M.G.; Eke, C.; Golitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Susser, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores. Methods: Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE), a 2010 cross-sectional

  15. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  16. Sources, Sinks and Cycling of Acetyl Radicals in Tobacco Smoke: A Model for Biomass Burning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, N.; Green, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Smoke near the source of biomass burning contains high concentrations of reactive compounds, with NO and CH3CHO concentrations four to six orders of magnitude higher than those in the ambient atmosphere. Tobacco smoke represents a special case of biomass burning that is quite reproducible in the lab and may elucidate early processes in smoke from other sources. The origins, identities, and reactions of radical species in tobacco smoke are not well understood, despite decades of study on the concentrations and toxicities of the relatively stable compounds in smoke. We propose that reactions of NO2 and aldehydes are a primary source for transient free radicals in tobacco smoke, which contrasts with the long-surmised mechanism of reaction between NO2 and dienes. The objective of this study was to investigate the sources, sinks and cycling of acetyl radical in tobacco smoke. Experimentally, the production of acetyl radical was demonstrated both in tobacco smoke and in a simplified mixture of air combined with NO and acetaldehyde, both of which are significant components of smoke. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The dynamic nature of radical cycling in smoke makes it impossible to define a fixed concentration of radical species; 2.15×e13-3.18×e14 molecules/cm3 of acetyl radicals were measured from different cigarette samples and smoking conditions. Matlab was employed to simulate reactions of NO, NO2, O2, and a simplified set of organic compounds known to be present in smoke, with a special emphasis on acetaldehyde and the acetyl radical. The NO2/acetaldehyde mechanism initiates a cascade of chain reactions, which accounts for the most prevalent known carbon-centered radicals found in

  17. Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els;

    2009-01-01

    vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. CONCLUSIONS: For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should......, including daily smoking (dichotomous). FINDINGS: Interaction effects between gender and smoking policies were identified, therefore boys and girls were analysed separately. Large cross-national differences in smoking prevalence were documented. Intraclass correlations (ICC) of 0.038 (boys) and 0.035 (girls...

  18. Systemic inflammatory response to smoking in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: evidence of a gender effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Faner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD but not all smokers develop the disease. An abnormal pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response to smoking is thought to play a major pathogenic role in COPD, but this has never been tested directly. METHODS: We studied the systemic biomarker and leukocyte transcriptomic response (Affymetrix microarrays to smoking exposure in 10 smokers with COPD and 10 smokers with normal spirometry. We also studied 10 healthy never smokers (not exposed to smoking as controls. Because some aspects of COPD may differ in males and females, and the inflammatory response to other stressors (infection might be different in man and women, we stratified participant recruitment by sex. Differentially expressed genes were validated by q-PCR. Ontology enrichment was evaluated and interaction networks inferred. RESULTS: Principal component analysis identified sex differences in the leukocyte transcriptomic response to acute smoking. In both genders, we identified genes that were differentially expressed in response to smoking exclusively in COPD patients (COPD related signature or smokers with normal spirometry (Smoking related signature, their ontologies and interaction networks. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an experimental intervention (smoking exposure to investigate the transcriptomic response of peripheral leukocytes in COPD is a step beyond the standard case-control transcriptomic profiling carried out so far, and has facilitated the identification of novel COPD and Smoking expression related signatures which differ in males and females.

  19. The impact of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on pregnancy outcomes, infant health, and the threat of third-hand smoke exposure to our environment and to our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, T Allen; Mazela, Jan; Adamczak, Aleksandra; Merritt, Travis

    2012-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with various adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, carries a lot of serious complications such as spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, and reduced birth weight of the newborn. Children of smoking mothers have an increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory diseases during infancy. Smoking also causes long-term risk of maternal health problems such as: heart disease, cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and higher mortality rate. Because women are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy than at any other time, there are attempts to increase motivation and help them to stop smoking at the procreative phase of their life. The article describes interventions that are carried out in Loma Linda, where the educational program "When You Smoke Your Baby Smokes" reminds parents about the health effects of smoking during pregnancy and harmful impact on child's health caused by second-hand smoke. Another threat to health and environment of our children, is the nicotine coming from indirect exposure to tobacco smoke. Residual nicotine that persists in high concentrations on the interior surfaces, including clothing, is forming in the reaction of nitric acid carcinogenic compounds of specific nitrosamines. In addition, ozone and related atmospheric oxidants react with nicotine smoke or smoke coming from the second-hand smoke, giving the smallest particles with high risk of asthma. Efforts towards reducing exposure to tobacco smoke coming from the passive and indirect smoking should be placed at a high priority throughout the European Union. PMID:23421018

  20. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extermely important. As one of the volatile elements is can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis

  1. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis

  2. [Tobacco or living? Decrease in smoking in Iceland 1985-1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöndal, P; Hardarson, P; Helgason, T; Ragnarsson, J

    1991-01-01

    In 1985 a new tobacco act was passed in Iceland, which prescribed inter alia that warnings be printed on packages of tobacco goods. A prohibition on advertisement for tobacco has since been imposed; information on the injurious effects of tobacco has been disseminated in the schools and via TV. A law which limits smoking at work places and indoors in public buildings has also been introduced. Smoking habits have changed in the last five years. The number of daily smokers has fallen from 40.0 to 32.5 per cent, and rules concerning smokeless hospitals are coming into force. The authors believe that doctors and hospitals should lead the way if we are to reduce smoking in the society. PMID:1996224

  3. CLINOPATHOLOGICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN ORAL MUCOSA OF PATIENTS HAVING TOBACCO SMOKING HABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanindra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco was introduced into Europe in the late 15th century. Portuguese traders introduced it to India in late 16th or early 17th century. Since then, tobacco use has spread with remarkable rapidity, into all sections of people. Now tobacco is used in different forms out of which some are in form of smoking like cigarette, bidi whereas some are smokeless e.g., chewing, application over the teeth & the gingiva. Among tobacco habituated Indian population, about 70% are in the smoking form.1 Passive smoking is also a significant health hazard. There is a vital role of dental practitioners in identifying individuals at risk of mucosal disease, the importance of public education about the risk factors, and the necessity for counseling patients with precancerous lesions on avoiding further risk.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To study clinico-pathological & cytological changes in oral mucosal cells of people with the habit of smoking tobacco by using exfoliative cytology and PAP stain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The oral exfoliative cytology smears are taken from 60 person (30 smoking habit & 30 control from the oral pathology department of K M Shah Dental College & Hospital. The smears are spread on the glass slide and are fixed with 95% ethyl alcohol. The slides are stained with papanicolaou stain and observed under microscope. RESULTS: The result showed that the anucleated cells (Precancerous feature are increased in patient with smoking habit as compared to control group. Anucleated cells are highest in oral sub mucous fibrosis group of patients

  4. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  5. [Women and smoking. A challenge for the tobacco control policy in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitmann, S; Dohnke, B; Balke, K; Rustler, C; Sonntag, U

    2010-02-01

    In Germany, smoking rates among women have been slightly declining since 2003. However, smoking rates among young women and girls are high and are reaching the smoking rates of their male counterparts. Only about half of pregnant smokers below the age of 25 stop smoking. Women and girls with low education and low level jobs, those who are unemployed, as well as single parents have the highest smoking rates. The tobacco industry promotes smoking behavior of women and girls through marketing campaigns, thus, systematically counteracting smoking prevention activities. Within the framework of the annual conference 2008 of the Federal Drug Commissioner on the theme of "Women and Smoking", recommendations for a gender-specific tobacco control policy in Germany were developed. The main demands relate to the necessity of a targeted policy approach which takes into account the needs and life circumstances of women and girls, the development of integrated prevention programs for pregnant women, improved medical and preventive care, the involvement of women from the media and culture, from health professions and politics to promote a smoke-free culture, gender-specific research, and the improvement of tobacco control legislation. FACT (Frauen aktiv contra Tabak e.V.) actively supports the implementation of these policy recommendations. PMID:20069267

  6. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Waleed M. Sweileh

    2014-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specif...

  7. Identifying and quantifying secondhand smoke in multiunit homes with tobacco smoke odor complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacunto, Philip J.; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Klepeis, Neil E.; Repace, James L.; Ott, Wayne R.; Hildemann, Lynn M.

    2013-06-01

    Accurate identification and quantification of the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) that drifts between multiunit homes (MUHs) is essential for assessing resident exposure and health risk. We collected 24 gaseous and particle measurements over 6-9 day monitoring periods in five nonsmoking MUHs with reported SHS intrusion problems. Nicotine tracer sampling showed evidence of SHS intrusion in all five homes during the monitoring period; logistic regression and chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis enabled identification and quantification of some of the precise periods of SHS entry. Logistic regression models identified SHS in eight periods when residents complained of SHS odor, and CMB provided estimates of SHS magnitude in six of these eight periods. Both approaches properly identified or apportioned all six cooking periods used as no-SHS controls. Finally, both approaches enabled identification and/or apportionment of suspected SHS in five additional periods when residents did not report smelling smoke. The time resolution of this methodology goes beyond sampling methods involving single tracers (such as nicotine), enabling the precise identification of the magnitude and duration of SHS intrusion, which is essential for accurate assessment of human exposure.

  8. Tobacco smoke induced COPD/emphysema in the animal model – are we all on the same page?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike eLeberl

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the foremost causes of death worldwide. It is primarily caused by tobacco smoke, making it an easily preventable disease, but facilitated by genetic α-1 antitrypsin deficiency. In addition to active smokers, health problems also occur in people involuntarily exposed to second hand smoke (SHS. Currently, the relationship between SHS and COPD is not well established. Knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms is limited, thereby halting the advancement of new treatments for this socially and economically detrimental disease. Here, we attempt to summarize tobacco smoke studies undertaken in animal models, applying both mainstream (direct, nose only and side stream (indirect, whole body smoke exposures. This overview of 155 studies compares cellular and molecular mechanisms as well as proteolytic, inflammatory, and vasoreactive responses underlying COPD development. This is a difficult task, as listing of exposure parameters is limited for most experiments. We show that both mainstream and SHS studies largely present similar inflammatory cell populations dominated by macrophages as well as elevated chemokine/cytokine levels, such as TNF-α. Additionally, SHS, like mainstream smoke, has been shown to cause vascular remodeling and neutrophil elastase-mediated proteolytic matrix breakdown with failure to repair. Disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions appear to coincide in both exposure scenarios. One of the more widely applied interventions, the anti-oxidant therapy, is successful for both mainstream and SHS. The comparison of direct with indirect smoke exposure studies in this review emphasizes that, even though there are many overlapping pathways, it is not conclusive that SHS is using exactly the same mechanisms as direct smoke in COPD pathogenesis, but should be considered a preventable health risk. Some characteristics and therapeutic alternatives uniquely exist in SHS-related COPD.

  9. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shona C.; Chen, Shan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rokicki, Slawa; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in public multi-unit housing (MUH) is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear. Methods We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.02 ng/ml) and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng). Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine. Results Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively). Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml), with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%). TSE in the home, car, and other peoples’ homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15–0.25), while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161), a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6%) compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4%) (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3) (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%). Conclusions Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population. PMID:27171392

  10. [Exposure to tobacco smoke and type of acute respiratory infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielska, Dorota; Trofimiuk, Emil; Ołdak, Elzbieta; Cylwik, Bogdan; Chlabicz, Sławomir

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are the most common cause of the child and family practice physicians are one of the main reasons for referral to a specialist clinic and hospital pediatric wards. The severity of respiratory disease in adolescence influenced by various factors, endo- and exogenous. Some of them, especially environmental factors can be eliminated or reduced and thus reduce the risk of developing this disease. The most common source of pollutants in dwellings is tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to assess exposure to tobacco smoke in three years old children of attending local kindergartens in Białystok and its influence on the type of recovery from acute respiratory infections by the respondents. The study included 313 children from among the 1,200 who attend the local 51-kindergartens in Bialystok. Information on the structure of tobacco use in three-years-old-children's families and respiratory illnesses among random children were obtained, based on anonymous questionnaires completed by their carers. Exposure to tobacco smoke was based on questionnaires and serum cotinine in relation to creatinine in the urine of patients (K/K). In the 150 families surveyed children found 210 smoking people. Every day smoked 37.3% of fathers and 23.6% of mothers. Of the children surveyed--34% of the houses which where there was a prohibition on tobacco use, 35% of the houses which were smoked in enclosed areas, in 31% of homes have not been established no-smoking rules. Children who during the six-month period to attend kindergarten gone lower respiratory tract infection had mean K/K (59.57 ng/mg) higher than the ones that were healthy and underwent upper respiratory tract infection. Used by the parents of the children tested in part to reduce the exposure to tobacco smoke in the home environment was ineffective and did not influence the decrease in the incidence of lower respiratory tract. PMID:21360910

  11. Admission to a psychiatric unit and changes in tobacco smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoking and withdrawal from smoking complicates the assessment and treatment of mental illness. We aimed to establish whether psychiatric inpatients smoke different amounts after admission than beforehand and, if so, to find out why. Forty-three inpatients on a working age adult psychiatry ward completed self-report questionnaires about smoking habits. Those who smoked a different amount after admission had a follow-up interview to find out why they thought this had occurred. The interview incorporated qualitative and quantitative aspects which were analysed accordingly. Fifty-six percent of participants were smokers before admission, rising to 70% afterwards. Of the smokers, 17% smoked less after admission, and 63% smoked more. The average number of cigarettes smoked per person per day increased from five to thirteen. The main reasons for smoking more were boredom, stress and the wish to socialise.

  12. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Reijula

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. Materials and Methods: In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Conclusion: Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  13. Health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions of physicians smoking and tobacco policy control in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychareun Vanphanom

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007, a regulation on smoke-free health facilities and institutions was adopted by the Lao government. Little is known about health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions regarding tobacco policy control, including physicians’ behaviour. This paper aims to describe the knowledge of Lao health policymakers and their opinions regarding physicians tobacco use and national smoking policy control. Methods In 2007, we made a qualitative explorative study with data from a purposive sample of 18 key informants through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. The key informants, who were heads of departments, directors of hospitals and directors of centres, mainly worked at the national level, and some provincial levels. Content analysis was used. Results Policymakers perceived the inadequate implementation of a smoke-free regulation and policy as being a barrier and that the general public may not accept physicians smoking, since they are regarded as role models. Most of the respondents mentioned that regulations or laws related to control of smoking in health institutions are available in Laos, but they lacked detailed knowledge of them probably because regulations as well as the smoke-free policy documents were not widely disseminated. The respondents agreed that anti-smoking education should be integrated in the training curricula, especially in the medical schools, and that the provision of counselling on health consequences from smoking and methods of smoking cessation was important. Conclusion This study contributes to tobacco policy evidence and to knowledge regarding factors related to the uptake of evidence into policymaking. Dissemination and implementation of a tobacco control policy nationally, and integration of tobacco cessation training programs in the curricula were found to be productive approaches for improvement.

  14. Indoor air pollution due to tobacco smoke under real conditions. Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klus, H; Begutter, H; Nowak, A; Pinterits, G; Ultsch, I; Wihlidal, H

    1985-08-01

    A short review exploring the generation and composition of tobacco smoke is given. Experimental arrangements used to record sidestream smoke are critically discussed. Data from own experiments in a tobacco smoke polluted office room were presented and discussed. These data include nicotine, ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, CO, NO and NO2. First results about the diameter of the particles in the smoke polluted room were also given. By the aid of the RINGOLD's equation the COHB content on basis of the CO-values of exhaled breath of active and passive smokers were determined. Data about the nitrosamine content in the air of the room during the smoke tests were also given and discussed. PMID:3836513

  15. The Tobacco Smoke Component, Acrolein, Suppresses Innate Macrophage Responses by Direct Alkylation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Hristova, Milena; Spiess, Page C; Kasahara, David I.; Randall, Matthew J.; Deng, Bin; van der Vliet, Albert

    2012-01-01

    The respiratory innate immune system is often compromised by tobacco smoke exposure, and previous studies have indicated that acrolein, a reactive electrophile in tobacco smoke, may contribute to the immunosuppressive effects of smoking. Exposure of mice to acrolein at concentrations similar to those in cigarette smoke (5 ppm, 4 h) significantly suppressed alveolar macrophage responses to bacterial LPS, indicated by reduced induction of nitric oxide synthase 2, TNF-α, and IL-12p40. Mechanisti...

  16. Exploration of the Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Metabolic Measures in Young People Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Rubinstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted cross-sectional, multicenter studies in HIV-positive young women and men to assess metabolic and morphologic complications from tobacco smoking in 372 behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth, aged 14–25 years. Measurements included self-reported tobacco use, fasting lipids, glucose, fat distribution, and bone mineral density (BMD; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Overall, 144 (38.7% self-reported smoking tobacco and 69 (47.9% of these reported smoking greater than five cigarettes per day. Smokers versus nonsmokers had lower mean total cholesterol (146.0 versus 156.1 mg/dL; P<0.01 and lower mean total body fat percent (24.1% versus 27.2%, P=0.03. There was no difference between smokers and nonsmokers in fasting glucose or BMD. There appear to be only minimal effects from tobacco smoking on markers of cardiac risk and bone health in this population of HIV-positive youth. While these smokers may not have had sufficient exposure to tobacco to detect changes in the outcome measures, given the long-term risks associated with smoking and HIV, it is critical that we encourage HIV-positive youth smokers to quit before the deleterious effects become apparent.

  17. Tobacco smoking patterns, awareness and expenditure: a cross-sectional overview from Surat City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Bansal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As smoking is a major risk factor in India, the objective of present study was to assess smoking patterns, expenditure and awareness amongst smokers and to examine factors associated with the severity of smoking in Surat city.METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted with the use of pre-structured questionnaire tool targeting 281 current smokers in the slums of 20 Urban Health Centers. Smokers were categorized based on pack-years, which means the number of packs smoked per day multiplied by the duration of smoking (mild 15, and based on the number of cigarette/bidis smoked per day without the duration component (mild 0.05. With the influence of friends (50%, about 60% smokers engage into this habit before the age of 20 years. Though only 20% of current smokers were not aware of the consequences of active smoking, more than 50% did not know about the same for passive smoking. The lowest socioeconomic class spends 44% of their income on tobacco products compared to 7% in the highest class.CONCLUSION: The study provides insights for information, education and counseling (IEC activities which should take into account health impact of bidi smoking, low awareness of health impact of passive smoking, and higher percentage of total monthly expenditure on tobacco among low-income household resulting in crowding out of expenditures on other needs.

  18. Fighting Tobacco Smoking - a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle

    OpenAIRE

    Kam-Lun Ellis Hon; Alexander K. C. Leung; Christopher Man-Kit Leung; Albert Yim-Fai Kong

    2009-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco-related disease is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing around 5.4 million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds. The total number of death caused by tobacco consumption is higher than that of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. Unlike other communicable diseases, however, tobacco-related disease has a man-made consensus vector – the tobacco companies that pla...

  19. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Rosen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Results: Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02. Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02. Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Conclusions: Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure.

  20. Estudo comparativo de sintomas respiratórios e função pulmonar em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica relacionada à exposição à fumaça de lenha e de tabaco Comparative study of respiratory symptoms and lung function alterations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease related to the exposure to wood and tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e analisar sintomas respiratórios e alterações espirométricas em pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC, com história de exposição à fumaça de lenha e de tabaco. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente dados de 170 pacientes distribuídos em 3 grupos: 34 pacientes expostos somente à fumaça de lenha, 59 pacientes, somente à de tabaco e 77 pacientes expostos a ambas. RESULTADOS: Os grupos não diferiram quanto a idade (p = 0,225 e grau de exposição, considerando cada tipo de exposição isoladamente ou em associação (p = 0,164 e p = 0,220, respectivamente. No grupo exposto à fumaça de lenha predominou o sexo feminino.Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à freqüência dos sintomas respiratórios (p > 0,05, e houve predominância de grau moderado de dispnéia nos três grupos (p = 0,141. O grupo exposto à fumaça de lenha apresentou melhores percentuais da relação volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo/capacidade vital forçada e de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (p OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze clinical symptoms and spirometric alterations of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and history of exposure to wood and tobacco smoke. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data related to 170 patients distributed into 3 groups: 34 exposed only to wood smoke, 59 patients exposed only to tobacco smoke and 77 patients exposed to both. RESULTS: The groups did not differ significantly in terms of age (p = 0.225 or degree of exposure, considering each type of exposure in isolation or in combination (p = 0.164 and p = 0.220, respectively. Females predominated in the group exposed to wood smoke. There were no differences among the groups regarding respiratory symptoms (p > 0.05, and moderate dyspnea predominated in the three groups (p = 0.141. The group exposed to wood smoke presented higher percentages of forced expiratory

  1. Collaboration Between Oregon’s Chronic Disease Programs and Medicaid to Decrease Smoking Among Medicaid-Insured Oregonians With Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. David Rebanal, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Environmental tobacco smoke is a leading environmental asthma trigger and has been linked to the development of asthma in children and adults. Smoking cessation and reduced exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are key components of asthma management. We describe a partnership involving two state agencies and 14 health plans; the goal of the partnership was to decrease smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among Medicaid-insured Oregonians with asthma. Context Oregon’s asthma rate is higher than that of the national population, and approximately one third of Oregonians with asthma smoke. The Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Program (HPCDP in the Oregon Department of Human Services has collaborated with the Office of Medical Assistance Programs (OMAP to promote preventive care at the population level. Methods Two HPCDP programs — the Oregon Asthma Program and the Oregon Tobacco Prevention and Education Program — worked with OMAP to launch the statewide Asthma–Tobacco Integration Project in 2003. A primary focus of the project is the development of partnerships among health plans, health care providers, and large health care organizations to integrate asthma management and smoking control through systems innovations and provider education. OMAP and its participating health plans also decided to focus cessation efforts on its members with chronic diseases. In addition, HPCDP has collaborated with OMAP to distribute educational tools and information about tobacco’s impact on asthma morbidity to Oregon’s health care providers who serve low-income Oregonians. Consequences The partnership between OMAP and HPCDP program staff members has allowed them to discuss problems, leverage resources, and obtain support for many public health initiatives. In addition, OMAP–HPCDP collaboration on educational workshops and outreach to health care providers has helped convince quality improvement specialists and

  2. The historical decline of tobacco smoking among Australian physicians: 1964–1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians occupy an important position as tobacco control exemplars and their own smoking habits are known to influence how effective they may be in such a role. Methods A comprehensive review of all published manuscripts describing tobacco usage rates and tobacco control activities in the Australian medical profession between 1964 and 1997. Results Some of the earliest surveys revealed that around one-quarter of Australian physicians were smoking in the mid twentieth century, a rate which rapidly declined in the 1970s and 1980s, with reductions beyond that achieved by the general population. Conclusion Overall, our review suggests that not only do contemporary Australian physicians smoke at very low rates when compared internationally, but that an active professional community can also make a real difference to the lifestyle choices of its own members.

  3. A novel method for the radiolabelling of the particulate phase of environmental tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the radiolabelling of the particulate phase of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke. 212Pb is a decay product of thorium, and has been used for radiolabelling aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke in situ. The radiolabelled aerosol is suitable for use in studies with human volunteers, and allows the study of deposition in and clearance from the respiratory tract. This radiolabelled aerosol is also suitable as a marker of lung deposition and clearance of the attached fraction of radon, thoron and their progeny. Thus, the marker has potential for use in examining the dosimetry of radon, thoron and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a variety of situations. (Author)

  4. Polymorphisms in inflammation genes, tobacco smoke and furred pets and wheeze in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Allermann, L.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Andersen, P.S.; Jespersgaard, C.; Loft, S.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent wheeze in childhood is associated with airway inflammation. The present study investigated relationships between polymorphisms in inflammatory genes, exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets and risk of recurrent wheeze in children. Within a birth cohort of 101,042 children we...... number of episodes with wheeze (18 months), exposure to tobacco smoke and pet-keeping. Recurrent wheeze was defined as at least four episodes of wheeze before the child was 18 months old. There was a statistically significant association between the IL-13 Arg144Gln polymorphism and risk of recurrent...... wheeze (p = 0.01). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant interaction between this polymorphism and exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, though this was probably a chance finding. There were no other statistically significant effects of the polymorphisms or interactions with exposure...

  5. Parental Tobacco Smoking and Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Petridou, Eleni; Aranguré, Juan Manuel Mejía; Roman, Eve; Schüz, Joachim; Magnani, Corrado; Mora, Ana Maria; Mueller, Beth A; de Oliveira, Maria S Pombo; Dockerty, John D; McCauley, Kathryn; Lightfoot, Tracy; Hatzipantelis, Emmanouel; Rudant, Jérémie; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Kaatsch, Peter; Miligi, Lucia; Wesseling, Catharina; Doody, David R; Moschovi, Maria; Orsi, Laurent; Mattioli, Stefano; Selvin, Steve; Kang, Alice Y; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2016-08-15

    The association between tobacco smoke and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is well established in adults but not in children. Individual-level data on parental cigarette smoking were obtained from 12 case-control studies from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC, 1974-2012), including 1,330 AML cases diagnosed at age controls. We conducted pooled analyses of CLIC studies, as well as meta-analyses of CLIC and non-CLIC studies. Overall, maternal smoking before, during, or after pregnancy was not associated with childhood AML; there was a suggestion, however, that smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk in Hispanics (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 3.61) but not in other ethnic groups. By contrast, the odds ratios for paternal lifetime smoking were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.62) and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.51) in pooled and meta-analyses, respectively. Overall, increased risks from 1.2- to 1.3-fold were observed for pre- and postnatal smoking (P < 0.05), with higher risks reported for heavy smokers. Associations with paternal smoking varied by histological type. Our analyses suggest an association between paternal smoking and childhood AML. The association with maternal smoking appears limited to Hispanic children, raising questions about ethnic differences in tobacco-related exposures and biological mechanisms, as well as study-specific biases. PMID:27492895

  6. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand

  7. Smoke-free coalition cohesiveness in rural tobacco-growing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karen M; Begley, Kathy; Riker, Carol; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Anderson, Debra; Adkins, Sarah; Record, Rachael; Hahn, Ellen J

    2014-06-01

    Promoting tobacco control policies in rural tobacco-growing communities presents unique challenges. The purpose of this study was to assess smoke-free coalition cohesiveness in rural communities and identify coalition members' perceived barriers or divisive issues that impede the development of smoke-free policies. A secondary aim was to evaluate differences in coalition cohesiveness between advocates in communities receiving stage-based, tailored policy advocacy assistance versus those without assistance. Tobacco control advocates from 40 rural Kentucky communities were interviewed by telephone during the final wave of a 5-year longitudinal study of community readiness for smoke-free policy. On average, five health advocates per county participated in the 45-min interview. Participants rated coalition cohesiveness as not at all cohesive, somewhat cohesive, or very cohesive, and answered one open-ended question about potentially divisive issues within their coalitions. The mean age of the 186 participants was 48.1 years (SD = 13.3). The sample was predominantly female (83.6%) and Caucasian (99.5%). Divisive concerns ranged from rights issues, member characteristics, type of law, and whether or not to allow certain exemptions. Three of the divisive concerns were significantly associated with their rankings of coalition cohesiveness: raising tobacco in the community, the belief that smoke-free would adversely affect the economy, and government control. Educating coalition members on the economics of smoke-free laws and the actual economic impact on tobacco-growing may promote smoke-free coalition cohesiveness. More resources are needed to support policy advocacy in rural tobacco-growing communities as well as efforts to reduce the divisive concerns reported in this study. PMID:24338076

  8. Tobacco smoking in mongolia: findings of a national knowledge, attitudes and practices study

    OpenAIRE

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Nehme, Jessica; Otgontuya, Dugee; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Enkhtuya, Palam

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2009, 48% of males aged 15 or over in Mongolia consumed tobacco, placing Mongolia among the countries with the highest prevalence of male smokers in the world. Importantly, tobacco use is one of the four major risk factors contributing to the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) – the leading cause of mortality in Mongolia. However, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to smoking are largely unmeasured. In this context, a ...

  9. Tobacco smoking in mongolia: findings of a national knowledge, attitudes and practices study

    OpenAIRE

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Nehme, Jessica; Otgontuya, Dugee; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Enkhtuya, Palam

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009, 48% of males aged 15 or over in Mongolia consumed tobacco, placing Mongolia among the countries with the highest prevalence of male smokers in the world. Importantly, tobacco use is one of the four major risk factors contributing to the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) – the leading cause of mortality in Mongolia. However, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to smoking are largely unmeasured. In this context, a n...

  10. Effectiveness of Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs in Reducing Teenage Smoking: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Melanie A. PhD; Chaloupka, Frank J. PhD

    1999-01-01

    This review focuses on the extent to which comprehensive, statewide, tobacco control programs in the United States have induced change in teenage smoking or made progress towards this goal and under what circumstances such programs are likely to be most effective. The sources for this review include published journal articles, reports and documents, rather than any primary data analysis. We review evidence for the extent to which individual strategies that comprise a comprehensive tobacco con...

  11. Combined effects of inhalation of Radon daughter products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 10 years, more than 500 lung cancers have been induced in rats by inhalations of radon daughter products at various concentrations and cumulated doses. These cancers were compared with human cancers. Another study examines the cocarcinogenic effect of tobacco smoke. In the first experiment, 100 rats were exposed to a 4000-WLM (working level month) cumulated dose of radon daughter products. Fifty animals were then administered tobacco smoke by inhalation in a fume box during 5 months (i.e., for a total of 352 hr). In the group inhaling radon only, 17 cancers appeared; in the radon-tobacco group, 32 cancers were observed, many of them larger and more invasive than those seen in animals exposed to radon only. Under the same conditions tobacco smoke was inhaled by rats previously exposed to lower doses of radon daughter products (two groups of 30 rats each, at 500 and 100 WLM, respectively). Again, the number of cancers observed was greater than the number of cancers expected if the rats had inhaled radon only. The carcinogenic and potentiating action of tobacco smoke was clearly demonstrated

  12. [Genes associated with tobacco smoke-associated cancer of head and neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, Krzysztof; Giefing, Maciej; Jarmuz, Małgorzata; Kostrzewska-Poczekaj, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the current techniques used for the identification of genes involved in tobacco smoke-associated cancers. The focus is set on the techniques derived from the conventional cytogenetics and includes fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomes hybridization (CGH) and its further improvement that is array-CGH, and other aspects of microarray DNA technology. The second part deals with the main findings concerning participation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in development and progression of tobacco smoke-associated head and neck cancers. PMID:19189577

  13. Factors associated with tobacco smoking among 6-10 grade school students in an urban taluka of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the factors related to tobacco smoking among students of grade 6-10 in an urban setting in Sindh, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in public and private schools of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, from January 2008 to June 2009. Methodology: A sample of 501 students from grade 6-10 were selected through simple random sampling and probability proportional to size. Students answered to a pre-tested questionnaire on socio demography and tobacco use. Descriptive statistics were used to determine frequency distribution. Results: About 9% of the students were smoking some form of tobacco. Ten percent had tried cigarette smoking and about 80% and 61% were chewing Areca nuts and 'Paan' (concoction of Areca nuts, tobacco, hydrated lime, herbs and spices wrapped in betel leaf. Being old, male gender, peer influence, personal attitude toward future smoking, chewing 'Gutka' (concoction of tobacco, Areca nuts and hydrated lime) and having a more educated mother was associated with greater frequency of smoking any form of tobacco. Conclusion: High frequency of tobacco smoking, the attitude toward tobacco consumption and a very high consumption of Areca nuts and other chewable tobacco products by the children warrants urgent action in order to control the tobacco epidemic in Pakistan. (author)

  14. Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

  15. No Borders for Tobacco Smoke in Hospitality Venues in Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Neuberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In public places many countries banned smoking as the most important indoor source of fine airborne particulate matter. In Austria partial bans have been in force since 2009, with exemptions for the hospitality industry. From February to October 2010 we investigated PM2.5 concentrations in the breathing area of guests in well frequented Viennese establishments of all sizes, and compared these chance indoor samples with PM2.5 concentrations measured during the same half hour at the next outdoor monitoring station. The laser particle counter (OPC1.108, Grimm® used for indoor measurements had been calibrated by ß-attenuation (FH 62 I-R, Eberline®, which was used outdoors. 48% of 112 venues visited did not fully comply with the law, notwithstanding its weakness.  Highest median concentrations (in µg/m3 were found in bars (443.7, followed by nightclubs/discotheques (421.1, pubs (147.7, cafes (106.1 and restaurants (23.4. Concentrations increased with number of smokers present (p < 0.01, with medians of 282.4/241,3/67.6/6.9 µg/m³ in smoking venues/smoking rooms/adjacent non-smoking rooms/exclusive non-smoking venues. Only for the latter, a significant correlation was found with outdoor concentrations (r = 0.48, p < 0.01, while concentrations in non-smoking rooms were higher (p < 0.01 and unrelated to outdoor concentrations, but significantly dependent on concentrations in the adjacent smoking room (r = 0.64, p < 0.01. In conclusion, the partial smoking ban failed and guests of Viennese hospitality venues continue to risk disease from passive smoking, even in so-called “non-smoking rooms”, which are second-hand smoke rooms.

  16. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P types of establishment indicating that nicotine is not as mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

  17. Investigating a pharmacological agent against tobacco smoke addiction using the rat as animal model / Linda Nel

    OpenAIRE

    Nel, Linda

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the majority of people who smoke tobacco do so to experience the psychopharmacological effects of the nicotine present in the smoke. Drugs of abuse activate the brain area called the nucleus accumbens (Nacc), which is putatively the brain's "reward centre" or "pleasure centre" (Melichar et al., 2001 and Balfour & Fagerstrom, 1996). A shared feature of drugs of abuse is their ability to increase dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. Because the unde...

  18. Inhaled steroid/tobacco smoke particle interactions: a new light on steroid resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolini Gabriele; Mazza Roberto; De Marco Cinzia; Ruprecht Ario; Invernizzi Giovanni; Boffi Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Inhaled steroid resistance is an obstacle to asthma control in asthmatic smokers. The reasons of this phenomenon are not yet entirely understood. Interaction of drug particles with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) could change the aerodynamic profile of the drug through the particle coagulation phenomenon. Aim of the present study was to examine whether steroid particles interact with smoke when delivered in the presence of ETS. Methods Beclomethasone-hydrofluoralkane (BD...

  19. Tobacco use and its contribution to early cancer mortality with a special emphasis on cigarette smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    Shopland, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the relationship between tobacco use and early cancer mortality. It presents a retrospective examination of trends in smoking behavior and how these trends affected the national lung cancer mortality pattern during this century. Information on smoking prevalence is presented for black and white men and women for each 5-year birth cohort between 1885 and 1969. The author argues that the lung cancer mortality pattern observed in the United States since 1950 is...

  20. A case-control study of tobacco smoking and tuberculosis in India

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad R.; Suryakant; Garg R; Singhal S; Dawar R; Agarwal G

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the role of smoking as a risk factor for the development of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 sputum smear-positive patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and 333 controls matched for age and sex were interviewed according to a predesigned questionnaire. Results: The adjusted odd ratio of the association between tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis was 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 7.0; P value, < .0001). A positive ...

  1. Peer Pressure and Tobacco Smoking among Undergraduate Students of the University of Calabar, Cross River State

    OpenAIRE

    JOSEPH K. UKWAYI; Ojong Felix Eja; Chibuzo C. Unwanede

    2012-01-01

    Peer pressure becomes a perturbing and problematic phenomenon as children grow seeing their peers as role model. Peer pressure is a social institution that modifies adolescents’ behaviours by making them indulge in risky behaviour such as smoking as early age. This phenomenon has indeed found its way into our tertiary institutions and among our youths who are leaders of tomorrow. This study examined peer pressure and tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of the University of Calabar, N...

  2. Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

  3. Portrayal of smoking in Nigerian online videos: a medium for tobacco advertising and promotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegoke Oloruntoba Adelufosi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian home video industry, popularly known as Nollywood is a booming industry, with increasing numbers of easily accessible online videos. The aim of this study was to analyse the contents of popular Nigerian online videos to determine the prevalence of smoking imageries and their public health implications. Using specific search terms, popular English language and indigenous Yoruba language, Nigerian home videos uploaded on YouTube in 2013 were identified and sorted based on their view counts. Data on smoking related scenes such as smoking incidents, context of tobacco use, depiction of cigarette brand, gender of smokers and film rating were collected. Of the 60 online videos whose contents were assessed in this study, 26 (43.3% had scenes with cigarrete smoking imageries. The mean (SD smoking incident was 2.7 (1.6, giving an average of one smoking incident for every 26 to 27 min of film. More than half (53.8% of the films with tobacco use had high smoking imageries. An average of 2 characters per film smoked, mostly in association with acts of criminality or prostitution (57.7% and alcohol use (57.7%. There were scenes of the main protagonists smoking in 73.1% of the films with scenes of female protagonists smoking (78.9% more than the male protagonists (21.1%. Smoking imageries are common in popular Nigerian online movies. Given the wide reach of online videos, their potential to be viewed by people from different cultures and to negatively influence youngsters, it is important that smoking portrayals in online movies are controlled.

  4. Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms Mediate Motivation to Reinstate Smoking During Abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Claudia; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and three unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive af...

  5. Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Montse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102. We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005 and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007 in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5 in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2 in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p 300 beds (41.1% increase; p Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network.

  6. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Pukkala, E;

    1997-01-01

    Active smoking is causally associated with cancers of the lung, larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and urinary bladder, and passive smoking appears to be causally associated with cancer of the lung. Information on smoking habits for the years 1965......, 1975 and 1985 shows that more men than women in the Nordic countries were current smokers. The rates of women were stable over time and those of men were decreasing, approaching those of women. Lung cancer, in particular, is strongly associated with active smoking: by increasing the number of...... and 15% former smokers among Nordic women in that year, by the year 2000 10,000 cases of lung cancer (6,500 in men and 3,500 in women) will be caused by active smoking; this is equivalent to 82% of all cases of lung cancer in these populations. Another 6,000 cancers of other types (4,000 in men and 2...

  7. Predictors of Tobacco Smoking in Male Adolescents in Hamadan Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The cognitive determinants of social behaviors play an important role in adolescents' decision-making for starting smoking. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the predictors of tobacco smoking in male adolescents in Hamadan, Iran, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 810 male high school students in Hamadan selected through the multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire with a section on participants' demographic information and another section based on the TPB constructs. Data were then analyzed in SPSS-18 and AMOS-18 using the Pearson correlation test and the indices of model fit. Results: Overall, 17.2% of the male adolescents reported to have smoked cigarettes in the past. Perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and attitude were the best predictors of behavioral intention for tobacco smoking, in the order of importance (P<0.001. Perceived behavioral control (&beta=-0.59 P<0.001 was a better predictor of the studied behavior than behavioral intention (&beta=0.11 P<0.001. In the structural equation model, TPB constructs accounted for 32% of behavioral intention variances and 50% of behavior variances. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the poor role of behavioral intention in reporting smoking behaviors in male adolescents. Other psychological factors that affect adolescents' decision-making regarding tobacco smoking should also be scrutinized.

  8. Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding. PMID:23316364

  9. Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children’s IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child’s health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding.

  10. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  11. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mehrotra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ware G Kuschner, Sunayana Reddy, Nidhi Mehrotra, Harman S PaintalDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1 the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e- cigarette; and 2 new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS. The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room

  12. The historical decline of tobacco smoking among United States physicians: 1949–1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use became an ingrained habit in the United States (US following the First World War and a large proportion of physicians, similar to the general population, were smokers. The period from 1949 to 1984 was a pivotal era of change however, as the medical profession, like the society it served, became increasingly aware of the dangers that tobacco incurred for health. Methods An extensive review targeted all manuscripts published in academic journals between 1949 and 1984 that related to tobacco smoking among US physicians. The study was undertaken in 2007–08 with an internet search of relevant medical databases, after which time the reference lists of manuscripts were also examined to find additional articles. Results A total of 57 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. From a research perspective, the methodology and coverage of smoking surveys ranged from detailed national investigations, to local medical association surveys, and journal readership questionnaires. From a historical perspective, it can be seen that by the 1950s many US physicians had begun questioning the safety of tobacco products, and by the 1960s and 1970s, this had resulted in a continuous decline in tobacco use. By the 1980s, few US physicians were still smoking, and many of their younger demographic had probably never smoked at all. Conclusion Although the quality and coverage of historical surveys varied over time, a review of their main results indicates a clear and consistent decline in tobacco use among US physicians between 1949 and 1984. Much can be learned from this pivotal era of public health, where the importance of scientific knowledge, professional leadership and social responsibility helped set positive examples in the fight against tobacco.

  13. Tobacco smoking among doctors in mainland China: a study from Shandong province and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Derek R; Zhao Isabella; Wang Lina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco control represents a key area in which doctors can make a significant positive impact on their patients’ lives. Despite this fact, however, doctors in certain regions of China are known to smoke tobacco at rates similar to or even exceeding those seen within the general population. Objective This study sought to investigate the smoking habits of doctors at a teaching hospital in Shandong province, as well as providing a brief review of smoking research that has bee...

  14. Brand differences of free‐base nicotine delivery in cigarette smoke: the view of the tobacco industry documents

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, G Ferris; Connolly, G.N.; Henningfield, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    The recent availability of internal tobacco industry documents provides significant insight into industry knowledge and manipulation of tobacco smoke delivery. One critical area of research is the role of smoke chemistry in determining the absorption and effects of smoke constituents, especially harm producing or pharmacologically active compounds. Independent scientific research has suggested that the nicotine dosing characteristics, hence the addiction potential of cigarettes, may be determ...

  15. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Muula Adamson S; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Siziya Seter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2004 to esti...

  16. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students’ Smoking Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10–11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-le...

  17. Tobacco at the Crossroads: The Past and Future of Smoking Regulation in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2001-01-01

    The past five years have seen a dramatic turn of events against the tobacco industry, raising the question of the appropriate future path for smoking policy in the U.S. This paper discusses the theory and evidence on regulation of smoking. I begin by reviewing the background on this industry. I then turn to a discussion of the motivations for regulating smoking, both external and internal to the smoker. I review the evidence on the effects of existing regulations. And I conclude with a discus...

  18. Contribution of tobacco smoking to dioxin accumulation: opposite effects according to gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierens, S.; Bernard, A. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Focant, J.F.; Pauw, E. De [Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Tobacco smoke contains a variety of polycyclic hydrocarbons including dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans). It has been estimated that smoking 20 cigarettes per day should lead to a dioxin intake almost equivalent to that from food (1 to 3 pg TEQ/kg bw/day), the major source of human exposure. However, studies that have measured dioxins in smokers have found no increased levels, some of them even reporting significantly lower values than in non-smokers. We show here that dioxins concentrations are affected by a gender-smoking interaction that could exert a confounding effect.

  19. A prospective study on active and environmental tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In a prospective cohort study among 120,852 adult subjects the authors investigated the associations between cigarette, cigar, pipe, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS), and bladder cancer. Methods: In 1986 all subjects completed a questionnaire on cancer risk factors. Follow-up for incid

  20. Alterations in Interhemispheric Functional and Anatomical Connectivity are Associated with Tobacco Smoking in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humsini eViswanath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity correlates with several neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and stroke. Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity also correlates with abuse of cannabis and cocaine. In the current report, we evaluated whether tobacco abuse (i.e., cigarette smoking is associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity. To that end, we examined resting state functional connectivity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in short term tobacco deprived and smoking as usual tobacco smokers, and in non-smoker controls. Additionally, we compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in the same subjects to study differences in white matter. The data reveal a significant increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity in sated tobacco smokers when compared to controls. This difference was larger in frontal regions, and was positively correlated with the average number of cigarettes smoked per day. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the number of DTI streamlines in the genual corpus callosum and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Taken together, our results implicate changes in interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity in current cigarette smokers.

  1. Alterations in interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity are associated with tobacco smoking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Humsini; Velasquez, Kenia M; Thompson-Lake, Daisy Gemma Yan; Savjani, Ricky; Carter, Asasia Q; Eagleman, David; Baldwin, Philip R; De La Garza, Richard; Salas, Ramiro

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity correlates with several neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and stroke. Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity also correlates with abuse of cannabis and cocaine. In the current report, we evaluated whether tobacco abuse (i.e., cigarette smoking) is associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity. To that end, we examined resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in short term tobacco deprived and smoking as usual tobacco smokers, and in non-smoker controls. Additionally, we compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the same subjects to study differences in white matter. The data reveal a significant increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity in sated tobacco smokers when compared to controls. This difference was larger in frontal regions, and was positively correlated with the average number of cigarettes smoked per day. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the number of DTI streamlines in the genual corpus callosum and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Taken together, our results implicate changes in interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity in current cigarette smokers. PMID:25805986

  2. The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children in two districts of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Miroslav; Milcová, Alena; Binková, Blanka; Kotěšovec, F.; Nožička, J.; Topinka, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 211, 3-4 (2008), s. 318-325. ISSN 1438-4639 R&D Projects: GA MŽP 1C/5/6/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : children * mothers * environmental tobacco smoke Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.158, year: 2008

  4. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

  5. The regional lung deposition of thoron progeny attached to the particulate phase of environmental tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ emitting isotope of lead ((212Pb), a decay product of thoron (220Rn)), has been used to radiolabel the particulate phase of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke in situ. The radiolabelled aerosol is suitable for studies with human volunteers and as a marker for lung deposition and clearance of the attached fraction of thoron progeny, as well as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a variety of environmental situations. Total mean deposition values for nine male volunteers varied from 22% to 59% under different breathing conditions, including nasal as against mouth breathing. These data are higher than previously reported values for environmental tobacco smoke but are consistent with models of particle deposition in the lung. Data for regional deposition and clearance show deposition principally in the pulmonary region of the lung. Preliminary studies using radon (222Rn) to determine the degree of association of progeny in the presence of ambient particulate or environmental tobacco smoke confirm that the degree of attachment rises with increasing particle concentration, and is therefore likely to influence both the magnitude and site of deposition in the lung. (author)

  6. Deregulation of Gene Expression Induced by Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Pregnancy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votavová, H.; Dostálová-Merkerová, M.; Krejčík, Z.; Fejglová, K.; Vašíková, A.; Pastorková, Anna; Tabashidze, Nana; Topinka, Jan; Balascak, I.; Šrám, Radim; Brdička, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 9 (2012), s. 1073-1082. ISSN 1462-2203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : environmental tobacco smoke * cord blood * microarray Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.477, year: 2012

  7. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil; Nielsen, Niels H; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  8. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130. Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80% of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not

  9. Radioactivity of tobacco leaves and radiation dose induced from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2009-02-01

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides , such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation) and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 microSv/y (average 79.7 microSv/y), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 microSv/y (average 67.1 microSv/y) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 microSv/y (average 104.7 microSv/y), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 microSv/y (average 251.5 microSv/y). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y). PMID:19440399

  10. Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Papastefanou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides , such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv/y (average 79.7 μSv/y, while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv/y (average 67.1 μSv/y and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv/y (average 104.7 μSv/y, that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv/y (average 251.5 μSv/y. The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y.

  11. Smoking and risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis among women and men: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Kristiansen, Louise; Becker, Ulrik;

    2009-01-01

    . Information on incident cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis were obtained by record linkage with the Danish national registries. RESULTS: A total of 235 cases of pancreatitis occurred during follow-up. A dose-response association between smoking and risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis was observed in......BACKGROUND: Alcohol and gallstone disease are the most established risk factors for pancreatitis. Smoking is rarely considered to be a cause despite the fact that a few studies have indicated the opposite. We aimed to assess the independent effects of smoking on the risk of pancreatitis. METHODS...... both men and women. For example, the hazard ratio of developing pancreatitis was 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-4.7) among women and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1-6.2) among men who smoked 15 to 24 grams of tobacco per day. Alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of pancreatitis (hazard ratio...

  12. Impact of perinatal environmental tobacco smoke on the development of childhood allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction. PMID:27610180

  13. Impact of perinatal environmental tobacco smoke on the development of childhood allergic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction.

  14. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001?2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Wakefield

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375. The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%, with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001 to 17.3% (in June 2011. The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

  15. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  16. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Elliott

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung

  17. The effects of tobacco smoke and nicotine on cognition and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Gary E; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N

    2007-09-01

    Tobacco smoke consists of thousands of compounds including nicotine. Many constituents have known toxicity to the brain, cardiovascular, and pulmonary systems. Nicotine, on the other hand, by virtue of its short-term actions on the cholinergic system, has positive effects on certain cognitive domains including working memory and executive function and may be, under certain conditions, neuroprotective. In this paper, we review recent literature, laboratory and epidemiologic, that describes the components of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke, including heavy metals and their toxicity, the effect of medicinal nicotine on the brain, and studies of the relationship between smoking and (1) preclinical brain changes including silent brain infarcts; white matter hyperintensities, and atrophy; (2) single measures of cognition; (3) cognitive decline over repeated measures; and (4) dementia. In most studies, exposure to smoke is associated with increased risk for negative preclinical and cognitive outcomes in younger people as well as in older adults. Potential mechanisms for smoke's harmful effects include oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerotic processes. Recent evidence implicates medicinal nicotine as potentially harmful to both neurodevelopment in children and to catalyzing processes underlying neuropathology in Alzheimer's Disease. The reviewed evidence suggests caution with the use of medicinal nicotine in pregnant mothers and older adults at risk for certain neurological disease. Directions for future research in this area include the assessment of comorbidities (alcohol consumption, depression) that could confound the association between smoking and neurocognitive outcomes, the use of more specific measures of smoking behavior and cognition, the use of biomarkers to index exposure to smoke, and the assessment of cognition-related genotypes to better understand the role of interactions between smoking/nicotine and variation in genotype in determining

  18. Smoking prevalence and views about tobacco law in students of medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Baykan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine smoking prevalence among first year students attending Erciyes University Medical School and to evaluate their ideas about the law Prevention and Control of Hazards of Tobacco Products”. Methods:This was a descriptive study conducted in May 2013. The participation rate was 72.5%. A questionnaire including 18 questions was administered to the participants. Socio demographic features, smoking status, addiction perception of smokers and their ideas about the law were asked in the questionnaire. Ethical approval was obtained for the study. Chi square test was used. Results:Out of 200 students 49.0% had tried smoking and 23. 0% has been smoking. 40,6 % of the male and 6.7% of the female students was smoking. There was statistically significant difference between them (fisher exacttest, p<0.001. Smoking among students, whose family members also smokers, were higher. The mean starting age to smoking was 16.7±2.0 and stress was the first reason. 84.3 % of the students evaluated smoking as an addiction. 79.0% of the students were considering that the law was partially applied. 60.5% said that tobacco use had decreased with the law and 28.3% said that their usage had also been decreased. Only 38.0% believes that this law interfere personal rights. Conclusion:Half of the students had tried smoking at early ages. Parents were important role models. The majority of the students thought that restrictive laws limit smoking.

  19. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks ... Tobacco is a plant. Its leaves are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects. Tobacco contains the chemical nicotine, which is ...

  20. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Susceptibility to Smoking, Perceived Addiction, and Psychobehavioral Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Ickes, Melinda J.; Butler, Karen M.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with susceptibility to smoking, perceived addiction, and psychobehavioral effects of exposure among never- and ever-smoking college students. Participants: Participants were 665 college students at a large, southeastern university in the United States. Methods: This study is…

  1. Determination of some toxic trace elements in Indian tobacco and its smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic trace metals like mercury, arsenic and cadmium have been determined in widely used Indian chewing tobacco and cigarette tobacco by neutron activation followed by sequential radiochemical separation (RNAA). Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) has been used for the estimation of lead, cadmium and copper in cigarette tobacco and its smoke aerosols. The reliability of the data has been assured by analyzing standard reference materials, bovine liver (NBS-1577) and orchard leaves (NBS-1571), and intercomparison of the Pb, Cd and Cu values by three techniques, namely, RNAA, DPASV and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF). The levels of Hg, Cd, As, Pb, and Cu in cigarette and chewing tobacco and the estimated intake of Cd, Cu and Pb to the smoker are presented and discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Male Adolescents: the Role of Psychologic, Behavioral, and Demographic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.

  3. Age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to three population-level tobacco control interventions: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Nagelhout; M.R. Crone; B. van den Putte; M.C. Willemsen; G.T. Fong; H. de Vries

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International To

  4. "Efforts to Reprioritise the Agenda" in China: British American Tobacco's Efforts to Influence Public Policy on Secondhand Smoke in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Muggli, Monique E.; Kelley Lee; Quan Gan; Jon O Ebbert; Hurt, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Each year, about one million people die in China from tobacco-caused diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and lung disease. Although most of these deaths occur among smokers—300 million people smoke in China, accounting for one-third of the global “consumption” of cigarettes—more than 100,000 deaths from tobacco-related causes occur annually among the 540 million Chinese people who are exposed to secondhand smoke. Tobacco smoke contains 4,000 known chemicals...

  5. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III–IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0–150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p 20 and ≤20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  6. Tobacco Smoking Status and Perception of Health among a Sample of Jordanian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaina Alzyoud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11–18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%. Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings.

  7. Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking and Cessation among HIV-Infected Individuals under Care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Thiago S.; Luz, Paula M; Derrico, Monica; Velasque, Luciane; Grinsztejn, Eduarda; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Santini-Oliveira, Marília; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; De Boni, Raquel Brandini

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide the prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is elevated compared to the general population. This probably reflects the cluster of individual characteristics that have shared risk factors for HIV infection and smoking. A cross-sectional study, enrolling a convenience sample from a Brazilian HIV clinical cohort was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco smoking and the factors associated with current smoking and abstinence. A total of 2,775 HIV-infected indivi...

  8. Predictors of Initiation of Hookah Tobacco Smoking: A One-Year Prospective Study of First-Year College Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking has become increasingly prevalent among American college students over the past decade. Hookah smoking is associated with poor health outcomes and exposes users to high levels of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and smoke. Research on the correlates of hookah use has begun to emerge, but all studies thus far have been cross-sectional. Little is known about hookah use during the transition to college, psychosocial factors related to hookah smoking, or prospective predictors of...

  9. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute

    OpenAIRE

    DeBon, M.; Klesges, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). DESIGN: Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; ti...

  10. Plasma enzymatic antioxidant levels in non smoke tobacco consuming Oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSMF)

    OpenAIRE

    Teklal Patel, Vikram Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Background: Globally Oral Cancer is the sixth most common cause death with India accounts for 86% of the world’s oral cancer cases. Chronic tobacco quid consumption often results in a progressive premalignant condition called Oral Sub mucous Fibrosis (OSMF) whose malignant transformation rate of is around 7.6%. Free radicals released during the metabolism of tobacco and Areca nut my involved in the initiation and propagation of mucosal fibrosis. Objective: the objective of the present study i...

  11. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  12. Interventions for waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention and cessation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Waziry, Reem K; Ballout, Rami A; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is growing in popularity despite adverse health effects among users. We systematically reviewed the literature, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science, for interventions targeting prevention and cessation of waterpipe tobacco smoking. We assessed the evidence quality using the Cochrane (randomised studies), GRADE (non-randomised studies) and CASP (qualitative studies) frameworks. Data were synthesised narratively due to heterogeneity. We included four individual-level, five group-level, and six legislative interventions. Of five randomised controlled studies, two showed significantly higher quit rates in intervention groups (bupropion/behavioural support versus placebo in Pakistan; 6 month abstinence relative risk (RR): 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8); group behavioural support versus no intervention in Egypt, 12 month abstinence RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.9). Non-randomised studies showed mixed results for cessation, behavioural, and knowledge outcomes. One high quality modelling study from Lebanon calculated that a 10% increase in waterpipe tobacco taxation would reduce waterpipe tobacco demand by 14.5% (price elasticity of demand -1.45). In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence of effectiveness for most waterpipe interventions. While few show promising results, higher quality interventions are needed. Meanwhile, tobacco policies should place waterpipe on par with cigarettes. PMID:27167891

  13. Effects of Tobacco Taxation and Pricing on Smoking Behavior in High Risk Populations: A Knowledge Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Boisclair

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco taxation is an essential component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. However, to fully realize the benefits it is vital to understand the impact of increased taxes among high-risk subpopulations. Are they influenced to the same extent as the general population? Do they need additional measures to influence smoking behavior? The objectives of this study were to synthesize the evidence regarding differential effects of taxation and price on smoking in: youth, young adults, persons of low socio-economic status, with dual diagnoses, heavy/long-term smokers, and Aboriginal people. Using a better practices approach, a knowledge synthesis was conducted using a systematic review of the literature and an expert advisory panel. Experts were involved in developing the study plan, discussing findings, developing policy recommendations, and identifying priorities for future research. Most studies found that raising cigarette prices through increased taxes is a highly effective measure for reducing smoking among youth, young adults, and persons of low socioeconomic status. However, there is a striking lack of evidence about the impact of increasing cigarette prices on smoking behavior in heavy/long-term smokers, persons with a dual diagnosis and Aboriginals. Given their high prevalence of smoking, urgent attention is needed to develop effective policies for the six subpopulations reviewed. These findings will be of value to policy-makers and researchers in their efforts to improve the effectiveness of tobacco control measures, especially with subpopulations at most risk. Although specific studies are needed, tobacco taxation is a key policy measure for driving success.

  14. Collaboration Between Oregon’s Chronic Disease Programs and Medicaid to Decrease Smoking Among Medicaid-Insured Oregonians With Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    R. David Rebanal, MPH; Richard Leman, MD

    2005-01-01

    Background Environmental tobacco smoke is a leading environmental asthma trigger and has been linked to the development of asthma in children and adults. Smoking cessation and reduced exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are key components of asthma management. We describe a partnership involving two state agencies and 14 health plans; the goal of the partnership was to decrease smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among Medicaid-insured Oregonians with asthma. Context Oregon’...

  15. [An inter-university diploma on tobacco and smoking cessation: pedagogical evaluation and professional impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louam, A; Jung, F; Kruchen, A; Quoix, E

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the post-graduate degree course on tobacco and smoking cessation is to train professionals who have dedicated themselves to the fight against tobacco and smoking. An educational assessment of the degree programme was carried out in order to evaluate its impact on practice. A questionnaire was mailed to 60 students registered in the programme at Strasbourg University between 1997 and 2002 (with a response rate of 71.6%). The evaluation was able to shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the teaching in the programme and the level of student satisfaction. The tobacco control and smoking cessation interventions of the students before and after completing the course were compared in order to assess the impact on their professional practice. The programme's participants came from a variety of professions including medical doctors (74.4%), paramedical staff (16.3%) and other professions (6.9%). The students acknowledged the course's high level of quality (the teachers were appreciated, and the programme was comprehensive). The structure of the course was operational; however, the students admitted that they felt that the practical application and the interactive aspects of the learning (such as case studies, role playing, training in a specific smoking cessation intervention were insufficient. They also noted a lack of emphasis on treatments that do not rely on pharmacotherapy such as behavioural therapy and psychological support. Tobacco cessation related problems or side effects of quitting like weight gain, anxiety or insomnia were not appropriately developed. The majority of students were very satisfied with the theoretical basis of the curriculum and with their internship in a tobacco cessation consultation intervention. Today, 69% of the students trained are working in smoking cessation and tobacco control. They have been able to diversify their activities, going from prevention to tobacco cessation, and vice versa. Course tracks focusing on

  16. Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the...... Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass...... Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10...

  17. Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Cognitive Abilities among U.S. Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Yolton, Kimberly; Dietrich, Kim; Auinger, Peggy; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Hornung, Richard

    2004-01-01

    We used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted from 1988 to 1994, to investigate the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive abilities among U.S. children and adolescents 6–16 years of age. Serum cotinine was used as a biomarker of ETS exposure. Children were included in the sample if their serum cotinine levels were ≤15 ng/mL, a level consistent with ETS exposure, and if they denied using any tobacco products i...

  18. Tobacco smoking and risk of hip fracture in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S; Prescott, E; Sørensen, T I;

    2000-01-01

    estimated by means of multiplicative Poisson regression models. RESULTS: During follow-up, 722 hip fractures were identified in women, and 447 in men. After adjustment for potential confounders, including body mass index, female current smokers had an RR of hip fracture of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.12-1.65) and male...... smokers 1.59 (95% CI: 1.04-2.43) relative to never smokers. In both sexes, the RR of hip fracture gradually increased by current and accumulated tobacco consumption. The RR were consistently higher in men than in women, but the test for interaction between sex and tobacco smoking was insignificant. After...

  19. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 μg/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 μg/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal. PMID

  20. Identification of urinary protein biomarkers for tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniff, Aj Nabill; Gam, Lay-Harn

    2016-03-01

    Smoking, passive smoking, and nonsmoking are conditions that give different degrees of stress to the body. In this study, a proteomic technique was used to analyze differentially urinary protein expression between these three groups of subjects. Urinary proteins were precipitated using ammonium sulfate followed by separation according to molecular weights using SDS-PAGE. The gel was stained by Coommassie blue, and the image of the gel was captured for the comparison study. The protein bands that were consistently detected but expressed at different intensity between the smokers and nonsmokers were targeted for further analysis. Three targeted protein bands were excised from the gel, consisting of a unique protein band of smokers and a pair of differentially expressed protein bands from smokers and nonsmokers. The proteins were digested in gel by trypsin. The tryptic peptides were analyzed with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identity was determined by the product ion spectrum in the MS/MS scan. Four unique proteins from the smokers, namely, pancreatic alpha amylase, proepidermal growth factor, protein 4.1, and prostatic acid phosphatase, were found to be potential urinary biomarkers to indicate smoking status of a person. PMID:25640279

  1. Determination of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-butyric acid in tobacco, tobacco smoke and the urine of rats and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachinger, A; Begutter, H; Ultsch, I; Klus, H

    1993-10-22

    The potential endogenous nitrosation of nicotine and/or nicotine metabolites has led to speculation on the possible formation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)butyric acid (iso-NNAC) in smokers. A gas chromatographic method with thermal energy analytical detection is described for the determination of iso-NNAC in tobacco, tobacco smoke and urine. Sample pre-concentration is performed using C18 extraction cartridges prior to esterification of iso-NNAC using ethereal diazomethane solution. Sample clean-up includes chromatography on aluminum and silica, and fractionation using high-performance liquid chromatography. The detection limits for iso-NNAC in tobacco, tobacco smoke and urine are 2 ng/g tobacco, 0.1 ng/cigarette and 20 ng/l urine, respectively. PMID:8106592

  2. Recent Tobacco Smoking is Associated with Poor HIV Medical Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Individuals in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hile, Stephen J; Feldman, Matthew B; Alexy, Emily R; Irvine, Mary K

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with adverse health effects among people living with HIV (PLWH), including a higher risk of cancer and cardiovascular problems. Further, there is evidence that PLWH are two to three times more likely to smoke than the general population. The aim of this study was to examine the association between tobacco smoking and biomarkers of HIV disease progression, including unsuppressed viral load (viral load >200 copies/mL) and low CD4 cell count (New York City metropolitan area. In multivariate analyses controlling for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, recent tobacco smoking was independently associated with unsuppressed viral load (AOR = 1.38, CI 1.26-1.50) and low CD4 cell count (AOR = 1.12, CI 1.01-1.24). Findings suggest the importance of routine assessments of tobacco use in clinical care settings for PLWH. PMID:26837623

  3. Changes in Smoking Prevalence and Number of Cigarettes Smoked Per Day Following the Implementation of a Comprehensive Tobacco Control Plan in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Micaela H. Coady; Jasek, John; Davis, Karen; Kerker, Bonnie; Kilgore, Elizabeth A.; Perl, Sarah B.

    2012-01-01

    The New York City (NYC) Health Department has implemented a comprehensive tobacco control plan since 2002, and there was a 27% decline in adult smoking prevalence in NYC from 2002 to 2008. There are conflicting reports in the literature on whether residual smoker populations have a larger or smaller share of “hardcore” smokers. Changes in daily consumption and daily and nondaily smoking prevalence, common components used to define hardcore smokers, were evaluated in the context of the smoking...

  4. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  5. Survey instruments used in clinical and epidemiological research on waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gunukula Sameer K; Aleem Sohaib; Akl Elie A; Honeine Roland; Abou Jaoude Philippe; Irani Jihad

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The primary objective was to systematically review the medical literature for instruments validated for use in epidemiological and clinical research on waterpipe smoking. Methods We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included papers reporting on the development and/or validation of survey instruments to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption or r...

  6. Synergy of radon inhalation and tobacco smoking in the induction of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of contribution of tobacco smoking to the induction of lung cancer in persons living in environments with the enhanced radon concentrations is treated. An attempt is made to interpret the sub-multiplicative mechanism of the synergy of the two factors, i.e. a situation where the contribution of the two factors acting jointly is larger than their simple addition but lower than their multiplication, as currently assumed to hold. (P.A.)

  7. The Economic Impact of Early Life Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Early Intervention for Developmental Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Thaddeus; Rauh, Virginia A.; Glied, Sherry A.M.; Hattis, Dale; Rundle, Andrew; Andrews, Howard; Perera, Frederica

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objectives Early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) can result in developmental delay as well as childhood asthma and increased risk of cancer. The high cost of childhood asthma related to ETS exposure has been widely recognized; however, the economic impact of ETS-related developmental delay has been less well understood. Methods and Results The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) has reported adverse effects of prenatal ETS exposure on ...

  8. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Dalgård, Christine; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai...... with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of any tobacco exposure of infants....

  9. Effect of tobacco smoking on tissue protein citrullination and disease progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Alsalahy, Mahmoud M.; Nasser, Hamdy S.; Hashem, Manal M.; Elsayed, Sahar M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of tobacco smoking on disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients and its relation to anti-cyclical citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies. The study included 54 patients; 20 non-smokers, 9 ex-smokers, 14 mild to moderate smokers and 11 heavy smokers. Fifteen normal volunteers were also studied as controls. Disease stage was clinically and radiologically determined, rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-CCP antibodies were measured i...

  10. Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

  11. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura; Zucker, David; Hovell, Melbourne; Brown, Nili; Ram, Amit; Myers, Vicki

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP) measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM(2.5) during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM(2.5) levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM(2.5) feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor) was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring. PMID:26633440

  12. The effect of tobacco smoke on the metabolism and function of rat alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Harper, A; Gharibian, J; Karnovsky, M L; Huber, G L

    1978-04-01

    Alveolar macrophages harvested by bronchopulmonary lavage from rats exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days ("smokers") showed alterations in oxidative metabolism, lactate production and phagocytosis of inert starch particles when compared with control macrophages. Phagocytosis of viable Staphylococcus aureus was unaffected by tobacco smoke. Glucose oxidation measured by conversion of glucose-1-14C to 14CO2 moderately affected while oxidation of glucose-6-14C to 14CO2 was not. Smokers routinely yielded fewer cells than controls, though these cells contained approximately 17% more protein than did controls. Opsonization of particles was not necessary for macrophages from either smoker or control animals to manifest a respiratory burst and increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide release during phagocytosis. The glycolytic inhibitors, sodium fluoride and iodoacetamide, while effectively blocking glycolysis, did not inhibit phagocytosis by macrophages from either group. The results reported clearly distinguish alveolar macrophages from other phagocytic cells (peritoneal macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes) and suggest a state of non-specific activation caused by exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:205549

  13. Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

    2014-04-01

    Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice. PMID:24327233

  14. Tobacco smoke exposure suppresses radiation-induced inflammation in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies on patients with breast cancer, who received postsurgical irradiation, displayed a markedly suppressed inflammatory response in the lung of smoking patients compared to nonsmokers. The aim of the present study was to investigate further the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke on the development of irradiation-induced pneumonitis in the rat. Four groups of animals were used: controls (C); those exposed to tobacco smoke (S); those irradiated but not exposed to smoke (RNS); and those irradiated and exposed to tobacco smoke (RS). The rats were exposed to a diluted main stream of cigarette smoke, at a concentration of about 0.4 mgxl-1, in a nose-only exposure system for 1 hxday-1, 5 daysxweek-1 for 10 weeks. Exposure to tobacco smoke started 3 weeks before irradiation. The basal one third of both lungs was exposed to a single radiation dose of 28 Gy (6 MeV photons). All animals were killed 7 weeks after irradiation. We compared findings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and tissue morphology. The alveolar tissue showed less inflammation in the RS-group than in the RNS-group. Most strikingly, mast cells were increased one hundredfold in the lung interstitium and thirty fold in the peribronchial area in the RNS-group, whereas no increase was found in the RS-group or in the controls. The alveolar septa of the RNS-group were thickened, with occurrence of inflammatory cells and mast cells, whereas the RS-group displayed no difference as compared to the non-irradiated, nonsmoking group (C). There was a marked discrepancy between the findings in BAL and tissue of the alveolar space or lung interstitium. In BAL, neutrophils, and to a lesser extent lymphocytes, were increased both in the RS- and RNS-group; however, with significantly higher numbers in the RNS-group. In contrast, the cells in the alveolar space and interstitium were dominated by mononuclear cells, mainly macrophages. Moreover, a more than twenty fold increase in total cells in the alveolar space

  15. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease related to wood smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mauricio González-García,1,2 Carlos A Torres-Duque,1,2 Adriana Bustos,1 Claudia Jaramillo,1 Darío Maldonado1,21Fundación Neumológica Colombiana, 2Universidad de la Sabana, Bogotá, ColombiaPurpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD related to wood smoke exposure is characterized by important inflammation of the central and peripheral airways without significant emphysema. The objective of this study is to describe the bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR level in women with COPD related to wood smoke exposure and to compare it with the BHR in women with COPD related to tobacco smoking.Materials and methods: Two groups of women with stable COPD were studied: (1 wood smoke exposed (WS-COPD; and (2 tobacco smoke exposed (TS-COPD. A methacholine challenge test (MCT was performed in all patients according to American Thoracic Society criteria. BHR levels were compared using the methacholine concentration, which caused a 20% fall in the FEV1 (PC20.Results: Thirty-one patients, 19 with WS-COPD and 12 with TS-COPD, were included. There were no significant differences between the groups in baseline FVC, FEV1, IC, FEF25–75, and FEF25–75/FVC. All 31 patients had a positive MCT (PC20 , <16 mg/mL and the fall in the FEV1 and IC was similar in both groups. The severity of BHR was significantly higher in the WS-COPD patients (PC20: 0.39 mg/mL than in the TS-COPD patients (PC20: 1.24 mg/mL (P = 0.028. The presence of cough, phlegm, and dyspnea during the test were similar in both groups.Conclusion: We found moderate to severe BHR in women with WS-COPD, which was more severe than in the TS-COPD women with similar age and airflow obstruction. This paper suggests that the structural and inflammatory changes induced by the chronic exposure to wood smoke, described in other studies, can explain the differences with TS-COPD patients. Future studies may clarify our understanding of the impact of BHR on COPD physiopathology, phenotypes, and treatment

  16. Increased Burden of Respiratory Disease in the First Six Months of Life Due to Prenatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Krakow Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Alek Sander; Flak, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Penar, Agnieszka; Spengler, John; Perera, Frederica P.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prenatal tobacco smoke on respiratory symptoms and on doctor consultations in a birth cohort of 445 infants who had no smoking mothers and who had no postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Before and after delivery, questionnaires and interviews with mothers were…

  17. Health warnings on tobacco packaging in Italy: do they describe all possible smoking-related conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Colamesta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to evaluate the adherence between the health warnings on tobacco products in Italy and the smoking-related conditions known in the scientific literature. The Legislative Decree 2003 and 2012 established the general and the additional warnings on tobacco packaging. Regarding the smoking-related conditions, the health damages presented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC report are reported. Also a narrative review was performed. Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood neurobehavioral disorders are well reported in the textual health warning. Also there is at least one message indicating that the exposure of secondhand smoke is harmful. Conversely, several smoking-related cancers and other adverse health effects (diabetes, hip fractures, low bone density in postmenopausal women, rheumatoid arthritis, mental decline, acne and allergy, etc are not considered. The health warnings represent an important mean for communicating that may change smokers’ attitudes and behaviours, therefore, it’s important to implement them, also considering the introduction of graphical warnings, to maintain their effectiveness over time.

  18. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  19. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  20. Health-care provider screening for tobacco smoking and advice to quit - 17 countries, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable mortality in the world. Article 14 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) states that countries should promote cessation of tobacco use and adequate treatment for tobacco dependence. Health-care providers asking all patients about their tobacco use and advising tobacco users to quit are evidence-based strategies that increase tobacco abstinence. This report examines the proportion of tobacco smokers in 17 countries responding to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) who saw a health-care provider in the past year and who reported that a health-care provider asked them about smoking and advised them to quit. Respondents were tobacco smokers aged ≥15 years surveyed during 2008-2011 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam. The proportion of smokers who had visited a health-care provider during the previous 12 months ranged from 21.6% in Egypt to 62.3% in Poland. Among these, the proportion reporting that a health-care provider asked if they smoked ranged from 34.9% in Vietnam to 82.1% in Romania. Among those screened for tobacco use, those who reported their health-care providers advised them to quit ranged from 17.3% in Mexico to 67.3% in Romania. In most countries, persons aged ≥45 years were more likely to report being screened and advised to quit than were persons aged ≤24 years. Health-care providers should identify smokers and provide advice and assistance in quitting at each visit as an adjunct to effective community interventions (e.g., increased price of tobacco products; smoke-free policies, mass media campaigns, and tobacco quitlines). PMID:24257201

  1. Prospective Study of Tobacco Smoking and Substance Dependencies among Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nadine M.; Hartsough, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    A longitudinal study involving 400 children, one third of whom were identified as hyperactive in 1974, investigated tobacco smoking and substance dependencies. The results found almost twice as many participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder smoked cigarettes daily as controls and twice as many were cocaine dependent. (CR)

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking. A multilevel study in 29 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer;

    2016-01-01

    regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate...

  3. Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for depression. A 26-year population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; von Scholten, Mikael Bay; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Prescott, Eva; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2011-01-01

    A key question regarding the documented association between smoking and depression is whether it reflects a causal influence of smoking on depression; however, only a limited number of longitudinal studies exist in the literature, all of which have relatively short time frames. The purpose was to...... prospectively assess the risk of depression according to daily tobacco consumption in a Danish longitudinal study....

  4. The Influence of Tobacco Smoking on the Onset of Periodontitis in Young Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullally Brian H

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the evidence for cigarette smoking as a risk factor for the development of severe destructive periodontal disease in young adults. A high prevalence of cigarette smoking has been identified among young individuals with aggressive periodontitis and tobacco usage increases the risk of periodontal destruction most significantly in young populations. The effect appears to be dose related and is independent of levels of plaque accumulation. Young smokers have more alveolar bone loss and attachment loss than non smoking equivalents. Prolonged and heavy smoking can reduce gingival bleeding and therefore mask the clinical marker of bleeding on probing often used by dentists to monitor periodontal health. This has implications for potential misdiagnosis and failure to detect periodontitis at an early stage. Nicotine metabolites concentrate in the periodontal tissues and can have local effects as well as the potential to affect the systemic host response. Dentists are well placed to assess the smoking status of their young patients and have a role to play in the delivery of smoking cessation advice especially as it pertains to periodontal health. In this way the dental profession can also make a significant contribution to the general health and well being of our youth and future generations.

  5. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and risk of renal cell cancer: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Tariq

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney and renal pelvis cancers account for 4% of all new cancer cases in the United States, among which 85% are renal cell carcinomas (RCC. While cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for RCC, little is known about the contribution of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to RCC incidence. This study assesses the role of smoking and ETS on RCC incidence using a population-based case-control design in Florida and Georgia. Methods Incident cases (n = 335 were identified from hospital records and the Florida cancer registry, and population controls (n = 337 frequency-matched by age (+/- 5 years, gender, and race were identified through random-digit dialing. In-person interviews assessed smoking history and lifetime exposure to ETS at home, work, and public spaces. Home ETS was measured in both years and hours of exposure. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression, controlled for age, gender, race, and BMI. Results Cases were more likely to have smoked 20 or more pack-years, compared with never-smokers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.93 – 1.95. A protective effect was found for smoking cessation, beginning with 11–20 years of cessation (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.18–0.85 and ending with 51 or more years of cessation (OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.39 in comparison with those having quit for 1–10 years. Among never-smokers, cases were more likely to report home ETS exposure of greater than 20 years, compared with those never exposed to home ETS (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.14–4.18. Home ETS associations were comparable when measured in lifetime hours of exposure, with cases more likely to report 30,000 or more hours of home ETS exposure (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20–4.69. Highest quartiles of combined home/work ETS exposure among never-smokers, especially with public ETS exposure, increased RCC risk by 2 to 4 times. Conclusion These findings confirm known associations between smoking and RCC and establish a

  6. FDA's misplaced priorities: premarket review under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Desmond; Lester, Joelle; Berman, Micah L

    2016-05-01

    Among other key objectives, the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act was designed to end an era of constant product manipulation by the tobacco industry that had led to more addictive and attractive products. The law requires new tobacco products to undergo premarket review by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be sold. To assess FDA's implementation of its premarket review authorities, we reviewed FDA actions on new product applications, publicly available data on industry applications to market new products, and related FDA guidance documents and public statements. We conclude that FDA has not implemented the premarket review process in a manner that prioritises the protection of public health. In particular, FDA has (1) prioritised the review of premarket applications that allow for the introduction of new tobacco products over the review of potentially non-compliant products that are already on the market; (2) misallocated resources by accommodating the industry's repeated submissions of deficient premarket applications and (3) weakened the premarket review process by allowing the tobacco industry to market new and modified products that have not completed the required review process. PMID:27068243

  7. Approaching tobacco dependence in youngsters: impact of an interactive smoking cessation program in a population of Romanian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Trofor, Antigona; Mihaicuta, Stefan; Man, Milena Adina; MIRON Ramona; Esanu, Valentina; Trofor, Letitia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive smoking cessation program when first implemented in a naïve population of Romanian adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess youngsters\\' attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco dependence, their compliance to smoking cessation interventions and success rate of a standard smoking cessation pilot program. Materials and methods: A total of 231 subjects 14-19 years old particip...

  8. Empowering smokers with a web-assisted tobacco intervention to use prescription smoking cessation medications: a feasibility trial

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Peter; Hussain, Sarwar; Voci, Sabrina; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Background Varenicline and bupropion, efficacious smoking cessation medications, have had suboptimal impact due to barriers at the patient, practitioner and system level. This study explored the feasibility of a web-assisted tobacco intervention offering free prescription smoking cessation medication by mail if the smoker visited a physician for authorization. Methods Adult Ontarians, smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily, intending to quit within 30 days, with no contraindications to bupropio...

  9. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  10. Urine Cotinine for Assessing Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Korean: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Sungmo; Lee, In Seon; Kim, Sae Byol; Moon, Chan Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    Background The level of urine cotinine is an indicator of tobacco smoke exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate urine cotinine for the purpose of assessing the smoking status of Korean smokers and non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods The subjects were identified from the 2007-2009 and the 2010 data sets of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). They were assigned as non-smokers, current smokers and ex-smokers. Non-smokers were also divided...

  11. Male tobacco smoke load and non-lung cancer mortality associations in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clancy Luke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different methods exist to estimate smoking attributable cancer mortality rates (Peto and Ezzati methods, as examples. However, the smoking attributable estimates using these methods cannot be generalized to all population sub-groups. A simpler method has recently been developed that can be adapted and applied to different population sub-groups. This study assessed cumulative tobacco smoke damage (smoke load/non-lung cancer mortality associations across time from 1979 to 2003 among all Massachusetts males and ages 30–74 years, using this novel methodology. Methods Annual lung cancer death rates were used as smoke load bio-indices, and age-adjusted lung/all other (non-lung cancer death rates were analyzed with linear regression approach. Non-lung cancer death rates include all cancer deaths excluding lung. Smoking-attributable-fractions (SAFs for the latest period (year 2003 were estimated as: 1-(estimated unexposed cancer death rate/observed rate. Results Male lung and non-lung cancer death rates have declined steadily since 1992. Lung and non-lung cancer death rates were tightly and steeply associated across years. The slopes of the associations analyzed were 1.69 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.35–2.04, r = 0.90, and 1.36 (CI 1.14–1.58, r = 0.94 without detected autocorrelation (Durbin-Watson statistic = 1.8. The lung/non-lung cancer death rate associations suggest that all-sites cancer death rate SAFs in year 2003 were 73% (Sensitivity Range [SR] 61–82% for all ages and 74% (SR 61–82% for ages 30–74 years. Conclusion The strong lung/non-lung cancer death rate associations suggest that tobacco smoke load may be responsible for most prematurely fatal cancers at both lung and non-lung sites. The present method estimates are greater than the earlier estimates. Therefore, tobacco control may reduce cancer death rates more than previously noted.

  12. Characterization of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental tobacco smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been conducted to investigate the distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). ETS is the smoke that is present in the ambient air due to smoking of tobacco. Types of cigarettes (C1R1 and C6R1) were chosen based on a result of a simple survey carried out to determine the consumer choice of cigarette brand. In analyzing the ETS, volunteers were asked to smoke each brand of cigarette in a closed room and the ETS was then collected using the high Volume Air Sampler fitted with a glass fiber filter. Smoke samples from the glass fiber filter were then extracted using Ultrasonic Agitation and fractionated into aliphatic and aromatic fraction using silica-alumina column. Identification and quantification was done using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Results indicated the presence of n-alkanes in ETS, ranging from C13 to C36 with an odd to even carbon number predominance with Carbon Preference Index(CPI) values ranging from 3.34 to 4.90. Total identified resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons (TIRAH) concentration found in ETS ranged from 590 μg m-3 to 591 μg m-3 with the percentage of plant wax n-alkanes ranging from 61% to 64% of the TIRAH found in ETS samples. In source apportionment, CPI > 1 and high percentage of plant wax n-alkanes has generally been associated with the contribution of terrestrial plant source, thus this result indicates that even after curing process and smoking of tobacco, the overall signature of the source of n-alkanes is still preserved. Amount of PAHs detected in all ETS samples ranged from 11.7 ng m-3 to 56.1 ng m-3. Results also indicated the presence of medium to high molecular weight PAHs with dominant presence of benzo(g, h, i)perylene compound. This result seems to support the contention that smoking process involves a high temperature burning with an oxygen deficient zone in the cigarette itself. Although the concentrations were low, the carcinogenic and

  13. The impact of early life stress on risk of tobacco smoking initiation by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipkin, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early life stress is known to be associated with increased propensity to substance abuse. The present study seeks to confirm the association between early life stress and tobacco smoking initiation by adolescents.METHODS: This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study (FCOU, which is a part of the cohort study in Europe for pregnancy and childhood “ELSPAC”. Main exposures were stressful life event scores at 3 and 7 years that were calculated by summing the perceived impact score reported by mothers for each life event. Smoking status of the adolescent and age of smoking initiation, reported at the 16-years-old follow-up, were outcome measures. Data were analyzed using multivariate binary logistic regression models separately for boys and girls controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and mother’s smoking.RESULTS: Stressful life events score was available for 898 participants at age 3 years and for 840 participants at age 7 years and varied from 0 to 48 points, with mean equal 4.69 and 5.96 respectively. In the gender-stratified analysis current smoking by boys or girls was not associated with early life stress measured at 3 years old. Association between smoking and early life stress at age 7 years was not observed for boys. However, girls who experienced much stress at 7 years (more than 12 points had 3 times higher odds of smoking (OR=2.94, 95% CI=1.26-6.83.Girls who had scored more than 12 points for stressful life events at 3 or 7 years old were respectively three times (OR=3.34, 95% CI=1.50-7.42 or 2 times (OR=2.19, 95% CI=1.01-4.74 more likely to start smoking at 13 years old or younger. CONCLUSIONS: Early life stress may have effect on vulnerability to tobacco smoking by adolescents. However, this effect was significant only for girls at high incidence of stressful life events.

  14. Socioeconomic Differences in Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Pollution (TSP in Bangladeshi Households with Children: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey T. Fong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94 or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07 and being a smoker (OR = 0.24. The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64, attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94, being a smoker (OR = 0.40 and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25. The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.

  15. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  16. Support for smoke-free policy, and awareness of tobacco health effects and use of smoking cessation therapy in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing an epidemic increase in smoking prevalence is a major challenge for developing countries. Ghana, has maintained a low smoking prevalence despite the presence of cigarette manufacturing for many decades. Some of this success may have been contributed by cultural factors and attitudes. We have studied public awareness of health risks, attitudes to smoke-free policy, tobacco advertising/promotion and other factors in a Ghanaian population sample. Methods We used two-stage cluster randomized sampling to study household members aged 14 and over in a representative household sample in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Results 6258 people, 88% of those eligible, took part in the study. Knowledge of health risks of smoking and passive smoking was high; radio was the main source of such information. Most people work and/or spend time in places where smoking is permitted. There was very strong support (97% for comprehensive smoke-free legislation, particularly among Christians and Muslims. Despite the advertising ban, a third of respondents (35%, particularly in urban areas, had noticed advertising of tobacco or tobacco products, on the radio (72% and television (28%. Among smokers, 76% had attempted to quit in the last 6 months, with the main sources of advice being friends and spouses. Use of nicotine replacement therapy was very rare. Low levels of health awareness were seen in females compared with males (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR; 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.69, p Conclusion Awareness of health risks and support for smoke-free policy are high in Ghana. Exposure to tobacco advertising or promotion is limited and most smokers have tried to quit. Whether these findings are cause or effect of current low smoking prevalence is uncertain.

  17. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  18. Psychophysiological reactivity to environmental tobacco smoke on smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Juan R; González-Javier, Francisca; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an air pollutant with a relevant impact on public health. In addition, ETS is a significant stimulus that may elicit different responses depending on previous experience and current status regarding smoking. Exposure to cigarette cues has been shown to be a reliable method for inducing subjective and physiological responses. However, the role of ETS as a stimulus has not received, to date, enough attention in the research literature. This study aimed to analyse both the autonomic and subjective responses of smokers and non-smokers to exposure to ETS. To that end, 41 non-smokers and 57 smokers were exposed to ETS, in a controlled laboratory setting. We measured the subjective perception of smoke, unpleasantness, heart rate and skin conductance to compare the reactions of smokers and non-smokers to ETS. Additionally, subjective tobacco craving after exposure was assessed for current smokers. We found different psychophysiological responses to ETS exposure for smokers and non-smokers. Smokers showed a generalised increase in autonomic activity, significantly greater than that of non-smokers. In addition, heart rate increase during exposure to ETS was positively correlated with subjective craving. Our data suggested that ETS was an important stimulus and acted as a relevant cue for smokers; it induced both psychophysiological reactions and subjective craving. Hence, this kind of stimulus within the cue-reactivity research paradigm may be useful for studying the effect of ETS on smokers' reactions, craving, quitting attempts, or relapse probabilities. PMID:22465376

  19. Pharmacokinetic predisposition to nicotine from environmental tobacco smoke: a risk factor for pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J M; Eliopoulos, C; Klein, J; Greenwald, M; Koren, G

    1998-01-01

    . These data suggest that out of all children passively exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, those who exhibit asthma have a higher systemic exposure to nicotine, possibly due to lower clearance rate. This is the first evidence of pharmacokinetic predisposition to environmental tobacco smoke as an etiological factor in pediatric asthma. PMID:9513590

  20. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  1. Evidence Suggests That The ACA's Tobacco Surcharges Reduced Insurance Take-Up And Did Not Increase Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Abigail S; Schpero, William L; Busch, Susan H

    2016-07-01

    To account for tobacco users' excess health care costs and encourage cessation, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed insurers to impose a surcharge on tobacco users' premiums for plans offered on the health insurance exchanges, or Marketplaces. Low-income tax credits for Marketplace coverage were based on premiums for non-tobacco users, which means that these credits did not offset any surcharge costs. Thus, this policy greatly increased out-of-pocket premiums for many tobacco users. Using data for 2011-14 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the effect of tobacco surcharges on insurance status and smoking cessation in the first year of the exchanges' implementation, among adults most likely to purchase insurance from them. Relative to smokers who faced no surcharges, smokers facing medium or high surcharges had significantly reduced coverage (reductions of 4.3 percentage points and 11.6 percentage points, respectively), but no significant differences in smoking cessation. In contrast, those facing low surcharges showed significantly less smoking cessation. Taken together, these findings suggest that tobacco surcharges conflicted with a major goal of the ACA-increased financial protection-without increasing smoking cessation. States should consider these potential effects when deciding whether to limit surcharges to less than the federal maximum. PMID:27385231

  2. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Methods. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Conclusions. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises.

  3. The status of tobacco use and knowledge, and attitudes relating to smoking among female students in a Bengbu medical school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Qi; Cuizhu Mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To learn the status of tobacco use, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female students in Bengbu Medical College. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, questionnaires were completed by 634 female students in the medical college in 2007,including the prevalence of current smoking, their knowledge of the effects of tobacco use on health, and attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women. Results: Only 6.9% of female medical students were former smokers, and 4.9% of them were current smokers. There was no significant difference in the current smoking rate among the students from each department surveyed. Female students from urban areas were more likely to be current or attempted smokers than those from rural areas. The proportion of the students who were aware of the health risks of smoking was less than 45%. The students from the Department of Nursing had more knowledge regarding the harmful health effects of smoking than those from the other departments. There was no significant difference in attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women among the students from each department. Compared with female students from rural areas, the female students from urban areas were significantly more likely to think that a young woman who smoked was cool, mature and charming. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence of the female students in Bengbu Medical College is high. They are not aware of the smoking related risks and have erroneous beliefs and perceptions about female smoking behaviors.

  4. Influence of Diet and Tobacco Smoking on Pancreatic Cancer Incidence in Poland in 1960–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Jarosz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between pancreatic cancer incidence and selected dietary factors, alcohol consumption, and tobacco smoking in Poland in 1960–2008. Data on pancreatic cancer morbidity were derived from the National Cancer Registry and on food consumption from the national food balance sheets. In 1960–1989 correlations were found between pancreatic cancer incidence rates and energy (0.60 for males and 0.57 for females, cholesterol (0.87 and 0.80, fibre (−0.84 and −0.89 and folate (−0.45 and −0.49 intake, the consumption of total fats (0.94 and 0.91, animal fats (0,90 and 0,82, sugar (0.88 and 0.87, cereals (−0.93 and −0.91, and alcohol (0.86 and 0.82. In 1990–2008 morbidity correlated with the consumption of red meat (0.67 and 0.48, poultry (−0.88 and −0.57, and fruit (−0.62 and −0.50. Correlation with tobacco smoking was observed in the whole studied period (0.55 and 0.44. Increased incidence of pancreatic cancer in 1960–1995 was probably related to adverse dietary patterns up to 1989, especially high consumption of fats, sugar, and alcohol. Further positive changes in the diet such as lowering red meat consumption and increasing fruit consumption could influence incidence reduction in recent years. Also changes in tobacco smoking could affect the morbidity.

  5. No Smoke without Tobacco: A Global Overview of Cannabis and Tobacco Routes of Administration and Their Association with Intention to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P.; Ferris, Jason A.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Winstock, Adam R.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis and tobacco are common drugs of abuse worldwide and are often used in combination through various routes of administration (ROAs). Here, we aimed to provide an overview of how cannabis and tobacco routes varied across countries and assess the impact of tobacco-based ROAs on motivation to use less cannabis, and less tobacco, in different models. A cross-sectional online survey (Global Drugs Survey 2014) was completed by 33,687 respondents (mean age = 27.9; % female = 25.9) who smoked cannabis at least once in the last 12 months. Most common ROA, frequency of cannabis/tobacco use, and questions about motivation to use less cannabis/tobacco were recorded. Tobacco-based ROA were used by 65.6% of respondents. These were most common in Europe (77.2–90.9%) and Australasia (20.7–51.6%) and uncommon in the Americas (4.4–16.0%). Vaporizer use was most common in Canada (13.2%) and the United States (11.2%). Using a non-tobacco ROA was associated with a 10.7% increase in odds for “desire to use less” tobacco (OR: 1.107, 95% CI: 1.003, 1.221), 80.6% increase in odds for “like help to use less tobacco” (OR: 1.806, 95% CI: 1.556, 2.095), and a 103.9% increase in the odds for “planning to seek help to use less tobacco” (OR: 2.039, 95% CI: 1.638, 2.539), in comparison to using a tobacco-based ROA. Associations between ROA and intentions to use less cannabis were inconsistent. Results support considerable global variation in cannabis and tobacco ROA. Tobacco routes are common, especially “joints with tobacco,” especially in Europe, but not in the Americas. Non-tobacco-based routes are associated with increased motivation to change tobacco use. Interventions addressing tobacco and cannabis need to accommodate this finding and encourage non-tobacco routes.

  6. Plasma enzymatic antioxidant levels in non smoke tobacco consuming Oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teklal Patel, Vikram Kulkarni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally Oral Cancer is the sixth most common cause death with India accounts for 86% of the world’s oral cancer cases. Chronic tobacco quid consumption often results in a progressive premalignant condition called Oral Sub mucous Fibrosis (OSMF whose malignant transformation rate of is around 7.6%. Free radicals released during the metabolism of tobacco and Areca nut my involved in the initiation and propagation of mucosal fibrosis. Objective: the objective of the present study is to measure antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels in OSMF to assess oxidative stress like environment in OSMF patients. Materials and methods: for this study we invited 38 newly diagnosed OSMF patients both male and female consuming tobacco in the form of quid and the same number of age matched healthy non tobacco consuming were selected as a control group. In both groups plasma superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase, catalase levels and lipid peroxidation rate was measured. Results and conclusion: we observed very low antioxidant enzyme levels in OSMF patients when compared with healthy controls (P<0.01 and at the same time also observed very high lipid peroxidation rate in the study population (P<0.01 compare to control group indicating prevalence of oxidative stress like environment in tobacco consuming population, which might play a vital role in the initiation and propagation of various precancerous conditions like OSMF.

  7. Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5

    OpenAIRE

    Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen; Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel; Theresa Wimberley; Mette Underbjerg; Tina Røndrup Kilburn; Erik Lykke Mortensen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children’s IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered cor...

  8. Decline of the lung function related to the type of tobacco smoked and inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, P; Groth, S; Nyboe, J.; J. Mortensen; Appleyard, M.; Jensen, G; Schnohr, P.

    1990-01-01

    Data from a five year follow up study on 4372 smokers and 3753 non-smokers were analysed to investigate the influence of the type of tobacco smoked and whether the subjects said they inhaled or not on the decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The study sample comprised 1492 smokers of plain cigarettes and 1936 smokers of filter cigarettes, 1711 smokers of cheroots or cigars, and 233 male pipe smokers. Over the five years, smokers, especially those who said that they inhale...

  9. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil;

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  10. Effect of tobacco smoking on tissue protein citrullination and disease progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalahy, Mahmoud M; Nasser, Hamdy S; Hashem, Manal M; Elsayed, Sahar M

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of tobacco smoking on disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients and its relation to anti-cyclical citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies. The study included 54 patients; 20 non-smokers, 9 ex-smokers, 14 mild to moderate smokers and 11 heavy smokers. Fifteen normal volunteers were also studied as controls. Disease stage was clinically and radiologically determined, rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-CCP antibodies were measured in serum. Higher percentage of severe disease (stage III) was seen in heavy smoker patients than mild to moderate smokers (54.6% versus 35.7%) and in moderate smokers than ex-smokers (35.7% versus 33.6%). Lowest percentage of severe disease was seen in non-smokers (15%). RF and anti-CCP were significantly higher in smoker than non-smoker and in heavy than mild to moderate smoker patients (p < 0.01, p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). In smoker patients, both RF and anti-CCP antibodies correlated significantly and positively with smoking index (r = 0.581, p < 0.001; r = 0.661, p < 0.001). Also, smoking index and anti-CCP correlated significantly and positively with disease stage (r = 0.424, p < 0.05; r = 0.523, p < 0.01). It appears from our results that, tobacco smoking mostly play a role in progression of rheumatoid arthritis through tissue protein citrullination. So all rheumatoid arthritis patients must quit completely to achieve a good control. PMID:23960723

  11. Effect of tobacco smoking on tissue protein citrullination and disease progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalahy, Mahmoud M.; Nasser, Hamdy S.; Hashem, Manal M.; Elsayed, Sahar M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of tobacco smoking on disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients and its relation to anti-cyclical citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies. The study included 54 patients; 20 non-smokers, 9 ex-smokers, 14 mild to moderate smokers and 11 heavy smokers. Fifteen normal volunteers were also studied as controls. Disease stage was clinically and radiologically determined, rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-CCP antibodies were measured in serum. Higher percentage of severe disease (stage III) was seen in heavy smoker patients than mild to moderate smokers (54.6% versus 35.7%) and in moderate smokers than ex-smokers (35.7% versus 33.6%). Lowest percentage of severe disease was seen in non-smokers (15%). RF and anti-CCP were significantly higher in smoker than non-smoker and in heavy than mild to moderate smoker patients (p < 0.01, p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). In smoker patients, both RF and anti-CCP antibodies correlated significantly and positively with smoking index (r = 0.581, p < 0.001; r = 0.661, p < 0.001). Also, smoking index and anti-CCP correlated significantly and positively with disease stage (r = 0.424, p < 0.05; r = 0.523, p < 0.01). It appears from our results that, tobacco smoking mostly play a role in progression of rheumatoid arthritis through tissue protein citrullination. So all rheumatoid arthritis patients must quit completely to achieve a good control. PMID:23960723

  12. The Effect of Alpha-Tocopherol on Oxidative Stress and Ovarian Function in Rats Exposed to Tobacco Smokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahajeng Siti Nur Ratnawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the role of - tocopherol in inhibiting ovarian oxidative stress, changes in ovarian follicles, estradiol levels, and the thickness of the endometrium in rats exposed to tobacco smoke. Material and Methods: Forty female rats were divided into five groups consisting of a control group; group exposed to tobacco smoke; groups exposed to tobacco smokes receiving  - tocopherol supplementation at doses of 100; 200, and 400 mg/kg. Exposure to tobacco smoke was induced using smoke pumping equipment which was designed and made available in the Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University. Analysis of MDA level was done colorimetrically. Analysis of the number of ovarian follicles and endometrial thickness was done histopathologically with hematoxylin eosin staining. Analysis of estradiol level was done by ELISA technique. Results: Exposure to tobacco smoke in rats can increase ovarian MDA level (0.388 ± 0.085 significantly compared to the control (0.121 ± 0.026 (P> 0.05. -tocopherol in various doses can reduce MDA level significantly compared to the group exposed to tobacco smoke (P 0.05. Administration of -tocopherol in different doses increased the number of secondary follicles which reached the number in the control group (P> 0.05. The number of primary follicles in the -tocopherol group of the first dose (3.8 ± 1.095 was comparable to the control group (3.8 ± 1.095 (P> 0.05. The numbers of secondary follicles in the -tocopherol group of the first dose (5.2 ± 1.304 and of the second dose (5.4 ± 0.548 were significantly higher than the control group (3.6 ± 0.548 (P 0.05. Tobacco smoke lowered thickness of endometrium (209.491 ± 38.635 significantly compared with no exposure (600.265 ± 76.563 (P 0.05. Conclusion: Regarding the results describe above, it was concluded that -tocopherol could prevent oxidative damage and loss of ovarian function due

  13. Assessment of cerebral perfusion in chronic tobacco users through spect (single photon emission computed tomography) using Tc-99m HMPAO(metastable technetium-99 labelled hexa-methyl propylene amine oxime)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine an association between chronic tobacco use and changes in cerebral perfusion through semi-quantitative scintigraphic assessment employing metastable Technetium-99 labelled hexa-methyl propylene amine oxime single photon emission computed tomography (Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT). Design: Case-control study. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted at the Department of Medical Sciences, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore, Islamabad, from Oct 2001 to May 2002. Patients and Methods: Regional cerebral perfusion in 48 chronic tobacco users was evaluated, utilising a normal database created by HMPAO brain scans of 20 non-tobacco users. Subjects were classified into chronic tobacco users and non-tobacco users through the use of the smoking index (SI). [Smoking Index = Number of years of tobacco use x Number of cigarettes smoked per day]. SI value of 100 was taken as the cut-off value. Regions of interest (ROIs) were declared hypo perfused or hyper perfused if their percentage perfusion values relative to the average perfusion per pixel of the whole slice under evaluation did not fall within + 2 standard deviation (SD) of the mean regional perfusion in the corresponding ROI, in the normal control group. Result: Chronic tobacco users showed 164 hypo perfused ROIs (6.57%) and 138 hyper perfused ROIs (5.53%) out of 2496 ROIs assessed, whereas the normal controls showed only 15 hypo perfused (1.44%) and 27 hyper perfused (2.60%) ROIs out of 1040 ROIs assessed (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Cerebral perfusion in chronic tobacco users was found to be significantly decreased compared to the non-tobacco users. (author)

  14. Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to deem products meeting the statutory definition of "tobacco product,'' except accessories of the newly deemed tobacco products, to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The Tobacco Control Act provides FDA authority to regulate cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and any other tobacco products that the Agency by regulation deems to be subject to the law. With this final rule, FDA is extending the Agency's "tobacco product'' authorities in the FD&C Act to all other categories of products that meet the statutory definition of "tobacco product" in the FD&C Act, except accessories of such newly deemed tobacco products. This final rule also prohibits the sale of "covered tobacco products" to individuals under the age of 18 and requires the display of health warnings on cigarette tobacco, roll-your own tobacco, and covered tobacco product packages and in advertisements. FDA is taking this action to reduce the death and disease from tobacco products. In accordance with the Tobacco Control Act, we consider and intend the extension of our authorities over tobacco products and the various requirements and prohibitions established by this rule to be severable. PMID:27192730

  15. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Regina Martins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26% and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65% in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001. Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.

  16. Evaluation of anti-smoking television advertising on tobacco control among urban community population in Chongqing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xianglong; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Chengbin; Xie, Yao Jie; Wang, Harry Haoxiang; Zhu, Runzhi; Li, Wentao; An, Libin; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background China is the largest producer and consumer of tobacco in the world. Considering the constantly growing urban proportion, persuasive tobacco control measures are important in urban communities. Television, as one of the most pervasive mass media, can be used for this purpose. Methods The anti-smoking advertisement was carried out in five different time slots per day from 15 May to 15 June in 2011 across 12 channels of Chongqing TV. A cross-sectional study was conducted in ...

  17. Effects of occupational exposure to tobacco smoke: is there a link between environmental exposure and disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Solange A; Torres, Vukosava M; Louro, Henriqueta; Gomes, Filomena; Lopes, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Fragoso, Elsa; Martins, Carla; Oliveira, Cátia L; Hagenfeldt, Manuela; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, evidence was provided that indoor secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) air pollution remains high in Lisbon restaurants where smoking is allowed, regardless of the protective measures used. The aim of this study was to determine in these locations the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with the particulate phase of SHS (PPAH), a fraction that contains recognized carginogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Data showed that restaurant smoking areas might contain PPAH levels as high as 110 ng/m(3), a value significantly higher than that estimated for nonsmoking areas (30 ng/m(3)) or smoke-free restaurants (22 ng/m(3)). The effective exposure to SHS components in restaurant smoking rooms was confirmed as cotinine levels found in workers' urine. Considering that all workers exhibited normal lung function, eventual molecular changes in blood that might be associated with occupational exposure to SHS and SHS-associated PPAH were investigated by measurement of two oxidative markers, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and serum, respectively. SHS-exposed workers exhibited higher mean levels of serum 8-OHdG than nonexposed workers, regardless of smoking status. By using a proteomics approach based on 2D-DIGE-MS, it was possible to identify nine differentially expressed proteins in the plasma of SHS-exposed nonsmoker workers. Two acute-phase inflammation proteins, ceruloplasmin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), were predominant. These two proteins presented a high number of isoforms modulated by SHS exposure with the high-molecular-weight (high-MW) isoforms decreased in abundance while low-MW isoforms were increased in abundance. Whether these expression profiles are due to (1) a specific proteolytic cleavage, (2) a change on protein stability, or (3) alterations on post-translational modification pattern of these proteins remains to be investigated. Considering that these

  18. Waterpipe Tobacco Use in the United Kingdom: A Cross-Sectional Study among University Students and Stop Smoking Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Choaie, Elham; Brose, Leonie; Dogar, Omara; Grant, Aimee; Jenkinson, Elizabeth; McEwen, Andy; Millett, Christopher; Shahab, Lion

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite cigarette-like adverse health outcomes associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking and increase in its use among youth, it is a much underexplored research area. We aimed to measure the prevalence and patterns of waterpipe tobacco use and evaluate tobacco control policy with respect to waterpipe tobacco, in several universities across the UK. We also aimed to measure stop smoking practitioners’ encounter of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods We distributed an online survey to six UK universities, asking detailed questions on waterpipe tobacco. Multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, graduate status, university and socioeconomic status (SES) assessed associations between waterpipe tobacco smoking (single use and dual use with cigarettes) and sociodemographic variables. SES was ascertained by average weekly self-spend on non-essentials. We also descriptively analysed data from a 2012 survey of stop smoking practitioners to assess the proportion of clients that used waterpipe regularly. Results f 2217 student responses, 66.0% (95% CI 63.9–68.0%) had tried waterpipe tobacco smoking; 14.3% (95% CI 12.8–15.8%) reported past-30 day use, and 8.7% (95% CI 7.6–9.9%) reported at least monthly users. Past-30 day waterpipe-only use was associated with being younger (AOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99), male (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08–1.94), higher SES (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06–1.28) and belonging to non-white ethnicities (vs. white, AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.66–3.04). Compared to less than monthly users, monthly users were significantly more likely to have urges to smoke waterpipe (28.1% vs. 3.1%, p<0.001) report difficulty in quitting (15.5% vs. 0.8%, p<0.001), report feeling guilty, and annoyed when criticised about waterpipe smoking (19.2% vs. 9.2%, p<0.001). Nearly a third (32.5%) of respondents who had tried waterpipe had violated the UK smokefree law and a quarter (24.5%) reporting seeing health warnings on waterpipe

  19. Waterpipe Tobacco Use in the United Kingdom: A Cross-Sectional Study among University Students and Stop Smoking Practitioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    Full Text Available Despite cigarette-like adverse health outcomes associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking and increase in its use among youth, it is a much underexplored research area. We aimed to measure the prevalence and patterns of waterpipe tobacco use and evaluate tobacco control policy with respect to waterpipe tobacco, in several universities across the UK. We also aimed to measure stop smoking practitioners' encounter of waterpipe tobacco smoking.We distributed an online survey to six UK universities, asking detailed questions on waterpipe tobacco. Multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, graduate status, university and socioeconomic status (SES assessed associations between waterpipe tobacco smoking (single use and dual use with cigarettes and sociodemographic variables. SES was ascertained by average weekly self-spend on non-essentials. We also descriptively analysed data from a 2012 survey of stop smoking practitioners to assess the proportion of clients that used waterpipe regularly.f 2217 student responses, 66.0% (95% CI 63.9-68.0% had tried waterpipe tobacco smoking; 14.3% (95% CI 12.8-15.8% reported past-30 day use, and 8.7% (95% CI 7.6-9.9% reported at least monthly users. Past-30 day waterpipe-only use was associated with being younger (AOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99, male (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08-1.94, higher SES (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.28 and belonging to non-white ethnicities (vs. white, AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.66-3.04. Compared to less than monthly users, monthly users were significantly more likely to have urges to smoke waterpipe (28.1% vs. 3.1%, p<0.001 report difficulty in quitting (15.5% vs. 0.8%, p<0.001, report feeling guilty, and annoyed when criticised about waterpipe smoking (19.2% vs. 9.2%, p<0.001. Nearly a third (32.5% of respondents who had tried waterpipe had violated the UK smokefree law and a quarter (24.5% reporting seeing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco packaging or apparatuses. Of 1

  20. Arteriosclerosis of carotid arteries in identical twins discordant in tobacco smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplex Doppler US has proved to be an accurate method of evaluating the arteriosclerotic process in extracranial carotid arteries. Tobacco smoking is generally considered to be a factor promoting arteriosclerosis. The authors performed duplex US examinations of the carotid arteries of 48 pairs (96 individuals) of monozygotic twins discordant for smoking. The ages of the examinees ranged from 31 years to 77 years (mean, 52 years). Doppler measurements of femoral and popliteal arteries were also made. A difference in the grade of arteriosclerosis was perceived in 40 pairs of twins, in each case to the benefit of the nonsmoker. The most common change was a difference in intimal thickness. Carotid artery stenoses, 15%-60%, were found in seven cases. In addition, a difference in the size of minor plaques of the carotid bifurcations was verified in 26 pairs of twins. Three smokers were found to have an obstructive lesion in the lower extremity arteries. Arteriosclerotic changes were more common and more pronounced in smokers with a long exposure to tobacco

  1. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population.......We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population....

  2. Hookah (Shisha, Narghile Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS. A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Chaouachi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe” smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS, both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS, i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way.

  3. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  4. Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero and risk of stillbirth and death in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Henriksen, Tine Brink;

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the association between exposure to tobacco smoke in utero and the risk of stillbirth and infant death in a cohort of 25,102 singleton children of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark, from September 1989 to August 1996. Exposure to...... tobacco smoke in utero was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.9), and infant mortality was almost doubled in children born to women who had smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmokers (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence...... interval: 1.3, 2.6). Among children of women who stopped smoking during the first trimester, stillbirth and infant mortality was comparable with that in children of women who had been nonsmokers from the beginning of pregnancy. Conclusions were not changed after adjustment in a logistic regression model...

  5. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eifer Møller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n = 25,076; exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343; exposure only postnatally (n = 140; and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188. Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58-1.97, respectively. Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (<2,500 gram revealed similar results. A significant prenatal dose-response relationship was found. Per one additional cigarette smoked per day an increase in risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03. When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09-1.50 compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for

  6. The association between tobacco smoking and use of other psychoactive substances among Egyptian male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueif, M I; Darweesh, Z A; Taha, H S

    1985-05-01

    The present study is part of a large scale project on the extent of substance use among young people in Egypt. Data collected on two representative samples of secondary school boys (N = 5530) and technical school pupils (N = 3686) through the administration of a standardized questionnaire are broken down along four parameters: tobacco smoking, use of medical psychoactive substances, consumption of natural narcotics and alcohol drinking. In the present paper we concentrate on relevant answers of tobacco smokers vs. non-smokers in both secondary school and technical school students. More smokers than non-smokers were found to be living away from their families and stating that at least one of the parents was dead. More smokers than non-smokers reported participating in peers' activities. Smokers were, also, found to outnumber non-smokers in being exposed to various kinds of drug-use related stimuli. Invariably, tobacco smokers were found to be more daring than non-smokers in thinking of psychoactive substances, in trying such substances and in continuing to take them. Smokers were, moreover, reported to exceed non-smokers in being under treatment from various physical as well as psychological ailments. These findings were discussed with emphasis on their heuristic value for the development of plans for treatment and/or prevention. PMID:4017877

  7. Living with HIV, antiretroviral treatment experience and tobacco smoking: results from a multisite cross-sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, Xavier; Baron, Gabriel; Garelik, Daniel; Villes, Virginie; Dupré, Thierry; Leport, Catherine; Lert, France; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Ravaud, Philippe; Spire, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking and dependence in HIV patients. METHODS: In a one-day cross-sectional national survey of a representative sample of 82 French units specialized in HIV-infected patient care, 727 consecutive outpatients were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, assessing smoking habits, dependence, cessation motivation, other substance abuse, sociocultural characteristics, life with HIV and its treatment. Smokin...

  8. Social Media Use for Public Health Campaigning in a Low Resource Setting: The Case of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Jawad; Jooman Abass; Ahmad Hariri; Akl, Elie A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing worldwide despite its documented health effects. A general belief that it is less harmful than cigarettes may be fuelled by the lack of media campaigns highlighting its health effects. We aimed to create and assess the impact of a social media campaign about dangers of waterpipe smoking. Methods. The “ShishAware” campaign included three social media (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) and a website. Nine months after launch we coll...

  9. Large-scale unassisted smoking cessation over 50 years: lessons from history for endgame planning in tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Simon; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    In the 50 years since the twentieth century's smoking epidemic began to decline from the beginning of the 1960s, hundreds of millions of smokers around the world have stopped smoking permanently. Overwhelmingly, most stopped without any formal assistance in the form of medication or professional assistance, including many millions of former heavy smokers. Nascent discussion about national and global tobacco endgame scenarios is dominated by an assumption that transitioning from cigarettes to ...

  10. Impact of Reduced Tobacco Smoking on Lung Cancer Mortality in the United States During 1975–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Moolgavkar, Suresh H.; Holford, Theodore R.; Levy, David T.; Foy, Millenia; Clarke, Lauren; Jeon, Jihyoun; Hazelton, William D.; Meza, Rafael; Schultz, Frank; McCarthy, William; de Boer, Robert; Gorlova, Olga; Kimmel, Marek; de Koning, Harry J.; Feuer, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable effort has been expended on tobacco control strategies in the United States since the mid-1950s. However, we have little quantitative information on how changes in smoking behaviors have impacted lung cancer mortality. We quantified the cumulative impact of changes in smoking behaviors that started in the mid-1950s on lung cancer mortality in the United States over the period 1975–2000. Methods: A consortium of six groups of investigators used common inputs consisting...

  11. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs. PMID:15068204

  12. The influence of tobacco smoking on the relationship between pressure and flow in the middle cerebral artery in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C Peebles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of stroke but the mechanism is unclear. The study examined whether acute and chronic cigarette smoking alters the dynamic relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. We hypothesised that acute and chronic smoking would result in a cerebral circulation that was less capable of buffering against dynamic fluctuations in blood pressure. Further, these changes would be accompanied by a reduction in baroreflex sensitivity, which is reduced after smoking (acute smoking. METHODS: We recruited 17 non-smokers and 15 habitual smokers (13 ± 5 pack years. Continuous measurements of mean cerebral blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler ultrasound, blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography and heart rate enabled transfer function analysis of the dynamic relationship between pressure and flow (gain, normalised gain, phase and coherence and baroreflex sensitivity during supine rest before and after smoking a single cigarette (acute smoking. RESULTS: There were no between-group differences in gain, phase or coherence before acute smoking. However, both groups showed a reduction in gain and coherence, associated with a reduction in baroreflex sensitivity, and increase in phase after acute smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our hypothesis, these findings suggest that in the face of a reduction in baroreflex sensitivity acute smoking may potentially improve the ability of the cerebral circulation to buffer against changes in blood pressure. However, chronic smoking did not alter the dynamic relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. These results have implications on understanding mechanisms for attenuating stroke risk.

  13. Genotoxicity of tobacco smoke-derived aromatic amines and bladder cancer: current state of knowledge and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2013-06-01

    Bladder cancer is a significant public health problem, worldwide. In the United States, bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men, and its recurrence rate is the highest among all malignancies. Tobacco smoking is the leading risk factor for bladder cancer. The risk of bladder cancer is directly related to the intensity and duration of smoking, while quitting smoking reduces this risk. The increased risk of smokers for developing bladder cancer is attributable to their exposure to aromatic amines, which constitute a family of known bladder carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The underlying mechanism of action of aromatic amines in the genesis of bladder cancer is not, however, fully delineated. Research has identified a genotoxic mode of action, specifically DNA adduction and mutagenicity, for aromatic amines, which may account for their carcinogenicity. The present review summarizes our current knowledge on the DNA adduction and mutagenicity of aromatic amines in relation to smoking-associated bladder cancer. For illustrative purposes, representative results from published research on aromatic amine-induced DNA adduction and mutagenesis are discussed. The direction of future research on the underlying mechanisms of tobacco smoke-associated bladder carcinogenesis is also outlined. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of bladder carcinogenesis is essential for improving future strategies for prevention, early detection, treatment, and prognosis of this malignancy. PMID:23449930

  14. Tobacco smoking among doctors in mainland China: a study from Shandong province and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control represents a key area in which doctors can make a significant positive impact on their patients’ lives. Despite this fact, however, doctors in certain regions of China are known to smoke tobacco at rates similar to or even exceeding those seen within the general population. Objective This study sought to investigate the smoking habits of doctors at a teaching hospital in Shandong province, as well as providing a brief review of smoking research that has been conducted among doctors elsewhere in China. Method An anonymous questionnaire survey was distributed to doctors working at a university teaching hospital in 2008, as part of a larger study of occupational health issues in the healthcare profession. Results The overall smoking prevalence rate of doctors in this study was 36.3% with significant differences observed between the genders (males: 46.7% and females: 5.3%. Age and total career length were also correlated with smoking habit, although no significant associations were found with department of employment. Conclusions Overall, our study suggests that smoking rates among doctors in Shandong province are higher than those documented in many other countries, a finding which is consistent with previous research conducted in some other Chinese provinces. Addressing this issue from an intrinsic cultural perspective will clearly need to form the cornerstone of tobacco control efforts within the Chinese medical community in future years.

  15. Effects of chronic smoking on color vision in young subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatice; Arda; G; Ertugrul; Mirza; Osman; A; Polat; Sarper; Karakucuk; Ayse; Oner; Koray; Gumus

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of chronic smoking on color vision in young subjects.METHODS: This study included 91 smokers and 88non-smokers(a total of 179 volunteers) without any ophthalmologic and systemical disorders. The subjects were between 18-40 years of age with a best corrected visual acuity(BCVA) of 20/20, normal anterior and posterior segment examinations and normal intraocular pressure. The color vision of the subjects were evaluated with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test(FMHT). The total error scores and axis calculation were performed for each subject and the results correlated.RESULTS: Mean age and the standard deviation was28±5y in the smokers group, and 26.7±5.5y in the control group(P =0.101). Sex distribution was similar in the two groups(P =0.365). There was no significant correlation between age and FMHT total error scores(P =0.069).Median of FMHT total error scores of smokers and non-smokers were 65 and 50.50, respectively. FMHT total error scores was found significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers(P =0.004). There was no statisticaly significant difference between smoker and non-smoker groups with respect to axis ratio calculation(P =0.611).There was no significant correlation with FMHT total error scores with neither smoking duration nor number of cigarettes smoked per day(P =0.405, P =0.454,respectively).· CONCLUSION: This study suggested that chronic smoking affects the color vision of young smokers but this may not be sector selective.

  16. Mutagenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic properties of tobacco smoke produced by cigarillos available on the Canadian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, W S; Trivedi, A H; Momin, R A; Wagstaff, W G; Lauterbach, J H

    2011-11-01

    Cigarillos (aka little cigars) have been increasing in popularity unlike cigarettes; but relatively little is known about the toxicology of the mainstream smoke (MSS) from such products. Therefore, the objective of this work was to compare the toxicological properties of the MSS (Health Canada Intensive smoking conditions) from a range of cigarillo products with the toxicological properties of MSS of cigarettes. Three in vitro assays were used to evaluate the toxicities of the MSS total particulate matter (TPM): (1) mutagenicity using Ames assay with Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 with S9 metabolic activation (+S9); (2) cytotoxicity using the Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay with CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary) cells; and (3) genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay with CHO cells and short-term exposures (3-h ± S9). The Ames assay (TA100+S9) and the NRU assay were also applied to the gas/vapour phase of the MSS that passed through the Cambridge pad. On a per-milligram-nicotine basis, the preferred way of comparing toxicities of different types of tobacco products, the MSS from cigarillos was not less toxic, and in some cases more toxic (TPM fraction TA98+S9, NRU), than the MSS from cigarettes. Thus, our findings support our prior work on smoke mutagenicity that showed MSS from cigarillos was not less toxic than MSS from cigarettes. PMID:21821091

  17. Natural radioactivity contents in tobacco and radiation dose induced from smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the causative factors for cancer-inducing mechanisms in humans is radioactive elements present in tobacco leaves used in the manufacture of cigarettes. Smoking of tobacco and its products increases the internal intake and radiation dose due to naturally occurring radionuclides that are considered to be one of the most significant causes of lung cancer. In this work, different commercial types of cigarettes, cigar and moassel were collected from market. Naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra and 214Bi (238U series), 228Ac and 228Ra (232Th series), 40K and man-made 137Cs were measured in tobacco using gamma-ray spectrometer. Results show that the average concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 4.564, 3.940 and 1289.53 Bq kg-1, respectively. This reflects their origin from the soil by root uptake and fertilisers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Concentration of 137Cs was 0.348 Bq kg-1 due to root uptake or deposition onto the leaf foliage. For smokers, the annual effective dose due to inhalation of 238U varied from 49.35 to 139.40 μSv-1 (average 104.27 μSv y-1), while of 232Th from 23.86 to 111.06 μSv y -1 (average 65.52 μSv y-1). The annual effective dose resulting from 137Cs was varied from 10.96 to 24.01 nSv y-1 (average 19.41 nSv y-1). (authors)

  18. Brand differences of free-base nicotine delivery in cigarette smoke: the view of the tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris Wayne, G; Connolly, G N; Henningfield, J E

    2006-06-01

    The recent availability of internal tobacco industry documents provides significant insight into industry knowledge and manipulation of tobacco smoke delivery. One critical area of research is the role of smoke chemistry in determining the absorption and effects of smoke constituents, especially harm producing or pharmacologically active compounds. Independent scientific research has suggested that the nicotine dosing characteristics, hence the addiction potential of cigarettes, may be determined in part by the amount of free-base nicotine in cigarette smoke and its effects on the location, route, and speed of absorption in the body and on the sensory perception effects of the inhaled smoke. Tobacco industry documents describe the use of a number of methods internally for measuring free-base nicotine delivery. These include the common use of cigarette "smoke pH" as a means to estimate the fraction of free-base nicotine in the particulate matter (PM) in cigarette smoke, as well as efforts to measure free-base nicotine directly. Although these methods do not provide accurate absolute measures of free-base nicotine in smoke, consistencies observed in the findings across the various manufacturers indicate: (1) real relative differences in the acid/base chemistry of the smoke from different brands of cigarettes; (2) a connection between differences in free-base levels and brand-dependent differences in sensory perception and smoke "impact"; and (3) levels of free-base nicotine that are greater than have typically been publicly discussed by the industry. Furthermore, the results of these methods are generally consistent with those of a recent study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which directly measured the free-base fraction of nicotine across a range of cigarette types. Consideration of the likely fundamental importance of free-base nicotine levels in cigarette smoke, together with the efforts discussed in the tobacco industry documents to measure

  19. Attributable fraction of tobacco smoking on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sohee; Jee, Sun Ha; Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Eun Hye; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Cha, Eun Shil; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population. Methods Sex- and cancer-specifi...

  20. Determinants of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Vietnamese Adults: California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey, 2007–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Whitney L.; van Erp, Brianna; Stoddard, Pamela; Tsoh, Janice Y.

    2014-01-01

    Because smoking rates are high among Vietnamese men, we used data from the 2007–2008 California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey to estimate secondhand smoke exposure and associated risk factors among Vietnamese nonsmokers. Thirty percent of nonsmokers were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, 8% at work, 52% in bars, and 67% on a college campus. At home, odds of SHS exposure were greater for women than for men and for adults aged less than 40 years than for older adults. Odds of SHS...

  1. Placental toxicology: tobacco smoke, abused drugs, multiple chemical interactions, and placental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, B V

    1991-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of reports on the tobacco smoking and ingestion of abused drugs (e.g. morphine, cocaine) by pregnant women and the effects of the substances on the developing fetus and newborn infant. The passage of drugs and chemicals from the mother to the fetus is influenced by the placental transport and metabolism of the substances. Further, these drugs and chemicals affect the nutrient transport systems in the placenta. The three major drugs of abuse-nicotine, morphine and cocaine-depress both active amino-acid uptake by human placental villi and transplacental amino-acid transport by reason of the drugs' influence on placental cholinergic and opiate systems. Part of this depression (10-16%) is not reversible. Nicotine blocks the cholinergic receptor and thus blocks acetylcholine (ACh)-facilitated amino-acid transport. Morphine stimulates opiate kappa receptors and depresses ACh release. Cocaine blocks Ca2+ influx and thus blocks ACh release. ACh causes dilation of blood vessels and maintains placental blood flow by the activation of endothelial muscarinic receptors. By interfering with ACh release and placental blood flow, the three drugs of abuse may depress the diffusion of amino acids and other nutrients from the trophoblast into the placental circulation. Three regulatory systems are delineated for amino-acid uptake by the placenta: placental ACh, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, and the gammaglutamyl cycle. These systems operate in concert with one another and are dependent on cellular formation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Placental hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide and other tobacco gases depresses the energy-dependent processes and thus the ATP levels of placental cells. Maternal tobacco smoking and drug abuse cause placental insufficiencies for amino-acid transport, which may partially explain the fetal intrauterine growth retardation caused by these substances. Part of the amino-acid deficits may be compensated for by the

  2. [Clinical condition of the newborn versus tobacco smoke exposure during fetal life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Marzenna; Florek, Ewa; Kornacka, Maria K; Bokiniec, Renata; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was the assessment of the clinical condition, birth weight, frequency of premature birth and incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the newborns whose mothers were active and passive smokers. This was a prospective study conducted in a group of 147 newborns born during the years 2003-2004 in the Princess Anna Mazowiecka Hospital, Warsaw, and hospitalized in the Neonatal and Intensive Care Department of Warsaw Medical University. Based on a questionnaire identifying the exposure to tobacco smoke and cotinine concentration in the mother's urine, the newborns were assigned to three groups: the newborns whose mothers were active smokers, the newborns whose mothers were passive smokers and the newborns of non-smoking mothers. There were no statistically significant differences in the Apgar score assessment at the 1st and 5th minute between the three groups of the newborns. Acid-base balance parameters (pH, BE) were also similar. The birth weight of the newborns of mothers who were active smokers was 325g lower than the birth weight of the newborns of non-smoking mothers. This difference was statistically significant p = 0.033. Maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of deficit in birth weight 2.6 (1.0-6.9, CI 95%). In the group of the newborns whose mothers were active smokers, the incidence of lower birth weight (< 2500g) was also statistically significantly higher p = 0.01. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of premature birth and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). PMID:20301877

  3. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  4. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun-Hee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The data of 7,801 adults aged 19 years and over collected during the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Information on smoking habits and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was obtained by self-reports using a standardized questionnaire. Risks of environmental tobacco smoke exposure conferred by sociodemographic variables and behavioral risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression methods. Results Overall, 36.1% of nonsmokers (defined as those not currently smoking and 50.1% of current smokers were found to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke either at work or at home. Among the nonsmokers, women were more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 5.22, 95%CI, 4.08-6.67. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between education level and the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (OR = 1.73, 95%CI, 1.38-2.17 for those with a high school education; OR = 2.30, 95%CI, 1.68-3.16 for those with a middle school education; and OR = 2.58, 95%CI, 1.85-3.59 for those with less than an elementary school education vs. those with a college education or more. In addition, those with office, sales service, or manual labor jobs were found to be at significantly higher risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work than those with professional, administrative, or managerial jobs. Also, the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the workplace was significantly higher for alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (OR = 1.23, 95%CI, 1.07-1.47. After adjusting

  5. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors as well as Attitudes and Perceptions towards Tobacco Control in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18–79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. Results: 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%. The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3–39.9, 31.8% (95% CI 31.1–32.6, and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9–7.7, respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1–62.1, and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3–24.0 of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5–34.4, but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5% (95% CI: 6.0–7.1. More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5–24.0 of them did not agree with the perception of “smoking is fully quit in public places”, and almost half of the adults (49.5% (95% CI: 48.7–50.3 did not agree with the perception of “hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes”. Conclusions: Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in

  6. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained. PMID:25758192

  7. The tobacco smoke component acrolein induces glucocorticoid resistant gene expression via inhibition of histone deacetylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Matthew J; Haenen, Guido R M M; Bouwman, Freek G; van der Vliet, Albert; Bast, Aalt

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of cigarette smoke-related death worldwide. Acrolein, a crucial reactive electrophile found in cigarette smoke mimics many of the toxic effects of cigarette smoke-exposure in the lung. In macrophages, cigarette smoke is known to hinder histone deacetylases (HDACs), glucocorticoid-regulated enzymes that play an important role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid resistant inflammation, a common feature of COPD. Thus, we hypothesize that acrolein plays a role in COPD-associated glucocorticoid resistance. To examine the role of acrolein on glucocorticoid resistance, U937 monocytes, differentiated with PMA to macrophage-like cells were treated with acrolein for 0.5h followed by stimulation with hydrocortisone for 8h, or treated simultaneously with LPS and hydrocortisone for 8h without acrolein. GSH and nuclear HDAC activity were measured, or gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Acrolein-mediated TNFα gene expression was not suppressed by hydrocortisone whereas LPS-induced TNFα expression was suppressed. Acrolein also significantly inhibited nuclear HDAC activity in macrophage-like cells. Incubation of recombinant HDAC2 with acrolein led to the formation of an HDAC2-acrolein adduct identified by mass spectrometry. Therefore, these results suggest that acrolein-induced inflammatory gene expression is resistant to suppression by the endogenous glucocorticoid, hydrocortisone. PMID:26481333

  8. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (padvertising and promotion, controlling access to tobacco products, and promoting cessation assistance for smokers to quit, as well as continuing and implementing mass media campaigns that contain graphic anti-smoking ads, such as the Tips from Former Smokers (TIPS) campaign. PMID:25996096

  9. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chastang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren.In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ completed by the parents.ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI= 1.36-2.17, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood.Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  10. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  11. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  12. [Hospitality workers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke before and after implementation of smoking ban in public places: a review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure induces serious negative health consequences, of which the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory symptoms and poor pregnancy outcomes appear to be most important. Taking into account those health consequences of ETS exposure most countries have introduced legislation to ban or restrict smoking in public places. In this paper the effectiveness of the introduced legislation was analyzed with regard to the protection of hospitality workers from ETS exposure in the workplace. The analysis of 12 papers published after 2000 covered the year of publication, type of legislation, study population, hospitality venue (pub, bar, restaurant, disco) and type of markers or self-reported perception of exposure to ETS. The analysis indicates that the legislation to ban smoking in hospitality venues protects workers from ETS exposure when the venues are 100% tobacco smoke free. The reduction of the cotinine level in biological samples after the implementation of smoke free law was 57-89%, comparing to the biomarker level in the samples taken before the new law was introduced. About 90% of reduction in nicotine and PM levels was also noted. In addition, the positive self perception reported by workers proved the effectiveness of new legislation protecting them from ETS exposure. PMID:21698880

  13. [Frequency of smoking tobacco among the students of the last year of the Faculty of Health Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeźnicki, Adam; Krupińska, Justyna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Kowalska, Alina

    2007-01-01

    Smoking tobacco is one of the most frequent and most dangerous addictions among the Poles, at the same time--despite the many dramatic results--it is the most belittled of threats. It is difficult to understand especially those smokers who, due to their future or present job should be free from tobacco smoke. The aim of the work was to establish the participation of the smoke inhalers among the students of the last years of studies, focusing on the particular socio-demographic features. 162 students were tested, that means all who are the last year students at the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Medical University of Lodz. Using the auditoria survey, the studies were carried out between the 1st to 15th March 2007. The filled in surveys were handed back in by 92.6% of students (150 female and male students). Among the 150 of the tested, 58 people confessed to smoking (38.6%). The ratio of the smoking female students was 34.0% and smoking male students 46.4%. In the past, there were close to 65% of smokers among the tested. Over 54% of the asked people smoked their first cigarette in the high school. Majority of smokers (30.5%) smoked from 5 to 10 cigarettes a day. Majority of smokers (70.4%) confirmed they smoked everywhere where they wished. From among 58 smokers, 4 people could be pharmacologically addicted to nicotine. Almost all of them would like to quit smoking. The ratio of smoking students of the last years of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Medical University of Lodz was very high in 2007. There was practically every second male student who smoked and close to every third female one. Great majority of the smokers put the health of the people around them who did not smoke at risk because they smoked everywhere they pleased. There is a need to undertake some efficient preventive actions directed at the problem of smoking among the students, especially of the departments which produce the personnel of the health centres. PMID:18409309

  14. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people who chew tobacco or dip snuff think it's safer than smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping ... cancer Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. It might also ...

  15. Knowledge and Attitude Towards Tobacco Smoking among 13-15 Year-Old School Children in Viet Nam - Findings from GYTS 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Kien, Nguyen Trung; Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that smoking is a learnt behavior, often initiated during adolescence. This paper aims to describe tobacco-related knowledge, attitude and associations among school adolescents aged 13-15 with exposure to anti-smoking information. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Viet Nam, 2014, knowledge was measured through 4 questions about tobacco use, and attitude was assessed through 3 questions on personal, social and environmental aspects. Students giving most anti-tobacco responses to all questions were considered as having correct knowledge or appropriate attitude or both. Access to anti-smoking information was determined by exposure to any media messages on tobacco control during the past 30 days and teaching in school about the danger of tobacco use during the past 12 months. A substantial percentage of students thought that being near others who smoke might be harmful to them and smoking is harmful to health (89.4% and 89.6% respectively). However, only 46.4% reported that it is definitely difficult to quit smoking and 66.9% thought that smoking for only 1 or 2 years, once stopped, is harmful to health. Slightly more than half of the respondents reported appropriate attitude that young smokers have fewer friends than others and smoking makes them less attractive and less comfortable at social events. Noticing anti-smoking messages in the media together with having lessons in school about the dangers of tobacco substantially increased the likelihood of having correct knowledge, appropriate attitude and both. Despite relatively high awareness about smoking harms, effective educational communication is still highly needed to improve the level of comprehensive knowledge and an appropriate attitude regarding tobacco use. PMID:27087181

  16. Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters play unique trophic roles in brain development. Accordingly, drugs and environmental toxicants that promote or interfere with neurotransmitter function evoke neurodevelopmental abnormalities by disrupting the timing or intensity of neurotrophic actions. The current review discusses three exposure scenarios involving acetylcholine systems: nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and exposure to the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF). All three have long-term, adverse effects on specific processes involved in brain cell replication and differentiation, synaptic development and function, and ultimately behavioral performance. Many of these effects can be traced to the sequence of cellular events surrounding the trophic role of acetylcholine acting on its specific cellular receptors and associated signaling cascades. However, for chlorpyrifos, additional noncholinergic mechanisms appear to be critical in establishing the period of developmental vulnerability, the sites and type of neural damage, and the eventual outcome. New findings indicate that developmental neurotoxicity extends to late phases of brain maturation including adolescence. Novel in vitro and in vivo exposure models are being developed to uncover heretofore unsuspected mechanisms and targets for developmental neurotoxicants

  17. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  18. Association between tobacco smoking and response to tumour necrosis factor α inhibitor treatment in psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Pil; Glintborg, Bente; Hetland, Merete Lund;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between tobacco smoking and disease activity, treatment adherence and treatment responses among patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) initiating the first tumour necrosis factor α inhibitor therapy (TNFi) in routine care. METHODS: Observational cohort...... study based on the Danish nationwide DANBIO registry. Kaplan-Meier plots, logistic and Cox regression analyses by smoking status (current/previous/never smoker) were calculated for treatment adherence, ACR20/50/70-responses and EULAR-good-response. Additional stratified analyses were performed according...... Body Mass Index (27 kg/m(2) (23-30)/28 kg/m(2) (24-31)) (median (IQR)), shorter disease duration (3 years (1-8)/5 years (2-10)), lower swollen joint count (2 (0-5)/3 (1-6)), higher visual-analogue-scale (VAS) patient global (72 mm (54-87)/68 mm (50-80)), VAS fatigue (72 mm (51-86)/63 mm (40-77)) and...

  19. Tobacco Use and Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke among Urban Residents: A Community-Based Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaorui Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In 2005, China acceded to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC, the foundation for the global fight against tobacco. Certain cities in China have established local regulations to control tobacco use ahead of national policy; however, without the enforcement of statutory law, some of these regulations are merely lip service. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of city policy on smoking prevalence and on second-hand smoke (SHS exposure status among non-smokers in Changchun City. Methods: A cross-sectional survey covering a multiple-stage, representative sample of the urban population aged ≥15 years was conducted between 1 Dec 2013 and 31 Jan 2014. The WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the questionnaires used, which included demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors and SHS exposure status. Results: Overall cigarette smoking prevalence was 23.5%; daily cigarette smoking prevalence was 21.2%. Smoking prevalence and cigarettes consumed per day was higher among men (p < 0.05 and those aged 45–64 years (p < 0.05. Among current smokers, 8.1% planned to quit within 12 months; 53.4% had no intention of quitting. Overall SHS exposure prevalence was 41.9% (workplace and 34.1% (at home over the previous 30 days. The weighted workplace SHS exposure prevalence increased with age. Conclusions: The high proportion of smokers with no intention of quitting and the high level of SHS exposure may constitute one of the most significant barriers to successful smoking cessation in the city. A continued drive to promote full implementation of the WHO FCTC is still needed.

  20. Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-07-07

    Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

  1. In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchy Leslie A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. Methods This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health care providers, both professionals and paraprofessionals, in relation to their roles in tobacco control in the community mental health system. Tobacco control is best conceptualised as a suite of policies and practices directed at supporting smoke free premises, smoking cessation counselling and limiting access to tobacco products. The study took place following the establishment of a new policy that restricted tobacco smoking inside all mental health facilities and on their grounds. Ninety one health care providers participated in open-ended interviews in which they described their role in tobacco control. The interview data were analyzed discursively by asking questions such as: what assumptions underlie what is being said about tobacco? Results Five separate yet overlapping discursive frames were identified in which providers described their roles. Managing a smoke free environment emphasised the need to police and monitor the smoke free environment. Tobacco is therapeutic was a discourse that underscored the putative value of smoking for clients. Tobacco use is an individual choice located the decision to smoke with individual clients thereby negating a role in tobacco control for providers. It's someone else's role was a discourse that placed responsibility for tobacco control with others. Finally, the discourse of tobacco control as health promotion located tobacco control in a range of activities that are used to support the health of clients. Conclusions This study provides insights into the complex

  2. Prevalence of maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and impact on birth weight: retrospective study using Millennium Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis Sarah; Ward Corinne; Coleman Tim

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Meta-analyses of studies investigating the impact of maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on birth weight have not produced robust findings. Although, ante natal ETS exposure probably reduces infant's birth weights, the scale of this exposure remains unknown. We conducted a large, cohort study to assess the impact of ETS exposure on birth weight whilst adjusting for the many factors known to influence this. Method Retrospective study using interview data from parents...

  3. Expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase variant in tobacco reduces tobacco-specific nitrosamine accumulation in cured leaves and cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianli; Zhang, Leichen; Lewis, Ramsey S; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Jack, Anne M; Crutchfield, James D; Ji, Huihua; Dewey, Ralph E

    2016-07-01

    Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase (NR) dramatically decreased free nitrate levels in the leaves. Field-grown tobacco plants expressing this NR variant exhibited greatly reduced levels of TSNAs in both cured leaves and mainstream smoke of cigarettes made from these materials. Decreasing leaf nitrate levels via expression of a constitutively active NR enzyme represents an exceptionally promising means for reducing the production of NNN and NNK, two of the most well-documented animal carcinogens found in tobacco products. PMID:26800860

  4. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association's 'Tobacco 21' Initiative to Save Lives of Millennials, Future Generations by Raising Tobacco Sales Age to ... Clinical Trials Lung Health Disparities Healthy Air Tobacco Education and Training Ask An Expert Questions about your ...

  5. Reduced number of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium of rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, D.; Kato, G.

    1981-04-09

    The concentration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors--as measured by specific (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 and (-)-(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding--was diminished by 60% below control values in the hearts of rats exposed to tobacco smoke. These changes in receptor numbers took place almost immediately after tobacco smoke exposure and were rapidly reversible after termination of the exposure. The dissociation constant, KD, for (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 was identical in exposed (KD . 0.34 +/- 0.09 nM) and control (KD . 0.35 +/- 0.07 nM) hearts but was significantly different in the case of (-)-(3H)dihydroalprenolol binding (exposed, KD . 2.83 +/- 0.30 mM vs. control KD . 5.22 +/- 0.61 nM). For beta-receptor binding there was no significant difference between exposed and control animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-)-norepinephrine, (-)-alprenolol, (+/-)-propranolol or timolol. (-)-Isoproterenol, however, was found to bind with lower affinity in exposed compared with control hearts. For alpha-receptor binding there was no significant difference between control and 'smoked' animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-0)-norepinephrine or phentolamine. The decrease in alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor concentration may be related to the phenomenon of receptor desensitization resulting from a release of catecholamines in rats exposed to tobacco smoke.

  6. Switching to smokeless tobacco as a smoking cessation method: evidence from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Carl V

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although smokeless tobacco (ST use has played a major role in the low smoking prevalence among Swedish men, there is little information at the population level about ST as a smoking cessation aid in the U.S. Methods We used the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to derive population estimates for the number of smokers who had tried twelve methods in their most recent quit attempt, and for the numbers and proportions who were former or current smokers at the time of the survey. Results An estimated 359,000 men switched to smokeless tobacco in their most recent quit attempt. This method had the highest proportion of successes among those attempting it (73%, representing 261,000 successful quitters (switchers. In comparison, the nicotine patch was used by an estimated 2.9 million men in their most recent quit attempt, and almost one million (35% were former smokers at the time of the survey. Of the 964,000 men using nicotine gum, about 323,000 (34% became former smokers. Of the 98,000 men who used the nicotine inhaler, 27,000 quit successfully (28%. None of the estimated 14,000 men who tried the nicotine nasal spray became former smokers. Forty-two percent of switchers also reported quitting smoking all at once, which was higher than among former smokers who used medications (8–19%. Although 40% of switchers quit smoking less than 5 years before the survey, 21% quit over 20 years earlier. Forty-six percent of switchers were current ST users at the time of the survey. Conclusion Switching to ST compares very favorably with pharmaceutical nicotine as a quit-smoking aid among American men, despite the fact that few smokers know that the switch provides almost all of the health benefits of complete tobacco abstinence. The results of this study show that tobacco harm reduction is a viable cessation option for American smokers.

  7. Effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation of rats with chronic bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-yun; HUANG Shao-guang; WAN Huan-ying; WU Hua-cheng; ZHOU Tong; LI Min; DENG Wei-wu

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking is the major cause of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and smoking cessation is regarded as one of the important strategies for prevention and treatment of the inflammation.The inflammation of the chronic airway may be present and deteriorated even if the COPD patients stop smoking.Whether and how early smoking cessation affects the progress of inflammation is still obscure. This study was conducted to find the appropriate time for smoking cessation to terminate the airway inflammation in rats with smoke-induced chronic bronchitis.Methods A rat model of COPD was established by passively inhaling smoke mixture. Fifty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups with different periods of smoke exposure and different time points of cessation. The inflammation markers to be detected included inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the myeloperoxidose (MPO) activity, the morphologic changes and the expression of ICAM-1 on the airway epithelium.Results When smoking was terminated at early stage, the inflammatory markers and related indexes were different from those of the typical chronic bronchitis group (group M7) (P<0.01). The pathologic score of group SC7 (2 weeks of smoking cessation after occurrence of typical chronic bronchitis ) was not different from that of group M7, and the level of ICAM-1 was still up-regulated (compared to group M7, P>0.05). Meanwhile, most of inflammatory cells in BALF were neutrophils compared to other groups (P<0.01).When smoking was terminated, the MPO activity was significantly lower than that of group M7 (P<0.01).Conclusions Smoking cessation at early stage can effectively inhibit the inflammatory reaction of COPD. Once chronic bronchitis occurs, little could be improved by smoking cessation.

  8. Influence of chronic irradiation of tobacco and carrot plants on the regeneration in the tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of chronic irradiation of tobacco and carrot donor plants on the regeneration processes in vitro has been studied. The plants were grown on the soil containing different concentrations of caesium-137 and strontium-90. The morphogenesis intensity was decreased after irradiation of the tobacco plants by the dose of 0,5 Gy and the carrot plants by the dose of 0.07-0.4 Gy

  9. "We made the rule, we have to stick to it": towards effective management of environmental tobacco smoke in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jan; Pointing, Boris Shane; Stevenson, Leah; Clough, Alan R

    2013-10-01

    Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007-2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ≥ 16 years), participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study's intervention phase. Using a critical realist approach, the context and mechanisms that contributed to specific strategies, or outcomes, were examined in order to develop a hypothesis regarding more effective management of ETS in these environments. Our results suggest that in discrete, disadvantaged communities, enhanced local ownership of smoke-free policies and development of implementation strategies at the grassroots level that acknowledge and incorporate cultural contexts can contribute to more effective management of ETS. PMID:24157514

  10. “We Made the Rule, We Have to Stick to It”: Towards Effective Management of Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Remote Australian Aboriginal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Clough

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007–2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ≥ 16 years, participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study’s intervention phase. Using a critical realist approach, the context and mechanisms that contributed to specific strategies, or outcomes, were examined in order to develop a hypothesis regarding more effective management of ETS in these environments. Our results suggest that in discrete, disadvantaged communities, enhanced local ownership of smoke-free policies and development of implementation strategies at the grassroots level that acknowledge and incorporate cultural contexts can contribute to more effective management of ETS.

  11. Evaluating environmental tobacco smoke exposure in a group of Turkish primary school students and developing intervention methods for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davutoglu Mehmet

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In countries like Turkey where smoking is highly prevalent, children's exposure to tobacco smoke is an important public health problem. The goals of this study were to determine the self-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure status of primary school students in grades 3 to 5, to verify self-reported exposure levels with data provided from a biomarker of exposure, and to develop methods for preventing school children from passive smoking. Methods The study was conducted on 347 primary school students by using a standard questionnaire and urinary cotinine tests. Children with verified ETS exposure were randomly assigned to 2 intervention groups. Two phone interviews were conducted with the parents of the first group regarding their children's passive smoking status and its possible consequences. On the other hand, a brief note concerning urinary cotinine test result was sent to parents of the second group. Nine months after the initial urinary cotinine tests, measurements were repeated in both groups. Results According to questionnaire data, 59.9% of the study group (208 of 347 were exposed to ETS. Urinary cotinine measurements of children were highly consistent with the self-reported exposure levels (P 0.05. Conclusion Self-reported ETS exposure was found to be pretty accurate in the 9–11 age group when checked with urinary cotinine tests. Only informing parents that their childrens' ETS exposure were confirmed by a laboratory test seems to be very promising in preventing children from ETS.

  12. Influence of apolipoprotein E plasma levels and tobacco smoking on the induction of neutralising antibodies to interferon-beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sena, Armando; Bendtzen, Klaus; Cascais, Maria J;

    2010-01-01

    Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with a potential for induction of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Because immune reactivity depends on changes in lipoprotein metabolism, we investigated whether plasma lipoprotein profiles could be associated with the...... for apoE, smoking habit became associated with NAb induction: OR 5.6 (95% CI 1.3-87), P = 0.03. These results suggest that apoE-containing lipoprotein metabolism and, possibly, tobacco smoking may be associated with risk of NAb production in female MS patients treated with IFN-beta....

  13. Smoking Cessation and Chronic Pain: Patient and Pain Medicine Physician Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooten, W. Michael; Vickers, Kristin S.; Shi, Yu; Ebnet, Kaye L.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Patten, Christi A.; Warner, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Although previous studies suggest that the clinical setting of an interdisciplinary pain treatment program may provide an optimal environment to promote smoking cessation, currently available smoking cessation interventions may be less effective for adults with chronic pain due, in part, to unrecognized clinical factors related to chronic pain. The specific aim of this qualitative study was to solicit information from adult smokers with chronic pain participating in an interdisciplinary pain ...

  14. Effects of cigarette smoke, cessation and switching to a candidate modified risk tobacco product on the liver in Apoe(-/-) mice - a systems toxicology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Titz, Bjoern; Nury, Catherine; Boué, Stéphanie; Phillips, Blaine; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Schneider, Thomas; Dijon, Sophie; Baumer, Karine; Peric, Daruisz; Dulize, Remi; Elamin, Ashraf; Guedj, Emmanuel; Buettner, Ansgar; Leroy, Patrice; Kleinhans, Samuel; Vuillaume, Gregory; Veljkovic, Emilija; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Martin, Florian; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-04-01

    The liver is one of the most important organs involved in elimination of xenobiotic and potentially toxic substances. Cigarette smoke (CS) contains more than 7000 chemicals, including those that exert biological effects and cause smoking-related diseases. Though CS is not directly hepatotoxic, a growing body of evidence suggests that it may exacerbate pre-existing chronic liver disease. In this study, we integrated toxicological endpoints with molecular measurements and computational analyses to investigate effects of exposures on the livers of Apoe(-/- )mice. Mice were exposed to 3R4F reference CS, to an aerosol from the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) or to filtered air (Sham) for up to 8 months. THS2.2 takes advantage of a "heat-not-burn" technology that, by heating tobacco, avoids pyrogenesis and pyrosynthesis. After CS exposure for 2 months, some groups were either switched to the MRTP or filtered air. While no group showed clear signs of hepatotoxicity, integrative analysis of proteomics and transcriptomics data showed a CS-dependent impairment of specific biological networks. These networks included lipid and xenobiotic metabolism and iron homeostasis that likely contributed synergistically to exacerbating oxidative stress. In contrast, most proteomic and transcriptomic changes were lower in mice exposed to THS2.2 and in the cessation and switching groups compared to the CS group. Our findings elucidate the complex biological responses of the liver to CS exposure. Furthermore, they provide evidence that THS2.2 aerosol has reduced biological effects, as compared with CS, on the livers of Apoe(-/- )mice. PMID:27027324

  15. Factors associated with tobacco smoking and cessation among HIV-infected individuals under care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S Torres

    Full Text Available Worldwide the prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is elevated compared to the general population. This probably reflects the cluster of individual characteristics that have shared risk factors for HIV infection and smoking. A cross-sectional study, enrolling a convenience sample from a Brazilian HIV clinical cohort was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco smoking and the factors associated with current smoking and abstinence. A total of 2,775 HIV-infected individuals were interviewed: 46.2% have never smoked, 29.9% were current smokers and 23.9% were former smokers. Current smokers had a higher prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use when compared to the other two groups. A higher proportion of heterosexual individuals were former smokers or never smokers while among men who have sex with men (MSM a higher proportion were current smokers. Former smokers had been more frequently diagnosed with high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and depression, while for current smokers lung diseases were more frequent. Former smokers and current smokers were more likely to have had any hospital admission (42.0% and 41.2%, respectively than participants who never smoked (33.5% (p31 cigarettes/day. MSM (compared to heterosexuals and cocaine users (versus non-users had lower odds of being former smokers. Considering our results, smoking cessation interventions should be tailored to younger individuals, MSM and substance users.

  16. Preliminary Study of the GSTM1 Null Polymorphism and History of Tobacco Smoking among Oral Cancer Patients in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natphopsuk, Sitakan; Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa; Phuthong, Sophida; Ishida, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Risks with GSTM1 genotypes and potential roles of smoking in the susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied in Northeastern Thailand. Study subjects were 79 histologically-confirmed OSCC cases (31 men, 48 women) and 79 age- and sex-matched healthy controls ranging in age from 25 to 84 years. GSTM1 genotyping was achieved by two independent PCR assays. The GSTM1 null allele and the homozygous genotype did not increase risk of OSCC vs the wild type allele and the remaining genotypes. When the focus was on the smoking habit, male subjects who smoked ≥10 or ≥35 years were at significantly increased risk for OSCC with adjusted ORs of 4.88 [95%CI, 1.41-16.87, p=0.012] or 4.94 [95%CI, 1.62-15.12, p=0.005], respectively. A higher risk for OSCC was found for smoking amount; those who smoked >5 or >10 pack-years were at a higher risk with adjusted OR of 4.46 [95%CI; 1.45-13.74, p=0.009] or 3.89 [95%CI; 1.34-11.28, p=0.012], respectively. There are certain smoking patterns that give greater risks and thus both smoking duration and pack-years should be taken into consideration in tobacco related cancer prevention. PMID:26925672

  17. High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important sources for indoor air pollution and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce. Therefore the aim of our study was to quantify Ce and La concentrations in indoor air with high ETS load. Methods: In two subsequent investigations Ce, La and cadmium (Cd) in 3 smokers' (11 samples) and 7 non-smokers' (28 samples) households as well as in 28 hospitality venues in Southern Germany were analysed. Active sampling of indoor air was conducted continuously for seven days in every season in the smokers' and non-smokers' residences, and for 4 h during the main visiting hours in the hospitality venues (restaurants, pubs, and discotheques). Results: In terms of residences median levels of Cd were 0.1 ng/m3 for non-smokers' and 0.8 ng/m3 for smokers' households. Median concentrations of Ce were 0.4 ng/m3 and 9.6 ng/m3, and median concentrations of La were 0.2 ng/m3 and 5.9 ng/m3 for non-smokers' and for smokers' households, respectively. In the different types of hospitality venues median levels ranged from 2.6 to 9.7 ng/m3 for Cd, from 18.5 to 50.0 ng/m3 for Ce and from 10.6 to 23.0 ng/m3 for La with highest median levels in discotheques. Conclusions: The high concentrations of Ce and La found in ETS enriched indoor air of smokers' households and hospitality venues are an important finding as Ce and La are associated with adverse health effects and data on this issue are scarce. Further research on their toxicological, human and public health consequences is urgently required. - Highlights: ► We quantified cer, lanthanum and cadmium concentrations in indoor air. ► Cer and lanthanum concentrations were high in tobacco smoke enriched locations. ► Both elements can be considered as good markers for indoor air quality.

  18. Prevalence, Frequency, and Initiation of Hookah Tobacco Smoking Among First-Year Female College Students: A One-Year Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking has become increasingly prevalent among college students, but little is known about frequency of use or patterns of use over time, including during the transition to college. The goals of this longitudinal cohort study were to assess the: (a) lifetime prevalence, (b) current prevalence, (c) frequency of use, and (d) pattern of initiation of hookah tobacco smoking among female students during the first year of college. First-year female college students (N = 483) at a la...

  19. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  20. Chronic respiratory effect of narguileh smoking compared with cigarette smoking in women from the East Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousser Mohammad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Yousser Mohammad, Mouna Kakah, Yasser MohammadDepartment of Internal Medicine, Tishreen University School of Medicine, Lattakia, SyriaAbstract: Narguileh is a water pipe. Narguileh smoking is a traditional pattern of smoking among Eastern Mediterranean women, publicly considered as a harmless entertainment. We performed a survey aimed at tracking chronic respiratory symptoms and alteration in respiratory functions in 77 female narguileh smokers, 77 cigarette smokers, and controls. A questionnaire about respiratory symptoms, quantity, and duration of smoking was completed by each woman, and a flow-volume loop was performed with all women. Women were then categorized in subgroups according to a cumulative smoking duration of over 5 years, and cumulative quantity of 50 kilograms smoked. We obtained 8 subgroups for quantity and 10 for duration. Results showed a higher proportion of chronic bronchitis in narguileh smokers compared with cigarette smokers for both quantity and duration (p value < 0.001, as well as quasi-permanent alteration in maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF 25%–75% in narguileh smokers compared with cigarette smokers (p value < 0.001. Forced expired volume in one second was more altered in cigarette smokers than in narguileh smokers (p value > 0.001. These results will help to raise health authority awareness that narguileh smoking is also dangerous for women.Keywords: sheesha, narguileh, narguile, COPD, MMEF, smoking in women

  1. Tobacco experimental model to induce urinary bladder neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    José Alexandre Colli Neto; José Hélio Zen Júnior; André Del Negro; Nelson Adami Andreollo; Marina Rachel Araujo; Alfio José Tincani

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to develop an experimental model of exposure to tobacco burning (cigarette) products to assess the effects of its chronic use in relation to cancers of the bladder. METHODS: the animals were chronically exposed to the burning tobacco products in a semi-open chamber to simulate smoking. Thirty young Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one with 20 animals simulating smoking for six months, and ten not exposed control animals for the same period. After exposure by inhalation o...

  2. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Carme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS. In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL and very high (> 100 ng/mL prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008 demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards

  3. Interaction of formaldehyde and tobacco smoking in the frequency of micronucleus and the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Ladeira, Carina; Manuel C. Gomes; Brito, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde is classified by IARC as carcinogenic to humans (nasopharyngeal cancer). Tobacco smoke has been epidemiologically associated to a higher risk of development of cancer, especially in the oral cavity, larynx and lungs, as these are places of direct contact with many carcinogenic tobacco’s compounds. XRCC3 is involved in homologous recombination repair of cross-links and chromosomal double-strand breaks (Thr241Met polymorphism). The aim of the study is to determine whether there is ...

  4. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Afifi Rema A; Khalil Joanna; Nakkash Rima T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults ...

  5. Overweight and obesity in relation to socio-economic status, tobacco smoking and plant food supplements usage

    OpenAIRE

    García-Alvarez, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Salud Pública (Epidemiología, Planificación y Nutrición) [EN]Overweight and obesity are analysed in relation to gender, socio-economic status and tobacco smoking in the adult catalan population from the ENCAT serveys 1&2; BMI is also analysed in relation to the usage of plant food supplements (PFS) in the participants of the PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012

  6. Effects of Acetaminophen on Oxidant and Irritant Respiratory Tract Responses to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Gregory J.; Cichocki, Joseph A.; Doughty, Bennett J.; Manautou, Jose E.; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that acetaminophen causes oxidative injury in the liver, it is not known whether it causes oxidative stress in the respiratory tract. If so, this widely used analgesic may potentiate the adverse effects of oxidant air pollutants. Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine if acetaminophen induces respiratory tract oxidative stress and/or potentiates the oxidative stress and irritant responses to an inhaled oxidant: environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). M...

  7. Belief-based Tobacco Smoking Scale: Evaluating the PsychometricProperties of the Theory of Planned Behavior’s Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: At present, there are no comprehensive validated instruments for measuring adolescents’ beliefs regarding tobacco smoking in the Iranian society. This study aimed to evaluate the validity, reliability and feasibility of the belief-based tobacco smoking scale using the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB constructs as a theoretical framework.Methods: This cross-sectional validation study was carried out on 410 male adolescents of Hamadan, west of Iran, recruited through multi-stage random sampling method. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. In addition, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA and Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA were performed to test construct valid-ity. Content validity was examined using Content Validity Index (CVI and Con-tent Validity Ratio (CVR.Results: Results obtained from factor analysis showed that the data was fit to the model (X2=391.43, P<0.001 and TPB consisted of 22 items measuring sev-en components which explaining 69.7% of the common variance. The mean scores for the CVI and CVR were 0.89 and 0.80; respectively. Additional anal-yses indicated acceptable results for internal consistency reliability values ranging from 0.55 to 0.92.Conclusion: The belief-based tobacco smoking questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument and now is acceptable and suitable and can be used in future studies.

  8. Efectos de la exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental en no fumadores EFFECTS IN PASSIVE SMOKERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO BELLO S.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los estudios nacionales e internacionales sobre los efectos del humo de tabaco ambiental en la salud de los fumadores pasivos. El humo de tabaco ambiental está conformado por más de 4.000 sustancias químicas, las que difieren cuali y cuantitativamente al estar presentes en la corriente principal o en la lateral. Los no fumadores expuestos presentan un aumento de morbi-mortalidad por enfermedad cardiovascular, incluso con estudios con biomarcadores como cotinina. Además los fumadores pasivos tienen un riesgo aumentado de presentar cáncer de pulmón, de senos paranasales y mama. En niños existe un mayor número de síntomas respiratorios agudos y crónicos, infecciones respiratorias bajas, otitis media y síndrome de muerte súbita infantil. El humo de tabaco ambiental favorece la inducción y exacerbación de asma bronquial en niños y adultos. En la salud reproductiva, disminuye la edad de aparición de la menopausia y produce desórdenes menstruales. Los recién nacidos hijos de madres fumadoras pasivas tienen mayor probabilidad de nacer con bajo peso o de ser pequeños para la edad gestacional. La evidencia científica internacional debe contribuir a que los países tomen medidas para proteger la salud de los no fumadoresNational and international environmental tobacco smoke studies were reviewed regarding its effects on passive smokers' health. Environmental tobacco smoke is composed by more than 4,000 known substances, which are different if they are in the mainstream or sidestream. Studies with biomarkers like cotinine have concluded that exposed nonsmokers have an increased cardiovascular morbi-mortality. Passive smokers also have an increased risk of lung, nasal sinus and breast cancer. Children have more acute and chronic respiratory symptoms, low respiratory infections, otitis and sudden infant death syndrome. Environmental tobacco smoke induces asthma and causes exacerbations in both children and

  9. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi Rema A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25 and in-depth interviews (9 were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries.

  10. Burden of waterpipe smoking and chewing tobacco use among women of reproductive age group using data from the 2012-13 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Hashmi, Shahkamal; Zaheer, Sidra; Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Khan, Naveed Ali; Aziz, Hina; Rashid, Nabil; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the general decline in cigarette smoking, use of alternative forms of tobacco has increased particularly in developing countries. Waterpipe (WP) and Chewing Tobacco (CT) are two such alternative forms, finding their way into many populations. However, the burden of these alternative forms of tobacco and their socio demographic determinants are still unclear. We assessed the prevalence of WP and CT use among women of reproductive age group in Pakistan. Methods: Da...

  11. Sharp changes in tobacco products affordability and the dynamics of smoking prevalence in various social and income groups in Ukraine in 2008–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Krasovsky, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Background To curb the tobacco epidemic, successful implementation of tobacco control measures should take into account how specific demographic groups react to particular policies. In 2005–2010, Ukraine experienced a sharp decline in smoking prevalence. In 2008–2010, several excise tax hikes combined with the economic recession resulted in a sharp reduction of tobacco product affordability, but in 2011–2012 tax increases were rather moderate. The aim of the current research was to investigat...

  12. The Big-Five Personality Traits, Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, and Educational Qualifications as Predictors of Tobacco Use in a Nationally Representative Sample

    OpenAIRE

    H. Cheng; Furnham, A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between the Big-Five personality traits, parental social class, maternal smoking status during pregnancy, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and tobacco use in a longitudinal birth cohort study. METHOD: 17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 11, 33, and 50 years of age. Lifelong tobacco use status (ever/never) and current tobacco use status (yes/no) at age 50 years were the outcome measures respectively. RE...

  13. Neighborhood Inequalities in Retailers’ Compliance With the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009, January 2014–July 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joseph G.L.; Baker, Hannah M.; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Retailer noncompliance with limited US tobacco regulations on advertising and labeling was historically patterned by neighborhood in ways that promote health disparities. In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began enforcing stronger tobacco retailer regulations under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009. However, recent research has found no differences in compliance by neighborhood characteristics for FDA advertising and labeling inspection...

  14. The predictive utility of micro indicators of concern about smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partos, Timea R; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F; Li, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; O'Connor, Richard J; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the association between six "micro indicators" of concern about smoking (1. stubbing out cigarettes before finishing; 2. forgoing cigarettes due to packet warning labels; thinking about... 3. the harms to oneself of smoking; 4. the harms to others of one's smoking; 5. the bad conduct of tobacco companies; and 6. money spent on cigarettes) and cessation outcomes (making quit attempts, and achieving at least six months of sustained abstinence) among adult smokers from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Participants were 12,049 individuals from five survey waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (interviewed between 2002 and 2006, and followed-up approximately one year later). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analysis was used, enabling us to control for within-participant correlations due to possible multiple responses by the same individual over different survey waves. The frequency of micro indicators predicted making quit attempts, with premature stubbing out, forgoing, and thinking about the harms to oneself of smoking being particularly strong predictors. An interaction effect with expressed intention to quit was observed, such that stubbing out and thinking about the harms on oneself predicted quit attempts more strongly among smokers with no expressed plans to quit. In contrast, there was a negative association between some micro indicators and sustained abstinence, with more frequent stubbing out, forgoing, and thinking about money spent on cigarettes associated with a reduced likelihood of subsequently achieving sustained abstinence. In countries with long-established tobacco control programs, micro indicators index both high motivation by smokers to do something about their smoking at least partly independent of espoused intention and, especially those indicators not part of a direct pathway to quitting, reduced capacity to quit successfully. PMID:24813549

  15. Temporal and Spatial Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-β after Airway Remodeling to Tobacco Smoke in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Laura L; Nguyen, Yen P; Aspeé, Rayza; Bolton, Sarah J; Shen, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Lei; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2016-06-01

    Airway remodeling is strongly correlated with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, our goal was to characterize progressive structural changes in site-specific airways, along with the temporal and spatial expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in the lungs of male spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to tobacco smoke (TS). Our studies demonstrated that TS-induced changes of the airways is dependent on airway generation and exposure duration for proximal, midlevel, and distal airways. Stratified squamous epithelial cell metaplasia was evident in the most proximal airways after 4 and 12 weeks but with minimal levels of TGF-β-positive epithelial cells after only 4 weeks of exposure. In contrast, epithelial cells in midlevel and distal airways were strongly TGF-β positive at both 4 and 12 weeks of TS exposure. Airway smooth muscle volume increased significantly at 4 and 12 weeks in midlevel airways. Immunohistochemistry of TGF-β was also found to be significantly increased at 4 and 12 weeks in lymphoid tissues and alveolar macrophages. ELISA of whole-lung homogenate demonstrated that TGF-β2 was increased after 4 and 12 weeks of TS exposure, whereas TGF-β1 was decreased at 12 weeks of TS exposure. Airway levels of messenger RNA for TGF-β2, as well as platelet-derived growth factor-A, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor-α, growth factors regulated by TGF-β, were significantly decreased in animals after 12 weeks of TS exposure. Our data indicate that TS increases TGF-β in epithelial and inflammatory cells in connection with airway remodeling, although the specific role of each TGF-β isoform remains to be defined in TS-induced airway injury and disease. PMID:26637070

  16. Tobacco chippers seeking assistance for smoking cessation: a case series Tobacco chippers em busca de auxílio para parar de fumar: série de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Natan Pires; Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró; Maristela Ferigolo; Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros; Denise Conceição Mesquita Dantas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of cases of tobacco chippers (TCs) who sought assistance for smoking cessation. DESCRIPTION OF CASES: We describe the case of three TCs who participated in a free quit-smoking support group. Smokers answered self-administered questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, smoking history, nicotine dependence, perceived health status, and motivational stages. Of the 183 smokers enrolled in the program, three (1.6%) were considered TCs. All three were women and r...

  17. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  18. Levels and risks of particulate-bound PAHs in indoor air influenced by tobacco smoke: a field measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezakova, Klara; Castro, Dionísia; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone; Pereira, Maria do Carmo

    2014-03-01

    Considering tobacco smoke as one of the most health-relevant indoor sources, the aim of this work was to further understand its negative impacts on human health. The specific objectives of this work were to evaluate the levels of particulate-bound PAHs in smoking and non-smoking homes and to assess the risks associated with inhalation exposure to these compounds. The developed work concerned the application of the toxicity equivalency factors approach (including the estimation of the lifetime lung cancer risks, WHO) and the methodology established by USEPA (considering three different age categories) to 18 PAHs detected in inhalable (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particles at two homes. The total concentrations of 18 PAHs (ΣPAHs) was 17.1 and 16.6 ng m(-3) in PM10 and PM2.5 at smoking home and 7.60 and 7.16 ng m(-3) in PM10 and PM2.5 at non-smoking one. Compounds with five and six rings composed the majority of the particulate PAHs content (i.e., 73 and 78 % of ΣPAHs at the smoking and non-smoking home, respectively). Target carcinogenic risks exceeded USEPA health-based guideline at smoking home for 2 different age categories. Estimated values of lifetime lung cancer risks largely exceeded (68-200 times) the health-based guideline levels at both homes thus demonstrating that long-term exposure to PAHs at the respective levels would eventually cause risk of developing cancer. The high determined values of cancer risks in the absence of smoking were probably caused by contribution of PAHs from outdoor sources. PMID:24337991

  19. The effectiveness of breath carbon monoxide analyzer in screening for environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Saudi pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS. Results: Of the study population 151 (27% women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73% self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%, the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%, the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%, and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%. Conclusion: The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.

  20. Changes in smoking prevalence among U.S. adults by state and region: Estimates from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, 1992-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Center Melissa M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control policies at the state level have been a critical impetus for reduction in smoking prevalence. We examine the association between recent changes in smoking prevalence and state-specific tobacco control policies and activities in the entire U.S. Methods We analyzed the 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS by state and two indices of state tobacco control policies or activities [initial outcome index (IOI and the strength of tobacco control (SOTC index] measured in 1998-1999. The IOI reflects cigarette excise taxes and indoor air legislation, whereas the SOTC reflects tobacco control program resources and capacity. Pearson Correlation coefficient between the proportionate change in smoking prevalence from 1992-93 to 2006-07 and indices of tobacco control activities or programs was the main outcome measure. Results Smoking prevalence decreased from 1992-93 to 2006-07 in both men and women in all states except Wyoming, where no reduction was observed among men, and only a 6.9% relative reduction among women. The percentage reductions in smoking in men and women respectively were the largest in the West (average decrease of 28.5% and 33.3% and the smallest in the Midwest (18.6% and 20.3%, although there were notable exceptions to this pattern. The decline in smoking prevalence by state was correlated with the state's IOI in both women and men (r = -0.49, p Conclusion State level policies on cigarette excise taxes and indoor air legislation correlate strongly with reductions in smoking prevalence since 1992. Strengthening and systematically implementing these policies could greatly accelerate further reductions in smoking.

  1. Predictors of continuous tobacco smoking in a clinical cohort study of Danish laryngeal cancer patients smoking before treated with radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pia Krause; Tolstrup, Janne S; Olsen, Maja H; Dalton, Susanne O; Overgaard, Jens; Johansen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    .21, 95% CI 1.23-3.98) and living alone (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.13-2.14) were associated with increased risk of continuous smoking during treatment. Similar findings were found two months and one year after radiotherapy, however, no association with living alone (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.73-1.59) at the one......-year follow-up. Tumor stage and the average number of cigarettes smoked per day before radiotherapy were not associated with being a continuous smoker. CONCLUSION: Younger patients, who had an early smoking initiation, a poor performance status, low income and lived alone, were most likely to continue smoking...

  2. The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema: a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T;

    2010-01-01

    . It has been debated whether life-style factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with hand eczema. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate whether self-reported hand eczema was associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in the general population. METHODS...... smokers (> 15 g daily) but this needs to be reconfirmed. Alcohol consumption was not associated with hand eczema....

  3. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  4. Using Twitter to Examine Smoking Behavior and Perceptions of Emerging Tobacco Products

    OpenAIRE

    Myslín, M; Zhu, SH; Chapman, W; Conway, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Social media platforms such as Twitter are rapidly becoming key resources for public health surveillance applications, yet little is known about Twitter users' levels of informedness and sentiment toward tobacco, especially with regard to the emerging tobacco control challenges posed by hookah and electronic cigarettes. Objective: To develop a content and sentiment analysis of tobacco-related Twitter posts and build machine learning classifiers to detect tobacco-relevant posts and...

  5. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children. PMID:27087180

  6. Tax, price and cigarette smoking: evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, F; Cummings, K; Morley, C; Horan, J

    2002-01-01

    Methods: Data for this study come from tobacco industry documents contained in the Youth and Marketing database created by the Roswell Park Cancer Institute and available through http:// roswell.tobaccodocuments.org, supplemented with documents obtained from http://www.tobaccodocuments.org.

  7. Trends in Current Tobacco Use, Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts among Saudi Population during Periods of 17 Years (1996-2012: Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M Almutairi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the causes behind increase trends in smoking and extent of tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. We also explored the issues related to and its impact tobacco control research and policy in the Kingdom.Data were collected from various published articles, public data based such as WHO, Geneva and CDC Atlanta. Data were also obtained from surveys conducted by various institutions under The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS for high school students and Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS for medical student. Tobacco importation data and death rates were estimated by various International Organizations.Tobacco importation in Saudi Arabia increased from 1996 to 2012. The proportion of smokers in the KSA almost doubled especially in males from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2012. Mortality attributable to tobacco in the KSA was estimated to account for 280, 000 premature deaths over the same period (without accounting for smuggled tobacco. The economic burden of tobacco consumption over the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the KSA was 20.5 billion US dollars (based on 2011 prices. Anti-tobacco measures in KSA have been reinforced by the enactment of anti-tobacco laws and collaboration among different government agencies and ministries.If effective tobacco control strategies are not enacted, serious consequences, increasing premature mortality rates among them, will continue to threaten the KSA.

  8. Oxidative Stress of Office Workers Relevant to Tobacco Smoking and Inner Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have used 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG as a biomarker to detect systemic oxidative DNA damage associated with oxidative stress. However, studies on the association between exposure to tobacco smoking and urinary 8-OHdgG give inconsistent results. Limited studies have estimated the oxidative stress among office workers. This study assessed the association between urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine for office workers.  Workers (389 including smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers from 87 offices at high-rise buildings in Taipei participated in this study with informed consent. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a spot urine specimen at the end of work day for measuring urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine. The carbon dioxide (CO2 levels in workers’ offices were also measured. The questionnaire reported socio-demographic characteristics, life styles and allergic history. The urinary 8-OHdG level increased with the cotinine level among participants (Spearmans’ rho = 0.543, p < 0.001. The mean of urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine was 5.81 ± 3.53 μg/g creatinine and 3.76 ± 4.06 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Comparing with non-smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR of having urinary 8-OHdG greater than the median level of 4.99 μg/g creatinine was 5.30 (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.30–21.5 for current smokers and 0.91 (95% CI = 0.34–2.43 for former smokers. We also found workers exposed to 1,000 ppm of CO2 at offices had an adjusted OR of 4.28 (95% CI = 1.12–16.4 to have urinary 8-OHdG greater than 4.99 μg/g creatinine, compared to those exposed to indoor CO2 under 600 ppm. In conclusion, urinary 8-OHdG could represent a suitable marker for measuring smoking and CO2 exposure for office workers.

  9. Tobacco smoke exposure in public places and workplaces after smoke-free policy implementation: a longitudinal analysis of smoker cohorts in Mexico and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Erika; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Boado, Marcelo; Yong, Hua Hie; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, correlates and changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure over the period after comprehensive smoke-free policy implementation in two Latin American countries. Methods: Data were analysed from population-based representative samples of adult smokers and recent quitters from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico (n = 1766 and 1840, respectively) and Uruguay (n = 1379 and 1411, respectively). Prevalence of SHS exposure was estimated for regulated venues, and generalized estimating equations were used to determine correlates of SHS exposure. Results: Workplace SHS exposure in the last month was similar within and across countries (range: Mexico 20–25%; Uruguay 14–29%). At the most recent restaurant visit, SHS exposure was lower where comprehensive smoke-free policies were implemented (range: Uruguay 6–9%; Mexico City 5–7%) compared with Mexican cities with weaker policies, where exposure remained higher but decreased over time (32–17%). At the most recent bar visit, SHS exposure was common (range: Uruguay 8–36%; Mexico City 23–31%), although highest in jurisdictions with weaker policies (range in other Mexican cities: 74–86%). In Uruguay, males were more likely than females to be exposed to SHS across venues, as were younger compared with older smokers in Mexico. Conclusions: Comprehensive smoke-free policies are more effective than weaker policies, although compliance in Mexico and Uruguay is not as high as desired. PMID:23172895

  10. BeTobaccoFree.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your ... Proposes New Tobacco Regulations Proposed new rule would cover cigars, e-cigarettes, pipe tobacco and other retail products ...

  11. Statement on smoking cessation in COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Andreas, Stefan; Lewis, Keir E; Tonnesen, Philip; van Schayck, C P; Hajek, Peter; Tonstad, Serena; Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Fletcher, Monica; Masefield, Sarah; Powell, Pippa; Hering, Thomas; Nardini, Stefano; Tonia, Thomy; Gratziou, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis are common pulmonary diseases that are caused or worsened by tobacco smoking. Growing observational evidence suggests that symptoms and prognosis of these conditions improve upon smoking cessation. Despite...... review regarding smoking cessation in patients with COPD and other pulmonary disorders, written by a group of European Respiratory Society experts. We describe the epidemiological links between smoking and pulmonary disorders, the evidence for benefits of stopping smoking, how best to assess tobacco...

  12. DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-03-13

    Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

  13. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Fabian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC systems, stack effect. In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls, resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans, and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  14. The Impact of Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Wheezing and Overweight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS exposure, education level, and preschool children’s wheezing and overweight. Methods. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort—1,489 4–6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Results. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04–4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76–7.21, accordingly. Conclusions. The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  15. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing. PMID:26999174

  16. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing. PMID:26999174

  17. TOBACCO TIGHTROPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's monopoly tobacco industry is trying to maintain revenue levels while adjusting to stricter policies aimed at curbing smoking While China is increasingly opening the doors to its booming economy, reducing the number of state-owned enterprises and welcoming foreign businesses, when it comes to tobacco, the government is still screening out the smoke. A major source of government tax rev-

  18. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke:Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosarnines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors (pgkigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  19. ACSL6 is associated with the number of cigarettes smoked and its expression is altered by chronic nicotine exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Chen

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia tend to be heavy smokers and are at high risk for tobacco dependence. However, the nature of the comorbidity is not entirely clear. We previously reported evidence for association of schizophrenia with SNPs and SNP haplotypes in a region of chromosome 5q containing the SPEC2, PDZ-GEF2 and ACSL6 genes. In this current study, analysis of the control subjects of the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS sample showed similar pattern of association with number of cigarettes smoked per day (numCIG for the same region. To further test if this locus is associated with tobacco smoking as measured by numCIG and FTND, we conducted replication and meta-analysis in 12 independent samples (n>16,000 for two markers in ACSL6 reported in our previous schizophrenia study. In the meta-analysis of the replication samples, we found that rs667437 and rs477084 were significantly associated with numCIG (p = 0.00038 and 0.00136 respectively but not with FTND scores. We then used in vitro and in vivo techniques to test if nicotine exposure influences the expression of ACSL6 in brain. Primary cortical culture studies showed that chronic (5-day exposure to nicotine stimulated ACSL6 mRNA expression. Fourteen days of nicotine administration via osmotic mini pump also increased ACSL6 protein levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mice. These increases were suppressed by injection of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, suggesting that elevated expression of ACSL6 requires nicotinic receptor activation. These findings suggest that variations in the ACSL6 gene may contribute to the quantity of cigarettes smoked. The independent associations of this locus with schizophrenia and with numCIG in non-schizophrenic subjects suggest that this locus may be a common liability to both conditions.

  20. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80+ macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206+ TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer

  1. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Choksi, Swati; Liu, Zheng-Gang, E-mail: zgliu@helix.nih.gov [Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80{sup +} macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206{sup +} TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer.

  2. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80+ macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206+ TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer.

  3. Tobacco smoking, polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes, and risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer: results from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) remains inconclusive. This study examined the association between tobacco smoking and PCa risk taking into account polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes as possible effect modifiers (9 polymorphisms and 1 predicted phenotype from metabolism enzyme genes). The study included cases (n = 761 localized; n = 1199 advanced) and controls (n = 1139) from the multiethnic California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking variables and risk of localized and advanced PCa risk. Being a former smoker, regardless of time of quit smoking, was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.6). Among non-Hispanic Whites, ever smoking was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1–2.1), whereas current smoking was associated with risk of advanced PCa (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0–1.9). However, no associations were observed between smoking intensity, duration or pack-year variables, and advanced PCa. No statistically significant trends were seen among Hispanics or African-Americans. The relationship between smoking status and PCa risk was modified by the CYP1A2 rs7662551 polymorphism (P-interaction = 0.008). In conclusion, tobacco smoking was associated with risk of PCa, primarily localized disease among non-Hispanic Whites. This association was modified by a genetic variant in CYP1A2, thus supporting a role for tobacco carcinogens in PCa risk

  4. The exposure of nonsmoking and smoking mothers to environmental tobacco smoke during different gestational phases and fetal growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejmek, Jan; Solanský, I.; Peterková, Kateřina; Šrám, Radim

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 6 (2002), s. 601-606. ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/1/97; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : active smoking * passive smoking * fetal growth Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.452, year: 2002

  5. Cigarette smoking and associated factors among in-school adolescents in Jamaica: comparison of the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys 2000 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted this study to estimate the correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Jamaica 2006 and compare prevalence of smoking and associated factors between 2000 and 2006. Results In 2006, 1854 participated of whom 49.5 were males and 50.5% females. 1752 adolescents, 48.8% male and 51.2% females participated in the 2000 survey. Between 2000 and 2006, the prevalence of smoking among Jamaican school-going adolescents went up slightly from 15.2% to 16.7% but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.22. The perception that smoking is not harmful increased from 10.9% to 15.9% while parental smoking decreased from 39.4% to 35.5%. There was a decrease in the rates of adolescents exposed to tobacco adverts on billboards (p-value = 0.037 and in newspapers/magazine (p-value Conclusion Results from this study indicate smoking was positively associated with male gender, having smoking friends or parents. We observed a slightly non significant increase in the prevalence of smoking between 2000 and 2006 among adolescents in Jamaica. Although there was a decrease in the rates of adolescents exposed to advertisement, the percentage of those who had an item with a tobacco brand logo had increased. The possible impact of the Jamaica's ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco control remains to be observed.

  6. Adolescent perception on school environment and smoking behavior: Analysis of Isfahan tobacco use prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Teachers have a crucial role in student smoking; therefore, they strategies must be taken to persuade the student, school staff, and students to adhere free-smoking policies in and out of school.

  7. Tobacco industry use of corporate social responsibility tactics as a sword and a shield on secondhand smoke issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C

    2009-01-01

    The tobacco industry has used corporate social responsibility tactics to improve its corporate image with the public, press, and regulators who increasingly have grown to view it as a merchant of death. There is, however, an intractable problem that corporate social responsibility efforts can mask but not resolve: the tobacco industry's products are lethal when used as directed, and no amount of corporate social responsibility activity can reconcile that fundamental contradiction with ethical corporate citizenship. This study's focus is to better understand the tobacco industry's corporate social responsibility efforts and to assess whether there has been any substantive change in the way it does business with regard to the issue of exposure to secondhand smoke. The results show that the industry has made no substantial changes and in fact has continued with business as usual. Although many of the tobacco companies' tactics traditionally had been defensive, they strove for a way to change to a more offensive strategy. Almost without exception, however, their desire to appear to be good corporate citizens clashed with their aversion to further regulation and jeopardizing their legal position, perhaps an irreconcilable conflict. Despite the switch to offense, in 2006 a federal judge found the companies guilty of racketeering. PMID:20122118

  8. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, A S

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi. Cross-sectional data were obtained from school-going adolescents in Blantyre in 2001 using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data collection instrument. Data were analysed to determine prevalence of current and ever cigarette smoking, and predictors of smoking. The prevalence of current smoking and ever smoking were 3.0% and 15.6%, respectively. Predictors of current tobacco smoking included male gender, having friends or parents who smoked, having been exposed to advertisements about tobacco brands on television and having seen a lot of advertisements in newspapers and magazines. School programmes that included being taught about smoking in class and a class discussion on the dangers of tobacco were not associated with reduced current smoking. Intervention programmes aiming to curb tobacco smoking among adolescents should focus on dealing also with parental smoking, peer influence and pay special attention toward male gender. School-based programmes to prevent smoking should be evaluated as some may have little impact in influencing current smoking status. PMID:17547101

  9. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. scientific community has long led the world in research on public health, environmental science, and other issues affecting the quality of life. US scientists have produced landmark studies on the dangers of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and global warming. But at the same time, a small yet potent subset of this community leads the world in vehement denial of these dangers. In this book, the historian authors explain how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists, with extensive political connections, ran effective campaigns to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades. In seven compelling chapters addressing tobacco, acid rain, the ozone hole, global warming, and DDT, they roll back the rug on this dark corner of the American scientific community, showing how the ideology of free market fundamentalism, aided by a too-compliant media, has skewed public understanding of some of the most pressing issues of our era

  10. Burden of total and cause-specific mortality related to tobacco smoking among adults aged ≥ 45 years in Asia: a pooled analysis of 21 cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated smoking-related deaths among adults aged ≥45 y in 2004 in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan-accounting for ∼71% of Asia's total population. An approximately 1.44-fold (95% CI = 1.37-1.51 and 1.48-fold (1.38-1.58 elevated risk of death from any cause was found in male and female ever-smokers, respectively. In 2004, active tobacco smoking accounted for approximately 15.8% (95% CI = 14.3%-17.2% and 3.3% (2.6%-4.0% of deaths, respectively, in men and women aged ≥45 y in the seven countries/regions combined, with a total number of estimated deaths of ∼1,575,500 (95% CI = 1,398,000-1,744,700. Among men, approximately 11.4%, 30.5%, and 19.8% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases, respectively, were attributable to tobacco smoking. Corresponding proportions for East Asian women were 3.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. The strongest association with tobacco smoking was found for lung cancer: a 3- to 4-fold elevated risk, accounting for 60.5% and 16.7% of lung cancer deaths, respectively, in Asian men and East Asian women aged ≥45 y. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially elevated risk of mortality, accounting for approximately 2 million deaths in adults aged ≥45 y throughout Asia in 2004. It is likely that smoking-related deaths in Asia will continue to rise over the next few decades if no effective smoking control programs are

  11. The association between smoking and chronic periodontitis in users of the public dental services, “Sistema Único de Saúde”, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Regina Silva Medeiros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the association between smoking and chronic periodontitis in users of the public dental services, “Sistema Único de Saúde”, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: One hundred patients who answered a questionnaire, were submitted to a full periodontal exam for classification according to the type, extent and severity of chronic periodontitis. In these interviews, information was collected about the use of tobacco. Association tests were carried out (RP, X2, Fisher’s exact test, ANOVA and the Student’s-t, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests at a significance level of 5% and with confidence intervals of 95%. Results: The prevalence of chronic periodontitis, classified as Severe, was higher in men (42.4%; those classified as Moderate or Light were more common in women (60.7%. As regards the number of cigarettes smoked in their lifetimes, the patients with Severe Chronic Periodontitis had a higher average (4831.5 cigarettes package than the patients classified as Moderate or Light (1397.6 cigarettes package. After an adjustment to take into account all the variables, it was strongly maintained that the severity of periodontitis was associated with the length of the smoking, even more so than the effect of the quantity of cigarettes smoked per day in the whole lifetime. Conclusion: Smoking was seen to be associated with periodontal disease and the degree of severity and extent of chronic periodontitis were significantly associated with the duration of smoking.

  12. The tobacco epidemic in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A

    2007-12-01

    Tobacco use, primarily in the form of cigarettes and exposure to tobacco smoke pollution, has caused the premature deaths of more than 14 million Americans since 1964. The major diseases caused by tobacco and tobacco smoke include lung cancer, other cancers, coronary heart disease, other cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, pregnancy complications, and respiratory diseases in children. Per capita consumption of various tobacco products has declined substantially since 1950, with current consumption at approximately 3.7 pounds per capita. Whereas approximately two in five adults smoked cigarettes in 1965, approximately one in five did so in 2005. Several factors can influence initiation and cessation, including product factors (e.g., ventilation holes, additives, and flavorings); host factors (intention to use, level of dependence); tobacco company activities (e.g., marketing strategies, efforts to undermine public health activities); and environmental factors (e.g., peer and parental smoking, smoke-free air laws and policies). Efforts to prevent initiation, promote quitting, and protect nonsmokers should reduce exposure to pro-tobacco marketing and increase (1) the price of tobacco products, (2) protection from tobacco smoke pollution, (3) effective mass media strategies, (4) provision of effective cessation support, (5) effective regulation, and (6) litigation that holds the industry responsible for its misdeeds. Adequate implementation of effective tobacco-control strategies and useful scientific advances will help to ensure that per capita consumption decreases to the lowest level possible. The economic benefits of tobacco in our society are replaceable and they pale in comparison to the extent of human life lost. PMID:18021906

  13. Impact of tobacco smoking on response to tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Højgaard, Pil; Lund Hetland, Merete;

    2016-01-01

    .29-4.95)), P < 0.0001). Similar results were found in multivariate analyses (current versus never smokers, HR 1.41 (95% CI 1.21-1.65), P < 0.001), most pronounced among men. Current smokers had poorer 6 months' BASDAI50%/20 mm-response rate than never smokers (42%/58%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between tobacco smoking and disease activity, treatment adherence and treatment responses in patients with AS treated with their first tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor (TNFi) therapy in routine care. METHODS: Observational cohort study based on the...... Danish nationwide DANBIO registry. Kaplan-Meier plots, Cox and logistic regression analyses by smoking status (current/never/previous) were calculated for treatment adherence and BASDAI 50%/20 mm-response. Additional stratified analyses were performed for gender and TNFi-type. RESULTS: Of 1576 AS...

  14. Evaluation of anticardiolipin antibodies in tobacco users and non-tobacco users with severe chronic periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadalam, Pradeep K.; Rajapandian, K.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Vartharajan, Kalaivani; Subramaniam, Srinath; Dinakar, Mithra

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Many studies have proven that b2-glycoprotein-I-dependent anticardiolipin is elevated in periodontal diseases. Systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome, which are usually associated with high antiphospholipid antibodies, are more prone to adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular sequelae. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate IgG, IgM anticardiolipin antibodies in tobacco users and non-tobacco users with severe chronic periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: Based on the Armitage classification, 2000, 40 severe periodontitis (group D) (mean clinical attachment loss greater than 2.5 mm) male patients were selected for the study with the age range of 35–65 years and good general health from the Department of periodontics, SRM Kattankulathur Dental College, Chennai. They were classified as smokers (20 subjects) and non-smokers (20 subjects). Blood samples were collected and IgG, IgM antibodies were semi-quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data thus collected were statistically analyzed by independent student's t-test. Results: Results showed that smokers with severe periodontitis exhibited marked increase in anticardiolipin IgG, IgM compared to non-smokers. They showed a positive correlation and statistical significance (P periodontitis, which indicates that these patients are more prone to coronary heart disease. PMID:27382544

  15. Best approaches in the battle against Globesity? Learning lessons from our experience tackling HIV-AIDS and tobacco smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Heymann, Eric P; Goldsmith, David

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, two-thirds of the annual global death toll was attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Defined as chronic conditions often caused or exacerbated by non-obligated lifestyle behaviours, the NCD epidemic has been fuelled by a combination of risk factors, including tobacco use, an unhealthy diet combined with lack of physical activity and overweight-obesity, and harmful alcohol use. The health consequences are mainly seen as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and chroni...

  16. Side-stream tobacco smoke-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in early postnatal period is involved nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z-X; Hunter, D D; Batchelor, T P; Dey, R D

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that children are more susceptible to adverse respiratory effects of passive smoking than adults. The goal of this study is to elucidate the possible neural mechanism induced by exposure to passive smoking during early life. Postnatal day (PD) 2 and PD 21 mice were exposed to side-stream tobacco smoke (SS), a surrogate to secondhand smoke, or filtered air (FA) for 10 consecutive days. Pulmonary function, substance P (SP) airway innervation, neurotrophin gene expression in lung and nerve growth factor (NGF) release in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were measured at different times after the last SS or FA exposure. Exposure to SS significantly altered pulmonary function in PD2, accompanied with an enhanced SP innervation in airway. However, exposure to SS during the later developmental period (PD21) did not appear to affect pulmonary function and SP innervation of the airways. Interestingly, SS exposure in PD2 group significantly induced an increased gene expression on NGF, and decreased NGF receptor P75 in lung; parallel with high levels of NGF protein in BAL. Furthermore, pretreatment with NGF antibody significantly diminished SS-induced airway hyperresponsivenss and the increased SP airway innervation in the PD2 group. These findings suggest that enhanced NGF released in the lung contributes to SS-enhanced SP tracheal innervation and airway responsiveness in early life. PMID:26638730

  17. Maternal smoking promotes chronic obstructive lung disease in the offspring as adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In utero and/or childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure is well known to adversely affect lung function and to depreciate child's health in many ways. Fewer studies have assessed the long-term effects on COPD development and disease severity in later adulthood. Methods COPD patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire regarding their personal as well as the smoking habits of their parents. Data were compared with the disease history, e.g. COPD exacerbation rate, and their lung function data. Results Between 2003 and 2004 COPD patients were recruited a in a private practice specialized in pulmonary medicine (n = 133 and b in a hospital (n = 158. 75% of their fathers and only 15.4 of all mothers smoked regularly. COPD patients from smoking mothers had lower FEV1 predicted than those raised in household without maternal smoking exposure: 39.4 ± 9.5% vs. 51.9 ± 6.0% (P = 0.037. Fathers had no effect on FEV1 regardless if they are smokers or non-smokers. Rate of severe exacerbations requiring hospitalization remained unaffected by parental second hand smoke exposure. Conclusion Maternal smoking negatively affects lung function of their offspring even in late adulthood when they develop COPD. It even aggravates the cumulative effect of active cigarette consumption. Clinical course of the COPD remained unaffected.

  18. Perinatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Enhances Susceptibility to Viral and Secondary Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn A. Claude

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS leads to increased incidence of infections of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether perinatal exposure to ETS increases the incidence, morbidity and severity of respiratory influenza infection and whether a secondary bacterial challenge at the peak of a pre-existing viral infection creates an enhanced host-pathogen susceptibility to an opportunistic infection. Timed-pregnant female Balb/c mice were exposed to either ETS for 6 h/day, 7 d/week beginning on gestation day 14 and continuing with the neonates to 6 weeks of age. Control animals were exposed to filtered air (FA. At the end of exposure, mice were intranasally inoculated with a murine-adapted influenza A. One week later, an intranasal inoculation of S. aureus bacteria was administered. The respective treatment groups were: bacteria only, virus only or virus+bacteria for both FA and ETS-exposed animals for a total of six treatment groups. Animal behavior and body weights were documented daily following infection. Mice were necropsied 1-day post-bacterial infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell analysis demonstrated perinatal exposure to ETS, compared to FA, leads to delayed but enhanced clinical symptoms and enhanced total cell influx into the lungs associated with viral infection followed by bacterial challenge. Viral infection significantly increases the number of neutrophils entering the lungs following bacterial challenge with either FA or ETS exposure, while the influx of lymphocytes and monocytes is significantly enhanced only by perinatal ETS exposure. There is a significant increase in peribronchiolar inflammation following viral infection in pups exposed to ETS compared with pups exposed to FA, but no change is noted in the degree of lung injury between FA and ETS-exposed animals following bacterial challenge. The data suggests perinatal exposure to ETS

  19. Inhaled steroid/tobacco smoke particle interactions: a new light on steroid resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolini Gabriele

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhaled steroid resistance is an obstacle to asthma control in asthmatic smokers. The reasons of this phenomenon are not yet entirely understood. Interaction of drug particles with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS could change the aerodynamic profile of the drug through the particle coagulation phenomenon. Aim of the present study was to examine whether steroid particles interact with smoke when delivered in the presence of ETS. Methods Beclomethasone-hydrofluoralkane (BDP-HFA pMDI particle profile was studied after a single actuation delivered in ambient air or in the presence of ETS in an experimental chamber using a light scattering Optical Particle Counter capable of measuring the concentrations of particle sized 0.3–1.0, 1.1–2.0, 2.1–3.0, 3.1–4.0, 4.1–5.0, and > 5.1 μm in diameter with a sampling time of one second. The number of drug particles delivered after a single actuation was measured as the difference between total particle number after drug delivery and background particle number. Two groups of experiments were carried out at different ambient background particle concentrations. Two-tail Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results When delivered in ambient air, over 90% of BDP-HFA particles were found in the 0.3–1.0 μm size class, while particles sized 1.1–2.0 μm and 2.1–3.0 represented less than 6.6% and 2.8% of total particles, respectively. However, when delivered in the presence of ETS, drug particle profile was modified, with an impressive decrease of 0.3–1.0 μm particles, the most represented particles resulting those sized 1.1–2.0 μm (over 66.6% of total particles, and 2.1–3.0 μm particles accounting up to 31% of total particles. Conclusion Our data suggest that particle interaction between inhaled BDP-HFA pMDI and ETS takes place in the first few seconds after drug delivery, with a decrease in smaller particles and a concurrent increase of larger particles. The

  20. Assessment of cytogenic damage in the form of micronuclei in oral epithelial cells in patients using smokeless and smoked form of tobacco and non-tobacco users and its relevance for oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Anagha A Motgi; Mahesh S Chavan; Nikhil N Diwan; Asha Chowdhery; Pallavi P Channe; Mrinal V Shete

    2014-01-01

    Context: Early detection of cytological damages may help in reduction of morbidity and mortality in patients with oral cancer. Aims: (1) The primary aim of this study is to assess the cytogenic damage in the form of micronuclei (MN) in patients with smokeless and smoked tobacco using habit. (2) The secondary aim of this study is to compare the MN score in patients using tobacco and patients with no tobacco habit. (3) To find out incidence of MN according to duration and frequency of tobac...

  1. Lack of Correlation of Betel Nut Chewing, Tobacco Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Telomerase Activity and the Severity of Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-Ling Hsieh; Hung-Ming Wang; Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang; I-How Chen; Chun-Ta Liao; Ann-Joy Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is one of the most frequent cancers. A strong association hasbeen found between oral cancer incidence and the use of betel nut, alcohol,and tobacco. Telomerase activity (TA) has also been shown to play a role incarcinogenesis. We therefore surveyed the consumption habits of betel nutchewing, alcohol drinking, and tobacco smoking in oral cancer patients andevaluated the association of these habits with TA level and clinical stage.Methods: In total, 154 oral cancer patie...

  2. Prevalence of tobacco smoking among health-care physicians in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Borgan, Saif M; Jassim, Ghufran; Marhoon, Zaid A; Almuqamam, Mohamed A; Ebrahim, Mohamed A; Soliman, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a clear shift in smoking habits among the Middle Eastern population with a recent and alarming increase in the prevalence of waterpipe (shisha) smoking. This phenomenon has not yet been studied sufficiently across the physician population. Therefore, we set out to establish the smoking status of primary healthcare physicians in the kingdom of Bahrain. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 175 out of the total 320 primary care physi...

  3. Determination of airborne cadmium in environmental tobacco smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis with a compton suppression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Larson, S; Wu, D

    1993-06-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, a toxic trace element, were measured in the indoor air of several public places where environmental tobacco smoke was present. Particulate-phase cadmium concentrations were determined by analyzing air filter samples using epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis in conjunction with a Compton suppression gamma-ray detection system, in which the detection limit for cadmium was reduced to a few nanograms per filter. A cascade impactor and a personal filter sampler were used to collect the indoor suspended particulate matter for size-fractionated mass as well as total mass, respectively. Results show that where environmental tobacco smoke is present, cadmium concentrations are significantly higher than background and that about 80% of the cadmium found in indoor airborne particulate matter is associated with particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 1.8 microns. In one instance, airborne cadmium concentrations in a music club were found to be 38 ng/m, which is at least 30 times higher than background. PMID:8328669

  4. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , ...

  5. Pulmonary complications of smoked substance abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Tashkin, D P

    1990-01-01

    After tobacco, marijuana is the most widely smoked substance in our society. Studies conducted within the past 15 years in animals, isolated tissues, and humans indicate that marijuana smoke can injure the lungs. Habitual smoking of marijuana has been shown to be associated with chronic respiratory tract symptoms, an increased frequency of acute bronchitic episodes, extensive tracheobronchial epithelial disease, and abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, key cell...

  6. El riesgo de infecciones respiratorias en el fumador activo y pasivo Tobacco smoke and risk of respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO SALDÍAS P

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available la exposición a humo de tabaco constituye un importante factor de riesgo para adquirir infecciones respiratorias bacterianas y virales. En adultos sin enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, el tabaquismo está asociado a un aumento significativo del riesgo de neumonía (OR: 2,0; IC95%: 1,24-3,24, enfermedad neumocócica invasiva (OR: 2,6; IC95%: 1,9-3,5 e infección por legionella spp. (OR: 3,48; IC95%: 2,09-5,79. Además, el tabaquismo está asociado a mayor riesgo de influenza (OR: 2,4; IC95%: 1,5-3,8, tuberculosis (OR: 2,6; IC95%: 2,2-3,1 y neumonía por virus varicela. En niños pequeños expuestos al humo de tabaco en sus hogares aumenta el riesgo de infecciones respiratorias bajas (bronquitis, neumonía (OR: 1,72; IC95%: 1,55-1,91 y otitis media recurrente (OR: 1,88; IC95%: 1,02-3,49. El tabaquismo pasivo también aumenta el riesgo de neumonía en adultos (OR: 2,5; IC95%: 1,2-5,1. El aumento del riesgo de infecciones respiratorias en el fumador activo y pasivo puede ser parcialmente atribuido al aumento de la adherencia y colonización bacteriana de la mucosa respiratoria, disminución de la depuración mucociliar nasal y de la vía aérea, y alteraciones específicas de la inmunidad humoral y celular. Conclusión: la exposición a humo de tabaco aumenta al doble el riesgo de infecciones respiratorias en niños y adultos. El aumento de las consultas por infecciones respiratorias constituye una elevada carga para el sistema de salud. En los pacientes que consultan por infecciones respiratorias agudas se debería evaluar el riesgo individual de exposición a humo de tabaco y el equipo de salud debería implementar actividades educativas específicas para intentar controlarloTobacco smoke is a proven risk factor for viral and bacterial respiratory infection. In adults without COPD, smoking is associated with a significant increase in the relative risk of pneumonia (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.24-3.24, invasive pneumococcal disease (OR = 2.6; 95

  7. Tobacco smoking and long-lasting symptoms from the bowel and the anal-sphincter region after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Tobacco smoking can cause vascular injury, tissue hypoxia and fibrosis as can ionizing radiation. However, we do not know if tobacco smoking increases the risk of long-term side effects after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods: We identified 985 men treated with radiotherapy for prostate cancer between 1993 and 2006. In 2008, long-lasting symptoms appearing after radiotherapy for prostate cancer were assessed through a study-specific questionnaire as were smoking habits and demographic factors of all these men. In the questionnaire the prostate-cancer survivors were asked to report symptom occurrence the previous six months. Results: We obtained information on tobacco smoking from 836 of the 985 prostate-cancer survivors with a median time to follow-up of six years (range 2–14 years). The prevalence ratio of defecation urgency among current smokers compared to never smokers was 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.2). Corresponding prevalence ratio for diarrhea was 2.8 (95% CI 1.2–6.5), the sensation of bowel not completely emptied after defecation 2.1 (95% CI 1.3–3.3) and for sudden emptying of all stools into clothing without forewarning 4.7 (95% CI 2.3–9.7). Conclusion: Tobacco smoking among prostate-cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy increases the risk of certain long-lasting symptoms from the bowel and anal-sphincter region.

  8. Consumption of salted meat and its interactions with alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Huang, Chengyu; Liu, Xudong; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Ignatius T S; Christiani, David C

    2015-08-01

    Etiology of esophageal cancer has not yet been clearly documented, especially in high-risk regions. To evaluate the association between salted meat intake and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to explore its joint effects with alcohol drinking and smoking, a population-based case-control study was conducted in a high ESCC risk area in China, including 942 incident ESCC cases and 942 age- and sex-matching controls. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on dietary factors, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Conditional logistic regressions were applied to estimate the association between salted meat intake and ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and smoking, with adjustment for other confounders, including total energy intake. Salted meat intake was associated with an increased risk of ESCC, showing an exposure-response relationship (p for trend Consumption of 50 g salted meat per week was related to an increased risk by 18% (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.23). Salted meat in combination with either alcohol drinking or smoking had a greater risk than salted meat alone, which was more than additive. The strongest association was seen in the combination of all the three factors, particularly at the highest level of salted meat intake (odds ratio = 29.27, 95% confidence interval: 13.21-64.89). Salted meat intake is strongly associated with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and/or smoking highlights the significance of reducing salted meat intake among smokers and drinkers with respect to ESCC prevention. PMID:25544988

  9. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure. PMID:27060750

  10. Effects of chronic nicotine on behavioural and neurochemical responses to morphine

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinummi, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a worldwide health problem. Nicotine is generally accepted as the addictive substance in tobacco smoke. In addition to causing cancer, cardiac, vascular and pulmonary diseases, tobacco smoking has been suggested to act as a gateway drug to other drugs of abuse. The purpose of this study was to find out, whether chronic nicotine administration and its cessation potentiate the effects of morphine, and the mechanisms behind this. The study was performed in mice that received n...

  11. The Influence of Sexual Orientation and Masculinity on Young Men's Tobacco Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.; Westmaas, J. Lee; Dougherty, Lea R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of smoking among gay men is considerably higher than in the general population. To investigate possible causes of this health risk disparity, this study used multilevel modeling of daily diary data to examine the temporal relationship between smoking and both sexual orientation concealment and masculine gender role…

  12. [Influence of tobacco smoking on newborn's birth weight--analisys of dates concerning births from Maternity Hospital named. Dr S. Mossor's in Opole City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzikowski, Wojciech; Pirogowicz, Iwona

    2008-01-01

    Despite wide education, tobacco smoking while being pregnant is very important issue in perinatology. It is important problem because of life style of polish society, including pregnant women. Clinical observation of this issue is pointing on risk of occurring pathology in pregnancy, unfavorable consequences for neonate also many distant pathological effects among children. Purpose of this was getting an answer for question: whether in current social and economic situation there is connection between low birth mass and smoking tobacco during pregnancy. Under analysis were found births between 38th and 40th one hundred successive births (according to book of birth-room from 2860 labors in hospital in Opol, 2007) of mothers are smoking up to 10 cigarettes a day (group I), mothers smoking 11-20 cigarettes a day (group II) and mothers that are not smoking. This works affirms that smoking has negative influence on child birth mass. It is also displayed that higher the number of smoked cigarettes the higher percent of newborns with low birth mass and higher number o fetus with intrauterine growth retardation. Among mothers that are smoking the biggest group were young women (mean. 24, years) and multipara female (58%). PMID:19189515

  13. A feasibility study on oxidation state of arsenic in cut tobacco, mainstream cigarette smoke and cigarette ash by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the application of synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy to study the oxidation state of arsenic in cigarette mainstream smoke, cut tobacco and cigarette ash. The level of arsenic in the total particulate matter of the smoke is approximately 1 ppm for the standard research reference cigarette 2R4F and its replacement 3R4F. Smoke particulate samples collected by a conventional glass-fiber membrane (commercially known as Cambridge filter pad) and a jet-impaction method were analyzed and compared. In addition smoke particulate samples were aged either at ambient temperature or at 195 K. X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy results revealed that the cut tobacco powder and cigarette ash contained almost exclusively AsV. The smoke particulate samples however contained a mixture of AsIII and AsV. The AsV in the smoke particulate was reduced to AsIII upon aging. Stabilizing the smoke particulate matter at 195 K by solid CO2 slowed down this aging reaction and revealed a higher percentage of AsV. This behavior is consistent with the redox properties of the arsenic species and the smoke particulate matrix.

  14. Effects of Tobacco Smoke Constituents, Anabasine and Anatabine, on Memory and Attention in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Edward D.; Hao, Ian; Burke, Dennis; Cauley, Marty; Hall, Brandon J; Rezvani, Amir H.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine has been well characterized to improve memory and attention. Nicotine is the primary, but not only neuroactive compound in tobacco. Other tobacco constituents such as anabasine and anatabine also have agonist actions on nicotinic receptors. The current study investigated the effects of anabasine and anatabine on memory and attention. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a win-shift spatial working and reference memory task in the 16-arm radial maze or a visual signal dete...

  15. Oxidative stress is reduced in Wistar rats exposed to smoke from tobacco and treated with specific broad-band pulse electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of attempts to reduce the oxidative radical burden of tobacco. A recently patented technology, pulse electromagnetic technology, has been shown to induce differential action of treated tobacco products versus untreated products on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in vivo. In a 90-day respiratory toxicity study, Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke from processed and unprocessed tobacco and biomarkers of oxidative stress were compared with pathohistological analysis of rat lungs. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner to 81% in rats exposed to smoke from normal cigarettes compared to rats exposed to treated smoke or the control group. These results correspond to pathohistological analysis of rat lungs, in which those rats exposed to untreated smoke developed initial signs of emphysema, while rats exposed to treated smoke showed no pathology, as in the control group. The promise of inducing an improved health status in humans exposed to smoke from treated cigarettes merits further investigation.

  16. Effect of Cigarette and Cigar Smoking on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Medabala, Tambi; B.N., Rao; Mohesh M.I., Glad; Kumar M., Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking in India has been increasing alarmingly. Smoking is a known risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, especially, the lung cancer. The percentage prevalence of cigarette smoking (18.5%) and cigar smoking (4%) in males is high in Andhra Pradesh compared to other southern states. There is not enough scientific literature to correlate about intensity of cigarette and cigar smoking and their impact on lun...

  17. Tobacco smoking using Midwakh is an emerging health problem--evidence from a large cross-sectional survey in the United Arab Emirates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Houqani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Accurate information about the prevalence and types of tobacco use is essential to deliver effective public health policy. We aimed to study the prevalence and modes of tobacco consumption in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, particularly focusing on the use of Midwakh (Arabic traditional pipe. METHODS: We studied 170,430 UAE nationals aged ≥ 18 years (44% males and 56% females in the Weqaya population-based screening program in Abu Dhabi residents during the period April 2008-June 2010. Self-reported smoking status, type, quantity and duration of tobacco smoked were recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study findings; prevalence rates used the screened sample as the denominator. RESULT: The prevalence of smoking overall was 24.3% in males and 0.8% in females and highest in males aged 20-39. Mean age (SD of smokers was 32.8 (11.1 years, 32.7 (11.1 in males and 35.7 (12.1 in females. Cigarette smoking was the commonest form of tobacco use (77.4% of smokers, followed by Midwakh (15.0%, shisha (waterpipe (6.8%, and cigar (0.66%. The mean durations of smoking for cigarettes, Midwakh, shisha and cigars were 11.4, 9.3, 7.6 and 11.0 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is most common among younger UAE national men. The use of Midwakh and the relatively young age of onset of Midwakh smokers is of particular concern as is the possibility of the habit spreading to other countries. Comprehensive tobacco control laws targeting the young and the use of Midwakh are needed.

  18. Adult and prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke as risk indicators of fertility among 430 Danish couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H;

    1998-01-01

    menstrual cycles or until a clinically recognized pregnancy. At enrollment and each month throughout the follow-up, both partners completed a questionnaire that asked them about their smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of caffeinated beverages. The effect of current smoking and smoking exposure in...... utero was evaluated by using a logistic regression model with pregnancy outcome of each cycle in a Cox discrete model calculating the fecundability odds ratio. After adjustment for female body mass index and alcohol intake, diseases in female reproductive organs, semen quality, and duration of menstrual...

  19. Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Navas-Acien; Patrick Breysse; Shahida Shahrir; Denis Vinnikov; Nurlan Brimkulov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) μg/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6) ...

  20. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarettes smoked by the participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yershova, Katrina; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Valentin, Liza; Watson, Clifford; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina

    2016-09-15

    Our recent studies on tobacco smoke carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers and cancer risk among male smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study showed that exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is prospectively associated with the risk of cancer. These findings support the hypothesis that the smokers' cancer risk is a function of the dose of select tobacco carcinogens and highlight the importance of understanding the factors that affect the intake of these carcinogens by smokers. Given that tobacco constituent exposures are driven, at least in part, by the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke, we measured mainstream smoke TSNA and PAH levels in 43 Chinese cigarette brands that participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study reported to smoke. In all brands analyzed here, mainstream smoke levels of NNN and NNK, the two carcinogenic TSNA, were generally relatively low, averaging (±SD) 16.8(±25.1) and 14.2(±9.5) ng/cigarette, respectively. The levels of PAH were comparable to those found in U.S. cigarettes, averaging 15(±9) ng/cigarette for benzo[a]pyrene, 119(±66) ng/cigarette for phenanthrene and 37(±19) ng/cigarette for pyrene. Our findings indicate that the generally low levels of NNN and NNK are most likely responsible for the relatively low levels of the corresponding biomarkers in the urine of the Shanghai Cohort Study participants as compared to those found in the U.S. smokers, supporting the role of the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke in smokers' exposures. Our findings also suggest that, in addition to smoking, other sources contribute to Chinese smokers' exposure to PAH. PMID:27163125

  1. Departure from multiplicative interaction for catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and active/passive exposure to tobacco smoke among women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Jemma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with homozygous polymorphic alleles of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT-LL metabolize 2-hydroxylated estradiol, a suspected anticarcinogenic metabolite of estrogen, at a four-fold lower rate than women with no polymorphic alleles (COMT-HH or heterozygous women (COMT-HL. We hypothesized that COMT-LL women exposed actively or passively to tobacco smoke would have higher exposure to 2-hydroxylated estradiol than never-active/never passive exposed women, and should therefore have a lower risk of breast cancer than women exposed to tobacco smoke or with higher COMT activity. Methods We used a case-only design to evaluate departure from multiplicative interaction between COMT genotype and smoking status. We identified 502 cases of invasive incident breast cancer and characterized COMT genotype. Information on tobacco use and other potential breast cancer risk factors were obtained by structured interviews. Results We observed moderate departure from multiplicative interaction for COMT-HL genotype and history of ever-active smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7, 3.8 and more pronounced departure for women who smoked 40 or more years (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI: 0.8, 7.0. We observed considerable departure from multiplicative interaction for COMT-HL genotype and history of ever-passive smoking (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.8, 5.2 or for having lived with a smoker after age 20 (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 0.8, 10. Conclusion With greater control over potential misclassification errors and a large case-only population, we found evidence to support an interaction between COMT genotype and tobacco smoke exposure in breast cancer etiology.

  2. Pairing smoking-cessation services with lung cancer screening: A clinical guideline from the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence and the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, Lisa M; Czabafy, Sharon; Hendricks, Peter S; Kotsen, Chris; Richardson, Donna; Toll, Benjamin A

    2016-04-15

    Smoking cessation is crucial for reducing cancer risk and premature mortality. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended annual lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services recently approved lung screening as a benefit for patients ages 55 to 77 years who have a 30 pack-year history. The Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) and the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence (ATTUD) developed the guideline described in this commentary based on an illustrative literature review to present the evidence for smoking-cessation health benefits in this high-risk group and to provide clinical recommendations for integrating evidence-based smoking-cessation treatment with lung cancer screening. Unfortunately, extant data on lung cancer screening participants were scarce at the time this guideline was written. However, in this review, the authors summarize the sufficient evidence on the benefits of smoking cessation and the efficacy of smoking-cessation interventions for smokers ages 55 to 77 years to provide smoking-cessation interventions for smokers who seek lung cancer screening. It is concluded that smokers who present for lung cancer screening should be encouraged to quit smoking at each visit. Access to evidence-based smoking-cessation interventions should be provided to all smokers regardless of scan results, and motivation to quit should not be a necessary precondition for treatment. Follow-up contacts to support smoking-cessation efforts should be arranged for smokers. Evidence-based behavioral strategies should be used at each visit to motivate smokers who are unwilling to try quitting/reducing smoking or to try evidence-based treatments that may lead to eventual cessation. Cancer 2016;122:1150-9. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26916412

  3. CONTRASTING BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE AND CHRONIC SMOKING IN DETOXIFIED ALCOHOLICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background Current literature suggests that acute nicotine administration provides a compensatory mechanism by which alcoholics might alleviate attentional deficits. In contrast, chronic smoking is increasingly recognized as negatively affecting neurobehavioral integrity. These opposing effects have not been simultaneously examined. Thus, we sought to a) extend previous work by exploring the effects of acute nicotine effects on vigilance components of attention and replicate previous findings suggesting that treatment-seeking alcoholics experience benefit to a greater extent than do other groups; and b) to examine the impact of chronic smoking on these tasks and across subgroups. Methods Substance abusing participants (N=86) were recruited and subgrouped on the basis of dependency criteria as either alcoholics, alcoholics with co-morbid stimulant dependence, or stimulant dependent individuals. Groups of cigarette-smoking (N=17) and non-smoking (N=22) community controls were recruited as comparison groups. Smoking subjects were assigned a placebo, low, or high dose nicotine patch in a double-blind placebo controlled fashion. Non-smoking controls were administered either a placebo or low dose. Testing occurred after dose stabilization. Results General linear models indicated greater sensitivity to acute nicotine administration among alcoholics than other groups when controlling for the effect of intensity of smoking history, as reflected by pack-years. Pack-years correlated negatively with performance measures in alcoholics but not stimulant abusing subgroups or smoking controls. Finally, regression analyses demonstrated that pack-years predicted poorer performance only for the alcoholic subgroup. Conclusions These results support previous work finding a compensatory effect of acute nicotine administration on attentional performance in alcoholics and reinforce the consideration of recent nicotine use as a confound in neurocognitive studies of alcoholics. Of

  4. Validation of smoking cessation self-reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R Hilberink

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sander R Hilberink1, Johanna E Jacobs1, Sanne van Opstal2, Trudy van der Weijden2, Janine Keegstra1, Pascal LJ Kempers3, Jean WM Muris2, Richard PTM Grol1, Hein de Vries41IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, Research Institute CAPHRI, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Health Risk, Analysis and Toxicology, 4Department of Health Promotion and Health, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The present study reports on the biochemical validation of the self-reported smoking status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The objective is to establish the proportion of overestimation of self-reported success rates.Methods: A cross-sectional smoking-status validation study including 60 patients with COPD who reported that they had stopped smoking. In the analysis of urine samples, a cut-off point of 50 ng/mL of cotinine was used.Results: At the time of biochemical validation, 55 patients reported that they had quit smoking while five patients resumed smoking. Smoking status was biochemically confirmed for 43 patients (78% and 12 patients (22% were classified as smokers. The sensitivity of the self-report of smoking was 29% and the specificity was 100%.Conclusion: Many primary care patients with COPD do not provide valid information on their smoking status, which hamper adequate therapeutic interventions. Integration of biochemical validation in daily care could overcome this problem, but may harm the doctor–patient relationship.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking cessation, biochemical validation, general practice, outcome measurement

  5. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to three years of age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, R. J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Dostál, Miroslav; Keller, J. A.; Nožička, J.; Kotěšovec, F.; Dejmek, Jan; Loomis, D.; Šrám, Radim

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 7 (2006), s. 1126-1132. ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : ETS-environmental tobacco smoke * respiratory diseases * children health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.861, year: 2006

  6. The relevance and significance of N7-mathylguanine and N3-methyladenine DNA adducts originating by the tobacco smoke methylating carcinogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chadt, Jiří; Vodička, Pavel; Nillson, R.

    Prague: EEMS, 2006. s. 169-169. [Annual Meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society. 02.07.2006-06.07.2006, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Tobacco smoke Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. The effects of alpha and ndash;tocopherol on endometrial uterine vascularization, uterine cervix oxidative stress and proliferation in female rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Erna Taulina Purba

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion:Administration of and #61537; and ndash;tocopherolcan increase the vascularization in endometrial uterine of rats exposed to tobacco smoke. Besides, and #61537; and ndash;tocopherolinhibit uterine cervix oxidative stress, but can't induces the proliferation of uterine cervix epithelial cells. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 689-696

  8. Natural radionuclides in cigarette tobacco from Serbian market and effective dose estimate from smoke inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (40K, 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra and 228Ra) in 17 most frequently used cigarette brands in Serbia and corresponding effective doses due to smoke inhalation are presented. The mean annual effective doses for 210Pb and 210Po were estimated to be 47.3 and 724 μSv y-1 for 210Pb and 210Po, respectively. Serbia currently has the highest smoking rate in the world. The results of this study indicate the high contribution of the annual effective dose due to smoke inhalation to the total inhalation dose from natural radionuclides. The more effective implementation of actions for reducing smoking prevalence in Serbia is highly needed. (authors)

  9. Excessive exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke among hospitality workers in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Denis; Brimkulov, Nurlan; Shahrir, Shahida; Breysse, Patrick; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) microg/m(3). Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6) hours a day and 5.8 (1.4) days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS. PMID:20617012

  10. Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Navas-Acien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86 μg/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD 13.5 (3.6 hours a day and 5.8 (1.4 days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS.

  11. THE N-NITROSAMINES IN TOBACCO SMOKE AND ITS ADSORPTION AND DEGRADATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    N-nitrosamines are strong carcinogens for humans. This paper gives an overview of the nitrosmaines in cigarette smoke including the formation, the harmfulness, the analytical methods of the nitrosmaines and the adsorptions and degradations of N -nitrosamines.

  12. Similarities in Food Cravings and Mood States Between Obese Women and Women Who Smoke Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Pepino, M Yanina; Finkbeiner, Susana; MENNELLA, JULIE A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed food cravings in a cohort of 229 women who differed in smoking history (i.e., never smoker, former smoker, and current smoker) and body weight (i.e., normal weight, overweight, and obese). Each subject completed the Food Craving Inventory (FCI), which measures cravings for sweets, high fats, carbohydrates/starches, and fast-food fats, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS), which measures psychological distress. Smoking and obesity were independently associated with ...

  13. Tobacco Smoking in Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Epidemiology and Pharmacological Approaches to Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Kevin M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    The co-occurrence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Nicotine Dependence is common. Individuals with ADHD are more likely to initiate smoking and become dependent on nicotine than their non-ADHD counterparts, and recent evidence suggests that they may have more difficulty quitting smoking. Little is known about how to best approach treating these co-morbidities to optimize clinical outcome. Clinicians treating individuals with either ADHD or Nicotine Dependence should be a...

  14. Evidence brief – Plain packaging of tobacco products: measures to decrease smoking initiation and increase cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that the packaging of tobacco products is designed for badge products targetting specific groups, particularly women and young people, and that attractive packaging tends to weaken warnings about the harmful health effects of the products. To preserve the effectiveness of the health...... warnings – a requirement under Articles 11 and 13 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco - the guidelines on the implementation of these articles recommend the adoption of plain-packaging measures. Studies have revealed that plain packaging reduces the attractiveness of the product, particularly...... to women and young people. They also show that, when combined with large pictorial health warnings, plain-packaging measures increase awareness about the risks related to tobacco consumption, encouraging more people to quit and fewer to start. In that these measures merely regulate the use of logos...

  15. Health hazards of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, M P; LeMaistre, C A; Newell, G R

    1988-01-01

    "Environmental tobacco smoke" (ETS) is the term used to characterize tobacco combustion products inhaled by nonsmokers in the proximity of burning tobacco. Over 3800 compounds are in tobacco smoke, many of which are known carcinogens. Most ETS exposure is from sidestream smoke emitted from the burning tip of the cigarette. Sidestream smoke is hazardous because it contains high concentrations of ammonia, benzene, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and many carcinogens. Nonsmokers chronically exposed to ETS are believed to assume health risks similar to those of a light smoker. Children of parents who smoke have more respiratory infections, more hospitalizations for bronchitis and pneumonia, and a smaller rate of increase in lung function compared to children of parents who do not smoke, particularly during the first year of life. Among adults with preexisting health conditions such as allergies, chronic lung conditions, and angina, the symptoms of these conditions are exacerbated by exposure to ETS. The acute health effects among healthy adults include headaches, nausea, and irritation of the eyes and nasal mucous membranes. The evidence for a relationship between ETS and cancer at sites other than lung is insufficient to draw any positive conclusions. For lung cancer, studies have consistently shown an excess risk between 10% and 300%, with a summary relative risk of 1.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.1-1.5). A dose-response relation is suggested but difficult to assess completely. Histologic types of lung cancer are generally similar to those most closely associated with active smoking, although other histologic types have also been found. Both excess relative risks and the dose responses are underestimates of the true excess risk and of the range of dose-response effect. Although the temporal relationship between exposure and disease occurrence is established, many questions are unanswered. The findings are consistent with many known biologic effects of active smoking and

  16. Combined effects of employment in uranium ore mines, silicosis, and tobacco smoking on the lung cancer risk in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The county Aue belongs since more than forty years to the main regions of the Saxonian uranium ore mining. In the male population of this county an elevated incidence of lung cancers was observable in comparison to the average of the East German countries. For this reason an orientying case-control study was performed in order to find risk factors which might be contributing to this elevated incidence. Our results show that enployment in the uranium mining company 'WISMUT AG', a preexisting silicosis by miners, and tobacco smoking are significant risk factors for the development of lung cancers in this population. These three factors modify the lung cancer risk in an overadditive sense. The elevated lung cancer incidence in the male population of this county is explainable by the influence of occupational factors in uranium ore mining. (orig.)

  17. Smoking history, nicotine dependence and opioid use in patients with chronic non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, K; Jensen, H I; Højsted, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between smoking and addiction to opioids in patients with chronic non-malignant pain. This could be explained by a susceptibility in some patients to develop addiction. Another explanation could be that nicotine influences both...... pain and the opioid system. The objective of the study was to investigate whether smoking, former smoking ± nicotine use and nicotine dependence in patients with chronic non-malignant pain were associated with opioid use and addiction to opioids. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study carried...... out at a multidisciplinary Danish pain centre. All patients aged 18 or more in treatment at the pain centre on the 1st of September 2013 were invited to participate in the study. RESULTS: A total of 98 patients (65%) participated in the study. The prevalence of current smokers was twice as high as in...

  18. Carbon monoxide in chronic uraemia related to erythropoietin treatment and smoking habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunedborg, P; Nielsen, A L; Brinkenfeldt, H;

    1995-01-01

    In 69 patients on chronic haemodialysis, blood sampled randomly during dialysis was analyzed for carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb). The median value was 1.40% (range 0.9-2.3) in non-smoking patients and (1.4-7.5) in smokers. In non-smokers treated with erythropoietin (EPO) correlation was found between C...

  19. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Increased Risk for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, Heidi A; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Buxbaum, Joseph D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD: In an analysis of 73,073 singleton pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort, we calculated incidence...

  20. Big tobacco, E-cigarettes, and a road to the smoking endgame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branston, J Robert; Sweanor, David

    2016-03-01

    The provision of the extraordinarily deadly product of cigarettes is dominated by a small number of large and incredibly profitable shareholder owned companies that are focussed on cigarettes. The legal duty of their managers to maximise shareholder wealth means that such companies vigorously fight any new public health measures that have the potential to disrupt their massive profit making, and have the resources to do so. Protecting the public health is therefore made a lot more difficult and expensive. We suggest that one way to counter this would be to actively design future tobacco control policies so that tobacco companies face mechanisms and incentives to develop in such a way that they no longer achieve the greatest shareholder value by focusing on cigarettes. A proper tobacco diversification and exit strategy for the shareholders of the profit-seeking tobacco industry would protect the public health by addressing the current addiction to the continuation of the cigarette market. The increasing popularity of e-cigarettes presents a particular opportunity in this regard, and we therefore suggest a possible policy response in order to start discussion in this area. PMID:26774225