WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronic sleep disturbance

  1. Assessing and Managing Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27208716

  2. Chronic stress, catecholamines, and sleep disturbance at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was concerned with the relationship between chronic stress and sleep disturbance. Previous research has provided evidence of chronic stress responding among people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility. Compared to control subjects, the TMI group has exhibited greater symptom reporting, poorer performance on behavioral measures of concentration, and elevated levels of urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine. Other research has suggested a relationship between arousal and insomnia. The extent to which stress and sleep disturbances were experienced by residents at TMI was examined and compared to levels of stress and sleep disturbance among a group of control subjects. The relationship between stress and sleep disturbances was also examined. Results indicated that TMI area residents exhibited more stress than the controls and reported greater disturbance of sleep. Modest relationships among stress and sleep measures suggested that the symptoms of stress measured in this study were not primary determinants of sleep problems

  3. Sleep disturbances in veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Masoudi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is related to a wide range of medical problems, with a majority of neurological, psychological, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, as well as sleep disorders. Although the majority of studies reveal the association between PTSD and sleep disturbances, there are few studies on the assessment of sleep disruption among veterans with PTSD. In this review, we attempt to study the sleep disorders including insomnia, nightmare, sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorders and parasomnias among veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD. It is an important area for further research among veterans with PTSD. PMID:27093088

  4. Sleep disturbances in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.W.; Westeneng, H.J.; Hal, M.A. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Overeem, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a relatively common mitochondrial disorder. In addition to extraocular muscle weakness, various other organs can typically be affected, including laryngeal and limb muscles, cerebrum, cerebellum, and peripheral nerves. Given this mul

  5. Chronic Sleep Disturbance Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, R. Paulien; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory condi

  6. Physiotherapy for sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: a feasibility randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van Mechelen Willem; Tully Mark A; Guerin Suzanne; Lonsdale Chris; Kelly Clare; O'Donoghue Grainne; Eadie Jennifer; Hurley Deirdre A; McDonough Suzanne M; Boreham Colin AG; Heneghan Conor; Daly Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sleep disturbance is becoming increasingly recognised as a clinically important symptom in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP, low back pain >12 weeks), associated with physical inactivity and depression. Current research and international clinical guidelines recommend people with CLBP assume a physically active role in their recovery to prevent chronicity, but the high prevalence of sleep disturbance in this population may be unknowingly limiting their ability to par...

  7. Chronic sleep disturbance and neural injury: links to neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbott SM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabra M Abbott,1 Aleksandar Videnovic21Department of Neurology, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Sleep–wake disruption is frequently observed and often one of the earliest reported symptoms of many neurodegenerative disorders. This provides insight into the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders, as sleep–wake abnormalities are often accompanied by neurodegenerative or neurotransmitter changes. However, in addition to being a symptom of the underlying neurodegenerative condition, there is also emerging evidence that sleep disturbance itself may contribute to the development and facilitate the progression of several of these disorders. Due to its impact both as an early symptom and as a potential factor contributing to ongoing neurodegeneration, the sleep–wake cycle is an ideal target for further study for potential interventions not only to lessen the burden of these diseases but also to slow their progression. In this review, we will highlight the sleep phenotypes associated with some of the major neurodegenerative disorders, focusing on the circadian disruption associated with Alzheimer’s disease, the rapid eye movement behavior disorder and sleep fragmentation associated with Parkinson’s disease, and the insomnia and circadian dysregulation associated with Huntington’s disease. Keywords: sleep, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease

  8. Physiotherapy for sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: a feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, Deirdre A

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is becoming increasingly recognised as a clinically important symptom in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP, low back pain >12 weeks), associated with physical inactivity and depression. Current research and international clinical guidelines recommend people with CLBP assume a physically active role in their recovery to prevent chronicity, but the high prevalence of sleep disturbance in this population may be unknowingly limiting their ability to participate in exercise-based rehabilitation programmes and contributing to poor outcomes. There is currently no knowledge concerning the effectiveness of physiotherapy on sleep disturbance in people with chronic low back pain and no evidence of the feasibility of conducting randomized controlled trials that comprehensively evaluate sleep as an outcome measure in this population.

  9. Undiagnosed mood disorders and sleep disturbances in primary care patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The study aims to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed comorbid mood disorders in patients suffering chronic musculoskeletal pain in a primary care setting and to identify sleep disturbances and other associated factors in these patients, and to compare the use of health services by chronic musculoskeletal pain patients with and without comorbid mood disorders. Design. Cross-sectional study. Subjects. A total of 1,006 patients with chronic musculoskele...

  10. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rat with chronic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Nakahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. RESULTS: Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; p<0.01 accompanied by a reduction in NREM sleep during light period, an increase in sleep fragmentation, and more frequent stage transitions. The use of omeprazole significantly improved sleep disturbances caused by reflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. CONCLUSIONS: Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis.

  11. Physiotherapy for sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: a feasibility randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbance is becoming increasingly recognised as a clinically important symptom in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP, low back pain >12 weeks, associated with physical inactivity and depression. Current research and international clinical guidelines recommend people with CLBP assume a physically active role in their recovery to prevent chronicity, but the high prevalence of sleep disturbance in this population may be unknowingly limiting their ability to participate in exercise-based rehabilitation programmes and contributing to poor outcomes. There is currently no knowledge concerning the effectiveness of physiotherapy on sleep disturbance in people with chronic low back pain and no evidence of the feasibility of conducting randomized controlled trials that comprehensively evaluate sleep as an outcome measure in this population. Methods/Design This study will evaluate the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT, exploring the effects of three forms of physiotherapy (supervised general exercise programme, individualized walking programme and usual physiotherapy, which will serve as the control group on sleep quality in people with chronic low back pain. A presenting sample of 60 consenting patients will be recruited in the physiotherapy department of Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland, and randomly allocated to one of the three groups in a concealed manner. The main outcomes will be sleep quality (self-report and objective measurement, and self-reported functional disability, pain, quality of life, fear avoidance, anxiety and depression, physical activity, and patient satisfaction. Outcome will be evaluated at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Qualitative telephone interviews will be embedded in the research design to obtain feedback from a sample of participants' about their experiences of sleep monitoring, trial participation and interventions, and to inform the design of a fully powered future RCT

  12. A comparison of sleep disturbances and sleep apnea in patients on hemodialysis and chronic peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Al-Jahdali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep disorders are common among dialysis patients; however, few studies have compared the prevalence of different sleep disorders in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD and hemodialysis (HD. We used questionnaires to assess the prevalence of common sleep disorders in dialysis patients. We compared the prevalence of sleep apnea (SA risk, restless legs syndrome (RLS, insomnia, and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, as well as sleep quality, in both groups. Of the 227 patients who were enrolled in the study, the total number of patients on HD was 188 (82%, while the total number of patients on PD was 39 (18%. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding age, neck size, or duration on dialysis (all P >0.05. The estimated overall prevalence of SA was significantly higher in PD patients in comparison with HD patients (92% and 67%, respectively; P <0.05. The prevalence of insomnia was similar in both groups. The prevalence of RLS was significantly greater in PD than in HD patients (69% and 46%, respectively; P <0.05. In addition, EDS was significantly higher in PD than in HD patients (77% and 37%, respectively; P <0.05. Our study shows that sleep disorders are common in dialysis patients; however, SA, EDS, and RLS were more common in PD patients than in HD pa-tients. Poor sleep quality and insomnia were comparable in both groups.

  13. Assessment of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Ji Hee; Kim, Hyung Dong; Shin, Hyun Ho; Huh, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) has a significant effect on quality of life and imposes a great economical burden on society. In a number of studies, validated questionnaires had been given to CLBP patients to determine their health-associated quality of life, sleep disturbance, and psychological status. However, such outcome studies had not been performed previously in Korea. Methods We used self-report questionnaires to compare CLBP patients with an age- and sex-matched healthy cont...

  14. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. PMID:26600106

  15. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  16. Investigation of sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: an age- and gender-matched case-control study over a 7-night period.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van de Water, Alexander T M

    2011-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently reported by people with chronic low back pain (>12 weeks; CLBP), but few studies have comprehensively investigated sleep in this population. This study investigated differences in subjectively and objectively measured sleep patterns of people with CLBP, and compared this to age- and gender matched controls. Thirty-two consenting participants (n = 16 with CLBP, n = 16 matched controls), aged 24-65 years (43.8% male) underwent an interview regarding sleep influencing variables, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary, SF36-v2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Numerical Pain Rating Scales, and underwent seven consecutive nights of actigraphic measurement in the home environment. Compared to controls, people with CLBP had, on self-report measures, significantly poorer sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (range 0-21) mean (SD) 10.9 (4.2)], clinical insomnia [Insomnia Severity Index mean (range 0-28) 13.7 (7.6)], lower sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset latency, more time awake after sleep onset, and more awakenings during sleep (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences between groups were found on objective actigraphy (p > 0.05). The findings provide some evidence to support self-reported sleep assessment as an outcome measure in CLBP research, while further research is needed to determine the validity of objective sleep measurement in this population.

  17. [Sleep disturbances in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, B; Haase, U; Rundshagen, I

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is an essential part of life with many important roles which include immunologic, cognitive and muscular functions. Of the working population 20% report sleep disturbances and in critically ill patients an incidence of more than 50% has been shown. However, sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit (ICU) population have not been investigated in detail. Sleep disturbances in ICU patients have a variety of reasons: e.g. patient-related pathologies like sepsis, acute or chronic pulmonary diseases, cardiac insufficiency, stroke or epilepsy, surgery, therapeutical interventions like mechanical ventilation, noise of monitors, pain or medication. Numerous scales and questionnaires are used to quantify sleep and the polysomnogramm is used to objectify sleep architecture. To improve sleep in ICU patients concepts are needed which include in addition to pharmacological treatment (pain reduction and sedation) synchronization of ICU activities with daylight, noise reduction and music for relaxation. In order to establish evidence-based guidelines, research activities about sleep and critical illness should be intensified. Questions to be answered are: 1) Which part of sleep disturbances in critically ill patients is directly related to the illness or trauma? 2) Is the grade of sleep disturbance correlated with the severity of the illness or trauma? 3) Which part is related to the medical treatment and can be modified or controlled? In order to define non-pharmacological and pharmacological concepts to improve sleep quality, studies need to be randomized and to include different ICU populations. The rate of nosocomial infections, cognitive function and respiratory muscle function should be considered in these studies as well. This will help to answer the question, whether it is useful to monitor sleep in ICU patients as a parameter to indicate therapeutical success and short-term quality of life. Follow-up needs to be long enough to detect adverse effects of

  18. Managing Sleep Disturbances in Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor sleep negatively impacts patients’ quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, many patients without HE still complain of poor quality sleep. The pathophysiology of these disturbances is not fully understood but is believed to be linked to impaired hepatic melatonin metabolism. This paper provides an overview for the clinician of common comorbidities contributing to poor sleep in patients with liver disease, mainly restless leg syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It discusses nondrug and pharmacologic treatment options in these patients, such as the use of light therapy and histamine (H1 blockers.

  19. Sleep Disturbances in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cátia Alves Moreira; Pedro Afonso

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorder, characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression is associated with sleep disturbances and circadian rhythm disruption. These changes have significant impact on quality of life and in the disease prognosis. Aims: Review of the main sleep disturbances observed in the bipolar disorder, their clinical impact and the hypothetical pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Methods: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature in English through rese...

  20. Disturbed Sleep and Postpartum Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Michele L

    2016-07-01

    The perinatal period introduces a myriad of changes. One important but often overlooked change is an increased reporting of sleep disturbance. Although casually regarded as a consequence of pregnancy or postpartum, there is emerging evidence implicating significant sleep disturbance, characterized by insomnia symptoms and/or poor sleep quality, with adverse outcomes, such as an increase in depressive symptomatology or the development postpartum depression (PPD). Significant consequences may arise as a result including issues with maternal-infant bonding, effective care for the infant, and behavioral or emotional difficulties in the infant. This review discusses the relevant literature as to how disturbed sleep during pregnancy as well as in the postpartum may increase the risk for PPD. PMID:27222140

  1. Sleep Disturbances in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Alves Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bipolar disorder, characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression is associated with sleep disturbances and circadian rhythm disruption. These changes have significant impact on quality of life and in the disease prognosis. Aims: Review of the main sleep disturbances observed in the bipolar disorder, their clinical impact and the hypothetical pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Methods: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature in English through research in PubMed with the keywords “sleep disturbance”, “bipolar disorder”, “polysomnography”. Results and Conclusions: Complaints about sleep pattern changes may occur during any phase of the disease. These in clude frequent night-time awakenings, poor sleep quality, reduction of the total sleeping time and decreased latency and increased density of REM sleep. The treatment of the sleep disturbances observed in bipolar disorder should be considered a priority, since it prevents symptoms recurrence and facilitate the socio-professional integration, thus providing greater success in patient’s rehabilitation and quality of life.

  2. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p < .01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  3. Sleep and psychological disturbance in nocturnal asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Stores, G; Ellis, A.; Wiggs, L.; Crawford, C.; Thomson, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subjective and objective sleep disturbance was studied in children with nocturnal asthma. Relations between such disturbance and daytime psychological function were also explored, including possible changes in learning and behaviour associated with improvements in nocturnal asthma and sleep. Assessments included home polysomnography, parental questionnaires concerning sleep disturbance, behaviour, and mood and cognitive testing. Compared with matched controls, children with ...

  4. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of sleep disturbances were compared between groups. Findings indicate suicide completers had higher rates of overall sleep disturbance, insomnia, and hyp...

  5. Sleep disturbances after non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    After major non-cardiac surgery sleep pattern is usually disturbed with initial suppression of rapid eye movement sleep with a subsequent rebound during the first post-operative week. Deep sleep is also suppressed for several days after the operation and subjective sleep quality is impaired. The...... sleep disturbances seem to be related to the magnitude of trauma and thereby to the surgical stress response and/or post-operative opioid administration. Post-operative sleep disturbances may contribute to the development of early post-operative fatigue, episodic hypoxaemia, haemodynamic instability and...... altered mental status, all with a potential negative effect on post-operative outcome. Minimizing surgical trauma and avoiding or minimizing use of opioids for pain relief may prevent or reduce post-operative sleep disturbances. Post-operative sleep pattern represents an important research field, since it...

  6. Sleep disturbances and PTSD: a perpetual circle?

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia van Liempt

    2012-01-01

    Background : Sleep facilitates the consolidation of fear extinction memory. Nightmares and insomnia are hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), possibly interfering with fear extinction and compromising recovery. A perpetual circle may develop when sleep disturbances increase the risk for PTSD and vice versa. To date, therapeutic options for alleviating sleep disturbances in PTSD are limited. Methods : We conducted three studies to examine the relationship between sleep and...

  7. Sleep disturbance associated factors in menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Haghani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep is necessary in life and approximately 1/3 of human life is devoted to sleep. One of the most common problems in menopausal women is sleep disturbance. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of sleep disorders and its related factors in 50 – 60 years old women Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 200 eligible women who referred to selected health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. Demographic form, ten-point slide to review sexual satisfaction and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index Questioner (PSQI were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, t-test, and Pearson correlation tests.Results: The mean age of women was 53.6±3.6 year, menopause age 47.8±4, number of children 4.76±2 and partner age was 57.99±6.6. 34.5% of women were satisfied from their sexual relationship and their score was 8-10. Rate of sleep disturbances in this group was about 70%. The results showed that between four variables: economical status, occupation, partner occupation and educational status were significantly associated with sleep disturbance (P=0.002. There was not significant difference between other demographic information and sleep disturbance.Conclusion: The results show high prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms among menopausal women. According to the relationship between some personal characters and sleep disturbance, health care providers need to consider these variables.

  8. Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

  9. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals with...... ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance......, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian...

  10. [Using alternative therapies in treating sleep disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-02-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common health problem among adults, and enhancing sleep quality is an issue of significant importance to healthcare providers. As sleep quality worsens into insomnia, individuals may seek assistance from medication. However, sedative hypnotic drugs pose potentially adverse effects. Also, most medical treatments (e.g., positive pressure assistant ventilators) represent invasive interventions that must be prescribed by physicians. Non-pharmacological alternative therapies are commonly recommended and adopted by community nurses. Alternative therapies for sleep disturbance included exercise, cognitive behavior therapy, multiple strategies, music, and acupressure. In general, moderately intensive walking exercise is the intervention most recommended by professionals to help patients deal with sleep disturbance. Therefore, it is suggested that future researchers devise sleep quality promotion strategies that are suitable for home practice in order to apply the findings and spirit of research already done in this area. PMID:21328208

  11. Sleep disturbances and PTSD: a perpetual circle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia van Liempt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : Sleep facilitates the consolidation of fear extinction memory. Nightmares and insomnia are hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, possibly interfering with fear extinction and compromising recovery. A perpetual circle may develop when sleep disturbances increase the risk for PTSD and vice versa. To date, therapeutic options for alleviating sleep disturbances in PTSD are limited. Methods : We conducted three studies to examine the relationship between sleep and posttraumatic symptoms: (1 a prospective longitudinal cohort study examining the impact of pre-deployment insomnia symptoms and nightmares on the development of PTSD; (2 a cross-sectional study examining subjective sleep measures, polysomnography, endocrinological parameters, and memory in veterans with PTSD, veterans without PTSD, and healthy controls (HCs; (3 a randomized controlled trial (RCT (n=14 comparing the effect of prazosin and placebo on sleep disturbances in veterans with PTSD. In addition to these studies, we systematically reviewed the literature on treatment options for sleep disturbances in PTSD. Results : Pre-deployment nightmares predicted PTSD symptoms at 6 months post-deployment; however, insomnia symptoms did not. Furthermore, in patients with PTSD, a correlation between the apnea index and PTSD severity was observed, while obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was not more prevalent. We observed a significant increase in awakenings during sleep in patients with PTSD, which were positively correlated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels, negatively correlated with growth hormone (GH secretion, and the subjective perception of sleep depth. Also, heart rate was significantly increased in PTSD patients. Interestingly, plasma levels of GH during the night were decreased in PTSD. Furthermore, GH secretion and awakenings were independent predictors for delayed recall, which was lower in PTSD. In our RCT, prazosin was not associated with

  12. Parkinson's Disease and Sleep/Wake Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Swick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD has traditionally been characterized by its cardinal motor symptoms of bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. However, PD is increasingly being recognized as a multidimensional disease associated with myriad nonmotor symptoms including autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, impaired olfaction, psychosis, and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances, which include sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome (RLS, nightmares, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, are estimated to occur in 60% to 98% of patients with PD. For years nonmotor symptoms received little attention from clinicians and researchers, but now these symptoms are known to be significant predictors of morbidity in determining quality of life, costs of disease, and rates of institutionalization. A discussion of the clinical aspects, pathophysiology, evaluation techniques, and treatment options for the sleep disorders that are encountered with PD is presented.

  13. Sleep-wake disturbances after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENG Li-ying

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-wake disturbances (SWD after stroke is a sleep-wake disorder resulting from central nervous system lesion caused by stroke. SWD includes hypersomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, fatigue and so on. The prevalence rate of SWD is only less than sleep-related breathing disturbances (SBD. Recent studies suggest that SWD is frequent and negatively affects rehabilitation and quality of life of patients with stroke, and treatment of poststroke SWD may favorably influence stroke outcome. SWD may become a new target of treatment and rehabilitation of stroke. This paper reviewed the progress of this issue.

  14. Pharmacology for sleep disturbance in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, Gosia; Baldwin, David S; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2016-03-01

    Symptoms of sleep disturbance, particularly nightmares and insomnia, are a central feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emerging evidence suggests that specific treatment of PTSD-related sleep disturbance improves other symptoms of the disorder, which in turn suggests that such disturbance may be fundamental to development and maintenance of the disorder. This mini-review focuses on pharmacological treatment of sleep disturbance in adult PTSD (specifically, studies testing the efficacy of antidepressants, adrenergic inhibiting agents, antipsychotics and benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics). We conclude that only prazosin, an adrenergic inhibiting agent, has had its efficacy established by multiple randomised controlled trials. There is also high-level evidence supporting use of eszopiclone, as well as risperidone and olanzapine as adjunct therapy. Antidepressants such as sertraline, venlafaxine and mirtazapine, benzodiazepines such as alprazolam and clonazepam and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics such as zolpidem appear ineffective in treating PTSD-related sleep disturbance. Most studies that report reduced frequency of nightmares and insomnia also report decreases in overall symptom severity. Such findings suggest that (i) sleep disruption is central to PTSD; (ii) treating sleep disruption may be an effective way to address other symptoms of the disorder and (iii) PTSD symptoms tend to cluster together in predictable ways. PMID:26856810

  15. Sleep, its regulation and possible mechanisms of sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Zitting, K-M; Wigren, H-K

    2013-08-01

    The state of sleep consists of different phases that proceed in successive, tightly regulated order through the night forming a physiological program, which for each individual is different but stabile from one night to another. Failure to accomplish this program results in feeling of unrefreshing sleep and tiredness in the morning. The program core is constructed by genetic factors but regulated by circadian rhythm and duration and intensity of day time brain activity. Many environmental factors modulate sleep, including stress, health status and ingestion of vigilance-affecting nutrients or medicines (e.g. caffeine). Acute sleep loss results in compromised cognitive performance, memory deficits, depressive mood and involuntary sleep episodes during the day. Moreover, prolonged sleep curtailment has many adverse health effects, as evidenced by both epidemiological and experimental studies. These effects include increased risk for depression, type II diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to voluntary restriction of sleep, shift work, irregular working hours, jet lag and stress are important factors that induce curtailed or bad quality sleep and/or insomnia. This review covers the current theories on the function of normal sleep and describes current knowledge on the physiologic effects of sleep loss. It provides insights into the basic mechanisms of the regulation of wakefulness and sleep creating a theoretical background for understanding different disturbances of sleep. PMID:23746394

  16. Degeneration in Arousal Neurons in Chronic Sleep Disruption Modeling Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Zhan, Guanxia; Xin, Ryan; Veasey, Sigrid C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disruption (CSD) is a cardinal feature of sleep apnea that predicts impaired wakefulness. Despite effective treatment of apneas and sleep disruption, patients with sleep apnea may have persistent somnolence. Lasting wake disturbances in treated sleep apnea raise the possibility that CSD may induce sufficient degeneration in wake-activated neurons (WAN) to cause irreversible wake impairments. Implementing a stereological approach in a murine model of CSD, we found reduced neurona...

  17. Approaches to Measure Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Jeanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances commonly occur in healthy adolescents. While diminished sleep and sleepiness seem normal for healthy adolescents, adolescents with chronic illnesses face additional disruption in the quantity and quality of their sleep as a result of the disease process, ongoing treatment, and associated symptoms. Little is known about how sleep in adolescents is affected by cancer, cancer treatment, and concurrent symptoms or about the consequences of sleep disruption for these patien...

  18. Sleep disturbance in older ICU patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterniczuk R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Roxanne Sterniczuk,1–3 Benjamin Rusak,1,2 Kenneth Rockwood31Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, 2Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, 3Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, CanadaAbstract: Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a restorative process, sleep is important for supporting immune function and aiding the body in healing and recovery. Aging is associated with characteristic changes to sleep quantity and quality, which make it more difficult to adjust sleep–wake rhythms to changing environmental conditions. Sleep disturbance and abnormal sleep–wake cycles are commonly reported in seriously ill older patients in the intensive care unit (ICU. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors appears to contribute to these disruptions. Little is known regarding the effect that sleep disturbance has on health status in the oldest of old (80+, a group, who with diminishing physiological reserve and increasing prevalence of frailty, is at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes, such as cognitive decline and mortality. Here we review how sleep is altered in the ICU, with particular attention to older patients, especially those aged ≥80 years. Further work is required to understand what impact sleep disturbance has on frailty levels and poor outcomes in older critically ill patients.Keywords: intensive care unit, sleep–wake rhythm, aging, frailty

  19. Sleep disturbances and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tauseef; Orr, William C

    2014-11-01

    With an estimated 70 million Americans suffering, sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many clinical research studies. Sleep is now also considered to be an important environmental and behavioral factor associated with the process of inflammation and the immune system. Increased sleepiness is considered part of the acute phase of response to tissue injury, and sleep loss activates inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Clinical studies in many immune-mediated diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis, have revealed an association of sleep disturbances with disease activity. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. The importance of sleep in inflammatory bowel disease has recently gained attention with some published studies demonstrating the association of sleep disturbances with disease activity, subclinical inflammation, and risk of disease relapse. A comprehensive review of sleep physiology and its association with the immune system is provided here. Experimental and clinical studies exploring this relationship in inflammatory bowel disease are reviewed, and the clinical implications of this relationship and future directions for research are also discussed. PMID:25025716

  20. Evaluating Sleep Disturbance: A Review of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roy M.; Oyung, R.; Gregory, K.; Miller, D.; Rosekind, M.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    There are three general approaches to evaluating sleep disturbance in regards to noise: subjective, behavioral, and physiological. Subjective methods range from standardized questionnaires and scales to self-report measures designed for specific research questions. There are two behavioral methods that provide useful sleep disturbance data. One behavioral method is actigraphy, a motion detector that provides an empirical estimate of sleep quantity and quality. An actigraph, worn on the non-dominant wrist, provides a 24-hr estimate of the rest/activity cycle. The other method involves a behavioral response, either to a specific probe or stimuli or subject initiated (e.g., indicating wakefulness). The classic, gold standard for evaluating sleep disturbance is continuous physiological monitoring of brain, eye, and muscle activity. This allows detailed distinctions of the states and stages of sleep, awakenings, and sleep continuity. Physiological delta can be obtained in controlled laboratory settings and in natural environments. Current ambulatory physiological recording equipment allows evaluation in home and work settings. These approaches will be described and the relative strengths and limitations of each method will be discussed.

  1. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  2. Addressing sleep disturbances: An opportunity to prevent cardiometabolic disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Grandner, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role of sleep disturbance as an important factor in health and disease. Although subclinical sleep disturbances (insufficient sleep duration or inadequate sleep quality) may be difficult to assess with conceptual and/or methodological clarity, this review attempts to summarize and synthesize these findings. First, the concept of sleep disturbance in a public health context is introduced, to provide context and rationale. Second, operational definitions of ...

  3. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej;

    2014-01-01

    in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. METHODS: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis......OBJECTIVES: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances...... of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used...

  4. P05.07. Chronic Fatigue, Depression, and Sleep Disturbances in a 20-year-old Male Collegiate Basketball Player: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arick, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care, Mental Health Chronic fatigue and depression are 2 symptoms that are increasing in frequency in the offices of physicians. Many of these individuals need obvious dietary and lifestyle changes as primary management. In contrast, this case report illustrates a 20-year-old male collegiate basketball player suffering from chronic fatigue, depression, and abnormal sleep patterns. This patient was being treated by a specialty physician group with the dia...

  5. Sleep spindles predict stress-related increases in sleep disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh eDang-Vu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Predisposing factors place certain individuals at higher risk for insomnia, especially in the presence of precipitating conditions such as stressful life events. Sleep spindles have been shown to play an important role in the preservation of sleep continuity. Lower spindle density might thus constitute an objective predisposing factor for sleep reactivity to stress. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between baseline sleep spindle density and the prospective change in insomnia symptoms in response to a standardized academic stressor. Methods: 12 healthy students had a polysomnography (PSG recording during a period of lower stress at the beginning of the academic semester, along with an assessment of insomnia complaints using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. They completed a second ISI assessment at the end of the semester, a period coinciding with the week prior to final examinations and thus higher stress. Spindle density, amplitude, duration and frequency, as well as sigma power were computed from C4-O2 electroencephalography (EEG derivation during stages N2-N3 of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, across the whole night and for each NREM sleep period. To test for the relationship between spindle density and changes in insomnia symptoms in response to academic stress, spindle measurements at baseline were correlated with changes in ISI across the academic semester.Results: Spindle density (as well as spindle amplitude and sigma power, particularly during the first NREM sleep period, negatively correlated with changes in ISI (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Lower spindle activity, especially at the beginning of the night, prospectively predicted larger increases in insomnia symptoms in response to stress. This result indicates that individual differences in sleep spindle activity contribute to the differential vulnerability to sleep disturbances in the face of precipitating factors.

  6. Sleep disturbances and health-related quality of life in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Gao

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are common in patients with chronic lung diseases, but little is known about the prevalence in patients with bronchiectasis. A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants associated with sleep disturbances, and the correlation between sleep disturbances and quality of life (QoL in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis.One hundred and forty-four bronchiectasis patients and eighty healthy subjects were enrolled. Sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness, and QoL were measured by utilizing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, respectively. Demographic, clinical indices, radiology, spirometry, bacteriology, anxiety and depression were also assessed.Adults with steady-state bronchiectasis had a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances (PSQI>5 (57% vs. 29%, P<0.001, but not daytime sleepiness (ESS≥10 (32% vs. 30%, P = 0.76, compared with healthy subjects. In the multivariate model, determinants associated with sleep disturbances in bronchiectasis patients included depression (OR, 10.09; 95% CI, 3.46-29.37; P<0.001, nocturnal cough (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.13-3.18; P = 0.016, aging (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07; P = 0.009 and increased 24-hour sputum volume (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.22-3.33; P = 0.006. Patients with sleep disturbances had more significantly impaired QoL affecting all domains than those without. Only 6.2% of patients reported using a sleep medication at least weekly.In adults with steady-state bronchiectasis, sleep disturbances are more common than in healthy subjects and are related to poorer QoL. Determinants associated with sleep disturbances include depression, aging, nighttime cough and increased sputum volume. Assessment and intervention of sleep disturbances are warranted and may improve QoL.

  7. The Effect of Sleep Disturbances on Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pigeon, Wilfred R.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbances not only commonly occur in major depressive disorder, but constitute one of the symptom criteria. Importantly, there is growing inference that sleep disturbances may be more than a symptomatic byproduct of depression; poor sleep may play a role in the development or clinical course of depression, or both. This article reviews the prevalence of the two major classes of sleep disorders, the insomnias and the sleep-disordered breathing disorders, as they pertain to depression....

  8. Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, DE; Olmstead, R; Carroll, JE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Background: Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammatory disease risk and all-cause mortality. Here, we assess global evidence linking sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation in adult humans. Methods: A systematic search of English language publications was performed, with inclusion of primary research articles that characterized sleep disturbance and/or sleep duration or performed experimental sleep deprivation and assessed inflammati...

  9. Sleep disturbance due to aircraft noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence S Finegold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on nighttime sleep disturbance due to community noise sources, particularly from exposure to aircraft noise, has been conducted for over a half decade. However, there are still no national environmental noise policies (i.e., laws and regulations promulgated which prescribe a specific criterion for an exposure limit which is regulatory in nature. In the U.S., the new American National Standards Institute (ANSI Noise Standard, ANSI S12.9-2008/Part 6, Quantities and Procedures for Description and Measurement of Environmental Sound - Part 6: Methods for Estimation of Awakenings Associated with Outdoor Noise Events Heard in Homes, does provide the currently recommended exposure-response relationship used in the U.S. In Europe, there has also been significant laboratory and field research on sleep disturbance, although the U.S. and European research publications often use different research methodologies, different noise metrics and different meta-analysis techniques. The current article will provide a brief overview of sleep disturbance research internationally to document the similarities and differences between the various research approaches and research results.

  10. Sleep disturbances as the hallmark of PTSD: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The hypothesis that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances are the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), proposed by Ross and colleagues in 1989, has stimulated a wealth of clinical, preclinical, and animal studies on the role of sleep in the pathophysiology of PTSD. The present review revisits this influential hypothesis in light of clinical and experimental findings that have since accumulated. Polysomnographic studies conducted in adults with PTSD have yielded mixed findings regarding REM sleep disturbances, and they generally suggest modest and nonspecific sleep disruptions. Prospective and treatment studies have provided more robust evidence for the relationship between sleep disturbances and psychiatric outcomes and symptoms. Experimental animal and human studies that have probed the relationship between REM sleep and fear responses, as well as studies focused more broadly on sleep-dependent affective and memory processes, also provide strong support for the hypothesis that sleep plays an important role in PTSD-relevant processes. Overall, the literature suggests that disturbed REM or non-REM sleep can contribute to maladaptive stress and trauma responses and may constitute a modifiable risk factor for poor psychiatric outcomes. Clinicians need to consider that the chronic sleep disruption associated with nightmares may affect the efficacy of first-line PTSD treatments, but targeted sleep treatments may accelerate recovery from PTSD. The field is ripe for prospective and longitudinal studies in high-risk groups to clarify how changes in sleep physiology and neurobiology contribute to increased risk of poor psychiatric outcomes. PMID:23223954

  11. Trastornos del sueño en el paciente con dolor crónico Sleep disturbances in patients with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Mencías Hurtado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Padecer dolor crónico supone un importante impacto sobre la calidad del sueño del paciente que lo sufre. Una mayor intensidad de dolor se ha asociado a una mayor prevalencia de trastornos del sueño, siendo esta relación recíproca y que perpetúa un círculo vicioso entre ambos. Teniendo en cuenta que algunos de los fármacos que manejamos habitualmente para el control analgésico, fundamentalmente opioides, pueden modificar la arquitectura del sueño, tanto positiva como negativamente, consideramos importante empezar a valorar la calidad del sueño del paciente con dolor crónico como un indicador de calidad en el manejo del tratamiento analgésico.Having chronic pain is a significant impact on sleep quality of the patient who suffers. Higher pain intensity was associated with a higher prevalence of sleep disorders, this being a mutual and perpetuating a vicious circle between them. Given that some of the drugs commonly used to manage pain control, mainly opioids, may alter the sleep architecture, both positively and negatively, we consider important to begin to assess this quality of sleep of patients with chronic pain as an indicator of quality management of analgesic treatment.

  12. Development and Initial Validation of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffel, Erin; Watson, David

    2010-01-01

    The Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) is a new measure of self-reported sleep difficulties, which was designed to help facilitate research on the overlap of sleep disturbances and psychopathology. This instrument was developed in two large student samples using principal factor analyses; the psychometric properties of the scales were then…

  13. Sleeping on a problem: the impact of sleep disturbance on intensive care patients - a clinical review

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, Lori J; van Haren, Frank; Lopez, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is commonly encountered amongst intensive care patients and has significant psychophysiological effects, which protract recovery and increases mortality. Bio-physiological monitoring of intensive care patients reveal alterations in sleep architecture, with reduced sleep quality and continuity. The etiological causes of sleep disturbance are considered to be multifactorial, although environmental stressors namely, noise, light and clinical care interactions have been frequent...

  14. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral a...

  15. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H.; Casement, Melynda D.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Four sites across the United States. Participants: 330 women (46–57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Conclusions: Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. Citation: Hall MH, Casement MD, Troxel WM, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM, Krafty RT, Buysse DJ. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep in midlife women: the SWAN Sleep Study. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1645–1654. PMID:26039965

  16. Sleep in childhood and adolescence: age-specific sleep characteristics, common sleep disturbances and associated difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep changes throughout the lifespan, with particularly salient alterations occurring during the first few years of life, as well as during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Such changes are partly the result of brain maturation; complex changes in the organisation of the circadian system; as well as changes in daily routine, environmental demands and responsibilities. Despite the automaticity of sleep, given that it is governed by a host of complex mechanisms, there are times when sleep becomes disturbed. Sleep disturbances in childhood are common and may stem from behavioural difficulties or abnormalities in physiological processes-and, in some cases manifest into diagnosable sleep disorders. As well as occurring exclusively, childhood sleep disturbances often co-occur with other difficulties. The purpose of this chapter is to outline the neurobiology of typical sleep/wake processes, and describe changes in sleep physiology and architecture from birth to adulthood. Furthermore, common childhood sleep disorders are described as are their associations with other traits, including all of the syndromes presented in this handbook: ASDs, ADHD, schizophrenia and emotional/behavioural difficulties. Throughout, we attempt to explain possible mechanisms underlying these disorders and their associations. PMID:24170426

  17. Review of the effect of aircraft noise on sleep disturbance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Stéphane; Tétreault, Louis-François; King, Norman; Plante, Céline; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Noise exposure generated by air traffic has been linked with sleep disturbances. The purpose of this systematic review is to clarify whether there is a causal link between aircraft noise exposure and sleep disturbances. Only complete, peer-reviewed articles published in scientific journals were examined. Papers published until December 2010 were considered. To be included, articles had to focus on subjects aged 18 or over and include an objective evaluation of noise levels. Studies were classified according to quality. Given the paucity of studies with comparable outcome measures, we performed a narrative synthesis using a best-evidence synthesis approach. The primary study findings were tabulated. Similarities and differences between studies were investigated. Of the 12 studies surveyed that dealt with sleep disturbances, four were considered to be of high quality, five were considered to be of moderate quality and three were considered to be of low quality. All moderate- to high-quality studies showed a link between aircraft noise events and sleep disturbances such as awakenings, decreased slow wave sleep time or the use of sleep medication. This review suggests that there is a causal relation between exposure to aircraft noise and sleep disturbances. However, the evidence comes mostly from experimental studies focusing on healthy adults. Further studies are necessary to determine the impact of aircraft noise on sleep disturbance for individuals more than 65 years old and for those with chronic diseases. PMID:22517305

  18. Review of the effect of aircraft noise on sleep disturbance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Perron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise exposure generated by air traffic has been linked with sleep disturbances. The purpose of this systematic review is to clarify whether there is a causal link between aircraft noise exposure and sleep disturbances. Only complete, peer-reviewed articles published in scientific journals were examined. Papers published until December 2010 were considered. To be included, articles had to focus on subjects aged 18 or over and include an objective evaluation of noise levels. Studies were classified according to quality. Given the paucity of studies with comparable outcome measures, we performed a narrative synthesis using a best-evidence synthesis approach. The primary study findings were tabulated. Similarities and differences between studies were investigated. Of the 12 studies surveyed that dealt with sleep disturbances, four were considered to be of high quality, five were considered to be of moderate quality and three were considered to be of low quality. All moderate- to high-quality studies showed a link between aircraft noise events and sleep disturbances such as awakenings, decreased slow wave sleep time or the use of sleep medication. This review suggests that there is a causal relation between exposure to aircraft noise and sleep disturbances. However, the evidence comes mostly from experimental studies focusing on healthy adults. Further studies are necessary to determine the impact of aircraft noise on sleep disturbance for individuals more than 65 years old and for those with chronic diseases.

  19. Perturbação respiratória durante o sono em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Respiratory disturbance during sleep in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Krieger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é uma condição freqüente e é hoje a quarta principal causa de mortes nos Estados Unidos. A prevalência de perturbação respiratória durante o sono, ou síndrome de superposição, como anteriormente denominada, ainda não foi determinada devido à publicação de relatos conflitantes. Esta condição deve continuar sendo investigada devido aos efeitos adversos causados por transtornos respiratórios relacionados ao sono em pacientes com doença pulmonar de base. Neste relato, discutiremos brevemente os mecanismos envolvidos na origem da perturbação respiratória durante o sono em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e auxiliaremos o leitor a distinguir àqueles pacientes que se beneficiariam de uma avaliação do padrão do sono mais detalhada, com a discussão de tópicos de gerenciamento e opções de tratamento.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a prevalent condition and is currently the forth leading cause of mortality in the US. The prevalence of respiratory disturbance during sleep, or overlap syndrome as it was commonly known in the past, is still undetermined as conflicting reports have been published. Because of the adverse effects of sleep-related respiratory impairment in patients with underlying pulmonary disease, this condition deserves further investigation. In this report, we will briefly discuss the mechanisms involved in generating respiratory disturbance during sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and will guide the reader into distinguishing those patients who would benefit from a more detailed sleep evaluation, discussing management issues and treatment options.

  20. Association of Sleep Disturbances With Reduced Semen Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have found an association between sleep duration and morbidity and mortality, but no previous studies have examined the association between sleep disturbances and semen quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 953 young Danish men from the general population who were...... recruited in Copenhagen at the time of determination of fitness for military service between January 2008 and June 2011. All of the men delivered a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire including information about sleep disturbances. Sleep...... disturbances were assessed on the basis of a modified 4-item version of the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire, which includes questions on sleep patterns during the past 4 weeks. Sleep disturbances showed an inverse U-shaped association with sperm concentration, total sperm count, percent motile and percent...

  1. Sleep disturbances in critically ill patients in ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Ording, H; Jennum, P

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit (ICU) seem to lead to development of delirium, prolonged ICU stay, and increased mortality. That is why sufficient sleep is important for good outcome and recovery in critically ill patients. A variety of small studies reveal pathological sleep patterns...... reviewing the underlying literature. There are no studies of level 1 evidence proving the positive impact of the tested interventions on the critically ill patients' sleep pattern. Thus, disturbed sleep in critically ill patients with all the severe consequences remains an unresolved problem and needs...... in critically ill patients including abnormal circadian rhythm, high arousal and awakening index, reduced Slow Wave Sleep, and Rapid Eye Movement sleep. The purpose of this study is to summarise different aspects of sleep-awake disturbances, causes and handling methods in critically ill patients by...

  2. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Allan

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals with ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current guidelines recommend assessment of sleep disturbance during evaluation of ADHD, and before initiation of pharmacotherapy, with healthy sleep practices the first-line option for addressing sleep problems. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationships between ADHD and sleep, and presents a conceptual model of the modes of interaction: ADHD may cause sleep problems as an intrinsic feature of the disorder; sleep problems may cause or mimic ADHD; ADHD and sleep problems may interact, with reciprocal causation and possible involvement of comorbidity; and ADHD and sleep problems may share a common underlying neurological etiology. PMID:25127644

  3. Sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas J; Pak, Victoria M; Gehrman, Philip R

    2012-08-01

    Existing research has demonstrated associations between sleep duration and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Sleep disorders research has shown that sleep apnoea, insomnia and other sleep disorders confer risk for cardiometabolic disease, particularly in the presence of reduced sleep duration. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between general sleep disturbance, operationalized as 'difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much' as measured in a large, nationally representative sample, and self-reported history of myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, diabetes and obesity. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analysed. Complete data were available for 138,201 individuals. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis examined associations before and after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, medical and psychological factors. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and health risk factors, sleep duration was associated with obesity [odds ratio (OR)=1.18, Pintervention could reduce the cardiometabolic consequences of sleep disturbance. PMID:22151079

  4. Usefulness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain for diagnosis of sleep disturbances - preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied sleep disturbances reported by patients admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine. According to history of disease in each case the sleep disturbances had a chronic character and lasted several months. All patients received the questionnaire we designed. The idea of the questionnaire was to objectively assess the disorder. We assumed that there are rational medical indications for MRI of the brain examination in the selected group of 10 patients. Our study proved that this imaging technique (MRI) is very useful in detection of ischemic lesions related to long-term sleep disturbances. Lesions of the type are observed in most patients with such disturbances. The lesions we found in the so called 'sleep areas' have also been discussed in other papers published recently. (author)

  5. Sleep disturbances in a clinical forensic psychiatric population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Karsten, Julie; de Weerd, Al; Lancel, Marike

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor sleep is known to cause detrimental effects on the course of diverse psychiatric disorders and is a putative risk factor for hostility and aggression. Thus, sleep may be crucial in forensic psychiatric practice. However, little is known about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in t

  6. Further Validation of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffel, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of an expanded version of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI; Koffel & Watson, 2010) in 2 samples (219 college students and 200 psychiatric patients). The expanded ISDI includes the scales Sleep Paralysis and Sleep Hallucinations. These scales, along with the Nightmares scale, help define a…

  7. Sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease patients and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claassen DO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel O Claassen, Scott J KutscherDepartment of Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Sleep disturbances are among the most common nonmotor complaints of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, and can have a great impact on quality of life. These disturbances manifest in a variety of ways; for instance, insomnia, sleep fragmentation, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep-related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements may share a common pathophysiology, and occurrence of rapid eye movement behavior disorder may predate the onset of PD or other synucleinopathies by several years. Medications for PD can have a significant impact on sleep, representing a great challenge to the treating physician. Awareness of the complex relationship between PD and sleep disorders, as well as the varied way in which sleep disturbances appear, is imperative for successful long-term management.Keywords: sleep disorders, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, Parkinson disease, fatigue, REM behavior disorder

  8. The Joint Effect of Sleep Duration and Disturbed Sleep on Cause-Specific Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Kumari, Meena; Lange, Theis;

    2014-01-01

    Both sleep duration and sleep quality are related to future health, but their combined effects on mortality are unsettled. We aimed to examine the individual and joint effects of sleep duration and sleep disturbances on cause-specific mortality in a large prospective cohort study....

  9. Sleep disturbances after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L; Jennum, P; Kehlet, H

    2012-01-01

    normalized on the fourth postoperative night. There was no association between opioid use, pain scores, and inflammatory response with a disturbed sleep pattern. CONCLUSIONS: /st>Despite ultra-short LOS and provision of spinal anaesthesia with multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, REM sleep was almost......BACKGROUND: /st>Major surgery is followed by pronounced sleep disturbances after traditional perioperative care potentially leading to prolonged recovery. The aim was to evaluate the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration and sleep architecture before and after fast-track hip and knee replacement...... the fourth postoperative night at home. Sleep staging was performed according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine manual. Opioid use, pain, and inflammatory response (C-reactive protein) were also evaluated. RESULTS: /st>The mean LOS was 1.5 (1-2) days. The mean REM sleep time decreased from a...

  10. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    OpenAIRE

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality...

  11. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD: implications for treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hvolby, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals with ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; inc...

  12. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  13. Sleep and REM sleep disturbance in the pathophysiology of PTSD: the role of extinction memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by disturbed sleep and an impaired ability to learn and remember extinction of conditioned fear. Following a traumatic event, the full spectrum of PTSD symptoms typically requires several months to develop. During this time, sleep disturbances such as insomnia, nightmares, and fragmented rapid eye movement sleep predict later development of PTSD symptoms. Only a minority of individuals exposed to trauma go on to develop PTSD. We hypothesize that sleep disturbance resulting from an acute trauma, or predating the traumatic experience, may contribute to the etiology of PTSD. Because symptoms can worsen over time, we suggest that continued sleep disturbances can also maintain and exacerbate PTSD. Sleep disturbance may result in failure of extinction memory to persist and generalize, and we suggest that this constitutes one, non-exclusive mechanism by which poor sleep contributes to the development and perpetuation of PTSD. Also reviewed are neuroendocrine systems that show abnormalities in PTSD, and in which stress responses and sleep disturbance potentially produce synergistic effects that interfere with extinction learning and memory. Preliminary evidence that insomnia alone can disrupt sleep-dependent emotional processes including consolidation of extinction memory is also discussed. We suggest that optimizing sleep quality following trauma, and even strategically timing sleep to strengthen extinction memories therapeutically instantiated during exposure therapy, may allow sleep itself to be recruited in the treatment of PTSD and other trauma and stress-related disorders. PMID:26034578

  14. Are sleep disturbances preclinical markers of Parkinson’s disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Altair; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Barreto, George

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by motor symptoms and signs, and non-motor abnormalities such as olfactory dysfunction, pain, sleep disorders and cognitive impairment. Amongst these alterations, sleep disturbances play an important role in the pathology, but...... presence of disturbed sleep is not currently considered in diagnosis. However, sleeping problems may precede by many years the classic motor abnormalities of PD and should be clinically evaluated as a potential marker before disease onset. The first disturbance reported with this potential was the disorder...... REM sleep behaviour and currently several other disturbances have gained importance as potential markers, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome and new evidence also points to changes in circadian rhythms. Here we present a brief review of the major evidence indicating that...

  15. Sleep disturbances in sexual abuse victims: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-02-01

    An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences. PMID:21600813

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy causes less sleep disturbance than open abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, I; Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Kiil, C;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine subjective sleep quality before and after laparoscopic vs open abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twelve patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 15 patients undergoing laparotomy were evaluated with the aid of a sleep questionnaire from 4 days...... before until 4 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: Following laparoscopic surgery, total sleep time increased during the 1st week after the operation compared with preoperative values (p = 0.02), whereas sleep duration during weeks 2, 3, and 4 did not differ from the times reported preoperatively. Following...... laparotomy, sleep duration increased during the 1st, 3rd, and 4th weeks after the operation compared with preoperative values (p < 0.05). All patients experienced postoperative circadian sleep disturbance, with significantly more sleep during the daytime compared with preoperative values; the disturbance was...

  17. Sleep disturbances in an arctic population: The Tromsø Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straand Jørund

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence estimates for insomnia range from 10 to 50% in the adult general population. Sleep disturbances cause great impairment in quality of life, which might even rival or exceed the impairment in other chronic medical disorders. The economic implications and use of health-care services related to chronic insomnia represent a clinical concern as well as a pronounced public health problem. Hypnotics are frequently prescribed for insomnia, but alcohol and over-the-counter sleep aids seem to be more widely used by insomniacs than prescription medications. Despite the complex relationship between insomnia and physical and mental health factors, the condition appears to be underrecognized and undertreated by health care providers, probably due to the generally limited knowledge of the causes and natural development of insomnia. Methods/Design The Tromsø Study is an ongoing population-based cohort study with five previous health studies undertaken between 1974 and 2001. This protocol outlines a planned study within the sixth Tromsø Study (Tromsø VI, aiming at; 1 describing sleep patterns in a community-based sample representative of the general population of northern Norway, and 2 examining outcome variables of sleep disturbances against possible explanatory and confounding variables, both within a cross-sectional approach, as well as retrospectively in a longitudinal study – exploring sleep patterns in subjects who have attended two or more of the previous Tromsø studies between 1974 and 2009. First, we plan to perform a simple screening in order to identify those participants with probable sleep disturbances, and secondly to investigate these sleep disturbances further, using an extensive sleep-questionnaire. We will also collect biological explanatory variables, i.e. blood samples, weight, height and blood pressure. We plan to merge data on an individual level from the Tromsø VI Study with data from the Norwegian

  18. Influence of sleep-wake and circadian rhythm disturbances in psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin, DB

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the temporal alignment between the sleep-wake cycle and the circadian pacemaker affects self-assessment of mood in healthy subjects. Despite the differences in affective state between healthy subjects and patients with psychiatric disorders, these results have implications for analyzing diurnal variation of mood in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and sleep disturbances in other major psychiatric conditions such as chronic schizophrenia. In a good proportion...

  19. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves sleep quality in chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Xavier; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Ries, Andrew L

    2013-04-01

    Sleep-related disorders are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and, possibily, other lung disorders. Exercise has been shown to improve sleep disturbances. In patients with COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) produces important health benefits with improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance, and quality of life. However, the effect of PR on sleep quality remains unknown. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate sleep quality in patients with chronic lung disease and the role of PR as a non-pharmacologic treatment to improve sleep. Sixty-four patients with chronic lung disease enrolled in an 8-week comprehensive PR program, and completed the study (48% male; obstructive [72%], restrictive [20%], mixed [8%]; 44% on supplemental oxygen). Baseline spirometry [mean (SD)]: FEV1% pred = 48.9 (17.4), FVC% pred = 72.5 (18.1), and FEV1/FVC% = 53.1 (18.9). Exercise tolerance and questionnaires related to symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were obtained before and after PR. 58% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) at baseline. Sleep quality improved by 19% (p = 0.017) after PR, along with significant improvements in dyspnea, exercise tolerance, self-efficacy, and HRQL. Sleep quality in patients with chronic lung disease was poor. In addition to expected improvements in symptoms, exercise tolerance, and HRQL after PR, the subgroup of patients with COPD had a significant improvement in sleep quality. These findings suggest that PR may be an effective, non-pharmacologic treatment option for sleep problems in patients with COPD. PMID:23514215

  20. [Experimental studies of the effects of Seda-Kneipp on the sleep of sleep disturbed subjects; implications for the treatment of different sleep disturbances (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Limmroth, W; Ehrenstein, W

    1977-06-24

    Seda-Kneipp a compound preparation of valerian and hops was given to sleep disturbed subjects during the second or third of three consecutive nights disturbed by heavy traffic noise. Prior drug administration reduced the noise induced disturbance of sleep stage patterns: slow-wave sleep and stage REM increased. It is recommended that the initial treatment of severe insomnia by "strong" sleeping pills should be followed by a period during which "weak" sleeping pills are given before the drug administration finally is discontinued. PMID:196167

  1. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  2. Prevalence of Sleep Disturbances in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Licis, Amy K.; Vallorani, Alicia; Gao, Feng; Chen, Cynthia; Lenox, Jason; Yamada, Kelvin A.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Gutmann, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Children with neurodevelopmental disorders are at increased risk for sleep issues, which affect quality of life, cognitive function, and behavior. To determine the prevalence of sleep problems in children with the common neurodevelopmental disorder, neurofibromatosis type 1, a cross-sectional study was performed on 129 affected subjects and 89 unaffected siblings, age 2-17 years, using the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children questionnaire. Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 were signific...

  3. Sleep-wake disturbance in people with interepisode bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Ho-yee, Janet; 伍浩沂

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have shifted focus from the manic and depressive episodes to the interepisode period in the study of sleep-wake disturbance in bipolar disorder. The thesis consists of two studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis and a cross-sectional study. The first study aimed to compile and synthesize studies that employed sleep diary, actigraphy, polysomnography, and questionnaires to compare sleep-wake patterns in people with interepisode bipolar disorder or h...

  4. Noise-related sleep disturbances: Does gender matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Röösli; Evelyn Mohler; Patrizia Frei; Danielle Vienneau

    2014-01-01

    Women sleep differently and report differently about sleep disturbances than men. However, it is unclear whether the sleep of women and men is affected differently by traffic noise exposure. We aimed to address gender specific noise effects by using objective and subjective exposure measures as well as objective and subjective outcome data. In a questionnaire survey conducted in 2008 including 733 women and 533 men from Basel, Switzerland, with follow-up 1 year later, we collected data on sub...

  5. Lifestyle Intervention for Sleep Disturbances among Overweight or Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Soohyun; Stewart, Kerry J; Dobrosielski, Devon A

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of different lifestyle interventions on sleep disturbances among sedentary obese or overweight persons. We randomized 35–65 year-old men and women, to 6-months of a weight loss diet (D); or D combined with supervised exercise training (D+E). Measurements were self-reported sleep disturbances; the Profile of Mood States questionnaire; BMI; total, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat by magnetic resonance imaging; and aerobic fitness expressed as VO2peak. The...

  6. Sleeping on a problem: the impact of sleep disturbance on intensive care patients - a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Lori J; Van Haren, Frank; Lopez, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is commonly encountered amongst intensive care patients and has significant psychophysiological effects, which protract recovery and increases mortality. Bio-physiological monitoring of intensive care patients reveal alterations in sleep architecture, with reduced sleep quality and continuity. The etiological causes of sleep disturbance are considered to be multifactorial, although environmental stressors namely, noise, light and clinical care interactions have been frequently cited in both subjective and objective studies. As a result, interventions are targeted towards modifiable factors to ameliorate their impact. This paper reviews normal sleep physiology and the impact that sleep disturbance has on patient psychophysiological recovery, and the contribution that the clinical environment has on intensive care patients' sleep. PMID:25852963

  7. Delta sleep instability in children with chronic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Lopes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expression of a cyclic alternating pattern (CAP in slow wave sleep (SWS in children with the well-defined chronic syndrome juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Twelve patients (9-17 years of age, 7 girls, with JIA were compared to matched controls by age, pubertal stage and gender. After one night of habituation in the sleep laboratory, sleep measurements were obtained by standard polysomnography with conventional sleep scoring and additional CAP analyses. The sleep parameters of the JIA and control groups were similar for sleep efficiency (91.1 ± 6.7 vs 95.8 ± 4.0, sleep stage in minutes: stage 1 (16.8 ± 8.5 vs 17.8 ± 4.0, stage 2 (251.9 ± 41 vs 262.8 ± 38.1, stage 3 (17.0 ± 6.0 vs 15.1 ± 5.7, stage 4 (61.0 ± 21.7 vs 77.1 ± 20.4, and rapid eye movement sleep (82.0 ± 27.6 vs 99.0 ± 23.9, respectively. JIA patients presented nocturnal disrupted sleep, with an increase in short awakenings, but CAP analyses showed that sleep disruption was present even during SWS, showing an increase in the overall CAP rate (P < 0.01. Overall CAP rate during non-rapid eye movement sleep was significantly higher in pediatric patients who were in chronic pain. This is the first study of CAP in pediatric patients with chronic arthritis showing that CAP analyses can be a powerful tool for the investigation of disturbance of SWS in children, based on sleep EEG visual analysis.

  8. Prenatal Mood Disturbance Predicts Sleep Problems in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Thomas G.; Caprariello, Peter; Blackmore, Emma Robertson; Gregory, Alice M.; Glover, Vivette; Fleming, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Experimental animal data link prenatal stress with sleep disturbance in offspring, but the link in humans is unclear. Aims To investigate the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and depression and infant sleep disturbance from 6 to 30 months of age. Study Design Longitudinal prospective study of a large birth cohort from pregnancy to 30 months. Questionnaire measures of anxiety and depression were completed by mothers at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and at 8 weeks and 8 months postpartum Subjects The ALSPAC cohort, a prospective community study of women in the UK who have been followed since pregnancy. Outcome measures Measures of total sleep time, number of awakenings, and broadly defined sleep problems were available on children at ages 6, 18, and 30 months. Results Reliable measures of total sleep time, nighttime awakenings, and sleep problems were identified at 6, 18, and 30 months. Higher levels of prenatal maternal anxiety and depression predicted more sleep problems at 18 and 30 months, after controlling for postnatal mood and obstetric and psychosocial covariates; the association was not restricted to clinical extremes. No link with total sleep time was observed. Conclusions Mood disturbance in pregnancy has persisting effects on sleep problems in the child, a finding that is consistent with experimental animal research. The findings add to a growing literature showing that maternal prenatal stress, anxiety, and depression may have lasting effects on child development. PMID:17008033

  9. Treatment of sleep disturbances in posttraumatic stress disorder: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank B. Schoenfeld, MD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are among the most commonly reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms. It is essential to conduct a careful assessment of the presenting sleep disturbance to select the optimal available treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs are at least as effective as pharmacologic treatment in the short-term and more enduring in their beneficial effects. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and imagery rehearsal therapy have been developed to specifically treat insomnia and nightmares and offer promise for more effective relief of these very distressing symptoms. Pharmacotherapy continues to be an important treatment choice for PTSD sleep disturbances as an adjunct to CBT, when CBT is ineffective or not available, or when the patient declines CBT. Great need exists for more investigation into the effectiveness of specific pharmacologic agents for PTSD sleep disturbances and the dissemination of the findings to prescribers. The studies of prazosin and the findings of its effectiveness for PTSD sleep disturbance are examples of studies of pharmacologic agents needed in this area. Despite the progress made in developing more specific treatments for sleep disturbances in PTSD, insomnia and nightmares may not fully resolve.

  10. Treatment of sleep disturbances in posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Frank B; Deviva, Jason C; Manber, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are among the most commonly reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. It is essential to conduct a careful assessment of the presenting sleep disturbance to select the optimal available treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) are at least as effective as pharmacologic treatment in the short-term and more enduring in their beneficial effects. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and imagery rehearsal therapy have been developed to specifically treat insomnia and nightmares and offer promise for more effective relief of these very distressing symptoms. Pharmacotherapy continues to be an important treatment choice for PTSD sleep disturbances as an adjunct to CBT, when CBT is ineffective or not available, or when the patient declines CBT. Great need exists for more investigation into the effectiveness of specific pharmacologic agents for PTSD sleep disturbances and the dissemination of the findings to prescribers. The studies of prazosin and the findings of its effectiveness for PTSD sleep disturbance are examples of studies of pharmacologic agents needed in this area. Despite the progress made in developing more specific treatments for sleep disturbances in PTSD, insomnia and nightmares may not fully resolve. PMID:23015583

  11. Study on correlation between chronic tension type headache and sleep disturbance%慢性紧张型头痛与睡眠障碍的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝连玉; 高思山

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between chronic tension type headache (CTTH) and sleep disturbance,evaluate the influence of sleep disturbance and CTT'H occurring,developing and pathophysiology.Methods According to the diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society 2004 ISH-Ⅱ,we selected 141 CTTH patients from our neurology department in our hospital from April 2012 to August 2013.According to the level of headache,the patients were divided into three groups including mild,moderate and serious groups.Age,gender,sleep disturbance,headache levels were researched and analyzed respectively to understand the correlation among the aetiological agent of sleep disorders and CTTH level.Results The insomnia incidence rate of CTTH was 49.6%,statistically significant different from the incidence rate of normal people as 9.4% from Yu Shouchen' research (x 2=153.63,P < 0.001).The insomnia incidence rate of moderate and serious patients was higher than that of mild patients (x2=11.017,P < 0.05).There was no correlation between insomnia and gender,family history of CTTH patients.Conclusion There is obvious correlation between CTTH and sleep disturbance.Sleep disturbance is probably the important cause of CTTH.Clinic doctors should pay attention to the sleep problems of CTTH patients.Treating sleep disturbance could probably have positive prevention and treatment effect to CTTH patients.%目的 探讨慢性紧张型头痛(chronic tension type headache,CTTH)与睡眠障碍的关系,评价睡眠障碍对慢性紧张型头痛的发生、发展及头痛病理生理的影响.方法 依据国际头痛学会2004 ISH-Ⅱ头痛性疾病的分类和诊断标准,选取2012年4月至2013年8月我院神经内科门诊及住院符合慢性紧张型头痛诊断的患者141例,根据头痛程度分为轻度头痛、中度头痛、重度头痛三组,对纳入研究患者性别、年龄、失眠情况、疼痛程度、医后随访、健康指导等指标进行研究,分析睡

  12. Nocturnal symptoms and sleep disturbances in clinically stable asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Inder Mohan; Khanna, Puneet; Shah, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    Presence of nocturnal symptoms is related to asthma severity. Clinically stable asthmatic children, too, report frequent nocturnal symptoms and sleep disturbances. The study determined these parameters in stable, asthmatic children, in their home environment. This case-control, questionnaire-based study in 70 school-going children comprised 40 asthmatics (Group 1) and 30, age/gender matched, healthy children (Group 2). Parents maintained peak expiratory flow (PEF) and sleep diaries for one week. Group 1 had significantly lower mean morning (250.3 vs. 289.1 I/minute) and mean evening PEF values (261.7 vs. 291.3 I/minute). Group 1 (38.95%), reported frequent nocturnal symptoms like cough (36.90%), breathlessness (32.80%), wheeze (27.68%) and chest tightness (14.35%). Sleep disturbances, significant in Group 1 (38, 95% vs. 14.35%), included daytime sleepiness (24.60%), daytime tiredness (20.50%), difficulty in maintaining sleep (15.38%), early morning awakening (14.35%), struggle against sleep during daytime (12.30%), and involuntarily falling asleep (17.43%). On a scale of 1-6, Group 1 scored significant sleep disturbances/patient (3 vs. 0.8); lethargy/tiredness in morning (2.9 vs. 2.2), poorer sleep quality (4.7 vs. 5.4), less parents' satisfaction with child's sleep (4.5 vs. 5.5) and daytime fitness (4.1 vs. 5.3). Group 1, when exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (22, 55%), reported significant nocturnal symptoms (18/22, 81%) and reduced mean morning and evening PEF values (17/22, 77%). It is concluded that clinically stable, asthmatic children reported increased nocturnal symptoms, sleep disturbances and poorer sleep quality. Lack of awareness of asthma-sleep association and its clinical implications could lead to poor asthma control and impaired daytime activity. PMID:17136879

  13. Determining the Quality of Sleep in Menopausal Women and Factors That Disturb the Quality of Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Çetinkaya Şen, Yeşim

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the status of sleep quality in Turkish women of menopausal age group in an Afyon Province sample, and to determine the factors causing sleep disturbances in menopausal women. Women Diagnosing Form and Sleep Apnea Symptoms Determining Form, Menopausal Signs Screening List, Beck Depression Scale, and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index were used as data collecting tools. Sampling of the study consisted of all the women living in the district of 2...

  14. Sleep disorders in pediatric chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabouli, Stella; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Printza, Nikoleta; Dotis, John; Papachristou, Fotios

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of sleep disorders during childhood has been estimated to range from 25 to 43 %. The aim of this review is to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders and possible associations with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with CKD. An electronic systematic literature search for sleep disorders in children with CKD in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library Databases identified seven relevant articles for review, all of which reported an increased prevalence of sleep disorders in children with CKD. Five studies included children with CKD undergoing dialysis, and two studies included only non-dialysis patients. In all studies the presence of sleep disturbances was assessed by questionnaires; only one study compared the results of a validated questionnaire with laboratory-based polysomnography. The prevalence of any sleep disorder ranged from 77 to 85 % in dialysis patients, to 32-50 % in transplanted patients and 40-50 % in non-dialysis patients. The most commonly studied disorder was restless legs syndrome, which presented at a prevalence of 10-35 %. Three studies showed significant associations between presence of sleep disorders and HRQOL. We found consistent evidence of an increased prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with CKD, and these seemed to play a critical role in HRQOL. PMID:26482250

  15. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Lucy; Darlington, Cynthia L.; Smith, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral acoustic trauma 24 h before sleep disturbance being induced using the cage exchange method. Tinnitus perception was assessed behaviourally using a conditioned lick suppression paradigm 3 weeks after the acoustic trauma. Changes in the orexin system in the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in maintaining long-lasting arousal, were also examined using immunohistochemistry. Cage exchange resulted in a significant reduction in the number of sleep episodes and acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus with acoustic features similar to a 32 kHz tone at 100 dB. However, sleep disturbance did not exacerbate the perception of tinnitus in rats. Neither tinnitus alone nor tinnitus plus sleep disturbance altered the number of orexin-expressing neurons. The results suggest that acute sleep disturbance does not cause long-term changes in the number of orexin neurons and does not change the perception of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma in rats. PMID:25162023

  16. Sleep disturbances in an arctic population: The Tromsø Study

    OpenAIRE

    Straand Jørund; Fetveit Arne; Bjorvatn Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    Background Prevalence estimates for insomnia range from 10 to 50% in the adult general population. Sleep disturbances cause great impairment in quality of life, which might even rival or exceed the impairment in other chronic medical disorders. The economic implications and use of health-care services related to chronic insomnia represent a clinical concern as well as a pronounced public health problem. Hypnotics are frequently prescribed for insomnia, but alcohol and over-...

  17. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables. PMID:25396279

  18. Mindfulness Meditation and Improvement in Sleep Quality and Daytime Impairment Among Older Adults With Sleep Disturbances A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Black, DS; O'Reilly, GA; Olmstead, R; Breen, EC; Irwin, DE

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Sleep disturbances are most prevalent among older adults and often go untreated. Treatment options for sleep disturbances remain limited, and there is a need for community-accessible programs that can improve sleep. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of a mind-body medicine intervention, called mindfulness meditation, to promote sleep quality in older adults with moderate sleep disturbances. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized clinical trial with 2 parallel groups cond...

  19. Sleep disturbance in mental health problems and neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson KN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirstie N Anderson1 Andrew J Bradley2,3 1Department of Neurology, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company Limited, Lilly House, Basingstoke, UK; 3Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Sleep has been described as being of the brain, by the brain, and for the brain. This fundamental neurobiological behavior is controlled by homeostatic and circadian (24-hour processes and is vital for normal brain function. This review will outline the normal sleep–wake cycle, the changes that occur during aging, and the specific patterns of sleep disturbance that occur in association with both mental health disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of primary sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and REM sleep behavior disorder as potential causes or risk factors for particular mental health or neurodegenerative problems will also be discussed. Keywords: sleep, mental health, neurodegenerative disorders, cognition

  20. Sleep disorders and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Stephanie C; El Sara, Ammar; Chapman, Cherylle; Cohen, Danielle; Cukor, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disorders have a profound and well-documented impact on overall health and quality of life in the general population. In patients with chronic disease, sleep disorders are more prevalent, with an additional morbidity and mortality burden. The complex and dynamic relationship between sleep disorders and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain relatively little investigated. This article presents an overview of sleep disorders in patients with CKD, with emphasis on relevant pathophysiologic underpinnings and clinical presentations. Evidence-based interventions will be discussed, in the context of individual sleep disorders, namely sleep apnea, insomnia, restless leg syndrome and excessive daytime sleepiness. Limitations of the current knowledge as well as future research directions will be highlighted, with a final discussion of different conceptual frameworks of the relationship between sleep disorders and CKD. PMID:27152260

  1. Noise-related sleep disturbances: Does gender matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Röösli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women sleep differently and report differently about sleep disturbances than men. However, it is unclear whether the sleep of women and men is affected differently by traffic noise exposure. We aimed to address gender specific noise effects by using objective and subjective exposure measures as well as objective and subjective outcome data. In a questionnaire survey conducted in 2008 including 733 women and 533 men from Basel, Switzerland, with follow-up 1 year later, we collected data on subjective sleep disturbances and annoyance to road traffic noise. Objective noise exposure data was obtained using validated propagation models. In a nested diary study with 119 participants, objective sleep efficiency and sleep duration was measured by means of actigraphic devices for 1551 nights. Data were analyzed using random intercept mixed-effects multilevel regression models adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Objectively measured sleep duration in highly exposed men (>55 dB was reduced by 1.5 h (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-0.8 h compared with low exposed men (<30 dB. No noise effect on sleep duration was observed in women. The association of modeled noise exposure with self-reported sleep quality rating was also more pronounced in men (−0.8 unit, 95% CI: −1.4 to −0.2 than in women (−0.3 unit, 95% CI: −0.8 to 0.2. However, in highly annoyed women reduction in sleep quality and well-being rating tended to be stronger than in highly annoyed men. Our study provides some indications that noise exposure affects men′s sleep differently than women′s sleep, which may have distinct long-term health consequences.

  2. Sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances in autism spectrum disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowski, Mark; Wasilewska, Jolanta; Lebensztejn, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 68 children, commonly presents with comorbid conditions which include sleep disorders. Sleep disorders reported in ASD include, among others, increased bedtime resistance, insomnia, parasomnia, sleep disordered breathing, morning rise problems, and daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography studies show that children with ASD have altered sleep architecture including shorter total sleep time and longer sleep latency than typically developing peers. Sleep-related problems have been shown to affect overall autism scores, social skills decits, stereotypic behavior, and cognitive performance. Additionally, problematic sleep in children with ASD has been associated with higher levels of parental stress. Underlying causes specically related to sleep disorders are not fully known. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are commonly associated with sleep problems in these patients. Children with ASD and GI symptoms have been found to have a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances compared with typically developing peers who do not have GI symptoms. Treatment approaches to children with sleep disorders are varied and range from lifestyle modications and behavioral interventions to drug therapies and surgical interventions. Physicians should take into account GI disorders as possible underlying causes of sleep-related problems in children with ASD. Therapeutic interventions should begin with less invasive methods before progressing to more invasive options such as pharmacotherapy and should be based on medical indications in order to provide effective care while minimizing potential adverse health effects. Evidence-based studies concerning GI and sleep disorders in children with ASD are limited and further studies are warranted. PMID:26384115

  3. Sleep disturbances in menopausal women: Aetiology and practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyneel, Marie

    2015-07-01

    Sleep deteriorates with age. The menopause is often a turning point for women's sleep, as complaints of insomnia increase significantly thereafter. Insomnia can occur as a secondary disorder to hot flashes, mood disorders, medical conditions, psychosocial factors, underlying intrinsic sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) or restless legs syndrome (RLS), or it can be a primary disorder. Since unrecognized OSA can have dramatic health-related consequences, menopausal women complaining of persisting sleep disturbances suggesting primary insomnia or intrinsic sleep disorders should be referred to a sleep specialist for a comprehensive sleep assessment. Patients suffering from primary insomnia will be preferentially treated with non-benzodiazepine hypnotics or melatonin, or with cognitive behavioural therapy. Insomnia related to vasomotor symptoms can be improved with hormone replacement therapy. Gabapentin and isoflavones have also shown efficacy in small series but their precise role has yet to be established. In patients suffering from OSA, non-pharmacological therapy will be applied: continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, according to the severity of the disorder. In the case of RLS, triggering factors must be avoided; dopaminergic agonists are the first-line treatment for moderate to severe disease. In conclusion, persisting sleep complaints should be addressed in menopausal women, in order to correctly diagnose the specific causal disorder and to prescribe treatments that have been shown to improve sleep quality, quality of life and long-term health status. PMID:26002789

  4. Measurement properties of PROMIS Sleep Disturbance short forms in a large, ethnically diverse cancer cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Roxanne E.; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Eithne Sexton; Reeve, Bryce B.; Moinpour, Carol M.; Potosky, Arnold L.; Tania Lobo; Teresi, Jeanne A.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate model fit, differential item function (DIF), and construct validity of select short forms from the PROMIS® Sleep Disturbance item bank. METHODS: We recruited cancer survivors who were between 6 - 13 months post diagnosis (n = 4,956), as part of the Measuring Your Health (MY-Health) study. We measured sleep disturbance using 10 items commonly found in PROMIS Sleep Disturbance short forms (Sleep 4a, Sleep 6a, Sleep 8b), and which are frequently administered in computerized ...

  5. Effects of valerian extract on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Fujimura, Katsuyuki; Kim, Yonsu; Kamei, Chiaki

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of valerian extract on the sleep-wake cycle using sleep-disturbed model rats. A significant shortening in sleep latency was observed with valerian extract at doses of 1000 and 3000 mg/kg. On the other hand, valerian extract had no significant effects on total times of wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, or REM sleep, even at a dose of 3000 mg/kg. Valerian extract at doses of 1000 and 3000 mg/kg showed a significant in...

  6. Effects of valerian extract on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinomiya,Kazuaki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of valerian extract on the sleep-wake cycle using sleep-disturbed model rats. A significant shortening in sleep latency was observed with valerian extract at doses of 1000 and 3000 mg/kg. On the other hand, valerian extract had no significant effects on total times of wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM sleep, or REM sleep, even at a dose of 3000 mg/kg. Valerian extract at doses of 1000 and 3000 mg/kg showed a significant increase in the delta activity during non-REM sleep. In conclusion, valerian extract may be useful as an herbal medicine having not only sleep-inducing effects but also sleep quality-enhancement effects.

  7. Psychophysiological Associations between Chronic Tinnitus and Sleep: A Cross Validation of Tinnitus and Insomnia Questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schecklmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of insomnia in chronic tinnitus and the association of tinnitus distress and sleep disturbance. Methods. We retrospectively analysed data of 182 patients with chronic tinnitus who completed the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and the Regensburg Insomnia Scale (RIS. Descriptive comparisons with the validation sample of the RIS including exclusively patients with primary/psychophysiological insomnia, correlation analyses of the RIS with TQ scales, and principal component analyses (PCA in the tinnitus sample were performed. TQ total score was corrected for the TQ sleep items. Results. Prevalence of insomnia was high in tinnitus patients (76% and tinnitus distress correlated with sleep disturbance (r=0.558. TQ sleep subscore correlated with the RIS sum score (r=0.690. PCA with all TQ and RIS items showed one sleep factor consisting of all RIS and the TQ sleep items. PCA with only TQ sleep and RIS items showed sleep- and tinnitus-specific factors. The sleep factors (only RIS items were sleep depth and fearful focusing. The TQ sleep items represented tinnitus-related sleep problems. Discussion. Chronic tinnitus and primary insomnia are highly related and might share similar psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms leading to impaired sleep quality.

  8. Initial Validation of the Sleep Disturbances in Pediatric Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Lauren C; Schwartz, Lisa A; Mindell, Jodi A; Tucker, Carole A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE : The current study evaluates content validity of the Sleep Disturbance in Pediatric Cancer (SDPC) model using qualitative and quantitative stakeholder input.  METHODS : Parents of children (aged: 3-12 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 20) and medical providers (n = 6) participated in semi-structured interviews about child sleep during cancer treatment. They also rated SDPC model component importance on a 0-4 scale and selected the most relevant sleep-related intervention targets.  RESULTS : Qualitatively, parents and providers endorsed that changes in the child's psychosocial, environmental, and biological processes affect sleep. Stakeholders rated most model components (parent: 32 of 40; provider: 39 of 41) as important (>2) to child sleep. Parents were most interested in interventions targeting difficulty falling asleep and providers selected irregular sleep habits/scheduling, though groups did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS : Stakeholders supported SDPC content validity. The model will inform subsequent measure and intervention development focusing on biological and behavioral factors most salient to sleep disturbances in pediatric cancer. PMID:26994058

  9. Current status of chronic constipation, sleep disturbances and olfactory disorders in the elderly of Chinese residents%中国老年人慢性便秘睡眠障碍和嗅觉异常状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志会; 王临虹; 齐士格; 李镒冲; 王丽敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status and distribution characteristics of chronic constipation,sleep disturbances and olfactory disorders in Chinese elderly.Methods In 2010,the 3rd Chronic Non-communicable Disease & Risk Factor Surveillance in China was conducted in 31 provinces and Xinjiang Production & Construction Corps.42 668 Chinese aged over 60 years in 98 548 households were randomly selected from 162 National Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs) by a stratified multistage cluster sampling.All subjects received a set of standardized questionnaire and interview.After a complex weighing,the differences in the prevalence of constipation,sleep disturbances and olfactory disorders were investigated among the residents with different genders,ages,urban or rural areas and regions.Results In all subjects aged over 60 years,the general prevalence of self-reported constipation was 5.06 %,which increased with age.The general prevalence of self-reported constipation was higher in females than in males (5.80% vs.4.27%,x2 =21.78,P<0.05),higher in urban areas than in the rural areas (6.04% vs.4.58%,x2 =5.66,P<0.05),and there were no significant differences among residents in eastern,central,and western regions.The general prevalence of self-reported sleep disturbances was 14.19%,which increased with age.The general prevalence of self-reported sleep disturbances was higher in females than in males (17.27% vs.10.94%,x2 =165.53,P<0.05),and there were no significant differences among residents in urban and rural areas or in different regions.The general prevalence of self-reported olfactory disorders was 8.49%,which increased with age.The general prevalence of self-reported olfactory disorders was higher in females than in males (9.36% vs.7.58%,x2 =22.32,P<0.05).There were significant differences in the prevalence of self-reported olfactory disorders among residents in eastern,central and western regions (6.98%,8.28% and 11.00%,x2 =6

  10. Symposium: Cognitive processes and sleep disturbances: Sleep, dreams and memory: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli

    1995-03-01

    Investigations into the role played by sleep in information processing have consistently shown that the retention of information is better when the memory storage is followed by a period of sleep than of waking. Less definitive evidence, however, is available as to whether the better performance is mainly due to (a) reduction of interference during sleep, (b) slowing down of decay, or (c) consolidation processes at work during sleep. Important insights as to whether consolidation takes place during sleep have recently been provided by the thematic continuity of dreams elaborated in the same night and by the repeated incorporation of pre-sleep stimuli into dream contents. The analysis of such aspects of dreaming indicates that the items of information which are repeatedly accessed during sleep and elaborated for insertion into the ongoing dream experience are better retained at delayed recall. Finally, it is suggested that the use of the strategies applied in studying the information processing in normals may also be extended to sleep-disturbed individuals, in order to establish how memory functioning during sleep is influenced by sleep disturbances. PMID:10607134

  11. Sleep disturbances and circadian CLOCK genes in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Monika; Schäfer, Michael; Coogan, Andrew; Häßler, Frank; Thome, Johannes

    2012-10-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterised by a deep-reaching pattern of affective instability, incoherent identity, self-injury, suicide attempts, and disturbed interpersonal relations and lifestyle. The daily activities of BPD patients are often chaotic and disorganized, with patients often staying up late while sleeping during the day. These behavioural patterns suggest that altered circadian rhythms may be associated with BPD. Furthermore, BPD patients frequently report suffering from sleep disturbances. In this review, we overview the evidence that circadian rhythms and sleep are disturbed in BPD, and we explore the possibility that personality traits that are pertinent for BPD may be associated with circadian typology, and perhaps to circadian genotypes. With regards to sleep architecture, we review the evidence that BPD patients display altered non-REM and REM sleep. A possible cue to a deeper understanding of this temporal dysregulation might be an analysis of the circadian clock at the molecular and cellular level, as well as behavioural studies using actigraphy and we suggest avenues for further exploration of these factors. PMID:22806005

  12. Sleep disturbance in older ICU patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sterniczuk R; Rusak B; Rockwood K

    2014-01-01

    Roxanne Sterniczuk,1–3 Benjamin Rusak,1,2 Kenneth Rockwood31Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, 2Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, 3Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, CanadaAbstract: Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a rest...

  13. Symptoms of sleep disturbance in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and normal elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; SINGER, CLIFFORD M.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed sleep time and sleep disturbance symptoms in 399 healthy, non-demented elderly (NDE) and 263 persons with a diagnosis of possible (n = 53) or probable (n = 210) Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our primary objective was to determine differences in subjective sleep disturbance between these samples. Secondary objectives were to determine if subjects with time in bed (TIB) ≤6 h per night reported more sleep disturbance and whether sleep complaints were associated with more ...

  14. Chronic cough in patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K K Y; Ing, A J; Laks, L; Cossa, G; Rogers, P; Birring, S S

    2010-02-01

    Chronic cough can be the sole presenting symptom for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. We investigated the prevalence, severity and factors associated with chronic cough in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We invited 108 consecutive patients who had been referred for evaluation of SDB to complete a comprehensive questionnaire on respiratory and sleep health, which included the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (cough specific quality of life; LCQ), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Mayo Clinic gastro-oesophageal questionnaire. Chronic cough was defined as cough for a duration of >2 months. 33% of patients with SDB reported a chronic cough. Patients with a chronic cough had impaired cough related-quality of life affecting all health domains (mean+/-sem LCQ score 17.7+/-0.7; normal = 21). Patients with SDB and chronic cough were predominantly females (61% versus 17%; p<0.001) and reported more nocturnal heartburn (28% versus 5%; p = 0.03) and rhinitis (44% versus 14%; p = 0.02) compared to those without SDB. There were no significant differences in ESS, respiratory disturbance index, body mass index, or symptoms of breathlessness, wheeze, snoring, dry mouth and choking between those with cough and those without. Chronic cough is prevalent in patients with SDB and is associated with female sex, symptoms of nocturnal heartburn and rhinitis. Further studies are required to investigate the impact of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on cough associated with SDB to explore the mechanism of this association. PMID:20123846

  15. MRI of paramedian thalamic stroke with sleep disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevblad, K.O. [MRI Unit, Radiology Department, AN-234, Beth Israel Hospital, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)]|[Department of Neuroradiology, Inselspital, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bassetti, C.; Mathis, J. [Department of Neurology, Inselspital, University of Bern (Switzerland); Schroth, G. [Department of Neuroradiology, Inselspital, University of Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    The paramedian thalamus is believed to play an important role in the regulation of sleep, and disturbances of sleep regulation are known to occur in paramedian thalamic stroke (PTS). We examined 12 consecutive patients with PTS and sleep disturbance by MRI. Two distinct groups of patients could be defined: six presenting with severe hypersomnia (group 1) and six with slight sleepiness (group 2). On MRI, all patients had ischaemic lesions involving the paramedian thalamic nuclei, the centre of the lesions being the dorsomedial and centromedial thalamic nuclei. In group 1 the lesions were bilateral, butterfly-shaped infarcts involving the paramedian nuclei (three cases), or unilateral with an extension into the subthalamic nuclei. In group 2 the lesions were unilateral and limited to the paramedian nuclei, mainly the dorsomedial nucleus. Bilateral lesions can be attributed to a common origin in some cases for both paramedian thalamic arteries and the mesencephalic arteries. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  16. MRI of paramedian thalamic stroke with sleep disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paramedian thalamus is believed to play an important role in the regulation of sleep, and disturbances of sleep regulation are known to occur in paramedian thalamic stroke (PTS). We examined 12 consecutive patients with PTS and sleep disturbance by MRI. Two distinct groups of patients could be defined: six presenting with severe hypersomnia (group 1) and six with slight sleepiness (group 2). On MRI, all patients had ischaemic lesions involving the paramedian thalamic nuclei, the centre of the lesions being the dorsomedial and centromedial thalamic nuclei. In group 1 the lesions were bilateral, butterfly-shaped infarcts involving the paramedian nuclei (three cases), or unilateral with an extension into the subthalamic nuclei. In group 2 the lesions were unilateral and limited to the paramedian nuclei, mainly the dorsomedial nucleus. Bilateral lesions can be attributed to a common origin in some cases for both paramedian thalamic arteries and the mesencephalic arteries. (orig.). With 5 figs

  17. The trajectories of sleep disturbances in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Ellaway, Carolyn; Downs, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    Rett syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder usually affecting females, and is associated with a mutation in the MECP2 gene. Sleep problems occur commonly and we investigated the trajectories and influences of age, mutation and treatments. Data were collected at six time points over 12 years from 320 families registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database. Regression analysis was used to investigate relationships between sleep disturbances, age, mutation type and use of treatment, and latent class growth analysis was performed to identify sleep problem phenotypes and model the effect of mutation type. The age range of subjects was 2.0-35.8 years. The study showed that sleep problems occurred in more than 80% of individuals and the prevalence decreased with age. Night laughing and night screaming occurred in 77 and 49%, respectively, when younger. Those with a large deletion had a higher prevalence of night laughing, which often occurred frequently. Treatment was associated with a 1.7% reduction in risk of further sleep problems. High and low baseline prevalence groups were identified. Approximately three-quarters of girls and women with sleep disturbances were in the high baseline group and problems persisted into adulthood. Conversely, 57% with night laughing and 42% with night screaming in the high baseline group exhibited mild improvement over time. Mutation type was not found to be a significant predictor of group membership. In conclusion, the evolution of sleep problems differed between subgroups of girls and women with Rett syndrome, in part explained by age and genotype. Treatment was not associated with improvement in sleep problems. PMID:25219940

  18. Effect of melatonin administration on subjective sleep quality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    D.M. Nunes; R.M.S. Mota; M.O. Machado; E.D.B. Pereira; de Bruin, V. M. S.; P.F.C. de Bruin

    2008-01-01

    Disturbed sleep is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conventional hypnotics worsen nocturnal hypoxemia and, in severe cases, can lead to respiratory failure. Exogenous melatonin has somnogenic properties in normal subjects and can improve sleep in several clinical conditions. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effects of melatonin on sleep in COPD. Thirty consecutive patients with moderate to very severe COPD were ini...

  19. Sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence Gaps and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanru; Owens, Robert L.; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence is rising to epidemic proportions due to historical smoking trends, the aging of the population, and air pollution. Although blaming the victims has been common in COPD, the majority of COPD worldwide is now thought to be nonsmoking related, that is, caused by air pollution and cookstove exposure. It is increasingly appreciated that subjective and objective sleep disturbances are common in COPD, although strong epidemiological data are lacking. People with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus COPD (the so-called overlap syndrome) have a high risk of cardiovascular death, although again mechanisms are unknown and untested. This review aims to draw attention to the problem of sleep in COPD, to encourage clinicians to ask their patients about symptoms, and to stimulate further research in this area given the large burden of the disease. PMID:27445564

  20. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, depression and disordered sleep in chronic post-SARS syndrome; a case-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcai John

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long term adverse effects of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, a viral disease, are poorly understood. Methods Sleep physiology, somatic and mood symptoms of 22 Toronto subjects, 21 of whom were healthcare workers, (19 females, 3 males, mean age 46.29 yrs.+/- 11.02 who remained unable to return to their former occupation (mean 19.8 months, range: 13 to 36 months following SARS were compared to 7 healthy female subjects. Because of their clinical similarities to patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS these post-SARS subjects were similarly compared to 21 drug free female patients, (mean age 42.4 +/- 11.8 yrs. who fulfilled criteria for fibromyalgia. Results Chronic post-SARS is characterized by persistent fatigue, diffuse myalgia, weakness, depression, and nonrestorative sleep with associated REM-related apneas/hypopneas, an elevated sleep EEG cyclical alternating pattern, and alpha EEG sleep anomaly. Post- SARS patients had symptoms of pre and post-sleep fatigue and post sleep sleepiness that were similar to the symptoms of patients with FMS, and similar to symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Both post-SARS and FMS groups had sleep instability as indicated by the high sleep EEG cyclical alternating pattern rate. The post-SARS group had a lower rating of the alpha EEG sleep anomaly as compared to the FMS patients. The post-SARS group also reported less pre-sleep and post-sleep musculoskeletal pain symptoms. Conclusions The clinical and sleep features of chronic post-SARS form a syndrome of chronic fatigue, pain, weakness, depression and sleep disturbance, which overlaps with the clinical and sleep features of FMS and chronic fatigue syndrome.

  1. Sleep disturbances and depression: risk relationships for subsequent depression and therapeutic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Franzen, Peter L.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of individuals with depression experience sleep disturbances. Depression is also over-represented among populations with a variety of sleep disorders. Although sleep disturbances are typical features of depression, such symptoms sometimes appear prior to an episode of depression. The bidirectional associations between sleep disturbance (especially insomnia) and depression increase the difficulty of differentiating cause-and-effect relationships between them. Longitudinal studies ...

  2. Hyperactivation of the habenula as a link between depression and sleep disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Aizawa, Hidenori; Cui, Wanpeng; Tanaka, Kohichi; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Depression occurs frequently with sleep disturbance such as insomnia. Sleep in depression is associated with disinhibition of the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Despite the coincidence of the depression and sleep disturbance, neural substrate for depressive behaviors and sleep regulation remains unknown. Habenula is an epithalamic structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain stem. Since the imaging studies showed blood flow increase in the habenula of depressive ...

  3. Effects of music listening on stress, anxiety, and sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, ChihChen Sophia; Yu, Chen-Hsiang; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal sleep disturbance has been associated with undesirable birthing outcomes. To determine the effectiveness of listening to music at home in improving sleep quality, 121 Taiwanese pregnant women with poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] score > 5) were systematically assigned, with a random start to music listening (n = 61) or control (n = 60) group. Participants in the music listening group self-regulated listening to music in addition to receiving general prenatal care similar to that in the control group for 2 weeks. The PSQI and State-Anxiety Inventory were used to assess outcomes. ANCOVA analyses were used with the pretest scores as covariates and showed significant improvement in sleep quality, stress, and anxiety in the music listening group compared with the control group. The most frequently used music genre by participants in the experimental group was lullabies, followed by classical music and crystal baby music. This study supported the theory that 2-week music listening interventions may reduce stress, anxiety, and yield better sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women. The analysis of participants' journals also implied that the expectant mothers' choices of musical genres may correlate more with perceived prenatal benefits or the desire to interact with their unborn child. PMID:26361642

  4. Sleep disturbances and circadian CLOCK genes in borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischer, Monika; Schafer, Michael; Coogan, Andrew; Hassler, Frank; Thome, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterised by a deep-reaching pattern of affective instability, incoherent identity, self-injury, suicide attempts, and disturbed interpersonal relations and lifestyle. The daily activities of BPD patients are often chaotic and disorganized, with patients often staying up late while sleeping during the day. These behavioural patterns suggest that altered circadian rhythms may be associated with BPD. Furthermore, BPD patients ...

  5. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noi...

  6. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies

  7. Sleep disturbance due to noise: current issues and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Ken

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe) has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies. PMID:20472952

  8. Effect of Withania somnifera on sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats: Possible GABAergic mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar A; Kalonia H

    2008-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts significantly sleep pattern and cause poor quality of sleep. The aim the present study was to explore role of Withania somniferra root extract in sleep-disturbed rats. Male wistar rats (n=5-6/group) were sleep deprived for 24 h using grid suspended over water method. Withania somniferra extract (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 30 min before actual recording (EEG and EMG) recording and electrophysiological recordings are further classified as...

  9. Effect of Withania somnifera on Sleep-Wake Cycle in Sleep-Disturbed Rats: Possible GABAergic Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Kalonia, H.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts significantly sleep pattern and cause poor quality of sleep. The aim the present study was to explore role of Withania somniferra root extract in sleep-disturbed rats. Male wistar rats (n=5-6/group) were sleep deprived for 24 h using grid suspended over water method. Withania somniferra extract (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 30 min before actual recording (EEG and EMG) recording and electrophysiological recordings are further classified as- sl...

  10. Sleep allostasis in chronic sleep restriction: the role of the norepinephrine system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngsoo; Chen, Lichao; McCarley, Robert W.; Strecker, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep responses to chronic sleep restriction may be very different from those observed after acute total sleep deprivation. Specifically, when sleep restriction is repeated for several consecutive days, animals express attenuated compensatory increases in sleep time and intensity during daily sleep opportunities. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these adaptive, or more specifically, allostatic, changes in sleep homeostasis are unknown. Several lines of evidence indicate that norepine...

  11. Recurrent short sleep, chronic insomnia symptoms and salivary cortisol: A 10-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study.

    OpenAIRE

    Abell, J. G.; Shipley, M J; Ferrie, J. E.; Kivimäki, M; Kumari, M.

    2016-01-01

    Although an association between both sleep duration and disturbance with salivary cortisol has been suggested, little is known about the long term effects of poor quality sleep on diurnal cortisol rhythm. The aim of this study was to examine the association of poor quality sleep, categorised as recurrent short sleep duration and chronic insomnia symptoms, with the diurnal release of cortisol. We examined this in 3314 participants from an occupational cohort, originally recruited in 1985-1989....

  12. Effect of Withania somnifera on sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats: Possible GABAergic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation disrupts significantly sleep pattern and cause poor quality of sleep. The aim the present study was to explore role of Withania somniferra root extract in sleep-disturbed rats. Male wistar rats (n=5-6/group were sleep deprived for 24 h using grid suspended over water method. Withania somniferra extract (100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. 30 min before actual recording (EEG and EMG recording and electrophysiological recordings are further classified as- sleep latency, slow wave sleep, paradoxical sleep, total sleep, wakefulness. One day (24 h sleep deprivation delayed latency sleep, reduced duration of slow wave sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, total sleep time and increased total waking as compared to animals placed on saw dust (P< 0.05. Pretreatment with Withania somniferra extract (100 mg/kg and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg significantly improved electrophysiological parameters, which was further reversed by picrotoxin (2 mg/kg and potentiated by muscimol (0.05 mg/kg. Flumazenil (2 mg/kg did not produce any significant effect on the sleep parameters of Withania somnifera root extract. Present study suggests the involvement of GABAergic mechanism in the sleep promoting effect of Withania somniferra in sleep-disturbed state.

  13. Periodic leg movements in prepubertal children with sleep disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Sandra; Guilleminault, Christian

    2004-11-01

    This study's aims were to determine: (1) prevalence of periodic leg movements (PLMs) in walking prepubertal children consulting a sleep clinic for any sleep disorder; (2) associations between PLMs and other sleep and medical disorders; and (3) the response of other sleep disorders to treatment with the dopamine agonist pramipexol. Clinical evaluation and polysomnography were carried out for a period of 12 months on 252 consecutively seen, prepubertal children with sleep disorders (156 males, 96 females; aged 15mo to 11y, mean 7y 1mo, SD3y 10mo). Sleep disorders unrelated to PLMs were treated, and six children received pramipexol for PLMs. Follow-up included clinical evaluation and polysomnography. Twenty-three per cent of children were diagnosed with PLMs on the basis of polysomnography. The presence of PLMs had usually been unrecognized clinically. The only clinical symptom that could be related to periodic limb movement disorder was a report of leg pains at morning awakening. Only two of 58 children had PLMs without other clinical or polysomnographic findings. Comorbidity seen with PLMs included neuropsychiatric syndromes (n=20), isolated sleep disordered breathing (SDB; n=29), and several other comorbid conditions (n=7). Seven of 11 children seen with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder also had PLMs. Surgery for SDB was associated with subsequent cessation of PLMs in 15 of 29 children. Five out of six children with PLMs who received pramipexol were able to tolerate the drug and experienced a complete disappearance of their PLMs. Presence of chronic fatigue, sleepiness, disrupted nocturnal sleep, and difficulties in falling asleep should lead to a systematic search for PLMs that is independent of associated syndromes. Isolated treatment of SDB might help eliminate some, but not all, PLMs. PMID:15540638

  14. Sleep Quality and Body Mass Index in College Students: The Role of Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A.; Flores, Melissa; Robles, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. Methods: A convenience sample of 515 college students completed an online survey consisting of the Pittsburgh Sleep…

  15. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-03-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71-0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63-0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad. PMID:26959327

  16. Sleep disturbances in the rotenone animal model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Fabio; Ponce, Sonia; Brown, Richard; Cussen, Victoria; Krueger, James M

    2005-05-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the presence of intracytoplasmatic inclusions known as Lewy bodies. Chronic administration of rotenone (RT) produces Parkinson's-like symptoms in rats. Because PD patients have disrupted sleep patterns, we determined if chronic RT administration produces similar changes in rat sleep. RT was administered for 28 days to rats. Basal and vehicle (VH) rats received saline or dimethyl sulfoxide and polyethylene glycol (1:1), respectively. VH infusion induced a progressive decrease in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the 4-week period of VH infusion and REMS was reduced in the third and fourth week of VH infusion. VH infusion did not induce dopaminergic cell degeneration. Rats receiving RT infusion also showed decreased NREMS during the treatment. REMS was dramatically reduced on day 7 although subsequently on days 13 and 20 REMS was similar to basal values. After 4 weeks of RT infusion, time in REMS was decreased again. In RT-treated rats, progressive dopaminergic cell degeneration occurred in the SNc. After 4 weeks of daily injections of L-dopa in RT-infused rats, NREMS values remained similar to those values obtained after RT alone. L-dopa therapy did, however, induce a recovery of REMS in weeks 3 and 4 of RT infusion. Dopaminergic cell damage persisted in the L-dopa-RT-infused rats. We conclude that the RT-PD rat model is associated with large long-term sleep disruption, however, the vehicle, DMSO/PEG had as large an effect as RT on sleep, thus changes in sleep cannot be ascribed to loss of dopaminergic cells. Such results question the validity of the RT-PD rat model. PMID:15854587

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of obstructive ventilatory impairment and hyperinflation, especially the inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, correlates with the severity of sleep-related breathing disturbances. Early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves survival, reduces hospitalization and pulmonary hypertension, and also reduces hypoxemia. Evidence of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD and sleep apnea provides insight into potential interactions between both disorders that may predispose to cardiovascular disease. Long-term outcome studies of overlap patients currently underway should provide further evidence of the clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. SUMMARY: Studies of overlap syndrome patients at a clinical, physiological and molecular level should provide insight into disease mechanisms and consequences of COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to identifying potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  18. Development and Initial Validation of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI)

    OpenAIRE

    Koffel, Erin; Watson, David

    2010-01-01

    The Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) is a new measure of self-reported sleep difficulties, which was designed to help facilitate research on the overlap of sleep disturbances and psychopathology. This instrument was developed in 2 large student samples using principal factor analyses; the psychometric properties of the scales then were examined in 3 additional samples (students, psychiatric patients, sleep disorder patients). The ISDI consists of 11 specific scales (Nightmares, Initia...

  19. Sleep disturbance among elderly people in Nursing home: A nonpharmacological approach - Literature Review study

    OpenAIRE

    Ngang, Roland Mbe

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common complaint among elderly people living in nursing home. This phenomenon is usually as a result of a series of related factors including medical, environmental, and behavioral and age related factors. Aims: The purpose of the study is to bring to lime line what needs to be done in promoting health through empowerment strategies among elderly people suffering from sleep disturbance. To research on common sleep assessment tools available to diagnose sleep dis...

  20. Adolescents' electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Brand, Serge; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F; Grob, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a time of increasing vulnerability for poor mental health, including depression. Sleep disturbance is an important risk factor for the development of depression during adolescence. Excessive electronic media use at night is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep disturbance and depression. To better understand the interplay between sleep, depressive symptoms, and electronic media use at night, this study examined changes in adolescents' electronic media use at night and sleep associated with smartphone ownership. Also examined was whether sleep disturbance mediated the relationship between electronic media use at night and depressive symptoms. 362 adolescents (12-17 year olds, M = 14.8, SD = 1.3; 44.8% female) were included and completed questionnaires assessing sleep disturbance (short sleep duration and sleep difficulties) and depressive symptoms. Further, participants reported on their electronic media use in bed before sleep such as frequency of watching TV or movies, playing video games, talking or text messaging on the mobile phone, and spending time online. Smartphone ownership was related to more electronic media use in bed before sleep, particularly calling/sending messages and spending time online compared to adolescents with a conventional mobile phone. Smartphone ownership was also related to later bedtimes while it was unrelated to sleep disturbance and symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance partially mediated the relationship between electronic media use in bed before sleep and symptoms of depression. Electronic media use was negatively related with sleep duration and positively with sleep difficulties, which in turn were related to depressive symptoms. Sleep difficulties were the more important mediator than sleep duration. The results of this study suggest that adolescents might benefit from education regarding sleep hygiene and the risks of electronic media use at night. PMID:25204836

  1. Development and Validation of Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sepahvand, Elham; Jalali, Rostam; Khaledi Paveh, Behnam; Rezaei, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Severe sleep disturbance is a common problem among patients in cardiac care units (CCUs). There are questionnaires to measure sleep disturbances. Therefore, the present study seeks to design a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess sleep disturbance in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospitalized in CCUs. Materials and Methods. In the present methodological research, items of the questionnaire were extracted through a systematic review. The validity ...

  2. Dream-disturbed sleep in insomnia and narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Bliwise, D L; Lebret-Bories, E; Guilleminault, C; Dement, W C

    1993-05-01

    Both patients with narcolepsy and insomnia frequently present clinically with nocturnal sleep disrupted by disturbing dreams. Polysomnographic correlates of these reports are unclear. In this study, 24 patients with psychophysiological insomnia and 16 patients with narcolepsy were compared on selected polysomnographic and self-reported typical dream characteristics. As a group, patients with narcolepsy showed more frightening, recurrent dreams and shorter rapid eye movement (REM) segments when compared with patients with insomnia. However, within the narcolepsy group, there were few correlations between typical dream characteristics and any measure of REM segment length or REM density. In the insomnia group, shorter REM segments and higher REM density were related to typically more vivid, frightening, and disrupted dreaming. We speculate that the mechanisms of disturbed dream recall may be different in insomnia and narcolepsy. PMID:8501449

  3. Sleep disturbance in mild cognitive impairment is associated with alterations in the brain's default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Andrew C; Lagopoulos, Jim; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron; Hickie, Ian B; Batchelor, Jennifer; Lewis, Simon J G; Duffy, Shantel; Shine, James M; Naismith, Sharon L

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sleep disturbance, relative to those with MCI and no sleep disturbance. A control group was included to aid in identifying DMN changes specific to MCI. A cross-sectional, single-center study was performed at the Brain and Mind Research Centre in Sydney, Australia. Participants (95 adults over the age of 65: 38 controls and 57 meeting criteria for MCI) underwent resting-state functional MRI along with comprehensive neuropsychological, medical, and psychiatric assessment. Self-report data were collected including sleep quality assessment via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A total score of greater than 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to signify the presence of significant sleep disturbance, as per commonly used methodology. Using this criterion, 53% (n = 30) of our MCI group were classified as sleep-disturbed. Whereas the total group of MCI subjects and controls demonstrated no significant differences, sleep-disturbed MCIs demonstrated increased connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, and decreased connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the temporoparietal junction relative to sleep-disturbed controls. Relative to those MCIs without sleep disturbance, sleep-disturbed MCI participants demonstrated significantly diminished DMN connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, a finding that was particularly pronounced in amnestic MCI. Sleep disturbance in MCI is associated with distinct alterations in DMN functional connectivity in brain regions underpinning salient memory and sleep systems. Future studies may build on these results via experimental manipulation and objective measurement of sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963234

  4. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10, and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001 and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001 had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for

  5. OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

  6. Rapid eye movement sleep disturbances in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnulf, I.; Nielsen, J.; Lohmann, E.;

    2008-01-01

    and shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and increased periodic leg movements. Three HD patients (12%) had REM sleep behavior disorders. No sleep abnormality correlated with CAG repeat length. Reduced REM sleep duration (but not REM sleep behavior disorders) was present in premanifest carriers and patients......Background: Sleep disorders including insomnia, movements during sleep, and daytime sleepiness are common but poorly studied in Huntington disease (HD). Objective: To evaluate the HD sleep-wake phenotype (including abnormal motor activity during sleep) in patients with various HD stages......: The sleep phenotype of HD includes insomnia, advanced sleep phase, periodic leg movements, REM sleep behavior disorders, and reduced REM sleep but not narcolepsy. Reduced REM sleep may precede chorea. Mutant huntingtin may exert an effect on REM sleep and motor control during sleep Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  7. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep, Behavior, and Cognition in ADHD and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Smits, Marcel G.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on sleep, behavior, cognition, and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia. Method: A total of 105 medication-free children, ages 6 to 12 years, with rigorously diagnosed ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia…

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IMOVANE AND ESTAZOLAM TREATMENT ON SLEEP DISTURBANCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李舜伟; 王长华

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-six patients with sleep disturbances who had completed therapy with hypnotics were observed under single-blind and self-comparable method for 7 days each. We found that patients treated with imovane or estazolam had no statistical differences with respect to sleep time onset, total sleep time, noc-turnal awakening, feeling after awakening, dream, drug side effects and sleep quality. Imovave performed better than estazolam in sleep time onset and total sleep time, From this study, imovane can be recom-mended as a new hypuotic to treat patients with sleep disturbanees.

  9. Changes in Sleep With Auricular Point Acupressure for Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping; Shen, Juan; Chien, Lung-Chang; Liang, Zhan; Glick, Ronald M; Morone, Natalia E; Chasens, Eileen R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report sleep quality from 4 weeks of auricular point acupressure that was designed for chronic low back pain and determine the relationship between pain intensity and sleep quality. Participants were randomized into the APA group (n = 30) or the sham-APA group (n = 31). At baseline assessment, 87% of the participants reported poor sleep quality. Participants who received APA had decreased daytime disturbance and improved global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores at end of intervention (EOI) and 1-month follow up compared to participants in the sham-APA group. For the APA group, both the sleep duration and wake after sleep onset decreased gradually during the 4-week APA (0.56% and 0.23% daily change, respectively). PMID:26244591

  10. Quantitative genetic research on sleep: a review of normal sleep, sleep disturbances and associated emotional, behavioural, and health-related difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 50 years, well over 100 twin studies have focussed on understanding factors contributing to variability in normal sleep-wake characteristics and sleep disturbances. Whilst we have gained a great deal from these studies, there is still much to be learnt. Twin studies can be used in multiple ways to answer questions beyond simply estimating heritability. This paper provides a comprehensive review of some of the most important findings from twin studies relating to sleep to date, with a focus on studies investigating genetic and environmental influences contributing to i) objective and subjective measures of normal sleep characteristics (e.g., sleep stage organisation, sleep quality); as well as sleep disturbances and disorders such as dyssomnias (e.g., insomnia, narcolepsy) and parasomnias (e.g., sleepwalking, bruxism); ii) the persistence of sleep problems from childhood to adulthood, and the possibility that the aetiological influences on sleep change with age; iii) the associations between sleep disturbances, emotional, behavioural and health-related problems; and iv) processes of gene-environment correlation and interaction. We highlight avenues for further research, emphasising the need to further consider the aetiology of longitudinal associations between sleep disturbances and psychopathology; the genetic and environmental overlap between sleep and numerous phenotypes; and processes of gene-environment interplay and epigenetics. PMID:22560641

  11. Sleep disturbances predict prospective declines in resident physicians’ psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice A. Min

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical residency can be a time of increased psychological stress and sleep disturbance. We examine the prospective associations between self-reported sleep quality and resident wellness across a single training year. Methods: Sixty-nine (N=69 resident physicians completed the Brief Resident Wellness Profile (M=17.66, standard deviation [SD]=3.45, range: 0–17 and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (M=6.22, SD=2.86, range: 12–25 at multiple occasions in a single training year. We examined the 1-month lagged effect of sleep disturbances on residents’ self-reported wellness. Results: Accounting for residents’ overall level of sleep disturbance across the entire study period, both the concurrent (within-person within-occasion effect of sleep disturbance (B=−0.20, standard error [SE]=0.06, p=0.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, −0.07 and the lagged within-person effect of resident sleep disturbance (B=−0.15, SE=0.07, p=0.037, 95% CI: −0.29, −0.009 were significant predictors of decreased resident wellness. Increases in sleep disturbances are a leading indicator of resident wellness, predicting decreased well-being 1 month later. Conclusions: Sleep quality exerts a significant effect on self-reported resident wellness. Periodic evaluation of sleep quality may alert program leadership and the residents themselves to impending decreases in psychological well-being.

  12. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26985900

  13. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26985900

  14. Reducing Bedtime Disturbance and Night Waking Using Positive Bedtime Routines and Sleep Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodulu, Kristin V.; Durand, V. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate behavioral interventions designed to reduce sleep difficulties in four young children with developmental disorders. Positive bedtime routines and sleep restriction were successful in eliminating bedtime disturbances and nighttime awakenings in four children with significant sleep problems. Positive…

  15. Using repeated measures of sleep disturbances to predict future diagnosis-specific work disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi; Hall, Martica;

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability.......It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability....

  16. Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo;

    2011-01-01

    Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on the association between sleep and mortality rates have addressed only duration, not quality, of sleep. The authors prospectively examined the effects of sleep disturbances on mortality rates and on important risk...... factors for mortality, such as body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. A total of 16,989 participants in the GAZEL cohort study were asked validated questions on sleep disturbances in 1990 and were followed up until 2009, with...

  17. Sleep disturbances and autonomic dysfunction in patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMallien

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (PoTS suffer from fatigue, daytime sleepiness and sleeping disturbances. The objective of this study was to compare subjective and objective sleep quality of PoTS patients with a group of healthy controls. All Patients completed a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The patients sleep architecture, heart rate and heart rate variability measurements were taken during one night at the sleep laboratorium. All Data was collected at the Sleep Unit, at Helios Klinikum Wuppertal. 38 patients diagnosed with PoTS were compared to 31 healthy controls, matched in age and gender. Patients with PoTS reached significantly higher scores in sleep questionnaires, which means that they were more sleepy and had a lower sleep qualitiy. Polysomnography showed a significantly higher proportion of stage 2 sleep. The results of heart rate variability analysis in different sleep stages confirmed changes in autonomic activity in both groups. PoTS patients, however, showed a diminished variability of the LF band, HF band and LF/HF ratio in different sleep stages. It can therefore be gathererd that PoTS could be considered as potential differential diagnosis for sleep disturbances since PoTS patients had a subjective diminished sleep quality, reached higher levels of daytime sleepiness and showed a higher proportion of stage 2 sleep. PoTS patients showed furthermore a reduction of LF/HF ratio variability in different sleep stages.

  18. Relationship Between Mood Disturbance and Sleep Quality in Oncology Outpatients at the Initiation of Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Onselen, Christina; Dunn, Laura B.; Lee, Kathryn; Dodd, Marylin; Koetters, Theresa; West, Claudia; Paul, Steven M.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Wara, William; Swift, Patrick; Miaskowski, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the research The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence of significant mood disturbance and evaluate for differences in sleep quality among four mood groups (i.e., neither anxiety nor depression, only anxiety, only depression, anxiety and depression) prior to the initiation of radiation therapy (RT). Methods and sample Patients (n=179) with breast, prostate, lung, and brain cancer were evaluated prior to the initiation of RT using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. Differences in sleep disturbance among the four mood groups were evaluated using analyses of variance. Key results While 38% of the patients reported some type of mood disturbance, 57% of the patients reported sleep disturbance. Patients with clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression reported the highest levels of sleep disturbance. Conclusions Overall, oncology patients with mood disturbances reported more sleep disturbance than those without mood disturbance. Findings suggest that oncology patients need to be assessed for mood and sleep disturbances. PMID:20080444

  19. Self-evaluations of factors promoting and disturbing sleep: an epidemiological survey in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urponen, H; Vuori, I; Hasan, J; Partinen, M

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this epidemiological survey (N = 1600) was to describe the factors which middle-aged urban people in Finland perceived as promoting or disturbing sleep. The response rate was 75%. The results suggested that quality of sleep is determined by numerous factors; social and psychological factors, health status, external sleeping conditions, life style and living habits. Every third respondent felt that exercise had a positive impact on sleep. Second in importance were reading and listening to music. Furthermore, sauna, shower and bath, stability in life, psychological factors, positive experience in work, satisfactory sexual life and good and quiet sleeping environment were reported to have positive effects on sleep. Men considered work-related pressure and fatigue (20%) as the most important factor disturbing falling asleep or quality of sleep. In women's ranking work problems appeared no sooner than in the third place. Women reported worries, interpersonal problems, and marital and family discord as the most disturbing factors to sleep (37%). Coffee in the evening had a negative effect on falling asleep. Although a 'nightcap' was considered to improve relaxation on falling sleep, men ranked alcohol as the fourth disturbing factor. Other disturbing factors were stress, irregularities in everyday life because of social events, travelling or atypical catnaps. Eating and exercising too heavily or too late in the evening were found to disturb sleep. On the other hand, temporary lack of exercise seemed to impair the quality of sleep. As external factors disturbing sleep the subjects considered noise light, too high room temperature, tight clothing, unfamiliar sleeping environment and restless children.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3363395

  20. Fuzzy Expert System For Noise Induced Sleep Disturbance And Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Vinita Gupta; Amita Jain; Devendra K. Tayal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an effort has been made to develop a fuzzy based model to study the impact of various noise factors on Sleep disturbance and Health. We thoroughly survey the existing literature and identify the deficiencies in the existing models in this field. We then identify various noise factors which can have the significant impact on Sleep and health. The MIMO Expert system developed in this paper gives sleep disturbance, health condition in the morning and health as output variables and ...

  1. Sleep in Childhood and Adolescence: Age-Specific Sleep Characteristics, Common Sleep Disturbances and Associated Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Nicola L.; Gregory, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep changes throughout the lifespan, with particularly salient alterations occurring during the first few years of life, as well as during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Such changes are partly the result of brain maturation; complex changes in the organisation of the circadian system; as well as changes in daily routine, environmental demands and responsibilities. Despite the automaticity of sleep, given that it is governed by a host of complex mechanisms, there are times wh...

  2. Kindergarten children's failure to qualify for first grade could result from sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Sarit; Afek, Iris; Suraiya, Suheir; Shahar, Eli; Pillar, Giora

    2009-07-01

    Every year, 7% to 15% of preschool children are found to be underqualified for first grade. We examined whether sleep disturbances are factors in school readiness and their association with neurocognitive skills and behavior. The population included 148 kindergarten students. The study group consisted of 50 students who were assessed by the educational authority as unready for first grade. Children who were scheduled to attend first grade (n = 98) were in the control group. All children/parents filled in a sleep questionnaire and underwent a week of actigraphic sleep/wake study as well as cognitive and behavioral assessments. Children in the study group had significantly shorter total sleep time, reduced sleep efficiency, and increased number of nighttime awakenings. There were significant correlations between sleep variables, and cognitive and behavioral scores. In conclusion, children who fail to qualify for first grade have significantly inferior sleep patterns. Sleep disturbances were associated with cognitive and emotional immaturity. PMID:19189933

  3. Risk factors for sleep disturbances in older adults: Evidence from prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagula, Stephen F; Stone, Katie L; Fabio, Anthony; Cauley, Jane A

    2016-02-01

    No systematic review of epidemiological evidence has examined risk factors for sleep disturbances among older adults. We searched the PubMed database combining search terms targeting the following domains 1) prospective, 2) sleep, and 3) aging, and identified 21 relevant population-based studies with prospective sleep outcome data. Only two studies utilized objective measures of sleep disturbance, while six used the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and thirteen used insomnia symptoms or other sleep complaints as the outcome measure. Female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness were most consistently identified as risks for future sleep disturbances. Less robust evidence implicated the following as potentially relevant predictors: lower physical activity levels, African-American race, lower economic status, previous manual occupation, widowhood, marital quality, loneliness and perceived stress, preclinical dementia, long-term benzodiazepine and sedative use, low testosterone levels, and inflammatory markers. Chronological age was not identified as a consistent, independent predictor of future sleep disturbances. In conclusion, prospective studies have identified female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness as general risk factors for future sleep disturbances in later life, although specific physiological pathways have not yet been established. Research is needed to determine the precise mechanisms through which these factors influence sleep over time. PMID:26140867

  4. Complaints of Sleep Disturbances Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Kirschner, Yvonne; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S.; Münzel, Thomas; Blettner, Maria; Schulz, Andreas; Lackner, Karl; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tschan, Regine; Tuin, Inka; Beutel, Manfred E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite their high prevalence, sleep disorders often remain unrecognized and untreated because of barriers to assessment and management. The aims of the present study were to examine associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular disease, related risk factors, and inflammation in the community and to determine the contribution of sleep disturbances to self-perceived physical health. Method The sample consists of n = 10.000 participants, aged 35 to 74 years of a population based community sample in Germany. Cross-sectional associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular risk factors and disease, biomarkers of inflammation, depression, anxiety, and physical health status were analyzed. Results 19% of our sample endorsed clinically significant sleep disturbances. In the unadjusted analyses severity of sleep disturbances increased with female sex, low socioeconomic status, living without a partnership, cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, poor physical health, increased levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. After multivariate adjustment robust associations with coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and dyslipidemia remained. Complaints of sleep disturbances were strong and independent contributors to self-perceived poor physical health beyond depression, anxiety and medical disease burden. Conclusions Given the high prevalence of complaints of sleep disturbances and their strong impact on health status, increased efforts should be undertaken for their identification and treatment. PMID:25093413

  5. Perceived poor sleep quality in the absence of polysomnographic sleep disturbance in women with severe premenstrual syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, FC; Sassoon, S.A.; Kahan, T.; Palaniappan, L.; Nicholas, C.L.; J. Trinder; Colrain, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Women with severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) report sleep-related complaints in the late-luteal phase but few studies have characterized sleep disturbances prospectively. This study evaluated sleep quality subjectively and objectively using polysomnographic and quantitative electroencephalographic measures in women with severe PMS. 18 women with severe PMS (30.5 ± 7.6 y) and 18 women with minimal symptoms (controls, 29.2 ± 7.3 y) had polysomnographic recordings on one night in each of the Fo...

  6. Vulnerability to Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Insomnia: Investigating the Link with Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Ivan; Friedman, Naomi P.; Drake, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Greater sleep difficulty following a challenging event, or a vulnerability to stress-related sleep disturbance (i.e., sleep reactivity), is characteristic of insomnia. However, insomnia is rarely observed in isolation; rather it is frequently seen in combination with other problems, such as depression. Despite the link between depression and increased sensitivity to stress, relatively little is known about the role sleep reactivity has in explaining variability in depressive symptoms. Therefo...

  7. Sleep disturbances and post-traumatic stress disorder; a perpetual circle?

    OpenAIRE

    Liempt, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep facilitates the consolidation of fear extinction memory. Disrupted sleep has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, nightmares and insomnia are hallmark symptoms of PTSD, possibly interfering with fear extinction and compromising recovery. A perpetual circle may develop when sleep increases the risk for PTSD, and PTSD leads to an increase of sleep disturbances. To date, therapeutic options for alleviatin...

  8. Sleep Disturbances and Predictive Factors in Caregivers of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dongwhane; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Yoon, Sung-Sang; Chang, Dae-Il; Lee, Sangeui; Rhee, Hak-Young; Ku, Bon D.; Park, Key-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose We examined the characteristics of sleep disturbances and sleep patterns in the caregivers of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia. Methods We prospectively studied 132 patients (60 with aMCI and 72 with dementia) and their caregivers, and 52 noncaregiver controls. All caregivers and controls completed several sleep questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The patients were administered neuropsychological tests...

  9. Sleep disturbances are associated with reduced school achievements in first-grade pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Sarit; Afek, Iris; Suraiya, Suheir; Shahar, Eli; Pillar, Giora

    2009-01-01

    Several previous studies have demonstrated deteriorated scholastic achievements in school-aged children who experience sleep disturbances. In the current study, we examined the association between sleep disturbances during kindergarten (fifth to sixth year of children), and behavior, neurocognitive skills, as well as the children's future academic performance in first grade. The population included 98 kindergarten students who were scheduled to attend first grade. All children/parents filled out a sleep questionnaire and underwent one week of actigraphic sleep/wake study, as well as cognitive and behavioral assessments. Toward the end of first grade achievement evaluation in reading, writing, and arithmetic as well as teachers' evaluations were administrated. Of the 98 pupils, 6 failed the end of first grade's achievement tests (6.1%). When looking at their sleep patterns a year earlier, they had significantly longer sleep latencies (41 +/- 14 vs. 21 +/- 12 min, p sleep (4.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.8 +/- 1.1, p sleep efficiencies (89.5 +/- 1.1 vs. 94.3 +/- 2.7%, p sleep variables and cognitive and behavioral scores. The correlation between sleep efficiency in kindergarten and grades at the end of first year of school was r = .64 (p grade had significantly inferior sleep patterns. Sleep disturbances were associated with cognitive and emotional immaturity. PMID:20183720

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sleep Disturbance in a Large HIV-Infected Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allavena, C; Guimard, T; Billaud, E; De la Tullaye, S; Reliquet, V; Pineau, S; Hüe, H; Supiot, C; Chennebault, J-M; Michau, C; Hitoto, H; Vatan, R; Raffi, F

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbances in French adult HIV-infected outpatients. Patients fullfilled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behavior, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), quality of life and depression; 1354 patients were enrolled. Median sleeping time was 7 h. Poor sleep quality was observed in 47 % of the patients, and moderate to serious depressive symptoms in 19.7 %. Factors significantly associated with sleep disturbances were depression, male gender, active employment, living single, tobacco-smoking, duration of HIV infection, nevirapine or efavirenz-including regimen. Prevalence of poor sleepers is high in this HIV adult outpatient population. Associated factors seem poorly specific to HIV infection and more related to social and psychological status. Taking care of these disturbances may prove to be an effective health management strategy. PMID:26271816

  11. The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic sleep complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Erlacher

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Improvements on subjective sleep quality after a combined intervention cannot be attributed to the cognitive component alone, but PA has an independent effect. Adults with chronic sleep complaints benefit from exercise. Therefore structured PA should be implemented in any sleep management programs.

  12. Delta sleep instability in children with chronic arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, M.C.; Guilleminault, C; de Rosa, A.; Passarelli, C.; S. Roizenblatt; Tufik, S

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expression of a cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in slow wave sleep (SWS) in children with the well-defined chronic syndrome juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Twelve patients (9-17 years of age), 7 girls, with JIA were compared to matched controls by age, pubertal stage and gender. After one night of habituation in the sleep laboratory, sleep measurements were obtained by standard polysomnography with conventional sleep scoring and add...

  13. Post-operative sleep disturbance: causes, factors and effects on outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Kehlet, H

    1995-01-01

    mental status, all of which have an influence on post-operative morbidity and mortality. Prevention or reduction of the post-operative sleep disturbance may be achieved by minimizing surgical trauma, changing the conventional nursing procedures, avoiding opioids and treating pain with non......Post-operative sleep disturbance, with suppression of rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep followed by a subsequent rebound, seems to be related to the magnitude of trauma and thereby to the surgical stress response. In this context, cortisol, autonomic stimulation, and certain cytokines...

  14. Intimate Partner Violence Is Associated with Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Poor Sleep Quality during Early Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto E Sanchez

    Full Text Available To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST] and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] during early pregnancy.This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were calculated using logistic regression procedures.Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08-2.17 and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33-2.81. Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84-1.83, sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07-11.05, and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27-4.96. The corresponding aORs (95% CI for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13-2.61, 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99-8.03, and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30-4.81, respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17-3.67 and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30-3.97 during pregnancy.Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health.

  15. Polysomnographic Features of Sleep Disturbances and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in the Unilateral 6-OHDA Lesioned Hemiparkinsonian Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Vo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep pattern disruption, specifically REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, is a major nonmotor cause of disability in PD. Understanding the pathophysiology of these sleep pattern disturbances is critical to find effective treatments. 24-hour polysomnography (PSG, the gold standard for sleep studies, has never been used to test sleep dysfunction in the standard 6-OHDA lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP rat PD model. In this study, we recorded 24-hour PSG from normal and HP rats. Recordings were scored into wake, rapid eye movement (REM, and non-REM (NREM. We then examined EEG to identify REM periods and EMG to check muscle activity during REM. Normal rats showed higher wakefulness (70–80% during the dark phase and lower wakefulness (20% during the light phase. HP rats showed 30–50% sleep in both phases, less modulation and synchronization to the light schedule (P<0.0001, and more long run lengths of wakefulness (P<0.05. HP rats also had more REM epochs with muscle activity than control rats (P<0.05. Our findings that the sleep architecture in the HP rat resembles that of PD patients demonstrate the value of this model in studying the pathophysiological basis of PD sleep disturbances and preclinical therapeutics for PD related sleep disorders including RBD.

  16. Sleep disturbances in pediatric bipolar disorder: A comparison between Bipolar I and Bipolar NOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArgelindaBaroni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD in youths has been controversial, especially for the subtype BD Not Otherwise Specified (BD-NOS. In spite of growing evidence that sleep is a core feature of BD, few studies characterize and compare sleep disturbances in youth with BD type I (BD-I and BD-NOS. Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in clinical descriptions of children and adolescents with BD, however the reporting of the frequency and characteristics of sleep symptoms in youth with BD NOS and BD I during episodes remain poor. This study compares symptom of sleep disturbance as occurring in manic and depressive episodes in BD I and BD NOS youth using KSADS-PL interview data. The study also addresses whether symptoms of sleep disturbance vary in different age groups. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 70 children and adolescent outpatients at an urban specialty clinic (42M/28F, 10.8±3.6 years old including 24 BP-I and 46 BP-NOS assessed using K-SADS-PL-parent interview. Results: Sleep disturbances including insomnia and decreased need for sleep were reported by 84.3% of the sample. Enuresis was diagnosed in 27% of sample. There were no significant differences in frequency of sleep symptoms between BD-I and BD-NOS. Regardless of BD subtype, current functioning was negatively correlated with decreased need for sleep but not insomnia, and regardless of BD subtype. Conclusion: The majority of youth with BD presents with sleep symptoms during mood episodes. BD NOS presents with the same proportion of sleep symptoms as BD I in our sample.

  17. Neurobiology of sleep disturbances in PTSD patients and traumatized controls: MRI and SPECT findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eNardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sleep disturbances such as insomnia and nightmares are core components of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, yet their neurobiological relationship is still largely unknown. We investigated brain alterations related to sleep disturbances in PTSD patients and controls by using both structural and functional neuroimaging techniques.Method: Thirty-nine subjects either developing (n=21 or not developing (n=18 PTSD underwent MRI and a symptom-provocation protocol followed by the injection of 99mTc-HMPAO. Subjects were also tested with diagnostic and self-rating scales, on the basis of which a Sleep Disturbances Score (SDS; i.e., amount of insomnia/nightmares was computed.Results: Correlations between SDS and grey matter volume (GMV/regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were computed in the whole sample, and separately in the PTSD and control groups. In the whole sample, higher sleep disturbances were associated with significantly reduced GMV in amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, and insula; increased rCBF in midbrain, precuneus and insula; and decreased rCBF in anterior cingulate. This pattern was substantially confirmed in the PTSD group, but not in controls.Conclusion: Sleep disturbances are associated with GMV loss in anterior limbic/paralimbic, PTSD-sensitive structures, and with functional alterations in regions implicated in REM-sleep control, supporting the existence of a link between PTSD and sleep disturbance.

  18. Sleep disturbances of adult women suffering from fibromyalgia: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Di Stasi, Leandro L; Baldwin, Carol M; Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Catena, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Although sleep complaints are often reported in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), there is no conclusive evidence that these complaints represent symptomatic disorders of sleep physiology. Thus, the question of the role of sleep disturbances as an etiological or maintenance factor in FMS remains open. This study identifies the subjective and objective characteristics of sleep disturbances in adult women diagnosed with FMS. We carried out a systematic review of publications since 1990, the publication year of the American College of Rheumatology criteria of FMS. We selected empirical studies comparing sleep characteristics of adult women with FMS and healthy women or women with rheumatic diseases. We identified 42 articles. Patients with FMS were more likely to exhibit sleep complaints and also a less efficient, lighter and fragmented sleep. The evidence of a FMS signature on objective measures of sleep is inconsistent, however, as the majority of studies lacks statistical power. Current evidence cannot confirm the role played by sleep physiology in the pathogenesis or maintenance of FMS symptoms; nonetheless, it is clear that sleep disturbances are present in this syndrome. PMID:25456469

  19. The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic sleep complaints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carmen Erlacher; Daniel Erlacher; Michael Schredl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent the observed effects on self-rated sleep in a previous study using a combined treatment program with physical exercise and sleep education can be attributed by the physical activity (PA) component. Methods:The present study reports supplementary analysis of an already described and published study. Data were provided by a nonclinical sample of 98 normal-active adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints. The additional analysis included sleep log, exercise log, and daily pedometer data which were collected during a baseline week and 6-week of a combined intervention. Results:The results indicate that the number of steps ( p=0.02) and the duration of PA ( p=0.01) is significantly related to the improvement in subjective sleep measures and therefore reveal an independent effect within this combined sleep program. Sleep diary data (recuperation of sleep, number of awakenings after sleep onset, and wake time after sleep onset time) improved significant (all p<0.01) over the intervention program. About 50%of the participants stated that the PA had an effect on their improvement. Conclusion:Improvements on subjective sleep quality after a combined intervention cannot be attributed to the cognitive component alone, but PA has an independent effect. Adults with chronic sleep complaints benefit from exercise. Therefore structured PA should be implemented in any sleep management programs.

  20. Determinants of sleep disturbances in Rett syndrome: Novel findings in relation to genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Sharolin; Wong, Kingsley; Epstein, Amy; Anderson, Barbara; Murphy, Nada; Downs, Jenny; Leonard, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Rett syndrome is a rare but severe neurological disorder associated with a mutation in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Sleep problems and epilepsy are two of many comorbidities associated with this disorder. This study investigated the prevalence and determinants of sleep problems in Rett syndrome using an international sample. Families with a child with a confirmed Rett syndrome diagnosis and a MECP2 mutation registered in the International Rett Syndrome Phenotype Database (InterRett) were invited to participate. Questionnaires were returned by 364/461 (78.9%) either in web-based or paper format. Families completed the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children and provided information on the presence, nature, and frequency of their child's sleep problems. Multivariate multinomial regression was used to investigate the relationships between selected sleep problems, age group, and genotype and linear regression for the relationships between sleep disturbance scales and a range of covariates. Night waking was the most prevalent sleep problem affecting over 80% with nearly half (48.3%) currently waking often at night. Initiating and maintaining sleep was most disturbed for younger children and those with a p.Arg294* mutation. Severe seizure activity was associated with poor sleep after adjusting for age group, mutation type, and mobility. We were surprised to find associations between the p.Arg294* mutation and some sleep disturbances given that other aspects of its phenotype are milder. These findings highlight the complexities of aberrant MECP2 function in Rett syndrome and explain some of the variation in manifestation of sleep disturbances. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27255190

  1. Molecular Pathways of Disturbed Sleep and Depression: Studies on Adenosine and Gene Expression Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Gass, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adenosine is a potent sleep-promoting substance, and one of its targets is the basal forebrain. Fairly little is known about its mechanism of action in the basal forebrain and about the receptor subtype mediating its regulating effects on sleep homeostasis. Homeostatic deficiency might be one of the causes of the profoundly disturbed sleep pattern in major depressive disorder, which could explain the reduced amounts of delta-activity-rich stages 3 and 4. Since major depression has...

  2. Consequences of Insomnia in Later Life : The impact of sleep disturbances on functioning in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Maliackal Varghese, Lindo

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the consequences of insomnia as a sleep disorder in later life with the aim of collecting available information on the topic. The three research questions that guided the objective of the study sought to examine how elderly people experience sleep, insomnia and its consequences as well as what nursing intervention tools could assist in insomnia management to improve the quality of life of elderly. Sleep disturbances effect daytime routines and functioning of older adults ...

  3. Perceived Racial Discrimination as an Independent Predictor of Sleep Disturbance And Daytime Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Grandner, Michael A.; Hale, Lauren; Jackson, Nicholas; Patel, Nirav P.; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Troxel, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is a potential cause of racial and ethnic disparities in health. Disturbed sleep may serve as a mechanism linking perceived racism with health consequences. The current study investigates data from 7,148 adults from Michigan and Wisconsin who participated in the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses explored associations between perceived racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbance and daytime fatigue....

  4. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260

  5. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Perron

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

  6. Sleep Disturbance and Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in Postmenopausal Women The Women's Health Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Juhua; Sands, Megan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Song, Yiqing; Margolis, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbance has been found to be associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including cancers. However, no epidemiologic study has examined the relation between sleep disturbance and thyroid cancer risk. A total of 142,933 postmenopausal women who were 50–79 years of age and enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, were followed up for a mean of 11 years. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard rati...

  7. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Yafei Tan; Ying Chen; Yaogui Lu; Liping Li

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet ad...

  8. Pain and Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Clarke, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) assess and compare sleep disturbances (including daytime and nighttime sleep patterns) in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, (b) examine the prevalence of pain in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, and (c) examine pubertal development, pain intensity, and depressive…

  9. Sleep Disturbance in Children with Rett Syndrome: A Qualitative Investigation of the Parental Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Allyson; Kerr, Alison M.; Espie, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems in children with intellectual disability can be precipitated and maintained by intrinsic and external factors. The present study comprised a qualitative investigation of the experiences of parents of children with Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder where sleep disturbance is common. Method: Audio-taped…

  10. Preexisting mild sleep disturbance as a vulnerability factor for inflammation-induced depressed mood: a human experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H J; Eisenberger, N I; Olmstead, R; Breen, E C; Irwin, M R

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance and depression are common, particularly in females, and sleep disturbance is a well-known risk factor for depression. Systemic inflammation has been suggested as a potential mechanism of this association. This study examined whether preexisting sleep disturbance acted as a vulnerability factor for depressed mood induced by an inflammatory challenge in healthy females vs males. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, volunteers aged 18-50 (N = 111; 67 females) were assigned to placebo or low-dose endotoxin. Before substance administration, sleep disturbance was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and dichotomized using median split (⩾ 3 vs < 3). Self-reported depressed mood (profile of mood states) and circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α) were repeatedly assessed over 6 h. Among females, moderation of depressed mood by sleep disturbance was significant even after adjustment for covariates (X(2) = 12.73, df = 6, P < 0.05). There was a robust time-by-condition interaction in females with sleep disturbance (X(2) = 26.22, df = 6, P < 0.001), but not in females without sleep disturbance (X(2) = 8.65, df = 6, P = 0.19). Although cytokines increased equally in all females, the correlations between cytokines and depressed mood were significantly stronger in females with sleep disturbance. Among males, no moderating effect of sleep disturbance was observed. Inflammation-induced depressed mood was considerably more severe among females reporting mild sleep disturbance compared with those reporting no sleep disturbance, suggesting that even mild sleep disturbance may increase vulnerability for inflammation-induced depression in females. Furthermore, sleep disturbance appears to increase the vulnerability to depression by augmenting affective sensitivity to cytokines rather than by enhancing cytokine responses to inflammatory challenge in females. PMID:26954978

  11. Lagged Relationships Among Sleep Disturbance, Fatigue, and Depressed Mood During Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Phillips, Kristin M.; Wenham, Robert M.; Roberts, William; Small, Brent J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent research suggests that sleep disturbance, fatigue, and depressed mood form a symptom cluster in patients treated with chemotherapy. To date, however, no studies have examined lagged relationships among these symptoms during chemotherapy, a time when symptom variability is high. The aim of the current study was to examine lagged changes among daily symptoms during platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Participants were 78 women with gynecologic cancer (mean age 63, SD=11; 91% Caucasian; 97% non-Hispanic). Sleep disturbance was assessed via wrist actigraphy, while fatigue and depressed mood were assessed via daily diary in the week after participants’ first chemotherapy infusion. Latent change score models (LCS) were used to examine lagged relationships between symptom pairs. Results High levels of sleep disturbance (i.e., minutes awake at night) were associated with earlier subsequent peaks in fatigue, while high levels of fatigue were associated with higher subsequent levels of depressed mood. Conclusions These findings suggest that sleep disturbance, fatigue, and depressed mood occur in a cascade pattern during chemotherapy, in which increases in sleep disturbance contribute to fatigue, which in turn contributes to depressed mood. Interventions targeting symptoms early in the cascade, such as sleep disturbance, may provide benefits across multiple downstream symptoms. PMID:23437852

  12. Effects of salmeterol on sleeping oxygen saturation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep is associated with important adverse effects in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), such as disturbed sleep quality and gas exchange, including hypoxemia and hypercapnia. The effects of inhaled long-acting beta(2)-agonist therapy (LABA) on these disturbances are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of inhaled salmeterol on nocturnal sleeping arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) and sleep quality. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of moderate\\/severe stable COPD patients, we compared the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with salmeterol 50 microg b.d. and matching placebo on sleeping SaO(2) and sleep quality. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) was performed at baseline, and after 4 and 8 weeks in addition to detailed pulmonary function testing. Of 15 patients included, 12 completed the trial (median age 69 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV(1): 39%). RESULTS: Both mean SaO(2) [salmeterol vs. placebo: 92.9% (91.2, 94.7) vs. 91.0% (88.9, 94.8); p = 0.016] and the percentage of sleep spent below 90% of SaO(2) [1.8% (0.0, 10.8) vs. 25.6% (0.5, 53.5); p = 0.005] improved significantly with salmeterol. Sleep quality was similar with both salmeterol and placebo on PSG. Static lung volumes, particularly trapped gas volume, tended to improve with salmeterol. CONCLUSION: We conclude that inhaled LABA therapy improves sleeping SaO(2) without significant change in sleep quality.

  13. Effect of melatonin administration on subjective sleep quality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Nunes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Disturbed sleep is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Conventional hypnotics worsen nocturnal hypoxemia and, in severe cases, can lead to respiratory failure. Exogenous melatonin has somnogenic properties in normal subjects and can improve sleep in several clinical conditions. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effects of melatonin on sleep in COPD. Thirty consecutive patients with moderate to very severe COPD were initially recruited for the study. None of the participants had a history of disease exacerbation 4 weeks prior to the study, obstructive sleep apnea, mental disorders, current use of oral steroids, methylxanthines or hypnotic-sedative medication, nocturnal oxygen therapy, and shift work. Patients received 3 mg melatonin (N = 12 or placebo (N = 13, orally in a single dose, 1 h before bedtime for 21 consecutive days. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and daytime sleepiness was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Pulmonary function and functional exercise level were assessed by spirometry and the 6-min walk test, respectively. Twenty-five patients completed the study protocol and were included in the final analysis. Melatonin treatment significantly improved global PSQI scores (P = 0.012, particularly sleep latency (P = 0.008 and sleep duration (P = 0.046. No differences in daytime sleepiness, lung function and functional exercise level were observed. We conclude that melatonin can improve sleep in COPD. Further long-term studies involving larger number of patients are needed before melatonin can be safely recommended for the management of sleep disturbances in these patients.

  14. Sleep duration and sleep disturbances partly explain the association between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular mortality: the Whitehall II cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo Da Silva, Marine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin; Vahtera, Jussi; Brunner, Eric; Ferrie, Jane; Kivimäki, Mika; Nabi, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    International audience Depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of death, but most of this association remains unexplained. Our aim was to explore the contribution of sleep duration and disturbances to the association between depressive symptoms, all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. A total of 5813 (4220 men and 1593 women) aged 50-74 years at baseline, participants of the British Whitehall II prospective cohort study, were included. Depressive symptoms, sleep d...

  15. Impact of Sleep and Its Disturbances on Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Van Cauter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The daily rhythm of cortisol secretion is relatively stable and primarily under the influence of the circadian clock. Nevertheless, several other factors affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Sleep has modest but clearly detectable modulatory effects on HPA axis activity. Sleep onset exerts an inhibitory effect on cortisol secretion while awakenings and sleep offset are accompanied by cortisol stimulation. During waking, an association between cortisol secretory bursts and indices of central arousal has also been detected. Abrupt shifts of the sleep period induce a profound disruption in the daily cortisol rhythm, while sleep deprivation and/or reduced sleep quality seem to result in a modest but functionally important activation of the axis. HPA hyperactivity is clearly associated with metabolic, cognitive and psychiatric disorders and could be involved in the well-documented associations between sleep disturbances and the risk of obesity, diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. Several clinical syndromes, such as insomnia, depression, Cushing's syndrome, sleep disordered breathing (SDB display HPA hyperactivity, disturbed sleep, psychiatric and metabolic impairments. Further research to delineate the functional links between sleep and HPA axis activity is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology of these syndromes and to develop adequate strategies of prevention and treatment.

  16. The comparison of sleep disturbances between the subjects with headache and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Bostani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache is one of the most common complaints of the patients referring to the treatment centers. Also, some studies have reported the correlation of sleep disturbances with migraine and tension headaches. This study was aimed to analyze the association of sleep disturbances with migraine and tension headaches. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1005 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were selected by stratified random sampling during the academic year 2013-2014. Having attracted the participation and cooperation of the participants, sleep disorder and symptoms of headache (migraine and tension tests were administered. Results: The overall prevalence of headache, migraine headache and tension headache in students of medical science were 73.8 %, 16.7 % and 30.9 %, respectively. 20.3% of medical students had sleep disorder. Difficulty in sleep onset, daytime fatigue, apnea and sadness and anxiety were associated with headache. Total sleep disorder was directly associated with migraine headache (P<0.05.Conclusion: There was a correlation between sleep disorders and headache, especially migraine headache. Considering the importance of sleep in the incidence of headaches, sleep hygiene education and changes in the quality and patterns of sleep are essential for students, which can greatly affect their individual and social life.

  17. Emotion dysregulation explains relations between sleep disturbance and smoking quit-related cognition and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Jennifer; Alfano, Candice A; Paulus, Daniel J; Smits, Jasper A J; Davis, Michelle L; Rosenfield, David; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Baird, Scarlett O; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality and tobacco use are common and co-occurring problems, although the mechanisms underlying the relations between sleep disturbance and smoking are poorly understood. Sleep disturbance lowers odds of smoking cessation success and increases odds of relapse. One reason may be that sleep loss leads to emotion dysregulation, which in turn, leads to reductions in self-efficacy and quit-related problems. To address this gap, the current study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the association between sleep disturbance and smoking in terms of (1) self-efficacy for remaining abstinent in relapse situations, (2) the presence of a prior quit attempt greater than 24h, and (3) the experience of quit-related problems among 128 adults (Mage=40.2; SD=11.0; 52.3% female) seeking treatment for smoking cessation. Results suggested that increased levels of sleep disturbance are related to emotion dysregulation which, in turn, may lead to lower levels of self-efficacy for remaining abstinent, more quit-related problems, and being less likely to have had a quit attempt of 24h or greater. Further, these indirect effects were present above and beyond variance accounted for by theoretically-relevant covariates (e.g., gender and educational attainment), suggesting that they may maintain practical significance. These findings suggest that this malleable emotional risk factor (emotion dysregulation) could serve as a target for intervention among those with poor sleep and tobacco use. PMID:26827153

  18. Correlates and risk markers for sleep disturbance in participants of the Autism Treatment Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollway, Jill A; Aman, Michael G; Butter, Eric

    2013-12-01

    We explored possible cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and physiological risk markers for sleep disturbance in children with autism spectrum disorders. Data from 1,583 children in the Autism Treatment Network were analyzed. Approximately 45 potential predictors were analyzed using hierarchical regression modeling. As medication could confound findings, it was included in the analyses as a covariate. Results revealed that anxiety, autism symptom severity, sensory sensitivities, and GI problems were associated with sleep disturbance. IQ positively predicted sleep disturbance, and children with Asperger's Disorder were more vulnerable than others. The amount of variance in sleep outcomes explained by predictor variables was modest (i.e., R (2) from .104 to .201). Predictor variables were evaluated in the context of a bidirectional theoretical framework. PMID:23624832

  19. Treatment of Sleep Disturbances in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Janeese A; Harb, Gerlinde C; Ross, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disturbances are among the most commonly endorsed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Treatment modalities that are effective for the waking symptoms of PTSD may have limited efficacy for post-traumatic sleep problems. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence for empirically supported and/or utilized psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatments for post-traumatic nightmares and insomnia. While there are few controlled studies of the applicability of general sleep-focused interventions to the management of the sleep disturbances in PTSD, evidence is growing to support several psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatments. Future investigations should include trials that combine treatments focused on sleep with treatments effective in managing the waking symptoms of PTSD. PMID:25894359

  20. Sleep characteristics of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome and non-fatigued controls: results from a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones James F

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology and pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS remain inchoate. Attempts to elucidate the pathophysiology must consider sleep physiology, as unrefreshing sleep is the most commonly reported of the 8 case-defining symptoms of CFS. Although published studies have consistently reported inefficient sleep and documented a variable occurrence of previously undiagnosed primary sleep disorders, they have not identified characteristic disturbances in sleep architecture or a distinctive pattern of polysomnographic abnormalities associated with CFS. Methods This study recruited CFS cases and non-fatigued controls from a population based study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas. Participants spent two nights in the research unit of a local hospital and underwent overnight polysomnographic and daytime multiple sleep latency testing in order to characterize sleep architecture. Results Approximately 18% of persons with CFS and 7% of asymptomatic controls were diagnosed with severe primary sleep disorders and were excluded from further analysis. These rates were not significantly different. Persons with CFS had a significantly higher mean frequency of obstructive apnea per hour (p = .003; however, the difference was not clinically meaningful. Other characteristics of sleep architecture did not differ between persons with CFS and controls. Conclusion Although disordered breathing during sleep may be associated with CFS, this study generally did not provide evidence that altered sleep architecture is a critical factor in CFS. Future studies should further scrutinize the relationship between subjective sleep quality relative to objective polysomnographic measures.

  1. Cranial Electrical Stimulation Potential Use in Reducing Sleep and Mood Disturbances in Persons With Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Karen M. Rose; Taylor, Ann Gill; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Utz, Sharon W.; Goehler, Lisa E

    2008-01-01

    Family caregivers of persons with dementia and their care recipients frequently experience sleep and mood disturbances throughout their caregiving and disease trajectories. Because conventional pharmacologic treatments of sleep and mood disturbances pose numerous risks and adverse effects to elderly persons, the investigation of other interventions is warranted. As older adults use complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the relief of sleep and mood disturbances, cranial elec...

  2. The Contribution of Pain and Depression to Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nicassio, Perry M.; Ormseth, Sarah R.; Kay, Morgan; Custodio, Mara; Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Weisman, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of disease activity, pain, and psychological factors to self-reported sleep disturbance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to evaluate whether depression mediates the effects of pain on sleep disturbance. The sample included 106 patients with confirmed RA participated in an assessment of their disease activity, pain, psychological functioning, and sleep disturbance during a baseline evaluation prior to participating in a p...

  3. Pregabalin reduces sleep disturbance in patients with generalized anxiety disorder via both direct and indirect mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi Bollu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: To characterize the impact of pregabalin on sleep in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and to determine whether the impact is a direct or an indirect effect, mediated through the reduction of anxiety symptoms. Methods: A post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled study in patients with GAD was conducted. Patients received pregabalin 300 mg/day, venlafaxine XR 75 mg/day or placebo for a week, followed by pregabalin 300-600 mg/day, venlafaxine XR 75-225 mg/day, or placebo for 7 weeks. Treatment effect on sleep was evaluated using the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. A mediation model was used to estimate separately for both treatment arms the direct and indirect treatment effects on sleep disturbance. Results: Compared with placebo (n = 128, treatment with pregabalin (n = 121 significantly reduced scores on the sleep disturbance subscale and Sleep Problems Index II at both week 4 and week 8, and the sleep adequacy subscale at week 8. Venlafaxine XR (n = 125 had no significant effect on these measures. The mediation model indicated that 53% of the total pregabalin effect on sleep disturbance was direct (p < 0.01 and 47% indirect, mediated through anxiety symptoms (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Pregabalin decreased sleep disturbance in patients with GAD both directly, and indirectly by reducing anxiety symptoms. Given the drug specificity of the results, this study provides evidence of an additional important pathway of action for pregabalin and its efficacy in GAD.

  4. The association between working hours and sleep disturbances according to occupation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Hwan; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to explore the relationship between working hours and sleep disturbance according to occupation and gender among Korean workers. Data were derived from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2011 by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. From a total of 50,032 workers, 34,783 salaried contract workers were selected. Work hours were categorized as 60 h/week. The outcome variable was sleep disturbance, which was assessed by a single question item (During the past 12 months, have you experienced sleep disturbance or insomnia?). Multiple survey logistic regression models were performed after adjusting with age, education level, marital status, self-rated health, salary, shift work, smoking and alcohol drinking. Gender and occupation were stratified in these models. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for sleep disturbance in male non-manual workers with long work hours (>60 h/week) was 3.017 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.956-4.653]. In female non-manual workers who work 49-60 working hour per week, the OR was 1.525 (95% CI 1.034-2.249). Long working hours can be a risk factor for sleep disturbance in Korean workers. The association was especially prominent in male non-manual workers. PMID:26317888

  5. Perceived inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood are associated with greater risk of sleep disturbance in adulthood: the Hisayama Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Mao; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Anno, Kozo; Kawata, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Rie; Sawamoto, Ryoko; Kubo, Chiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality are major health problems worldwide. One potential risk factor for the development and maintenance of sleep disturbance is the parenting style experienced during childhood. However, its role in sleep disturbance in adulthood has not yet been estimated. This Japanese population study was done to clarify the relation between the parenting styles “care” and “overprotection” during childhood and sleep disturbance in adulthood. Methods A total of...

  6. Quantitative genetic research on sleep: A review of normal sleep, sleep disturbances and associated emotional, behavioural, and health-related difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, well over 100 twin studies have focussed on understanding factors contributing to variability in normal sleep–wake characteristics and sleep disturbances. Whilst we have gained a great deal from these studies, there is still much to be learnt. Twin studies can be used in multiple ways to answer questions beyond simply estimating heritability. This paper provides a comprehensive review of some of the most important findings from twin studies relating to sleep to date, w...

  7. Leg ulcers in older people: a national study addressing variation in diagnosis, pain and sleep disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Amanda; Nilsson, Camilla; Nilsson, Annina; Fagerström, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background Leg ulcers commonly emerge as a symptom of other comorbidities, often in older people. As a consequence of the ulcer, pain and sleep disturbances might occur. Due to the complex illness, the responsibility of treatment is unclear between health caregivers. The interaction between ulcer type, sleep and pain has not previously been investigated. This study aimed to explore pain in older men and women (65 years and older) with different diagnoses of leg ulcers and to investigate the a...

  8. The Relationship Between Sleep Disturbance and Functional Status in Mild Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinil; Kim, Yuntae; Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Doh-eui; Kim, Soo A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sleep state of mild stroke patients and relationship between sleep disturbance and functional status. Methods A total of 80 acute stroke patients were enrolled in this study. The criteria for inclusion in the study was as following: 1) first stroke, 2) cognitive function preserved enough to perform the test (Mini Mental State Examination ≥24), 3) good functional levels (Modified Rankin Scale ≤3), 4) upper extremity motor function preserved enough to perform occupa...

  9. Sleep Disturbances as the Hallmark of PTSD: Where Are We Now?

    OpenAIRE

    Germain, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances are the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), proposed by Ross and colleagues in 1989, has stimulated a wealth of clinical, preclinical, and animal studies on the role of sleep in the pathophysiology of PTSD. The present review revisits this influential hypothesis in light of clinical and experimental findings that have since accumulated. Polysomnographic studies conducted in adults with PTSD have yielded mixed findin...

  10. A Rodent Model of Traumatic Stress Induces Lasting Sleep and Quantitative Electroencephalographic Disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelcovych, Michael T.; Gould, Robert W.; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Bubser, Michael; Gong, Xuewen; Grannan, Michael; Thompson, Analisa T.; Ivarsson, Magnus; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperarousal and sleep disturbances are common, debilitating symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD patients also exhibit abnormalities in quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) power spectra during wake as well as rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the first-line pharmacological treatment for PTSD, provide modest remediation of the hyperarousal symptoms in PTSD patients, but have little to no effect on the ...

  11. Sleep-related disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crinion, Sophie J

    2014-02-01

    Sleep may have several negative consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sleep is typically fragmented with diminished slow wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, which likely represents an important contributing factor to daytime symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy. Furthermore, normal physiological adaptations during sleep, which result in mild hypoventilation in normal subjects, are more pronounced in COPD, which can result in clinically important nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea and COPD is also common, principally because of the high prevalence of each disorder, and there is little convincing evidence that one disorder predisposes to the other. Nonetheless, this co-existence, termed the overlap syndrome, typically results in more pronounced nocturnal oxygen desaturation and there is a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in such patients. Management of sleep disorders in patients with COPD should address both sleep quality and disordered gas exchange. Non-invasive pressure support is beneficial in selected cases, particularly during acute exacerbations associated with respiratory failure, and is particularly helpful in patients with the overlap syndrome. There is limited evidence of benefit from pressure support in the chronic setting in COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

  12. Efficacy of a brief treatment for nightmares and sleep disturbances for veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliett, Noelle E; Davis, Joanne L; Miller, Katherine E

    2015-11-01

    Nightmares and sleep disturbances are common complaints among military Veterans (Plumb & Zelman, 2009) and may be difficult to eradicate (Forbes, Phelps, & McHugh, 2001). A treatment protocol (Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescription Therapy [ERRT]) targeting nightmares and sleep disturbances, which has been used effectively in civilian populations, was adapted for the military (ERRT-M). A pilot study evaluated the efficacy of ERRT-M in improving sleep quality and quantity and reducing nightmares, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in a trauma-exposed, Veteran sample (N = 19). At 1 week after treatment, analyses revealed improvements in nightmare frequency and severity, depression, sleep quality, and insomnia severity. Treatment gains were maintained at a 2-month follow-up. Fifty percent of the sample was considered treatment responders (i.e., no nightmares in the previous week). Results of this pilot study suggest that directly targeting sleep and nightmares is successful in alleviating sleep disturbances and related psychopathology in some Veterans. PMID:26010113

  13. Treatment of GABA from Fermented Rice Germ Ameliorates Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabunga, Darine Froy N; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Kim, Hee Jin; Choung, Se Young

    2015-05-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is involved in sleep physiology. Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induce wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. This study was performed to examine whether GABA extracts from fermented rice germ ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice, without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination. Indeed, caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA treatment (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), especially at 100 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. In locomotor tests, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA slightly but not significantly reduced the caffeine-induced increase in locomotor activity without affecting motor coordination. Additionally, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA per se did not affect the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination of mice. In conclusion, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine, without affecting the general locomotor activities of mice. PMID:25995826

  14. The Relation between Scores on Noise Annoyance and Noise Disturbed Sleep in a Public Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The relation between responses to survey questions on noise annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance has been analysed to gain insight in its dependency on noise source or noise type and on individual characteristics. The results show a high correlation between responses (scores 0–10 with Pearson’s correlation coefficient close to 0.8 for respondents who report hearing the source. At the same level of annoyance, scooters and neighbours are associated with more sleep disturbance, air and road traffic with less. The relation between Annoyance (A and Sleep Disturbance (SD is also significantly related to age, the use of sleeping drugs, and living alone. However, the differences in the A-SD relations with respect to source and characteristic are small. Noise-related sleep disturbance is associated more strongly to noise annoyance than it is to noise exposure. For transportation noise both scores are more often equal when the annoyance score is 7 or higher; this change in scoring behaviour could be an indication for a change to severe annoyance.

  15. Sleep disturbances due to exposure to tone pulses throughout the night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y

    1987-10-01

    Sleep electroencephalograms (EEGs) and subjective reports data were obtained from six subjects (male college students) during 2 nights of baseline observation and 5 experimental nights of exposure to a 90-100 dB, 25 ms, 1,000 c/s tone pulse with various interstimulus intervals. The first of the 5 experimental nights started with an intertone interval of 80 s. On each of the following 4 nights, the intertone interval was fixed at 40-, 10-, 2.5-, or 1-s intervals, respectively. With the intensification of noise stimulus by shortening the intervals of tone pulses, a progressive disruption of nightly EEG sleep patterns was observed as follows: (a) increased frequency of awakenings and sleep stage changes during the night, (b) prolonged sleep latency, and (c) increased percentage of time spent in stage 1 sleep. However, total sleep time, REM latency, inter-REM intervals, and the percentages of time in stages 2, 3, 4, and REM sleep did not change significantly. The degree of subjective sleep disturbance was highly associated with objective measures of nightly EEG sleep patterns. PMID:3685754

  16. Sleep disturbances predict prospective declines in resident physicians’ psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Alice A; Sbarra, David A.; Keim, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medical residency can be a time of increased psychological stress and sleep disturbance. We examine the prospective associations between self-reported sleep quality and resident wellness across a single training year.Methods: Sixty-nine (N=69) resident physicians completed the Brief Resident Wellness Profile (M=17.66, standard deviation [SD]=3.45, range: 0–17) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (M=6.22, SD=2.86, range: 12–25) at multiple occasions in a single training year. We...

  17. Sleep disturbances in IDDM patients with nocturnal hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtson, I; Gade, J; Thomsen, C E;

    1992-01-01

    prolongation of the two first rapid eye movement cycles on hypoglycemic nights, although it was insufficient to explain the activities seen during hypoglycemia. Blood glucose values below 2.0 mmol/l were observed in some of the patients accompanied by EEG changes with increased theta and delta activity....... polygraphic sleep analysis system. The scoring was mainly based on the color density spectral array of the EEG. Blood glucose and growth hormone were measured serially. Asymptomatic, spontaneous nocturnal hypoglycemia occurred in 38% of the nights. Conventional sleep analysis showed a tendency toward...

  18. Depression and sleep disturbances in patients with multiple sclerosis and correlation with associated fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Karthik; Taly, Arun B.; Gupta, Anupama; Prasad, Chandrajit; Christopher, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe prevalence of depression and sleep disturbances in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their correlation with associated fatigue. Study Design and Setting: Prospective observation study in a university tertiary research hospital in India. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients (6 male and 25 female) with definite MS (McDonald's criteria) presented in out-patient/admitted in the department of neurology (between February 2010 and December 2011) were included in the study. Depression was assessed using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Sleep quality was assessed using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Disease severity was evaluated using the Kurtzke's expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Fatigue was assessed using Krupp's fatigue severity scale (FSS). We tried to observe correlation of depression and sleep disturbance with associated fatigue in MS patients. Results: The age of patients varied between 16 and 50 years (30.1 ± 9.1). The mean age at first symptom was 25.2 ± 6.4 years (range 14-39 years). The prevalence of sleep disturbance and depression was 51.6% (16/31) each and fatigue 58.1% (18/31) in the study group. The PSQI scores were significantly greater in the patients with fatigue as compared with those without fatigue indicating poorer sleep quality is associated with fatigue in MS (P = 0.005). The BDI scores were also significantly higher in the fatigue group showing that severity of depression also strongly correlated with fatigue (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Depression and sleep disturbance in patients with MS is significantly correlated with associated fatigue. PMID:24347942

  19. Depression and sleep disturbances in patients with multiple sclerosis and correlation with associated fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Nagaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe prevalence of depression and sleep disturbances in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and their correlation with associated fatigue. Study Design and Setting: Prospective observation study in a university tertiary research hospital in India. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients (6 male and 25 female with definite MS (McDonald′s criteria presented in out-patient/admitted in the department of neurology (between February 2010 and December 2011 were included in the study. Depression was assessed using Beck′s Depression Inventory (BDI. Sleep quality was assessed using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Disease severity was evaluated using the Kurtzke′s expanded disability status scale (EDSS. Fatigue was assessed using Krupp′s fatigue severity scale (FSS. We tried to observe correlation of depression and sleep disturbance with associated fatigue in MS patients. Results: The age of patients varied between 16 and 50 years (30.1 ± 9.1. The mean age at first symptom was 25.2 ± 6.4 years (range 14-39 years. The prevalence of sleep disturbance and depression was 51.6% (16/31 each and fatigue 58.1% (18/31 in the study group. The PSQI scores were significantly greater in the patients with fatigue as compared with those without fatigue indicating poorer sleep quality is associated with fatigue in MS (P = 0.005. The BDI scores were also significantly higher in the fatigue group showing that severity of depression also strongly correlated with fatigue (P = 0.001. Conclusions: Depression and sleep disturbance in patients with MS is significantly correlated with associated fatigue.

  20. Chronic Sleep Restriction Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis and Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol by Reducing the Extracellular Accumulation of Adenosine

    OpenAIRE

    Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R; Schmitt, Luke I.; Michael M. Halassa; Haydon, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.5...

  1. Sleep disorders and its related risk factors in patients undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Han; Li Xiaobei; Feng Sujuan; Zhang Guizhi; Wang Wei; Wang Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of sleep disorders has been shown to be high in patients with chronic dialysis patients and may contribute to impaired quality of life and higher mortality in this population.However,there are few data on the relationship of sleep disorders and their risk factors in chronic dialysis patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of sleep disorders and their risk factors in chronic dialysis patients.Methods A total of 42 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were involved in this cross-sectional study.Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).Restless legs syndrome (RLS) was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group.And depression was assessed by Hamilton depression scale.General information and laboratory data were collected.Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 47.6% in the CAPD patients.According to the PSQI,the 42 CAPD patients were divided into sleep disturbance group and non-sleep disorders group.There were no significant differences in age,gender,dialysis duration,hemoglobin,serum creatinine,urea nitrogen,β2-microglobulin,parathyroid hormone,calcium,and phosphorus between CAPD patients with sleep disorders and those without sleep disorders.But the level of serum albumin (AIb) in CAPD patients with sleep disorders was significantly lower than that in CAPD patients without sleep disorders (31.3±1.4 vs.34.3±3.7,t=3.603,P=0.001).And the prevalence of RLS and depression was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without sleep disorders (RLS:11/22 vs.1/20,x2=10.395,P=0.001; depression:7/22 vs.1/20,x2=4.886,P=0.027).In CAPD patients with RLS,the prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without RLS (11/22 vs.11/30,x2=10.395,P=0.001).And in CAPD patients with depression,the prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without

  2. Incidences of insomnia sleep disturbances and nightmares in patients receiving statins as treatment in urban Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Gosavi; Abhimanyu Mahajan

    2012-01-01

    Objective - To study the incidences of insomnia,sleep disturbances and nightmares in patients receiving statins as treatment.Methodology – A self constructed semi-structured questionnaire was prepared and distributed amongst 300 patients on atorvastatin at the Medicine and Hypertension OPDs at B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai. The questionnaire was designed to note the quality of sleep, incidence and frequency of sleep disturbances and nightmares. The dosage and duration of atorvastati...

  3. The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic sleep complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Erlacher, Carmen; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent the observed effects on self-rated sleep in a previous study using a combined treatment program with physical exercise and sleep education can be attributed by the physical activity (PA) component. Methods The present study reports supplementary analysis of an already described and published study. Data were provided by a nonclinical sample of 98 normal-active adults with chronic initiating and the maintain...

  4. The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic sleep complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Erlacher; Daniel Erlacher; Michael Schredl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent the observed effects on self-rated sleep in a previous study using a combined treatment program with physical exercise and sleep education can be attributed by the physical activity (PA) component. Methods: The present study reports supplementary analysis of an already described and published study. Data were provided by a nonclinical sample of 98 normal-active adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining o...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbances in a large HIV-infected adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Allavena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in HIV-infected patients but there is a lack of large studies on prevalence and risk factors, particularly in the context of current improved immuno-clinical status and use of the newest antiretrovirals (ARV. Method: Cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbance in adult HIV-infected patients in six French centres of the region “Pays de la Loire”. Patients filled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behaviour, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index PSQI, quality of life (WHO QOL HIV BREF questionnaire and depression (Beck depression Inventory (BDI-II questionnaire. Socio-demographic and immunovirologic data, medical history, ARVs were collected. Results: From November 2012 to May 2013, 1354 consecutive non-selected patients were enrolled. Patients’ characteristics were: 73.5% male, median age 47 years, active employment 56.7%, France-native 83% and Africa-native 14.7%, CDC stage C 21%, hepatitis co-infection 13%, lipodystrophy 11.8%, dyslipidemia 20%, high BP 15.1%, diabetes 3%, tobacco smokers 39%, marijuana and cocaine users, 11.7% and 1.7% respectively, and excessive alcohol drinkers 9%. Median (med duration of HIV infection was 12.4 years, med CD4 count was 604/mm3; 94% of Patients were on ARVs, 87% had undetectable viral load. Median sleeping time was 7 hours. Sleep disturbances (defined as PSQI score >5 were observed in 47% of the patients, more frequently in female (56.4% than in male (43.9% (p19 in 19.7% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with sleep disturbances (p10 vs. <10 y. (OR 1.5; CI 1.1–2.0, ARV regimen containing nevirapine (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9 or efavirenz (OR 0.5; CI 0.3–0.7. Conclusions: Prevalence of sleep disturbances is high in this HIV population and roughly similar to the French population. Associated factors are rather related to social and psychological

  6. Aberrant brain stem morphometry associated with sleep disturbance in drug-naïve subjects with Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Han; Jung, Won Sang; Choi, Woo Hee; Lim, Hyun Kook

    2016-01-01

    Objective Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD. Materials and methods In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale. We employed magnetic resonance imaging-based automated segmentation tools to examine the relationship between sleep disturbances and changes in brain stem morphology. Results Analyses of the data from AD subjects revealed significant correlations between the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep-subscale scores and structural alterations in the left posterior lateral region of the brain stem, as well as normalized brain stem volumes. In addition, significant group differences in posterior brain stem morphology were observed between the AD group and the control group. Conclusion This study is the first to analyze an association between sleep disturbances and brain stem morphology in AD. In line with previous findings, this study lends support to the possibility that brain stem structural abnormalities might be important neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances associated with AD. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27601903

  7. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728 subjec

  8. Sleep disturbances and fatigue : independent predictors of sickness absence? A prospective study among 6538 employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although sleep disturbances and fatigue are common conditions, frequently shown to be associated with sickness absence, only a few studies have prospectively investigated their independent effects on sickness absence, while adjusting for depressive symptoms. This study aims (i) to examin

  9. Impact of sleep disturbance on patients in treatment for mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallestad Håvard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, sleep disturbance is often regarded as an epiphenomenon of the primary mental disorder. The aim of this study was to test if sleep disturbance, independently of primary mental disorders, is associated with current clinical state and benefit from treatment in a sample representative of public mental health care clinics. Method 2246 patients receiving treatment for mental disorders in eight public mental health care centers in Norway were evaluated in a cross-sectional study using patient and clinician reported measures. Patients reported quality of life, symptom severity, and benefit from treatment. Clinicians reported disorder severity, level of functioning, symptom severity and benefit from treatment. The hypothesis was tested using multiple hierarchical regression analyses. Results Sleep disturbance was, adjusted for age, gender, time in treatment, type of care, and the presence of any primary mental disorder, associated with lower quality of life, higher symptom severity, higher disorder severity, lower levels of functioning, and less benefit from treatment. Conclusion Sleep disturbance ought to be considered a stand-alone therapeutic entity rather than an epiphenomenon of existing diagnoses for patients receiving treatment in mental health care.

  10. Sleep Disturbances in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Severe Intellectual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Ancona, Martin N.; Wilkins, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are a significant problem for persons with developmental disabilities. These problems occur at a higher rate than what is observed in the typically developing population, and persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) appear to be at a higher risk than individuals with other developmental disabilities. However, another major…

  11. Sleep active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase are active after both acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, M R; Kim, Y; Karpova, S A; Winston, S; McCarley, R W; Strecker, R E; Gerashchenko, D

    2013-09-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power (~0.5-4 Hz), also known as slow wave activity (SWA), is typically enhanced after acute sleep deprivation (SD) but not after chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Recently, sleep-active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were identified and associated with enhanced SWA after short acute bouts of SD (i.e., 6h). However, the relationship between cortical nNOS neuronal activity and SWA during CSR is unknown. We compared the activity of cortical neurons expressing nNOS (via c-Fos and nNOS immuno-reactivity, respectively) and sleep in rats in three conditions: (1) after 18-h of acute SD; (2) after five consecutive days of sleep restriction (SR) (18-h SD per day with 6h ad libitum sleep opportunity per day); (3) and time-of-day matched ad libitum sleep controls. Cortical nNOS neuronal activity was enhanced during sleep after both 18-h SD and 5 days of SR treatments compared to control treatments. SWA and NREM sleep delta energy (the product of NREM sleep duration and SWA) were positively correlated with enhanced cortical nNOS neuronal activity after 18-h SD but not 5days of SR. That neurons expressing nNOS were active after longer amounts of acute SD (18h vs. 6h reported in the literature) and were correlated with SWA further suggest that these cells might regulate SWA. However, since these neurons were active after CSR when SWA was not enhanced, these findings suggest that mechanisms downstream of their activation are altered during CSR. PMID:23685166

  12. Mindfulness-based intervention for prodromal sleep disturbances in older adults: Design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Black, David S.; O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems are prevalent among older adults, often persist untreated, and are predictive of health detriments. Given the limitations of conventional treatments, non-pharmacological treatments such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are gaining popularity for sleep ailments. However, nothing is yet known about the impact of MBIs on sleep in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. This article details the design and methodology of a 6-week parallel-group RCT calibrated to tes...

  13. Sleep disturbances in allergic rhinitis: disease and/or the drug?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D. Patil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in adults as well as children. Allergic rhinitis has negative impact on sleep and quality of life of the patient. Antihistamines are widely used in the management of allergic rhinitis. First generation antihistamines cause sedation and drowsiness. Second generation antihistamines cause minimal or no sedation. There is difference in propensity to cause sedation amongst second generation antihistamines. As sleep is important for physical as well as mental health, present article reviews impact of allergic rhinitis and antihistamines on sleep. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 668-670

  14. Sleep Disturbance During the Menopausal Transition in a Multi-Ethnic Community Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Howard M.; Zhao, Xinhua; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Gold, Ellen B.; Hall, Martica H.; Matthews, Karen A.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine age-adjusted odds and racial/ethnic differences in self-reported difficulties falling and staying asleep and early morning awakening in midlife women to determine whether difficulty sleeping increased with progression through the menopausal transition. Design: Longitudinal analysis. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 3,045 Caucasian, African American, Chinese, Japanese, and Hispanic women, aged 42-52 years and pre- or early peri-menopausal at baseline, participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Self-reported number of nights of difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and early morning awakening during the previous 2 weeks were obtained at baseline and 7 annual assessments. Random effects logistic regression was used to model associations between each of the 3 sleep measures and the menopausal transition, defined by bleeding patterns, vasomotor symptoms (VMS), and estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) serum levels. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep increased through the menopausal transition, but decreased for early morning awakening from late perimenopause to postmenopause. Naturally and surgically postmenopausal women using hormones, compared with those who were not, generally had lower ORs for disturbed sleep. More frequent VMS were associated with higher ORs of each sleep difficulty. Decreasing E2 levels were associated with higher ORs of trouble falling and staying asleep, and increasing FSH levels were associated with higher ORs of trouble staying asleep. Racial/ethnic differences were found for staying asleep and early morning awakening. Conclusions: Progression through the menopausal transition as indicated by 3 menopausal characteristics—symptoms, bleeding-defined stages, and endogenous hormone levels—is associated with self-reported sleep disturbances. Citation: Kravitz HM; Zhao X

  15. Source-based subjective responses to sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, O; Murphy, E

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the use of subjective responses to questions concerning night-time environmental noise exposure is a robust method of assessing sleep disturbance from road traffic noise. However, there have only been a few studies exploring this issue in a real world context beyond controlled laboratory settings. This paper presents results from such a study. It utilises 208 household questionnaire surveys to assess subjective responses to levels of night-time sleep disturbance and annoyance from four different residential sites. Each residential site is characterised by a dominant noise source - road, light rail, and aircraft - and these sites are compared to a control site that is relatively free from transportation noise. The results demonstrate the inadequacy of continuous equivalent noise level measures as indicators of night-time disturbance. Furthermore, they suggest that the use of these measures alone is likely to result in inaccurate appraisals of night-time sleep disturbance from transportation noise. Ultimately, the research implies that measurement data should be used in conjunction with subjective response data to accurately gauge the level of night-time disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27164553

  16. [Chronic subdural hematoma presenting visual disturbance: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, S; Manabe, H; Shimizu, T; Itoh, C; Suzuki, S

    2001-03-01

    The authors reported a rare case of chronic subdural hematoma presenting bilateral visual impairment caused by papilledema. A 49-year-old man was admitted to our department due to left blurred vision. On admission, ophthalmological examination revealed visual acuity disturbance on the left eye, bilateral nasal visual field defect and papilledema. CT scan and MRI demonstrated bilateral subdural hematoma. No remarkable findings were detected on cerebral angiography. After evacuation of bilateral subdural hematomas, his visual symptoms recovered. In this report, we discuss the mechanism of visual impairment caused by chronic subdural hematoma. PMID:11296405

  17. Subjective Perception of Sleep, but not its Objective Quality, is Associated with Immediate Postpartum Mood Disturbances in Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Design: Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Setting: Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Participants: Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. Conclusions: The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity. Citation: Bei B; Milgrom J; Ericksen J; Trinder J. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in

  18. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A Lucassen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. OBJECTIVE: To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. PATIENTS: A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (<6.5 h/night obese (BMI 30-55 kg/m(2 men and pre-menopausal women. INTERVENTION: Sleep extension (468±88 days with life-style modifications. MEASUREMENTS: Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration. RESULTS: At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39. Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02, and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001. Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74, subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (p<0.001, self-reported sleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (p<0.001 and by 4% by diaries (p = 0.04, and daytime sleepiness tended to improve (p = 0.10. Global cognitive function and attention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p = 0.001, and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p = 0.07 and p = 0.06. Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p = 0.02. In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function. LIMITATIONS: Drop-out rate. CONCLUSIONS: Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way

  19. Mechanism of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis and the Role of the Circadian Rhythm and Melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Sen; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). It is a major factor leading to impaired quality of life in these patients and could have negative effects on neurocognitive function and behavior. However, the pathophysiology of sleep disturbance in children with AD is poorly understood, and there is no consensus on how to manage sleep problems in these patients. Pruritus and scratching could lead to sleep disruption but is unlikely the sole etiology. The circadian rhythm of cytokines, the immune system, and skin physiology such as transcutaneous water loss and skin blood flow might also play a role. Recent studies have suggested that melatonin could also be involved due to its multiple effects on sleep, immunomodulation, and anti-oxidant ability. Environmental factors should also be considered. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the pathophysiology of sleep disturbance in children with AD, and discuss possible therapeutic implications. PMID:27043528

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome.

  1. Qigong Exercise Alleviates Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, Improves Sleep Quality, and Shortens Sleep Latency in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie S. M. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9 were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P= 0.064 group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the “subjective sleep quality” and “sleep latency” items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in “subjective sleep quality” was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.

  2. Qigong exercise alleviates fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, improves sleep quality, and shortens sleep latency in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessie S M; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Ng, Siu-Man; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P = 0.064) group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the "subjective sleep quality" and "sleep latency" items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in "subjective sleep quality" was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380. PMID:25610473

  3. Recurrent short sleep, chronic insomnia symptoms and salivary cortisol: A 10-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jessica G; Shipley, Martin J; Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena

    2016-06-01

    Although an association between both sleep duration and disturbance with salivary cortisol has been suggested, little is known about the long term effects of poor quality sleep on diurnal cortisol rhythm. The aim of this study was to examine the association of poor quality sleep, categorised as recurrent short sleep duration and chronic insomnia symptoms, with the diurnal release of cortisol. We examined this in 3314 participants from an occupational cohort, originally recruited in 1985-1989. Salivary cortisol was measured in 2007-2009 and six saliva samples were collected: (1) waking, (2) waking+0.5h, (3) +2.5h, (4) +8h, (5) +12h and (6) bedtime, for assessment of the cortisol awakening response and the diurnal slope in cortisol secretion. Participants with the first saliva sample collected within 15min of waking and not on steroid medication were examined. Short sleep duration (≤5h) and insomnia symptoms (Jenkins scale, highest quartile) were measured in 1997-1999, 2003-2004 and 2007-2009. Recurrent short sleep was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper morning rise in cortisol was observed among those reporting chronic insomnia symptoms at three time points and among those reporting short sleep twice, compared to those who never reported sleep problems. Participants reporting short sleep on three occasions had higher levels of cortisol later in the day, compared to those never reporting short sleep, indicated by a positive interaction with hours since waking (β=0.02 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03)). We conclude that recurrent sleep problems are associated with adverse salivary cortisol patterns throughout the day. PMID:26963375

  4. Recurrent short sleep, chronic insomnia symptoms and salivary cortisol: A 10-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jessica G.; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-01

    Although an association between both sleep duration and disturbance with salivary cortisol has been suggested, little is known about the long term effects of poor quality sleep on diurnal cortisol rhythm. The aim of this study was to examine the association of poor quality sleep, categorised as recurrent short sleep duration and chronic insomnia symptoms, with the diurnal release of cortisol. We examined this in 3314 participants from an occupational cohort, originally recruited in 1985–1989. Salivary cortisol was measured in 2007–2009 and six saliva samples were collected: (1) waking, (2) waking + 0.5 h, (3) +2.5 h, (4) +8 h, (5) +12 h and (6) bedtime, for assessment of the cortisol awakening response and the diurnal slope in cortisol secretion. Participants with the first saliva sample collected within 15 min of waking and not on steroid medication were examined. Short sleep duration (≤5 h) and insomnia symptoms (Jenkins scale, highest quartile) were measured in 1997–1999, 2003–2004 and 2007–2009. Recurrent short sleep was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper morning rise in cortisol was observed among those reporting chronic insomnia symptoms at three time points and among those reporting short sleep twice, compared to those who never reported sleep problems. Participants reporting short sleep on three occasions had higher levels of cortisol later in the day, compared to those never reporting short sleep, indicated by a positive interaction with hours since waking (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03)). We conclude that recurrent sleep problems are associated with adverse salivary cortisol patterns throughout the day. PMID:26963375

  5. Correlation of Sleep Disturbance and Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ja Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD and is associated with high mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placement. The risk factors for cognitive decline in PD patients include advanced age, longer disease duration, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations, excessive daytime sleepiness, and nontremor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and gait disturbance. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine which types of sleep disturbances are related to cognitive function in PD patients. Methods A total of 71 PD patients (29 males, mean age 66.46 ± 8.87 years were recruited. All patients underwent the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Korean Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessments (MoCA-K to assess global cognitive function. Sleep disorders were evaluated with the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale in Korea (PDSS. Results The ISI was correlated with the MMSE, and total PDSS scores were correlated with the MMSE and the MoCA-K. In each item of the PDSS, nocturnal restlessness, vivid dreams, hallucinations, and nocturnal motor symptoms were positively correlated with the MMSE, and nocturnal restlessness and vivid dreams were significantly related to the MoCA-K. Vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness are considered the most powerful correlation factors with global cognitive function, because they commonly had significant correlation to cognition assessed with both the MMSE and the MoCA-K. Conclusions We found a correlation between global cognitive function and sleep disturbances, including vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness, in PD patients.

  6. The Effects of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Functions of Medical Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Samadzadeh; Hamed Ekhtiari; Hooman Safaei; Ghadami, Mohammad R.; Masoud Tahmasian; Habibolah Khazaie; Schwebel, David C.; Michael B. Russo

    2010-01-01

    "n  "n Objective:Because of on-call responsibilities, many medical residents are subjected to chronic partial sleep deprivation, a form of sleep restriction whereby individuals have chronic patterns of insufficient sleep. It is unclear whether deterioration in cognitive processing skills due to chronic partial sleep deprivation among medical residents would influence educational exposure or patient safety. Method: Twenty-six medical residents were recruited to participate in the study. P...

  7. Cranial Electrical Stimulation Potential Use in Reducing Sleep and Mood Disturbances in Persons With Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Karen M.; Taylor, Ann Gill; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Utz, Sharon W.; Goehler, Lisa E.

    2009-01-01

    Family caregivers of persons with dementia and their care recipients frequently experience sleep and mood disturbances throughout their caregiving and disease trajectories. Because conventional pharmacologic treatments of sleep and mood disturbances pose numerous risks and adverse effects to elderly persons, the investigation of other interventions is warranted. As older adults use complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the relief of sleep and mood disturbances, cranial electrical stimulation, an energy-based complementary and alternative medicine, may be a viable intervention. The proposed mechanism of action and studies that support cranial electrical stimulation as a modality to reduce distressing symptoms are reviewed. Directions for research are proposed. PMID:18552605

  8. Prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Chronic Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Brian T.; Jarjoura, David; Lambert, Lynn; Roy, Sashwati; Gordillo, Gayle; Schlanger, Richard; Sen, Chandan K.; Khayat, Rami N.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Chronic non-healing wounds are a major human and economic burden. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in patients with obesity, diabetes, aging, and cardiovascular disease, all of which are risk factors for chronic wounds. We hypothesized that OSA would have more prevalence in patients of a wound center than the general middle-aged population. Methods: Consecutive patients of the Ohio State University Comprehensive Wound Center (CWC) were surveyed with the Berlin and Epworth questionnaires. In the second stage of the protocol, 50 consecutive unselected CWC patients with lower extremity wounds underwent home sleep studies. Results: In 249 patients of the CWC who underwent the survey study, OSA had been previously diagnosed in only 22%. The prevalence of high-risk status based on questionnaires for OSA was 46% (95% CI 40%, 52%). In the 50 patients who underwent home sleep studies, and using an apnea hypopnea index of 15 events per hour, the prevalence of OSA was 57% (95% CI 42%, 71%). There was no difference between the Berlin questionnaire score and weight between patients with OSA and those without. Conclusions: The prevalence of OSA in patients with chronic wounds exceeds the estimated prevalence of OSA in the general middle aged population. This study identifies a previously unrecognized population with high risk for OSA. Commonly used questionnaires were not sufficiently sensitive for the detection of high risk status for OSA in this patient population. Citation: Patt BT; Jarjoura D; Lambert L; Roy S; Gordillo G; Schlanger R; Sen CK; Khayat RN. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with chronic wounds. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):541-544. PMID:21206743

  9. Prazosin treatment of trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in soldiers deployed in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calohan, Jess; Peterson, Kris; Peskind, Elaine R; Raskind, Murray A

    2010-10-01

    Trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance impair combat soldiers' functioning. The alpha-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin has been demonstrated effective for these symptoms in Vietnam veterans. Thirteen soldiers seeking relief from distressing trauma nightmares impairing military function in northern Iraq in 2006 received prazosin alone or in combination with other psychotropics. Mean prazosin dose was 4.1 (SD = 2.2) mg before bed. Six soldiers improved markedly and 3 moderately on the Clinical Global Impression of Change Ratings of distressing dreams decreased from an average of 7.0 (SD = 0.7) to 2.9 (SD = 3.0, p < .001) and those of disturbed sleep from 6.7 (SD = 0.9) to 3.7 (SD = 2.4, p < .001). Prazosin appears effective and well tolerated in the desert warfare environment. PMID:20931662

  10. DISTURBANCES OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS IN A RAT CHRONIC MILD STRESS MODEL OF DEPRESSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Wiborg, Ove; Bouzinova, Elena

    Aim: The focus of this project is to identify biomarkers related to circadian disturbances in major depressive disorder. Background: A large body of clinical data from depressed individuals showed that sleep, temperature, hormones, physiological states and moodchanges are consistent with...... validated animal model of depression, the chronic mild stress model (CMS). Depression-like and control rats were killed by decapitation within 24 h. Trunk blood, brain and liver tissue were collected. The quantitative amount of plasma corticosterone and melatonin were measured using an ELISA and RIA kit...... that depression-like animals showed an abnormal circadian rhythm in the liver and in subregions of the rat brains related to depression. However, the SCN was partly protected against stress. We found an increased level of corticosteron and melatonin, in the depression-like animals as well as a shifted...

  11. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. PMID:26762193

  12. The Relationship Between Caretaking Experiences in Childhood and Sleep Disturbances in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Edwards, Howard C.; Forbis, Jeremy S.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between childhood experiences with parents and sleep disturbances in adulthood are relatively few in number. Excluding studies on posttraumatic stress disorder, available studies on this relationship in adult participants is scant. In this study, we examined three caretaking variables (i.e., the number of different caretakers in childhood, whether caretakers were the biological parents or not, and the perceived quality of caretaking) and their relationship to self-...

  13. Childhood sleep disturbance and risk of psychotic experiences at 18:UK birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, A; Lereya, S. T.; Lewis, G; Zammit, S; Fisher, H. L.; Wolke, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in the psychosis prodrome, but rarely explored in relation to psychotic experiences.AIMS: To investigate the relationship between specific parasomnias (nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking) in childhood and later adolescent psychotic experiences.METHOD: The sample comprised 4720 individuals from a UK birth cohort. Mothers reported on children's experience of regular nightmares at several time points between 2 and 9 years. Experience o...

  14. Childhood sleep disturbance and risk of psychotic experiences at 18: UK birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, A.; Lereya, S. T.; Lewis, G.(Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY, United States of America); Zammit, S.; Fisher, H. L.; Wolke, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in the psychosis prodrome, but rarely explored in relation to psychotic experiences. Aims To investigate the relationship between specific parasomnias (nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking) in childhood and later adolescent psychotic experiences. Method The sample comprised 4720 individuals from a UK birth cohort. Mothers reported on children's experience of regular nightmares at several time points between 2 and 9 years. Experience of...

  15. Sleep Disturbance and Emotion Dysregulation as Transdiagnostic Processes in a Comorbid Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Fairholme, Christopher P.; Nosen, Elizabeth L.; Nillni, Yael I.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Tull, Matthew T.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbance and emotion dysregulation have been identified as etiologic and maintaining factors for a range of psychopathology and separate literatures support their relationships to anxiety, depression, PTSD, and alcohol dependence (AD) symptom severity. Previous studies have examined these relationships in isolation, failing to account for the high rates of comorbidity among disorders. It is not yet known whether these processes uniquely predict symptom severity in each of these domai...

  16. Violence Exposure, Sleep Disturbance, and Poor Academic Performance in Middle School

    OpenAIRE

    Lepore, Stephen J.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) dir...

  17. Rhythm disturbances in childhood obstructive sleep apnea during apnea-hypopnea episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Anant Khositseth; Jittamas Chokechuleekorn; Teeradej Kuptanon; Anchalee Leejakpai

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can result in cardiovascular complications. Nocturnal arrhythmias are reported up to 50% of adult OSA patients. Arrhythmias and heart rate variability in children with OSA have not been well studied. Aims: We sought to study rhythm disturbances in childhood OSA and also to analyze the relationship of heart rate variability to the severity of OSA in children. Methods: In a retrospective cross sectional study, records of children aged < 15 years ...

  18. 卒中与睡眠-觉醒障碍%Stroke and sleep-wake disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俏; 汪洁; 邓丽影

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-wake disturbance is not only a risk factor for stroke,but also one of the serious complications of stroke.The main clinical manifestations of post-stroke sleep-wake disturbance are insomnia,arousal disorders,sleep-related movement disorders and parasomnias.Its mechanism is mainly associated with the sleep-wake center after stroke injury.%睡眠-觉醒障碍既是卒中的危险因素,又是卒中的严重并发症之一.卒中后睡眠-觉醒障碍主要表现为失眠、觉醒障碍、睡眠相关运动障碍和异态睡眠,其发生机制主要与卒中损伤睡眠-觉醒中枢有关.文章综述了卒中后睡眠-觉醒障碍的特点、机制以及早期评估方法和干预策略.

  19. Effect of intermittent aerobic exercise on sleep quality and sleep disturbances in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Jennum, Poul;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor sleep is prevalent in patients with systemic inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, and, in addition to fatigue, pain, depression and inflammation, is associated with an increased risk of co-morbidity and all-cause mortality. Whereas non-pharmacological intervent......BACKGROUND: Poor sleep is prevalent in patients with systemic inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, and, in addition to fatigue, pain, depression and inflammation, is associated with an increased risk of co-morbidity and all-cause mortality. Whereas non......-pharmacological interventions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis have been shown to reduce pain and fatigue, no randomized controlled trials have examined the effect of non-pharmacological interventions on improvement of sleep in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of an...... intermittent aerobic exercise intervention on sleep, assessed both objectively and subjectively in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial including 44 patients with rheumatoid arthritis randomly assigned to an exercise training intervention or to a control group. The...

  20. Sleep and Temperament: Maternal Perceptions of Temperament of Sleep-Disturbed Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed the relationship between sleep problems and temperament in 63 toddlers who had night-waking problems and 35 nonreferred toddlers. On the Toddler Temperament Questionnaire, night wakers showed lower sensory thresholds and less adaptivity than did controls. On the Parental Stress Index, night wakers were rated as more distractible, less…

  1. Moderate Exercise Plus Sleep Education Improves Self-Reported Sleep Quality, Daytime Mood, and Vitality in Adults with Chronic Sleep Complaints: A Waiting List-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Schredl; Daniel Erlacher; Carmen Gebhart

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participa...

  2. Aberrant brain-stem morphometry associated with sleep disturbance in drug-naïve subjects with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ji Han Lee,1 Won Sang Jung,2 Woo Hee Choi,3 Hyun Kook Lim4 1Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, Saint Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea Objective: Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD.Materials and methods: In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale. We employed magnetic resonance imaging-based automated segmentation tools to examine the relationship between sleep disturbances and changes in brain stem morphology.Results: Analyses of the data from AD subjects revealed significant correlations between the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep-subscale scores and structural alterations in the left posterior lateral region of the brain stem, as well as normalized brain stem volumes. In addition, significant group differences in posterior brain stem morphology were observed between the AD group and the control group.Conclusion: This study is the first to analyze an association between sleep disturbances and brain stem morphology in AD. In line with previous findings, this study lends support to the possibility that brain stem structural abnormalities might be important neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances associated with AD. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, sleep, brain stem, MRI, shape analysis

  3. Linking childhood abuse and hypertension: sleep disturbance and inflammation as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Megan E; Davis, Mary C; Belyea, Michael J; Zautra, Alex J

    2016-08-01

    The indirect association of childhood abuse with prevalent hypertension in adulthood through sleep disturbance and pro-inflammatory biomarkers was investigated in 589 community-dwelling, middle-aged adults. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and self-reported current sleep disturbance and medical diagnoses including hypertension. Blood pressure was taken and blood samples were analyzed for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and fibrinogen. Hypertension was present in 41.3 % of the sample. In the full multiple mediation model, tested using structural equation modeling, all hypothesized pathways were significant (p's inflammation, which was subsequently associated with hypertension status. The model demonstrated good fit [χ(2) (122) = 352.0, p mediators was significant (indirect effect: 0.02, 95 % CI 0.005-0.03, p = 0.001). Sleep disturbance, body mass, and inflammation may be independent, intermediate steps between childhood abuse and subsequent hypertension that may be amenable to biobehavioral interventions. PMID:27098168

  4. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  5. Menstrual disturbances and fertility in chronic alcoholic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Tønnesen, H; Kaas-Claesson, N; Gluud, C

    1989-01-01

    both menstrual cycle and menstrual flow was recorded in the chronic alcoholic women during active alcoholism. A higher frequency (P less than 0.05) of menstrual disturbances (70% vs. 55%) and uterine curettages (38% vs. 16%) were found in the alcoholic women. The latter reported more abortions (63% vs....... 28%, P less than 0.001) and miscarriages (23% vs. 8%, P less than 0.05) than controls, but due to a higher number of pregnancies in the alcoholic group the proportion of abortions and miscarriages did not differ significantly. No differences existed between the groups regarding frequency of difficult...... conception. Social classification had no independent influence on the results. The study shows that chronic alcoholic women are more prone to menstrual abnormalities and are at greater risk of gynecological interventions, while they do not seem to have reduced fertility....

  6. Evidence of associations between cytokine genes and subjective reports of sleep disturbance in oncology patients and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaskowski, Christine; Cooper, Bruce A; Dhruva, Anand; Dunn, Laura B; Langford, Dale J; Cataldo, Janine K; Baggott, Christina R; Merriman, John D; Dodd, Marylin; Lee, Kathryn; West, Claudia; Paul, Steven M; Aouizerat, Bradley E

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify distinct latent classes of individuals based on subjective reports of sleep disturbance; to examine differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics between the latent classes; and to evaluate for variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes between the latent classes. Among 167 oncology outpatients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their FCs, growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify latent classes of individuals based on General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS) obtained prior to, during, and for four months following completion of radiation therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in candidate cytokine genes were interrogated for differences between the two latent classes. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics on GSDS group membership. Two latent classes were identified: lower sleep disturbance (88.5%) and higher sleep disturbance (11.5%). Participants who were younger and had a lower Karnofsky Performance status score were more likely to be in the higher sleep disturbance class. Variation in two cytokine genes (i.e., IL6, NFKB) predicted latent class membership. Evidence was found for latent classes with distinct sleep disturbance trajectories. Unique genetic markers in cytokine genes may partially explain the interindividual heterogeneity characterizing these trajectories. PMID:22844404

  7. Impact of sleep disturbances on kidney function decline in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaussent, Isabelle; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Stengel, Benedicte; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Besset, Alain; Helmer, Catherine; Ritchie, Karen; Berr, Claudine; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-03-01

    While sleep disturbances are frequent in renal disease patients, no studies have examined prospectively the associations between sleep disturbances and kidney function decline in community-dwelling elderly subjects.Glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated at baseline and at 11-year follow-up. A glomerular filtration decline over the follow-up period was defined as a percentage decline greater than or equal to the cut-off value of the highest tertile of kidney function decline (22%) in 1105 subjects. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and insomnia complaints were self-rated at baseline. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and its age at onset were assessed at study end-point. An ambulatory polysomnography recording was performed during the follow-up in 277 subjects. Apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and total sleep time were analysed.An increased risk of eGFR decline was associated with EDS (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.18-2.34) and RLS (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.18-3.30) independently of potential confounders including cardiovascular risk factors. Among insomnia complaints, a borderline association with eGFR decline was found for early morning awakening only. High AHI (≥30 events·h(-1)) and short total sleep time (<6 h), but not PLMS were linked to eGFR decline in crude associations, but only AHI remained significantly associated after multi-adjustments.EDS, RLS and AHI constitute independent risk factors for kidney glomerular function decline. PMID:26647438

  8. Disturbed Sleep Among Adolescents Living in 2 Communities on the Texas-Mexico Border, 2000-2003

    OpenAIRE

    PÉREZ, ADRIANA; Roberts, Robert E.; Sanderson, Maureen; Reininger, Belinda; Isabel Aguirre-Flores, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Disturbed sleep is a public health problem, but few studies describe the prevalence of sleep problems among Hispanic adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of disturbed sleep and associated factors among ninth graders living on the Texas-Mexico border. Methods We used probabilistic sampling to conduct 2 cross-sectional, school-based surveys: 1 during the 2000-2001 school year in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas (n = 4,901), and 1 during the 2002-2003 school year in Matamoros,...

  9. Sleep-wake disturbances after stroke%脑卒中后觉醒障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽影

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances (SWD) after stroke is a sleep-wake disorder resulting from central nervous system lesion caused by stroke.SWD includes hypersomnia,excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS),fatigue and so on.The prevalence rate of SWD is only less than sleep-related breathing disturbances (SBD).Recent studies suggest that SWD is frequent and negatively affects rehabilitation and quality of life of patients with stroke,and treatment of poststroke SWD may favorably influence stroke outcome.SWD may become a new target of treatment and rehabilitation of stroke.This paper reviewed the progress of this issue.%脑卒中后觉醒障碍系指脑卒中引起的中枢神经系统损害所致睡眠-觉醒障碍,临床上分为3种类型,即脑卒中后睡眠过多、白天过度嗜睡、疲劳感.由于其患病率仅次于睡眠呼吸紊乱,并影响脑卒中患者的康复和生活质量,早期干预有可能改变患者不良转归,近年来逐渐成为脑卒中治疗和康复的新靶点.

  10. Cortisol response and subjective sleep disturbance after low-frequency noise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waye, K.; Agge, A.; Clow, A.; Hucklebridge, F.

    2004-10-01

    A previous experimental study showed that the cortisol response upon awakening was reduced following nights with low-frequency noise exposure. This study comprised a larger number of subjects and an extended period of acclimatisation nights. In total, 26 male subjects slept during five consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Half of the subjects were exposed to low-frequency noise (40 dBA) on the 4th night and had their reference night (24 dBA) on the 5th night, while the reverse conditions were present for the other half of the group. Subjective sleep disturbances were recorded by questionnaires and cortisol response upon awakening was measured in saliva. The results showed that subjects were more tired and felt less socially orientated in the morning after nights with low-frequency noise. Mood was negatively affected in the evening after nights with low-frequency noise. No effect of noise condition was found on the cortisol secretion. There was a significant effect of group and weekday, indicating that further methodological developments are necessary before saliva cortisol secretion can be reliably used as an indicator of noise-disturbed sleep.

  11. The impact of psychological factors on self-reported sleep disturbance among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Leila; Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mohammad-Reza; Gohari, Mahmood; Bigelow, Philip; McColl, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Canada's wind energy capacity has grown from approximately 137MW (MW) in 2000 to over 9700MW in 2014, and this progressive development has made Canada the fifth-largest market in the world for the installation of new wind turbines (WTs). Although wind energy is now one of the fastest growing sources of power in Canada and many other countries, the growth in both number and size of WTs has raised questions regarding potential health impacts on individuals who live close to such turbines. This study is the first published research using a prospective cohort design, with noise and sleep measurements obtained before and after installation of WTs to investigate effect of such turbines on self-reported sleep disturbances of nearby residents. Subjective assessment of sleep disturbance was conducted in Ontario, Canada through standard sleep and sleepiness scales, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Both audible and infra-sound noises were also measured inside the bedroom. Descriptive and comparison analyses were performed to investigate the effect of WT exposure on sleep data. Results of the analysis show that participants reported poorer sleep quality if they had a negative attitude to WTs, if they had concerns related to property devaluation, and if they could see turbines from their properties. This study provides evidence for the role of individual differences and psychological factors in reports of sleep disturbance by people living in the vicinity of WTs. PMID:27131794

  12. Chronic sleep disturbance and neural injury: links to neurodegenerative disease

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott SM; Videnovic A

    2016-01-01

    Sabra M Abbott,1 Aleksandar Videnovic21Department of Neurology, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Sleep–wake disruption is frequently observed and often one of the earliest reported symptoms of many neurodegenerative disorders. This provides insight into the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders, as sleep–wake abnormalities are often accomp...

  13. Chronic sleep disturbance and neural injury: links to neurodegenerative disease

    OpenAIRE

    Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Sabra M Abbott,1 Aleksandar Videnovic21Department of Neurology, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Sleep–wake disruption is frequently observed and often one of the earliest reported symptoms of many neurodegenerative disorders. This provides insight into the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders, as sleep–wake abnormalities are ofte...

  14. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  15. Rhythm disturbances in childhood obstructive sleep apnea during apnea-hypopnea episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can result in cardiovascular complications. Nocturnal arrhythmias are reported up to 50% of adult OSA patients. Arrhythmias and heart rate variability in children with OSA have not been well studied. We sought to study rhythm disturbances in childhood OSA and also to analyze the relationship of heart rate variability to the severity of OSA in children. In a retrospective cross sectional study, records of children aged < 15 years with history of snoring and suspected OSA, who had undergone polysomnography (PSG) for first time were analyzed. The cardiac rhythm and heart rate variability were studied during PSG. A total of 124 patients diagnosed with OSA were grouped into mild (n = 52), moderate (n = 30), and severe (n = 42) OSA. During PSG, all had sinus arrhythmias and only three patients had premature atrial contractions (PACs). The standard deviation of heart rate (SD-HR) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in severe OSA (9.1 ± 2.4) was significantly higher than SD-HR in mild OSA (7.5 ± 1.3, P < 0.0001). The maximum heart rate (max-HR) during REM-sleep in severe OSA (132.1 ± 22.1) was significantly higher than the max-HR in mild OSA (121.3 ± 12.6 bpm, P = 0.016). There was no significant arrhythmia in children with OSA during their sleep. Heart rate variability correlated with the severity of OSA

  16. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520

  17. Chronical sleep interruption-induced cognitive decline assessed by a metabolomics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Wu, Hong-wei; Song, Guang-qing; Lu, Cong; Li, Ying-hui; Qu, Li-na; Chen, Shan-guang; Liu, Xin-min; Chang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Good sleep is necessary for optimal health, especially for mental health. Insomnia, sleep deprivation will make your ability to learn and memory impaired. Nevertheless, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of sleep disorders-induced cognitive decline is still largely unknown. In this study, the sleep deprivation of animal model was induced by chronical sleep interruption (CSI), the behavioral tests, biochemical index determinations, and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based serum metabolic profiling analysis were performed to explore the effects of CSI on cognitive function and the underlying mechanisms. After 14-days CSI, the cognitive function of the mice was evaluated by new objects preference (NOP) task and temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. Serum corticosterone (CORT), and brain Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and Catalase (CAT) levels were determined by ELISA kits. Data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Squares project to latent structures-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and Student's t-test. We found that the cognitive function of the mice was significantly affected by CSI. Besides, levels of CORT and MDA were higher, and SOD and CAT were lower in CSI mice than those of control. Obvious body weight loss of CSI mice was also observed. Thirteen potential serum biomarkers including choline, valine, uric acid, allantoic acid, carnitines, and retinoids were identified. Affected metabolic pathways involve metabolism of purine, retinoid, lipids, and amino acid. These results showed that CSI can damage the cognitive performance notably. The cognitive decline may ascribe to excessive oxidative stress and a series of disturbed metabolic pathways. PMID:26747207

  18. Minority Breast Cancer Survivors: The Association between Race/Ethnicity, Objective Sleep Disturbances, and Physical and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky H. Budhrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited research has been conducted on the moderating effect of race/ethnicity on objective sleep disturbances in breast cancer survivors (BCSs. Objective. To explore racial/ethnic differences in objective sleep disturbances among BCSs and their relationship with self-reported symptoms. Intervention/Methods. Sleep disturbance and symptoms were measured using actigraphy for 72 hours and self-reported questionnaires, respectively, among 79 BCSs. Analysis of covariance, Pearson’s correlation, and multivariate regression were used to analyze data. Results. Sixty (75.9% participants listed their ethnicity as white, non-Hispanic and 19 (24.1% as minority. Total sleep time was 395.9 minutes for white BCSs compared to 330.4 minutes for minority BCSs. Significant correlations were seen between sleep onset latency (SOL and depression, SOL and fatigue, and sleep efficiency (SE and fatigue among minority BCSs. Among white BCSs, significant correlations were seen between SE and pain and wake after sleep onset (WASO and pain. The association between depression and SOL and fatigue and SOL appeared to be stronger in minority BCSs than white BCSs. Conclusions. Results indicate that white BCSs slept longer than minority BCSs, and race/ethnicity modified the effect of depression and fatigue on SOL, respectively. Implications for Practice. As part of survivorship care, race/ethnicity should be included as an essential component of comprehensive symptom assessments.

  19. Metabolic Disturbances in Children with Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaeian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Liver disease results in complex pathophysiologic disturbances affecting nutrient digestion, absorption, distribution, storage, and use. This article aimed to present a classification of metabolic disturbances in chronic liver disease in children?   Materials and Methods: In this review study databases including proquest, pubmedcentral, scincedirect, ovid, medlineplus were been searched with keyword words such as” chronic liver disease"  ” metabolic disorder””children” between 1999 to 2014. Finally, 8 related articles have been found.   Results: Metabolic disorder in this population could be categorized in four set: 1carbohydrates, 2proteins,3 fats and 4vitamins. 1 Carbohydrates: Children with CLD are at increased risk for fasting hypoglycemia, because the capacity for glycogen storage and gluconeogenesis is reduced as a result of abnormal hepatocyte function and loss of hepatocyte mass. 2 Proteins: The liver’s capacity for plasma protein synthesis is impaired by reduced substrate availability, impaired hepatocyte function, and increased catabolism. This results in hypoalbuminemia, leading to peripheral edema and contributing to ascites. Reduced synthesis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and its binding protein IGF-BP3 by the chronically diseased liver results in growth hormone resistance and may contribute to the poor growth observed in these children. 3 Fats: There is increased fat oxidation in children with end-stage liver disease in the fed and fasting states compared with controls, which is probably related to reduced carbohydrate availability. The increased lipolysis results in a decrease in fat stores, which may not be easily replenished in the setting of the fat malabsorption that accompanies cholestasis. Reduced bile delivery to the gut results in impaired fat emulsification, and hence digestion. The products of fat digestion are also poorly absorbed, because bile is also required for micelle formation

  20. Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional and prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Norborg, Malene; Sørensen, Tilde Sand;

    2009-01-01

    gender-stratified, multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for numerous covariates. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, a 1 S.D. increase in the ERI ratio was associated with sleep disturbances among both men [odds ratio (OR)=1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20-2.27] and women (OR=1...... disturbances in the Danish workforce. Among women, an association between ERI and sleep disturbances was restricted to the cross-sectional sample. Improving psychosocial working conditions might reduce the risk of sleep disturbances and subsequently also help to prevent clinical disorders related to sleep...

  1. Sleep disturbances in highly stress reactive mice: Modeling endophenotypes of major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landgraf Rainer

    2011-03-01

    across the light-dark cycle. Conclusions The HR mice, i.e. those animals that have a genetic predisposition to hyper-activating their HPA axis in response to stressors, showed disturbed patterns in sleep architecture, similar to what is known from depressed patients. Significant alterations in several frequency bands of the EEG, which also seem to at least partly mimic clinical observations, suggest the SR mouse lines as a promising animal model for basic research of mechanisms underlying sleep impairments in MD.

  2. Moderate Exercise Plus Sleep Education Improves Self-Reported Sleep Quality, Daytime Mood, and Vitality in Adults with Chronic Sleep Complaints: A Waiting List-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gebhart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participants assigned to the intervention group relative to the waiting-list control group (n=44 were noted for subjective sleep quality, daytime mood, depressive symptoms and vitality. Derived from PSQI subscores, the intervention group reported increased sleep duration, shortened sleep latency, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and overall better sleep efficiency compared to controls. The attained scores were well sustained and enhanced over a time that lasted through to the follow-up 18 weeks later. These findings have implications in treatment programs concerning healthy lifestyle approaches for adults with chronic sleep complaints.

  3. Moderate Exercise Plus Sleep Education Improves Self-Reported Sleep Quality, Daytime Mood, and Vitality in Adults with Chronic Sleep Complaints: A Waiting List-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Carmen; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participants assigned to the intervention group relative to the waiting-list control group (n = 44) were noted for subjective sleep quality, daytime mood, depressive symptoms and vitality. Derived from PSQI subscores, the intervention group reported increased sleep duration, shortened sleep latency, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and overall better sleep efficiency compared to controls. The attained scores were well sustained and enhanced over a time that lasted through to the follow-up 18 weeks later. These findings have implications in treatment programs concerning healthy lifestyle approaches for adults with chronic sleep complaints. PMID:23471095

  4. Increased Sleep Disturbances in Thai Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Compared With Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiraphadhanakul, Kobrat; Jaimchariyatam, Nattapong; Pruksananonda, Chandhita; Chonchaiya, Weerasak

    2016-01-01

    This study compares sleep disturbances in Thai children aged 5-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)-Thai version. Fifty-five children with ADHD and 110 typically developing children were enrolled. Their parents completed the CSHQ, the ADHD rating scales, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children with ADHD had significantly higher scores in all subscales of the CSHQ compared to controls. Among children with ADHD, children with higher SDQ scores (> 15) appeared to have more sleep disturbances than those with relatively lower SDQ scores. Moreover, fewer sleep-related behavioral problems were observed in the medication treated group, which is particularly new to the field and for some perhaps not unexpected clinically. PMID:26629892

  5. Disturbances in the circadian pattern of activity and sleep after laparoscopic versus open abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Bisgaard, Thue; Burgdorf, Stefan;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on the circadian variation in bodily functions and sleep are important for understanding the pathophysiological processes in the postoperative period. We aimed to investigate changes in the circadian variation in activity after minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic cholecys......BACKGROUND: Studies on the circadian variation in bodily functions and sleep are important for understanding the pathophysiological processes in the postoperative period. We aimed to investigate changes in the circadian variation in activity after minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic...... scale (sleep quality, general well-being and pain) and fatigue was measured by a ten-point fatigue scale. The activity levels of the patients were monitored by actigraphy (a wrist-worn device measuring patient activity). Measures of circadian activity level [interday stability (IS), intraday variability...... circadian activity parameters (IS, IV and AMP). CONCLUSION: Severely disturbed circadian activity parameters was found after both LC and MAS with worse changes after MAS. Measures of circadian activity pattern analyses correlated significantly with postoperative subjective recovery parameters....

  6. Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saudi University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. (author)

  7. A unified mathematical model to quantify performance impairment for both chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdev, Pooja; Thorsley, David; Rajaraman, Srinivasan; Rupp, Tracy L; Wesensten, Nancy J; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2013-08-21

    Performance prediction models based on the classical two-process model of sleep regulation are reasonably effective at predicting alertness and neurocognitive performance during total sleep deprivation (TSD). However, during sleep restriction (partial sleep loss) performance predictions based on such models have been found to be less accurate. Because most modern operational environments are predominantly characterized by chronic sleep restriction (CSR) rather than by episodic TSD, the practical utility of this class of models has been limited. To better quantify performance during both CSR and TSD, we developed a unified mathematical model that incorporates extant sleep debt as a function of a known sleep/wake history, with recent history exerting greater influence. This incorporation of sleep/wake history into the classical two-process model captures an individual's capacity to recover during sleep as a function of sleep debt and naturally bridges the continuum from CSR to TSD by reducing to the classical two-process model in the case of TSD. We validated the proposed unified model using psychomotor vigilance task data from three prior studies involving TSD, CSR, and sleep extension. We compared and contrasted the fits, within-study predictions, and across-study predictions from the unified model against predictions generated by two previously published models, and found that the unified model more accurately represented multiple experimental studies and consistently predicted sleep restriction scenarios better than the existing models. In addition, we found that the model parameters obtained by fitting TSD data could be used to predict performance in other sleep restriction scenarios for the same study populations, and vice versa. Furthermore, this model better accounted for the relatively slow recovery process that is known to characterize CSR, as well as the enhanced performance that has been shown to result from sleep banking. PMID:23623949

  8. Association between Workplace Risk Factor Exposure and Sleep Disturbance: Analysis of the 2nd Korean Working Conditions Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Yong-Seok; Chang, Sei-Jin; Park, Shin-Goo; Leem, Jong-Han; Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Bum-Joon; RHEE, Kyung-Yong; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Sleep is essential for human beings to live and work properly. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures to workplace risk factors and sleep disturbance in Korean workers. Methods The data were drawn from the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS); a total of 7,112 paid workers were analyzed. The independent variables were occupational exposures such as physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factor in the workplac...

  9. A field study of sleep disturbance: effects of aircraft noise and other factors on 5,742 nights of actimetrically monitored sleep in a large subject sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, J A; Pankhurst, F L; Reyner, L A; Hume, K; Diamond, I D

    1994-03-01

    This field study assessed the effects of nighttime aircraft noise on actimetrically measured sleep in 400 people (211 women and 189 men; 20-70 years of age; one per household) habitually living at eight sites adjacent to four U.K. airports, with different levels of night flying. Subjects wore wrist-actimeters for 15 nights and completed morning sleep logs. A sample of 178 nights of sleep electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded synchronously with actigrams. The EEG was used to develop filters for the raw actigrams, in order to: (1) estimate sleep onset and (2) compare actigrams with aircraft noise events (ANEs). Actigrams, filtered to detect the onset of discrete movements, were able to detect 88% of all EEG-determined periods of interim wakefulness of > 15 seconds and periods of movement time of > 10 seconds. The main findings were: (1) actimetry and self-reports showed that only a minority of ANEs affected sleep, and, for most of our subjects, that domestic and idiosyncratic factors had much greater effects; (2) despite large between-site variations in ANEs, the difference between sites in overall sleep disturbance was not significant; (3) there was a diminished actimetric response to ANEs in the first hour of sleep and, apparently, also in the last hour of sleep; and (4) men had significantly more discrete movements than women and were more likely to respond to ANEs. PMID:8036369

  10. Burden of chronic sleep maintenance insomnia characterized by nighttime awakenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolge, Susan C; Joish, Vijay N; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Kannan, Hema; Drake, Christopher L

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic and humanistic burden of chronic sleep maintenance insomnia characterized by nighttime awakenings (CINA). A database analysis of National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual cross-sectional study of health status and outcomes of US adults, was performed. CINA was defined as experiencing nighttime awakenings at least twice per week for more than 1 month that have moderate to severe impact on daily life and not experiencing difficulty falling asleep. No insomnia was defined as not self-reporting insomnia, sleep difficulties, or sleep symptoms. Outcomes included resource utilization in the past 6 months, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, and the SF-8. Linear regression models were developed to assess the independent effects of CINA on outcomes while controlling for demographics and comorbidity. In all, 1523 respondents met the criteria for CINA and 24,106 met the criteria for no insomnia. Controlling for demographics and comorbidity, CINA sufferers had greater resource utilization (0.1 [P insomnia, respectively. Among those employed full time, CINA sufferers had greater work productivity impairment (4.0% due to absenteeism, 17.6% due to presenteeism, and 15.6% greater overall productivity impairment) than those with no insomnia (P work productivity. PMID:20158319

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Insomnia and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaj Ahmad; Manan Gupta; Ravi Gupta; Mohan Dhyani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Poor sleep quality, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep apnea are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinical correlates of these problems are poorly understood. Aims: This study was to find out the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and subjects with ′high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)′ in adults with chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four adults with CKD were included. Their demographic data, details re...

  12. Sleep, noise and health: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mia Zaharna; Christian Guilleminault

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is a physiologic recuperative state that may be negatively affected by factors such as psychosocial and work stress as well as external stimuli like noise. Chronic sleep loss is a common problem in today′s society, and it may have significant health repercussions such as cognitive impairment, and depressed mood, and negative effects on cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune function. This article reviews the definition of disturbed sleep versus sleep deprivation as well as the effects of...

  13. [Sleep disturbances and spatial memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder: the case of L'Aquila (Central Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Mazza, Monica; Curcio, Giuseppe; Iaria, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luigi; Tempesta, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Altered sleep is a common and central symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In fact, sleep disturbances are included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for PTSD. However, it has been hypothesized that sleep disturbances are crucially involved in the aetiology of PTSD, rather than being solely a symptom arising secondarily from this disorder. Therefore, knowing the long-term effects of a trauma can be essential to establish the need of specific interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental disorders that may persist years after a traumatic experience. In one study we showed, for the first time, that even after a period of two years people exposed to a catastrophic disaster such as the L'Aquila earthquake continue to suffer from a reduced sleep quality. Moreover, we observed that sleep quality scores decreased as a function of the proximity to the epicentre, suggesting that the psychological effects of an earthquake may be pervasive and long-lasting. It has been widely shown that disruption of sleep by acute stress may lead to deterioration in memory processing. In fact, in a recent study we observed alterations in spatial memory in PTSD subjects. Our findings indicated that PTSD is accompanied by an impressive deficit in forming a cognitive map of the environment, as well as in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. The fact that this deterioration was correlated to the subjective sleep disturbances in our PTSD group demonstrates the existence of an intimate relationship between sleep, memory consolidation, and stress. PMID:27291208

  14. Effects of essential fatty acids in iron deficient and sleep-disturbed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, S; Rabinovitz-Shenkar, S; Carasso, R L

    2011-10-01

    Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity constitute the core diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Patients generally suffer from sleep disturbance and malnutrition that can account for tiredness during the day, poor concentration, poor eating and depressed mood, along with anemia and an n-3 polyunsaturated acid deficiency. The change of ADHD behavior in children (9-12) was studied, following 10 weeks of treatment with a polyunsaturated acid mixture on six variables: cooperation, mood, concentration, homework preparation, fatigue and sleep quality. Iron status was also examined. Polyunsaturated acid administration was associated with significant improvement in quality of life, ability to concentrate, sleep quality and hemoglobin levels. PMID:21587279

  15. Chronic Melatonin Treatment Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Mayyas, Fadia A; Khabour, Omar F; Bani Salama, Fatima M; Alhashimi, Farah H; Mhaidat, Nizar M

    2016-07-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been associated with memory impairment through induction of oxidative stress. Melatonin, which promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS), has antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. In this study, the effect of melatonin on memory impairment induced by 4 weeks of SD was investigated using rat animal model. Animals were sleep deprived using modified multiple platform model. Melatonin was administered via oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day). Spatial learning and memory were assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers in the hippocampus following treatments were measured using ELISA procedure. The result revealed that SD impaired both short- and long-term memory (P sleep-deprived rats (P  0.05). In conclusion, SD induced memory impairment, which was prevented by melatonin. This was correlated with normalizing hippocampus antioxidant mechanisms during chronic SD. PMID:26084441

  16. The neural correlates and temporal sequence of the relationship between shock exposure, disturbed sleep and impaired consolidation of fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoormaker, V I; Sturm, A; Andrade, K C; Schröter, M S; Goya-Maldonado, R; Holsboer, F; Wetter, T C; Sämann, P G; Czisch, M

    2010-12-01

    Consolidation of extinction learning is a primary mechanism disrupted in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), associated with hypoactivity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. A role for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances in this failure to consolidate extinction learning has been proposed. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) measurements in 16 healthy participants during conditioning/extinction and later recall of extinction. The visual stimuli were basic geometric forms and electrical shocks functioned as the unconditioned stimulus. Between the conditioning/extinction and recall sessions, participants received a 90-min sleep window in the sleep laboratory. This daytime sleep was polysomnographically recorded and scored by professionals blind to the study design. Only seven out of 16 participants had REM sleep; participants without REM sleep had a significantly slower decline of both SCR and neural activity of the laterodorsal tegmentum in response to electrical shocks during conditioning. At recall of fear extinction, participants with preceding REM sleep had a reduced SCR and stronger activation of the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex and bilateral lingual gyrus in response to the extinguished stimulus than participants lacking REM sleep. This study indicates that trait-like differences in shock reactivity/habituation (mediated by the brainstem) are predictive of REM sleep disruption, which in turn is associated with impaired consolidation of extinction (mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex). These findings help understand the neurobiological basis and the temporal sequence of the relationship between shock exposure, disturbed sleep and impaired consolidation of extinction, as observed in PTSD. PMID:20471033

  17. Evaluation of Exogenous Melatonin Administration in Improvement of Sleep Quality in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Halvani, Abolhasan; Mohsenpour, Fatemeh; Nasiriani, Khadijeh

    2013-01-01

    Background COPD is primarily the disease of the lungs; nevertheless, multiple systemic manifestations including poor sleep quality and sleep disturbances have been linked to this illness. Administration of sedative hypnotics is not recommended in COPD patients, as these drugs suppress the ventilatory response and exacerbate sleep-related disorders. Melatonin is an alternative medication that has been widely used to treat sleep disturbances caused by aging and other specific conditions. We aim...

  18. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Sleep Quality: Quantitative and Molecular Genetic Approaches to an Understanding of Individual Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Nicola L

    2011-01-01

    There are vast inter-individual differences in sleep quality in the general population – whilst some individuals sleep well with little or no sleep disturbance, others experience frequent sleep disturbances, problems which often manifest into chronic sleep disorders such as insomnia. The aim of this thesis is to explore factors accounting for these observed differences in sleep quality between individuals. Using data from a large-scale twin study this thesis uses behavioural genetic technique...

  19. Associations of self-reported and objectively measured sleep disturbances with depression among primary caregivers of children with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orta OR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Olivia R Orta,1 Clarita Barbosa,1 Juan Carlos Velez,2 Bizu Gelaye,1 Xiaoli Chen,1 Lee Stoner,3 Michelle A Williams,1 1Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Worker's Hospital, The Chilean Safety Association, Santiago, Chile; 3School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between sleep and depression using both self-reported (subjective and actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female primary caregivers of children with disabilities receiving care at a rehabilitation center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to ascertain participants' depression status. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to define subjective, or perceived, sleep quality. Wrist-worn actigraph monitors, worn for seven consecutive nights, were used to characterize objective sleep quality and disturbances. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Linear regression models were fit using continuous sleep parameters as the dependent variables and depression status as the independent variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for body mass index, marital status, smoking status, education level, and children's disabilities. Results: Using an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10, 26.3% of participants presented with depression. Depressed women were more likely to self-report overall poorer (subjective sleep compared to non-depressed women; however, differences in sleep were not consistently noted using actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Among the depressed, both sleep duration and total time in bed were significantly underestimated. In multivariable models, depression was negatively associated with sleep duration using both subjective (β=–0

  20. Sleep Disturbance in Children and Adolescents with Disorders of Development: Its Significance and Management. Clinics in Developmental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stores, Gregory, Ed.; Wiggs, Luci, Ed.

    The 30 papers in this collection are arranged in five sections which address general issues, neurodevelopmental disorders, other neurological conditions, non-neurological pediatric disorders, and psychiatric disorders. The papers are: (1) "Sleep Disturbance: A Serious, Widespread, Yet Neglected Problem in Disorders of Development" (Gregory Stores…

  1. The Use of Night Orthoses in Cerebral Palsy Treatment: Sleep Disturbance in Children and Parental Burden or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, E. M.; Monbaliu, E.; Ven, M.; Vergote, M.; Prinzie, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether (1) children with cerebral palsy (CP) using night orthoses experience more sleep disturbance than those not using night orthoses, (2) parental personality is related to the experienced parental burden of night orthoses, and (3) parental sense of competence in the parenting role mediates the relation between…

  2. Weighing the balance: how analgesics used in chronic pain influence sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Miqdad H; Kaushik, Chhavi; Temple, Daniel; Chung, Sharon A; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-08-01

    Pain and sleep share a bidirectional relationship, with each influencing the other. Several excellent reviews have explored this relationship. In this article, we revisit the evidence and explore existing research on this complex inter-relationship. The primary focus of the article is on the pharmacological treatment of chronic non-malignant pain and the main purpose is to review the effect of various pharmacological agents used in the management of chronic pain on sleep. This has not been comprehensively done before. We explore the clinical use of these agents, their impact on sleep architecture and sleep physiology, the mechanism of action on sleep parameters and sleep disorders associated with these agents. Pharmacological classes reviewed include antidepressants, opioid analgesics, anti-epileptics, cannabinoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs most commonly used to manage chronic pain. The objective is to help health professionals gain better insight into the complex effect that commonly used analgesics have on an individual's sleep and how this could impact on the effectiveness of the drug as an analgesic. We conclude that antidepressants have both positive and negative effects on sleep, so do opioids, but in the latter case the evidence shifts towards the counterproductive side. Some anticonvulsants are sleep sparing and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are sleep neutral. Cannabinoids remain an underexplored and researched group. PMID:26516542

  3. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  4. Computer use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults – a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomée Sara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously studied prospective associations between computer use and mental health symptoms in a selected young adult population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if high computer use is a prospective risk factor for developing mental health symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. Methods The study group was a cohort of young adults (n = 4163, 20–24 years old, who responded to a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Exposure variables included time spent on computer use (CU in general, email/chat use, computer gaming, CU without breaks, and CU at night causing lost sleep. Mental health outcomes included perceived stress, sleep disturbances, symptoms of depression, and reduced performance due to stress, depressed mood, or tiredness. Prevalence ratios (PRs were calculated for prospective associations between exposure variables at baseline and mental health outcomes (new cases at 1-year follow-up for the men and women separately. Results Both high and medium computer use compared to low computer use at baseline were associated with sleep disturbances in the men at follow-up. High email/chat use was negatively associated with perceived stress, but positively associated with reported sleep disturbances for the men. For the women, high email/chat use was (positively associated with several mental health outcomes, while medium computer gaming was associated with symptoms of depression, and CU without breaks with most mental health outcomes. CU causing lost sleep was associated with mental health outcomes for both men and women. Conclusions Time spent on general computer use was prospectively associated with sleep disturbances and reduced performance for the men. For the women, using the computer without breaks was a risk factor for several mental health outcomes. Some associations were enhanced in interaction with mobile phone use. Using the computer at night and consequently losing

  5. EFFECT OF MYOFASCIAL RELEASE THERAPY ON PAIN RELATED DISABILITY, QUALITY OF SLEEP AND DEPRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. B.Arun, MPT, PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain was experienced by 50% of older adults that has threatened to quality of life. The economic cost of low back pain is more in older adults. Various literatures found that there is strong relationships exist between the low back pain and the psychosocial factors like sleep disturbances, depression, mood sway and chronic illness. Studies has found that depression is one of the commonest psychological problem faced by older adults which relates to other factors like pain, sleep disturbances ect.. Physiotherapy has been shown very effective in the management of chronic low back pain. Various approaches in physiotherapy play a major role in rehabilitation of patients with chronic low back pain. This study estimates to find out the effect of myofascial release therapy on pain related disability, quality of sleep and depression in older adults with chronic low back pain. Study is a single group pre test and post test design. 37 Patients with chronic low back pain were selected from a community setup. Selected subjects were undergone 6 weeks of myofascial release therapy along with moist heat therapy. At the end the outcome measured are pain related disability using pain disability index, Quality of sleep using Insomnia severity index and depression using beck depression inventory. The paired ‘t’ test was used to find out the differences between variables. The result showed that there was a significant improvement in the pre test and post test variables. The beck depression inventory was 21.3 (p<0.05%, and the pain disability index was 24.9 (p<0.05%. The study concludes that the myofascial release therapy is very effective in reducing the pain related disability, quality of sleep and depression on older adults with chronic low back pain.

  6. Influence of Chronic Moderate Sleep Restriction and Exercise on Inflammation and Carcinogenesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zielinski, Mark R.; Davis, J. Mark; Fadel, James R.; YOUNGSTEDT, SHAWN D.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and exercise training on carcinogenesis were examined in adenomatous polyposis coli multiple intestinal neoplasma (APC Min+/-) mice, a genetic strain which is predisposed to developing adenomatous polyposis. The mice were randomized to one of four 11 week treatments in a 2×2 design involving sleep restriction (by 4 h/day) vs. normal sleep and exercise training (1 h/day) vs. sedentary control. Wild-type control mice underwent identical experime...

  7. Psychometric evaluation of the sleep hygiene index: a sample of patients with chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sungkun; Kim, Gye-Seok; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI) was designed to assess sleep hygiene. Although the SHI has shown adequate psychometric properties in a nonclinical sample, it has not been validated in a sample with chronic pain. Also, its factor structure, measurement error, and incremental validity over and above other factors affecting sleep quality have not been investigated in a nonclinical sample. Thus, this present study aimed to extend prior psychometric investigation of the SHI. Specifically, we ...

  8. Supplemental oxygen and quality of sleep in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, J L; Murree-Allen, K; Saunders, N. A.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that supplemental oxygen could improve the quality of sleep was tested in 23 consecutive patients (14 male, nine female; age 42-74 years) with chronic obstructive lung disease (mean (SD) FEV1 0.81 (0.32) litre, FEV1/FVC 37% (12%). Patients breathed compressed air or supplemental oxygen via nasal cannulas on consecutive nights in a randomised, double blind, crossover trial. Quality of sleep was assessed by questionnaire and by electroencephalographic sleep staging. The study had...

  9. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. PMID:21225347

  10. Sleep Disturbances among Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: Survey of Dog Guide Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, Massoud K.; Moseley, Merrick J.; Jones, Helen S.; Tobin, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A survey completed by 1237 adults with severe visual impairments found that 20% described the quality of their sleep as poor or very poor. Exercise was associated with better sleep and depression with poorer sleep. However, visual acuity did not predict sleep quality, casting doubt on the idea that restricted visual input (light) causes sleep…

  11. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and…

  12. Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝菁华; 石军; 任万华; 韩国庆; 朱菊人; 王书运; 谢英渤

    2002-01-01

    Objective To document morphological changes in hepatic microcirculation in liver tissue with hepatitis B and the pathogenesis of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances. Methods Liver tissue samples were obtained from patients with hepatitis B by liver biopsy. These samples were examined with a light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances existed in patients with hepatitis B, including those with normal liver function, manifested by red blood cell aggregation in sinusoids seen under light microscope and sinusoidal capillarization seen under electron microscope. Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells were seen in 26 out of 53 cases. Intimate contacts were found between lymphocyte/Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Conclusions Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances exist in patients with hepatitis B .The appearance of Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells may be a key step in the development of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances.

  13. Sleep diaries of Vietnam War veterans with chronic PTSD: the relationships among insomnia symptoms, psychosocial stress, and nightmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Harb, Gerlinde C; Cook, Joan M; Barilla, Holly; Ross, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired sleep and nightmares are known symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the veteran population. In order to assess prospectively the sleep disturbances in this population, sleep diaries are an effective way to obtain information over an extended period of time. In this investigation, a sample of veterans (N = 105) completed daily sleep diaries for a 6-week period. Greater PTSD severity and nightmare-related distress were correlated with more awakenings, shorter duration of sleep, longer sleep latency, and greater frequency of nightmares. Perceived frequency of daytime stressors was associated with an increased number of nightmares, nightmare-related distress, and longer sleep latency. The use of sleep diaries in future investigations may allow targeted treatments for veteran populations with PTSD and sleep disturbances. PMID:24617942

  14. Associations of sleep disturbance and duration with metabolic risk factors in obese persons with type 2 diabetes: data from the Sleep AHEAD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Onge MP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Pierre St-Onge,1 Gary Zammit,2 David M Reboussin,3 Samuel T Kuna,4 Mark H Sanders,8 Richard Millman,6 Anne B Newman,5 Thomas A Wadden,4 Rena R Wing,6 F Xavier Pi-Sunyer,1 Gary D Foster7 Sleep AHEAD Research Group*1New York Obesity Research Center, St Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2Clinilabs, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 7Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA*A full list of the members of the Sleep AHEAD Research Group is available in an online appendixPurpose: Some studies have found an association between sleep disturbances and metabolic risk, but none has examined this association in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sleep disturbances and metabolic risk factors in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.Patients and methods: This study was a cross-sectional examination of the relationship between sleep parameters (apnea/hypopnea index [AHI], time spent in various sleep stages and metabolic risk markers (fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, lipids using baseline data of the Sleep AHEAD cohort. Subjects (n = 305 were participants in Sleep AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes, a four-center ancillary study of the Look AHEAD study, a 16-center clinical trial of overweight and obese participants with type 2 diabetes, designed to assess the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular events. All participants underwent one night of in-home polysomnography

  15. Phylogenetic impoverishment of plant communities following chronic human disturbances in the Brazilian Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Elâine M S; Santos, Bráulio A; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Souza, Gustavo; Leal, Inara R

    2016-06-01

    Chronic disturbances, such as selective logging, firewood extraction and extensive grazing, may lead to the taxonomic and phylogenetic impoverishment of remaining old-growth forest communities worldwide; however, the empirical evidence on this topic is limited. We tested this hypothesis in the Caatinga vegetation--a seasonally dry tropical forest restricted to northeast Brazil. We sampled 11,653 individuals (adults, saplings, and seedlings) from 51 species in 29 plots distributed along a gradient of chronic disturbance. The gradient was assessed using a chronic disturbance index (CDI) based on five recognized indicators of chronic disturbances: proximity to urban center, houses and roads and the density of both people and livestock. We used linear models to test if mean effective number of lineages, mean phylogenetic distance and phylogenetic dispersion decreased with CDI and if such relationships differed among ontogenetic stages. As expected, the mean effective number of lineages and the mean phylogenetic distance were negatively related to CDI, and such diversity losses occurred irrespective of ontogeny. Yet the increase in phylogenetic clustering in more disturbed plots was only evident in seedlings and saplings, mostly because clades with more descendent taxa than expected by chance (e.g., Euphorbiaceae) thrived in more disturbed plots. This novel study indicates that chronic human disturbances are promoting the phylogenetic impoverishment of the irreplaceable woody flora of the Brazilian Caatinga forest. The highest impoverishment was observed in seedlings and saplings, indicating that if current chronic disturbances remain, they will result in increasingly poorer phylogenetically forests. This loss of evolutionary history will potentially limit the capacity of this ecosystem to respond to human disturbances (i.e., lower ecological resilience) and particularly their ability to adapt to rapid climatic changes in the region. PMID:27459787

  16. Weighing the balance: how analgesics used in chronic pain influence sleep?

    OpenAIRE

    Bohra, Miqdad H; Kaushik, Chhavi; Temple, Daniel; Chung, Sharon A.; Shapiro, Colin M.

    2014-01-01

    Pain and sleep share a bidirectional relationship, with each influencing the other. Several excellent reviews have explored this relationship. In this article, we revisit the evidence and explore existing research on this complex inter-relationship. The primary focus of the article is on the pharmacological treatment of chronic non-malignant pain and the main purpose is to review the effect of various pharmacological agents used in the management of chronic pain on sleep. This has not been co...

  17. Chronic Sleep Fragmentation Promotes Obesity in Young Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Carreras, Alba; Lee, Seunghoon; Hakim, Fahed; Zhang, Shelley X.; Nair, Deepti; Ye, Honggang; Gozal, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Short sleep confers a higher risk of obesity in humans. Restricted sleep increases appetite, promotes higher calorie intake from fat and carbohydrate sources, and induces insulin resistance. However, the effects of fragmented sleep (SF), such as occurs in sleep apnea, on body weight, metabolic rates, and adipose tissue distribution are unknown. Design and Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SF for 8 weeks. Their body weight, food consumption, and metabolic expenditure were monitor...

  18. Sleep disturbances and sexual function among men aged 45–75 years in an urban area of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammadalizadeh; Rezaei, Nazanin; Hakimi, Sevil; Khatami, Shiva; valizadeh, Reza; Azadi, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Aging in men is associated with various physical and mental symptoms, including sleep problems and sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the status of sleep disorders and sexual dysfunction in men aged 45–75 years in Ilam, Iran. Materials and methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, 390 men aged 45–75 years were selected by cluster randomization in Ilam–Iran. Data were collected using 0–100 brief sexual function inventory and the sleep disorder questionnaires. Results Totally, 34.6% of men complained about sleep disorders: 17.4% about falling asleep, 12.8% about frequent nocturnal awakenings, 12.8% about waking up in the early hours in the morning and problem in falling asleep again, and 24.9% about fatigue and tiredness despite getting enough sleep. There was a significant relationship between all aspects of sexual function and the common problems related to sleep (p<0.001). The older, unemployed, illiterate men, those with inadequate income, those affected by chronic diseases, and/or urinary incontinence had significantly inferior sexual function compared with the others. Conclusion According to the high prevalence of sleep disorders in men as well as its association with sexual dysfunction, adopting health measures in this regard is necessary.

  19. Delayed Circadian Rhythm in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest circadian rhythm disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep-onset insomnia (SOI). We investigate here sleep and rhythms in activity and melatonin in adults with ADHD. Methods: Sleep logs and actigraphy data were collec

  20. Postoperative Sleep Disturbances after Zolpidem Treatment in Fast-Track Hip and Knee Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Jennum, Poul; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated pronounced reduction of REM sleep on the first nights following major surgery which may influence pain, analgesic use, and recovery. This placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study set out to evaluate the effect of zolpidem on sleep....... Polysomnography measures were performed for 2 nights, 1 night at home prior to surgery and on the first night after surgery, when the patient received placebo or zolpidem 10 mg. Analgesic use, pain levels, and subjective measures of fatigue and sleep quality were recorded. Analysis of sleep data was performed...... according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine manual. RESULTS: Objective sleep data did not show a significant difference between groups in any of the sleep stages. However, subjective data on sleep quality and fatigue showed significantly less fatigue and better sleep quality in the zolpidem group (p...

  1. The relationships of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension on chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ping; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hang, Liang-Wen; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Lin, Jen-Jyn; Chou, Che-Yi; Tsai, Jeffrey J.P.; Ko, Po-Yen; Chang, Chiz-Tzung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension, blood pressure variation, and resistant hypertension have close relations to sleep apnea, which lead to target organ damage, including the kidney. The complex relationships between sleep apnea and blood pressure cause their interactions with chronic kidney disease ambiguous. The aim of the study was to elucidate the separate and joint effects of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension on chronic kidney disease. A cross-sectional study was done to see the associations of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension with chronic kidney disease in 998 subjects underwent overnight polysomnography without device-therapy or surgery for their sleep-disordered breathing. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the severity of SA, hypertension stage, resistant hypertension, and their joint effects on CKD. The multivariable relative odds (95% CI) of chronic kidney disease for the aged (age ≥65 years), severe sleep apnea, stage III hypertension, and resistant hypertension were 3.96 (2.57–6.09) (P < 0.001), 2.28 (1.13–4.58) (P < 0.05), 3.55 (1.70–7.42) (P < 0.001), and 9.42 (4.22–21.02) (P < 0.001), respectively. In subgroups analysis, the multivariable relative odds ratio of chronic kidney disease was highest in patients with both resistant hypertension and severe sleep apnea [13.42 (4.74–38.03)] (P < 0.001). Severe sleep apnea, stage III hypertension, and resistant hypertension are independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Patients with both severe sleep apnea and resistant hypertension have the highest risks. PMID:27281098

  2. Gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome with and without severe sleep disturbance: an integrated analysis of subjective and novel sleep endpoints from two studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogan RK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard K Bogan,1 Aaron Ellenbogen,2 Philip M Becker,3 Clete Kushida,4 Eric Ball,5 William G Ondo,6 Christine K Caivano,7 Sarah Kavanagh71SleepMed, Columbia, SC, 2Quest Research Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 3Sleep Medicine Associates of Texas, Dallas, TX, 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Center for Human Sleep Research, Stanford, CA, 5Walla Walla Clinic, Walla Walla, WA, 6University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 7Global Regulatory Affairs (CKC* and Neurosciences MDC (SK, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA*Development Sciences department at the time of the analysisPurpose: The aim of the study reported here was assessment of subjective and novel sleep endpoints, according to sleep disturbance severity at baseline, in adult subjects with moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome (RLS treated with gabapentin enacarbil (GEn 1200 mg or placebo.Methods: Integrated analysis of two 12-week randomized trials in subjects with RLS was undertaken. Sleep outcomes from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Sleep Scale and the Post Sleep Questionnaire were evaluated. Novel sleep endpoints derived from the 24-Hour RLS Symptom Diary were compared with similar endpoints derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD. Subjects were divided into two subgroups based on their level of sleep disturbance (responses to item 4 of the International Restless Legs Scale at baseline. Data were analyzed using a last observation carried forward approach.Results: The modified intent-to-treat population comprised 427 subjects (GEn 1200 mg, n = 223; placebo, n = 204. GEn significantly improved all MOS Sleep Scale domain scores from baseline compared with placebo (P < 0.05 in both subgroups. Compared with placebo, GEn-treated subjects with very severe to severe sleep disturbance reported higher overall sleep quality, fewer nighttime awakenings, and fewer hours awake per night due to RLS

  3. [Pathogenetic correction of metabolic disturbances in chronic liver affections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romantsov, M G; Petrov, A Iu; Aleksandrova, L N; Sukhanov, D S; Kovalenko, A L

    2012-01-01

    The available drugs for the treatment of chronic liver affections (the adequate model is chronic hepatitis C) include agents of metabolic therapy, whose efficacy is not always enough, that required the search for original mitochondrial substrates on the basis of succinate. Such agents were composed as a pharmaceutical group named "Substrates of Energetic Metabolism" or "Substrate Antihypoxants". The review presents the description of the pharmacological effects of remaxole and cytoflavin, evident from lower levels of active metabolites of oxygen that increases the clinical efficacy of the therapy. Their role in the metabolic reactions in chronic liver affections is exclusive and rather actual. PMID:23700935

  4. Sleep loss and the inflammatory response in mice under chronic environmental circadian disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison J Brager

    Full Text Available Shift work and trans-time zone travel lead to insufficient sleep and numerous pathologies. Here, we examined sleep/wake dynamics during chronic exposure to environmental circadian disruption (ECD, and if chronic partial sleep loss associated with ECD influences the induction of shift-related inflammatory disorder. Sleep and wakefulness were telemetrically recorded across three months of ECD, in which the dark-phase of a light-dark cycle was advanced weekly by 6 h. A three month regimen of ECD caused a temporary reorganization of sleep (NREM and REM and wake processes across each week, resulting in an approximately 10% net loss of sleep each week relative to baseline levels. A separate group of mice were subjected to ECD or a regimen of imposed wakefulness (IW aimed to mimic sleep amounts under ECD for one month. Fos-immunoreactivity (IR was quantified in sleep-wake regulatory areas: the nucleus accumbens (NAc, basal forebrain (BF, and medial preoptic area (MnPO. To assess the inflammatory response, trunk blood was treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and subsequent release of IL-6 was measured. Fos-IR was greatest in the NAc, BF, and MnPO of mice subjected to IW. The inflammatory response to LPS was elevated in mice subjected to ECD, but not mice subjected to IW. Thus, the net sleep loss that occurs under ECD is not associated with a pathological immune response.

  5. Managing sleep disturbances in adult family homes: Recruitment and implementation of a behavioral treatment program

    OpenAIRE

    McCurry, Susan M.; LaFazia, David M.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Teri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a Sleep Education Program (SEP) designed to teach owner/operators and direct care staff working in adult family homes (AFHs) how to improve the sleep and nighttime behavior of older residents with dementia. There have been no sleep intervention studies conducted in adult family homes, and strategies that are known to improve sleep in community-dwelling older adults or nursing home residents may not be feasible or effective in AFHs because of their unique care environmen...

  6. Sleep Disturbance and Cognitive Deficits in Bipolar Disorder: Toward An Integrated Examination of Disorder Maintenance and Functional Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Elaine M.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is frequently associated with a number of poor outcomes including, but not limited to, a significant impairment in the ability to return to premorbid levels of occupational and psychosocial functioning, often despite the remission of mood symptoms. Sleep disturbance is an oft-reported residual symptom of manic and depressive episodes that has likewise been associated with the onset of manic episodes. Also present during affective episodes as well as the inter-episode periods ...

  7. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Ristovska; Jurgita Lekaviciute

    2013-01-01

    Countries from South-East Europe (SEE), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Newly Independent States (NIS) are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and N...

  8. Annoyance, sleep disturbance, health aspects, perceived risk and residential satisfaction around Schiphol airport: Summary of results of a questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    RIVM; CCM; IMA; TNO-PG

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Evaluation and Monitoring Programme for Schiphol airport, a questionnaire on the prevalence of self-rated annoyance, sleep disturbance, perceived general health, respiratory complaints, satisfaction in the study area was sent to a randomly selected sample of 30,000 people living within 25 km of Schiphol airport. The purpose of this study was to assess these factors in relation to the exposure to aircraft noise and air pollution. Exposure to aircraft noise was based on model cal...

  9. Evidence of Associations between Cytokine Genes and Subjective Reports of Sleep Disturbance in Oncology Patients and Their Family Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Miaskowski, Christine; Cooper, Bruce A.; Dhruva, Anand; Dunn, Laura B.; Langford, Dale J.; Cataldo, Janine K.; Baggott, Christina R.; Merriman, John D.; Dodd, Marylin; Lee, Kathryn; West, Claudia; Paul, Steven M.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify distinct latent classes of individuals based on subjective reports of sleep disturbance; to examine differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics between the latent classes; and to evaluate for variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes between the latent classes. Among 167 oncology outpatients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their FCs, growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify latent ...

  10. Behavioral Interventions to Address Sleep Disturbances in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kylan S.; Johnson, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the adverse effects that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, these sleep problems also present significant challenges for the entire family. This article outlines the results of a…

  11. Sleep Disturbance and Expressive Language Development in Preschool-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgin, Jamie O.; Tooley, Ursula; Demara, Bianca; Nyhuis, Casandra; Anand, Payal; Spanò, Goffredina

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that sleep may facilitate language learning. This study examined variation in language ability in 29 toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to levels of sleep disruption. Toddlers with DS and poor sleep (66%, n = 19) showed greater deficits on parent-reported and objective measures of language, including…

  12. Influence of Various Lifestyle and Psychosocial Factors on Sleep Disturbances among the College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Urban Area of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R. Kadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep occupies nearly 1/3rd of our life and is essential for overall growth and stability. Sleep deprivation results weakening of physical functions, mental health problems like depression and lowering of productivity, thus resulting in loss to an individual and society. Aim and Objectives: Sleep is essential for physical and mental stability. Its deprivation lowers work productivity and results in mental problem like depression. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors may have impact on the sleep. In the western countries the subject is amply explored; however studies on student from developing countries like India are limited. Our objective was to study the extent of sleep disturbance and associated factors among the graduating college students. Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Arts, Commerce and Science graduating college students from an urban area. The sampling technique was cluster random sampling with the sample size of 890. A pretested, selfadministered questionnaire was used as a study tool. Statistical Analysis was done using percentages, chisquare test and bi-variate logistic regression. Results: The mean duration of sleep reported by the 900 study subjects was 7.3 hours (std. deviation 1 hour. Any sleep disturbance was reported by 826 (91.8% subjects; with day time sleepiness (77.5% and difficulty in falling asleep (65.4% being the commonest complaint. Sleep disturbance score was associated with exercise, outdoor games and tea / coffee intake. It was also associated with nocturnal use of mobiles and feeling depressed. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances were present in majority of college students with day time sleepiness as its commonest manifestation. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors had impact on the sleep. Proper lifestyle modification and good family environment areimportant to avoid sleep disturbances among the college students.

  13. Sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation in a sample of treatment-seeking Canadian Forces members and veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Richardson, J; Cyr, Kate St; Nelson, Charles; Elhai, Jon D; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-08-15

    This study examines the association between suicidal ideation and sleep disturbances in a sample of treatment-seeking Canadian Forces members and veterans, after controlling for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Subjects included members and veterans of Canadian Forces seeking treatment at a hospital-based Operational Stress Injury Clinic (n=404). Sleep disturbances and nightmares were measured using individual items on the PTSD Checklist - Military Version (PCL - M), while the suicidality item of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used as a stand-alone item to assess presence or absence of suicidal ideation. Regression analyses were used to determine the respective impact of (1) insomnia and (2) nightmares on suicidal ideation, while controlling for presence of probable PTSD, MDD, GAD, and AUD. We found that 86.9% of patients reported having problems falling or staying asleep and 67.9% of patients reported being bothered by nightmares related to military-specific traumatic events. Neither sleep disturbances nor nightmares significantly predicted suicidal ideation; instead, probable MDD emerged as the most significant predictor. The clinical implications of these findings and their potential impact on treatment guidelines are discussed. PMID:24755040

  14. The link between rhinitis and rapid-eye-movement sleep breathing disturbances in children with obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Huseni, Shehlanoor; Gutierrez, Maria J.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.; Nino, Cesar L.; Perez, Geovanny F.; Pancham, Krishna; Nino, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rhinitis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) often coexist during childhood. To delineate this clinical association, we examined OSA severity and polysomnogram (PSG) features in children with rhinitis and OSA. Given that rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep is characterized by nasal congestion, we hypothesized that children with rhinitis have more REM-related breathing abnormalities. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 145 children with PSG-diagnosed OSA. Out...

  15. Effect of vaginal estrogen on post menopausal mood & sleep disturbance/ and sexual satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar T

    2009-05-01

    .3, that significant difference between two groups before and after treatment is seen. (p≤0.01. Vaginal premarin induced a greater improvement of HDS score (p≤0.006. Mean anxiety score decreased after vaginal premarin (p≤0.000, but is not significant difference in placebo group. (p=0.08. Sexual Satisfaction in Vaginal premarin group is significantly higher (p≤0.001."n"n Conclusions: Vaginal Estrogene directly or indirectly improved menopausal related mood and sleep disturbances, increased and sexual satisfaction.

  16. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction for adults with sleep disturbance: a protocol for an update of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Min; Park, Jeong Min; Seo, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is a common and significant health problem that has been linked to decreased quality of life. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) can be a potentially effective intervention for insomnia. In previous systematic review examining the effects of MBSR for people with sleep disturbance, the authors highlighted the need for additional well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effects of MBSR practice. Recently, several RCTs of the effectivene...

  17. Comparison between informant-observed and actigraphic assessments of sleep-wake rhythm disturbances in demented residents of homes for the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hoekert; R.F. Riemersma-van d Lek; D.F. Swaab; D. Kaufer; E.J.W. van Someren

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Sleep-wake rhythm disturbances frequently occur in demented elderly and are of clinical relevance because they herald accelerated functional decline and institutionalization. Assessment of sleep-wake rhythm disorders is therefore of significant importance and can be performed by questionn

  18. Comparison between informant-observed and actigraphic assessments of sleep-wake rhythm disturbances in demented residents of homes for the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, M.; Riemersma - van der Lek, R.F.; Swaab, D.F.; Kaufer, D.; Someren, E.J.W. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sleep-wake rhythm disturbances frequently occur in demented elderly and are of clinical relevance because they herald accelerated functional decline and institutionalization. Assessment of sleep-wake rhythm disorders is therefore of significant importance and can be performed by questionn

  19. Sleep disturbances from road traffic and ventilation noise—laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrström, E.; Skånberg, A.

    2004-03-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effects on sleep of different types of noise exposures (road traffic, ventilation and combination of noise from road traffic and ventilation) and compare effects on sleep both in laboratory and in field settings. Eighteen subjects slept 1 week in the laboratory and 1 week in their home and their sleep was evaluated with wrist actigraphs and questionnaires on sleep and mood. In the laboratory, judged sleep quality was decreased by 22% during nights with exposure to road traffic noise in the laboratory compared to the quiet reference night. The combined noise from ventilation and road traffic caused more awakenings; worse sleep quality (-25%) and more movements reported by questionnaire. None of these significant results were detected by actigraphy. Noise from ventilation caused a decrease in judged sleep quality by 12%, while sleep assessed by actigraph indicated better sleep as compared with the quiet reference night. When comparing sleep with traffic noise exposure in the laboratory and in the home the results show no differences on sleep effects.

  20. Disturbed sleep as risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder--Data from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-09-01

    There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. PMID:26228404

  1. Impact of Sleep and Its Disturbances on Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Balbo; Rachel Leproult; Eve Van Cauter

    2010-01-01

    The daily rhythm of cortisol secretion is relatively stable and primarily under the influence of the circadian clock. Nevertheless, several other factors affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Sleep has modest but clearly detectable modulatory effects on HPA axis activity. Sleep onset exerts an inhibitory effect on cortisol secretion while awakenings and sleep offset are accompanied by cortisol stimulation. During waking, an association between cortisol secretory bursts and...

  2. Rebound insomnia induced by abrupt withdrawal of hypnotics in sleep-disturbed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirase, Masahiro; Ishida, Takayuki; Kamei, Chiaki

    2008-11-12

    The present study was performed to examine whether or not rebound insomnia is caused by an abrupt withdrawal of benzodiazepine hypnotics and tandospirone in rats. Etizolam and triazolam caused a significant shortening of sleep latency, increase in non-REM sleep time, and decrease in wake time in a dose-dependent manner. Etizolam and triazolam caused a significant shortening of sleep latency during drug administration (for 7 days), whereas a significant prolongation of sleep latency was observed by the abrupt withdrawal of these drugs. Tandospirone caused a shortening of sleep latency, whereas no effect was observed on non-REM sleep time and wake time during drug administration (for 7 days). On the other hand, tandospirone showed no significant effect on sleep latency through its abrupt withdrawal, differing from etizolam and triazolam. From these findings, a rebound phenomenon in terms of sleep latency was confirmed with etizolam and triazolam in rats. Furthermore, the 5-HT(1A) agonist, tandospirone, caused no rebound phenomenon regarding sleep latency in rats. PMID:18789918

  3. How mindfulness changed my sleep: focus groups with chronic insomnia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbling, Amber; Reilly-Spong, Maryanne; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Gross, Cynthia R

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic insomnia is a major public health problem affecting approximately 10% of adults. Use of meditation and yoga to develop mindful awareness (‘mindfulness training’) may be an effective approach to treat chronic insomnia, with sleep outcomes comparable to nightly use of prescription sedatives, but more durable and with minimal or no side effects. The purpose of this study was to understand mindfulness training as experienced by patients with chronic insomnia, and suggest proced...

  4. Exploring the Associations between Sleep Problems and Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Adolescents: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Lee; Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of musculoskeletal chronic pain in adolescents is estimated to be approximately 4% to 40%. The development of musculoskeletal pain during teenage years could have a marked impact on physical, psychological and social well-being. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether sleep problems during adolescence are associated with musculoskeletal pain, particularly chronic regional pain and chronic widespread pain. METHODS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children, the r...

  5. Disturbance of intracardiac hemodynamics in children with chronic rheumatic cardiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kondratiev V.A.; Porokhnya N.H.; Kunak Ye.V.

    2013-01-01

    By means of Doppler echocardiography there have been studied disturbances of intracardiac hemodynamics in 44 children aged 8-17 years with chronic rheumatic cardiac disease and developed mitral aortal and combined heart defects, as well as in chronic rheumatic cardiac disease  without developed valvar defect. Differential approach has been defined to administration of inhibitors of angiotensin-converting factor in rheumatic heart defects: developed insufficiency of mitral and/or aortal valves...

  6. High prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Soler, X; Gaio, E.; Powell, FL; Ramsdell, JW; Loredo, JS; Malhotra, A; Ries, AL

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society. Rationale: When obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) coexist in the so-called "overlap" syndrome,a high risk formortalityandmorbidity hasbeenreported.There is controversy about the prevalence of OSA in people affected by COPD. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate objective meaures of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with moderate to severe COPD to test the hypothesis that COP...

  7. Sleep Onset Insomnia Symptoms during Hospitalization for Major Burn Injury Predict Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael T; Klick, Brendan; Kozachik, Sharon; Edwards, Robert E.; Holavanahalli, Radha; Wiechman, Shelley; Blakeney, Patricia; Lezotte, Dennis; Fauerbach, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Both cross-sectional studies of chronic pain and sleep deprivation experiments suggest a bi-directional relationship between sleep and pain. Few longitudinal studies, however, have assessed whether acute-insomnia following traumatic injury predicts the development of persistent pain. We sought to evaluate: 1) whether in-hospital insomnia independently predicts long-term pain after burn injury and 2) whether in-hospital pain predicts future insomnia symptoms. We analyzed data on 333 subjects h...

  8. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sleep: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is sleep? Sleep is a period of unconsciousness during which ...

  9. Sleep disturbance by traffic noise: an experimental study in subjects' own houses using a portable CD player

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Jiro; Hiroe, Masaaki; Kuwano, Sonoko; Namba, Seiichiro

    2004-10-01

    The current study investigated the effect of noise on sleep in subjects' own houses using recorded traffic noises. A railway noise and two kinds of road traffic noise differing in level-fluctuations were used as stimuli. Subjects were exposed all night to the artificially controlled stimuli for 10 days through a portable compact disc (CD) player. The effect of noise on sleep was judged in three ways, namely whether the subject had switched off the CD player, a self-declaration of the subject based on a questionnaire, and the amount of arm movement of the subject during the night as measured by an actigraph. The results of the analysis of the self-declaration data showed that the thresholds where sleep disturbance began were 40-45 dB in L for road traffic noise and about 35 dB for railway noise, which corresponded to 50-55 dB in L of each train noise event. The results of the analysis of the actigraphy data showed a rapid increase in the incidence of mid-sleep awakening at sound pressure levels higher than 50 dB, L for railway noise. However, neither of the road traffic noises showed such a tendency, as long as the sound pressure level was less than 55 dB, L.

  10. Knee Pain and Low Back Pain Additively Disturb Sleep in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Nagahama Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Murase

    Full Text Available Association of knee and low back pain with sleep disturbance is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the independent and combined effects of these orthopedic symptoms on sleep in a large-scale general population.Cross-sectional data about sleep and knee/low back pain were collected for 9,611 community residents (53±14 years old by a structured questionnaire. Sleep duration less than 6 h/d was defined as short sleep. Sleep quality and the presence of knee and low back pain were evaluated by dichotomous questions. Subjects who complained about knee or low back pains were graded by tertiles of a numerical response scale (NRS score and a Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ score respectively. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the correlates of short sleep duration and poor sleep quality.Frequency of participants who complained of the orthopedic symptoms was as follows; knee pain, 29.0%; low back pain, 42.0% and both knee and low back pain 17.6%. Both knee and low back pain were significantly and independently associated with short sleep duration (knee pain: odds ratio (OR = 1.19, p<0.01; low back pain: OR = 1.13, p = 0.01 and poor sleep quality (knee pain: OR = 1.22, p<0.01; low back pain; OR = 1.57, p<0.01. The group in the highest tertile of the NRS or RDQ score had the highest risk for short sleep duration and poor sleep quality except for the relationship between the highest tertile of the RDQ score and short sleep duration.(the highest tertile of the NRS: OR for short sleep duration = 1.31, p<0.01; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.47, p<0.01; the highest tertile of the RDQ: OR for short sleep duration = 1.11, p = 0.12; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.81, p<0.01 Further, coincident knee and low back pain raised the odds ratios for short sleep duration (either of knee or low back pain: OR = 1.10, p = 0.06; both knee and low back pain: OR = 1.40, p<0.01 and poor sleep quality (either of knee or low back pain: OR

  11. The role of sleep disturbances in attention deficit disorder symptoms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, R E; Pelham, W E; Wierson, M

    1991-04-01

    Identified a 10-year-old girl with ADD and a 5-year history of sleep difficulties. Sleep difficulties (delayed sleep phase insomnia) were corrected while performing blind assessments of behavioral symptoms. The intervention (chronotherapy combined with a behavior modification program) resulted in an increase of sleep from 7.2 to 9.2 hours per night. Pre/postintervention behavioral measures indicated significant improvement in positive interactions with peers, increased productivity on a timed arithmetic task, and significantly increased percentage of assigned seatwork completed. Four-month follow-up in the natural school setting indicated improvement in teacher ratings and classroom performance. Despite the persistence of ADD symptomatology, the improvement in sleep apparently contributed to a clinically significant reduction in ADD. PMID:2061790

  12. Influence of Chronic Moderate Sleep Restriction and Exercise Training on Anxiety, Spatial Memory, and Associated Neurobiological Measures in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zielinski, Mark R.; Davis, J. Mark; Fadel, James R.; YOUNGSTEDT, SHAWN D.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation can have deleterious effects on cognitive function and mental health. Moderate exercise training has myriad beneficial effects on cognition and mental health. However, physiological and behavioral effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and its interaction with common activities, such as moderate exercise training, have received little investigation. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and moderate exercise training ...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaj Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor sleep quality, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome (RLS and sleep apnea are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Clinical correlates of these problems are poorly understood. Aims: This study was to find out the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and subjects with ′high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA′ in adults with chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four adults with CKD were included. Their demographic data, details regarding kidney disease and hemodialysis (HD were recorded. Presence of insomnia and its severity was assessed. They were screened for sleep apnea using a validated questionnaire. Results: Average age was 54.17 (΁ 12.96 years. 89.4% had stage 5 nephropathy and 78.8% subjects were on regular HD. Males outnumbered females. Insomnia was reported by 35.5%. Among these, 50% had chronic insomnia. Insomnia subjects had higher prevalence of diabetes (P = 0.01 and depression (P < 0.001. Fifty-one percent subjects were at "high risk for sleep apnea". They had higher prevalence of diabetes (P < 0.001, coronary disease (P = 0.02, insomnia (P = 0.008, and experienced daytime symptoms of insomnia (P < 0.001. However, in the logistic regression, only male gender (odds ratio, OR = 13.59 and daytime symptoms of insomnia (OR = 7.34 were found to be associated with "higher risk for sleep apnea". Conclusion: Insomnia was prevalent in CKD. Nearly half of these patients are at high risk for sleep apnea and a third of them suffer from insomnia. Hence, these patients should be screened for sleep disorders.

  14. Sleep assessment in a population-based study of chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Michele

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disabling condition that affects approximately 800,000 adult Americans. The pathophysiology remains unknown and there are no diagnostic markers or characteristic physical signs or laboratory abnormalities. Most CFS patients complain of unrefreshing sleep and many of the postulated etiologies of CFS affect sleep. Conversely, many sleep disorders present similarly to CFS. Few studies characterizing sleep in unselected CFS subjects have been published and none have been performed in cases identified from population-based studies. Methods The study included 339 subjects (mean age 45.8 years, 77% female, 94.1% white identified through telephone screen in a previously described population-based study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas. They completed questionnaires to assess fatigue and wellness and 2 self-administered sleep questionnaires. Scores for five of the six sleep factors (insomnia/hypersomnia, non-restorative sleep, excessive daytime somnolence, sleep apnea, and restlessness in the Centre for Sleep and Chronobiology's Sleep Assessment Questionnaire© (SAQ© were dichotomized based on threshold. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was used as a continuous variable. Results 81.4% of subjects had an abnormality in at least one SAQ© sleep factor. Subjects with sleep factor abnormalities had significantly lower wellness scores but statistically unchanged fatigue severity scores compared to those without SAQ© abnormality. CFS subjects had significantly increased risk of abnormal scores in the non-restorative (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 28.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 7.4–107.0 and restlessness (OR = 16.0; 95% CI = 4.2–61.6 SAQ© factors compared to non-fatigued, but not for factors of sleep apnea or excessive daytime somnolence. This is consistent with studies finding that, while fatigued, CFS subjects are not sleepy. A strong correlation (0.78 of Epworth score was found only for the excessive

  15. Sleep Disturbance and Risk Behaviors among Inner-City African-American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Umlauf, Mary Grace; Bolland, John M.; Lian, Brad E.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents tend to experience more problems with sleep loss as a natural consequence of puberty, whereas teens from impoverished urban areas are likely to witness neighborhood violence and/or engage in risk behaviors that may affect sleep. Data from the Mobile Youth Survey, a longitudinal study of impoverished inner-city African-American adolescents (1998–2005; N = 20,716; age range = 9.75–19.25 years), were used to compare paired years of annual surveys elicited by questions about how sleep...

  16. Impaired sleep quality and sleep duration in smokers-results from the German Multicenter Study on Nicotine Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Cohrs, S.; Rodenbeck, A; Riemann, D.; Szagun, B.; Jaehne, A.; Brinkmeyer, J.; Grunder, G.; Wienker, T; Diaz-Lacava, A.; Mobascher, A.; Dahmen, N.; Thuerauf, N.; Kornhuber, J.; Kiefer, F.; Gallinat, J

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a severe health burden being related to a number of chronic diseases. Frequently, smokers report about sleep problems. Sleep disturbance, in turn, has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathophysiology of several disorders related to smoking and may be relevant for the pathophysiology of nicotine dependence. Therefore, determining the frequency of sleep disturbance in otherwise healthy smokers and its association with degree of nicotine dependence is highly relevant....

  17. The Role of Childhood Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Postpartum Sleep Disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Leslie M.; Hamilton, Lindsay; Muzik, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined sleep complaints in postpartum women with a past history of childhood trauma relative to postpartum women who were not exposed to childhood trauma. We also assessed whether sleep was differentially affected by the type of childhood trauma experienced and the relative contribution of posttraumatic stress disorder. Participants completed questionnaires related to mental health over the phone at four months postpartum (n = 173). We found that after adjusting for...

  18. Neurochemical Changes Associated with Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Rats: In Vivo and In Vitro Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Wan; Chung, Seockhoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Woo, Chul-Woong; Kim, Sang-Tae; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Jeong-Kon; Lee, Jin Seong; Choi, Choong Gon; Shim, Woo Hyun; Choi, Yoonseok; Woo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantitatively assess the changes in the cerebral neurochemical profile and to identify those factors that contribute to the alteration of endogenous biomolecules when rats are subjected to stress-induced sleep disturbance. We exposed Sprague-Dawley rats (controls: n = 9; stress-induced sleep perturbation rats: n = 11) to a psychological stressor (cage exchange method) to achieve stress-induced sleep perturbation. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging assessments were carried out using a high-resolution 9.4 T system. For in vivo neurochemical analysis, a single voxel was localized in the right dorsal hippocampal region, and in vivo spectra were quantified for 17 cerebral neurochemical signals. Rats were sacrificed upon completion of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy protocol, and whole-brain tissue was harvested from twenty subjects. The dopamine and serotonin signals were obtained by performing in vitro liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on the harvested tissue. In the right dorsal hippocampal region, the gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) and glutamine (Gln) concentrations were significantly higher in the sleep-perturbed rats than in the sham controls. The ratios of Gln/Glu (glutamate), Gln/tCr (total-creatine), and GABA/Glu were also significantly higher in the sleep-perturbed group, while serotonin concentrations were significantly lower in the sleep-perturbed rats. Pearson correlation results among individual rat data indicate that concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were significantly higher in SSP rats. A larger correlation coefficient was also observed for the SSP rats. Analysis of the correlation between the in vivo and in vitro signals indicated that the concentrations of Gln, 5-HT, and DA exhibited a significant negative correlation in the SSP rat data but not in that of control rats. The authors propose that the altered and correlated GABA, Gln, 5-HT, and DA concentrations/ratios could be considered

  19. Chronic Exposure to Everyday Discrimination and Sleep in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have suggested that poor sleep may play a role in the association between discrimination and health, but studies linking experiences of discrimination to sleep are limited. The authors examined associations between reports of everyday discrimination over four years (chronic everyday discrimination) and subjective and objective indicators of poor sleep. Methods Participants were 368 African-American, Caucasian, and Chinese women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Everyday discrimination was assessed each year from baseline through the third follow-up exam via questionnaire with the Everyday Discrimination Scale (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient over four years=.90). Subjective sleep complaints were measured beginning in year 5 with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Objective indices of sleep continuity, duration, and architecture were assessed via in-home polysomnography (PSG), beginning in year 5. Results In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and financial strain, chronic everyday discrimination was associated with more subjective sleep complaints (Estimate =1.52, p<.001) and PSG-assessed wakefulness after sleep onset (Estimate=.19, p<.02), a marker of sleep continuity. Findings did not differ by race/ethnicity and remained significant after adjusting for menopausal status, body mass index, medication use and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Experiences of chronic everyday discrimination are independently associated with both subjective and objective indices of poor sleep. Findings add to the growing literature linking discrimination to key markers of biobehavioral health. PMID:23088174

  20. A longitudinal study of CPAP therapy for patients with chronic cough and obstructive sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Krishna M.; Daly, Sarah E; Willis, Alika M

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cough patients are rendered therapies for gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD), upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) and cough-variant asthma (CVA) with varying benefit. Idiopathic or unexplained cough has emerged as an important clinical entity in both primary care and subspecialty clinics. Recent evidence points to a link between chronic cough and untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods A prospective observational study was done to evaluate the effect of OSA therapy in ...

  1. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källman Tiia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS, are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals.

  2. Annoyance, sleep disturbance, health aspects, perceived risk and residential satisfaction around Schiphol airport: Summary of results of a questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Evaluation and Monitoring Programme for Schiphol airport, a questionnaire on the prevalence of self-rated annoyance, sleep disturbance, perceived general health, respiratory complaints, satisfaction in the study area was sent to a randomly selected sample of 30,000 people living within 25 km of Schiphol airport. The purpose of this study was to assess these factors in relation to the exposure to aircraft noise and air pollution. Exposure to aircraft noise was based on model calculations. The airport`s proximity to the respondent`s home was used as a proxy for air pollution caused by aircraft. The survey response rate was 39%. The results of this study show that annoyance from aircraft noise is greater than expected, also when the effect of selective non-response is taken into account. There is a relation between aircraft noise and noise annoyance, sleep disturbance, perceived health, use of medication, risk perception and residential satisfaction in the study area. The proximity of the airport was directly related to annoyance due to odours and soot from aircraft, respiratory complaints, and the use of medication for asthma and/or allergy

  3. The mediating role of sleep disturbances in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and self-injurious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Ennis, Chelsea R; Oglesby, Mary E; Boffa, Joseph W; Joiner, Thomas E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-10-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with self-injurious behavior, it is currently unclear what mechanisms may account for this relationship. Sleep disturbances may be relevant as they are common among those with PTSD and are associated with emotion regulation difficulties, which may increase vulnerability to self-injurious behavior. As such, we investigated the relationship between PTSD and self-injurious behaviors, and the mediating roles of nightmares and insomnia. Hypotheses were tested cross-sectionally in a sample of psychology clinic outpatients (N=255). Participants completed a structured clinical interview assessing PTSD and self-report questionnaires measuring insomnia, nightmares, and self-injurious behaviors (i.e., Have you ever cut, burned, or scratched yourself on purpose?). PTSD was associated with self-injurious behavior after covarying for depression, and nightmare severity mediated the relationship between PTSD and self-injurious behavior. Findings are consistent with research indicating that sleep disturbances, specifically nightmares, are important predictors of poor outcomes among those with PTSD, and extend this research to suggest their role in self-injurious behaviors as well. PMID:26398304

  4. Barriers to Engagement in Sleep Restriction and Stimulus Control in Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Norah; Lewycky, Samantha; Finnegan, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Sleep restriction (SRT) and stimulus control (SC) have been found to be effective interventions for chronic insomnia (Morgenthaler et al., 2006), and yet adherence to SRT and SC varies widely. The objective of this study was to investigate correlates to adherence to SC/SRT among 40 outpatients with primary or comorbid insomnia using a…

  5. Investigating efficacy of two brief mind–body intervention programs for managing sleep disturbance in cancer survivors: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yoshio; Lipschitz, David L.; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y.; Gary W. Donaldson

    2013-01-01

    Purpose After completing treatment, cancer survivors may suffer from a multitude of physical and mental health impairments, resulting in compromised quality of life. This exploratory study investigated whether two mind–body interventions, i.e., Mind–Body Bridging (MBB) and Mindfulness Meditation (MM), could improve posttreatment cancer survivors’ self-reported sleep disturbance and comorbid symptoms, as compared to sleep hygiene education (SHE) as an active control. Methods This randomized co...

  6. Sleep disturbance effects of traffic noise—A laboratory study on after effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrström, E.; Rylander, R.

    1982-09-01

    Body movements during sleep and subjective sleep quality, as well as mood and performance were investigated after exposure to intermittent and continuous traffic noise during the night. In a first experiment, six young subjects slept in the laboratory for five nights; in a second experiment 12 subjects slept six consecutive nights in the laboratory. A good dose-response relationship was obtained between intermittent noise and subjective sleep quality: i.e., the higher the noise level, the poorer the sleep quality. A similar dose-response relationship was found for body movements immediately following noise peaks during nights with intermittent noise. Performance and mood tended to be worse after intermittent noise. However, these effects did not increase with an increase in noise levels. Compared with intermittent noise, continuous noise had a significantly smaller effect on sleep quality. Mood and performance were not worse after continuous noise. The results suggest that increased attention should be paid to peak noise levels when standards for nocturnal noise are set.

  7. Insomnia Co-Occurring with Chronic Pain: Clinical Features, Interaction, Assessments and Possible Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Nicole K. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Insomnia is a major source of distress to people with chronic pain; many of whom presenting for treatment want tangible help with sleep.Compared to chronic pain patients who do not have trouble sleeping, those who do, report more severe pain, longer pain duration, greater levels of anxiety, depression and health anxiety, and worse impairment in physical and psychosocial functioning.Sleep disturbance experienced by patients with chronic pain can be characterised by longer sleep onset, more fre...

  8. Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Zamarrón1, Vanesa García Paz1, Emilio Morete1, Felix del Campo Matías21Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago, Spain; 2Servicio de Neumologia, Hospital Universitario Rio Ortega de Vallaclolid, Vallaclolid, SpainAbstract: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are two diseases that often coexist within an individual. This coexistence is known as overlap syndrome and is the result of chance rather than a pathophysiological link. Although there are claims of a very high incidence of OSAS in COPD patients, recent studies report that it is similar to the general population. Overlap patients present sleep-disordered breathing associated to upper and lower airway obstruction and a reduction in respiratory drive. These patients present unique characteristics, which set them apart from either COPD or OSAS patients. COPD and OSAS are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events and their coexistence in overlap syndrome probably increases this risk. The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular risk are still unclear, but may involve systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and tonic elevation of sympathetic neural activity. The treatment of choice for overlap syndrome in stable patients is CPAP with supplemental oxygen for correction of upper airway obstructive episodes and hypoxemia during sleep.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, overlap syndrome, sleep, cardiovascular disease

  9. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy--repercussion on cardiovascular and renal functioning of male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L B Lima

    Full Text Available Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C and chronic sleep restricted (CSR. Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR. Indirect blood pressure (BPi - tail cuff was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127 ± 2.6 (19; OCSR: 144 ± 2.5 (17 mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: -2.6 ± 0.15 (9; OCRS: -1.6 ± 0.13 (9]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4 ± 15 (18; OSR: 60.2 ± 3.6 (16 UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4 ± 0.2 (10; OCSR: 7.4 ± 0.3 (7]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders in clinical practice, and cardiovascular diseases represent a major comorbidity in each disorder. The two disorders coexist (overlap syndrome) in approximately 1% of adults but asymptomatic lower airway obstruction together with sleep-disordered breathing is more prevalent. Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has similar prevalence in COPD as the general population, and vice versa, factors such as body mass index and smoking influence relationships. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation develops in COPD, independent of apnea\\/hypopnea, and is more severe in the overlap syndrome, thus predisposing to pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, upper airway flow limitation contributes to nocturnal desaturation in COPD without apnea\\/hypopnea. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, involving C-reactive protein and IL-6, in addition to nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8, provides insight into potential basic interactions between both disorders. Furthermore, oxidative stress develops in each disorder, in addition to activation and\\/or dysfunction of circulating leukocytes. These findings are clinically relevant because systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the cell\\/molecular pathways involved are similar to those identified in COPD and sleep apnea. However, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea is not proven, and thus, studies of patients with the overlap syndrome should provide insight into the mechanisms of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  11. Sleep depth and continuity before and after chronic exercise in older men: electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2015-03-01

    During later life sleep depth (slow-wave sleep, SWS) and maintenance exhibit deleterious changes, with possible negative effects on daytime function. This study assessed the effect of chronic, supervised exercise on sleep using laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) and repeated measures in older adults. Thirteen men aged 64±3served as their own controls and had their sleep measured for a total of 6 nights: 3 before and 3 after the 16-week training intervention. Each sequence involved 1 familiarization trial followed by 2 experimental nights (exercise night; nonexercise night) measured using 13-channel PSG (combined electroencephalography, electromyography, and electro-oculography). The exercise challenges consisted of inclined treadmill brisk walking (60min, 68-69% V˙O2peak). The intervention successfully improved some parameters of aerobic fitness, i.e. ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 (Psleep in comparison with the nonexercise condition before training, respectively 2.4% and 1.4% (Psleep continuity by decreasing total wake time. These results show that aerobic training could increase sleep depth and continuity, during active days, in elderly men. In habitual exercisers, these effects of aerobic exercise on sleep, although modest, might counteract those resulting from aging. PMID:25540930

  12. Exploring association between sleep deprivation and chronic periodontitis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep deprivation has become a global phenomenon, and epidemiologic data indicate that short sleep duration adversely impacts human physical health. Underlying mechanisms involve modulation of immune-inflammatory mechanisms. These changes might contribute to potentiation of destructive periodontal disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess if there is an association of sleep deprivation with chronic periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects were categorized into 3 groups (n = 20 each viz. clinically healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis. Periodontal status of subjects was assessed by gingival index and pocket probing depth. All the study subjects were administered Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire for the assessment of sleep deprivation. Results: Present investigation revealed that mean PSQI was highest in the periodontitis group as compared to other two groups and the difference among three groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study with preliminary results suggestive of the association of sleep deprivation with severity of periodontal disease, definitely calls on for future studies with larger samples.

  13. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  14. The Neurobiology of Orofacial Pain and Sleep and Their Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Sessle, B J

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the neurobiology of orofacial pain as well as the neural processes underlying sleep, with a particular focus on the mechanisms that underlie pain and sleep interactions including sleep disorders. Acute pain is part of a hypervigilance system that alerts the individual to injury or potential injury of tissues. It can also disturb sleep. Disrupted sleep is often associated with chronic pain states, including those that occur in the orofacial region. The article presents many insights that have been gained in the last few decades into the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in orofacial pain and its modulation, as well as the circuits and processes in the central nervous system that underlie sleep. Although it has become clear that sleep is essential to preserve and maintain health, it has also been found that pain, particularly chronic pain, is commonly associated with disturbed sleep. In the presence of chronic pain, a circular relationship may prevail, with mutual deleterious influences causing an increase in pain and a disruption of sleep. This article also reviews findings that indicate that reducing orofacial pain and improving sleep need to be targeted together in the management of acute to chronic orofacial pain states in order to improve an orofacial pain patient's quality of life, to prevent mood alterations or exacerbation of sleep disorder (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) that can negatively affect their pain, and to promote healing and optimize their health. PMID:27154736

  15. Psycho-cognitive behavioral problems in sleep disordered children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaneh Karimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in childhood and adolescence. Sleep problems in early infants tend to be persistent and prominent in preschool and school-aged children. Chronic sleep disorders, especially in young children may lead to neurobehavioral problems and psycho-cognitive impairment. Sleep difficulties may be the result of underlying medical conditions, (breathing disorders) or psychological problems. Research studies have shown the association between sleep disorders and day time cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, poor school performance and inattention in children. Appropriate diagnosis and early management of sleep disorders in children lead to improvement of neurocognitive function and behavioral problems in these children.

  16. Investigation Analysis of Sleep Disturbances Epidemiology%睡眠障碍流行病学调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓峰; 孙林; 张慧珍; 张小莉; 赵丽红; 赵来峰; 惠峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the incidence of sleep disturbance and severity. Methods:Random sampling 385 peolpe sleep quality index(pittsburgh PSQl).Results:①The total score of PSQI has 82 survey participants≥7, the incidence rate is 2130%;The total score of PSQI has 106 survey participants between 5-6,the incidence rate is 27.53%.② On-the-job cadres than retired cadres in critical sleep disorders. ③At bedtime,sleep efficiency,dncy hypnoticfactor score of cadres, on-the-job below retirement cadres daytime dysfunction On-the-job cadres above retired cadres.Conclusion:①Sleep disorders has become atrowbled and serious influence most cadres life quality of psychological and physiological disease. ②We have concentrated on insomniacs at the same time,more attention should be paid on-the-job cadres in critical insomnia state of cadres.%目的:了解睡眠障碍的发生率和严重程度.方法:对随机抽样的某市385人进行了匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)问卷调查.结果:①PSQI量表总分≥7分有82人,发生率为21.30%;5~6分有106人,发生率为27.53% .②现职干部中处于临界失眠状态的人数明显多于退休干部.③在入睡时间、睡眠效率、药物催眠因子均分上,现职干部低于离退休干部,日间功能障碍现职干部高于离退休干部.结论:①睡眠障碍成为困扰并严重影响绝大多数干部生活质量的心理生理疾病.②在关注失眠者的同时,更要关注现职干部中处于临界失眠症状态的人群,应对这部分人群进行适当的干预,以防止其进一步发展为失眠症.

  17. Field study on the impact of nocturnal road traffic noise on sleep: the importance of in- and outdoor noise assessment, the bedroom location and nighttime noise disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrera, Sandra; De Valck, Elke; Cluydts, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this field study is to gain more insight into the way nocturnal road traffic noise impacts the sleep of inhabitants living in noisy regions, by taking into account several modifying variables. Participants were tested during five consecutive nights in their homes and comparisons between effective indoor and outdoor noise levels (LAeq, LAmax, number of noise events), sleep (actigraphy and sleep logs) and aspects of well-being (questionnaires) were made. Also, we investigated into what extent nocturnal noise exposure - objectively measured as well as perceived - directly relates to sleep outcomes and how the bedroom location influenced our measurements. We found that subjects living and sleeping in noisy regions correctly perceive their environment in terms of noise exposure and reported an overall discomfort due to traffic noise. In the evaluation of the objective noise levels, the inside noise levels did not follow the outside noise levels, though the different noise patterns could be described as characteristic for a noise and quiet environment. The impact on sleep, however, was only modest and we did not find any influence of noise intrusion on mood or pre-sleep arousal levels. Concerning the subjectively reported noise disturbances during the night, a clear relationship between noise and sleep outcomes could be established; with sleep onset latencies and judged sleep quality being particularly affected. The importance of inside and outside noise assessment as well as the use of multiple noise indicators in a home environment is further described. Additional emphasis is put on the determination of quiet control regions and the bedroom location, as this can alter noise levels and sleep outcomes. Also, including subjective noise evaluations during the night might not only provide crucial information on how participants experience the noise, but also allows for a more qualitative interpretation of the actual noise situation. PMID:25217747

  18. Chronically Restricted Sleep Leads to Depression-Like Changes in Neurotransmitter Receptor Sensitivity and Neuroendocrine Stress Reactivity in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novati, Arianna; Roman, Viktor; Cetin, Timur; Hagewoud, Roelina; den Boer, Johan A.; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our Western society. In the long run, insufficient sleep may have repercussions for health and may sensitize individuals to psychiatric diseases. In this context, we applied an animal model of chronic

  19. Chronic intermittent hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea: an experimental and clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sforza E

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emilia Sforza, Fréderic Roche Service de Physiologie Clinique et de l'Exercice, Pole NOL, CHU, EA SNA-EPIS 4607, Faculté de Médecine J. Lisfranc, UJM Saint-Etienne, Université de Lyon, Saint-Etienne, France Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a prevalent sleep disorder considered as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, metabolic disorders, and cognitive dysfunction. The pathogenesis of OSA-related consequence is assumed to be chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH inducing alterations at the molecular level, oxidative stress, persistent systemic inflammation, oxygen sensor activation, and increase of sympathetic activity. Overall, these mechanisms have an effect on vessel permeability and are considered to be important factors for explaining vascular, metabolic, and cognitive OSA-related consequences. The present review attempts to examine together the research paradigms and clinical studies on the effect of acute and chronic IH and the potential link with OSA. We firstly describe the literature data on the mechanisms activated by acute and chronic IH at the experimental level, which are very helpful and beneficial to explaining OSA consequences. Then, we describe in detail the effect of IH in patients with OSA that we can consider "the human model" of chronic IH. In this way, we can better understand the specific pathophysiological mechanisms proposed to explain the consequences of IH in OSA. Keywords: hypoxia, intermittent hypoxia, experimental studies, obstructive sleep apnea

  20. Disturbed Subjective Sleep in Chinese Females with Type 2 Diabetes on Insulin Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yingxiang; Ye, Xiao; Ye, Leqin; Li, Bijun; Wang, Lijun; Hua, Yanyin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and determine the possible risk factors of poor sleep quality in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatment. Methods 140 type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatments were enrolled in our study. General characteristics and laboratory testing such glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG) were measured. Every patient completed Chinese version of Pittsbur...

  1. Rhythm disturbances in childhood obstructive sleep apnea during apnea-hypopnea episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Khositseth

    2013-01-01

    Methods: In a retrospective cross sectional study, records of children aged < 15 years with history of snoring and suspected OSA, who had undergone polysomnography (PSG for first time were analyzed. The cardiac rhythm and heart rate variability were studied during PSG. Results: A total of 124 patients diagnosed with OSA were grouped into mild ( n = 52, moderate ( n = 30, and severe ( n = 42 OSA. During PSG, all had sinus arrhythmias and only three patients had premature atrial contractions (PACs. The standard deviation of heart rate (SD-HR during rapid eye movement (REM sleep in severe OSA (9.1 ± 2.4 was significantly higher than SD-HR in mild OSA (7.5 ± 1.3, P < 0.0001. The maximum heart rate (max-HR during REM-sleep in severe OSA (132.1 ± 22.1 was significantly higher than the max-HR in mild OSA (121.3 ± 12.6 bpm, P = 0.016. Conclusions: There was no significant arrhythmia in children with OSA during their sleep. Heart rate variability correlated with the severity of OSA.

  2. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuya; Akinori, Ebihara; Yogo, Yurika; Sakamaki, Fumio; Suzuki, Yukio; Suemasu, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    Sleep-related disordered breathing (SDB) and its influence on desaturation were examined in stable COPD patients with waking SpO2 > 90%. With respiratory inductance plethysmography, thoracic-abdominal respiratory movements for all events with more than 4% desaturation were analyzed in 26 patients. Types of SDB were confirmed by full polysomnography. Irregular breathing induced desaturation, while stable respiration continued during some desaturation events. Three types of altered ventilation were observed: hypoventilation, paradoxical movement and periodic breathing. An unusual type of paradoxical movement, with normal airflow despite progressive desaturation, was observed in REM sleep. Patients were divided into desaturation (15 patients) and non-desaturation (11 patients) groups. Daytime arterial blood gas, lung function values, and 6-min walking distance did not differ. Awake, mode, maximum and minimum nocturnal SpO2 were lower in the desaturation group. SDB-induced desaturation events in the desaturation group were more frequent (9.2+/-3.5 vs. 1.8+/-2.2 times), a greater SpO2 decrease (11.4+/-7.1% vs. 5.2+/-2.1%) and longer duration (73.2+/-34.8 vs. 18.8+/-39.0 min). Patterns of SDB in the desaturation group were hypoventilation (74.4+/-23.4%), paradoxical movement (10.2+/-14.5%), periodic breathing (12.1+/-18.3%) and unclassified (5.8+/-11.2%). These results reveal that lower SpO2 and SDB influence nocturnal desaturation in stable COPD patients. PMID:17136951

  3. Qigong Exercise Alleviates Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, Improves Sleep Quality, and Shortens Sleep Latency in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS)...

  4. Qigong Exercise Alleviates Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, Improves Sleep Quality, and Shortens Sleep Latency in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Jessie S. M. Chan; Ho, Rainbow T. H.; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Ng, Siu-man; Chan, Cecilia L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods:. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChF...

  5. Correlation between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a general population in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnea syndrome in a sample of Persian population. Methods: As a part of a population-based cross-sectional study, 3900 randomly selected individuals aged 15 years or older were invited to take part in the survey; 3770 individuals (96.6% agreed to fill out the respiratory and sleep questionnaire. Those subjects suspected to have either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and/or obstructive sleep apnea underwent spirometry and polysomnography test if indicated. Spirometric measurements were performed on 420 invited responders. Polysomnography measurements were performed on 25 of the responders. Results: Prevalence rates for sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and current asthma were 4.98%, 5.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Logistic regression showed independent associations between sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There was no significant independent association between sleep apnea symptoms and current asthma and wheeze ever. Conclusions: These observations indicated relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea. These observations indicated the necessity of further studies to explain the possible common pathogenic mechanisms involved in two disease entities.

  6. Exercise Improves Immune Function, Antidepressive Response, and Sleep Quality in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Soares Passos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on sleep, depression, cortisol, and markers of immune function in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Twenty-one sedentary participants (16 women aged 44.7 ± 9 years with chronic primary insomnia completed a 4-month intervention of moderate aerobic exercise. Compared with baseline, polysomnographic data showed improvements following exercise training. Also observed were reductions in depression symptoms and plasma cortisol. Immunologic assays revealed a significant increase in plasma apolipoprotein A (140.9 ± 22 to 151.2 ± 22 mg/dL and decreases in CD4 (915.6 ± 361 to 789.6 ± 310 mm3 and CD8 (532.4 ± 259 to 435.7 ± 204 mm3. Decreases in cortisol were significantly correlated with increases in total sleep time (r=-0.51 and REM sleep (r=-0.52. In summary, long-term moderate aerobic exercise training improved sleep, reduced depression and cortisol, and promoted significant changes in immunologic variables.

  7. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach to coexistent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Jelic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanja JelicDivision of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The high prevalence of both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Western societies is well documented. However, OSA frequently remains unrecognized and untreated among patients with COPD. Patients with both conditions have a greater risk for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events compared with patients with COPD or OSA alone. Efficacious treatment with continuous positive airway pressure reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications in patients with OSA. The aim of the present review is to discuss the diagnostic approach to patients with both conditions and to delineate the benefits of timely ecognition and treatment of OSA in patients with COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea, continuous positive airway pressure, nocturnal arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation

  8. The effect of nocturnal wear of complete dentures on sleep and oral health related quality of life: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Emami, Elham; Nguyen, Phan The Huy; Almeida, Fernanda R.; Feine, Jocelyne S.; Karp, Igor; Lavigne, Gilles; Huynh, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Background Edentulism and sleep disturbance are chronic conditions that are common in older people and have serious adverse consequences for their functioning and quality of life. Edentulism can disturb sleep through the alteration of the craniofacial structure and surrounding soft tissue. However, the effect of prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulism on sleep quality is still not well understood. The objectives of this study are to test whether nocturnal denture wear affects sleep quality, d...

  9. Sleep-disordered breathing and oxidative stress in preclinical chronic mountain sickness (excessive erythrocytosis)

    OpenAIRE

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Vargas, Enrique; Gonzales, Marcelino; Dávila, R. Daniela; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Schoo, Caroline; Powers, Robert W.; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Moore, Lorna G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is considered to be a loss of ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude (>2500 m) resulting in marked arterial hypoxemia and polycythemia. This case-control study explores the possibility that sleep-disordered breathing (SBD) and associated oxidative stress contribute to the etiology of CMS. Nocturnal respiratory and SaO2 patterns were measured using standard polysomnography techniques and compared between male high-altitude residents (aged 18–25) with precl...

  10. Efficacy of physical activity counseling plus sleep restriction therapy on the patients with chronic insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang J.; Yin G; Li G.; Liang W; Wei Q

    2015-01-01

    Jihui Wang, Guangxia Yin, Guanying Li, Wenjing Liang, Qinling Wei Department of Psychiatry, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: Lack of physical activity (PA) is common in patients with chronic insomnia. Studies to increase PA and decrease sedentary behavior in those patients are limited. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of “PA counseling combined with sleep restriction (SR) therapy (PASR)&r...

  11. The effects of daily mood and couple interactions on the sleep quality of older adults with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunmi; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Mogle, Jacqueline; Martire, Lynn M

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of daily negative and positive mood on the sleep quality of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients (N = 152) and whether a partner's daily responses to a patient's pain behaviors moderated these associations. Patients and their partners completed a baseline interview and 22 daily diary assessments. After controlling for demographic characteristics, OA severity, comorbidities, medication use, relationship satisfaction, and depressed mood, multilevel modeling analyses demonstrated main effects of negative and positive mood on sleep quality indicators. Mood and partner responses interacted such that high solicitous and punishing responses strengthened the association between negative mood and worse sleep. Further, high solicitous responses increased the degree of association between low positive mood and poor sleep, and empathic responses combined with positive mood were associated with better sleep. Results demonstrate that daily negative and positive mood fluctuations can interact with partner responses to affect sleep quality among older adults with chronic pain. PMID:26143147

  12. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J.; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1–R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12–R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (Clinical

  13. Symptoms of Depressed Mood, Disturbed Sleep, and Sexual Problems in Midlife Women: Cross-Sectional Data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Luther, James; Hess, Rachel; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Wisner, Katherine L.; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women report many nonvasomotor symptoms across the menopausal transition, including sleep disturbances, depressed mood, and sexual problems. The co-occurrence of these three symptoms may represent a specific menopausal symptom triad. We sought to evaluate the interrelatedness of disturbed sleep, depressed mood, and sexual problems in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and determine the characteristics of women exhibiting this symptom triad. Methods: SWAN is a multisite, multiethnic observational cohort study of the menopausal transition in the United States. Sleep disturbance, sexual problems, and depressed mood were determined based on self-report. Women who reported all three symptoms simultaneously were compared to those who did not. Logistic regression models estimated the association of demographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics with the symptom triad. Results: Study participants (n=1716) were 49.8 years old on average and primarily in very good or excellent health. Sixteen and a half percent had depressed mood, 36.6% had a sleep problem, and 42.2% had any sexual problem. Five percent of women (n=90) experienced all three symptoms. Women with the symptom triad compared with those without had lower household incomes, less education, were surgically postmenopausal or late perimenopausal, rated their general health as fair or poor, and had more stressful life events and lower social support. Conclusions: The symptom triad of sleep disturbance, depressed mood, and sexual problems occurred in only 5% of women, and occurred most often among women with lower socioeconomic status, greater psychosocial distress, and who were surgically menopausal or in the late perimenopause. PMID:25621768

  14. Better Quality Sleep Promotes Daytime Physical Activity in Patients with Chronic Pain? A Multilevel Analysis of the Within-Person Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Nicole K. Y.; Sanborn, Adam N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Promoting physical activity is key to the management of chronic pain, but little is understood about the factors facilitating an individual’s engagement in physical activity on a day-to-day basis. This study examined the within-person effect of sleep on next day physical activity in patients with chronic pain and insomnia. Methods 119 chronic pain patients monitored their sleep and physical activity for a week in their usual sleeping and living environment. Physical activity was me...

  15. Better Quality Sleep Promotes Daytime Physical Activity in Patients with Chronic Pain? A Multilevel Analysis of the Within-Person Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Nicole K. Y.; Sanborn, Adam N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Promoting physical activity is key to the management of chronic pain, but little is understood about the factors facilitating an individual's engagement in physical activity on a day-to-day basis. This study examined the within-person effect of sleep on next day physical activity in patients with chronic pain and insomnia. METHODS: 119 chronic pain patients monitored their sleep and physical activity for a week in their usual sleeping and living environment. Physical activity was ...

  16. SLEEP DURATION: MODERN VIEW OF THE PROBLEM FROM THE STANDPOINT OF A CARDIOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the role of disturbances in sleep duration in the development of various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases is known and proven. In addition, the results of many clinical studies demonstrate the relationship between impaired sleep duration and the rate of telomere shortening. In turn, short telomeres are associated with the development of arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure, atherosclerosis and other diseases with high mortality both in Russia and worldwide. This article presents an overview of the clinical studies demonstrating the negative effect of sleep duration disturbances on total and cardiovascular mortality, as well as works that specify in detail the relation between sleep duration and telomere length.

  17. Modeling the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin on self-reported changes in sleep disturbances in outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder managed in routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz MA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Miguel A Ruiz,1 Enrique Álvarez,2 Jose L Carrasco,3 José M Olivares,4 María Pérez,5 Javier Rejas6 1Department of Methodology, School of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau, Barcelona, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, 4Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Meixoeiro, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Vigo, 5Medical Department, Pfizer, S.L.U., Alcobendas, Madrid, 6Health Economics and Outcomes Research Department, Pfizer, S.L.U., Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain Background: Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being one of the most common. Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in GAD patients. While treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across many controlled clinical trials, mediational analysis has suggested that a substantial portion of this effect could be the result of a direct effect of pregabalin. Thus, the objective of this study was to model the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin or usual care (UC therapies on changes in sleep in outpatients with GAD under routine clinical practice. Methods: Male and female GAD outpatients, aged 18 years or above, from a 6-month prospective noninterventional trial were analyzed. Direct and indirect effects of either pregabalin or UC changes in anxiety symptoms (assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale and sleep disturbances (assessed with Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale [MOS-S] were estimated by a conditional latent curve model applying structural equation modeling. Results: A total of 1,546 pregabalin-naïve patients were analyzed, 984 receiving pregabalin and 562 UC. Both symptoms of anxiety and sleep disturbances were significantly improved in both groups, with higher mean (95% confidence interval score reductions in subjects receiving

  18. Self-reported sleep quality and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiger-Brown J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeanne Geiger-Brown,1 Sarah Lindberg,2 Samuel Krachman,3 Charlene E McEvoy,4 Gerard J Criner,3 John E Connett,2 Richard K Albert,5 Steven M Scharf6 1Center for Health Outcomes Research, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, 2University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Division of Biostatistics, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 4Health Partners Institute of Education and Research, St Paul, MN, 5The Medicine Service, Denver Health and Department of Medicine, the University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, 6Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD suffer from poor sleep quality. We hypothesized that poor sleep quality in otherwise stable patients predicted exacerbations in these patients. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the results of a previously published randomized trial of azithromycin in 1,117 patients with moderate to severe COPD who were clinically stable on enrollment. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Other quality of life indices included the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey and the St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire. Outcomes included time to first exacerbation and exacerbation rate. Results: Sleep quality was “poor” (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5 in 53% of participants but was not related to age or severity of airflow obstruction. Quality of life scores were worse in “poor” sleepers than in “good” sleepers. Major classes of comorbid conditions, including psychiatric, neurologic, and musculoskeletal disease, were more prevalent in the “poor” sleepers. Unadjusted time to first exacerbation was shorter (190 versus 239 days and exacerbation rate (1

  19. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience sleepless nights and fatigue. Medically – It disturbs sleeping patterns and deprives the snorer of adequate rest. It ... snacks for three hours before retiring. • Establish regular sleeping patterns. • Sleep on your side rather than your back. • ...

  20. The Effectiveness of Hypnotherapy in Treating Depression, Anxiety and Sleep Disturbance Caused by Subjective Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with tinnitus encounter many problems, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, increased sensitivity to sound, and negativity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy on the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus. Materials and Methods: This study was a pilot research with a pretest-posttest and control design. The statistical population included individuals who suffered from tinnitus and its associated symptoms. Twenty patients with tinnitus were selected through available sampling. The subjects were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. Both groups completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in both pretest and post-test phases. Only the experimental group received 10 sessions of hypnotherapy. In this study, independent and dependent t-tests were used to obtain the data.Results: The two groups were similar in terms of tinnitus severity and age range. The results of independent and dependent t-tests at p=0.05 level in all three variables of depression, anxiety, and insomnia showed a significant difference between the scores of pretest and post-test as well as the post-test scores of control and experimental groups.Conclusion: The results indicated the effectiveness and usefulness of hypnotherapy in the reduction and treatment of the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus in the experimental group.

  1. A cloud computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic diseases collaborative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hung, Shu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a Cloud Computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic disease collaborative research. The platform consists of two main components: (1) a sensing bed sheet with textile sensors to automatically record patient's sleep behaviors and vital signs, and (2) a service-oriented cloud computing architecture (SOCCA) that provides a data repository and allows for sharing and analysis of collected data. Also, we describe our systematic approach to implementing the SOCCA. We believe that the new cloud-based platform can provide nurse and other health professional researchers located in differing geographic locations with a cost effective, flexible, secure and privacy-preserved research environment. PMID:24943526

  2. Sleep without drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Giblin, M J; Clift, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbed sleep is a common problem, particularly among elderly people, and is usually treated with hypnotics. The side effects of longterm administration of hypnotic drugs are well known, but despite this there remains a substantial population of chronic users. These people can be helped to reduce their dependence on hypnotics through psychological techniques. A group of longterm users treated in this manner were shown to reduce their intake of hypnotics significantly more than a group of us...

  3. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on the Sleep Quality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal İn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is well known that various sleep disorders are common in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, restless legs syndrome (RLS has not been extensively studied in these patients. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of RLS and its impact on sleep quality in patients with COPD. Methods: The study included a total of 50 patients with COPD with a mean age of 67.2±7.7 years; 39 (78% were male. The RLS diagnosis was made based on the questionnaire items standardized by the International RLS study group. Dyspnea severity (mMRC, quality of life (CAT, sleep quality [Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI], and daytime sleepiness [Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS] were evaluated using certain specific questionnaires. The subjects were studied in two groups: RLS-positive and RLS-negative groups. Results: In the study population, RLS was detected in 17 (34% patients. It was found that the RLS-positive subjects had a longer disease duration (p=0.006, a higher hospital admission rate (p=0.008, and lower spirometric values (p=0.023 for FVC; p=0.001 for FEV1. The CAT score was significantly higher in the RLS-positive group (p=0.019. The RLS-positive group had higher PSQI and ESS scores (p<0.001 for both. There were negative correlations between PSQI, ESS scores, and spirometric measures (FVC and FEV1, whereas PSQI and ESS scores had positive correlations with disease duration, mMRC, and CAT scores. Conclusion: In our study, it was observed that RLS is a common condition in patients with COPD. As the duration and severity of COPD increases, RLS becomes more prevalent and sleep quality deteriorates.

  4. The effect of MELatOnin on Depression, anxietY, cognitive function and sleep disturbances in patients with breast cancer. The MELODY trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt; Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Hageman, Ida;

    2012-01-01

    morbidity and mortality. Melatonin is a regulatory circadian hormone having, among others, a hypnotic and an antidepressive effect. It has very low toxicity and very few adverse effects compared with the more commonly used antidepressants and hypnotics. Methods and analysis The objective of this double......-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial is to investigate whether treatment with oral melatonin has a prophylactic or ameliorating effect on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction in women with breast cancer. Furthermore, the authors will examine whether a specific clock......-gene, PER3, is correlated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbances or cognitive dysfunction. The MELODY trial is a prospective double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in which the authors intend to include 260 patients. The primary outcome is depressive symptoms...

  5. Intraspecific variation in physiological condition of reef-building corals associated with differential levels of chronic disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pisapia

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching, corals are subject to high levels of partial or whole-colony mortality, often caused by chronic and small-scale disturbances. Depending on levels of background mortality, these chronic disturbances may undermine individual fitness and have significant consequences on the ability of colonies to withstand subsequent acute disturbances or environmental change. This study quantified intraspecific variations in physiological condition (measured based on total lipid content and zooxanthellae density through time in adult colonies of two common and widespread coral species (Acropora spathulata and Pocillopora damicornis, subject to different levels of biological and physical disturbances along the most disturbed reef habitat, the crest. Marked intraspecific variation in the physiological condition of A. spathulata was clearly linked to differences in local disturbance regimes and habitat. Specifically, zooxanthellae density decreased (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B =  -121255, p = 0.03 and total lipid content increased (r2 = 14, df = 5,42, p = 0.01, B = 0.9, p = 0.01 with increasing distance from exposed crests. Moreover, zooxanthellae density was strongly and negatively correlated with the individual level of partial mortality (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B =  -7386077, p = 0.01. Conversely, P. damicornis exhibited very limited intraspecific variation in physiological condition, despite marked differences in levels of partial mortality. This is the first study to relate intraspecific variation in the condition of corals to localized differences in chronic disturbance regimes. The next step is to ascertain whether these differences have further ramifications for susceptibility to periodic acute disturbances, such as climate-induced coral bleaching.

  6. [Sleep psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  7. Sleep is associated with task-negative brain activity in fibromyalgia participants with comorbid chronic insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatthauer KE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Karlyn E Vatthauer,1 Jason G Craggs,1 Michael E Robinson,1 Roland Staud,2 Richard B Berry,2 William M Perlstein,1 Christina S McCrae11Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Patients with chronic pain exhibit altered default mode network (DMN activity. This preliminary project questioned whether comorbid disease states are associated with further brain alterations. Thirteen women with fibromyalgia (FM only and 26 women with fibromyalgia with comorbid chronic insomnia (FMI underwent a single night of ambulatory polysomnography and completed a sleep diary each morning for 14 days prior to performing a neuroimaging protocol. Novel imaging analyses were utilized to identify regions associated with significantly disordered sleep that were more active in task-negative periods than task-oriented periods in participants with FMI, when compared to participants with FM. It was hypothesized that core DMN areas (ie, cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule, medial prefrontal cortex, medial temporal cortex, precuneus would exhibit increased activity during task-negative periods. Analyses revealed that significantly disordered sleep significantly contributed to group differences in the right cingulate gyrus, left lentiform nucleus, left anterior cingulate, left superior gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, right caudate, and the left inferior parietal lobules. Results suggest that FMI may alter some brain areas of the DMN, above and beyond FM. However, future work will need to investigate these results further by controlling for chronic insomnia only before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of FMI comorbidity on the DMN.Keywords: insomnia, fibromyalgia, neuroimaging, task-negative, brain activity, comorbidity

  8. Lower grade chronic inflammation is associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宏霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the existence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS)in patients with type 2 diabetes(T2DM) is associated with low grade chronic inflammation.Methods Fifty-four patients hospitalized for poor glycemic control from 12/2008 to 12/2009 were divided into 2 groups,OSAS group(T2DM with OSAS,27 cases)and NOSAS group(T2DM without OSAS,27 cases).The control group consisted of 26people from a health check-up program without diabetes

  9. Severe Central Sleep Apnea Associated With Chronic Baclofen Therapy: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Pierre-Yves; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Gentina, Thibaut; Launois, Sandrine H; d'Ortho, Marie Pia; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-B agonist with muscle-relaxant properties, is widely used in patients with severe spasticity. In animals, baclofen has been shown to decrease respiratory drive. In humans, however, use of baclofen at the standard dose did not significantly impair sleep-disordered breathing in a susceptible population of snorers. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the role of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence. We describe severe central sleep apnea (CSA) in four patients with none of the conditions commonly associated with CSA who were receiving chronic baclofen therapy for alcohol withdrawal. In one patient, baclofen withdrawal was associated with a complete resolution of CSA. Three patients were treated by adaptive servo-ventilation while continuing their treatment with baclofen. Given the increasing number of patients receiving baclofen for alcohol withdrawal treatment, physicians should be aware that these patients might be affected by severe CSA. Future studies are required to determine the mechanisms, prevalence, and treatment modalities of sleep-disordered breathing associated with baclofen usage. PMID:27157226

  10. Correlation between obesity and chronic kidney disease: is obstructive sleep apnea an interfering factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Camilo M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariana Santos-Camilo, Stefanie Pires Arães, Camila Hirotsu, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil The increasing prevalence of obesity can be considered an alarming issue throughout the world.1 In only 4 years, for example, the People’s Republic of China has experienced an increase in the overweight population from 29.1% to 34.4%.2 Therefore, we would like to congratulate Xu et al3 for conducting an elegant study on a less explored topic: the accumulation of visceral fat in kidney disease. The rise in obesity may result, at least in part, from changes in lifestyle, currently characterized by sedentary, poor eating, and sleep habits. The reduction in sleep duration is known to predispose individuals to obesity by increasing the white adipose tissue deposits such as visceral fat.4,5 Of note, obesity and visceral fat accumulation are etiopathological factors for both chronic kidney disease (CKD and sleep disorders.6,7  View the original paper by Xu et al

  11. Is There a Chronic Elevation in Organ-Tissue Sleeping Metabolic Rate in Very Fit Runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Taishi; Tanaka, Shigeho; Ando, Takafumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Masayuki, Konishi; Ohta, Megumi; Torii, Suguru; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the resting metabolic rate of individual organ-tissue in adults with high aerobic fitness is higher than that in untrained adults; in fact, this topic has been debated for years using a two-component model. To address this issue, in the present study, we examined the relationship between the measured sleeping energy expenditure (EE) by using an indirect human calorimeter (IHC) and the calculated resting EE (REE) from organ-tissue mass using magnetic resonance imaging, along with the assumed metabolic rate constants in healthy adults. Seventeen healthy male long-distance runners were recruited and grouped according to the median V·O2peak: very fit group (>60 mL/min/kg; n = 8) and fit group (<60 mL/min/kg; n = 9). Participants performed a graded exercise test for determining V·O2peak; X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging were used to determine organ-tissue mass, and IHC was used to determine sleeping EE. The calculated REE was estimated as the sum of individual organ-tissue masses multiplied by their metabolic rate constants. No significant difference was observed in the measured sleeping EE, calculated REE, and their difference, as well as in the slopes and intercepts of the two regression lines between the groups. Moreover, no significant correlation between V·O2peak and the difference in measured sleeping EE and calculated REE was observed for all subjects. Thus, aerobic endurance training does not result in a chronic elevation in the organ-tissue metabolic rate in cases with V·O2peak of approximately 60 mL/min/kg.

  12. Sleep disturbances are related to decreased transmission of blue light to the retina caused by lens yellowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Siganos, Galatios; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    Sleep pattern and circadian rhythms are regulated via the retinohypothalamic tract in response to stimulation of a subset of retinal ganglion cells, predominantly by blue light (450-490 nm). With age, the transmission of blue light to the retina is reduced because of the aging process of the human...... lens, and this may impair the photoentrainment of circadian rhythm leading to sleep disorders. The aim of the study was to examine the association between lens aging and sleep disorders....

  13. Melatonin Treatment in Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Chronic Insomnia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Smits, M.; Curfs, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While several small-number or open-label studies suggest that melatonin improves sleep in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) with chronic sleep disturbance, a larger randomized control trial is necessary to validate these promising results. Methods: The effectiveness of melatonin for the treatment of chronic sleep…

  14. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p  Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  15. Relationship between Chronic Short Sleep Duration and Childhood Body Mass Index: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pileggi

    Full Text Available To assess relationship between obesity and chronic shorter sleep duration in children and to determine if lack of sleep represents an independent determinant of childhood Body Mass Index.This cross-sectional study was conducted in all children enrolled in the fifth class (approximately 10 years of age of all public primary schools in Catanzaro (Southern Italy. The overall response rate was 62% resulting in 542 participating children. Parents completed a questionnaire with information on their demographics and socio-economic characteristics, their health status, characteristics of their child birth and health status. The sleeping habits were investigated in the 3 months preceding the consultation and parents were asked to indicate hours of bedtime and wake-up of their children. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association between child BMI and chronic lack of sleep.36.7% of the children surveyed were overweight or obese. A quarter of children did not routinely play sports and many of them spent more than an hour a day watching TV (60.7% and using videogames or computer (51.1%. Widespread dietary habits were inadequate, especially concerning vegetables and fruit intake with more than 95% of children who consumed insufficient amounts. The average duration of sleep was equal to 9.4 (SD = ±0.6 hours, and the short-sleepers accounted for 38.9% of the total sample. The results of multivariate analysis showed a significant 0.77 Kg/m(2 increase of BMI for children classified as short compared to normal sleepers (95%CI = 0.16-1.38, p = 0.01.Chronic lack of sleep appears to be associated to higher BMI even in middle childhood and strongly suggests that public health strategies, focused on promoting healthy lifestyles should include an innovative approach to ensure an adequate duration of sleep at night especially in children, alongside more traditional approaches.

  16. Changes in Sleep Problems and Psychological Flexibility following Interdisciplinary Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain: An Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly-Eichenhardt, Aisling; Scott, Whitney; Howard-Jones, Matthew; Nicolaou, Thaleia; McCracken, Lance M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT) for sleep problems and chronic pain have shown good results, although these results could improve. More recent developments based on the psychological flexibility model, the model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may offer a useful addition to traditional CBT. The aim of this study was to examine whether an ACT-based treatment for chronic pain is associated with improved sleep. Secondly, we examined the associations between changes on measures of psychological flexibility and sleep-related outcomes. Methods: The study used an observational cohort methodology. Participants were 252 patients (73.8% female) attending a 4-week, interdisciplinary, pain management program in London, United Kingdom. Participants completed standard self-report measures of pain and functioning, sleep outcomes, and processes of psychological flexibility. Pre- to post-treatment, and pre-treatment to follow-up measures were examined for statistically significant differences using paired samples t-tests. Secondarily, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine change in process measures in relation to change in treatment outcome. Results: Participants showed statistically significant improvements (all p psychological flexibility, and these improvements were significantly associated with improvements on sleep-related outcomes, independently contributing up to 19% of unique variance. Conclusion: This study supports the potential usefulness of ACT-based treatments for chronic pain for addressing co-occurring sleep difficulties. Further research is needed to determine how to improve the impact of this treatment for co-morbid pain and sleep difficulties, possibly using a randomized-controlled trial design.

  17. Sleep habits and sleep disturbance in school-age children of China%全国城市学龄儿童睡眠状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生慧; 沈晓明; 金星明; 颜崇淮; 吴胜虎; 江帆; 余晓丹; 仇玉兰

    2008-01-01

    Objective To survey the sleep habits (bedtime,wake time),sleep duration,and sleep problems in school-age children of China.Method From November to December,2005,a total of 19 299 school-age children from 55 elementary schools of 9 cities entered the study by a cross-sectional survey.A parent-administered questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were applied to investigate children's sociodemographic characteristics and sleep behaviors,respectively.Results The mean sleep duration was 9 hours and 10 minutes(9:10,SD:48 min) during the weekdays and 9:48 (SD:63 min) during the weekends.In about 71.4% and 41.8% school-aged children the sleep duration per day did not reach the lowest criterion of 10 hours recommended by the Ministry of Education of China during weekdays and weekends,respectively.Sleep problems were common with prevalence ranging from 14.5% for sleep-disordered breathing to 75.3% for daytime sleepiness.Parasomnia (χ2=13.76,P<0.01) and sleep-disordered breathing (χ2=119.83,P<0.01) were more prevalent in boys than in girls;however,sleep anxiety was more prevalent in girls than in boys (χ2=19.42,P<0.01).Except for night waking,other types of sleep problems were significantly associated with age.Conclusions Inadequate sleep duration and sleep problems prevail among school-age children,which indicates that children's sleep health may be a major public health concern in China.%目的 掌握全国城市学龄儿童的睡眠时间,分析这一年龄阶段儿童主要存在的睡眠问题及变化规律.方法 采用分级整群抽样,于2005年11-12月对我国9城市、55所小学的19 299名学龄儿童进行问卷调查,调查内容包括儿童个人基本情况(采用自制问卷)、睡眠习惯和睡眠问题(采用中文版儿童睡眠习惯问卷).结果 我国城市学龄儿童平均每日睡眠时间平时为9 h 10 min(标准差48 min),周末为9 h 48 min(标准差63 min),睡眠不足发生率平时为71

  18. Temporal changes of sleep disturbances and their associations with CYP450 2B6 polymorphism and plasma drug level in HIV patients on efavirenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K To

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and sleep disturbances were commonly reported among HIV patients on efavirenz (EFV, the pharmacokinetic pattern varies with different CYP450 2B6 G516T genotypes. This prospective study aims to detect temporal changes and differences in the profile of these adverse reactions and their relation to plasma EFV level and host genotypes. HIV patients of Chinese ethnicity on an EFV-containing HAART regimen were recruited from a specialist clinic. Blood for CYP2B6 G516T genotypes was taken. A questionnaire assessing adverse neurological problems and sleep disturbance was administered, alongside testing for plasma EFV levels at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 months and 1 year intervals after treatment. Analysis was performed using χ2 and t-test. A total of 64 patients (31 GG, 27 GT, 6 TT genotypes, 59 male, and 5 female, mean age of 41±9.9 were recruited. At 4 weeks after EFV, 49 (76% gave a history of any one of the neurological side effects: dizziness, headache and drunk feeling. Sleep disturbances were common: bizarre dream (45%, nightmares (35%, waking at night (73%, poor sleep quality (31%, nocturia (84% and difficulty in falling asleep (67%. The mean plasma EFV level of GG genotype was 2.8 µg/ml and 3 µg/ml, GT genotype was 3.8 µg/ml and 3.9 µg/ml, at 4 weeks and 1 year respectively. The mean plasma EFV level of TT genotype was 11.9 µg/ml and 9.7 µg/ml at 4 weeks and 1 year respectively. There was no significant variation of drug level within each genotype over time (p>0.08, while EFV level of TT was significantly higher at all time points (p<0.01. Overall, nightmares and difficulty to fall asleep were significantly related to the plasma EFV level (p=0.021 and 0.017 respectively. However, the sleep quality, nocturnal awakening, nocturia or requirement of sleeping pills was not significantly associated with EFV level (p=0.28, 0.06, 0.1 and 0.5 respectively. When the side effects were separately evaluated according to time points, they all

  19. MBD5 haploinsufficiency is associated with sleep disturbance and disrupts circadian pathways common to Smith-Magenis and fragile X syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Pugliesi, Loren; Burns, Brooke; Shah, Zalak; Tahir, Raiha; Gu, Yanghong; Nelson, David L; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who have an identifiable single-gene neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), such as fragile X syndrome (FXS, FMR1), Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS, RAI1), or 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (del 2q23.1, MBD5) share phenotypic features, including a high prevalence of sleep disturbance. We describe the circadian deficits in del 2q23.1 through caregiver surveys in which we identify several frequent sleep anomalies, including night/early awakenings, coughing/snoring loudly, and difficulty falling asleep. We couple these findings with studies on the molecular analysis of the circadian deficits associated with haploinsufficiency of MBD5 in which circadian gene mRNA levels of NR1D2, PER1, PER2, and PER3 were altered in del 2q23.1 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), signifying that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 can result in dysregulation of circadian rhythm gene expression. These findings were further supported by expression microarrays of MBD5 siRNA knockdown cells that showed significantly altered expression of additional circadian rhythm signaling pathway genes. Based on the common sleep phenotypes observed in del 2q23.1, SMS, and FXS patients, we explored the possibility that MBD5, RAI1, and FMR1 function in overlapping circadian rhythm pathways. Bioinformatic analysis identified conserved putative E boxes in MBD5 and RAI1, and expression levels of NR1D2 and CRY2 were significantly reduced in patient LCLs. Circadian and mTOR signaling pathways, both associated with sleep disturbance, were altered in both MBD5 and RAI1 knockdown microarray data, overlapping with findings associated with FMR1. These data support phenotypic and molecular overlaps across these syndromes that may be exploited to provide therapeutic intervention for multiple disorders. PMID:25271084

  20. Usefulness of Low Cardiac Index to Predict Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jeremy E; Auger, William R; DeYoung, Pamela N; Kim, Nick H; Malhotra, Atul; Owens, Robert L

    2016-03-15

    Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) often have substantial right ventricular dysfunction. The resulting low cardiac index might predispose to sleep disordered breathing (SDB) by increasing ventilatory instability. The prevalence of SDB and potential association with impaired cardiac index was examined in patients with CTEPH. Patients referred for evaluation for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery were recruited. Subjects underwent a sleep study, unless already using positive airway pressure therapy. Hemodynamic data were obtained from contemporaneous right-sided cardiac catheterization. A total of 49 subjects were included. SDB-defined as ongoing positive airway pressure use or apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5/h-was found in 57% of subjects. SDB was generally mild in severity, with respiratory events mainly consisting of hypopneas. Cardiac index was found to be significantly lower in subjects with SDB than those without (2.19 vs 2.55 L/min/m(2); p = 0.024), whereas no differences were observed in other characteristics. Additionally, cardiac index was independently predictive of AHI. In a subgroup of subjects with an elevated percentage of central events, both cardiac index and lung to finger circulation time correlated with AHI. In conclusion, SDB is prevalent in patients with CTEPH and might decrease with treatments that improve cardiac index. PMID:26805659

  1. The disturbance by road traffic noise of the sleep of young male adults as recorded in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J. L.; Akselsson, K. R.

    1987-05-01

    Primary effects of road traffic noise on sleep, as derived from EEG, EOG, and EMG, were studied for seven young males (aged 21-27) in their homes along roads with heavy traffic during the night. A more quiet experimental condition was obtained by mounting sound-insulating material in the window openings, thus reducing the interiors noise level by an average of 8 dB(A). The present investigation shows that the subjects had not become completely habituated to the noise, although they had lived at least a year at their residences. The noise reduction caused an earlier onset and a prolonged duration of slow was sleep. No effects on REM sleep were seen. The subjective sleep quality was significantly correlated to the noise dose. The equivalent sound pressure level ( L eq) did not give the most adequate noise dose description. Better characterizations of the noise exposure were found in the number of car per night producing maximum sound pressure levels exceeding 50 or 55 dB(A) in the bedroom. Arousal reactions of type "body movements" and "changes towards lighter sleep" were induced by the noise of car passage but the percentage of cars inducing an effect was only <2% and <0·2% for the two types of reactions, respectively. The number of spontaneous body movements and sleep stage changes per night showed an increase during the more quiet nights as compared to the noisy nights. The sensitivity to arousal reactions was significantly lower in the present field study than the in the laboratory experiments. A description of the continuous sleep process by a few distinct "sleep stages" is too crude a tool for the detection of the rather subtle changes in the sleeping pattern caused by noise. In the present study an increased sensitivity in the analysis was obtained by dividing stage 2 into three substages.

  2. Temporal changes of sleep disturbances and their associations with CYP450 2B6 polymorphism and plasma drug level in HIV patients on efavirenz

    OpenAIRE

    To, K; M. Lee; LEE, C.; Lee, S.

    2012-01-01

    Neurological and sleep disturbances were commonly reported among HIV patients on efavirenz (EFV), the pharmacokinetic pattern varies with different CYP450 2B6 G516T genotypes. This prospective study aims to detect temporal changes and differences in the profile of these adverse reactions and their relation to plasma EFV level and host genotypes. HIV patients of Chinese ethnicity on an EFV-containing HAART regimen were recruited from a specialist clinic. Blood for CYP2B6 G516T genotypes was ta...

  3. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase. PMID:26758201

  4. Sleep deprivation disturbed regional brain activity in healthy subjects: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance-imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang L; Chen Y; Yao Y; Pan Y; Sun Y

    2016-01-01

    Li Wang, Yin Chen, Ying Yao, Yu Pan, Yi Sun Department of Neurology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) to explore regional brain activities in healthy subjects after sleep deprivation (SD).Materials and methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight females, eight males) underwent the session twice: once was after normal sleep...

  5. Rapid EEG activity during sleep dominates in mild traumatic brain injury patients with acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Samar; Chouchou, Florian; Amzica, Florin; Giguère, Jean-François; Denis, Ronald; Rouleau, Guy A; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2013-04-15

    Chronic pain is a highly prevalent post-concussion symptom occurring in a majority of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). About half of patients with mTBI report sleep-wake disturbances. It is known that pain can alter sleep quality in this population, but the interaction between pain and sleep is not fully understood. This study aimed to identify how pain affects subjective sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), sleep architecture, and quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) brain activity after mTBI. Twenty-four mTBI patients complaining of sleep-wake disturbances, with and without pain (8 and 16, respectively), were recruited 45 (±22.7) days post-trauma on average. Data were compared with those of 18 healthy controls (no sleep or pain complaints). The PSQI, sleep architecture, and qEEG activity were analyzed. Pain was assessed using questionnaires and a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Patients with mTBI reported three times poorer sleep quality than controls on the PSQI. Sleep architecture significantly differed between patients with mTBI and controls but was within normal range. Global qEEG showed lower delta (deep sleep) and higher beta and gamma power (arousal) at certain EEG derivations in patients with mTBI compared with controls (pEEG frequency bands, mostly during REM sleep, and beta bands in non-REM sleep compared with patients with mTBI without pain and controls (pconcussion symptoms. PMID:23510169

  6. Sleep pattern in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and correlation among gasometric, spirometric, and polysomnographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos Eduardo Ventura Gaio dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are few studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD establishing differences between the functional parameters of the disease and sleep variables. The aim of the study was to describe the sleep pattern of these patients and to correlate spirometric, gasometric and polysomnographic variables. METHODS: Transversal study using COPD patients submitted to spirometry, arterial gasometry, and polysomnography. RESULTS: 21 male patients were studied with average age = 67 ± 9; 7 ± 4 average points in the Epworth sleepiness scale, average Tiffenau's index (FEV1/FVC = 54 ± 13.0%, average PaO2 = 68 ± 11 mmHg, average PaCO2 = 37 ± 6 mmHg. Sleep efficiency decreased (65 ± 16% with the reduction of slow wave sleep (8 ± 9% and rapid eye movement (REM sleep (15 ± 8%. Average T90 was 43 ± 41%. Average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI = 3 ± 5/h, where two patients (9.5% presented obstructive sleep apnea. A significant correlation was observed between PaO2 and T90 (p < 0.01, PaCO2 and T90 (p < 0.05, and AHI and the cardiac rate during REM (p < 0.01. A higher number of arousals and stage change was observed. There was no linear correlation between spirometric and polysomnographic variables. CONCLUSION: Poor sleep quality of these patients was characterized by low sleep efficiency, high number of awakenings and shift of stages. There were no correlations between the spirometric and polysomnographic variables.

  7. The Association of Testosterone Levels with Overall Sleep Quality, Sleep Architecture, and Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Stone, Katie; Harrison, Stephanie Litwack; Redline, Susan; Orwoll, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Context: Little is known about the association of low endogenous testosterone levels and abnormal sleep patterns in older men, although pharmacological doses of testosterone are associated with increased severity of sleep apnea and other sleep disturbances.

  8. Speckle tracking echocardiography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and overlapping obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Pizarro,* Fabian van Essen,* Fabian Linnhoff, Robert Schueler, Christoph Hammerstingl, Georg Nickenig, Dirk Skowasch, Marcel Weber Department of Internal Medicine II, Cardiology, Pneumology and Angiology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD and congestive heart failure represent two disease entities of growing global burden that share common etiological features. Therefore, we aimed to identify the degree of left ventricular (LV dysfunction in COPD as a function of COPD severity stages and concurrently placed particular emphasis on the presence of overlapping obstructive sleep apnea (OSA.Methods: A total of 85 COPD outpatients (64.1±10.4 years, 54.1% males and 20 controls, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, underwent speckle tracking echocardiography for LV longitudinal strain imaging. Complementary 12-lead electrocardiography, laboratory testing, and overnight screening for sleep-disordered breathing using the SOMNOcheck micro® device were performed.Results: Contrary to conventional echocardiographic parameters, speckle tracking echocardiography revealed significant impairment in global LV strain among COPD patients compared to control smokers (-13.3%±5.4% vs -17.1%±1.8%, P=0.04. On a regional level, the apical septal LV strain was reduced in COPD (P=0.003 and associated with the degree of COPD severity (P=0.02. With regard to electrocardiographic findings, COPD patients exhibited a significantly higher mean heart rate than controls (71.4±13.0 beats per minute vs 60.3±7.7 beats per minute, P=0.001 that additionally increased over Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.01. Albeit not statistically significant, COPD led to elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (453.2±909.0 pg/mL vs 96.8±70.0 pg/mL, P=0.08. As to somnological testing, the portion of COPD patients exhibiting overlapping OSA accounted for 5.9% and

  9. Prevention of depression and sleep disturbances in elderly with memory-problems by activation of the biological clock with light - a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheltens Philip

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression frequently occurs in the elderly and in patients suffering from dementia. Its cause is largely unknown, but several studies point to a possible contribution of circadian rhythm disturbances. Post-mortem studies on aging, dementia and depression show impaired functioning of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN which is thought to be involved in the increased prevalence of day-night rhythm perturbations in these conditions. Bright light enhances neuronal activity in the SCN. Bright light therapy has beneficial effects on rhythms and mood in institutionalized moderate to advanced demented elderly. In spite of the fact that this is a potentially safe and inexpensive treatment option, no previous clinical trial evaluated the use of long-term daily light therapy to prevent worsening of sleep-wake rhythms and depressive symptoms in early to moderately demented home-dwelling elderly. Methods/Design This study investigates whether long-term daily bright light prevents worsening of sleep-wake rhythms and depressive symptoms in elderly people with memory complaints. Patients with early Alzheimer's Disease (AD, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Subjective Memory Complaints (SMC, between the ages of 50 and 75, are included in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. For the duration of two years, patients are exposed to ~10,000 lux in the active condition or ~300 lux in the placebo condition, daily, for two half-hour sessions at fixed times in the morning and evening. Neuropsychological, behavioral, physiological and endocrine measures are assessed at baseline and follow-up every five to six months. Discussion If bright light therapy attenuates the worsening of sleep-wake rhythms and depressive symptoms, it will provide a measure that is easy to implement in the homes of elderly people with memory complaints, to complement treatments with cholinesterase inhibitors, sleep medication or anti-depressants or as a stand

  10. Sleep Deprivation and Neurobehavioral Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyles involving sleep deprivation are common, despite mounting evidence that both acute total sleep deprivation and chronically restricted sleep degrade neurobehavioral functions associated with arousal, attention, memory and state stability. Current research suggests dynamic differences in the way the central nervous system responds to acute versus chronic sleep restriction, which is reflected in new models of sleep-wake regulation. Chronic sleep restriction likely induces long-term neu...

  11. Better quality sleep promotes daytime physical activity in patients with chronic pain? A multilevel analysis of the within-person relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole K Y Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Promoting physical activity is key to the management of chronic pain, but little is understood about the factors facilitating an individual's engagement in physical activity on a day-to-day basis. This study examined the within-person effect of sleep on next day physical activity in patients with chronic pain and insomnia. METHODS: 119 chronic pain patients monitored their sleep and physical activity for a week in their usual sleeping and living environment. Physical activity was measured using actigraphy to provide a mean activity score each hour. Sleep was estimated with actigraphy and an electronic diary, providing an objective and subjective index of sleep efficiency (A-SE, SE and a sleep quality rating (SQ. The individual and relative roles of these sleep parameters, as well as morning ratings of pain and mood, in predicting subsequent physical activity were examined in multilevel models that took into account variations in relationships at the 'Day' and 'Participant' levels. RESULTS: Of the 5 plausible predictors SQ was the only significant within-person predictor of subsequent physical activity, such that nights of higher sleep quality were followed by days of more physical activity, from noon to 11 pm. The temporal association was not explained by potential confounders such as morning pain, mood or effects of the circadian rhythm. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of interventions, chronic pain patients spontaneously engaged in more physical activity following a better night of sleep. Improving nighttime sleep may well be a novel avenue for promoting daytime physical activity in patients with chronic pain.

  12. SLEEP DURATION: MODERN VIEW OF THE PROBLEM FROM THE STANDPOINT OF A CARDIOLOGIST

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Drapkina; R. N. Shepel'

    2015-01-01

    Today the role of disturbances in sleep duration in the development of various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases is known and proven. In addition, the results of many clinical studies demonstrate the relationship between impaired sleep duration and the rate of telomere shortening. In turn, short telomeres are associated with the development of arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure, atherosclerosis and other diseases with high mortality both in Russia and worldwide. Th...

  13. The impact on sleep of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain management programme: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Horan Sheila; Kelly Valerie; O'Keeffe Declan; Power Camillus K; Blake Catherine; Cunningham Jennifer M; Spencer Orla; Fullen Brona M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Reduced sleep quality is a common complaint among patients with chronic pain, with 50-80% of patients reporting sleep disturbance. Improvements in pain and quality of life measures have been achieved using a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme (CBT-PMP) that aims to recondition attitudes to pain, and improve patients' self-management of their condition. Despite its high prevalence in patients with chronic pain, there is very limited ob...

  14. Chronic escitalopram treatment attenuated the accelerated rapid eye movement sleep transitions after selective rapid eye movement sleep deprivation: a model-based analysis using Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyalik, Diána; Vas, Szilvia; Kátai, Zita; Kitka, Tamás; Gyertyán, István; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Tóthfalusi, László

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency and increased REM sleep amount are presumed biological markers of depression. These sleep alterations are also observable in several animal models of depression as well as during the rebound sleep after selective REM sleep deprivation (RD). Furthermore, REM sleep fragmentation is typically associated with stress procedures and anxiety. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants reduce REM sleep time and increas...

  15. Heart rate increment analysis is not effective for sleep-disordered breathing screening in patients with chronic heart failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Damy, Thibaud; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia; Estrugo, Brigitte; Margarit, Laurent; Mouillet, Gauthier; Mahfoud, Mohannad; Roudot-Thoraval, Francoise; Vermes, Emmanuelle; Hittinger, Luc; Roche, Frederic; Macquin-Mavier, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variation has been suggested as an effective screening tool for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess this method in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). We included prospectively 84 patients with stable CHF, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or =15 h(-1) was diagnosed in 57.4% of patients. Percent VLFI was not correlated with AHI (r = 0.12). Receiver-operating character...

  16. Comparison of almitrine bismesylate and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oxygenation during wakefulness and sleep in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalopoulou, E; Patakas, D.; Tsara, V; Zoglopitis, F; Maniki, E

    1990-01-01

    The effects of almitrine bismesylate and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oxygenation during wakefulness and sleep were compared in six patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention. Patients received 1.5 mg/kg almitrine (a peripheral chemoreceptor stimulant), 100 mg of medroxyprogesterone (a central respiratory stimulant), or matched placebo daily for 15 days in random order in a crossover trial. When subjects were awake almitrine increased the ventilatory respons...

  17. Speckle tracking echocardiography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and overlapping obstructive sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Carmen; van Essen, Fabian; Linnhoff, Fabian; Schueler, Robert; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk; Weber, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD and congestive heart failure represent two disease entities of growing global burden that share common etiological features. Therefore, we aimed to identify the degree of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in COPD as a function of COPD severity stages and concurrently placed particular emphasis on the presence of overlapping obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods A total of 85 COPD outpatients (64.1±10.4 years, 54.1% males) and 20 controls, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, underwent speckle tracking echocardiography for LV longitudinal strain imaging. Complementary 12-lead electrocardiography, laboratory testing, and overnight screening for sleep-disordered breathing using the SOMNOcheck micro® device were performed. Results Contrary to conventional echocardiographic parameters, speckle tracking echocardiography revealed significant impairment in global LV strain among COPD patients compared to control smokers (−13.3%±5.4% vs −17.1%±1.8%, P=0.04). On a regional level, the apical septal LV strain was reduced in COPD (P=0.003) and associated with the degree of COPD severity (P=0.02). With regard to electrocardiographic findings, COPD patients exhibited a significantly higher mean heart rate than controls (71.4±13.0 beats per minute vs 60.3±7.7 beats per minute, P=0.001) that additionally increased over Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.01). Albeit not statistically significant, COPD led to elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (453.2±909.0 pg/mL vs 96.8±70.0 pg/mL, P=0.08). As to somnological testing, the portion of COPD patients exhibiting overlapping OSA accounted for 5.9% and did not significantly vary either in comparison to controls (P=0.07) or throughout the COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.49). COPD-OSA overlap solely correlated with nocturnal hypoxemic events, whereas LV performance status was unrelated to coexisting OSA. Conclusion

  18. 帕金森病患者客观睡眠障碍的特点%Study on objective sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson' s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊康平; 刘春风; 李洁; 毛成洁; 沈丝丝; 唐晴; 黄隽英; 赵敏艳; 韩菲; 陈锐

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of the objective sleep disturbances in Parkinson' s disease (PD) and the factors related to it.Methods One hundred and one PD patients and 90 age- and sex- matched controls underwent a video-polysomnography.The sleep parameters and its related factors in two groups were analyzed.Results Sleep latency was not statistically different in comparing two groups.PD patients had a higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement( non-REM ) sleep stage 1 and a lower percentage of non-REM sleep stage 2 compared with controls ( 27.9 ± 1 7.8 vs 21.2 ± 11.7,t =3.034,P =0.003 ;47.8 ± 17.4 vs 54.7 + 12.9,t =- 3.043,P =0.003 ).Reduced sleep efficiency,decreased the proportion of slow wave sleep and REM sleep,increased awake time and longer REM sleep latency occurred in PD patients.There were no significant differences of these above parameters.Some sleep parameters in PD patients were correlated with advancing age,the severity of PD,and the degree of depression.The index of periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMSI) of 41 PD patients (40.6% ) was more than 15.These PD patients didn' t complain corresponding symptoms about their legs.The PLMSI in PD patients were significantly higher than the controls.PLMSI increased with aging in the PD group( r =0.261,P <0.01 ).PD patients didn' t suffer significantly lower apnea- hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index.The lowest SPO2 ( L-SPO2 ) increased in the PD group.REM sleep without atonia occurred in 83 patients (82.2%) with PD.Thirty-eight patients (37.6%) were diagnosed with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).The incidences of REM without atonia and RBD in the PD group were significantly higher than in the control s(0 and 8 patients (8.9%),x2 =42.271,102.480; both P < 0.01 ).Conclusions The sleep parameters in PD patients are changed.For PD patients,there is no difficulty in falling asleep.The PD patients also have sleep structure disorder and difficulty in maintaining sleep

  19. Associations of sleep disturbance and duration with metabolic risk factors in obese persons with type 2 diabetes: data from the Sleep AHEAD Study

    OpenAIRE

    St-Onge MP; Zammit G; Reboussin DM; Kuna ST; Sanders MH; Millman R; Newman AB; Ta, Wadden; Wing RR; Pi-Sunyer FX; Foster GD

    2012-01-01

    Marie-Pierre St-Onge,1 Gary Zammit,2 David M Reboussin,3 Samuel T Kuna,4 Mark H Sanders,8 Richard Millman,6 Anne B Newman,5 Thomas A Wadden,4 Rena R Wing,6 F Xavier Pi-Sunyer,1 Gary D Foster7 Sleep AHEAD Research Group*1New York Obesity Research Center, St Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2Clinilabs, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Phil...

  20. [Mild cognitive impairment: could it be a sleep disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is described as an intermediate state of cognitive impairment whereby individuals present with mild clinical symptoms but with nearly normal daily living activities. These subjects do not meet the clinical criteria for dementia, yet their cognitive functioning is below what we would expect for age and education in healthy people. In the other hand, older adults are at risk for sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behavioral disorder and chronic insomnia, which could have an impact on cognitive functioning and are exclusion criteria for the MCI diagnosis. Moreover, REM sleep behavioral disorder represents a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In subjects more 65 years of age the association between chronic insomnia and cognitive changes is still debated. The main aim of this paper is to focus on identification of sleep disorders in the context of cognitive disturbances among professionals working with the elderly. PMID:26395305

  1. Adolescent sleep misalignment: a chronic jet lag and a matter of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan

    2013-09-01

    Sleep is a key element, both physiologically and psychologically, in adolescent development. The prevalence of sleep disorders in western countries is important, as with age the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents becomes irregular and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and waking time resulting in rhythm desynchronization. A large number of adolescents sleep for 7-8h instead of 9-10h per night, which can lead to a cumulative sleep debt with fatigue, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. The effect of electronic media use (such as television, mobile phone, computer, and electronic gaming) on sleep has been the object of several international studies, though pubertal changes may also impact adolescent sleep. Adolescents and their parents should be educated by professionals, including physicians and nurses, on the key role of sleep in adolescent well being and quality of life. A number of basic rules are proposed to improve sleep in adolescents. The permanent social jet lag experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health. PMID:23542542

  2. Sleep disturbance, nocturnal agitation behaviors, and medical comorbidity in older adults with dementia: relationship to reported caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk-Sun; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Richards, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis study was to determine whether care recipients' nighttime sleep patterns, medical comorbidity, observed nocturnal agitation behaviors, and caregivers' perceptions of nocturnal agitation behaviors in care recipients with dementia are associated with caregiver burden. Sixty care recipient-caregiver dyads, comprising older adults with geriatrician-diagnosed dementia living at home with caregivers, participated. Caregivers' perceptions of the frequency of care recipients' nocturnal agitation behaviors were associated with caregiver burden; however, objective, real-time data on the frequency of nocturnal agitation behaviors were not associated with burden. Care recipients' increased minutes of wakefulness before falling asleep and severe cognitive impairment with musculoskeletal/integument and neurological comorbidities were associated with higher caregiver burden. These results suggest that targeted interventions to reduce sleep onset latency, medical comorbidity, and caregivers' perception of frequency of nocturnal behaviors may reduce caregiver burden. PMID:24877599

  3. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester ...

  4. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementat...

  5. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder - related nightmares and other sleep disturbances with risperidone in combat veterans and victims of domestic and childhood abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Khachiyants

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances including nightmares are often reported as hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The literature related to the pharmacological treatment of PTSD-related nightmares is sparse and inconclusive. After reviewing the literature it was obvious that currently a limited data on studies supporting the use of antipsychotic medications for the treatment of PTSD are published. Moreover, even more limited scientific evidence is now available to formulate evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares which are often reported as the most intrusive and disruptive symptom. Objective for this study is to review comprehensively the current research literature which reflects use of antipsychotic medication risperidone for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares of different etiology.

  6. Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpy, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    Depression, dementia, and physiologic changes contribute to the high prevalence of sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Antiparkinsonian drugs also play a role in insomnia by increasing daytime sleepiness and affecting motor symptoms and depression. Common types of sleep disturbances in PD patients include nocturnal sleep disruption and excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep apnea, sleep walking and sleep talking, nightmares, sleep terrors, and panic attacks. A thorough assessment should include complete medical and psychiatric histories, sleep history, and a 1- to 2-week sleep diary or Epworth Sleepiness Scale evaluation. Polysomnography or actigraphy may also be indicated. Treatment should address underlying factors such as depression or anxiety. Hypnotic therapy for sleep disturbances in PD patients should be approached with care because of the risks of falling, agitation, drowsiness, and hypotension. Behavioral interventions may also be useful. PMID:15259535

  7. Effects of Chronic REM Sleep Restriction on D1 Receptor and Related Signal Pathways in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC mediates cognitive function that is sensitive to disruption by sleep loss, and molecular mechanisms regulating neural dysfunction induced by chronic sleep restriction (CSR, particularly in the PFC, have yet to be completely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic REM sleep restriction (REM-CSR on the D1 receptor (D1R and key molecules in D1R’ signal pathways in PFC. We employed the modified multiple platform method to create the REM-CSR rat model. The ultrastructure of PFC was observed by electron microscopy. HPLC was performed to measure the DA level in PFC. The expressions of genes and proteins of related molecules were assayed by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The general state and morphology of PFC in rats were changed by CSR, and DA level and the expression of D1R in PFC were markedly decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05; the expression of phosphor-PKAcα was significantly lowered in CSR rats (P<0.05. The present results suggested that the alteration of neuropathology and D1R expression in PFC may be associated with CSR induced cognitive dysfunction, and the PKA pathway of D1R may play an important role in the impairment of advanced neural function.

  8. Dynamics of Sleep Stage Transitions in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Akifumi; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Natelson, Benjamin H.; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2007-07-01

    Sleep dynamics emerges from complex interactions between neuronal populations in many brain regions. Annotated sleep stages from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings could potentially provide a non-invasive way to obtain valuable insights into the mechanisms of these interactions, and ultimately into the very nature of sleep regulation. However, to date, sleep stage analysis has been restricted, only very recently expanding the scope of the traditional descriptive statistics to more dynamical concepts of the duration of and transitions between vigilance states and temporal evaluation of transition probabilities among different stages. Physiological and/or pathological implications of the dynamics of sleep stage transitions have, to date, not been investigated. Here, we study detailed duration and transition statistics among sleep stages in healthy humans and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, known to be associated with disturbed sleep. We find that the durations of waking and non-REM sleep, in particular deep sleep (Stages III and IV), during the nighttime, follow a power-law probability distribution function, while REM sleep durations follow an exponential function, suggestive of complex underlying mechanisms governing the onset of light sleep. We also find a substantial number of REM to non-REM transitions in humans, while this transition is reported to be virtually non-existent in rats. Interestingly, the probability of this REM to non-REM transition is significantly lower in the patients than in controls, resulting in a significantly greater REM to awake, together with Stage I to awake, transition probability. This might potentially account for the reported poor sleep quality in the patients because the normal continuation of sleep after either the lightest or REM sleep is disrupted. We conclude that the dynamical transition analysis of sleep stages is useful for elucidating yet-to-be-determined human sleep regulation mechanisms with a

  9. Actigraphy for measurements of sleep in relation to oncological treatment of patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Gögenur, Ismail; Tvilling Madsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are a prevalent and disabling problem for patients with cancer. Sleep disturbances are present throughout the cancer trajectory, especially during oncological treatment. Previously sleep disturbances have primarily been quantified with subjective rating scales. Actigraphy is an...

  10. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Janna Mantua; Keenan M Mahan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of wor...

  11. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving. PMID:26972034

  12. Association of Nutritional Status with Depression and Sleep Disorders in Elderly End Stage Renal Disease Patients - Does Chronic Inflammation Cause it all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe BİLGİÇ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In our study we aimed to analyze the association between nutritional status and depression and sleep disturbance in elderly dialysis patients. MATERIAL and METHODS: Seventy-three patients receiving dialysis treatment older than 65 years of age were enrolled in this study. Nutritional status was determined by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA. Patients were also evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Demographic and laboratory data were recorded. RESULTS: According to SGA, 48 (65.8% patients were well nourished and 25 (34.2% patients had mild-moderate and severe malnutrition. When the well-nourished and malnourished patients were compared, the well-nourished group had higher albumin (p<.0001 and creatinine (p=.03 levels, higher body mass indices (p<.01, lower CRP levels (p<.0001, better quality of sleep (p<.0001 and lower depression scores (p<.0001 than the malnourished group. When we grouped patients as Group I (not depressive and good sleep quality, Group II (depressive but good sleep quality and Group III (both depressive and poor sleep quality, we found that Group III had the lowest albumin (p < .0001 and highest CRP (p < .0001 values when compared to the other two groups. CONCLUSION: Depression, sleep disorders, and the nutritional status are important factors which interact with each other and elderly dialysis patients with malnutrition should be well assessed for the presence of any inflammatory status and/or psychological-sleep disorders.

  13. Dose finding of melatonin for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia: an RCT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geijlswijk, I.M.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Korzilius, H.P.; Smits, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in children might differ from that in adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to establish a dose-response relationship for melatonin in advancing dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), sleep onset (SO), and reducing sleep onset latency (SOL) in children between 6 and

  14. Chronically restricted or disrupted sleep as a causal factor in the development of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Havekes, Robbert; Steiger, Axel; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common complaint in the majority of people suffering from depression. While sleep complaints were traditionally seen as a symptom of mood disorders, accumulating evidence suggests that in many cases the relationship may be reverse as well. A long list of longitudinal studies sho

  15. Probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, nocturnal disturbances and quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a case-controlled study using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Keisuke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence provides a clear association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders (RBD and Parkinson’s disease (PD, but the clinical features that determine the co-morbidity of RBD and PD are not yet fully understood. Methods We evaluated the characteristics of nocturnal disturbances and other motor and non-motor features related to RBD in patients with PD and the impact of RBD on their quality of life. Probable RBD (pRBD was evaluated using the Japanese version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ-J. Results A significantly higher frequency of pRBD was observed in PD patients than in the controls (RBDSQ-J ≥ 5 or ≥ 6: 29.0% vs. 8.6%; 17.2% vs. 2.2%, respectively. After excluding restless legs syndrome and snorers in the PD patients, the pRBD group (RBDSQ-J≥5 showed higher scores compared with the non-pRBD group on the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale-2 (PDSS-2 total and three-domain scores. Early morning dystonia was more frequent in the pRBD group. The Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39 domain scores for cognition and emotional well-being were higher in the patients with pRBD than in the patients without pRBD. There were no differences between these two groups with respect to the clinical subtype, disease severity or motor function. When using a cut-off of RBDSQ-J = 6, a similar trend was observed for the PDSS-2 and PDQ-39 scores. Patients with PD and pRBD had frequent sleep onset insomnia, distressing dreams and hallucinations. The stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the PDSS-2 domain “motor symptoms at night”, particularly the PDSS sub-item 6 “distressing dreams”, was the only predictor of RBDSQ-J in PD. Conclusion Our results indicate a significant impact of RBD co-morbidity on night-time disturbances and quality of life in PD, particularly on cognition and emotional well-being. RBDSQ may be a useful tool for not only screening RBD in PD patients

  16. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  17. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N; Rodriguez, Alexander V; Bellesi, Michele; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Funk, Chadd M; Harris, Julie; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25-P30, ≥ 50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  18. Sleep parameters, functional status and time post-stroke are associated with off-line motor skill learning in people with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eSiengsukon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mounting evidence demonstrates that individuals with stroke benefit from sleep to enhance learning of a motor task. While stage NREM2 sleep and REM sleep have been associated with off-line motor skill learning in neurologically-intact individuals, it remains unknown which sleep parameters or specific sleep stages are associated with off-line motor skill learning in individuals with stroke. Methods: Twenty individuals with chronic stroke (> 6 months following stroke and 10 neurologically slept for three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Participants practiced a tracking task the morning before the third night and underwent a retention test the morning following the third night. Off-line learning on the tracking task was assessed. Pearson’s correlations assessed for associations between the magnitude of off-line learning and sleep variables, age, upper extremity motor function, stroke severity, depression and time since stroke occurrence.Results: Individuals with stroke performed with significantly less error on the tracking task following a night of sleep (p=.006 while the control participants did not (p=.816. Increased sleep efficiency (r= -.285, less time spent in stage NREM3 sleep (r=.260, and more time spent in stage REM sleep (r= -.266 was weakly-to-moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Furthermore, higher upper-extremity motor function (r = -.400, lower stroke severity (r = .360, and less time since stroke occurrence (r=.311 were moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Conclusion: This study is the first study to provide insight into which sleep stages and individual characteristics may be associated with off-line learning in people with stroke. Future work should continue to understand which factors or combination of factors promote off-line motor learning in people with neurologic injury to best promote motor recovery in

  19. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: Mechanisms, mitigation and research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( 55 dBA. Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO′s NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data.

  20. Insomnia and chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Don; Anstead, Michael I; Ho, Julia; Phillips, Barbara A

    2009-09-01

    Insomnia is highly prevalent in patients with chronic disease including chronic heart failure (CHF) and is a significant contributing factor to fatigue and poor quality of life. The pathophysiology of CHF often leads to fatigue, due to nocturnal symptoms causing sleep disruption, including cough, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and nocturia. Inadequate cardiac function may lead to hypoxemia or poor perfusion of the cerebrum, skeletal muscle, or visceral body organs, which result in organ dysfunction or failure and may contribute to fatigue. Sleep disturbances negatively affect all dimensions of quality of life and is related to increased risk of comorbidities, including depression. This article reviews insomnia in CHF, cardiac medication side-effects related to sleep disturbances, and treatment options. PMID:18758945

  1. The Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire (CSRQ): a cross-cultural comparison and validation in Dutch and Australian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Dewald; M.A. Short; M. Gradisar; F.J. Oort; A.M. Meijer

    2012-01-01

    Although adolescents often experience insufficient and/or poor sleep, sleep variables such as total sleep time do not account for individuals’ sleep need and sleep debt and may therefore be an inadequate representation of adolescents’ sleep problems and its daytime consequences. This problem can be

  2. Sleep problems and functional disability in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders: An examination of the potential mediating effects of physical and emotional symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurman Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as a common problem for children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions, but little is known about the prevalence, type, and impact of sleep problems in pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs. The objectives of the current study were two-fold: 1 to describe the pattern of sleep disturbances reported in a large sample of children and adolescents with FGIDs; and, 2 to explore the impact of sleep by examining the inter-relationships between sleep disturbance, physical symptoms, emotional problems, and functional disability in this population. Methods Over a 3-year period, 283 children aged 8–17 years who were diagnosed with an FGID and a primary caretaker independently completed questionnaires regarding sleep, emotional functioning, physical symptoms, and functional disability during an initial evaluation for chronic abdominal pain at a pediatric tertiary care center. A verbal review of systems also was collected at that time. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the pattern of sleep disturbances reported, while structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test theorized meditational relationships between sleep and functional disability through physical and emotional symptoms. Results Clinically significant elevations in sleep problems were found in 45% of the sample, with difficulties related to sleep onset and maintenance being most common. No difference was seen by specific FGID or by sex, although adolescents were more likely to have sleep onset issues than younger children. Sleep problems were positively associated with functional disability and physical symptoms fully mediated this relationship. Emotional symptoms, while associated with sleep problems, evidenced no direct link to functional disability. Conclusions Sleep problems are common in pediatric FGIDs and are associated with functional disability through their impact on physical

  3. PTSD-related paradoxical insomnia: an actigraphic study among veterans with chronic PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Sleep disturbance is a common self-reported complaint by PTSD patients. However, there are controversies in documenting objective indices of disrupted sleep in these patients. The aim of the present study was to assess sleep disturbances in veterans with chronic PTSD, using both subjective and objective assessments. Methods: Thirty two PTSD patients with complaints of insomnia were evaluated using the Clinician Administrated PTSD Scale version 1 (CAPS and completed the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI for subjective evaluation of their sleep. For objective evaluation, participants underwent two consecutive overnight actigraphic assessments. Total Sleep Time (TST, Sleep Latency (SL, Sleep Efficiency (SE and Number of Awakening (NWAK were measured in all participants. Results: Participants underestimated TST (p less than 0.0001, SE (p less than 0.0001 as well as NASO (0.03 in the questionnaire compared to the actigraphic assessment and overestimated SL (p less than 0.0001. Conclusions: Objective sleep parameters do not adversely affect veterans with chronic PTSD.Self-reported sleep disturbance in these patients is not reliable and objective sleep assessments are necessary.

  4. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL, the...

  5. The effect of theophylline on sleep-disordered breathing in patients with stable chronic congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡克; 李清泉; 杨炯; 胡苏萍; 陈喜兰

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with stable, optimally treated chronic congestive heart failure and the effect of short-term oral theophylline therapy on periodic breathing in these patients.Methods Patients with stable, optimally treated chronic congestive heart failure were monitored by polysomnography during nocturnal sleep. The effects of theophylline therapy on periodic breathing associated with stable heart failure were observed before and after treatment.Results Patients were divided into two groups. GroupⅠ(n=21) consisted of individuals with 15 episodes of apnea and hypopnea [as determined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)] per hour or less; Group Ⅱ (n=15, 41.7%) individuals had an index of more than 15 episodes per hour. In group Ⅱ, the AHI varied from 16.8 to 78.8 (42.6±15.5) in which the obstructive AHI was 11.1±8.4 and the central AHI was 31.5±9.6. Group Ⅱ had significantly more arousals (36.8±21.3 compared with 19.4±11.2 in group Ⅰ) that were directly attributable to episodes of apnea and hypopnea, lower arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (76.7%±4.6% compared with 86.5%±2.8%) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (24.2%±8.8% compared with 31.5%±10.6%). Thirteen patients with compensated heart failure and periodic breathing received theophylline orally (at an average dose of 4.3 mg/kg) for five to seven days. After treatment, the mean plasma theophylline concentration was (11.3±2.5) μg/ml. Theophylline therapy resulted in significant decreases in the number of AHI (20.8±13.2 vs. 42.6±15.5; P<0.001) and the number of episodes of central apnea-hypopnea per hour (10.1±7.6 vs. 31.5±9.6; P<0.001). Furthermore, the percentage of total sleep time during which arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was less than 90 percent (8.8%±8.6% vs. 23.4%±24.1%; P<0.05) and the arousals per hour (18.7±21.2 vs. 36.8±21.3; P<0.05) were also lower. There were no significant differences in the

  6. Altered intrinsic regional brain spontaneous activity and subjective sleep quality in patients with chronic primary insomnia: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai XJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Jian Dai,1,2 De-Chang Peng,1 Hong-Han Gong,1 Ai-Lan Wan,3 Xiao Nie,1 Hai-Jun Li,1 Yi-Xiang J Wang2 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong; 3Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nangchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China Study objective: To prospectively explore the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo brain-activity deficit in patients with chronic primary insomnia (PCPIs and its relationship with clinical features.Design: The ReHo method and Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software were used to evaluate whether resting-state localized brain activity was modulated between PCPIs and good sleepers (GSs, and correlation analysis between altered regional brain areas and clinical features was calculated. Patients and participants: Twenty-four PCPIs (17 females, seven males and 24 (12 females, 12 males age-, sex-, and education-matched GSs.Measurements and results: PCPIs disturbed subjective sleep quality, split positive mood, and exacerbated negative moods. Compared with GSs, PCPIs showed higher ReHo in left fusiform gyrus, and lower ReHo in bilateral cingulate gyrus and right cerebellum anterior lobe. Compared with female GSs, female PCPIs showed higher ReHo in the left fusiform gyrus and right posterior cingulate, and lower ReHo in the left cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with male GSs, male PCPIs showed higher ReHo in the right temporal lobe and lower ReHo in the bilateral frontal lobe. The fusiform gyrus showed strong positive correlations and the frontal lobe showed negative correlations with the clinical measurements.Conclusion: The ReHo analysis is a useful noninvasive imaging tool for the detection of cerebral changes and

  7. Mechanisms of gastric emptying disturbances in chronic and acute inflammation of the distal gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders in such patients....... Thirteen healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, CCK, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured periodically...

  8. Mechanisms of Gastric Emptying Disturbances in Chronic and Acute Inflammation of the Distal Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    Objective: It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus, we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders...... in such patients. Methods: 13 healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1...

  9. Risk Factors for Eating Disturbances in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes and Chronic Asthma: The Role of Parenting Style and Self-Esteem.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research indicates that eating disturbances are twice as prevalent among adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to their healthy peers; comparisons with other chronic illness groups are inconclusive. Adolescent self-esteem and parenting factors have been found to be associated with eating disturbances in type 1 diabetes. However, to date the literature is methodologically limited by a lack of comparison group, and has failed to consider the role of parent care and overprotect...

  10. Prevalência de distúrbios do sono na pós-menopausa Sleep disturbance prevalence in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hachul de Campos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência das queixas de distúrbios do sono pela polissonografia em amostra de mulheres na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas 33 mulheres na pós-menopausa com média de idade de 56 anos, índice de massa corporal médio de 27, tempo de pós-menopausa de 7,7 anos e índice de Kupperman de 17. Adotaram-se os seguintes critérios de inclusão: idade entre 50 e 65anos, no mínimo um ano de amenorréia e FSH plasmático superior ou igual a 30 mU/mL, sem uso de terapia hormonal prévia e exames laboratoriais normais. Foram excluídas as pacientes com doenças clínicas graves e/ou descompensadas, suspeita de câncer de endométrio e/ou mama; índice de massa corporal maior ou igual a 30 e uso de hipnóticos. As pacientes responderam a questionário específico contendo perguntas sobre as características do sono e foram submetidas a polissonografia completa durante uma noite inteira. Foram calculadas separadamente as freqüências em porcentagens das queixas de sono e dos diagnósticos polissonográficos. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de insônia subjetiva foi 61%, sendo que na polissonografia foi de 83%. A queixa de apnéia foi registrada em 23% e, na polissonografia, em 27%. A prevalência subjetiva de movimentos periódicos de pernas foi de 45% e a objetiva foi de 27%. CONCLUSÃO: houve alta prevalência de distúrbios do sono na pós-menopausa, em especial de insônia, apnéia e de movimentos periódicos das pernas. Nesta fase da vida, ocorre piora da qualidade do sono.PURPOSE: to evaluate the prevalence of reported sleep disturbances through polysomnographic recording (PSG in a sample of postmenopausal women. METHODS: thirty-three postmenopausal women with a mean age of 56 years, a mean body mass index (BMI of 27 kg/m², with 7.7 years of recognized postmenopausal period, and a mean Kupperman index of 17, were selected. The inclusion criteria were: age range from 50 to 65 years, at least one year of amenorrhea and

  11. Sleep in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaelen, James; Greiffenstein, Patrick; deBoisblanc, Bennett P

    2015-07-01

    More than one-half million patients are hospitalized annually for traumatic brain injury (TBI). One-quarter demonstrate sleep-disordered breathing, up to 50% experience insomnia, and half have hypersomnia. Sleep disturbances after TBI may result from injury to sleep-regulating brain tissue, nonspecific neurohormonal responses to systemic injury, ICU environmental interference, and medication side effects. A diagnosis of sleep disturbances requires a high index of suspicion and appropriate testing. Treatment starts with a focus on making the ICU environment conducive to normal sleep. Treating sleep-disordered breathing likely has outcome benefits in TBI. The use of sleep promoting sedative-hypnotics and anxiolytics should be judicious. PMID:26118920

  12. Effects of music videos on sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with chronic insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Chang, En-Ting; Li, Yin-Ming; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Lee, Li-Hua; Wang, Hsiu-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Listening to soothing music has been used as a complementary therapy to improve sleep quality. However, there is no empirical evidence for the effects of music videos (MVs) on sleep quality in adults with insomnia as assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In this randomized crossover controlled trial, we compared the effects of a peaceful Buddhist MV intervention to a usual-care control condition before bedtime on subjective and objective sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with chronic insomnia. The study was conducted in a hospital's sleep laboratory. We randomly assigned 38 subjects, aged 50-75 years, to an MV/usual-care sequence or a usual-care/MV sequence. After pretest data collection, testing was held on two consecutive nights, with subjects participating in one condition each night according to their assigned sequence. Each intervention lasted 30 min. Sleep was assessed using PSG and self-report questionnaires. After controlling for baseline data, sleep-onset latency was significantly shorter by approximately 2 min in the MV condition than in the usual-care condition (p = .002). The MV intervention had no significant effects relative to the usual care on any other sleep parameters assessed by PSG or self-reported sleep quality. These results suggest that an MV intervention may be effective in promoting sleep. However, the effectiveness of a Buddhist MV on sleep needs further study to develop a culturally specific insomnia intervention. Our findings also suggest that an MV intervention can serve as another option for health care providers to improve sleep onset in people with insomnia. PMID:25237150

  13. Influence of SKF38393 on changes of gene profile in rat prefrontal cortex during chronic paradoxical sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaosa; Chen, Xinmin; Chen, Si; Tan, Yue; Rong, Fei; Zhu, Jiangbo; Ma, Wenling

    2016-05-01

    Chronic paradoxical sleep deprivation (CSD) can induce dramatic physiological and neurofunctional changes in rats, including decreased body weight, reduced learning and memory, and declined locomotor function. SKF38393, a dopamine D1 receptor agonist, can reverse the above damages. However, the mechanism of CSD syndrome and reversal role of SKF38393 remains largely unexplained. To preliminarily elucidate the mechanism of the neural dysfunction caused by CSD, in the present study we use gene chips to examine the expression profile of more than 28,000 transcripts in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Rats were sleep deprived by modified multi-platform method for 3 weeks. Totally 59 transcripts showed differential expressions in CSD group in contrast to controls; they included transcripts coding for caffeine metabolism, circadian rhythm, drug metabolism and some amino acid metabolism pathway. Among the 59 transcripts, 39 increased their expression and 20 decreased. Two transcripts can be specifically reversed with SKF38393, one of them is Homer1, which is related to 20 functional classifications and coding for Glutamatergic synapse pathway. Our findings in the present study indicate that long-term sleep deprivation may trigger the changes of some certain functions and pathways in the PFC, and lead to the dysfunction of this advanced neuron, and the activation of D1 receptor by SKF38393 might ameliorate these changes via modulation of some transcripts such as Homer1, which is involved in the Ca(2+) pathway and MAPK pathway related to Glutamatergic synapse pathway. PMID:26851556

  14. Metropolitan urban hotspots of chronic sleep deprivation: evidence from a community health survey in Gyeongbuk Province, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Sun-Bi; Um, Jung-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The geographic concentration of chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) remains largely unexplored. This paper examined the community-specific spatial pattern of the prevalence of CSD and the presence of clustered spatial hotspots among the Korean elderly population in Gyeongbuk Province, South Korea, revealing CSD hotspots and underscoring the importance of geography-focused prevention strategies. The study analysed cross-sectional data collected from 9847 elderly individuals aged 60 years and older who participated in a Korean Community Health Survey conducted in 2012. To assess the level of spatial dependence, an exploratory spatial data analysis was conducted using Global Moran's I statistic and the local indicator of spatial association. The results revealed marked geographic variations in CSD prevalence ranging from 33.4 to 73.4%, with higher values in the metropolitan urban areas and lower in the rural areas. Almost half of the community residents [both men (44.1%) and women (53.5%)] slept 6 h or less per 24 h. The average CSD prevalence (53.6% men and 65.1% women) in the hotspots was about 13.0% higher than that in other areas (42.6% for men and 51.1% for women). To our knowledge, this is the first study to generate a CSD hotspot map that includes data on sleep deprivation across metropolitan district levels. This study demonstrates that not only is sleep deprivation distributed differentially across communities but these differences may be explained by urbanisation. PMID:26618323

  15. Clinical research on related factors of poststroke sleep disturbances%脑卒中后睡眠障碍的临床相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娇; 梅丽; 孟会红; 梅风君

    2013-01-01

    目的研究脑卒中后睡眠障碍的相关因素,为临床诊断和防治提供依据.方法采用美国国立卫生院神经功能缺损评分(NIHSS)和阿森斯失眠量表(AIS)对61例住院脑卒中患者进行测评.结果睡眠障碍组与非睡眠障碍组性别、平均年龄、卒中部位比较无差别;但各年龄段中,< 50岁发生4例,50~60岁发生6例,61~ 70岁发生8例,>70岁发生8例(P<0.05).睡眠障碍组在既往病史、卒中性质、神经功能缺损程度与非睡眠障碍组比较差异有统计学意义.结论脑卒中后患者睡眠障碍较为常见,其与性别、卒中部位无相关性,但与年龄、既往病史(高血压、糖尿病、冠心病)、卒中性质及神经功能缺损程度有关.脑卒中后睡眠障碍的发生与诸多因素有关,及时发现其相关因素并积极预防、治疗,有利于加快脑卒中后患者机体康复及改善患者睡眠质量.%Objective The related factors of poststroke sleep disturbances were studied in order to provided the rationale for the diagnosis,prophylaxis and treatment.Methods National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Athens insomnia scale were used to evaluate the 61 stroke patients who were hospitalized.Results Comparing the gender,apoplectic part and mean age in sleep disorder group with the control group,it showed no statistical differences.But in the different age group,there were statistical differences.About the anamnesis,apoplectic type and the damage degree of nervous functions,the two groups had statistical differences.Conclusion Sleep disorder after stroke is rather common,it is not related to the gender and apoplectic part,but it is connected with the age,anamnesis,apoplectic type and the damage degree of nervous functions.Sleep disorder after stroke is connected with many factors,and the mechanism is complexity.Discovered the risk factors timely,positive prevent and treat are maked for speed up the patients' recovery and improve their sleep

  16. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  17. Postoperative circadian disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    reduced the first night after minimally invasive surgery. The core body temperature rhythm was disturbed after both major and minor surgery. There was a change in the sleep wake cycle with a significantly increased duration of REM-sleep in the day and evening time after major surgery compared with...... after major surgery was increased on the fourth day after surgery and the total excretion of AMT6s in urine was correlated to sleep efficiency and wake time after sleep onset, but was not correlated to the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. We could only prove an effect of melatonin...... substitution in patients with lower than median pain levels for a three days period after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In the series of studies included in this thesis we have systematically shown that circadian disturbances are found in the secretion of hormones, the sleep-wake cycle, core body temperature...

  18. Impaired Recognition of Facially Expressed Emotions in Different Groups of Patients with Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crönlein, Tatjana; Langguth, Berthold; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recently it has been shown that acute sleep loss has a direct impact on emotional processing in healthy individuals. Here we studied the effect of chronically disturbed sleep on emotional processing by investigating two samples of patients with sleep disorders. Methods 25 patients with psychophysiologic insomnia (23 women and 2 men, mean age: 51.6 SD; 10.9 years), 19 patients with sleep apnea syndrome (4 women and 15 men, mean age: 51.9; SD 11.1) and a control sample of 24 subjects with normal sleep (15women and 9 men, mean age 45.3; SD 8.8) completed a Facial Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL) task, requiring participants to categorize and rate the intensity of six emotional expression categories: anger, anxiety, fear, happiness, disgust and sadness. Differences in FEEL score and its subscales among the three samples were analysed using ANOVA with gender as a covariate. Results Both patients with psychophysiologic insomnia and patients with sleep apnea showed significantly lower performance in the FEEL test as compared to the control group. Differences were seen in the scales happiness and sadness. Patient groups did not differ from each other. Conclusion By demonstrating that previously known effects of acute sleep deprivation on emotional processing can be extended to persons experiencing chronically disturbed sleep, our data contribute to a deeper understanding of the relationship between sleep loss and emotions. PMID:27073852

  19. The reciprocal interaction between sleep and type 2 diabetes mellitus: facts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Martins

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by intolerance to glucose and peripheral resistance to insulin. This endocrine disease affects fundamental mechanisms of the central nervous system and jeopardizes the balance of vital functions such as the cardiovascular and circadian rhythm. The increased prevalence of metabolic disorders in our society is aggravated by endemic voluntary postponement of bedtime and by the current sedentary lifestyle, leading to epidemic proportions of obese people. Diabetes and chronic loss of sleep share the fact that both affect millions and one is detrimental to the other. Indeed, sleep deficits have marked modulatory effects on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity and foster metabolic syndrome that culminates in sleep disorders like restless syndrome and sleep apnea, which in turn lead to poor sleep quality. We examine the hypothesis that these two worldwide emerging disorders are due to two interlinked cycles. In our paradigm, we establish an intimate relationship between diabetes and sleep disturbances and postulate possible mechanisms that provide support for this conjecture. In addition, we propose some perspectives about the development of the reciprocal interaction between predictor components of metabolic syndrome and sleep disturbances that lead to poor sleep quality. The ability to predict the development and identify or associate a given mode of sleep disturbance to diabetes would be a valuable asset in the assessment of both. Furthermore, major advances in care coupled with healthy lifestyles can ensure a higher quality of life for people with diabetes.

  20. Chronic Cough in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, David S.

    1982-01-01

    Persistent cough in children is a symptom, and the cause should be ascertained. Reactive airways disease is the most common reason for chronic cough in children over three to six months of age, especially at night. Under three months, the cause is likely to be more serious. Cough often disturbs parents more than the child, and physicians should consider parents' need for sleep and relief when deciding whether or not to prescribe cough suppressants. Investigations depend on the child's age, th...

  1. Systematic literature review of patient-reported outcome measures used in assessment and measurement of sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrow AP

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Adam P Garrow,1,2 Janelle Yorke,2 Naimat Khan,1 Jørgen Vestbo,3 Dave Singh,1 Sarah Tyson1 1University of Manchester Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, 2School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, University of Manchester, 3The University of Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University Hospital South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK Background: Sleep problems are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but the validity of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs that measure sleep dysfunction has not been evaluated. We have reviewed the literature to identify disease-specific and non-disease-specific sleep PROMs that have been validated for use in COPD patients. The review also examined the psychometric properties of identified sleep outcome measures and extracted point and variability estimates of sleep instruments used in COPD studies. Methods: The online EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases for all years to May 2014 were used to source articles for the review. The review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Criteria from the Medical Outcomes Trust Scientific Advisory Committee guidelines were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of all sleep PROMs identified. Results: One COPD-specific and six non-COPD-specific sleep outcome measures were identified and 44 papers met the review selection criteria. We only identified one instrument, the COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale, which was developed specifically for use in COPD populations. Ninety percent of the identified studies used one of two non-disease-specific sleep scales, ie, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and/or the Epworth Sleep Scale, although neither has been tested for reliability or validity in people with COPD. Conclusion: The results highlight a need for existing non

  2. Sleep and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Disorders Sleep history Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Need Sleep talking Sleeping Pills ... culture Immune System military travel CDC Healthy Sleep Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Need ...

  3. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  4. Sleep disorders and stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Douglas M; Ramos, Alberto R.; Rundek, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight existing literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatments of stroke sleep disorders. Stroke sleep disorders are associated with many intermediary vascular risk factors leading to stroke, but they may also influence these risk factors through direct or indirect mechanisms. Sleep disturbances may be further exacerbated by stroke or caused by stroke. Unrecognized and untreated sleep disorders may influence rehabilitation efforts and poor ...

  5. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome: mechanistic insights into chronic disturbances following enteric infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Jennifer K; Bhargava, Amol; Buret, Andre G

    2014-04-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a commonly encountered chronic functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Approximately 10% of IBS patients can trace the onset of their symptoms to a previous a bout of infectious dysentery. The appearance of new IBS symptoms following an infectious event is defined as post-infectious-IBS. Indeed, with the World Health Organization estimating between 2 and 4 billion cases annually, infectious diarrheal disease represents an incredible international healthcare burden. Additionally, compounding evidence suggests many commonly encountered enteropathogens as unique triggers behind IBS symptom generation and underlying pathophysiological features. A growing body of work provides evidence supporting a role for pathogen-mediated modifications in the resident intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier integrity, effector cell functions, and innate and adaptive immune features, all proposed physiological manifestations that can underlie GI abnormalities in IBS. Enteric pathogens must employ a vast array of machinery to evade host protective immune mechanisms, and illicit successful infections. Consequently, the impact of infectious events on host physiology can be multidimensional in terms of anatomical location, functional scope, and duration. This review offers a unique discussion of the mechanisms employed by many commonly encountered enteric pathogens that cause acute disease, but may also lead to the establishment of chronic GI dysfunction compatible with IBS. PMID:24744587

  6. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, depression and disordered sleep in chronic post-SARS syndrome; a case-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Patcai John; Moldofsky Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The long term adverse effects of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), a viral disease, are poorly understood. Methods Sleep physiology, somatic and mood symptoms of 22 Toronto subjects, 21 of whom were healthcare workers, (19 females, 3 males, mean age 46.29 yrs.+/- 11.02) who remained unable to return to their former occupation (mean 19.8 months, range: 13 to 36 months following SARS) were compared to 7 healthy female subjects. Because of their clinical similarities ...

  7. Melatonin improves health status and sleep in children with idiopathic chronic sleep-onset insomnia: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Smits; H.F. van Stel; K. van der Heijden; A.M. Meijer; A,.M.L. Coenen; G.A. Kerkhof

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on health status and sleep in children with idiopathic sleep-onset insomnia. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a Dutch sleep center, involving 62 children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more

  8. Sleep disturbances and prevalence of depression in systemic lupus erythematosus patients receiving intravenous cyclophosphamide Alterações do sono e prevalência de depressão em pacientes lúpicos em uso de pulsoterapia com ciclofosfamida

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Carvalho Mesquita; Lívia Noronha Coelho de Souza; Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo de Bruin; Raquel Ribeiro Carvalho; Marta Maria das Chagas Medeiros; Francisco Airton Castro da Rocha; Veralice Meireles Sales de Bruin

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulse i.v. cyclophosphamide is a therapeutic option in severe forms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the overall toxicity and risk profile are yet to be adequately defined. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence of sleep disturbances in SLE patients subjected to i.v. cyclophosphamide. METHODS: We studied thirty consecutive SLE patients (27 female) age range 14 to 53 years (mean 30.5 ± 10 years) that received i.v. cyclophosphamide (mg) (mean 948.27 ± 221...

  9. The Impact of Daily Arthritis Pain on Spouse Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Lynn M.; Keefe, Francis J.; Schulz, Richard; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Mogle, Jacqueline A.

    2013-01-01

    Although chronic pain has been linked to poorer psychosocial well-being in the spouse, the extent to which patient pain affects spouse sleep is unknown. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that greater daily knee pain would be associated with poorer sleep for the spouse that evening. We also tested the hypothesis that this pain contagion is exacerbated in couples who have a close relationship. A total of 138 knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and their spouse completed baseline interviews and a 22-day diary assessment. Multilevel lagged models indicated that greater knee OA pain at the end of the day was associated with spouses’ poorer overall sleep quality that night and feeling less refreshed after sleep. In contrast, there was no evidence that spouse sleep was related to greater patient pain the next day. The effects of patient pain on spouse sleep were not due to disturbances in patient sleep and were also independent of spouse gender, depressive symptoms, and physical comorbidities; both partners’ negative affect; and the quality of marital interactions throughout the day. As predicted, we also found that patient pain was more strongly related to less refreshing sleep for spouses who were in a close relationship. Findings illustrate that chronic pain may place the spouse’s health at risk, and suggest an important target for couple-oriented interventions. PMID:23953126

  10. Sleep disorders in COPD: the forgotten dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter T. McNicholas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is commonly associated with oxygen desaturation, which may exceed the degree of desaturation during maximum exercise, both subjectively and objectively impairing sleep quality. The mechanisms of desaturation include hypoventilation and ventilation to perfusion mismatching. The consequences of this desaturation include cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension and nocturnal death, especially during acute exacerbations. Coexistence of COPD and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA, referred to as overlap syndrome, has been estimated to occur in 1% of the general adult population. Overlap patients have worse sleep-related hypoxaemia and hypercapnia than patients with COPD or OSA alone. OSA has a similar prevalence in COPD as in a general population of similar age, but oxygen desaturation during sleep is more pronounced when the two conditions coexist. Management of sleep-related problems in COPD should particularly focus on minimising sleep disturbance via measures to limit cough and dyspnoea; nocturnal oxygen therapy is not generally indicated for isolated nocturnal hypoxaemia. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure alleviates hypoxaemia, reduces hospitalisation and pulmonary hypertension, and improves survival.

  11. Sleep disorders and depression: brief review of the literature, case report, and nonpharmacologic interventions for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antonina Luca,1 Maria Luca,2 Carmela Calandra2 1Department GF Ingrassia, Section of Neuroscience, 2Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, Italy Abstract: Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%–80% of depressed patients. Depressive symptoms are important risk factors for insomnia, and depression is considered an important comorbid condition in patients with chronic insomnia of any etiology. In addition, some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from the illness. The aim of this paper is to review briefly and discuss the following topics: common sleep disturbances during depression (in particular pavor nocturnus, nightmares, hypersomnia, and insomnia; circadian sleep disturbances; and treatment of depression by manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm (chronotherapy, light therapy, cycles of sleep, and manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm itself. Finally, we present a case report of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from insomnia associated with depression who was successfully treated with sleep deprivation. Keywords: sleep disorders, depression, insomnia, sleep-wake rhythm

  12. Chronic conditions and sleep problems among adults aged 50 years or over in nine countries: a multi-country study 

    OpenAIRE

    Koyanagi, Ai; Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Leonardi, Matilde; Koskinen, Seppo; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted. METHODS: Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain) and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult...

  13. The association of testosterone, sleep, and sexual function in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Alvarenga, Tathiana F; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Hachul, Helena C; Tufik, Sergio

    2011-10-01

    Testosterone has been the focus of several investigations and review studies in males, but few have addressed its effects on sleep and sexual function, despite evidence of its androgenic effects on circadian activity in both sexes. Studies have been conducted to understand how sleeping increases (and how waking decreases) testosterone levels and how this rhythm can be related to sexual function. This review addresses the inter-relationships among testosterone, sexual function and sleep, including sleep-disordered breathing in both sexes, specifically its effects related to sleep deprivation. In addition, hormonal changes in testosterone that occur in the gonadal and adrenal axis with obstructive sleep apnea and other conditions of chronic sleep deprivation, and which consequently affect sexual life, have also been explored. Nevertheless, hormone-associated sleep disruptions occur across a lifetime, particularly in women. The association between endogenous testosterone and sex, sleep and sleep disturbances is discussed, including the results of clinical trials as well as animal model studies. Evidence of possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this relationship is also described. Unraveling the associations of sex steroid hormone concentrations with sleep and sexual function may have clinical implications, as sleep loss reduces testosterone levels in males, and low sex steroid hormone concentrations have been associated with sexual dysfunction. PMID:21890115

  14. Actigraphy for measurement of sleep and sleep-wake rhythms in relation to surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing surgery have severe sleep and sleep-wake rhythm disturbances resulting in increased morbidity. Actigraphy is a tool that can be used to quantify these disturbances. The aim of this manuscript was to present the literature where actigraphy has been used to measure sleep and sleep...

  15. Clinical observation on the therapeutic efficiency of zopiclone and clonazepam for the treatment of sleeping disturbance%佐匹克隆与氯硝西泮治疗睡眠障碍的临床对照观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋; 林力

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察佐匹克隆治疗睡眠障碍的疗效.方法:将96例睡眠障碍患者随机分为2组,治疗组59例,对照组37例.治疗组患者每晚睡前口服国产佐匹克隆7.5 mg.对照组每晚睡前口服氯硝西泮2 mg,观察2周.对患者的睡眠状况(包括入睡时间、总睡眠时间、觉醒次数)和日间情况(包括头痛、乏力、思睡)进行评定.结果:佐匹克隆和氯硝西泮均能改善患者睡眠状况,但日间情况治疗组明显优于对照组.结论:睡眠障碍患者服用佐匹克隆后睡眠状况明显改善,且不良反应少,患者易接受.%OBJECTIVE To observe the therapeutic efficiency of zopiclone and clonazepam for the treatment of sleeping disturbance. METHODS 96 cases of patients suffering from sleeping disturbance were divided randomly into two groups: treatment group (59 cases) and control group (37 cases). The patients of treatment group were given orally with domestic zopiclone 7. 5 mg evenings before retiring, while the patients of control group given clonazepam 2 mg,for 2 weeks. The state of sleeping (fall asleep time, total sleeping time, awaking times) and daytime state (headache, fatigue, drowsy) were evaluated. RESULTS Both zopiclone and clonazepam could improve the state of sleeping, but the daytime state was improved obviously better in the treatment group than in the control group. CONCLUSION Zopiclone used for the treatment of sleeping disturbance can improve the state of sleeping significantly with less adverse reaction, and can be well accepted by the patients.

  16. Integrated orofacial therapy in chronic rhinosinusitis management for children with sleep bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of rhinosinusitis was 20% in ambulatory patients and was mostly affected by viral infections and allergy. If conservative treatments of rhinosinusitis failed, surgical procedure is an alternative choice. Previous case report revealed that the rhinosinusitis symptoms were successfully relieved by the "assisted drainage" therapy only. Nevertheless, this therapy was less successful in children with sleep bruxism (SB. Purpose: To report an integrated orofacial therapy for management of rhinosinusitis children with sleep bruxism (SB which consisted of the assisted drainage, night-guard and masseter muscle massage therapies. Case: Two boys who suffered from rhinosinusitis with bruxism were unsuccessfully treated with conventional treatment. Case management: Patients was subjected to the assisted drainage therapy that was scaling and root planning combined with gingival massage, and masseter muscle massage; night guard was worn in night sleep. They successfully relieved the rhinosinusitis symptoms. Conclusion: Based on the successful result, this integrated therapy could be suggested as an adjuvant in rhinosinusitis management.Latar belakang: Prevalensi rinosinusitis adalah 20% pasien rawat jalan dan umumnya disebabkan oleh infeksi virus dan alergi. Apabila terapi konservatif rinosinusitis mengalami kegagalan maka pilihan terakhir adalah operasi. Pada laporan kasus yang ada telah terjadi perbaikan gejala rinosinusitis setelah dilakukan terapi “assisted drainage” saja. Akan tetapi, terapi ini kurang berhasil pada anak dengan sleep bruxism (SB. Tujuan: Melaporkan suatu terapi orofasial terintegrasi untuk tatalaksana rinosinusitis pada anak dengan sleep bruxism (SB yang terdiri dari terapi assisted drainage, night guard dan masase otot masseter. Kasus: Dua anak laki-laki yang menderita rinosinusitis dengan bruxism telah mengalami kegagalan pada perawatan konsvensional. Tatalaksana kasus: Pasien dilakukan terapi assisted

  17. Clinical Psychology Training in Sleep and Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Phillips, Cindy; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that clinical psychologists would benefit from more training in sleep and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances are commonly comorbid with mental health disorders and this relationship is often bidirectional. In addition, psychologists have become integral members of multidisciplinary sleep medicine teams and there are not enough qualified psychologists to meet the clinical demand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current education on sleep and ...

  18. The effect of increased lung volume in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on upper airway obstruction during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biselli, Paolo; Grossman, Peter R; Kirkness, Jason P; Patil, Susheel P; Smith, Philip L; Schwartz, Alan R; Schneider, Hartmut

    2015-08-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit increases in lung volume due to expiratory airflow limitation. Increases in lung volumes may affect upper airway patency and compensatory responses to inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) during sleep. We hypothesized that COPD patients have less collapsible airways inversely proportional to their lung volumes, and that the presence of expiratory airflow limitation limits duty cycle responses to defend ventilation in the presence of IFL. We enrolled 18 COPD patients and 18 controls, matched by age, body mass index, sex, and obstructive sleep apnea disease severity. Sleep studies, including quantitative assessment of airflow at various nasal pressure levels, were conducted to determine upper airway mechanical properties [passive critical closing pressure (Pcrit)] and for quantifying respiratory timing responses to experimentally induced IFL. COPD patients had lower passive Pcrit than their matched controls (COPD: -2.8 ± 0.9 cmH2O; controls: -0.5 ± 0.5 cmH2O, P = 0.03), and there was an inverse relationship of subject's functional residual capacity and passive Pcrit (-1.7 cmH2O/l increase in functional residual capacity, r(2) = 0.27, P = 0.002). In response to IFL, inspiratory duty cycle increased more (P = 0.03) in COPD patients (0.40 to 0.54) than in controls (0.41 to 0.51) and led to a marked reduction in expiratory time from 2.5 to 1.5 s (P hyperinflation due to a marked reduction in expiratory time. PMID:26048975

  19. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-van Beek, Z.; Lucassen, P.L.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Smelt, A.F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Bouma, M.

    2015-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills.- The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not

  20. Chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals disturbs the hepatic expression of circadian genes in lean and obese mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthérieu, Sébastien; Le Guillou, Dounia; Coulouarn, Cédric; Begriche, Karima [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France); Trak-Smayra, Viviane [Pathology Department, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Martinais, Sophie [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France); Porceddu, Mathieu [Mitologics SAS, Hôpital Robert Debré, 48 Boulevard Sérurier, 75019 Paris (France); Robin, Marie-Anne [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France); Fromenty, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.fromenty@inserm.fr [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France)

    2014-04-01

    Drinking water can be contaminated with pharmaceuticals. However, it is uncertain whether this contamination can be harmful for the liver, especially during obesity. Hence, the goal of our study was to determine whether chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals could have deleterious effects on livers of lean and obese mice. To this end, lean and ob/ob male mice were treated for 4 months with a mixture of 11 drugs provided in drinking water at concentrations ranging from 10 to 10{sup 6} ng/l. At the end of the treatment, some liver and plasma abnormalities were observed in ob/ob mice treated with the cocktail containing 10{sup 6} ng/l of each drug. For this dosage, a gene expression analysis by microarray showed altered expression of circadian genes (e.g. Bmal1, Dbp, Cry1) in lean and obese mice. RT-qPCR analyses carried out in all groups of animals confirmed that expression of 8 different circadian genes was modified in a dose-dependent manner. For some genes, a significant modification was observed for dosages as low as 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} ng/l. Drug mixture and obesity presented an additive effect on circadian gene expression. These data were validated in an independent study performed in female mice. Thus, our study showed that chronic exposure to trace pharmaceuticals disturbed hepatic expression of circadian genes, particularly in obese mice. Because some of the 11 drugs can be found in drinking water at such concentrations (e.g. acetaminophen, carbamazepine, ibuprofen) our data could be relevant in environmental toxicology, especially for obese individuals exposed to these contaminants. - Highlights: • The contamination of drinking water with drugs may have harmful effects on health. • Some drugs can be more hepatotoxic in the context of obesity and fatty liver. • Effects of chronic exposure of trace drugs were studied in lean and obese mouse liver. Drugs and obesity present additive effects on circadian gene expression and toxicity. • Trace