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Sample records for chronic sleep disturbance

  1. Assessing and Managing Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain.

  2. Sleep disturbances in veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Masoudi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is related to a wide range of medical problems, with a majority of neurological, psychological, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, as well as sleep disorders. Although the majority of studies reveal the association between PTSD and sleep disturbances, there are few studies on the assessment of sleep disruption among veterans with PTSD. In this review, we attempt to study the sleep disorders including insomnia, nightmare, sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorders and parasomnias among veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD. It is an important area for further research among veterans with PTSD. PMID:27093088

  3. Sleep disturbances in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.W.; Westeneng, H.J.; Hal, M.A. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Overeem, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a relatively common mitochondrial disorder. In addition to extraocular muscle weakness, various other organs can typically be affected, including laryngeal and limb muscles, cerebrum, cerebellum, and peripheral nerves. Given this mul

  4. Chronic Sleep Disturbance Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paulien Barf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Three groups of animals were used: a sleep restriction group (RS, a group subjected to moderate sleep disturbance without restriction of sleep time (DS, and a home cage control group. To establish changes in glucose regulation, animals were subjected to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs before and after 1 or 8 days of sleep restriction or disturbance. Data show that both RS and DS reduce body weight without affecting food intake and also lead to hyperglycemia and decreased insulin levels during an IVGTT. Acute sleep disturbance also caused hyperglycemia during an IVGTT, yet, without affecting the insulin response. In conclusion, both moderate and severe disturbances of sleep markedly affect glucose homeostasis and body weight control.

  5. Chronic periodontitis as an etiology of sleep disturbances and premenstrual syndrome (PMS

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    Haryono Utomo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that sleep disturbances may induced by acute pulpal or periodontal pain. Other causes of sleep disturbances which also termed as sleep dysfunction, or insomnia, according to the patient has to be treated by physician. Nevertheless, in a case report, surprisingly, periodontal treatment relieved sleep disturbances and premenstrual syndrome (PMS. Coincidentally, women also more vulnerable to sleep disturbances and periodontal disease. It is also interesting that the exact etiology of PMS is still unknown, and 80% women who suffered from PMS also experience sleep disturbances. Recently, there has been increasing numbers of literatures and evidence-based cases linking periodontal disease to systemic diseases. However, systemic effects of periodontal disease that lead to PMS which associated with sleep disturbances are rarely discussed. Several mechanisms had been proposed to involve in these symptoms: female sexual hormonal imbalance, stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis and neurogenic switching mechanism. In addition, as estrogen makes women more susceptible to stress, it worsen the symptoms. The glucocorticoid hormones synthesized upon stimulation of the HPA-axis, either by stress or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may disrupt the sleep-wake cycle; and also create estrogen dominance. The aim of this study is to propose the etiopathogenesis of PMS which associated with sleep disturbances that may be related to chronic periodontitis. Since in this case report scaling and curettage resulted in the disappearing of PMS and sleep disturbances; the conclusion is that chronic periodontal disease may act as one of the etiologies of PMS and sleep disturbance.

  6. Chronic sleep disturbance and neural injury: links to neurodegenerative disease

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    Abbott SM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabra M Abbott,1 Aleksandar Videnovic21Department of Neurology, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Sleep–wake disruption is frequently observed and often one of the earliest reported symptoms of many neurodegenerative disorders. This provides insight into the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders, as sleep–wake abnormalities are often accompanied by neurodegenerative or neurotransmitter changes. However, in addition to being a symptom of the underlying neurodegenerative condition, there is also emerging evidence that sleep disturbance itself may contribute to the development and facilitate the progression of several of these disorders. Due to its impact both as an early symptom and as a potential factor contributing to ongoing neurodegeneration, the sleep–wake cycle is an ideal target for further study for potential interventions not only to lessen the burden of these diseases but also to slow their progression. In this review, we will highlight the sleep phenotypes associated with some of the major neurodegenerative disorders, focusing on the circadian disruption associated with Alzheimer’s disease, the rapid eye movement behavior disorder and sleep fragmentation associated with Parkinson’s disease, and the insomnia and circadian dysregulation associated with Huntington’s disease. Keywords: sleep, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease

  7. Physiotherapy for sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: a feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, Deirdre A

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is becoming increasingly recognised as a clinically important symptom in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP, low back pain >12 weeks), associated with physical inactivity and depression. Current research and international clinical guidelines recommend people with CLBP assume a physically active role in their recovery to prevent chronicity, but the high prevalence of sleep disturbance in this population may be unknowingly limiting their ability to participate in exercise-based rehabilitation programmes and contributing to poor outcomes. There is currently no knowledge concerning the effectiveness of physiotherapy on sleep disturbance in people with chronic low back pain and no evidence of the feasibility of conducting randomized controlled trials that comprehensively evaluate sleep as an outcome measure in this population.

  8. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rat with chronic esophagitis.

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    Kenichi Nakahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. RESULTS: Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; p<0.01 accompanied by a reduction in NREM sleep during light period, an increase in sleep fragmentation, and more frequent stage transitions. The use of omeprazole significantly improved sleep disturbances caused by reflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. CONCLUSIONS: Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis.

  9. Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get up in the middle of the night. Sleep in a cool dark place and use the bed only for sleeping and sexual activity. Do not read or watch television in bed. Avoid “screen time” — television, phones, tablets ...

  10. Relationship of chronic pain and opioid use with respiratory disturbance during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungquist, Carla R; Flannery, Marie; Perlis, Michael L; Grace, Jeanne T

    2012-06-01

    This research assessed: 1) whether patients thought to have sleep disordered breathing would have more severe symptoms if they were taking opioids; 2) whether severity of sleep disordered breathing was associated with class or dose of opioid; and 3) whether pain intensity was associated with sleep disordered breathing. A descriptive cross-sectional study of patients referred for assessment of sleep disorders was conducted. Data were collected on a total of 419 subjects (no pain [n = 171], chronic pain without opioid treatment [n = 187], and chronic pain with opioid treatment [n = 61]). The findings suggest that regardless of opioid drug or dose, the management of chronic pain with opioids is not likely to exacerbate obstructive sleep apnea at stable doses. However, central sleep apnea was associated with opioid use. Patients with chronic pain taking opioids had a mean of 5 ± 13 central apneic events per hour compared with 1.6 ± 7 events per hour in patients without pain and not taking opioids. Oxygen saturation mean nadir 83.5% (opioid group) versus 82.9% (no pain, pain without opioid) was not significantly different. The clinical relevance of the effect is unknown, so the potential for marginal respiratory disturbance (an increase of 2.8 central events per hour for every 100 mg morphine-equivalent opioid dose) must be weighed against the therapeutic value of pain management with opioids.

  11. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

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    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  12. A comparison of sleep disturbances and sleep apnea in patients on hemodialysis and chronic peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Al-Jahdali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep disorders are common among dialysis patients; however, few studies have compared the prevalence of different sleep disorders in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD and hemodialysis (HD. We used questionnaires to assess the prevalence of common sleep disorders in dialysis patients. We compared the prevalence of sleep apnea (SA risk, restless legs syndrome (RLS, insomnia, and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, as well as sleep quality, in both groups. Of the 227 patients who were enrolled in the study, the total number of patients on HD was 188 (82%, while the total number of patients on PD was 39 (18%. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding age, neck size, or duration on dialysis (all P >0.05. The estimated overall prevalence of SA was significantly higher in PD patients in comparison with HD patients (92% and 67%, respectively; P <0.05. The prevalence of insomnia was similar in both groups. The prevalence of RLS was significantly greater in PD than in HD patients (69% and 46%, respectively; P <0.05. In addition, EDS was significantly higher in PD than in HD patients (77% and 37%, respectively; P <0.05. Our study shows that sleep disorders are common in dialysis patients; however, SA, EDS, and RLS were more common in PD patients than in HD pa-tients. Poor sleep quality and insomnia were comparable in both groups.

  13. Interventions for Sleep Disturbance in Bipolar Disorder.

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    Harvey, Allison G; Kaplan, Katherine A; Soehner, Adriane M

    2015-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic disorder, ranked in the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. Sleep disturbances are strongly coupled with interepisode dysfunction and symptom worsening in bipolar disorder. Experimental studies suggest that sleep deprivation can trigger manic relapse. There is evidence that sleep deprivation can have an adverse impact on emotion regulation the following day. The clinical management of the sleep disturbances experienced by bipolar patients, including insomnia, hypersomnia delayed sleep phase, and irregular sleep-wake schedule, may include medication approaches, psychological interventions, light therapies and sleep deprivation.

  14. [Sleep disturbance in the elderly].

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    Mori, A

    1990-01-01

    Sleep structure is qualitatively and quantitatively changed by aging. The elderly usually go to bed in early evening and wake up in early morning, and they also take several naps in the day time. The polyphasic sleep is one of the typical sleep patterns found in the elderly. Comparing the sleep of the elderly with that of young adults by the method of polysomnography, the characteristics of the sleep of the elderly are in the prolongation of sleep latency, shortening of total sleep time, increase of Stage W and Stage 1, decrease of Stage 3 and 4, and also decrease of Stage REM and the advance of REM phase. Insomnia is a frequently observed symptom in the elderly. The so-called psychophysiological insomnia due to transient psychological or situational stress is common in the elderly. However, insomnia following the mental disturbance (depression), chronic use of drug or alcohol, dementia (vascular or Alzheimer type) are also important in the elderly. Sleep apnea syndrome is recently found as an important cause of insomnia. Concerning the treatment and prevention of insomnia, it is necessary to exclude the causes of insomnia, to improve the environmental conditions and to keep the regular rhythm of sleep-wake cycle. It is also important to carefully select and use the adequate hypnotics considering the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of the drugs in the elderly.

  15. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed.

  16. Sleep disturbances and glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, R. Paulien; Scheurink, Anton J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, induced by either lifestyle, shift work or sleeping disorders, have become more prevalent in our 24/7 Western society. Sleep disturbances are associated with impaired health including metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The question remains whether there is a

  17. Sleep, sleep disturbance, and fertility in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Jacqueline D; Perlis, Michael L; Zamzow, Jessica A; Culnan, Elizabeth J; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-08-01

    Sleep and sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as determinants of women's health and well-being, particularly in the context of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. At present, however, little is known about whether fertility is affected by sleep quantity and quality. That is, to what degree, and by what mechanisms, do sleep and/or its disturbances affect fertility? The purpose of this review is to synthesize what is known about sleep disturbances in relation to reproductive capacity. A model is provided, whereby stress, sleep dysregulation, and circadian misalignment are delineated for their potential relevance to infertility. Ultimately, if it is the case that sleep disturbance is associated with infertility, new avenues for clinical intervention may be possible.

  18. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  19. Investigation of sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: an age- and gender-matched case-control study over a 7-night period.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van de Water, Alexander T M

    2011-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently reported by people with chronic low back pain (>12 weeks; CLBP), but few studies have comprehensively investigated sleep in this population. This study investigated differences in subjectively and objectively measured sleep patterns of people with CLBP, and compared this to age- and gender matched controls. Thirty-two consenting participants (n = 16 with CLBP, n = 16 matched controls), aged 24-65 years (43.8% male) underwent an interview regarding sleep influencing variables, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary, SF36-v2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Numerical Pain Rating Scales, and underwent seven consecutive nights of actigraphic measurement in the home environment. Compared to controls, people with CLBP had, on self-report measures, significantly poorer sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (range 0-21) mean (SD) 10.9 (4.2)], clinical insomnia [Insomnia Severity Index mean (range 0-28) 13.7 (7.6)], lower sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset latency, more time awake after sleep onset, and more awakenings during sleep (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences between groups were found on objective actigraphy (p > 0.05). The findings provide some evidence to support self-reported sleep assessment as an outcome measure in CLBP research, while further research is needed to determine the validity of objective sleep measurement in this population.

  20. Managing Sleep Disturbances in Cirrhosis

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    Xun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor sleep negatively impacts patients’ quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, many patients without HE still complain of poor quality sleep. The pathophysiology of these disturbances is not fully understood but is believed to be linked to impaired hepatic melatonin metabolism. This paper provides an overview for the clinician of common comorbidities contributing to poor sleep in patients with liver disease, mainly restless leg syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It discusses nondrug and pharmacologic treatment options in these patients, such as the use of light therapy and histamine (H1 blockers.

  1. Sleep disturbances after non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    After major non-cardiac surgery sleep pattern is usually disturbed with initial suppression of rapid eye movement sleep with a subsequent rebound during the first post-operative week. Deep sleep is also suppressed for several days after the operation and subjective sleep quality is impaired....... The sleep disturbances seem to be related to the magnitude of trauma and thereby to the surgical stress response and/or post-operative opioid administration. Post-operative sleep disturbances may contribute to the development of early post-operative fatigue, episodic hypoxaemia, haemodynamic instability...... and altered mental status, all with a potential negative effect on post-operative outcome. Minimizing surgical trauma and avoiding or minimizing use of opioids for pain relief may prevent or reduce post-operative sleep disturbances. Post-operative sleep pattern represents an important research field, since...

  2. Sleep disturbance associated factors in menopausal women

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    Hamid Haghani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep is necessary in life and approximately 1/3 of human life is devoted to sleep. One of the most common problems in menopausal women is sleep disturbance. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of sleep disorders and its related factors in 50 – 60 years old women Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 200 eligible women who referred to selected health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. Demographic form, ten-point slide to review sexual satisfaction and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index Questioner (PSQI were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, t-test, and Pearson correlation tests.Results: The mean age of women was 53.6±3.6 year, menopause age 47.8±4, number of children 4.76±2 and partner age was 57.99±6.6. 34.5% of women were satisfied from their sexual relationship and their score was 8-10. Rate of sleep disturbances in this group was about 70%. The results showed that between four variables: economical status, occupation, partner occupation and educational status were significantly associated with sleep disturbance (P=0.002. There was not significant difference between other demographic information and sleep disturbance.Conclusion: The results show high prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms among menopausal women. According to the relationship between some personal characters and sleep disturbance, health care providers need to consider these variables.

  3. Sleep Disturbance and Upper-Extremity Disability

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    Rinne Peters

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although upper-extremity disability correlates with psychosocial aspects of illness the association with sleep disturbance in upper extremity disability is less certain. To evaluate whether sleep disturbance is associated with upper-extremity disability among patients with upper extremity illness, accounting for sociodemographic, condition-related, and psychosocial factors. Methods: A cohort of 111 new or follow-up patients presenting to an urban academic hospital-based hand surgeon completed a sociodemographic survey and measures of sleep disturbance (PROMIS Sleep Disturbance, disability (PROMIS Upper-Extremity Physical Function, ineffective coping strategies (PROMIS Pain Interference, and depression (PROMIS Depression. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression modeling were performed. Results: Sleep disturbance correlated with disability (r=-0.38; P

  4. Total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy C; Banks, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Sleep loss may result from total sleep deprivation (such as a shift worker might experience), chronic sleep restriction (due to work, medical conditions or lifestyle) or sleep disruption (which is common in sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome). Total sleep deprivation has been widely researched, and its effects have been well described. Chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption (also known as sleep fragmentation) have received less experimental attention. Recently, there has been increasing interest in sleep restriction and disruption as it has been recognized that they have a similar impact on cognitive functioning as a period of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss causes impairments in cognitive performance and simulated driving and induces sleepiness, fatigue and mood changes. This review examines recent research on the effects of sleep deprivation, restriction and disruption on cognition and neurophysiologic functioning in healthy adults, and contrasts the similarities and differences between these three modalities of sleep loss.

  5. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals...... with ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance......, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian...

  6. Sleep disturbance in Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth; Mowat, David; Wilson, Meredith; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by a heterozygous mutation or deletion of the ZEB2 gene. It is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance in association with intellectual disability (ID) and variable other features including agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, congenital heart defects, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, and Hirschsprung disease. The current study investigated sleep disturbance in people with MWS. In a series of unstructured interviews focused on development and behaviors in MWS, family members frequently reported sleep disturbance, particularly early-morning waking and frequent night waking. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was therefore administered to a sample of 35 individuals with MWS, along with the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) to measure behavioral and emotional disturbance. A high level of sleep disturbance was found in the MWS sample, with 53% scoring in the borderline range and 44% in the clinical disorder range for at least one subscale of the SDSC. Scores were highest for the Sleep-wake transition disorders subscale, with 91% of participants reaching at least the borderline disorder range. A significant positive association was found between total scores on the SDSC and the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. These results suggest that sleep disorders should be screened for in people with MWS, and where appropriate, referrals to sleep specialists made for management of sleep problems.

  7. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. METHODS: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis....... RESULTS: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high...... few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. CITATION: Salo P, Ala...

  8. Parkinson's Disease and Sleep/Wake Disturbances

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    Todd J. Swick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD has traditionally been characterized by its cardinal motor symptoms of bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. However, PD is increasingly being recognized as a multidimensional disease associated with myriad nonmotor symptoms including autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, impaired olfaction, psychosis, and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances, which include sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome (RLS, nightmares, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, are estimated to occur in 60% to 98% of patients with PD. For years nonmotor symptoms received little attention from clinicians and researchers, but now these symptoms are known to be significant predictors of morbidity in determining quality of life, costs of disease, and rates of institutionalization. A discussion of the clinical aspects, pathophysiology, evaluation techniques, and treatment options for the sleep disorders that are encountered with PD is presented.

  9. Sleep Disturbances in Persons Living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Taibi, Diana M.

    2013-01-01

    Up to 70% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) experience sleep disturbances. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are common disorders seen in the primary care of PLWH. This paper reviews the current evidence and practice recommendations for treating these conditions. Insomnia is evaluated by clinical interview, questionnaires, and sleep diaries. The recommended first-line treatment is cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), delivered by a trained therapist. Certain s...

  10. Financial Strain is a Significant Correlate of Sleep Continuity Disturbances in Late-Life

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Martica; Buysse, Daniel J.; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Thompson, Wesley, K.; Mazumdar, Sati; Monk, Timothy H.

    2007-01-01

    Although psychological stress has been associated with disturbed sleep in younger populations, little is known about the stress-sleep relationship in late life. In the present study, we evaluated relationships among a chronic stressor, ongoing financial strain, and sleep in a heterogenous sample (n = 75) of community-dwelling elders (mean age = 74.0 years). Self-report measures included ongoing financial strain, mental health, physical health and subjective sleep quality. Sleep duration, cont...

  11. Sleep disturbance in older ICU patients

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    Sterniczuk R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Roxanne Sterniczuk,1–3 Benjamin Rusak,1,2 Kenneth Rockwood31Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, 2Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, 3Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, CanadaAbstract: Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a restorative process, sleep is important for supporting immune function and aiding the body in healing and recovery. Aging is associated with characteristic changes to sleep quantity and quality, which make it more difficult to adjust sleep–wake rhythms to changing environmental conditions. Sleep disturbance and abnormal sleep–wake cycles are commonly reported in seriously ill older patients in the intensive care unit (ICU. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors appears to contribute to these disruptions. Little is known regarding the effect that sleep disturbance has on health status in the oldest of old (80+, a group, who with diminishing physiological reserve and increasing prevalence of frailty, is at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes, such as cognitive decline and mortality. Here we review how sleep is altered in the ICU, with particular attention to older patients, especially those aged ≥80 years. Further work is required to understand what impact sleep disturbance has on frailty levels and poor outcomes in older critically ill patients.Keywords: intensive care unit, sleep–wake rhythm, aging, frailty

  12. Biological basis for sleep disturbance and behavioral symptoms in dementia: a biobehavioral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Martin, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Behavioral symptoms and sleep disturbance occur in more than 56% of older adults with mild to moderate dementia and are challenging and costly. This article proposes a biobehavioral causal model to explain sleep disturbances and behavioral symptoms in dementia (BSD) based on an integrative science perspective using the life cycle model of stress (chronic stress) integrating genetic, neuroendocrine, and personality factors. The model proposes that: (a) BSD are an outcome of sleep disturbance; (b) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is key to sleep disturbances and BSD; (c) genotype influences response to stress hormones; (d) HPA is influenced by genotype; (e) trait anxiety moderates the relationship between HPA axis and BSD and/or sleep disturbances; and (f) trait anxiety is influenced by genotype. Examining these relationships simultaneously will advance our theoretical understanding of BSD and sleep disturbances, potentially providing a basis for the design of targeted interventions and prevention strategies with an understanding of risk.

  13. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  14. Sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas J.; PAK, VICTORIA M.; Gehrman, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Existing research has demonstrated associations between sleep duration and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Sleep disorders research has shown that sleep apnoea, insomnia and other sleep disorders confer risk for cardiometabolic disease, particularly in the presence of reduced sleep duration. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between general sleep disturbance, operationalized as ‘difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much...

  15. Financial strain is a significant correlate of sleep continuity disturbances in late-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica; Buysse, Daniel J; Nofzinger, Eric A; Reynolds, Charles F; Thompson, Wesley; Mazumdar, Sati; Monk, Timothy H

    2008-02-01

    Although psychological stress has been associated with disturbed sleep in younger populations, little is known about the stress-sleep relationship in late-life. In the present study, we evaluated relationships among a chronic stressor, ongoing financial strain, and sleep in a heterogenous sample (n=75) of community-dwelling elders (mean age=74.0 years). Self-report measures included ongoing financial strain, mental health, physical health and subjective sleep quality. Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were measured by polysomnography (PSG). Analysis of variance and regression were used to test the hypothesis that ongoing financial strain is a significant correlate of disturbed sleep in the elderly. Covariates included age, sex, mental health and physical health. Analyses revealed that ongoing financial strain is a significant correlate of PSG-assessed sleep latency, wakefulness after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency. After adjusting for the effects of age, sex, mental health, and physical health on sleep, ongoing financial strain was associated with lower sleep efficiency (p<.01). Our results show that chronic stress, as measured by ongoing financial strain, is a significant correlate of sleep disturbances in the elderly, even after adjusting for factors known to impact sleep in late-life.

  16. Sleep spindles predict stress-related increases in sleep disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh eDang-Vu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Predisposing factors place certain individuals at higher risk for insomnia, especially in the presence of precipitating conditions such as stressful life events. Sleep spindles have been shown to play an important role in the preservation of sleep continuity. Lower spindle density might thus constitute an objective predisposing factor for sleep reactivity to stress. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between baseline sleep spindle density and the prospective change in insomnia symptoms in response to a standardized academic stressor. Methods: 12 healthy students had a polysomnography (PSG recording during a period of lower stress at the beginning of the academic semester, along with an assessment of insomnia complaints using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. They completed a second ISI assessment at the end of the semester, a period coinciding with the week prior to final examinations and thus higher stress. Spindle density, amplitude, duration and frequency, as well as sigma power were computed from C4-O2 electroencephalography (EEG derivation during stages N2-N3 of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, across the whole night and for each NREM sleep period. To test for the relationship between spindle density and changes in insomnia symptoms in response to academic stress, spindle measurements at baseline were correlated with changes in ISI across the academic semester.Results: Spindle density (as well as spindle amplitude and sigma power, particularly during the first NREM sleep period, negatively correlated with changes in ISI (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Lower spindle activity, especially at the beginning of the night, prospectively predicted larger increases in insomnia symptoms in response to stress. This result indicates that individual differences in sleep spindle activity contribute to the differential vulnerability to sleep disturbances in the face of precipitating factors.

  17. Sleep disturbances and health-related quality of life in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Gao

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are common in patients with chronic lung diseases, but little is known about the prevalence in patients with bronchiectasis. A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants associated with sleep disturbances, and the correlation between sleep disturbances and quality of life (QoL in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis.One hundred and forty-four bronchiectasis patients and eighty healthy subjects were enrolled. Sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness, and QoL were measured by utilizing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, respectively. Demographic, clinical indices, radiology, spirometry, bacteriology, anxiety and depression were also assessed.Adults with steady-state bronchiectasis had a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances (PSQI>5 (57% vs. 29%, P<0.001, but not daytime sleepiness (ESS≥10 (32% vs. 30%, P = 0.76, compared with healthy subjects. In the multivariate model, determinants associated with sleep disturbances in bronchiectasis patients included depression (OR, 10.09; 95% CI, 3.46-29.37; P<0.001, nocturnal cough (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.13-3.18; P = 0.016, aging (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07; P = 0.009 and increased 24-hour sputum volume (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.22-3.33; P = 0.006. Patients with sleep disturbances had more significantly impaired QoL affecting all domains than those without. Only 6.2% of patients reported using a sleep medication at least weekly.In adults with steady-state bronchiectasis, sleep disturbances are more common than in healthy subjects and are related to poorer QoL. Determinants associated with sleep disturbances include depression, aging, nighttime cough and increased sputum volume. Assessment and intervention of sleep disturbances are warranted and may improve QoL.

  18. Sleep disturbance in pediatric PTSD: current findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachy, Ben; O'Hara, Ruth; Hawkins, Nate; Gershon, Anda; Primeau, Michelle M; Madej, Jessica; Carrion, Victor

    2013-05-15

    Many studies have provided strong evidence of a fundamental and complex role for sleep disturbances in adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Investigations of adult PTSD using subjective and objective measures document sleep architecture abnormalities and high prevalence of sleep disordered breathing, periodic limb movement disorder, nightmares, and insomnia. PTSD treatment methods do appear to significantly improve sleep disturbance, and also studies suggest that treatments for sleep disorders often result in improvements in PTSD symptoms. Further, the most recent evidence suggests sleep abnormalities may precede the development of PTSD. Given the importance of sleep disorders to the onset, course, and treatment of adult PTSD, examination of sleep disturbances far earlier in the life course is imperative. Here we review the literature on what we know about sleep disturbances and disorders in pediatric PTSD. Our review indicates that the extant, empirical data examining sleep disturbance and disorders in pediatric PTSD is limited. Yet, this literature suggests there are significantly higher reports of sleep disturbances and nightmares in children and adolescents exposed to trauma and/or diagnosed with PTSD than in non-trauma-exposed samples. Sleep questionnaires are predominantly employed to assess sleep disorders in pediatric PTSD, with few studies utilizing objective measures. Given the important, complex relationship being uncovered between adult PTSD and sleep, this review calls for further research of sleep in children with PTSD using more specific subjective measures and also objective measures, such as polysomnography and eventually treatment trial studies.

  19. Sleep disturbance in childhood epilepsy: clinical implications, assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stores, Gregory

    2013-07-01

    The ways in which sleep can affect epilepsy, and epilepsy can influence sleep and wakefulness, are described. Different forms of sleep disturbance have been reported in patients with epilepsy, depending on the type of seizure disorder. Confusions between epilepsy and non-epileptic parasomnias can be a particular diagnostic problem but they can be avoided. Untreated sleep disturbance is likely to have harmful psychological, physical and family effects. Screening for sleep disturbance should be routine, and leading, if indicated, to precise diagnosis of the underlying sleep disorder on which choice of advice and treatment depends.

  20. Trastornos del sueño en el paciente con dolor crónico Sleep disturbances in patients with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Mencías Hurtado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Padecer dolor crónico supone un importante impacto sobre la calidad del sueño del paciente que lo sufre. Una mayor intensidad de dolor se ha asociado a una mayor prevalencia de trastornos del sueño, siendo esta relación recíproca y que perpetúa un círculo vicioso entre ambos. Teniendo en cuenta que algunos de los fármacos que manejamos habitualmente para el control analgésico, fundamentalmente opioides, pueden modificar la arquitectura del sueño, tanto positiva como negativamente, consideramos importante empezar a valorar la calidad del sueño del paciente con dolor crónico como un indicador de calidad en el manejo del tratamiento analgésico.Having chronic pain is a significant impact on sleep quality of the patient who suffers. Higher pain intensity was associated with a higher prevalence of sleep disorders, this being a mutual and perpetuating a vicious circle between them. Given that some of the drugs commonly used to manage pain control, mainly opioids, may alter the sleep architecture, both positively and negatively, we consider important to begin to assess this quality of sleep of patients with chronic pain as an indicator of quality management of analgesic treatment.

  1. Disturbances of sleep continuity in women during the menopausal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Słopień

    2015-06-01

    Sleep continuity disturbances are frequently reported by women during the menopausal transition. Interventions aimed at reducing the symptoms of menopausal syndrome should be considered as important action to improve sleep quality in this population of patients.

  2. Sleep Disturbances and Behavioral Disturbances in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shirshendu; Jhaveri, Ronak; Banga, Alok

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are commonly seen in children and adolescents. They are often undiagnosed and undertreated. A balance of circadian rhythm and homeostatic drive determine sleep quality, quantity, and timing, which changes across the developmental years. Environmental and lifestyle factors can affect sleep quality and quantity and lead to sleep deprivation. A comprehensive assessment of sleep disorders includes parental report, children's self-report, and school functioning. Diagnostic tools are used in diagnosing and treating sleep disorders.

  3. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Cheung, Miao-Miao

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine sleep-wake patterns and evaluate sleep disturbance in Hong Kong adolescents; to identify factors that are associated with sleep disturbance; and to examine the relationship of sleep-wake variables and academic performance. DESIGN AND SETTING: A school-based cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: Sample included 1629 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Self-report questionnaires, including sleep-wake habit questionnaire,...

  4. Prazosin for Trauma Nightmares and Sleep Disturbances in Combat Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Nasouri, Marzie; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Background Prazosin is significantly effective to reduce sleep disturbance and trauma nightmare in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, results of different studies were evaluated. Objectives The current randomized clinical trial aimed to assess the effects of prazosin on sleep parameters and nightmares among veterans with chronic PTSD. Materials and Methods Thirty-two veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD and distressing nightmares were randomized into prazosin and ...

  5. Perturbação respiratória durante o sono em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Respiratory disturbance during sleep in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Krieger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é uma condição freqüente e é hoje a quarta principal causa de mortes nos Estados Unidos. A prevalência de perturbação respiratória durante o sono, ou síndrome de superposição, como anteriormente denominada, ainda não foi determinada devido à publicação de relatos conflitantes. Esta condição deve continuar sendo investigada devido aos efeitos adversos causados por transtornos respiratórios relacionados ao sono em pacientes com doença pulmonar de base. Neste relato, discutiremos brevemente os mecanismos envolvidos na origem da perturbação respiratória durante o sono em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e auxiliaremos o leitor a distinguir àqueles pacientes que se beneficiariam de uma avaliação do padrão do sono mais detalhada, com a discussão de tópicos de gerenciamento e opções de tratamento.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a prevalent condition and is currently the forth leading cause of mortality in the US. The prevalence of respiratory disturbance during sleep, or overlap syndrome as it was commonly known in the past, is still undetermined as conflicting reports have been published. Because of the adverse effects of sleep-related respiratory impairment in patients with underlying pulmonary disease, this condition deserves further investigation. In this report, we will briefly discuss the mechanisms involved in generating respiratory disturbance during sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and will guide the reader into distinguishing those patients who would benefit from a more detailed sleep evaluation, discussing management issues and treatment options.

  6. [Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chiang, Hsiao-Ching

    2017-02-01

    Most women experience the worse sleep quality of their life during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Although pregnancy typically accounts for a relatively short part of a woman's life, the related sleep disturbances may have a significant and negative impact on her long-term health. Approximately 78-80% of pregnant women experience sleep disturbances, including interruptions in deep sleep, decreased total sleep time, poor subjective sleep quality, frequent night waking, and reduced sleep efficacy. Sleep disturbances during pregnancy start during the first trimester and become prevalent during the third trimester. Related factors include physiological and psychosocial changes and an unhealthy lifestyle. As non-pharmacological interventions have the potential to improve sleep quality in 70% to 80% of patients with insomnia, this is the main approached that is currently used to treat pregnancy-related sleep disturbances. Examples of these non-pharmacological interventions include music therapy, aerobic exercise, massage, progressive muscle relaxation, multi-modal interventions, and the use of a maternity support belt. The efficacy and safety of other related non-pharmacological interventions such as auricular acupressure, cognitive therapy, tai chi, and aromatherapy remain uncertain, with more empirical research required. Additionally, non-pharmacological interventions do not effectively treat sleep disturbances in all pregnant women.

  7. Sleep Disturbances and Glucoregulation in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the frequency of sleep disturbances and the association between sleep disturbances and glucoregulation in type 2 diabetic patients. The frequency of sleep disturbances in 614 type 2 diabetic patients was investigated using validated sleep questionnaires. There were 381 male and 233 female patients. The mean age was 59.7 ± 11.1 yr; the mean body mass index was 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m2; the mean HbA1c was 7.8% ± 1.5%; and the mean duration of diabetes was 10.3 ± 8.4 yr. The questionnair...

  8. Sleep disturbances in a clinical forensic psychiatric population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Karsten, Julie; de Weerd, Al; Lancel, Marike

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor sleep is known to cause detrimental effects on the course of diverse psychiatric disorders and is a putative risk factor for hostility and aggression. Thus, sleep may be crucial in forensic psychiatric practice. However, little is known about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in t

  9. Further Validation of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffel, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of an expanded version of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI; Koffel & Watson, 2010) in 2 samples (219 college students and 200 psychiatric patients). The expanded ISDI includes the scales Sleep Paralysis and Sleep Hallucinations. These scales, along with the Nightmares scale, help define a…

  10. Sleep disturbances in critically ill patients in ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Ording, H; Jennum, P

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit (ICU) seem to lead to development of delirium, prolonged ICU stay, and increased mortality. That is why sufficient sleep is important for good outcome and recovery in critically ill patients. A variety of small studies reveal pathological sleep patterns...

  11. Sleep habits and sleep disturbances in Dutch children: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Litsenburg, van, R.R.L.; Waumans, R.C.; Berg, van den, Aad; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders can lead to significant morbidity. Information on sleep in healthy children is necessary to evaluate sleep disorders in clinical practice, but data from different societies cannot be simply generalized. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the prevalence of sleep disturbances in Dutch healthy children, (2) describe sleep habits and problems in this population, (3) collect Dutch norm data for future reference, and (4) compare sleep in children from different cultural backg...

  12. Sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease patients and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claassen DO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel O Claassen, Scott J KutscherDepartment of Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Sleep disturbances are among the most common nonmotor complaints of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, and can have a great impact on quality of life. These disturbances manifest in a variety of ways; for instance, insomnia, sleep fragmentation, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep-related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements may share a common pathophysiology, and occurrence of rapid eye movement behavior disorder may predate the onset of PD or other synucleinopathies by several years. Medications for PD can have a significant impact on sleep, representing a great challenge to the treating physician. Awareness of the complex relationship between PD and sleep disorders, as well as the varied way in which sleep disturbances appear, is imperative for successful long-term management.Keywords: sleep disorders, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, Parkinson disease, fatigue, REM behavior disorder

  13. Relationship between child sleep disturbances and maternal sleep, mood, and parenting stress: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Mindell, Jodi A

    2007-03-01

    Although sleep disturbances in children are common, little is known about the relationship between children's sleep disruptions and maternal sleep and daytime functioning. Forty-seven mothers completed measures of sleep, depression, parenting stress, fatigue, and sleepiness. Significant differences in maternal mood and parenting stress were found between mothers of children with and without significant sleep disturbances. Regression analyses showed that the quality of the children's sleep significantly predicted the quality of maternal sleep. In addition, maternal sleep quality was a significant predictor of maternal mood, stress, and fatigue. Results from this pilot study support the need for future research examining the relationship between child sleep disturbances and maternal daytime functioning, and they highlight the importance of screening for and treating pediatric sleep disruptions.

  14. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbance...

  15. Sleep disturbances after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L; Jennum, P; Kehlet, H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Major surgery is followed by pronounced sleep disturbances after traditional perioperative care potentially leading to prolonged recovery. The aim was to evaluate the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration and sleep architecture before and after fast-track hip and knee replacement......, and on the fourth postoperative night at home. Sleep staging was performed according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine manual. Opioid use, pain, and inflammatory response (C-reactive protein) were also evaluated. RESULTS: /st>The mean LOS was 1.5 (1-2) days. The mean REM sleep time decreased from a mean...... on the fourth postoperative night. There was no association between opioid use, pain scores, and inflammatory response with a disturbed sleep pattern. CONCLUSIONS: /st>Despite ultra-short LOS and provision of spinal anaesthesia with multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, REM sleep was almost eliminated...

  16. The Joint Effect of Sleep Duration and Disturbed Sleep on Cause-Specific Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Kumari, Meena; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Both sleep duration and sleep quality are related to future health, but their combined effects on mortality are unsettled. We aimed to examine the individual and joint effects of sleep duration and sleep disturbances on cause-specific mortality in a large prospective cohort study....

  17. Sleep disturbances and glucoregulation in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Hee; Lee, HeyJean; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Choi, Moon Gi; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the frequency of sleep disturbances and the association between sleep disturbances and glucoregulation in type 2 diabetic patients. The frequency of sleep disturbances in 614 type 2 diabetic patients was investigated using validated sleep questionnaires. There were 381 male and 233 female patients. The mean age was 59.7 ± 11.1 yr; the mean body mass index was 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m(2); the mean HbA1c was 7.8% ± 1.5%; and the mean duration of diabetes was 10.3 ± 8.4 yr. The questionnaires revealed insomnia in 48.2% of the patients while 8.5% reported excessive daytime sleepiness. A total of 49% of the patients was poor sleepers, while 28.5% had depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that there was no significant association between HbA1c and other sleep disturbances, such as poor sleep, insomnia, and short duration of sleep. Sleep disturbances were very common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas there was no association between poor or short sleep and glucoregulation. Awareness and identifying sleep complaints in such patients are necessary to improve their quality of daily life.

  18. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  19. Sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease with emphasis on rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anthony; Dashtipour, Khashayar

    2012-08-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These disturbances can primarily affect the patient's quality of life and may worsen the symptoms of PD. Among the multiple sleep disturbances in PD patients, there has been a marked growing interest in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). This is likely due to the fact that RBD has been proven to precede the motor symptoms of PD by many years. The aim of this article is to examine the sleep disturbances found in PD, with special attention to RBD as a premotor symptom of PD, as well as to assess its proposed related pathophysiology. MEDLINE (1966-March 2010), American Academy of Sleep Medicine's, The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, and current textbooks of sleep medicine were searched for relevant information. Search terms: RBD, sleep disturbances, Parkinson's disease, and pre-motor were used. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep attack, insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and RBD are sleep disturbances commonly found in the literature related to PD. Sleep benefit has been proven to lessen PD motor symptoms. RBD has been described as a premotor symptom of PD in several prospective, retrospective, and cross-sectional studies. Sleep disturbances in PD can result secondarily to natural disease progression, as a side effect of the medications used in PD, or in result of pre-clinical pathology. Treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients is crucial, as what is termed as, "sleep benefit effect" has been shown to improve the symptoms of PD.

  20. Sleep hygiene and actigraphically evaluated sleep characteristics in children with ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Smits, Marcel G; Gunning, W Boudewijn

    2006-03-01

    In the present study we investigated sleep hygiene and actigraphically evaluated sleep in 74 medication-naïve children, aged 6-12 years, with rigorously diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia (ADHD-SOI) and 23 ADHD controls without insomnia (ADHD-noSOI). Between-group differences were analysed for lights out (sleep log), actigraphically evaluated sleep onset, sleep latency, total sleep duration, actual sleep time and sleep hygiene as measured with the Children's Sleep Hygiene Scale. We found a significant difference (P sleep hygiene score between the ADHD-SOI (56.4 +/- 10.5) and ADHD-noSOI groups (53.0 +/- 10.6). We conclude that there were differences in sleep onset and sleep latency in ADHD children with chronic SOI and those without insomnia; however, sleep hygiene practices were similar and did not relate to sleep characteristics.

  1. Catastrophizing and symptoms of sleep disturbances in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M; Noone, Deirdre M; Eley, Thalia C; Harvey, Allison G

    2010-03-01

    Catastrophizing about sleeplessness is a cognitive process associated with sleep disturbance in adults. This study aimed to (1) examine whether children catastrophize about the consequences of not sleeping; (2) define the topics that children catastrophize about; (3) assess whether there is a link between catastrophizing and sleep disturbance in children; and (4) examine whether an association between catastrophizing and sleep in children is mediated by anxiety and depression symptoms. Children completed the sleep self-report and a catastrophizing interview. Testing took place in two inner-city schools in London, UK and participants comprised 123 children aged between 8 and 10 years (49% male). Thirty-four (28%) participants reported concerns in response to the catastrophizing questionnaire. The main topics being catastrophized were concerns about sleep, physiological issues and one's own emotions. Catastrophes predicted sleep disturbance after controlling for age and sex (beta = 0.35, P anxiety and depression symptoms (beta = 0.15, P = 0.106). Symptoms of anxiety (Sobel test = 3.30, P sleep. A proportion of children catastrophized about the consequences of sleeplessness and this was associated with sleep disturbance, an association which was mediated through anxiety and depression symptoms.

  2. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Halperin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise.

  3. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  4. Disturbed sleep: linking allergic rhinitis, mood and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Beverly J; Tonelli, Leonardo H; Soriano, Joseph J; Postolache, Teodor T

    2010-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated with mood disorders, exacerbation of depression, and suicidal behavior. Mediators of inflammation modulate sleep , with Th1 cytokines promoting NREM sleep and increasing sleepiness and Th2 cytokines (produced during allergic inflammation) impairing sleep. As sleep impairment is a rapidly modifiable suicide risk factor strongly associated with mood disorders, we review the literature leading to the hypothesis that allergic rhinitis leads to mood and anxiety disorders and an increased risk of suicide via sleep impairment. Specifically, allergic rhinitis can impair sleep through mechanical (obstructive) and molecular (cytokine production) processes. The high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders and allergy, the nonabating suicide incidence, the currently available treatment modalities to treat sleep impairment and the need for novel therapeutic targets for mood and anxiety disorders, justify multilevel efforts to explore disturbance of sleep as a pathophysiological link.

  5. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Shechter, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss.

  6. Association of Sleep Disturbances With Reduced Semen Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have found an association between sleep duration and morbidity and mortality, but no previous studies have examined the association between sleep disturbances and semen quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 953 young Danish men from the general population who were re...

  7. Are sleep disturbances preclinical markers of Parkinson’s disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito dos Santos, Altair; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Barreto, George

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by motor symptoms and signs, and non-motor abnormalities such as olfactory dysfunction, pain, sleep disorders and cognitive impairment. Amongst these alterations, sleep disturbances play an important role in the pathology...

  8. Treatment of sleep disturbances in posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Frank B; Deviva, Jason C; Manber, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are among the most commonly reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. It is essential to conduct a careful assessment of the presenting sleep disturbance to select the optimal available treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) are at least as effective as pharmacologic treatment in the short-term and more enduring in their beneficial effects. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and imagery rehearsal therapy have been developed to specifically treat insomnia and nightmares and offer promise for more effective relief of these very distressing symptoms. Pharmacotherapy continues to be an important treatment choice for PTSD sleep disturbances as an adjunct to CBT, when CBT is ineffective or not available, or when the patient declines CBT. Great need exists for more investigation into the effectiveness of specific pharmacologic agents for PTSD sleep disturbances and the dissemination of the findings to prescribers. The studies of prazosin and the findings of its effectiveness for PTSD sleep disturbance are examples of studies of pharmacologic agents needed in this area. Despite the progress made in developing more specific treatments for sleep disturbances in PTSD, insomnia and nightmares may not fully resolve.

  9. Treatment of sleep disturbances in posttraumatic stress disorder: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank B. Schoenfeld, MD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are among the most commonly reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms. It is essential to conduct a careful assessment of the presenting sleep disturbance to select the optimal available treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs are at least as effective as pharmacologic treatment in the short-term and more enduring in their beneficial effects. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and imagery rehearsal therapy have been developed to specifically treat insomnia and nightmares and offer promise for more effective relief of these very distressing symptoms. Pharmacotherapy continues to be an important treatment choice for PTSD sleep disturbances as an adjunct to CBT, when CBT is ineffective or not available, or when the patient declines CBT. Great need exists for more investigation into the effectiveness of specific pharmacologic agents for PTSD sleep disturbances and the dissemination of the findings to prescribers. The studies of prazosin and the findings of its effectiveness for PTSD sleep disturbance are examples of studies of pharmacologic agents needed in this area. Despite the progress made in developing more specific treatments for sleep disturbances in PTSD, insomnia and nightmares may not fully resolve.

  10. Sleep disorders in children with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira H. Darwish

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are very common among children with CKD. Sleep disturbances in patients with CKD include restless legs syndrome (RLS, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB, behavioral insomnias, and parasomnias.

  11. Study on correlation between chronic tension type headache and sleep disturbance%慢性紧张型头痛与睡眠障碍的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝连玉; 高思山

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between chronic tension type headache (CTTH) and sleep disturbance,evaluate the influence of sleep disturbance and CTT'H occurring,developing and pathophysiology.Methods According to the diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society 2004 ISH-Ⅱ,we selected 141 CTTH patients from our neurology department in our hospital from April 2012 to August 2013.According to the level of headache,the patients were divided into three groups including mild,moderate and serious groups.Age,gender,sleep disturbance,headache levels were researched and analyzed respectively to understand the correlation among the aetiological agent of sleep disorders and CTTH level.Results The insomnia incidence rate of CTTH was 49.6%,statistically significant different from the incidence rate of normal people as 9.4% from Yu Shouchen' research (x 2=153.63,P < 0.001).The insomnia incidence rate of moderate and serious patients was higher than that of mild patients (x2=11.017,P < 0.05).There was no correlation between insomnia and gender,family history of CTTH patients.Conclusion There is obvious correlation between CTTH and sleep disturbance.Sleep disturbance is probably the important cause of CTTH.Clinic doctors should pay attention to the sleep problems of CTTH patients.Treating sleep disturbance could probably have positive prevention and treatment effect to CTTH patients.%目的 探讨慢性紧张型头痛(chronic tension type headache,CTTH)与睡眠障碍的关系,评价睡眠障碍对慢性紧张型头痛的发生、发展及头痛病理生理的影响.方法 依据国际头痛学会2004 ISH-Ⅱ头痛性疾病的分类和诊断标准,选取2012年4月至2013年8月我院神经内科门诊及住院符合慢性紧张型头痛诊断的患者141例,根据头痛程度分为轻度头痛、中度头痛、重度头痛三组,对纳入研究患者性别、年龄、失眠情况、疼痛程度、医后随访、健康指导等指标进行研究,分析睡

  12. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral acoustic trauma 24 h before sleep disturbance being induced using the cage exchange method. Tinnitus perception was assessed behaviourally using a conditioned lick suppression paradigm 3 weeks after the acoustic trauma. Changes in the orexin system in the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in maintaining long-lasting arousal, were also examined using immunohistochemistry. Cage exchange resulted in a significant reduction in the number of sleep episodes and acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus with acoustic features similar to a 32 kHz tone at 100 dB. However, sleep disturbance did not exacerbate the perception of tinnitus in rats. Neither tinnitus alone nor tinnitus plus sleep disturbance altered the number of orexin-expressing neurons. The results suggest that acute sleep disturbance does not cause long-term changes in the number of orexin neurons and does not change the perception of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma in rats.

  13. The differential effects of gratitude and sleep on psychological distress in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei-Yee; Wong, Wing-Sze

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the possible cross-sectional mediating role of sleep in the relationship of gratitude with depression and anxiety in patients with chronic pain. A total of 224 patients with chronic pain completed structured questionnaires assessing chronic pain, depression and anxiety symptoms, gratitude, and sleep disturbances. Results of multiple regression analyses yielded a modest mediating effect for sleep on the gratitude-depression link whereas a stronger mediating effect was found for sleep on the gratitude-anxiety link. These data show much of the effect of gratitude on depression was direct whereas sleep exerted a stronger mediating effect on the gratitude-anxiety link.

  14. Sleep disturbances and suicide risk: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Bernert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca A Bernert, Thomas E JoinerDepartment of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USAAbstract: A growing body of research indicates that sleep disturbances are associated with suicidal ideation and behaviors. This article (1 provides a critical review of the extant literature on sleep and suicidality and (2 addresses shared underlying neurobiological factors, biological and social zeitgebers, treatment implications, and future directions for research. Findings indicate that suicidal ideation and behaviors are closely associated with sleep complaints, and in some cases, this association exists above and beyond depression. Several cross-sectional investigations indicate a unique association between nightmares and suicidal ideation, whereas the relationship between insomnia and suicidality requires further study. Underlying neurobiological factors may, in part, account for the relationship between sleep and suicide. Serotonergic neurotransmission appears to play a critical role in both sleep and suicide. Finally, it remains unclear whether or not sleep-oriented interventions may reduce risk for suicidal behaviors. Unlike other suicide risk factors, sleep complaints may be particularly amenable to treatment. As a warning sign, disturbances in sleep may thus be especially useful to research and may serve as an important clinical target for future suicide intervention efforts.Keywords: suicidality, sleep, nightmares, suicide risk factors

  15. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables.

  16. Sleep disturbance in mental health problems and neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson KN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirstie N Anderson1 Andrew J Bradley2,3 1Department of Neurology, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company Limited, Lilly House, Basingstoke, UK; 3Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Sleep has been described as being of the brain, by the brain, and for the brain. This fundamental neurobiological behavior is controlled by homeostatic and circadian (24-hour processes and is vital for normal brain function. This review will outline the normal sleep–wake cycle, the changes that occur during aging, and the specific patterns of sleep disturbance that occur in association with both mental health disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of primary sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and REM sleep behavior disorder as potential causes or risk factors for particular mental health or neurodegenerative problems will also be discussed. Keywords: sleep, mental health, neurodegenerative disorders, cognition

  17. [Neurobiological disturbances in insomnia: clinical utility of objective sleep measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejović-Nikolić, Slobodanka

    2011-01-01

    Numerious studies conducted over the last 40 years assessing different physiological domains including autonomic nervous system status, whole body and brain metabolic rate, stress and immune system activity suggest that (1) insomnia is a disorder of physiologic hyperarousal present throughout 24-hour sleep-wake cycle, and (2) insomnia and sleep loss are two distinct states. Central nervous system hyperarousal, either as pre-existing and/or induced by psychiatric pathology and worsened by stressful events, as well as aging- and menopause-related physiological decline of sleep mechanisms appears to be at the core of this common sleep disorder. Finally, there is emerging evidence that the levels of physiologic hyperarousal are directly related to the degree of polysomnographically documented sleep disturbance in insomnia patients, suggesting that objective measures of sleep duration in insomnia may be a useful marker of the medical severity of the disorder.

  18. Mindfulness Meditation and Improvement in Sleep Quality and Daytime Impairment Among Older Adults With Sleep Disturbances A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Black, DS; O'Reilly, GA; Olmstead, R.; Breen, EC; Irwin, DE

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Sleep disturbances are most prevalent among older adults and often go untreated. Treatment options for sleep disturbances remain limited, and there is a need for community-accessible programs that can improve sleep. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of a mind-body medicine intervention, called mindfulness meditation, to promote sleep quality in older adults with moderate sleep disturbances. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized clinical trial with 2 parallel groups cond...

  19. Noise-related sleep disturbances: Does gender matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Röösli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women sleep differently and report differently about sleep disturbances than men. However, it is unclear whether the sleep of women and men is affected differently by traffic noise exposure. We aimed to address gender specific noise effects by using objective and subjective exposure measures as well as objective and subjective outcome data. In a questionnaire survey conducted in 2008 including 733 women and 533 men from Basel, Switzerland, with follow-up 1 year later, we collected data on subjective sleep disturbances and annoyance to road traffic noise. Objective noise exposure data was obtained using validated propagation models. In a nested diary study with 119 participants, objective sleep efficiency and sleep duration was measured by means of actigraphic devices for 1551 nights. Data were analyzed using random intercept mixed-effects multilevel regression models adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Objectively measured sleep duration in highly exposed men (>55 dB was reduced by 1.5 h (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-0.8 h compared with low exposed men (<30 dB. No noise effect on sleep duration was observed in women. The association of modeled noise exposure with self-reported sleep quality rating was also more pronounced in men (−0.8 unit, 95% CI: −1.4 to −0.2 than in women (−0.3 unit, 95% CI: −0.8 to 0.2. However, in highly annoyed women reduction in sleep quality and well-being rating tended to be stronger than in highly annoyed men. Our study provides some indications that noise exposure affects men′s sleep differently than women′s sleep, which may have distinct long-term health consequences.

  20. Sleep disturbances in menopausal women: Aetiology and practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyneel, Marie

    2015-07-01

    Sleep deteriorates with age. The menopause is often a turning point for women's sleep, as complaints of insomnia increase significantly thereafter. Insomnia can occur as a secondary disorder to hot flashes, mood disorders, medical conditions, psychosocial factors, underlying intrinsic sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) or restless legs syndrome (RLS), or it can be a primary disorder. Since unrecognized OSA can have dramatic health-related consequences, menopausal women complaining of persisting sleep disturbances suggesting primary insomnia or intrinsic sleep disorders should be referred to a sleep specialist for a comprehensive sleep assessment. Patients suffering from primary insomnia will be preferentially treated with non-benzodiazepine hypnotics or melatonin, or with cognitive behavioural therapy. Insomnia related to vasomotor symptoms can be improved with hormone replacement therapy. Gabapentin and isoflavones have also shown efficacy in small series but their precise role has yet to be established. In patients suffering from OSA, non-pharmacological therapy will be applied: continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, according to the severity of the disorder. In the case of RLS, triggering factors must be avoided; dopaminergic agonists are the first-line treatment for moderate to severe disease. In conclusion, persisting sleep complaints should be addressed in menopausal women, in order to correctly diagnose the specific causal disorder and to prescribe treatments that have been shown to improve sleep quality, quality of life and long-term health status.

  1. Sleep Disturbance as Transdiagnostic: Consideration of Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G.; Murray, Greg; Chandler, Rebecca A.; Soehner, Adriane

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is increasingly recognized as an important, but understudied, mechanism in the complex and multi-factorial causation of the symptoms and functional disability associated with psychiatric disorders. This review proposes that it is biologically plausible for sleep disturbance to be mechanistically transdiagnostic. More specifically, we propose that sleep disturbance is aetiologically linked to various forms of psychopathology through: its reciprocal relationship with emotion regulation and its shared/interacting neurobiological substrates in (a) genetics - genes known to be important in the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms have been linked to a range of disorders and (b) dopaminergic and serotonergic function - we review evidence for the interplay between these systems and sleep/circadian biology. The clinical implications include potentially powerful and inexpensive interventions including interventions targeting light exposure, dark exposure, the regulation of social rhythms and the reduction of anxiety. We also consider the possibility of developing a ‘transdiagnostic’ treatment; one treatment that would reduce sleep disturbance across psychiatric disorders. PMID:20471738

  2. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleep become more severe, so does suicidal ideation. Treatment Implications Insomnia is a potentially modifiable risk factor for suicide, ... of suicide ideation (McCall, 2011). Other, non- pharmacological treatment ... of whether treating insomnia has a positive effect on suicide behavior and ...

  3. Sleep disorders and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Stephanie C; El Sara, Ammar; Chapman, Cherylle; Cohen, Danielle; Cukor, Daniel

    2016-05-06

    Sleep disorders have a profound and well-documented impact on overall health and quality of life in the general population. In patients with chronic disease, sleep disorders are more prevalent, with an additional morbidity and mortality burden. The complex and dynamic relationship between sleep disorders and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain relatively little investigated. This article presents an overview of sleep disorders in patients with CKD, with emphasis on relevant pathophysiologic underpinnings and clinical presentations. Evidence-based interventions will be discussed, in the context of individual sleep disorders, namely sleep apnea, insomnia, restless leg syndrome and excessive daytime sleepiness. Limitations of the current knowledge as well as future research directions will be highlighted, with a final discussion of different conceptual frameworks of the relationship between sleep disorders and CKD.

  4. Investigation of the effects of wind turbine noise annoyance on the sleep disturbance among workers of Manjil wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: In this study, workers with more wind turbine noise annoyance had more sleep disturbance. Therefore, in addition to the direct effects of noise on sleep disturbance, it can indirectly exacerbate sleep disturbances.

  5. Psychophysiological Associations between Chronic Tinnitus and Sleep: A Cross Validation of Tinnitus and Insomnia Questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schecklmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of insomnia in chronic tinnitus and the association of tinnitus distress and sleep disturbance. Methods. We retrospectively analysed data of 182 patients with chronic tinnitus who completed the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and the Regensburg Insomnia Scale (RIS. Descriptive comparisons with the validation sample of the RIS including exclusively patients with primary/psychophysiological insomnia, correlation analyses of the RIS with TQ scales, and principal component analyses (PCA in the tinnitus sample were performed. TQ total score was corrected for the TQ sleep items. Results. Prevalence of insomnia was high in tinnitus patients (76% and tinnitus distress correlated with sleep disturbance (r=0.558. TQ sleep subscore correlated with the RIS sum score (r=0.690. PCA with all TQ and RIS items showed one sleep factor consisting of all RIS and the TQ sleep items. PCA with only TQ sleep and RIS items showed sleep- and tinnitus-specific factors. The sleep factors (only RIS items were sleep depth and fearful focusing. The TQ sleep items represented tinnitus-related sleep problems. Discussion. Chronic tinnitus and primary insomnia are highly related and might share similar psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms leading to impaired sleep quality.

  6. Sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease: the contribution of dopamine in REM sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcelo M S

    2013-10-01

    Nearly all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have sleep disturbances. While it has been suggested that these disturbances involve a dopaminergic component, the specific mechanisms that contribute to this behavior are far from being fully understood. In this article, we have reviewed the current understanding of the linkage between sleep and PD, focusing on the participation of the dopaminergic system in the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The presence of an REM sleep behavior disorder in patients with PD might reflect the early involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in REM sleep-related structures. Therefore, it has been suggested that these structures are affected by an imbalance of dopamine levels. Several studies have demonstrated that neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are active during REM sleep and that sleep-related disturbances may result when these neurons are targeted by neurotoxins. We discuss current evidence suggesting the presence of a putative reciprocal connectivity between the SNpc, VTA, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and reticular formation, which may exert an important influence on the REM sleep mechanism. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the literature that addresses this challenging and unrecognized component of PD.

  7. Depression: relationships to sleep paralysis and other sleep disturbances in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo-Coxe, Mariana; Young, Terry; Finn, Laurel; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2007-09-01

    Sleep disturbances are important correlates of depression, with epidemiologic research heretofore focused on insomnia and sleepiness. This epidemiologic study's aim was to investigate, in a community sample, depression's relationships to other sleep disturbances: sleep paralysis (SP), hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations (HH), cataplexy - considered rapid eye movement-related disturbances - and automatic behavior (AB). Although typical of narcolepsy, these disturbances are prevalent, albeit under-studied, in the population. Cross-sectional analyses (1998-2002), based on Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study population-based data from 866 participants (mean age 54, 53% male), examined: depression (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale), trait anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-T >or= 75th percentile), and self-reported sleep disturbances. Descriptive sleep data were obtained by overnight polysomnography. Adjusted logistic regression models estimated depression's associations with each (>few times ever) outcome - SP, HH, AB, and cataplexy. Depression's associations with self-reported SP and cataplexy were not explained by anxiety. After anxiety adjustment, severe depression (Zung >or=55), vis-à-vis Zung or=50), after stratification by anxiety given an interaction (P = 0.02), increased self-reported cataplexy odds in non-anxious (OR 8.9, P = 0.0008) but not anxious (OR 1.1, P = 0.82) participants. Insomnia and sleepiness seemed only partial mediators or confounders for depression's associations with self-reported cataplexy and SP. Anxiety (OR 1.9, P = 0.04) partially explained depression's (Zung >or=55) association with HH (OR 2.2, P = 0.08). Anxiety (OR 1.6, P = 0.02) was also more related than depression to AB. Recognizing depression's relationships to oft-neglected sleep disturbances, most notably SP, might assist in better characterizing depression and the full range of its associated sleep problems in the population. Longitudinal studies are warranted

  8. The trajectories of sleep disturbances in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Ellaway, Carolyn; Downs, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    Rett syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder usually affecting females, and is associated with a mutation in the MECP2 gene. Sleep problems occur commonly and we investigated the trajectories and influences of age, mutation and treatments. Data were collected at six time points over 12 years from 320 families registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database. Regression analysis was used to investigate relationships between sleep disturbances, age, mutation type and use of treatment, and latent class growth analysis was performed to identify sleep problem phenotypes and model the effect of mutation type. The age range of subjects was 2.0-35.8 years. The study showed that sleep problems occurred in more than 80% of individuals and the prevalence decreased with age. Night laughing and night screaming occurred in 77 and 49%, respectively, when younger. Those with a large deletion had a higher prevalence of night laughing, which often occurred frequently. Treatment was associated with a 1.7% reduction in risk of further sleep problems. High and low baseline prevalence groups were identified. Approximately three-quarters of girls and women with sleep disturbances were in the high baseline group and problems persisted into adulthood. Conversely, 57% with night laughing and 42% with night screaming in the high baseline group exhibited mild improvement over time. Mutation type was not found to be a significant predictor of group membership. In conclusion, the evolution of sleep problems differed between subgroups of girls and women with Rett syndrome, in part explained by age and genotype. Treatment was not associated with improvement in sleep problems.

  9. Sleep disturbances caused by vibrations from heavy road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, P W; Bennerhult, O; Eberhardt, J L

    1990-09-01

    The influence of whole-body vibrations, noise, and a combination of the two, caused by heavy road traffic (150 events/night) on sleep, subjectively experienced sleep quality, and performance was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for male and female subjects 20-35 years of age. A room was built above a vibrator table, with the legs of the bed mounted directly on the table through holes in the floor. Vertical vibrations were found to be attenuated by the mattress with 20-40 dB for frequencies greater than 10 Hz, whereas horizontal vibrations were slightly amplified. It could be concluded that when traffic noise [50-dB (A) peak level] is accompanied by vibrations with peak levels of 0.24 m/s2 vertically and 0.17 m/s2 horizontally as measured on the frame of the bed (stimulus duration approximately 2 s, dominant frequency approximately 12 Hz), sleep is more disturbed than is the case when noise alone occurs. The amount of REM sleep, which was significantly reduced for the vibration level mentioned above, was even more disturbed when a higher exposure level, 0.34 m/s2 vertically and 0.24 m/s2 horizontally, was applied. The subjectively rated sleep quality was lower for the higher than for the lower vibration level. Performance in the morning was only influenced for the higher vibration level. It could be concluded that vibration exposure levels near the recommendation made in ISO-standard 2631 for the awake state disturb sleep in man.

  10. The Neurobiological Mechanisms and Treatments of REM Sleep Disturbances in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Li, Rui; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Ze; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2015-01-01

    Most depressed patients suffer from sleep abnormalities, which are one of the critical symptoms of depression. They are robust risk factors for the initiation and development of depression. Studies about sleep electroencephalograms have shown characteristic changes in depression such as reductions in non-rapid eye movement sleep production, disruptions of sleep continuity and disinhibition of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep alterations include a decrease in REM sleep latency, an increase in REM sleep duration and REM sleep density with respect to depressive episodes. Emotional brain processing dependent on the normal sleep-wake regulation seems to be failed in depression, which also promotes the development of clinical depression. Also, REM sleep alterations have been considered as biomarkers of depression. The disturbances of norepinephrine and serotonin systems may contribute to REM sleep abnormalities in depression. Lastly, this review also discusses the effects of different antidepressants on REM sleep disturbances in depression.

  11. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies

  12. Effects of music listening on stress, anxiety, and sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, ChihChen Sophia; Yu, Chen-Hsiang; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal sleep disturbance has been associated with undesirable birthing outcomes. To determine the effectiveness of listening to music at home in improving sleep quality, 121 Taiwanese pregnant women with poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] score > 5) were systematically assigned, with a random start to music listening (n = 61) or control (n = 60) group. Participants in the music listening group self-regulated listening to music in addition to receiving general prenatal care similar to that in the control group for 2 weeks. The PSQI and State-Anxiety Inventory were used to assess outcomes. ANCOVA analyses were used with the pretest scores as covariates and showed significant improvement in sleep quality, stress, and anxiety in the music listening group compared with the control group. The most frequently used music genre by participants in the experimental group was lullabies, followed by classical music and crystal baby music. This study supported the theory that 2-week music listening interventions may reduce stress, anxiety, and yield better sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women. The analysis of participants' journals also implied that the expectant mothers' choices of musical genres may correlate more with perceived prenatal benefits or the desire to interact with their unborn child.

  13. Sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence Gaps and Challenges

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    Rachel Jen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD prevalence is rising to epidemic proportions due to historical smoking trends, the aging of the population, and air pollution. Although blaming the victims has been common in COPD, the majority of COPD worldwide is now thought to be nonsmoking related, that is, caused by air pollution and cookstove exposure. It is increasingly appreciated that subjective and objective sleep disturbances are common in COPD, although strong epidemiological data are lacking. People with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA plus COPD (the so-called overlap syndrome have a high risk of cardiovascular death, although again mechanisms are unknown and untested. This review aims to draw attention to the problem of sleep in COPD, to encourage clinicians to ask their patients about symptoms, and to stimulate further research in this area given the large burden of the disease.

  14. Comparison of Sleep Questionnaires in the Assessment of Sleep Disturbances in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan S.; Foldes, Emily; Malow, Beth A.; Wiggs, Luci

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The purpose of this study was to compare two parent completed questionnaires, the Modified Simonds & Parraga Sleep Questionnaire (MSPSQ), and the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), used to characterize sleep disturbances in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Both questionnaires have been used in previous work in the assessment and treatment of children with ASD and sleep disturbance. Participants and methods Parents/caregivers of a sample of 124 children diagnosed with ASD with an average age of six years completed both sleep questionnaires regarding children’s sleep behaviors. Internal consistency of the items for both measures was evaluated as well as the correlation between the two sleep measures. A Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was also conducted to examine the predictive power of the MSPSQ. Results More than three quarters of the sample (78%) were identified as poor sleepers on the CSHQ. Cronbach’s alpha for the items on the CSHQ was 0.68 and Cronbach’s alpha for items on the MSPSQ was 0.67. The total scores for MSPSQ and CSHQ were significantly correlated (r =.70, p<.01). After first identifying the poor sleepers based on the CSHQ, an area under the curve was 0.89 for the MSPSQ. Using a cut off score of 56 on the MSPSQ, sensitivity was .86 and specificity was .70. Conclusions In this sample of children with ASD, sleep disturbances were common across all cognitive levels. Preliminary findings suggest that, similar to the CSHQ, the MSPSQ has adequate internal consistency. The two measures were also highly correlated. A preliminary cut off of 56 on the MSPSQ offers high sensitivity and specificity commensurate with the widely used CSHQ. PMID:22609024

  15. Effectiveness of melatonin in the treatment of sleep disturbances in children with Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Vanhala, Raija; Aronen, Eeva T; von Wendt, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in patients with Asperger disorder. Although these sleep problems are often persistent and may significantly impair the child's daytime well-being, no treatment studies have been reported. In this open clinical trial, the effectiveness of melatonin was studied in a sample of 15 children with Asperger disorder (13 boys, 2 girls) aged 6-17 years using several questionnaires and actigraph measurements. They included assessments of sleep quality, tiredness, and behavior. Melatonin (3 mg/day) was used for 14 days. All the measurements were made three times: before the treatment period, during the treatment (days 12-14), and 3 weeks after the discontinuation of the treatment. The sleep patterns of all the children improved, and half of them displayed excellent responses to melatonin. In particular, actigraphically measured sleep latency decreased from 40.02 +/- 24.09 minutes to 21.82 +/- 9.64 minutes (p = 0.002), whereas sleep duration remained steady at 477.40 +/- 55.56 minutes and 480.48 +/- 50.71 minutes. Despite the short duration of the treatment, behavioral measures also displayed a significant improvement, and most of the effect disappeared after the discontinuation of the melatonin (p = 0.001). In conclusion, melatonin may provide an interesting new and well-tolerated treatment option for children with Asperger disorder suffering from chronic insomnia. However, these results must be confirmed in a controlled study.

  16. Sleep disturbances and behavioural problems in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.P.H.M.; Sinnema, M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Maaskant, M.A.; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M.; Curfs, L.M.G

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at risk of sleep disturbances, such as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep apnoea, and behavioural problems. Sleep disturbances and their relationship with other variables had not been researched extensively in adults with PWS. Met

  17. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71-0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63-0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad.

  18. Sleep disturbance and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Rebecca C; Olatunji, Bunmi O

    2016-04-01

    A small body of developing research has found evidence for sleep disturbance in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and links between sleep disturbance and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in unselected samples. However, the link between sleep disturbance and OCS is yet to be examined in a nationally representative sample. Furthermore, the extent to which the link between sleep disturbance and OCS is accounted for by symptoms of depression remains unclear. To address this gap in the literature, the present study examined the relationship between sleep disturbance and OCS in a nationally representative sample. Participants were assessed in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R; n = 2073). Consistent with predictions, results revealed that individuals with sleep disturbance reported increased OCS severity compared to individuals without sleep disturbance. Further, sleep disturbance severity was associated with OCS severity, even when controlling for depression (and other anxiety-related disorders). This study is the first to link sleep disturbance and OCS in a nationally representative sample, and these findings highlight the unique role of sleep disturbance in the experience of OCS. Future research is necessary to delineate specific mechanisms that may account for this relationship.

  19. Sleep Quality and Body Mass Index in College Students: The Role of Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A.; Flores, Melissa; Robles, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. Methods: A convenience sample of 515 college students completed an online survey consisting of the Pittsburgh Sleep…

  20. Metabolic disturbances in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Harsch

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic disturbances in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS include insulin resistance and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and vascular adhesion molecules, as well as an elevation of hormones derived from the adipose tissue as leptin. These phenomena might, in part, be an explanation for the excess morbidity and mortality of OSAS patients concerning cardiovascular disease. Several of these factors have been described as being independently associated with OSAS and not only related to its comorbidities, including obesity. A promising approach to studying the metabolic phenomena in these OSAS patients would be to monitor patients before and during the course of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, as nocturnal sleep disturbances are treatable and may revert the impact of OSAS on the metabolic phenomena; however, patients do frequently (and unfortunately maintain their body weight. Although not confirmed by all investigations, a tendency towards an improvement in some of the above-mentioned metabolic parameters has been reported in several studies in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients and may be reflected by the decreased occurrence of new cardiovascular events, the reduction of systolic blood pressure and the improvement of left ventricular systolic function.

  1. Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerath, Winfried; Verbraecken, Johan; Andreas, Stefan; Arzt, Michael; Bloch, Konrad E; Brack, Thomas; Buyse, Bertien; De Backer, Wilfried; Eckert, Danny Joel; Grote, Ludger; Hagmeyer, Lars; Hedner, Jan; Jennum, Poul; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Miltz, Carla; McNicholas, Walter T; Montserrat, Josep; Naughton, Matthew; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Pevernagie, Dirk; Sanner, Bernd; Testelmans, Dries; Tonia, Thomy; Vrijsen, Bart; Wijkstra, Peter; Levy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can emerg

  2. Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Winfried; Verbraecken, Johan; Andreas, Stefan;

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can em...

  3. Sleep disturbances in voltage-gated potassium channel antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Daniel A; Krieger, Ana C

    2016-05-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are a family of membrane proteins responsible for controlling cell membrane potential. The presence of antibodies (Ab) against neuronal VGKC complexes aids in the diagnosis of idiopathic and paraneoplastic autoimmune neurologic disorders. The diagnosis of VGKC Ab-associated encephalopathy (VCKC Ab syndrome) should be suspected in patients with subacute onset of disorientation, confusion, and memory loss in the presence of seizures or a movement disorder. VGKC Ab syndrome may present with sleep-related symptoms, and the purpose of this communication is to alert sleep and neurology clinicians of this still-under-recognized condition. In this case, we are presenting the VGKC Ab syndrome which improved after treatment with solumedrol. The prompt recognition and treatment of this condition may prevent the morbidity associated with cerebral atrophy and the mortality associated with intractable seizures and electrolyte disturbances.

  4. Endocrinological disturbances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzberg, E C; Casaburi, R

    2003-11-01

    In this overview, the available literature on endocrinological disturbances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reviewed, with stress on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), thyroid hormone and the anabolic steroids. In COPD, little is known about circulating growth hormone or IGF-I concentrations. Some authors find a decrease in growth hormone or IGF-I, others an increase. An increase of growth hormone might reflect a nonspecific response of the body to stress (for instance, hypoxaemia). Until now, only one controlled study on growth hormone supplementation has been published, which however did not reveal any functional benefits. Before growth hormone supplementation can be advised as part of the treatment in COPD, further controlled studies must be performed to investigate its functional efficacy. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in COPD and its role in pulmonary cachexia has not been extensively studied. So far, there is no evidence that thyroid function is consistently altered in COPD, except perhaps in a subgroup of patients with severe hypoxaemia. Further research is required to more extensively study the underlying mechanisms and consequences of disturbed thyroid function in this subgroup of COPD patients. A few studies have reported the results of anabolic steroid supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although some studies have discerned that low circulating levels of testosterone are common in males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, little is known about the prevalence, the underlying causes or functional consequences of hypogonadism in these patients. The use of systemic glucocorticosteroids and an influence of the systemic inflammatory response have been suggested as contributing to low testosterone levels. It can be hypothesised that low anabolic hormones will reduce muscle mass and eventually result in a diminished muscle function. Further evidence is required before testosterone

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of obstructive ventilatory impairment and hyperinflation, especially the inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, correlates with the severity of sleep-related breathing disturbances. Early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves survival, reduces hospitalization and pulmonary hypertension, and also reduces hypoxemia. Evidence of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD and sleep apnea provides insight into potential interactions between both disorders that may predispose to cardiovascular disease. Long-term outcome studies of overlap patients currently underway should provide further evidence of the clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. SUMMARY: Studies of overlap syndrome patients at a clinical, physiological and molecular level should provide insight into disease mechanisms and consequences of COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to identifying potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  6. Sleep disturbance in mild cognitive impairment is associated with alterations in the brain's default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Andrew C; Lagopoulos, Jim; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron; Hickie, Ian B; Batchelor, Jennifer; Lewis, Simon J G; Duffy, Shantel; Shine, James M; Naismith, Sharon L

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sleep disturbance, relative to those with MCI and no sleep disturbance. A control group was included to aid in identifying DMN changes specific to MCI. A cross-sectional, single-center study was performed at the Brain and Mind Research Centre in Sydney, Australia. Participants (95 adults over the age of 65: 38 controls and 57 meeting criteria for MCI) underwent resting-state functional MRI along with comprehensive neuropsychological, medical, and psychiatric assessment. Self-report data were collected including sleep quality assessment via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A total score of greater than 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to signify the presence of significant sleep disturbance, as per commonly used methodology. Using this criterion, 53% (n = 30) of our MCI group were classified as sleep-disturbed. Whereas the total group of MCI subjects and controls demonstrated no significant differences, sleep-disturbed MCIs demonstrated increased connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, and decreased connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the temporoparietal junction relative to sleep-disturbed controls. Relative to those MCIs without sleep disturbance, sleep-disturbed MCI participants demonstrated significantly diminished DMN connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, a finding that was particularly pronounced in amnestic MCI. Sleep disturbance in MCI is associated with distinct alterations in DMN functional connectivity in brain regions underpinning salient memory and sleep systems. Future studies may build on these results via experimental manipulation and objective measurement of sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-03-14

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and intervention efforts.

  8. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10, and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001 and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001 had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for

  9. Rapid eye movement sleep disturbances in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnulf, I.; Nielsen, J.; Lohmann, E.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders including insomnia, movements during sleep, and daytime sleepiness are common but poorly studied in Huntington disease (HD). Objective: To evaluate the HD sleep-wake phenotype (including abnormal motor activity during sleep) in patients with various HD stages...... and shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and increased periodic leg movements. Three HD patients (12%) had REM sleep behavior disorders. No sleep abnormality correlated with CAG repeat length. Reduced REM sleep duration (but not REM sleep behavior disorders) was present in premanifest carriers and patients......: The sleep phenotype of HD includes insomnia, advanced sleep phase, periodic leg movements, REM sleep behavior disorders, and reduced REM sleep but not narcolepsy. Reduced REM sleep may precede chorea. Mutant huntingtin may exert an effect on REM sleep and motor control during sleep Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  10. Effect of intermittent aerobic exercise on sleep quality and sleep disturbances in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Jennum, Poul

    2014-01-01

    disturbances, fatigue, pain, depressive symptoms, physical function, health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide evidence of the effect of intermittent aerobic exercise on the improvement of sleep in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, which is considered......BACKGROUND: Poor sleep is prevalent in patients with systemic inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, and, in addition to fatigue, pain, depression and inflammation, is associated with an increased risk of co-morbidity and all-cause mortality. Whereas non...... of an intermittent aerobic exercise intervention on sleep, assessed both objectively and subjectively in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial including 44 patients with rheumatoid arthritis randomly assigned to an exercise training intervention or to a control group...

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IMOVANE AND ESTAZOLAM TREATMENT ON SLEEP DISTURBANCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李舜伟; 王长华

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-six patients with sleep disturbances who had completed therapy with hypnotics were observed under single-blind and self-comparable method for 7 days each. We found that patients treated with imovane or estazolam had no statistical differences with respect to sleep time onset, total sleep time, noc-turnal awakening, feeling after awakening, dream, drug side effects and sleep quality. Imovave performed better than estazolam in sleep time onset and total sleep time, From this study, imovane can be recom-mended as a new hypuotic to treat patients with sleep disturbanees.

  12. Sleep disturbances predict prospective declines in resident physicians’ psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice A. Min

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical residency can be a time of increased psychological stress and sleep disturbance. We examine the prospective associations between self-reported sleep quality and resident wellness across a single training year. Methods: Sixty-nine (N=69 resident physicians completed the Brief Resident Wellness Profile (M=17.66, standard deviation [SD]=3.45, range: 0–17 and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (M=6.22, SD=2.86, range: 12–25 at multiple occasions in a single training year. We examined the 1-month lagged effect of sleep disturbances on residents’ self-reported wellness. Results: Accounting for residents’ overall level of sleep disturbance across the entire study period, both the concurrent (within-person within-occasion effect of sleep disturbance (B=−0.20, standard error [SE]=0.06, p=0.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, −0.07 and the lagged within-person effect of resident sleep disturbance (B=−0.15, SE=0.07, p=0.037, 95% CI: −0.29, −0.009 were significant predictors of decreased resident wellness. Increases in sleep disturbances are a leading indicator of resident wellness, predicting decreased well-being 1 month later. Conclusions: Sleep quality exerts a significant effect on self-reported resident wellness. Periodic evaluation of sleep quality may alert program leadership and the residents themselves to impending decreases in psychological well-being.

  13. Optimizing sleep/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Effective sleep/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled "time in bed" (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep obtained in a range of restricted sleep schedules. Eighteen different conditions with restricted nocturnal anchor sleep, with and without diurnal naps, were examined in a response surface mapping paradigm. Sleep efficiency was found to be a function of total TIB per 24 h regardless of how the sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap sleep periods. The amounts of sleep stages 1+2 and REM showed more complex relationships with the durations of the anchor and nap sleep periods, while slow-wave sleep was essentially preserved among the different conditions of the experiment. The results of the study indicated that when sleep was chronically restricted, sleep duration was largely unaffected by whether the sleep was placed nocturnally or split between nocturnal anchor sleep periods and daytime naps. Having thus assessed that split-sleep schedules are feasible in terms of obtaining physiological sleep, further research will reveal whether these schedules and the associated variations in the distribution of sleep stages may be advantageous in mitigating neurobehavioral performance impairment in the face of limited time for sleep.

  14. Using repeated measures of sleep disturbances to predict future diagnosis-specific work disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi; Hall, Martica;

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability.......It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability....

  15. Subjective sleep disturbances in children with partial epilepsy and their effects on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutter, Th; Brouwer, O. F.; de Weerd, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to explore the prevalence of sleep disturbances in a large cohort of school-aged children with partial epilepsy, to compare the findings with those in children without epilepsy of the same age and gender, and to evaluate the relationship between sleep disturb

  16. Pharmacological Treatment of Sleep Disturbance in Developmental Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollway, Jill A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common problem in children with developmental disabilities. Effective pharmacologic interventions are needed to ameliorate sleep problems that persist when behavior therapy alone is insufficient. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of the quantity and quality of pharmacologic research targeting sleep in…

  17. Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on the association between sleep and mortality rates have addressed only duration, not quality, of sleep. The authors prospectively examined the effects of sleep disturbances on mortality rates and on important risk ...... factors for mortality, such as body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. A total of 16,989 participants in the GAZEL cohort study were asked validated questions on sleep disturbances in 1990 and were followed up until 2009, with...

  18. Parent reports of sleep disturbances in stimulant-medicated children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, H D; Abmayr, S B

    1998-08-01

    In a study of the severity of sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are taking stimulant medication, parents of 20 children diagnosed as having ADHD and on medication, 20 unmedicated children with some other psychiatric diagnosis (OPD), and 20 nonclinical control children responded to a 40-question structured interview to report the frequency of their children's sleep disturbances occurring during a 1-month interval. Parents of children in the ADHD group reported significantly more problems than parents of children in the other groups on variables within all three categories of behaviors: (a) settling and going to sleep, (b) disruptions during sleep, and (c) morning activities. From 25% to 50% of these parents reported very frequent difficulties in their children settling and going to sleep. These findings indicate that monitoring sleep-related behaviors and providing adjunctive therapies for sleep-related disturbances would be beneficial for many families with ADHD children who are taking stimulant medication.

  19. Post-operative sleep disturbance: causes, factors and effects on outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Kehlet, H

    1995-01-01

    Post-operative sleep disturbance, with suppression of rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep followed by a subsequent rebound, seems to be related to the magnitude of trauma and thereby to the surgical stress response. In this context, cortisol, autonomic stimulation, and certain cytokines...... may lead to abnormal sleep. Furthermore, the environment, pain and the administration of analgesics seem to be important factors in the precipitation of sleep abnormalities. Post-operative sleep disturbance may contribute to the development of episodic hypoxaemia, haemodynamic instability and altered...... mental status, all of which have an influence on post-operative morbidity and mortality. Prevention or reduction of the post-operative sleep disturbance may be achieved by minimizing surgical trauma, changing the conventional nursing procedures, avoiding opioids and treating pain with non...

  20. [Sleep disorders in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, Sebastian; Randerath, Winfried J

    2014-05-01

    Sleep disturbances (SD) are a frequent finding in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and have a negative impact on quality of life and the clinical course of the disease. The causes of SD are multiple and include for example respiratory symptoms and comorbidities. On the other hand sleep goes along with multiple physiological changes in respiration, so that sleep itself interacts with asthma and COPD. This interaction favors respiratory symptoms and may lead to hypoxemia and hypercapnia. A further complication of the respiratory situation and the clinical course can be found in asthma and COPD patients with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Due to the heterogeneity of SD in asthma and COPD, a detailed patient survey is the most important diagnostical tool. Based on the survey further technical examinations should be considered. Treatment strategies for the reduction of SD in asthma and COPD include an optimized medication and treatment of comorbidities. If indicated oxygen therapy, positive pressure breathing and pulmonary rehabilitation can contribute.

  1. Sleep disturbances and autonomic dysfunction in patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMallien

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (PoTS suffer from fatigue, daytime sleepiness and sleeping disturbances. The objective of this study was to compare subjective and objective sleep quality of PoTS patients with a group of healthy controls. All Patients completed a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The patients sleep architecture, heart rate and heart rate variability measurements were taken during one night at the sleep laboratorium. All Data was collected at the Sleep Unit, at Helios Klinikum Wuppertal. 38 patients diagnosed with PoTS were compared to 31 healthy controls, matched in age and gender. Patients with PoTS reached significantly higher scores in sleep questionnaires, which means that they were more sleepy and had a lower sleep qualitiy. Polysomnography showed a significantly higher proportion of stage 2 sleep. The results of heart rate variability analysis in different sleep stages confirmed changes in autonomic activity in both groups. PoTS patients, however, showed a diminished variability of the LF band, HF band and LF/HF ratio in different sleep stages. It can therefore be gathererd that PoTS could be considered as potential differential diagnosis for sleep disturbances since PoTS patients had a subjective diminished sleep quality, reached higher levels of daytime sleepiness and showed a higher proportion of stage 2 sleep. PoTS patients showed furthermore a reduction of LF/HF ratio variability in different sleep stages.

  2. Characterizing self-reported sleep disturbance after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen A; Edmed, Shannon L; Allan, Alicia C; Karlsson, Lina J E; Smith, Simon S

    2015-04-01

    Sleep disturbance after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly reported as debilitating and persistent. However, the nature of this disturbance is poorly understood. This study sought to characterize sleep after mTBI compared with a control group. A cross-sectional matched case control design was used. Thirty-three persons with recent mTBI (1-6 months ago) and 33 age, sex, and ethnicity matched controls completed established questionnaires of sleep quality, quantity, timing, and sleep-related daytime impairment. The mTBI participants were compared with an independent sample of close-matched controls (CMCs; n = 33) to allow partial internal replication. Compared with controls, persons with mTBI reported significantly greater sleep disturbance, more severe insomnia symptoms, a longer duration of wake after sleep onset, and greater sleep-related impairment (all medium to large effects, Cohen's d > 0.5). No differences were found in sleep quantity, timing, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, or daytime sleepiness. All findings except a measure of sleep timing (i.e., sleep midpoint) were replicated for CMCs. These results indicate a difference in the magnitude and nature of perceived sleep disturbance after mTBI compared with controls, where persons with mTBI report poorer sleep quality and greater sleep-related impairment. Sleep quantity and timing did not differ between the groups. These preliminary findings should guide the provision of clearer advice to patients about the aspects of their sleep that may change after mTBI and could inform treatment selection.

  3. Improving Psychosocial Health, Coping, and Self-Efficacy in Parents of Sleep-Disturbed Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Brandhorst, Isabel; Hautzinger, Martin; Schlarb, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Various research has shown that mothers of sleep-disturbed young children experience poorer physical and mental health, show more symptoms of depression or anxiety, and demonstrate a higher level of stress. Coping strategies and self-efficacy might play an important role in this context. In the present study we aimed to investigate psychosocial health, coping, and the sleep-related self-efficacy of parents participating in an Internetbased treatment for sleep-disturbed young childr...

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep disturbances in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnulf, I.; Nielsen, J.; Lohmann, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders including insomnia, movements during sleep, and daytime sleepiness are common but poorly studied in Huntington disease (HD). Objective: To evaluate the HD sleep-wake phenotype (including abnormal motor activity during sleep) in patients with various HD stages and the l......Background: Sleep disorders including insomnia, movements during sleep, and daytime sleepiness are common but poorly studied in Huntington disease (HD). Objective: To evaluate the HD sleep-wake phenotype (including abnormal motor activity during sleep) in patients with various HD stages...... interview, nighttime video and sleep monitoring, and daytime multiple sleep latency tests. Their results were compared with those of patients with narcolepsy and control patients. Results: The HD patients had frequent insomnia, earlier sleep onset, lower sleep efficiency, increased stage I sleep, delayed......: The sleep phenotype of HD includes insomnia, advanced sleep phase, periodic leg movements, REM sleep behavior disorders, and reduced REM sleep but not narcolepsy. Reduced REM sleep may precede chorea. Mutant huntingtin may exert an effect on REM sleep and motor control during sleep Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  5. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep, Behavior, and Cognition in ADHD and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Smits, Marcel G.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on sleep, behavior, cognition, and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia. Method: A total of 105 medication-free children, ages 6 to 12 years, with rigorously diagnosed ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia…

  6. Parental involvement, psychological distress, and sleep: a preliminary examination in sleep-disturbed adolescents with a history of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Jennifer C; Bootzin, Richard R; Stevens, Sally J; Ruiz, Bridget S; Haynes, Patricia L

    2007-03-01

    The relationships between family environment and psychological distress and between psychological distress and sleep disturbance in adolescents are well established. However, less is known about the influence of family environment on sleep disturbance. The authors' goal is to examine the effects of parental involvement on psychological distress and sleep disturbance in 34 adolescents with a history of substance abuse. Linear regression techniques and confidence intervals were used to test the significance of mediation analyses. Lower levels of parental involvement were associated with higher levels of psychological distress, and higher levels of psychological distress were associated with lower sleep efficiency and more time spent in bed. Follow-up analyses found that higher levels of parental involvement were associated with earlier morning arising times, when controlling for psychological distress. These data indicate that psychological distress is important to consider when examining the relationship between parental involvement and sleep in adolescents.

  7. Complaints of sleep disturbances are associated with cardiovascular disease: results from the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Michal

    Full Text Available Despite their high prevalence, sleep disorders often remain unrecognized and untreated because of barriers to assessment and management. The aims of the present study were to examine associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular disease, related risk factors, and inflammation in the community and to determine the contribution of sleep disturbances to self-perceived physical health.The sample consists of n = 10.000 participants, aged 35 to 74 years of a population based community sample in Germany. Cross-sectional associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular risk factors and disease, biomarkers of inflammation, depression, anxiety, and physical health status were analyzed.19% of our sample endorsed clinically significant sleep disturbances. In the unadjusted analyses severity of sleep disturbances increased with female sex, low socioeconomic status, living without a partnership, cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, poor physical health, increased levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. After multivariate adjustment robust associations with coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and dyslipidemia remained. Complaints of sleep disturbances were strong and independent contributors to self-perceived poor physical health beyond depression, anxiety and medical disease burden.Given the high prevalence of complaints of sleep disturbances and their strong impact on health status, increased efforts should be undertaken for their identification and treatment.

  8. Gene Networks Underlying Chronic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-15

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Studies of the gene network affected by sleep deprivation and stress in the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed the...15-Apr-2009 14-Apr-2013 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Gene Networks Underlying Chronic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila The...Chronic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila Report Title Studies of the gene network affected by sleep deprivation and stress in the fruit fly Drosophila have

  9. Role of sleep-disordered breathing and sleep-wake disturbances for stroke and stroke recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep-wake disturbances (SWD) are highly prevalent in stroke patients. Recent studies suggest that they represent both a risk factor and a consequence of stroke and affect stroke recovery, outcome, and recurrence. Methods: Review of literature. Results: Several studies have proven SDB to represent an independent risk factor for stroke. Sleep studies in TIA and stroke patients are recommended in view of the very high prevalence (>50%) of SDB (Class IIb, level of evidence B). Treatment of obstructive SDB with continuous positive airway pressure is recommended given the strength of the increasing evidence in support of a positive effect on outcome (Class IIb, level of evidence B). Oxygen, biphasic positive airway pressure, and adaptive servoventilation may be considered in patients with central SDB. Recently, both reduced and increased sleep duration, as well as hypersomnia, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome (RLS), were also suggested to increase stroke risk. Mainly experimental studies found that SWD may in addition impair neuroplasticity processes and functional stroke recovery. Treatment of SWD with hypnotics and sedative antidepressants (insomnia), activating antidepressants or stimulants (hypersomnia), dopaminergic drugs (RLS), and clonazepam (parasomnias) are based on single case observations and should be used with caution. Conclusions: SDB and SWD increase the risk of stroke in the general population and affect short- and long-term stroke recovery and outcome. Current knowledge supports the systematic implementation of clinical procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of poststroke SDB and SWD on stroke units. PMID:27488603

  10. Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimaki, Mika; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Lange, Theis

    2011-02-01

    Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on the association between sleep and mortality rates have addressed only duration, not quality, of sleep. The authors prospectively examined the effects of sleep disturbances on mortality rates and on important risk factors for mortality, such as body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. A total of 16,989 participants in the GAZEL cohort study were asked validated questions on sleep disturbances in 1990 and were followed up until 2009, with <1% loss to follow-up. Body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were measured annually through self-reporting. During follow-up, a total of 1,045 men and women died. Sleep disturbances were associated with a higher overall mortality risk in men (P = 0.005) but not in women (P = 0.33). This effect was most pronounced for men <45 years of age (≥3 symptoms vs. none: hazard ratio = 2.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 3.33). There were no clear associations between sleep disturbances and cardiovascular mortality rates, although men and women with sleep disturbances were more likely to develop hypertension and diabetes (P < 0.001). Compared with people with no sleep disturbances, men who reported ≥3 types of sleep disturbance had an almost 5 times' higher risk of committing suicide (hazard ratio = 4.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 15.7). Future strategies to prevent premature deaths may benefit from assessment of sleep disturbances, especially in younger individuals.

  11. Efficacy of a brief treatment for nightmares and sleep disturbances for veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliett, Noelle E; Davis, Joanne L; Miller, Katherine E

    2015-11-01

    Nightmares and sleep disturbances are common complaints among military Veterans (Plumb & Zelman, 2009) and may be difficult to eradicate (Forbes, Phelps, & McHugh, 2001). A treatment protocol (Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescription Therapy [ERRT]) targeting nightmares and sleep disturbances, which has been used effectively in civilian populations, was adapted for the military (ERRT-M). A pilot study evaluated the efficacy of ERRT-M in improving sleep quality and quantity and reducing nightmares, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in a trauma-exposed, Veteran sample (N = 19). At 1 week after treatment, analyses revealed improvements in nightmare frequency and severity, depression, sleep quality, and insomnia severity. Treatment gains were maintained at a 2-month follow-up. Fifty percent of the sample was considered treatment responders (i.e., no nightmares in the previous week). Results of this pilot study suggest that directly targeting sleep and nightmares is successful in alleviating sleep disturbances and related psychopathology in some Veterans.

  12. Predictors of interest in psychological treatment for insomnia among older primary care patients with disturbed sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Stacey C; Langenbucher, James W; Friedman, Michael A; Reavey, Peter; Falco, Terry; Pallay, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether the common sense model of illness representation (CSMIR) could be successfully used to predict interest in cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) among older primary care patients with disturbed sleep. The Sleep Impairment Index (C. M. Morin, 1993) was used to assess sleep disturbance and the constructs of the CSMIR in primary care patients ages 55 and older. Statistical analyses showed that the CSMIR constructs of consequences (perceived adverse consequences of sleep disturbance to functioning), causes (attributing one's insomnia to bad sleeping habits), and emotion (concern about one's sleep problem) predicted interest in CBT-I. These data provided encouraging support for the ability of the CSMIR to accurately predict patient interest in treatment for insomnia. Implications for assessment and treatment of insomnia in primary care are discussed.

  13. Association between Sleep Disturbances and Leisure Activities in the Elderly: A Comparison between Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hellström

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that physical or social activity is associated with fewer sleep disturbances among elderly people. Women report more sleep disturbances than men, which could indicate a variation in activity patterns between the genders. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and leisure activities in men and women (n = 945 aged ≥60 years in a Swedish population. Sleep disturbances were measured using eight dichotomous questions and seventeen variables, covering a wide range of leisure activities. Few leisure activities were found to be associated with sleep disturbances and their importance decreased when the models were adjusted for confounders and gender interactions. After clustering the leisure activities and investigating individual activities, sociointellectual activities were shown to be significant for sleep. However, following adjustment for confounders and gender interactions, home maintenance was the only activity significant for sleep. Being a female increased the effect of home maintenance. Besides those leisure activities, poor/fair self-rated health (OR 7.50, CI: 4.27–11.81 and being female (OR 4.86, CI: 2.75–8.61 were found to have the highest association with poor sleep. Leisure activities pursued by elderly people should focus on activities of a sociointellectual nature, especially among women, to promote sleep.

  14. Sleep disturbance, fatigue, and stress among Chinese-American parents with ICU hospitalized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Lee, Kathryn A; Rankin, Sally H; Weiss, Sandra J; Alkon, Abbey

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Chinese-American parents' sleep disturbances and fatigue in relation to their stress levels, resulting from the hospitalization of their infants in intensive care units (ICUs). Four sets of data were collected: (1) Parents' demographic data and infant's medical records; (2) Subjective sleep data gathered from the General Sleep Disturbance Scale, from sleep diary descriptions, and objective sleep data from wrist actigraphy recordings; (3) Fatigue severity from the Numerical Rating Scale-Fatigue; and (4) Data from the Parental Stressor Scale: Infant Hospitalization. A majority of the mothers (93%) and fathers (60%) experienced sleep problems after their infants were admitted to the ICU. Mothers reported greater sleep disturbances and more severe fatigue than did fathers. Actigraphy records showed that mothers experienced much more wakeful time during the night than did fathers. In both gender categories, less total sleep time was related to reports of higher parental stress, and higher morning fatigue was related to subjectively reported sleep disturbances. Findings from this preliminary study demonstrate significant relationships among parents' perceived stress, impaired sleep, and fatigue severity during the infant's hospitalization period. Findings suggest implications for education of both ICU parents and staffs. This study could be replicated with a bigger sample size to further examine the relationships between parental stress and well-being.

  15. Sleep disturbances in drug naïve Parkinson′s disease (PD patients and effect of levodopa on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Parkinson′s disease (PD is associated with sleep disturbances, attributed to the neurodegenerative process and therapeutic drugs. Studies have found levodopa to increase wakefulness in some patients while increasing sleepiness in others. Aims: To confirm sleep disturbances in drug naïve PD patients and understand the impact of levodopa on their sleep. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three drug naοve PD patients and 31 age-gender matched controls were compared using the Parkinson′s Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. A polysomnogram objectively compared sleep quality. Of the 23 patients, the 12 initiated on levodopa were reassessed subjectively and through polysomnography after 2 months of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median, and range. Continuous variables were analyzed by Student′s T test for normally distributed data and Mann-Whitney U test for skewed data. Discrete variables were compared by Chi Square tests (Pearson Chi square Test or Fisher′s Exact Test. Wilcoxon signed ranks test was applied in the analysis of paired data pre- and post-levodopa. A P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Statistical analysis of the data was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 12. Results: Drug naïve PD patients had lower PDSS scores than controls. The sleep architecture changes observed on polysomnogram were reduced NREM Stage III and REM sleep and increased sleep latency and wake after sleep onset time. Following levodopa, improved sleep efficiency with reduced sleep latency and wake after sleep onset time was noted, coupled with improved PDSS scores. However, NREM Stage III and REM sleep duration did not increase. Discussion: PD patients take longer to fall asleep and have difficulty in sleep maintenance. Sleep maintenance is affected by nocturia, REM behavioral disorder, nocturnal cramps, akinesia, and

  16. Sleep patterns in female adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Logan, Deirdre E; Mindell, Jodi A

    2005-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns in female adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Twenty-six participants with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed questionnaires during their clinic visit, and three 24-Hour Sleep Patterns Interviews during the following 2 weeks. Compared to normative data (Acebo & Carskadon, 2002), adolescents with chronic pain reported similar total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes. However, study participants reported significantly longer sleep onset latency, more night wakings, a later morning wake time, and more symptoms of daytime sleepiness. Pain improved after sleep for 27% of the study sample, and was associated with longer TST. Finally, depression and anxiety were related to daytime sleepiness, but not total sleep time or sleep onset latency. Female adolescents with chronic pain either may be more sensitive to the chronic sleep debt that is common in this age group, or they may experience underlying physiological sleep disrupters (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder) or sleep abnormalities (e.g., alpha-delta intrusions) not measured in this study. Additional research is needed to examine the complex relation between sleep and chronic musculoskeletal pain.

  17. Chronic sleep reduction, functioning at school and school achievement in preadolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between chronic sleep reduction, functioning at school and school achievement of boys and girls. To establish individual consequences of chronic sleep reduction (tiredness, sleepiness, loss of energy and emotional instability) the Chronic Sleep Reduction Ques

  18. Intimate Partner Violence Is Associated with Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Poor Sleep Quality during Early Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto E Sanchez

    Full Text Available To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST] and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] during early pregnancy.This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were calculated using logistic regression procedures.Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08-2.17 and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33-2.81. Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84-1.83, sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07-11.05, and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27-4.96. The corresponding aORs (95% CI for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13-2.61, 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99-8.03, and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30-4.81, respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17-3.67 and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30-3.97 during pregnancy.Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health.

  19. Sleep respiratory disturbances and arousals at moderate altitude have overlapping electroencephalogram spectral signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Tarokh, Leila; Lo Cascio, Christian M; Tesler, Noemi; Stoewhas, Anne-Christin; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E; Huber, Reto; Achermann, Peter

    2014-08-01

    An ascent to altitude has been shown to result in more central apneas and a shift towards lighter sleep in healthy individuals. This study employs spectral analysis to investigate the impact of respiratory disturbances (central/obstructive apnea and hypopnea or periodic breathing) at moderate altitude on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and to compare EEG changes resulting from respiratory disturbances and arousals. Data were collected from 51 healthy male subjects who spent 1 night at moderate altitude (2590 m). Power density spectra of Stage 2 sleep were calculated in a subset (20) of these participants with sufficient artefact-free data for (a) epochs with respiratory events without an accompanying arousal, (b) epochs containing an arousal and (c) epochs of undisturbed Stage 2 sleep containing neither arousal nor respiratory events. Both arousals and respiratory disturbances resulted in reduced power in the delta, theta and spindle frequency range and increased beta power compared to undisturbed sleep. The similarity of the EEG changes resulting from altitude-induced respiratory disturbances and arousals indicates that central apneas are associated with micro-arousals, not apparent by visual inspection of the EEG. Our findings may have implications for sleep in patients and mountain tourists with central apneas and suggest that respiratory disturbances not accompanied by an arousal may, none the less, impact sleep quality and impair recuperative processes associated with sleep more than previously believed.

  20. Auricular acupuncture for sleep disturbance in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Heather C; Spence, Dennis L; Hickey, Anita H; Sargent, Paul; Elesh, Ronald; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an auricular acupuncture (AA) insomnia regimen among Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and sleep disturbance. Secondarily, this study examined the effect of an AA insomnia regimen on objective sleep times by wrist actigraphy, subjective sleep times by sleep diary, and sleep quality ratings utilizing the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Veterans (n = 30) were randomized to receive a 3-week AA insomnia regimen. Veterans receiving the AA insomnia regimen reported it as a more acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance than subjects in the control group (AA group median = 5 vs. control group median = 3, p = 0.004). Significant differences between groups were found on the sleep quality and daytime dysfunction components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (p = 0.003, p = 0.004). No other significant differences between groups were found for objective and subjective sleep measures. These results suggest that an AA insomnia regimen may improve sleep quality and daytime dysfunction among veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Future, large-scale, prospective clinical trials are needed to examine AA effects on sleep.

  1. Sleep disturbances in pediatric bipolar disorder: A comparison between Bipolar I and Bipolar NOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelinda eBaroni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD in youths has been controversial, especially for the subtype BD Not Otherwise Specified (BD-NOS. In spite of growing evidence that sleep is a core feature of BD, few studies characterize and compare sleep disturbances in youth with BD type I (BD-I and BD-NOS. Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in clinical descriptions of children and adolescents with BD, however the reporting of the frequency and characteristics of sleep symptoms in youth with BD NOS and BD I during episodes remain poor. This study compares symptom of sleep disturbance as occurring in manic and depressive episodes in BD I and BD NOS youth using KSADS-PL interview data. The study also addresses whether symptoms of sleep disturbance vary in different age groups. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 70 children and adolescent outpatients at an urban specialty clinic (42M/28F, 10.8±3.6 years old including 24 BP-I and 46 BP-NOS assessed using K-SADS-PL-parent interview. Results: Sleep disturbances including insomnia and decreased need for sleep were reported by 84.3% of the sample. Enuresis was diagnosed in 27% of sample. There were no significant differences in frequency of sleep symptoms between BD-I and BD-NOS. Regardless of BD subtype, current functioning was negatively correlated with decreased need for sleep but not insomnia, and regardless of BD subtype. Conclusion: The majority of youth with BD presents with sleep symptoms during mood episodes. BD NOS presents with the same proportion of sleep symptoms as BD I in our sample.

  2. Polysomnographic Features of Sleep Disturbances and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in the Unilateral 6-OHDA Lesioned Hemiparkinsonian Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Vo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep pattern disruption, specifically REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, is a major nonmotor cause of disability in PD. Understanding the pathophysiology of these sleep pattern disturbances is critical to find effective treatments. 24-hour polysomnography (PSG, the gold standard for sleep studies, has never been used to test sleep dysfunction in the standard 6-OHDA lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP rat PD model. In this study, we recorded 24-hour PSG from normal and HP rats. Recordings were scored into wake, rapid eye movement (REM, and non-REM (NREM. We then examined EEG to identify REM periods and EMG to check muscle activity during REM. Normal rats showed higher wakefulness (70–80% during the dark phase and lower wakefulness (20% during the light phase. HP rats showed 30–50% sleep in both phases, less modulation and synchronization to the light schedule (P<0.0001, and more long run lengths of wakefulness (P<0.05. HP rats also had more REM epochs with muscle activity than control rats (P<0.05. Our findings that the sleep architecture in the HP rat resembles that of PD patients demonstrate the value of this model in studying the pathophysiological basis of PD sleep disturbances and preclinical therapeutics for PD related sleep disorders including RBD.

  3. Determinants of sleep disturbances in Rett syndrome: Novel findings in relation to genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Sharolin; Wong, Kingsley; Epstein, Amy; Anderson, Barbara; Murphy, Nada; Downs, Jenny; Leonard, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Rett syndrome is a rare but severe neurological disorder associated with a mutation in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Sleep problems and epilepsy are two of many comorbidities associated with this disorder. This study investigated the prevalence and determinants of sleep problems in Rett syndrome using an international sample. Families with a child with a confirmed Rett syndrome diagnosis and a MECP2 mutation registered in the International Rett Syndrome Phenotype Database (InterRett) were invited to participate. Questionnaires were returned by 364/461 (78.9%) either in web-based or paper format. Families completed the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children and provided information on the presence, nature, and frequency of their child's sleep problems. Multivariate multinomial regression was used to investigate the relationships between selected sleep problems, age group, and genotype and linear regression for the relationships between sleep disturbance scales and a range of covariates. Night waking was the most prevalent sleep problem affecting over 80% with nearly half (48.3%) currently waking often at night. Initiating and maintaining sleep was most disturbed for younger children and those with a p.Arg294* mutation. Severe seizure activity was associated with poor sleep after adjusting for age group, mutation type, and mobility. We were surprised to find associations between the p.Arg294* mutation and some sleep disturbances given that other aspects of its phenotype are milder. These findings highlight the complexities of aberrant MECP2 function in Rett syndrome and explain some of the variation in manifestation of sleep disturbances. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbances in a large HIV-infected adult population

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in HIV-infected patients but there is a lack of large studies on prevalence and risk factors, particularly in the context of current improved immuno-clinical status and use of the newest antiretrovirals (ARV). Method: Cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbance in adult HIV-infected patients in six French centres of the region “Pays de la Loire”. Patients filled a se...

  5. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  6. Pain and Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Clarke, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) assess and compare sleep disturbances (including daytime and nighttime sleep patterns) in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, (b) examine the prevalence of pain in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, and (c) examine pubertal development, pain intensity, and depressive…

  7. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Womenwith Sleep Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundravally Rajendiran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The quality and duration of sleep is impaired during pregnancy. Our study aimed to determine whether maternal sleep deprivation occurring during the second and third trimester of pregnancy could alter fetal well-being with respect to birth weight and APGAR score by altering the inflammatory status and oxidative stress in the mothers. Methods: Sleep adequacy was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. We investigated the inflammatory status and oxidative stress at term in the blood of pregnant subjects with and without sleep deprivation by measuring the levels of protein-bound sialic acid (PBSA, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl (PCO. Homocysteine (Hcy and its vitamin determinants were also measured. Fetal outcome with respect to birth weight and APGAR score were compared between study subjects. Results: A significant increase was observed in the levels of hsCRP, PBSA, Hcy, MDA, and PCO, in the sleep-deprived group when compared to the control group. Fetal outcome at birth showed a significant difference between the cases with high sleep deprivation and those with low sleep deprivation. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation in pregnancy leads to an increase in the inflammatory parameters, oxidative stress, and Hcy levels. Fetal outcome at birth was affected more in mothers with high sleep deprivation than those with low sleep deprivation. Follow-up in these babies are needed to reveal any differences in their growth and development.

  8. The state of the art of predicting noise-induced sleep disturbance in field settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanford Fidell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several relationships between intruding noises (largely aircraft and sleep disturbance have been inferred from the findings of a handful of field studies. Comparisons of sleep disturbance rates predicted by the various relationships are complicated by inconsistent data collection methods and definitions of predictor variables and predicted quantities. None of the relationships is grounded in theory-based understanding, and some depend on questionable statistical assumptions and analysis procedures. The credibility, generalizability, and utility of sleep disturbance predictions are also limited by small and nonrepresentative samples of test participants, and by restricted (airport-specific and relatively short duration circumstances of exposure. Although expedient relationships may be the best available, their predictions are of only limited utility for policy analysis and regulatory purposes, because they account for very little variance in the association between environmental noise and sleep disturbance, have characteristically shallow slopes, have not been well validated in field settings, are highly context-dependent, and do not squarely address the roles and relative importance of nonacoustic factors in sleep disturbance. Such relationships offer the appearance more than the substance of precision and objectivity. Truly useful, population-level prediction and genuine understanding of noise-induced sleep disturbance will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future, until the findings of field studies of broader scope and more sophisticated design become available.

  9. Measurement properties of PROMIS Sleep Disturbance short forms in a large, ethnically diverse cancer cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne E. Jensen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate model fit, differential item function (DIF, and construct validity of select short forms from the PROMIS® Sleep Disturbance item bank. METHODS: We recruited cancer survivors who were between 6 - 13 months post diagnosis (n = 4,956, as part of the Measuring Your Health (MY-Health study. We measured sleep disturbance using 10 items commonly found in PROMIS Sleep Disturbance short forms (Sleep 4a, Sleep 6a, Sleep 8b, and which are frequently administered in computerized adaptive testing. We evaluated domain reliability using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha and factorial validity by fitting a PROMIS Sleep Disturbance unidimensional measurement model using confirmatory factor analy-sis (CFA. At the item-level, we examined DIF with respect to race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White [NHW], non-Hispanic Black [NHB], Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander, age, and sex. We used a multi-group CFA and multiple indicators, multiple methods (MIMIC analyses. We then assessed construct validity (convergent, discriminate, and known groups for sleep short forms, and a new “best fit” 6-item sleep disturbance short form. RESULTS: We identified a satisfactory unidimensional sleep disturbance 6-item measure (χ2(637.6, p < 0.001, RMSEA = 0.031. To achieve this, we removed four items from the model with item content overlap and added residual covariances between positively worded items in order to address a method effect. We identified one instance of DIF: NHW participants were less likely to agree with the statement “I had difficulty falling asleep” compared to NHBs, Hispanics, or Asians/Pacific Islanders, who all reported the same level of sleep disturbance. After controlling for DIF, we extended this into a MIMIC model, identifying no additional DIF by age or sex. Across all race/ethnicity groups, the adjusted overall means suggest that older adults reported significantly lower sleep disturbance, and NHW, NHB, and Hispanic women reported

  10. The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic sleep complaints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carmen Erlacher; Daniel Erlacher; Michael Schredl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent the observed effects on self-rated sleep in a previous study using a combined treatment program with physical exercise and sleep education can be attributed by the physical activity (PA) component. Methods:The present study reports supplementary analysis of an already described and published study. Data were provided by a nonclinical sample of 98 normal-active adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints. The additional analysis included sleep log, exercise log, and daily pedometer data which were collected during a baseline week and 6-week of a combined intervention. Results:The results indicate that the number of steps ( p=0.02) and the duration of PA ( p=0.01) is significantly related to the improvement in subjective sleep measures and therefore reveal an independent effect within this combined sleep program. Sleep diary data (recuperation of sleep, number of awakenings after sleep onset, and wake time after sleep onset time) improved significant (all p<0.01) over the intervention program. About 50%of the participants stated that the PA had an effect on their improvement. Conclusion:Improvements on subjective sleep quality after a combined intervention cannot be attributed to the cognitive component alone, but PA has an independent effect. Adults with chronic sleep complaints benefit from exercise. Therefore structured PA should be implemented in any sleep management programs.

  11. Impact of Sleep and Its Disturbances on Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Balbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The daily rhythm of cortisol secretion is relatively stable and primarily under the influence of the circadian clock. Nevertheless, several other factors affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Sleep has modest but clearly detectable modulatory effects on HPA axis activity. Sleep onset exerts an inhibitory effect on cortisol secretion while awakenings and sleep offset are accompanied by cortisol stimulation. During waking, an association between cortisol secretory bursts and indices of central arousal has also been detected. Abrupt shifts of the sleep period induce a profound disruption in the daily cortisol rhythm, while sleep deprivation and/or reduced sleep quality seem to result in a modest but functionally important activation of the axis. HPA hyperactivity is clearly associated with metabolic, cognitive and psychiatric disorders and could be involved in the well-documented associations between sleep disturbances and the risk of obesity, diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. Several clinical syndromes, such as insomnia, depression, Cushing's syndrome, sleep disordered breathing (SDB display HPA hyperactivity, disturbed sleep, psychiatric and metabolic impairments. Further research to delineate the functional links between sleep and HPA axis activity is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology of these syndromes and to develop adequate strategies of prevention and treatment.

  12. The comparison of sleep disturbances between the subjects with headache and healthy subjects

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    Arash Bostani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache is one of the most common complaints of the patients referring to the treatment centers. Also, some studies have reported the correlation of sleep disturbances with migraine and tension headaches. This study was aimed to analyze the association of sleep disturbances with migraine and tension headaches. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1005 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were selected by stratified random sampling during the academic year 2013-2014. Having attracted the participation and cooperation of the participants, sleep disorder and symptoms of headache (migraine and tension tests were administered. Results: The overall prevalence of headache, migraine headache and tension headache in students of medical science were 73.8 %, 16.7 % and 30.9 %, respectively. 20.3% of medical students had sleep disorder. Difficulty in sleep onset, daytime fatigue, apnea and sadness and anxiety were associated with headache. Total sleep disorder was directly associated with migraine headache (P<0.05.Conclusion: There was a correlation between sleep disorders and headache, especially migraine headache. Considering the importance of sleep in the incidence of headaches, sleep hygiene education and changes in the quality and patterns of sleep are essential for students, which can greatly affect their individual and social life.

  13. Sleep disorders and chronic craniofacial pain: Characteristics and management possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoznino, Galit; Benoliel, Rafael; Sharav, Yair; Haviv, Yaron

    2017-06-01

    Chronic craniofacial pain involves the head, face and oral cavity and is associated with significant morbidity and high levels of health care utilization. A bidirectional relationship is suggested in the literature for poor sleep and pain, and craniofacial pain and sleep are reciprocally related. We review this relationship and discuss management options. Part I reviews the relationship between pain and sleep disorders in the context of four diagnostic categories of chronic craniofacial pain: 1) primary headaches: migraines, tension-type headache (TTH), trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and hypnic headache, 2) secondary headaches: sleep apnea headache, 3) temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) and 4) painful cranial neuropathies: trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic trigeminal neuropathy, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Part II discusses the management of patients with chronic craniofacial pain and sleep disorders addressing the factors that modulate the pain experience as well as sleep disorders and including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities.

  14. Sleep Disturbances, TBI and PTSD: Implications for Treatment and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Kark, Sarah M.; Gehrman, Philip; Bogdanova, Yelena

    2015-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and sleep problems significantly affect recovery and functional status in military personnel and Veterans returning from combat. Despite recent attention, sleep is understudied in the Veteran population. Few treatments and rehabilitation protocols target sleep, although poor sleep remains at clinical levels and continues to adversely impact functioning even after the resolution of PTSD or mild TBI symptoms. Recent developments in non-pharmacologic sleep treatments have proven efficacious as stand-alone interventions and have potential to improve treatment outcomes by augmenting traditional behavioral and cognitive therapies. This review discusses the extensive scope of work in the area of sleep as it relates to TBI and PTSD, including pathophysiology and neurobiology of sleep; existing and emerging treatment options; as well as methodological issues in sleep measurements for TBI and PTSD. Understanding sleep problems and their role in the development and maintenance of PTSD and TBI symptoms may lead to improvement in overall treatment outcomes while offering a non-stigmatizing entry in mental health services and make current treatments more comprehensive by helping to address a broader spectrum of difficulties. PMID:26164549

  15. Sleep disturbances, TBI and PTSD: Implications for treatment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Kark, Sarah M; Gehrman, Philip; Bogdanova, Yelena

    2015-08-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and sleep problems significantly affect recovery and functional status in military personnel and Veterans returning from combat. Despite recent attention, sleep is understudied in the Veteran population. Few treatments and rehabilitation protocols target sleep, although poor sleep remains at clinical levels and continues to adversely impact functioning even after the resolution of PTSD or mild TBI symptoms. Recent developments in non-pharmacologic sleep treatments have proven efficacious as stand-alone interventions and have potential to improve treatment outcomes by augmenting traditional behavioral and cognitive therapies. This review discusses the extensive scope of work in the area of sleep as it relates to TBI and PTSD, including pathophysiology and neurobiology of sleep; existing and emerging treatment options; as well as methodological issues in sleep measurements for TBI and PTSD. Understanding sleep problems and their role in the development and maintenance of PTSD and TBI symptoms may lead to improvement in overall treatment outcomes while offering a non-stigmatizing entry in mental health services and make current treatments more comprehensive by helping to address a broader spectrum of difficulties.

  16. Are sleep disturbances risk factors for anxiety, depressive and addictive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillin, J C

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature which suggests that sleep disturbance in members of the general population, whether or not they have ever had a formal psychiatric disorder, is a risk factor for the onset of a formal psychiatric diagnosis at a later time. Based upon the current literature, the strongest link is between subjective insomnia, lasting at least 2 weeks, and the later onset of depression. Less well-established data suggest that lifetime reports of at least 2 weeks of insomnia, hypersomnia, or both hypersomnia and insomnia, are risk factors for the later development of depression, anxiety disorders or substance abuse. More tentatively, preliminary data suggest that increasing subjective sleep disturbance may signal a relapse in remitted depressed patients. Sleep disturbances are common manifestations of major depressive and anxiety disorders. Therefore, sleep complaints may be among the most robust prodromal symptoms reflecting partial depressive or anxiety disorders, which eventually declare themselves as full-blown clinical episodes.

  17. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale in the Assessment of Sleep Disturbance in Veterans with Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan F. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Tinnitus and sleep disturbance are prevalent in veterans, and a better understanding of their relationship can help with tinnitus treatment. Materials and Methods. Retrospective chart review of 94 veterans seen in audiology clinic between 2010 and 2013 is presented. Results. The mean age was 62 years, and 93 of 94 veterans were males. The majority (96% had hearing loss. The positive predictive value of the ESS for sleep disorder was 97% and the negative predictive value was 100%. Veterans with a Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI score ≥38 had significantly higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS scores compared to those with THI score <38 (P=0.006. The former had a significantly higher incidence of PTSD, anxiety, and sleep disorder. A subgroup of patients had normal sleep despite rising THI scores. Bilateral tinnitus, vertigo, and anxiety were found to be predictors of sleep disturbance. Conclusions. The ESS can be used as a tool in the initial assessment of sleep disorders in veterans with tinnitus. Higher tinnitus handicap severity is significantly associated with greater sleep disturbance. Optimal management of tinnitus may require concomitant treatment of sleep disorder, PTSD, anxiety, and depression.

  18. Cognitive processes in comorbid poor sleep and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Haley D; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Thorn, Beverly E

    2016-04-01

    We examined the unique and shared contributions of pain catastrophizing, cognitive pre-sleep arousal, and somatic pre-sleep arousal, to the prediction of insomnia severity in chronic pain. Forty-eight adults with chronic pain completed self-report measures of these study variables, health, and mood. Hierarchical regression showed that pain catastrophizing accounted for unique variance in insomnia severity, independent of pain intensity, depression, restless legs symptoms, and demographics. However, when cognitive and somatic pre-sleep arousal were also taken into account, the significance of cognitive pre-sleep arousal rendered pain catastrophizing non-significant. We identify research and clinical implications of this study.

  19. Effect of melatonin administration on subjective sleep quality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Nunes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Disturbed sleep is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Conventional hypnotics worsen nocturnal hypoxemia and, in severe cases, can lead to respiratory failure. Exogenous melatonin has somnogenic properties in normal subjects and can improve sleep in several clinical conditions. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effects of melatonin on sleep in COPD. Thirty consecutive patients with moderate to very severe COPD were initially recruited for the study. None of the participants had a history of disease exacerbation 4 weeks prior to the study, obstructive sleep apnea, mental disorders, current use of oral steroids, methylxanthines or hypnotic-sedative medication, nocturnal oxygen therapy, and shift work. Patients received 3 mg melatonin (N = 12 or placebo (N = 13, orally in a single dose, 1 h before bedtime for 21 consecutive days. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and daytime sleepiness was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Pulmonary function and functional exercise level were assessed by spirometry and the 6-min walk test, respectively. Twenty-five patients completed the study protocol and were included in the final analysis. Melatonin treatment significantly improved global PSQI scores (P = 0.012, particularly sleep latency (P = 0.008 and sleep duration (P = 0.046. No differences in daytime sleepiness, lung function and functional exercise level were observed. We conclude that melatonin can improve sleep in COPD. Further long-term studies involving larger number of patients are needed before melatonin can be safely recommended for the management of sleep disturbances in these patients.

  20. Effects of salmeterol on sleeping oxygen saturation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep is associated with important adverse effects in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), such as disturbed sleep quality and gas exchange, including hypoxemia and hypercapnia. The effects of inhaled long-acting beta(2)-agonist therapy (LABA) on these disturbances are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of inhaled salmeterol on nocturnal sleeping arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) and sleep quality. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of moderate\\/severe stable COPD patients, we compared the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with salmeterol 50 microg b.d. and matching placebo on sleeping SaO(2) and sleep quality. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) was performed at baseline, and after 4 and 8 weeks in addition to detailed pulmonary function testing. Of 15 patients included, 12 completed the trial (median age 69 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV(1): 39%). RESULTS: Both mean SaO(2) [salmeterol vs. placebo: 92.9% (91.2, 94.7) vs. 91.0% (88.9, 94.8); p = 0.016] and the percentage of sleep spent below 90% of SaO(2) [1.8% (0.0, 10.8) vs. 25.6% (0.5, 53.5); p = 0.005] improved significantly with salmeterol. Sleep quality was similar with both salmeterol and placebo on PSG. Static lung volumes, particularly trapped gas volume, tended to improve with salmeterol. CONCLUSION: We conclude that inhaled LABA therapy improves sleeping SaO(2) without significant change in sleep quality.

  1. Sleep Disturbances and Correlates of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Hubbard, Julie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Adam, James B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns, sleep problems, and their correlates in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subjects consisted of 167 ASD children, including 108 with autistic disorder, 27 with Asperger's syndrome, and 32 with other diagnoses of ASD. Mean age was 8.8 years (SD = 4.2), 86% were boys. Parents completed a…

  2. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy causes less sleep disturbance than open abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, I; Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Kiil, C;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine subjective sleep quality before and after laparoscopic vs open abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twelve patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 15 patients undergoing laparotomy were evaluated with the aid of a sleep questionnaire from 4 day...

  3. Prevalence of Sleep Disturbance and Neuropsychological Learning Disabilities in Preschool Children in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaneian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of sleep disorders is different in international studies. Sleep disorders with the increasing prevalence among children is common. Cognitive problems are the most serious complication of sleep disorders in children. The present study, the prevalence of sleep problems and neuropsychological learning disabilities were evaluated on pre-school children (4-6 years old in Isfahan in the year of (1393-1394. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 350 pre-school children in 1393-1394. They have been selected for cluster sampling method. The sleep disturbances scale questionnaire for children (SDSC and Conners neuropsychological questionnaire were given to the mothers of pre-school children. Results: The results showed 144 (41.14% pre-school children were prone to sleep disturbances,  out of 280 pre-school children, 92 people (32.85% had neuropsychological learning disabilities, 31 children, disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (8.85%, 15 children, sleep disordered breathing (4.28%, 53 children, excessive sleepiness disorder (15.14%, 74 children, sleep wake disorders (21.14%, 32 children, 32 children, arousal disorder (9.14%, 43 children, sleep hyperhidrosis (12.28%, 62 children, attention problems (22.14%, 1 children, impaired sensory function (0.7%, 4 children, language dysfunction (1.42%, 7 children, general learning and memory impairment (2.5%, 14 children, executive dysfunction (6.42%. Conclusion: The prevalence of sleep and attention problems could indicate the importance of sleep and attention problems, furthermore, it could be awareness as regards patterns of the healthy sleep and neuropsychological learning disabilities in order to enhance the awareness of parents and health care providers.

  4. The study of subjective and objective evaluation of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chun-feng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disorder is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. At present, there are subjective and objective tools to evaluate sleepdisorders. Nevertheless, previous studies commonly used single subjective questionnaires or objective examinations. Therefore, we used the combinations of subjective and objective tools to analyze clinical characteristics of sleep disturbances in PD and investigated differences and consistence between subjective and objective tools. Methods One hundred and sixteen PD patients were eligible to participate into this study. All participants were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS in "on" condition, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y stage, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD 24 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and underwent a video-polysomnography (Video-PSG. Results According to PSQI score of 116 PD patients, the proportion of PD patients with sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥ 7 was 50% (N = 58. Compared to PD patients without sleep disturbances, PD patients with sleep disturbances had lower score of MoCA (23.34 ± 3.50 vs 24.89 ± 3.52; t = 2.377, P = 0.019, higher score of UPDRSⅠ[4.00 (2.00, 5.00 vs 3.00 (2.00, 5.00; U = - 2.306, P = 0.021], UPDRSⅡ[12.00 (9.00, 16.00 vs 10.00 (6.00, 13.00; U = - 1.995, P = 0.046], higher levodopa equivalent daily dose [LED, (508.14 ± 335.85 vs (394.06 ± 236.40 mg/d; t = - 2.115, P = 0.037]. Although PD patients with sleep disturbances had more score of UPDSR Ⅲ and higher H-Y stage, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05. On the other hand, decreased total sleep time (TST, reduced sleep efficiency (SE, increased sleep latency (SL, decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅱ time were found for PD patients with sleep disturbances (P 0.05, for all. The score of PSQI was positively correlated with the score of ESS (r = 0.200, P = 0

  5. Comparison of sleep disturbances in shift workers and people working with a fixed shift

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    Zohreh Yazdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different types of sleep disturbances can have a serious negative effect on a person’s ability, function and overall well-being. One of the most important issues that can result in sleep disturbances are occupational causes, the most important among them is shift work. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of sleep disturbances between shift work and non-shift workers. Material and Methods: This study was designed as a case-control study in 196 shift workers and 204 non-shift workers in a textile factory. The data were collected by using a comprehensive questionnaire including Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire, Berlin Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Restless Leg Syndrome Questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using the SPSS software version 13 by student's t-test, Chi square and multiple logistic regressions. Results: The duration of night sleep in shift workers was less than day workers (p<0.001. Prevalence of poor sleep quality and insomnia were higher in shift workers significantly than non shift workers (p<0.001, OR=2.3 95% CI: 1.7-2.9. The most prevalent type of insomnia was problems in initiating sleep (P=0.022, OR=2.2 95% CI: 1.5-3.2. There was no difference in the prevalence of excessive day-time sleepiness, restless leg syndrome, snoring, obstructive sleep apnea and different types of parasomnias between two groups. Conclusion: Reduced length of sleep and higher prevalence of poor sleep quality and insomnia in shift workers emphasizes the importance of serious attention to sleep disorders in shift workers.

  6. Effects of chronic stress on sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, G J; Pastel, R H; Bauman, R A; Meininger, G R; Maughan, K R; Robinson, T N; Wright, W L; Covington, P S

    1995-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of chronic stress on sleep using a rodent paradigm of around-the-clock signalled intermittent foot shock in which some rats can pull a chain to avoid/escape shock while another group of rats is yoked to the first group. We measured sleep using telemetry; four-channel EEG was collected 24 h/day in rats during 2 prestress days; days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 during chronic stress; and 3 poststress days. States of REM sleep, non-REM (NREM) sleep, and waking were scored for each 15-s period of the EEG recordings. During the prestress period, rats slept (REM plus NREM) 55% of available time during the light hours and 34% of the dark hours with the remainder represented by waking. On the first day of stress, total sleep and, especially REM sleep, decreased markedly. By the second day of stress, only REM sleep in the controllable stress group (but not the uncontrollable stress group) was still significantly decreased compared to prestress levels, and REM sleep returned to baseline levels by day 7 of stress. The recovery of sleep quantity was accomplished by increased sleep during the dark hours, resulting in a long-lasting disruption of normal circadian sleep patterning.

  7. Sleep disturbances in IDDM patients with nocturnal hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtson, I; Gade, J; Thomsen, C E

    1992-01-01

    a polygraphic sleep analysis system. The scoring was mainly based on the color density spectral array of the EEG. Blood glucose and growth hormone were measured serially. Asymptomatic, spontaneous nocturnal hypoglycemia occurred in 38% of the nights. Conventional sleep analysis showed a tendency toward......Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were studied to evaluate sleep patterns during normoglycemia and spontaneous and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Two channels of electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram and actooculogram were recorded. The signals were analyzed off-line, using...

  8. The first experience of melatonin administration for correction of sleep disturbances in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Karateev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess efficacy melatonin administered for correction of sleep disturbances in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 3-weeks randomized controlled study of melatonin (Melaxen, Unipharm 3 mg/day (in the evening in 20 RA pts with sleep disturbances was performed. Control placebo group included 10 pts comparable with study group. Effect of the drug on insomnia so as on the main clinical and laboratory indices of RA activity was scored. Results. To the end of follow up study group pts showed improvement of sleep quality in comparison with initial. Frequency of such insomnia signs as feeling of dissatisfaction with night sleep, tiredness persistence after sleep and unpleasant feelings during sleep significantly decreased. The general result of treatment with melaxen was assessed by pt and doctor as improvement or significant improvement in 47,4-63,2% of cases. Morning stiffness, swollen and tender joint counts so as pain intensity significantly decreased during treatment. Improper drug tolerability was noted in only one pt. Signs of insomnia and RA activity did not change in placebo group. Conclusion. Melatonin is an effective and safe drug for correction of sleep disturbances in RA pts. It also showed capacity to decrease inflammatory activity of RA.

  9. Pregabalin reduces sleep disturbance in patients with generalized anxiety disorder via both direct and indirect mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi Bollu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: To characterize the impact of pregabalin on sleep in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and to determine whether the impact is a direct or an indirect effect, mediated through the reduction of anxiety symptoms. Methods: A post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled study in patients with GAD was conducted. Patients received pregabalin 300 mg/day, venlafaxine XR 75 mg/day or placebo for a week, followed by pregabalin 300-600 mg/day, venlafaxine XR 75-225 mg/day, or placebo for 7 weeks. Treatment effect on sleep was evaluated using the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. A mediation model was used to estimate separately for both treatment arms the direct and indirect treatment effects on sleep disturbance. Results: Compared with placebo (n = 128, treatment with pregabalin (n = 121 significantly reduced scores on the sleep disturbance subscale and Sleep Problems Index II at both week 4 and week 8, and the sleep adequacy subscale at week 8. Venlafaxine XR (n = 125 had no significant effect on these measures. The mediation model indicated that 53% of the total pregabalin effect on sleep disturbance was direct (p < 0.01 and 47% indirect, mediated through anxiety symptoms (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Pregabalin decreased sleep disturbance in patients with GAD both directly, and indirectly by reducing anxiety symptoms. Given the drug specificity of the results, this study provides evidence of an additional important pathway of action for pregabalin and its efficacy in GAD.

  10. XML Investigation of the effects of wind turbine noise annoyance on the sleep disturbance among workers of Manjil wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Installation of wind turbines in residential areas due to their unique sound characteristics may cause noise annoyance. Noise annoyance can increase the risk of health problems and sleep disturbance. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the effect of wind turbine noise annoyance on sleep disturbance among the Manjil wind farm workers. Material and Method: All the Manjil wind farm workers have been divided into three groups according to their noise exposure levels, including maintenance, security, and administrative workers. The equivalent A weighted noise levels were measured for each of the study working groups, using ISO 9612 standard method. Information related to the noise annoyance and sleep disturbance were determined by ISO15666 standard and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. Data were analyzed using R software. Result: Findings of ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests showed that noise annoyance and sleep disturbance were statistically different among workers with various occupational, age, and work experience groups. Also, noise annoyance and sleep disturbance had a significant association in a way that regardless of the effects of other variables, it can be stated that for every one unit increase in noise annoyance, 0.26 units will be added to the amount of sleep disturbance. Conclusion: In this study, workers with more wind turbine noise annoyance had more sleep disturbance. Therefore, in addition to the direct effects of noise on sleep disturbance, it can indirectly exacerbate sleep disturbances.

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine for sleep disturbances in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S

    2008-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are frequently used for the treatment of sleep disorders, but in many cases patients do not discuss these therapies directly with their health care provider. There is a growing body of well-designed clinical trials using CAM that have shown the following: (1) Melatonin is an effective agent for the treatment of circadian phase disorders that affect sleep; however, the role of melatonin in the treatment of primary or secondary insomnia is less well established. (2) Valerian has shown a benefit in some, but not all clinical trials. (3) Several other modalities, such as Tai Chi, acupuncture, acupressure, yoga, and meditation have improved sleep parameters in a limited number of early trials. Future work examining CAM has the potential to significantly add to our treatment options for sleep disorders in older adults.

  12. Effects of gabapentin on brain hyperactivity related to pain and sleep disturbance under a neuropathic pain-like state using fMRI and brain wave analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Akira; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Furuya, Masaharu; Yanase, Makoto; Niikura, Keiichi; Imai, Satoshi; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Tsukiyama, Yoshi; Senba, Emiko; Matoba, Motohiro; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Narita, Minoru

    2011-07-01

    Neuropathic pain is the most difficult pain to manage in the pain clinic, and sleep problems are common among patients with chronic pain including neuropathic pain. In the present study, we tried to visualize the intensity of pain by assessing neuronal activity and investigated sleep disturbance under a neuropathic pain-like state in mice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG), respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of gabapentin (GBP) on these phenomena. In a model of neuropathic pain, sciatic nerve ligation caused a marked decrease in the latency of paw withdrawal in response to a thermal stimulus only on the ipsilateral side. Under this condition, fMRI showed that sciatic nerve ligation produced a significant increase in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in the pain matrix, which was significantly decreased 2 h after the i.p. injection of GBP. Based on the results of an EEG/EMG analysis, sciatic nerve-ligated animals showed a statistically significant increase in wakefulness and a decrease in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep during the light phase, and the sleep disturbance was almost completely alleviated by a higher dose of GBP in nerve-ligated mice. These findings suggest that neuropathic pain associated with sleep disturbance can be objectively assessed by fMRI and EEG/EMG analysis in animal models. Furthermore, GBP may improve the quality of sleep as well as control pain in patients with neuropathic pain.

  13. Therapeutic strategies for circadian rhythm and sleep disturbances in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wamelen, Daniel J; Roos, Raymund Ac; Aziz, Nasir A

    2015-12-01

    Aside from the well-known motor, cognitive and psychiatric signs and symptoms, Huntington disease (HD) is also frequently complicated by circadian rhythm and sleep disturbances. Despite the observation that these disturbances often precede motor onset and have a high prevalence, no studies are available in HD patients which assess potential treatments. In this review, we will briefly outline the nature of circadian rhythm and sleep disturbances in HD and subsequently focus on potential treatments based on findings in other neurodegenerative diseases with similarities to HD, such as Parkinson and Alzheimer disease. The most promising treatment options to date for circadian rhythm and sleep disruption in HD include melatonin (agonists) and bright light therapy, although further corroboration in clinical trials is warranted.

  14. Quality of life and sleep impairment in chronic cocaine dependents

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Adriana; ROSSINI, Sueli; Reimão,Rubens

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life (QL) and sleep quality impairment of cocaine chronic dependents in use of cocaine. METHOD: 40 patients, chronic cocaine dependents were evaluated (37 M; 3 F), with mean age of 28.92 years, along with 40 controls paired for gender and age. The following instruments were used: a) the semi-structured clinical interview; b) the Brazil Economic Classification; c) the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; d) World Heath Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF...

  15. Sleep disturbances and changes in urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels in patients with breast cancer undergoing lumpectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Madsen, M T; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances and changes in self-reported discomfort and melatonin secretion are common in the post-operative period. We aimed to study the distribution of sleep stages in the perioperative period and evaluate changes in secretion of the melatonin metabolite aMT6s and subjective parameters ...... of sleepiness, pain, general well-being and fatigue in patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer....

  16. Influence of Sleep Disturbances on Quality of Life of Iranian Menopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Yazdi; Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi; Amir Ziaee; Khadijeh Elmizadeh; Masomeh Ziaeeha

    2013-01-01

    Background. Subjective sleep disturbances increase during menopause. Some problems commonly encountered during menopause, such as hot flushes and sweating at night, can cause women to have difficulty in sleeping. These complaints can influence quality of life of menopausal women. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on menopausal women attending health centers in Qazvin for periodic assessments. We measured excessive daytime sleepiness by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), obstructi...

  17. Acupuncture for Disturbed Sleep in Veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-25

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 August 2012- 31 August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acupuncture for Disturbed Sleep in Veterans with Post...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES N/A 14. ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine whether the use of an auricular acupuncture (AA) regimen improves sleep quality...residential PTSD treatment program. Analysis: Acupuncture acceptability between groups was analyzed utilizing a Likert 1-5 scale. RMANOVA was conducted to

  18. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents with Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder and effects of melatonin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.; Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Smits, M.G; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Homeostatic and circadian changes that occur during adolescence can result in chronic sleep reduction. This may particularly be true for adolescents with Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD), which is associated with late Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO). This study assessed the influence of melatoni

  19. Treatment of GABA from Fermented Rice Germ Ameliorates Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabunga, Darine Froy N; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Kim, Hee Jin; Choung, Se Young

    2015-05-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is involved in sleep physiology. Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induce wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. This study was performed to examine whether GABA extracts from fermented rice germ ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice, without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination. Indeed, caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA treatment (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), especially at 100 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. In locomotor tests, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA slightly but not significantly reduced the caffeine-induced increase in locomotor activity without affecting motor coordination. Additionally, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA per se did not affect the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination of mice. In conclusion, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine, without affecting the general locomotor activities of mice.

  20. The Relation between Scores on Noise Annoyance and Noise Disturbed Sleep in a Public Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The relation between responses to survey questions on noise annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance has been analysed to gain insight in its dependency on noise source or noise type and on individual characteristics. The results show a high correlation between responses (scores 0–10 with Pearson’s correlation coefficient close to 0.8 for respondents who report hearing the source. At the same level of annoyance, scooters and neighbours are associated with more sleep disturbance, air and road traffic with less. The relation between Annoyance (A and Sleep Disturbance (SD is also significantly related to age, the use of sleeping drugs, and living alone. However, the differences in the A-SD relations with respect to source and characteristic are small. Noise-related sleep disturbance is associated more strongly to noise annoyance than it is to noise exposure. For transportation noise both scores are more often equal when the annoyance score is 7 or higher; this change in scoring behaviour could be an indication for a change to severe annoyance.

  1. The Effects of the Hominis Placenta Herbal acupuncture on Sleep pattern disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Hyoun-min

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study has been designed and performed to identify the effects of Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture which is usually used in reducing sleep pattern disturbances. Methods : The study subjects studied included 48 patients who were admitted in hospital located in Pusan, and they were classified into 2 groups : 25 patients in the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture and 23 patients in the control group who were treated by acupuncture. The both group injected on GB20, GB12 and HT7 for 5 days without medicine. The sleep pattern disturbance score was measured by using 15 questions according to Korean Sleep Scale A(Oh, Jin Joo. Song, Mi Soon. Kim, Shin Mi. 1998. Results & conclusions : The sleep pattern disturbance score of the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture was significantly lower than that of the control group. (t= 7.00 p= .00 These results provided that Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture of GB20, GB12 and HT7 was effective for relieving sleep pattern disturbances, it is need more sample's number and more treatmentt's duration.

  2. Validating the General Sleep Disturbance Scale among Chinese American parents with hospitalized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Yu

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to assess the reliability and validity of the English and Chinese versions of the General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS) among Chinese American parents with hospitalized infants. A convenience sample of 22 mothers and 22 fathers in the San Francisco area participated in this study. Cronbach alpha coefficients were .85 and .81 for the English and Chinese versions, respectively. Concurrent validity was demonstrated through correlations with wrist actigraphy readings. Although results of the study indicate that the GSDS is an acceptable instrument to measure parents' sleep disturbance among the Chinese American population, a need for further work was identified.

  3. Temporal Dissociation between Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-Modified LDL and MPO Elevations during Chronic Sleep Restriction and Recovery in Healthy Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia; Brice Faraut; Maria José Esposito; Patricia Stenuit; Michal Dyzma; Pierre Van Antwerpen; Dany Brohée; Luc Vanhamme; Nicole Moguilevsky; Michel Vanhaeverbeek; Myriam Kerkhofs

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many studies have evaluated the ways in which sleep disturbances may influence inflammation and the possible links of this effect to cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep restriction and recovery on several blood cardiovascular biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine healthy male non-smokers, aged 22-29 years, were admitted to the Sleep Laboratory for 11 days and nights under continuous electroencephalogram polysomnography. The study cons...

  4. Pharmacological interventions for sleepiness and sleep disturbances caused by shift work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Liira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shift work results in sleep-wake disturbances, which cause sleepiness during night shifts and reduce sleep length and quality in daytime sleep after the night shift. In its serious form it is also called shift work sleep disorder. Various pharmacological products are used to ameliorate symptoms of sleepiness or poor sleep length and quality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of pharmacological interventions to reduce sleepiness or to improve alertness at work and decrease sleep disturbances whilst of work, or both, in workers undertaking shift work. METHODS: Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO up to 20 September 2013 and ClinicalTrials.gov up to July 2013. We also screened reference lists of included trials and relevant reviews. Selection criteria: We included all eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs, including cross-over RCTs, of pharmacological products among workers who were engaged in shift work (including night shifts in their present jobs and who may or may not have had sleep problems. Primary outcomes were sleep length and sleep quality while of work, alertness and sleepiness, or fatigue at work. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included trials. We performed meta-analyses where appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 randomised placebo-controlled trials with 718 participants. Nine trials evaluated the effect of melatonin and two the effect of hypnotics for improving sleep problems. One trial assessed the effect of modafinil, two of armodafinil and one examined cafeine plus naps to decrease sleepiness or to increase alertness.

  5. Assessing sleep disturbance in low back pain: the validity of portable instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, Saad M; McAuley, James H; Hush, Julia M; Bartlett, Delwyn J; McKeough, Zoe M; Grunstein, Ronald R; Dungan, George C; Maher, Chris G

    2014-01-01

    Although portable instruments have been used in the assessment of sleep disturbance for patients with low back pain (LBP), the accuracy of the instruments in detecting sleep/wake episodes for this population is unknown. This study investigated the criterion validity of two portable instruments (Armband and Actiwatch) for assessing sleep disturbance in patients with LBP. 50 patients with LBP performed simultaneous overnight sleep recordings in a university sleep laboratory. All 50 participants were assessed by Polysomnography (PSG) and the Armband and a subgroup of 33 participants wore an Actiwatch. Criterion validity was determined by calculating epoch-by-epoch agreement, sensitivity, specificity and prevalence and bias- adjusted kappa (PABAK) for sleep versus wake between each instrument and PSG. The relationship between PSG and the two instruments was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2, 1). The study participants showed symptoms of sub-threshold insomnia (mean ISI = 13.2, 95% CI = 6.36) and poor sleep quality (mean PSQI = 9.20, 95% CI = 4.27). Observed agreement with PSG was 85% and 88% for the Armband and Actiwatch. Sensitivity was 0.90 for both instruments and specificity was 0.54 and 0.67 and PABAK of 0.69 and 0.77 for the Armband and Actiwatch respectively. The ICC (95%CI) was 0.76 (0.61 to 0.86) and 0.80 (0.46 to 0.92) for total sleep time, 0.52 (0.29 to 0.70) and 0.55 (0.14 to 0.77) for sleep efficiency, 0.64 (0.45 to 0.78) and 0.52 (0.23 to 0.73) for wake after sleep onset and 0.13 (-0.15 to 0.39) and 0.33 (-0.05 to 0.63) for sleep onset latency, for the Armband and Actiwatch, respectively. The findings showed that both instruments have varied criterion validity across the sleep parameters from excellent validity for measures of total sleep time, good validity for measures of sleep efficiency and wake after onset to poor validity for sleep onset latency.

  6. Assessing sleep disturbance in low back pain: the validity of portable instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M Alsaadi

    Full Text Available Although portable instruments have been used in the assessment of sleep disturbance for patients with low back pain (LBP, the accuracy of the instruments in detecting sleep/wake episodes for this population is unknown. This study investigated the criterion validity of two portable instruments (Armband and Actiwatch for assessing sleep disturbance in patients with LBP. 50 patients with LBP performed simultaneous overnight sleep recordings in a university sleep laboratory. All 50 participants were assessed by Polysomnography (PSG and the Armband and a subgroup of 33 participants wore an Actiwatch. Criterion validity was determined by calculating epoch-by-epoch agreement, sensitivity, specificity and prevalence and bias- adjusted kappa (PABAK for sleep versus wake between each instrument and PSG. The relationship between PSG and the two instruments was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2, 1. The study participants showed symptoms of sub-threshold insomnia (mean ISI = 13.2, 95% CI = 6.36 and poor sleep quality (mean PSQI = 9.20, 95% CI = 4.27. Observed agreement with PSG was 85% and 88% for the Armband and Actiwatch. Sensitivity was 0.90 for both instruments and specificity was 0.54 and 0.67 and PABAK of 0.69 and 0.77 for the Armband and Actiwatch respectively. The ICC (95%CI was 0.76 (0.61 to 0.86 and 0.80 (0.46 to 0.92 for total sleep time, 0.52 (0.29 to 0.70 and 0.55 (0.14 to 0.77 for sleep efficiency, 0.64 (0.45 to 0.78 and 0.52 (0.23 to 0.73 for wake after sleep onset and 0.13 (-0.15 to 0.39 and 0.33 (-0.05 to 0.63 for sleep onset latency, for the Armband and Actiwatch, respectively. The findings showed that both instruments have varied criterion validity across the sleep parameters from excellent validity for measures of total sleep time, good validity for measures of sleep efficiency and wake after onset to poor validity for sleep onset latency.

  7. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  8. Sleep quality predicts quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzahit Simon-Tuval

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Scharf1*, Nimrod Maimon2*, Tzahit Simon-Tuval3, Barbara J Bernhard-Scharf4, Haim Reuveni2, Ariel Tarasiuk21Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Beersheba, Israel; 3Guilford Glazer School of Business and Management, Ben Gurion University, Beersheba, Israel; 4Mt. Washington Pediatric Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; The study was performed at the Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel*Drs Scharf and Maimon contributed equally to this manuscript.Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients may suffer from poor sleep and health-related quality of life. We hypothesized that disturbed sleep in COPD is correlated with quality of life.Methods: In 180 patients with COPD (forced expired volume in 1 second [FEV1] 47.6 ± 15.2% predicted, 77.8% male, aged 65.9 ± 11.7 years, we administered general (Health Utilities Index 3 and disease-specific (St George’s Respiratory questionnaires and an index of disturbed sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.Results: Overall scores indicated poor general (Health Utilities Index 3: 0.52 ± 0.38, disease-specific (St George’s: 57.0 ± 21.3 quality of life and poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh 11.0 ± 5.4. Sleep time correlated with the number of respiratory and anxiety symptoms reported at night. Seventy-seven percent of the patients had Pittsburg scores >5, and the median Pittsburgh score was 12. On multivariate regression, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was an independent predictor of both the Health Utilities Index 3 and the St George’s scores, accounting for 3% and 5%, respectively, of the scores. Only approximately 25% of the patients demonstrated excessive sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale >9.Conclusions: Most patients with COPD suffer disturbed sleep. Sleep quality was correlated with general and disease-specific quality of life. Only a minority of COPD patients

  9. Mindfulness-based intervention for prodromal sleep disturbances in older adults: design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C; Irwin, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    Sleep problems are prevalent among older adults, often persist untreated, and are predictive of health detriments. Given the limitations of conventional treatments, non-pharmacological treatments such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are gaining popularity for sleep ailments. However, nothing is yet known about the impact of MBIs on sleep in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. This article details the design and methodology of a 6-week parallel-group RCT calibrated to test the treatment effect of the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) program versus sleep hygiene education for improving sleep quality, as the main outcome, in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. Older adults with current sleep disturbances will be recruited from the urban Los Angeles community. Participants will be randomized into two standardized treatment conditions, MAPs and sleep hygiene education. Each condition will consist of weekly 2-hour group-based classes over the course of the 6-week intervention. The primary objective of this study is to determine if mindfulness meditation practice as engaged through the MAPs program leads to improved sleep quality relative to sleep hygiene education in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances.

  10. Traffic noise-induced sleep disturbances and their correction by an anxiolytic sedative, OX-373.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletu, B; Grünberger, J

    1981-01-01

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the effect of nocturnal traffic noise and bedtime medication of a new benzodiazepine, OX-373, on objective and subjective sleep variables as well as on the quality of morning awakenings was investigated. 10 healthy subjects spent 17 nights in the sleep laboratory: 2 adaptation nights, 1 baseline night, 4 drug nights (20, 30, and 40 mg OX-373 and placebo) and 4 subsequent wash-out nights as well as 3 nights under traffic noise with placebo, 30 and 40 mg OX-373 and 3 subsequent wash-out nights. Nocturnal traffic noise with an intensity of 45-65 dB(A) induced sleep disturbances characterized by an increase in intermittent wakefulness and stage 1 and the number of nocturnal awakenings as well as by a decrease of spindle and REM sleep stages. Subjectively, a decrease of deep sleep and increase of light sleep and middle insomnia was reported. Upon awakening in the morning, mood was significantly deteriorated. The new benzodiazepine OX-373 attenuated the above-described traffic noise-induced changes and produced even oppositional alterations, such as a decrease in stage 1, number of awakenings and stage shifts while increasing stage 2. The drug alone decreased the number of awakenings and stage 1 and augmented stage 4 as compared with placebo, which was subjectively felt as an increase in deep sleep and as a decrease of light sleep, early and middle insomnia. In the morning, there were no signs of 'hangover', which was confirmed also by psychometry. Nor were there any clinically relevant alterations in blood pressure and pulse. Thus, our studies confirmed earlier pharmaco-EEG and psychometric investigations predicting OX-373 as well-tolerated anxiolytic sedative, and suggested further that traffic noise could eventually be utilized as an experimental provocative technique in order to induce a standardized sleep disturbance for early clinical drug evaluation of potentially hypnotic substances.

  11. Sleep-related disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crinion, Sophie J

    2014-02-01

    Sleep may have several negative consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sleep is typically fragmented with diminished slow wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, which likely represents an important contributing factor to daytime symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy. Furthermore, normal physiological adaptations during sleep, which result in mild hypoventilation in normal subjects, are more pronounced in COPD, which can result in clinically important nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea and COPD is also common, principally because of the high prevalence of each disorder, and there is little convincing evidence that one disorder predisposes to the other. Nonetheless, this co-existence, termed the overlap syndrome, typically results in more pronounced nocturnal oxygen desaturation and there is a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in such patients. Management of sleep disorders in patients with COPD should address both sleep quality and disordered gas exchange. Non-invasive pressure support is beneficial in selected cases, particularly during acute exacerbations associated with respiratory failure, and is particularly helpful in patients with the overlap syndrome. There is limited evidence of benefit from pressure support in the chronic setting in COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

  12. Impact of sleep disturbance on patients in treatment for mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallestad Håvard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, sleep disturbance is often regarded as an epiphenomenon of the primary mental disorder. The aim of this study was to test if sleep disturbance, independently of primary mental disorders, is associated with current clinical state and benefit from treatment in a sample representative of public mental health care clinics. Method 2246 patients receiving treatment for mental disorders in eight public mental health care centers in Norway were evaluated in a cross-sectional study using patient and clinician reported measures. Patients reported quality of life, symptom severity, and benefit from treatment. Clinicians reported disorder severity, level of functioning, symptom severity and benefit from treatment. The hypothesis was tested using multiple hierarchical regression analyses. Results Sleep disturbance was, adjusted for age, gender, time in treatment, type of care, and the presence of any primary mental disorder, associated with lower quality of life, higher symptom severity, higher disorder severity, lower levels of functioning, and less benefit from treatment. Conclusion Sleep disturbance ought to be considered a stand-alone therapeutic entity rather than an epiphenomenon of existing diagnoses for patients receiving treatment in mental health care.

  13. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728 subjec

  14. Sleep Disturbances in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Severe Intellectual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Ancona, Martin N.; Wilkins, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are a significant problem for persons with developmental disabilities. These problems occur at a higher rate than what is observed in the typically developing population, and persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) appear to be at a higher risk than individuals with other developmental disabilities. However, another major…

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbances in a large HIV-infected adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Allavena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in HIV-infected patients but there is a lack of large studies on prevalence and risk factors, particularly in the context of current improved immuno-clinical status and use of the newest antiretrovirals (ARV. Method: Cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbance in adult HIV-infected patients in six French centres of the region “Pays de la Loire”. Patients filled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behaviour, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index PSQI, quality of life (WHO QOL HIV BREF questionnaire and depression (Beck depression Inventory (BDI-II questionnaire. Socio-demographic and immunovirologic data, medical history, ARVs were collected. Results: From November 2012 to May 2013, 1354 consecutive non-selected patients were enrolled. Patients’ characteristics were: 73.5% male, median age 47 years, active employment 56.7%, France-native 83% and Africa-native 14.7%, CDC stage C 21%, hepatitis co-infection 13%, lipodystrophy 11.8%, dyslipidemia 20%, high BP 15.1%, diabetes 3%, tobacco smokers 39%, marijuana and cocaine users, 11.7% and 1.7% respectively, and excessive alcohol drinkers 9%. Median (med duration of HIV infection was 12.4 years, med CD4 count was 604/mm3; 94% of Patients were on ARVs, 87% had undetectable viral load. Median sleeping time was 7 hours. Sleep disturbances (defined as PSQI score >5 were observed in 47% of the patients, more frequently in female (56.4% than in male (43.9% (p19 in 19.7% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with sleep disturbances (p10 vs. <10 y. (OR 1.5; CI 1.1–2.0, ARV regimen containing nevirapine (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9 or efavirenz (OR 0.5; CI 0.3–0.7. Conclusions: Prevalence of sleep disturbances is high in this HIV population and roughly similar to the French population. Associated factors are rather related to social and psychological

  16. The effect of experimentally induced sleep disturbance on the pharmacokinetics of lorazepam in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tsutomu; Tsutsumi, Kimiko; Imai, Hiromitsu; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Nakano, Shigeyuki

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sleep disturbance on the pharmacokinetics, especially on the absorption, of lorazepam in humans. Eight healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of lorazepam 1 mg before sleep on two occasions in a cross-over design. In either of the two doses, subjects were intermittently exposed to noise for 1.5 hours after oral lorazepam administration. Plasma lorazepam concentrations were measured by HPLC. The exposure to noise significantly prolonged tmax (control vs. noise: 2.0 vs. 3.0 hours) and significantly decreased AUC of lorazepam in the absorption phase. The reduction was 54% (95% CI, 15 - 75%) and 24% (3 - 40%) for AUC (0 - 1 hours) and AUC (0 - 3 hours), respectively. No significant changes were observed in other pharmacokinetic parameters. The results of this study suggest that the onset of drug action after oral lorazepam administration can be altered by sleep disturbance.

  17. Event-related potentials as a measure of sleep disturbance: A tutorial review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews event-related potentials (ERPs the minute responses of the human brain that are elicited by external auditory stimuli and how the ERPs can be used to measure sleep disturbance. ERPs consist of a series of negative- and positive-going components. A negative component peaking at about 100 ms, N1, is thought to reflect the outcome of a transient detector system, activated by change in the transient energy in an acoustic stimulus. Its output and thus the amplitude of N1 increases as the intensity level of the stimulus is increased and when the rate of presentation is slowed. When the output reaches a certain critical level, operations of the central executive are interrupted and attention is switched to the auditory channel. This switching of attention is thought to be indexed by a later positivity, P3a, peaking between 250 and 300 ms. In order to sleep, consciousness for all but the most relevant of stimuli must be prevented. Thus, during sleep onset and definitive non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, the amplitude of N1 diminishes to near-baseline level. The amplitude of P2, peaking from 180 to 200 ms, is however larger in NREM sleep than in wakefulness. P2 is thought to reflect an inhibitory process protecting sleep from irrelevant disturbance. As stimulus input becomes increasingly obtrusive, the amplitude of P2 also increases. With increasing obtrusiveness particularly when stimuli are presented slowly, a later large negativity, peaking at about 350 ms, N350, becomes apparent. N350 is unique to sleep, its amplitude also increasing as the stimulus becomes more obtrusive. Many authors postulate that when the N350 reaches a critical amplitude, a very large amplitude N550, a component of the K-Complex is elicited. The K-Complex can only be elicited during NREM sleep. The P2, N350 and N550 processes are thus conceived as sleep protective mechanisms, activated sequentially as the risk for disturbance increases. During REM sleep

  18. Sleep disturbances in allergic rhinitis: disease and/or the drug?

    OpenAIRE

    Anant D. Patil

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in adults as well as children. Allergic rhinitis has negative impact on sleep and quality of life of the patient. Antihistamines are widely used in the management of allergic rhinitis. First generation antihistamines cause sedation and drowsiness. Second generation antihistamines cause minimal or no sedation. There is difference in propensity to cause sedation amongst second generation antihistamines. As sleep is important for physical as well as ...

  19. Violence exposure, sleep disturbance, and poor academic performance in middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy

    2013-11-01

    Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth.

  20. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity.

  1. Sleep disturbances in allergic rhinitis: disease and/or the drug?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D. Patil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in adults as well as children. Allergic rhinitis has negative impact on sleep and quality of life of the patient. Antihistamines are widely used in the management of allergic rhinitis. First generation antihistamines cause sedation and drowsiness. Second generation antihistamines cause minimal or no sedation. There is difference in propensity to cause sedation amongst second generation antihistamines. As sleep is important for physical as well as mental health, present article reviews impact of allergic rhinitis and antihistamines on sleep. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 668-670

  2. Melatonergic drugs for therapeutic use in insomnia and sleep disturbances of mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Venkatramanujam; Zakaria, Rahimah; Othaman, Zahiruddin; Brzezinski, Amnon; Prasad, Atul; Brown, Gregory M

    2012-03-01

    Insomnia is common among elderly people and nearly 30 to 40% of the adult population also suffer from insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia include the use of benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine drugs like zolpidem, zaleplon, Zopiclone. Although these drugs improve sleep, their usage is also associated with number of adverse effects, Melatonin, the hormone secreted by the pineal gland of all animals and human beings has been used for treatment of insomnias, since the timing of its secretion in humans as well as in most of the animals coincides with the increase of nocturnal sleep propensity. Because of its short half life, melatonin slow release preparations were introduced for treatment of insomnia. Recently ramelteon, a selective MT1, MT2 receptor agonist with greater efficacy of action in treating insomnia has been used clinically and has been found effective in improving sleep quality, sleep efficacy and also in reducing the sleep onset time when compared to melatonin or slow melatonin preparations. The mechanism of action of ramelteon in improving sleep is discussed in the paper. Another melatonergic drug agomelatine besides acting on MT1/MT2 receptors also displays 5-HT2c antagonism and this drug has been found effective as a novel antidepressant for treating major depressive disorders. Agomelatine besides causing remission of depressive symptoms also improves sleep quality and efficiency. Other antidepressants depressants that are in clinical use today do not improve sleep. There are other melatonergic drugs like tasimelteon, 6-chloromelatonin. But ramelteon and agomelatine deserve special attention for treatment of insomnia and sleep disturbances associated with depressive disorders and have promising role for treatment of sleep disorders.

  3. Exploration of Differences in Types of Sleep Disturbance and Severity of Sleep Problems between Individuals with Cri du Chat Syndrome, Down's Syndrome, and Jacobsen Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) seems to vary between genetic syndromes associated with ID. Different types of sleep disturbances may indicate underlying causes of sleep problems and these types of sleep disturbances may vary between different genetic syndromes. We examined and compared five types…

  4. Sleep disorders and its related risk factors in patients undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Han; Li Xiaobei; Feng Sujuan; Zhang Guizhi; Wang Wei; Wang Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of sleep disorders has been shown to be high in patients with chronic dialysis patients and may contribute to impaired quality of life and higher mortality in this population.However,there are few data on the relationship of sleep disorders and their risk factors in chronic dialysis patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of sleep disorders and their risk factors in chronic dialysis patients.Methods A total of 42 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were involved in this cross-sectional study.Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).Restless legs syndrome (RLS) was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group.And depression was assessed by Hamilton depression scale.General information and laboratory data were collected.Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 47.6% in the CAPD patients.According to the PSQI,the 42 CAPD patients were divided into sleep disturbance group and non-sleep disorders group.There were no significant differences in age,gender,dialysis duration,hemoglobin,serum creatinine,urea nitrogen,β2-microglobulin,parathyroid hormone,calcium,and phosphorus between CAPD patients with sleep disorders and those without sleep disorders.But the level of serum albumin (AIb) in CAPD patients with sleep disorders was significantly lower than that in CAPD patients without sleep disorders (31.3±1.4 vs.34.3±3.7,t=3.603,P=0.001).And the prevalence of RLS and depression was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without sleep disorders (RLS:11/22 vs.1/20,x2=10.395,P=0.001; depression:7/22 vs.1/20,x2=4.886,P=0.027).In CAPD patients with RLS,the prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without RLS (11/22 vs.11/30,x2=10.395,P=0.001).And in CAPD patients with depression,the prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without

  5. Mechanism of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis and the Role of the Circadian Rhythm and Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sen Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance is common in children with atopic dermatitis (AD. It is a major factor leading to impaired quality of life in these patients and could have negative effects on neurocognitive function and behavior. However, the pathophysiology of sleep disturbance in children with AD is poorly understood, and there is no consensus on how to manage sleep problems in these patients. Pruritus and scratching could lead to sleep disruption but is unlikely the sole etiology. The circadian rhythm of cytokines, the immune system, and skin physiology such as transcutaneous water loss and skin blood flow might also play a role. Recent studies have suggested that melatonin could also be involved due to its multiple effects on sleep, immunomodulation, and anti-oxidant ability. Environmental factors should also be considered. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the pathophysiology of sleep disturbance in children with AD, and discuss possible therapeutic implications.

  6. Mechanism of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis and the Role of the Circadian Rhythm and Melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Sen; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-03-29

    Sleep disturbance is common in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). It is a major factor leading to impaired quality of life in these patients and could have negative effects on neurocognitive function and behavior. However, the pathophysiology of sleep disturbance in children with AD is poorly understood, and there is no consensus on how to manage sleep problems in these patients. Pruritus and scratching could lead to sleep disruption but is unlikely the sole etiology. The circadian rhythm of cytokines, the immune system, and skin physiology such as transcutaneous water loss and skin blood flow might also play a role. Recent studies have suggested that melatonin could also be involved due to its multiple effects on sleep, immunomodulation, and anti-oxidant ability. Environmental factors should also be considered. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the pathophysiology of sleep disturbance in children with AD, and discuss possible therapeutic implications.

  7. REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep disturbances in Disney animated films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Schenck, Carlos H; Fonte, Jorge

    2007-08-01

    During a viewing of Disney's animated film Cinderella (1950), one author (AI) noticed a dog having nightmares with dream-enactment that strongly resembled RBD. This prompted a study in which all Disney classic full-length animated films and shorts were analyzed for other examples of RBD. Three additional dogs were found with presumed RBD in the classic films Lady and the Tramp (1955) and The Fox and the Hound (1981), and in the short Pluto's Judgment Day (1935). These dogs were elderly males who would pant, whine, snuffle, howl, laugh, paddle, kick, and propel themselves while dreaming that they were chasing someone or running away. In Lady and the Tramp the dog was also losing both his sense of smell and his memory, two associated features of human RBD. These four films were released before RBD was first formally described in humans and dogs. In addition, systematic viewing of the Disney films identified a broad range of sleep disorders, including nightmares, sleepwalking, sleep related seizures, disruptive snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorder. These sleep disorders were inserted as comic elements. The inclusion of a broad range of accurately depicted sleep disorders in these films indicates that the Disney screenwriters were astute observers of sleep and its disorders.

  8. Sleep disturbances in adults with eczema are associated with impaired overall health: a US population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Garg, Nitin K; Paller, Amy S; Fishbein, Anna B; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with poor health outcomes in adults. However, little is known about the sleep disturbances that occur in adult eczema. We studied the association between adult eczema and sleep disturbance and their impact on overall health and health care utilization. We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional questionnaire of 34,613 adults. Eczema was associated with higher odds of fatigue (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.97 (2.65-3.34)), regular daytime sleepiness (2.66 (2.34-3.01)), and regular insomnia (2.36 (2.11-2.64)), even after controlling for sleep duration, history of allergic disease, sociodemographics, and body mass index. There were significant interactions between eczema and fatigue, sleepiness, and insomnia as predictors of poorer overall health status, number of sick days, and doctor visits, such that eczema and each of the sleep symptoms were associated with higher odds of poorer outcomes than either eczema or sleep symptoms alone. Latent class analysis was used and identified five classes of fatigue, sleep disturbances, and allergic disorders. Two classes had high probabilities of eczema: one with high probabilities of asthma, hay fever, food allergy, and multiple sleep symptoms and the other with intermediate probability of insomnia alone. Future studies are warranted to better characterize sleep loss in eczema and develop strategies for treatment and prevention.

  9. Cooccurrence and bidirectional prediction of sleep disturbances and depression in older adults: Meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan-Ping; Han, Ying; Ma, Jun; Wang, Ru-Jia; Shi, Le; Wang, Tong-Yu; He, Jia; Yue, Jing-Li; Shi, Jie; Tang, Xiang-Dong; Lu, Lin

    2017-02-06

    The present study pooled the prevalence of sleep disturbances and depression in community-dwelling older adults (mean age≥60years) and quantified the strength of evidence of the relationship between these two problems. From 23 cross-sectional studies and five sets of baseline data, a high pooled prevalence of sleep disturbances (30.5%), depressive symptoms (18.1%) and coexisting disorders (10.6%) were found. In the 23 cohort studies, self-reported sleep disturbances increased the risk of the onset of depression (relative risk [RR]=1.92). Persistent sleep disturbances increased the risk of the development (RR=3.90), recurrence (RR=7.70), and worsening (RR=1.46) of depression in older adults. Little support was found for a predictive role for objective sleep characteristics in the development of depression. Older adults with depression had a higher risk of developing (RR=1.72) and worsening (RR=1.73) symptoms of sleep disturbances. This review emphasizes the importance of timely interventions in incipient sleep disturbances and depression among older adults, preventing the development of more serious comorbidities.

  10. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A Lucassen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. OBJECTIVE: To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. PATIENTS: A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (<6.5 h/night obese (BMI 30-55 kg/m(2 men and pre-menopausal women. INTERVENTION: Sleep extension (468±88 days with life-style modifications. MEASUREMENTS: Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration. RESULTS: At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39. Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02, and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001. Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74, subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (p<0.001, self-reported sleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (p<0.001 and by 4% by diaries (p = 0.04, and daytime sleepiness tended to improve (p = 0.10. Global cognitive function and attention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p = 0.001, and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p = 0.07 and p = 0.06. Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p = 0.02. In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function. LIMITATIONS: Drop-out rate. CONCLUSIONS: Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way

  11. Qigong exercise alleviates fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, improves sleep quality, and shortens sleep latency in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessie S M; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Ng, Siu-Man; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P = 0.064) group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the "subjective sleep quality" and "sleep latency" items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in "subjective sleep quality" was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.

  12. Qigong Exercise Alleviates Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, Improves Sleep Quality, and Shortens Sleep Latency in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie S. M. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9 were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P= 0.064 group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the “subjective sleep quality” and “sleep latency” items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in “subjective sleep quality” was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.

  13. [A literature review on epidemiologic research on sleep disturbances in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuriko

    2015-06-01

    One of the issues facing our super-aging society of Japan is to secure the elderly's safety and health. According to the latest 10-year statistics of the National Police Agency, the number of elderly driving deaths 75 years of age and over has risen 1.3 times from 2003 to 2013, whereas driving deaths decreased by less than half among the people under age 75 during the same period of time. This paper reviews the current literature on epidemiologic studies investigating the associations of sleep disturbances with adverse driving events and driving practice among elderly drivers. The results suggest a cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia as a promising method for improving their driving capacity. Key words: elderly driving, epidemiology, sleep disturbances

  14. Prazosin treatment of trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in soldiers deployed in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calohan, Jess; Peterson, Kris; Peskind, Elaine R; Raskind, Murray A

    2010-10-01

    Trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance impair combat soldiers' functioning. The alpha-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin has been demonstrated effective for these symptoms in Vietnam veterans. Thirteen soldiers seeking relief from distressing trauma nightmares impairing military function in northern Iraq in 2006 received prazosin alone or in combination with other psychotropics. Mean prazosin dose was 4.1 (SD = 2.2) mg before bed. Six soldiers improved markedly and 3 moderately on the Clinical Global Impression of Change Ratings of distressing dreams decreased from an average of 7.0 (SD = 0.7) to 2.9 (SD = 3.0, p < .001) and those of disturbed sleep from 6.7 (SD = 0.9) to 3.7 (SD = 2.4, p < .001). Prazosin appears effective and well tolerated in the desert warfare environment.

  15. Melatonin treatment and light therapy for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children : Effects on sleep, cognition, health, and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin treatment is known to be an effective treatment for chronic sleep onset problems in children, as it can advance the sleep-wake rhythm and improve sleep. However, it is currently not known how long melatonin treatment should be continued, while especially in young children, short term treat

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome.

  17. Does sleep disturbance predict depression in elderly people? A study in inner London.

    OpenAIRE

    Livingston, G.; Blizard, B; Mann, A

    1993-01-01

    Insomnia in elderly people has traditionally been regarded as inevitable and trivial. A longitudinal study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbance among elderly people in an inner London community and its association with demographic variables, depression, dementia and disability. Those aged 65 years and over living at home were interviewed using a validated and reliable semi-structured interview schedule. A total of 705 people were interviewed in 1987-88 and 524 were re...

  18. Relationships of sleep duration with sociodemographic and health-related factors, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances in a community sample of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Chang, Sung Man; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Chung, In-Won; Ahn, Joon Ho; Lee, Hae Woo; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine relationships of sleep duration with sociodemographic and health-related factors, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances in a nationwide sample in Korea. A total of 6510 subjects aged 18-64 years participated in this study. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the covariates, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances across the following sleep duration categories: 5 h or less, 6, 7, 8 and 9 h or more per day. Low levels of education, unemployment and physical illness were associated with sleeping for 5 h or less and 9 h or more. Being older and widowed/divorced/separated, high levels of physical activity, pain/discomfort, obesity and high scores on the General Health Questionnaires were associated with sleeping for 5 h or less. Female, being younger and underweight were associated with sleeping for 9 h or more. Alcohol dependence, anxiety disorder and social phobia were associated significantly with sleeping for 5 h or less and 9 h or more. Other psychiatric disorders were more common in subjects who slept for 5 h or less (e.g. alcohol use disorder, mood disorder, major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and specific phobia) or 9 h or more (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder). In addition, subjects who slept for 5 h or less reported more sleep disturbances than did subjects who slept for 7 h. Short or long sleep is associated with psychiatric disorders and/or sleep disturbance, therefore attention to the mental health of short or long sleepers is needed.

  19. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H.;

    2016-01-01

    . Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children......-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.......2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations....

  20. Aberrant brain-stem morphometry associated with sleep disturbance in drug-naïve subjects with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ji Han Lee,1 Won Sang Jung,2 Woo Hee Choi,3 Hyun Kook Lim4 1Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, Saint Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea Objective: Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD.Materials and methods: In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale. We employed magnetic resonance imaging-based automated segmentation tools to examine the relationship between sleep disturbances and changes in brain stem morphology.Results: Analyses of the data from AD subjects revealed significant correlations between the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep-subscale scores and structural alterations in the left posterior lateral region of the brain stem, as well as normalized brain stem volumes. In addition, significant group differences in posterior brain stem morphology were observed between the AD group and the control group.Conclusion: This study is the first to analyze an association between sleep disturbances and brain stem morphology in AD. In line with previous findings, this study lends support to the possibility that brain stem structural abnormalities might be important neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances associated with AD. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, sleep, brain stem, MRI, shape analysis

  1. DISTURBANCES OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS IN A RAT CHRONIC MILD STRESS MODEL OF DEPRESSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Wiborg, Ove; Bouzinova, Elena

    Aim: The focus of this project is to identify biomarkers related to circadian disturbances in major depressive disorder. Background: A large body of clinical data from depressed individuals showed that sleep, temperature, hormones, physiological states and moodchanges are consistent...... validated animal model of depression, the chronic mild stress model (CMS). Depression-like and control rats were killed by decapitation within 24 h. Trunk blood, brain and liver tissue were collected. The quantitative amount of plasma corticosterone and melatonin were measured using an ELISA and RIA kit...... that depression-like animals showed an abnormal circadian rhythm in the liver and in subregions of the rat brains related to depression. However, the SCN was partly protected against stress. We found an increased level of corticosteron and melatonin, in the depression-like animals as well as a shifted circadian...

  2. PER3 polymorphism predicts cumulative sleep homeostatic but not neurobehavioral changes to chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namni Goel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism 5-repeat allele of the circadian gene PERIOD3 (PER3(5/5 has been associated with cognitive decline at a specific circadian phase in response to a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD, relative to the 4-repeat allele (PER3(4/4. PER3(5/5 has also been related to higher sleep homeostasis, which is thought to underlie this cognitive vulnerability. To date, no study has used a candidate gene approach to investigate the response to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a condition distinct from TSD and one commonly experienced by millions of people on a daily and persistent basis. We evaluated whether the PER3 VNTR polymorphism contributed to cumulative neurobehavioral deficits and sleep homeostatic responses during PSD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PER3(5/5 (n = 14, PER3(4/5 (n = 63 and PER3(4/4 (n = 52 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y demonstrated large, but equivalent cumulative decreases in cognitive performance and physiological alertness, and cumulative increases in sleepiness across 5 nights of sleep restricted to 4 h per night. Such effects were accompanied by increasing daily inter-subject variability in all groups. The PER3 genotypes did not differ significantly at baseline in habitual sleep, physiological sleep structure, circadian phase, physiological sleepiness, cognitive performance, or subjective sleepiness, although during PSD, PER3(5/5 subjects had slightly but reliably elevated sleep homeostatic pressure as measured physiologically by EEG slow-wave energy in non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with PER3(4/4 subjects. PER3 genotypic and allelic frequencies did not differ significantly between Caucasians and African Americans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The PER3 VNTR polymorphism was not associated with individual differences in neurobehavioral responses to PSD, although it was related to one marker of sleep homoeostatic response during PSD. The comparability of PER3

  3. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  4. Dim light at night disturbs the daily sleep-wake cycle in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Stenvers, Dirk; van Dorp, Rick; Foppen, Ewout; Mendoza, Jorge; Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.; Meijer, Johanna H.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Deboer, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed male Wistar rats to either a 12 h light (150–200lux):12 h dark (LD) schedule or a 12 h light (150–200 lux):12 h dim white light (5 lux) (LDim) schedule. LDim acutely decreased the amplitude of daily rhythms of REM and NREM sleep, with a further decrease over the following days. LDim diminished the rhythms of 1) the circadian 16–19 Hz frequency domain within the NREM sleep EEG, and 2) SCN clock gene expression. LDim also induced internal desynchronization in locomotor activity by introducing a free running rhythm with a period of ~25 h next to the entrained 24 h rhythm. LDim did not affect body weight or glucose tolerance. In conclusion, we introduce the first rodent model for disturbed circadian control of sleep due to LAN. We show that internal desynchronization is possible in a 24 h L:D cycle which suggests that a similar desynchronization may explain the association between LAN and human insomnia. PMID:27762290

  5. Interleukin-1β Promoter Polymorphism Enhances the Risk of Sleep Disturbance in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Yin

    Full Text Available Sleep alleviates Alzheimer's disease (AD-related neuropathological processes, whereas sleep disturbance in AD patients is associated with elevated peripheral inflammatory cytokine levels. In the present study, we assessed interleukin (IL-1β and APOEε4 polymorphisms for association with susceptibility of sleep disturbances in AD patients. A total of 123 pretreated AD patients and 120 age-, gender- and education level-matched healthy controls were recruited for two consecutive full-night polysomnography and measurement of Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS scores for sleep-wake disturbance. Their genomic DNA was analyzed for IL-1β and APOEε4 SNPs using ligase detection reaction (LDR technology. Blood levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α were measured using ELISA after lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for genotype-specific risk were calculated using an unconditional logistic regression model and adjusted by age, gender, educational levels, body mass index (BMI, and activities of daily living (ADL. Compared to the non-APOEε4/ε4 genotype, APOEε4/ε4 significantly increased the risk of AD (APOEε4/ε4 vs. non-APOEε4/ε4, adjusted OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.33-14.10, p = 0.015. Compared to the IL-1β CC genotype (-31, the TT genotype significantly increased the risk of AD (TT vs. CC, adjusted OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.13-2.61, p = 0.010. AD patients carrying the APOEε4 allele and the IL-1β TT genotype showed less time in bed, longer sleep latency and REM latency, more awakenings, and a lower SWS percentage than those carrying CC/CT combined genotypes. In addition, blood IL-1β levels were significantly greater in AD patients carrying both the APOEε4 allele and the IL-1β-31TT genotype than in those carrying the APOEε4 allele and the -31 TC or CC genotype. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence indicating that the IL-1β-31TT genotype and homozygous APOEε4 combined

  6. Evidence of associations between cytokine genes and subjective reports of sleep disturbance in oncology patients and their family caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Miaskowski

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify distinct latent classes of individuals based on subjective reports of sleep disturbance; to examine differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics between the latent classes; and to evaluate for variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes between the latent classes. Among 167 oncology outpatients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their FCs, growth mixture modeling (GMM was used to identify latent classes of individuals based on General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS obtained prior to, during, and for four months following completion of radiation therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes in candidate cytokine genes were interrogated for differences between the two latent classes. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics on GSDS group membership. Two latent classes were identified: lower sleep disturbance (88.5% and higher sleep disturbance (11.5%. Participants who were younger and had a lower Karnofsky Performance status score were more likely to be in the higher sleep disturbance class. Variation in two cytokine genes (i.e., IL6, NFKB predicted latent class membership. Evidence was found for latent classes with distinct sleep disturbance trajectories. Unique genetic markers in cytokine genes may partially explain the interindividual heterogeneity characterizing these trajectories.

  7. Tempol prevents chronic sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Albawaana, Amal S; Alhashimi, Farah H; Athamneh, Rabaa Y

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. Tempol is a nitroxide compound that promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. The current study investigated whether chronic administration of tempol can overcome oxidative stress and prevent learning and memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using multiple platform model. Tempol was administered to rats via oral gavages. Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze. The hippocampus was dissected; antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio, GPx, SOD, and catalase) were assessed. The result of this project revealed that chronic sleep deprivation impaired both short and long term memory (Psleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD (Psleep deprived rats treated with tempol as compared with only sleep deprived rats (Psleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with tempol prevented this impairment probably through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus.

  8. Menstrual disturbances and fertility in chronic alcoholic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Tønnesen, H; Kaas-Claesson, N;

    1989-01-01

    Data on menstrual pattern, gynecological disorders and infertility were obtained from 51 chronic alcoholic women aged 20--42 years attending an outpatient clinic for alcoholics, using 51 randomly drawn age-matched healthy women as controls. A higher variability (P less than 0.05) in the duration ...... conception. Social classification had no independent influence on the results. The study shows that chronic alcoholic women are more prone to menstrual abnormalities and are at greater risk of gynecological interventions, while they do not seem to have reduced fertility.......Data on menstrual pattern, gynecological disorders and infertility were obtained from 51 chronic alcoholic women aged 20--42 years attending an outpatient clinic for alcoholics, using 51 randomly drawn age-matched healthy women as controls. A higher variability (P less than 0.05) in the duration...... of both menstrual cycle and menstrual flow was recorded in the chronic alcoholic women during active alcoholism. A higher frequency (P less than 0.05) of menstrual disturbances (70% vs. 55%) and uterine curettages (38% vs. 16%) were found in the alcoholic women. The latter reported more abortions (63% vs...

  9. [Sleep disorders and their treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsboer-Trachsler, E

    1995-04-11

    Disturbed or inadequate sleep is a frequent complaint, often with a chronic course, requiring adequate treatment. To choose an appropriate therapy it is necessary to develop a useful, reliable valid and specific diagnostic procedure. Primary care physicians can recognize and treat most sleep disorders. For special diagnostic cases sleep centers are recommended. Sleep disorders may be managed by adequate pharmacological as well as nonpharmacological treatments. Besides specific pharmacological interventions, education in sleep/wake hygiene and several psychotherapeutic strategies may be valuable.

  10. Nationwide inpatient rates, predictors and outcomes of selected sleep disturbances among older adults in the United States, 2002-2012

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    Alyssa A Gamaldo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: We examined the rates, predictors, and outcomes (mortality risk (MR, length of stay (LOS and total charges (TC of sleep disturbances in older hospitalized patients.PATIENTS/METHODS: Using the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2002-2012, older patients (≥60y were selected and rates of insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and other sleep disturbances (OSD were estimated using ICD-9CM. TC, adjusted for inflation, was of primary interest, while MR and LOS were secondary outcomes. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted.RESULTS: Of 35,258,031 older adults, 263,865 (0.75% had insomnia, 750,851 (2.13% OSA and 21,814 (0.06% OSD. Insomnia rates increased significantly (0.27% in 2002 to 1.29 in 2012, P-trend<0.001, with a similar trend observed for OSA (1.47 in 2006 to 5.01 in 2012, P-trend<0.001. TC (2012 for insomnia-related hospital admission increased over time from 22,250 in 2002 to 31,527 in 2012, and increased similarly for OSA and OSD; while LOS and MR both decreased. Women with any sleep disturbance had lower MR and TC than men, while Whites had consistently higher odds of insomnia, OSA, and OSD than older Blacks and Hispanics. Co-morbidities such as depression, cardiovascular risk factors, and neurological disorders steadily increased over time in patients with sleep disturbances. CONCLUSION: TC increased over time in patients with sleep disturbances while LOS and MR decreased. Further research should focus on identifying the mechanisms that explain the association between increasing sleep disturbance rates and expenditures within hospital settings and the potential hospital expenditures of unrecognized sleep disturbances in the elderly.

  11. EFFECT OF MYOFASCIAL RELEASE THERAPY ON PAIN RELATED DISABILITY, QUALITY OF SLEEP AND DEPRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. B.Arun, MPT, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain was experienced by 50% of older adults that has threatened to quality of life. The economic cost of low back pain is more in older adults. Various literatures found that there is strong relationships exist between the low back pain and the psychosocial factors like sleep disturbances, depression, mood sway and chronic illness. Studies has found that depression is one of the commonest psychological problem faced by older adults which relates to other factors like pain, sleep dist...

  12. Impact of self-reported symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma on sleep disordered breathing and sleep disturbances in the elderly with polysomnography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Hoon; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Moon, Sung-Do; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Ki-Woong; Yoon, In-Young

    2017-01-01

    Background Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep disturbances have been reported to be associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma. However, population-based studies of this issue in the elderly are rare. Objective To investigate the impact of self-reported rhinitis and asthma on sleep apnea and sleep quality using polysomnography in an elderly Korean population. Methods A total of 348 elderly subjects who underwent one-night polysomnography study among a randomly selected sample were enrolled. Study subjects underwent anthropometric and clinical evaluations. Simultaneously, the prevalence and co-morbid status of asthma and allergic rhinitis, and subjective sleep quality were evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire. Results Ever-diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was significantly more prevalent in subjects with SDB compared with those without SDB. Subjects with an ever-diagnosis of allergic rhinitis showed a higher O2 desaturation index and mean apnea duration. Indices regarding sleep efficiency were affected in subjects with a recent treatment of allergic rhinitis or asthma. Waking after sleep onset was longer and sleep efficiency was lower in subjects who had received allergic rhinitis treatment within the past 12 months. Subjects who had received asthma treatment within the past 12 months showed significantly lower sleep efficiency than others. Conclusion Our study indicates that a history of allergic rhinitis is associated with increased risk of SDB in the elderly. Sleep disturbance and impaired sleep efficiency were found in the subjects who had received recent treatment of allergic rhinitis or asthma. Physicians should be aware of the high risk of sleep disorders in older patients with respiratory allergic diseases. PMID:28245272

  13. L-theanine partially counteracts caffeine-induced sleep disturbances in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwan-Soo; Jung, Ji Young; Jang, Il-Sung; Jang, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Maan-Gee

    2012-04-01

    L-theanine has been reported to inhibit the excitatory effects of caffeine. The present study examined the effects of L-theanine on caffeine-induced sleep disturbances in rats. Rats received the following drug pairings: saline and saline (Control), 7.5 mg/kg caffeine and saline, or 7.5 mg/kg of caffeine followed by various doses of L-theanine (22.5, 37.5, 75, or 150 mg/kg). Vigilance states were divided into: wakefulness (W), transition to slow-wave sleep (tSWS), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). Caffeine significantly increased the duration of W and decreased the duration of SWS and REMS compared to the Control. Although L-theanine failed to reverse the caffeine-induced W increase, at 22.5 and 37.5 mg/kg (but not at 75 and 150 mg/kg), it significantly reversed caffeine-induced decreases in SWS. In conclusion, low doses of L-theanine can partially reverse caffeine-induced reductions in SWS; however, effects of L-theanine on caffeine-induced insomnia do not appear to increase dose-dependently.

  14. Fatigue, Depression and Sleep Disturbances in Iranian Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Rouzbeh Fateh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS and it is difficult to clarify the nature of this symptom and manage it. This study was aimed to evaluate the frequency of fatigue, depression and sleep disturbances in Iranian patients with MS. 100 patients from the outpatient MS clinic of Sina hospital were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Sleep Disorder Questionnaire (SDQ, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS questionnaires. Student's t-test, ANOVA, Spearman correlation and Stepwise multiple linear regressions by SPSS version 15.0 were used for data analysis. From participants, 64 had fatigue complaint during day time and 36 did not feel fatigued. BDI, PSQI, MFIS and SDQ scores were significantly higher in fatigued patients than non-fatigued group but there were no statistically significant differences in ESS, EDSS and duration of disease between fatigued and non-fatigued cases. There were significant correlations between MFIS and BDI scores (r=0.49, P=0.01, MFIS and PSQI scores (r=0.399, P=0.01 and MFIS and ESS (r=0.25, P=0.01. This study demonstrates that depression is not the only cause of fatigue in patients with MS and it is also associated with sleep disorders, so this complaint should be carefully evaluated and managed in these patients.

  15. Fatigue, depression and sleep disturbances in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Rouzbeh; Daneshmand, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and it is difficult to clarify the nature of this symptom and manage it. This study was aimed to evaluate the frequency of fatigue, depression and sleep disturbances in Iranian patients with MS. 100 patients from the outpatient MS clinic of Sina hospital were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Sleep Disorder Questionnaire (SDQ), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaires. Student's t-test, ANOVA, Spearman correlation and Stepwise multiple linear regressions by SPSS version 15.0 were used for data analysis. From participants, 64 had fatigue complaint during day time and 36 did not feel fatigued. BDI, PSQI, MFIS and SDQ scores were significantly higher in fatigued patients than non-fatigued group but there were no statistically significant differences in ESS, EDSS and duration of disease between fatigued and non-fatigued cases. There were significant correlations between MFIS and BDI scores (r=0.49, P=0.01), MFIS and PSQI scores (r=0.399, P=0.01) and MFIS and ESS (r=0.25, P=0.01). This study demonstrates that depression is not the only cause of fatigue in patients with MS and it is also associated with sleep disorders, so this complaint should be carefully evaluated and managed in these patients.

  16. Effects of the 5-HT(1A) Receptor Agonist Tandospirone on ACTH-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ryuki; Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Sendo, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Kamei, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor agonist tandospirone versus that of the benzodiazepine hypnotic flunitrazepam in a rat model of long-term adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced sleep disturbance. Rats implanted with electrodes for recording electroencephalogram and electromyogram were injected with ACTH once daily at a dose of 100 µg/rat. Administration of ACTH for 10 d caused a significant increase in sleep latency, decrease in non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep time, and increase in wake time. Tandospirone caused a significant decrease in sleep latency and increase in non-REM sleep time in rats treated with ACTH. The effect of tandospirone on sleep patterns was antagonized by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635. In contrast, flunitrazepam had no significant effect on sleep parameters in ACTH-treated rats. These results clearly indicate that long-term administration of ACTH causes sleep disturbance, and stimulating the 5-HT1A receptor by tandospirone may be efficacious for improving sleep in cases in which benzodiazepine hypnotics are ineffective.

  17. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation.

  18. Nurses experience of aromatherapy use with dementia patients experiencing disturbed sleep patterns. An action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Berit

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an insight into nurses' experiences of incorporating aromatherapy into the care of residents suffering from dementia, anxiety and disturbed sleep patterns. Twenty-four residents and twelve nurses from four nursing homes participated in an action research study. The use of lavender augustofolia essential oil diffused nightly was perceived as an effective care modality reducing insomnia and anxiety in this patient cohort. Nurses experienced some negative attitudes among colleagues because they considered aromatherapy as not evidence based. Nurses require greater access to evidence based use of Aromatherapy. Further research is needed to study how smell can enhance dementia care.

  19. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.

  20. Metabolic Disturbances in Children with Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaeian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Liver disease results in complex pathophysiologic disturbances affecting nutrient digestion, absorption, distribution, storage, and use. This article aimed to present a classification of metabolic disturbances in chronic liver disease in children?   Materials and Methods: In this review study databases including proquest, pubmedcentral, scincedirect, ovid, medlineplus were been searched with keyword words such as” chronic liver disease"  ” metabolic disorder””children” between 1999 to 2014. Finally, 8 related articles have been found.   Results: Metabolic disorder in this population could be categorized in four set: 1carbohydrates, 2proteins,3 fats and 4vitamins. 1 Carbohydrates: Children with CLD are at increased risk for fasting hypoglycemia, because the capacity for glycogen storage and gluconeogenesis is reduced as a result of abnormal hepatocyte function and loss of hepatocyte mass. 2 Proteins: The liver’s capacity for plasma protein synthesis is impaired by reduced substrate availability, impaired hepatocyte function, and increased catabolism. This results in hypoalbuminemia, leading to peripheral edema and contributing to ascites. Reduced synthesis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and its binding protein IGF-BP3 by the chronically diseased liver results in growth hormone resistance and may contribute to the poor growth observed in these children. 3 Fats: There is increased fat oxidation in children with end-stage liver disease in the fed and fasting states compared with controls, which is probably related to reduced carbohydrate availability. The increased lipolysis results in a decrease in fat stores, which may not be easily replenished in the setting of the fat malabsorption that accompanies cholestasis. Reduced bile delivery to the gut results in impaired fat emulsification, and hence digestion. The products of fat digestion are also poorly absorbed, because bile is also required for micelle formation

  1. Sleep disturbances in highly stress reactive mice: Modeling endophenotypes of major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landgraf Rainer

    2011-03-01

    across the light-dark cycle. Conclusions The HR mice, i.e. those animals that have a genetic predisposition to hyper-activating their HPA axis in response to stressors, showed disturbed patterns in sleep architecture, similar to what is known from depressed patients. Significant alterations in several frequency bands of the EEG, which also seem to at least partly mimic clinical observations, suggest the SR mouse lines as a promising animal model for basic research of mechanisms underlying sleep impairments in MD.

  2. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  3. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism associates with individual differences in sleep physiologic responses to chronic sleep loss.

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    Namni Goel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates cortical dopaminergic catabolism, and predicts individual differences in prefrontal executive functioning in healthy adults and schizophrenic patients, and associates with EEG differences during sleep loss. We assessed whether the COMT Val158Met polymorphism was a novel marker in healthy adults of differential vulnerability to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a condition distinct from total sleep loss and one experienced by millions on a daily and persistent basis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 20 Met/Met, 64 Val/Met, and 45 Val/Val subjects participated in a protocol of two baseline 10h time in bed (TIB nights followed by five consecutive 4 h TIB nights. Met/Met subjects showed differentially steeper declines in non-REM EEG slow-wave energy (SWE-the putative homeostatic marker of sleep drive-during PSD, despite comparable baseline SWE declines. Val/Val subjects showed differentially smaller increases in slow-wave sleep and smaller reductions in stage 2 sleep during PSD, and had more stage 1 sleep across nights and a shorter baseline REM sleep latency. The genotypes, however, did not differ in performance across various executive function and cognitive tasks and showed comparable increases in subjective and physiological sleepiness in response to chronic sleep loss. Met/Met genotypic and Met allelic frequencies were higher in whites than African Americans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be a genetic biomarker for predicting individual differences in sleep physiology-but not in cognitive and executive functioning-resulting from sleep loss in a healthy, racially-diverse adult population of men and women. Beyond healthy sleepers, our results may also provide insight for predicting sleep loss responses in patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, since these groups repeatedly experience chronically-curtailed sleep and demonstrate COMT

  4. Influence of sleep disturbances on quality of life of Iranian menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Zohreh; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Ziaee, Amir; Elmizadeh, Khadijeh; Ziaeeha, Masomeh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Subjective sleep disturbances increase during menopause. Some problems commonly encountered during menopause, such as hot flushes and sweating at night, can cause women to have difficulty in sleeping. These complaints can influence quality of life of menopausal women. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on menopausal women attending health centers in Qazvin for periodic assessments. We measured excessive daytime sleepiness by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by the Berlin questionnaire, and insomnia by the insomnia severity index (ISI). We evaluate quality of life by the Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL). Results. A total of 380 menopausal women entered the study. Mean age of participated women was 57.6 ± 6.02. Mean duration of menopause was 6.3 ± 4.6. The frequency of severe and moderate insomnia was 8.4% (32) and 11.8% (45). Severe daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) was present in 27.9% (80) of the participants. Multivariate analytic results show that insomnia and daytime sleepiness have independent negative impact on each domain and total score of MENQOL questionnaire. Conclusion. According to our findings, EDS and insomnia are frequent in menopausal women. Both EDS and insomnia have significant quality of life impairment.

  5. Influence of Sleep Disturbances on Quality of Life of Iranian Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yazdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subjective sleep disturbances increase during menopause. Some problems commonly encountered during menopause, such as hot flushes and sweating at night, can cause women to have difficulty in sleeping. These complaints can influence quality of life of menopausal women. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on menopausal women attending health centers in Qazvin for periodic assessments. We measured excessive daytime sleepiness by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA by the Berlin questionnaire, and insomnia by the insomnia severity index (ISI. We evaluate quality of life by the Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL. Results. A total of 380 menopausal women entered the study. Mean age of participated women was 57.6 ± 6.02. Mean duration of menopause was 6.3 ± 4.6. The frequency of severe and moderate insomnia was 8.4% (32 and 11.8% (45. Severe daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10 was present in 27.9% (80 of the participants. Multivariate analytic results show that insomnia and daytime sleepiness have independent negative impact on each domain and total score of MENQOL questionnaire. Conclusion. According to our findings, EDS and insomnia are frequent in menopausal women. Both EDS and insomnia have significant quality of life impairment.

  6. The role of sleep disturbance in the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kim Steven; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jacob M; Alati, Rosa

    2013-10-01

    We tested if the risk of suicidal ideation in individuals with PTSD symptoms was dependent on comorbid sleep disturbance. Our cross-sectional sample included 2465 participants with complete data from the 21 year follow-up of the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a birth cohort study of young Australians. Using structural equation modelling with indirect pathways we found that 12 month PTSD symptoms did not directly predict suicidal ideation at 21 when adjusting for major depression symptoms, polyvictimization and gender. However, PTSD symptoms had an indirect effect on suicidal ideation via past-month sleep disturbance. Our results suggest that increased suicidal ideation in those with PTSD may result from the fact that PTSD sufferers often exhibit other comorbid psychiatric conditions which are themselves known to predict suicidal behaviours. Sleep disturbance may be targeted in those who experience PTSD to help prevent suicidal ideation.

  7. [Sleep disturbances and spatial memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder: the case of L'Aquila (Central Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Mazza, Monica; Curcio, Giuseppe; Iaria, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luigi; Tempesta, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Altered sleep is a common and central symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In fact, sleep disturbances are included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for PTSD. However, it has been hypothesized that sleep disturbances are crucially involved in the aetiology of PTSD, rather than being solely a symptom arising secondarily from this disorder. Therefore, knowing the long-term effects of a trauma can be essential to establish the need of specific interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental disorders that may persist years after a traumatic experience. In one study we showed, for the first time, that even after a period of two years people exposed to a catastrophic disaster such as the L'Aquila earthquake continue to suffer from a reduced sleep quality. Moreover, we observed that sleep quality scores decreased as a function of the proximity to the epicentre, suggesting that the psychological effects of an earthquake may be pervasive and long-lasting. It has been widely shown that disruption of sleep by acute stress may lead to deterioration in memory processing. In fact, in a recent study we observed alterations in spatial memory in PTSD subjects. Our findings indicated that PTSD is accompanied by an impressive deficit in forming a cognitive map of the environment, as well as in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. The fact that this deterioration was correlated to the subjective sleep disturbances in our PTSD group demonstrates the existence of an intimate relationship between sleep, memory consolidation, and stress.

  8. Low-Dose Atypical Antipsychotic Risperidone Improves the 5-Year Outcome in Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Sleep Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, You; Liu, Yan; Zhuang, Jianhua; Pan, Xiao; Li, Peng; Yang, Yuechang; Li, Yan-Peng; Zhao, Zheng-Qing; Huang, Liu-Qing; Zhao, Zhong-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances (SD) accelerate the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and increase the stress of caregivers. However, the long-term outcome of disturbed nocturnal sleep/wake patterns in AD and on increased stress of spousal caregivers is unclear. This study assessed the 5-year effect of nocturnal SD on the long-term outcome in AD patients. A total of 156 donepezil-treated mild-moderate AD patients (93 AD + SD and 63 AD - SD as a control group) were recruited. The AD + SD patients were formed into 4 subgroups according to the preferences of spousal caregivers for treatment with atypical antipsychotics (0.5-1 mg risperidone, n = 22), non-benzodiazepine hypnotic (5-10 mg zolpidem tartrate, n = 33), melatonin (2.55 mg, n = 9), or no-drug treatment (n = 29). SD were evaluated by polysomnography, sleep scale, and cognitive scale examinations. Moreover, all spousal caregivers of AD patients were assessed using a series of scales, including sleep, anxiety, mood, and treatment attitude scales. Our data showed that nocturnal sleep/wake disturbances were significantly associated with lower 5-year outcomes for AD patients, earlier nursing home placement, and more negative emotions of spousal caregivers. Treatment with low-dose atypical antipsychotic risperidone improved the 5-year outcome in AD + SD patients. In conclusion, low-dose atypical antipsychotic risperidone improves the 5-year outcome in AD patients with SD. Moreover, improvement of nocturnal sleep problems in AD patients will also bring better emotional stability for AD caregivers.

  9. A Neurophysiological Approach for Evaluating Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbance: Calculating the Time Constant of the Dynamic Characteristics in the Brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagusari, Junta; Matsui, Toshihito

    2016-03-25

    Chronic sleep disturbance induced by traffic noise is considered to cause environmental sleep disorder, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes and other stress-related diseases. However, noise indices for the evaluation of sleep disturbance are not based on the neurophysiological process of awakening regulated by the brainstem. In this study, through the neurophysiological approach, we attempted (1) to investigate the thresholds of awakening due to external stimuli in the brainstem; (2) to evaluate the dynamic characteristics in the brainstem and (3) to verify the validity of existing noise indices. Using the mathematical Phillips-Robinson model, we obtained thresholds of awakening in the brainstem for different durations of external stimuli. The analysis revealed that the brainstem seemed insensitive to short stimuli and that the response to external stimuli in the brainstem could be approximated by a first-order lag system with a time constant of 10-100 s. These results suggest that the brainstem did not integrate sound energy as external stimuli, but neuroelectrical signals from auditory nerve. To understand the awakening risk accumulated in the brainstem, we introduced a new concept of "awakening potential" instead of sound energy.

  10. Temporal dissociation between myeloperoxidase (MPO-modified LDL and MPO elevations during chronic sleep restriction and recovery in healthy young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Many studies have evaluated the ways in which sleep disturbances may influence inflammation and the possible links of this effect to cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep restriction and recovery on several blood cardiovascular biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine healthy male non-smokers, aged 22-29 years, were admitted to the Sleep Laboratory for 11 days and nights under continuous electroencephalogram polysomnography. The study consisted of three baseline nights of 8 hours sleep (from 11 pm to 7 am, five sleep-restricted nights, during which sleep was allowed only between 1 am and 6 am, and three recovery nights of 8 hours sleep (11 pm to 7 am. Myeloperoxidase-modified low-density lipoprotein levels increased during the sleep-restricted period indicating an oxidative stress. A significant increase in the quantity of slow-wave sleep was measured during the first recovery night. After this first recovery night, insulin-like growth factor-1 levels increased and myeloperoxidase concentration peaked. CONCLUSIONS: We observed for the first time that sleep restriction and the recovery process are associated with differential changes in blood biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.

  11. The Stimulation Effect of Auricular Magnetic Press Pellets on Older Female Adults with Sleep Disturbance Undergoing Polysomnographic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyi Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. To examine the stimulation effect of auricular magnetic press pellet therapy on older female adults with sleep disturbance as determined by polysomnography (PSG. Design. Randomized, single-blind, experimental-controlled, parallel-group. Setting. Community. Participants. Twenty-seven older female adults with sleep disturbance according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI >5 for at least 3 months were recruited. Participants were screened by both the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, as well as polysomnography prior to randomization. Interventions. All eligible participants were randomly allocated into the experimental or control group. Both groups were taped with magnetic press pellet on auricular points for 3 weeks. The experimental group was treated by applying pressure on the magnetic press pellets 3 times per day while no stimulation was applied on the control group. Measurements and Results. Both groups were measured by PSG and PSQI at the beginning of the study and 3 weeks after the study. Both groups showed improvements on PSQI scores compared to the baseline. One-way analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline scores showed that significant improvements of PSG-derived sleep parameters, such as sleep efficiency, were found in the experimental group. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the proportion of sleep stages with the exception of Stage 2. Conclusions. Auricular therapy using magnetic pellets and stimulation by pressing was more effective in improving the sleep quality compared to auricular therapy without any stimulation.

  12. The Effects of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Functions of Medical Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Samadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Objective:Because of on-call responsibilities, many medical residents are subjected to chronic partial sleep deprivation, a form of sleep restriction whereby individuals have chronic patterns of insufficient sleep. It is unclear whether deterioration in cognitive processing skills due to chronic partial sleep deprivation among medical residents would influence educational exposure or patient safety. Method: Twenty-six medical residents were recruited to participate in the study. Participants wore an Actigraph over a period of 5 consecutive days and nights so their sleep pattern could be recorded. Thirteen participants worked on services that forced chronic partial sleep deprivation (<6 hours of sleep per 24h for 5 consecutive days and nights. The other thirteen residents worked on services that permitted regular and adequate sleep patterns. Following the 5-day sleep monitoring period, the participants completed the three following cognitive tasks: (a the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST to assess abstract reasoning and prefrontal cortex performance; (b the Time Perception Task (TPT to assess time estimation and time reproduction skills; and (c the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT to assess decision-making ability. "nResults: The results of independent samples t-tests found no significant differences between the group who was chronically sleep deprived and the group who rested adequately (all ps > .05. "nConclusion: These results may have emerged for several possible reasons: (a chronic partial sleep deprivation may have a lesser impact on prefrontal cortex function than on other cognitive functions; (b fairly modest chronic sleep restriction may be less harmful than acute and more significant sleep restriction; or (c our research may have suffered from poor statistical power. Future research is recommended.

  13. Clinical Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Suan Zao Ren Tang, for Sleep Disturbance during Methadone Maintenance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Yu Chan; Yi-Hung Chen; Szu-Nian Yang; Wan-Yu Lo; Jaung-Geng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Methadone maintenance therapy is an effective treatment for opiate dependence, but more than three-quarters of persons receiving the treatment report sleep quality disturbances. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we recruited 90 individuals receiving methadone for at least one month who reported sleep disturbances and had Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores > 5. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Suan Zao Ren Tang, one of the most commonly prescribed ...

  14. Study of sleep disorders and polysomnographic evaluation among primary chronic daily headache patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Studies related to sleep disorders and polysomnography (PSG among chronic daily headache patients are rare. We studied this and compared chronic migraine (CM with chronic tension-type headache. Methods: Eighty-three patients were recruited. They were evaluated by semi-structured interview, headache, and sleep diaries along with Epworth Sleepiness Scale score and insomnia symptom score. Overnight PSG was performed and data compared. Results: Chronic tension-type headache was more common than CM, both having female preponderance. Insomnia followed by excessive daytime sleepiness was prevalent sleep disorder. Sleep efficiency and Stage 3 sleep were lower in CM compared to chronic tension-type. ESSS was significantly increased among chronic tension-type patients. No significant correlation was found among PSG parameters in patients with or without sleep disorders. Conclusion: Insomnia being most common sleep disorder among chronic headache population. Chronic tension-type headache had slightly better slow-wave sleep than CM and significantly increased daytime sleepiness.

  15. Associations of self-reported and objectively measured sleep disturbances with depression among primary caregivers of children with disabilities

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    Orta OR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Olivia R Orta,1 Clarita Barbosa,1 Juan Carlos Velez,2 Bizu Gelaye,1 Xiaoli Chen,1 Lee Stoner,3 Michelle A Williams,1 1Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Worker's Hospital, The Chilean Safety Association, Santiago, Chile; 3School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between sleep and depression using both self-reported (subjective and actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female primary caregivers of children with disabilities receiving care at a rehabilitation center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to ascertain participants' depression status. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to define subjective, or perceived, sleep quality. Wrist-worn actigraph monitors, worn for seven consecutive nights, were used to characterize objective sleep quality and disturbances. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Linear regression models were fit using continuous sleep parameters as the dependent variables and depression status as the independent variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for body mass index, marital status, smoking status, education level, and children's disabilities. Results: Using an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10, 26.3% of participants presented with depression. Depressed women were more likely to self-report overall poorer (subjective sleep compared to non-depressed women; however, differences in sleep were not consistently noted using actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Among the depressed, both sleep duration and total time in bed were significantly underestimated. In multivariable models, depression was negatively associated with sleep duration using both subjective (β=–0

  16. Evaluation of sleep related breathing problems and sleep disturbances among health related employees at Fayoum University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwa Ahmed Elhefny

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the daytime somnolence is common among health care workers followed by nocturnal sleep problems. Urbanization and large scale of industrialization can explain the incidence of sleep problems among rural living.

  17. Associations between self-reported sleep disturbance and environmental noise based on reanalyses of pooled data from 24 studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.; Vos, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study establishes functions that specify self-reported sleep disturbance in relation to the exposure to nighttime transportation noise, by reanalyzing pooled data from previous studies. Results are based on data from 28 original datasets obtained from 24 field studies (4 studies collected data

  18. Annoyance, sleep disturbance, health aspects, perceived risk and residential satisfaction around Schiphol airport: Summary of results of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TNO-PG; RIVM; TNO-PG; CCM; IMA; TNO-PG

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Evaluation and Monitoring Programme for Schiphol airport, a questionnaire on the prevalence of self-rated annoyance, sleep disturbance, perceived general health, respiratory complaints, satisfaction in the study area was sent to a randomly selected sample of 30,000 people living withi

  19. Behavioral parent training to address sleep disturbances in young children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan S.; Foldes, Emily; Brooks, Maria M.; Kronk, Rebecca; Wiggs, Luci

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A large percentage of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have bedtime and sleep disturbances. However, the treatment of these disturbances has been understudied. The purpose of our study was to develop a manualized behavioral parent training (BPT) program for parents of young children with ASD and sleep disturbances and to test the feasibility, fidelity, and initial efficacy of the treatment in a small randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants and methods Parents of a sample of 40 young children diagnosed with ASD with an average age of 3.5 years were enrolled in our study. Participants were randomized to either the BPT program group or a comparison group who were given nonsleep-related parent education. Each was individually administered a 5-session program delivered over the 8-week study. Outcome measures of feasibility, fidelity, and efficacy were collected at weeks 4 and 8 after the baseline time point. Children’s sleep was assessed by parent report and objectively by actigraphy. Results Of the 20 participants in each group, data were available for 15 participants randomized to BPT and 18 participants randomized to the comparison condition. Results supported the feasibility of the manualized parent training program and the comparison program. Treatment fidelity was high for both groups. The BPT program group significantly improved more than the comparison group based on the primary sleep outcome of parent report. There were no objective changes in sleep detected by actigraphy. Conclusions Our study is one of few RCTs of a BPT program to specifically target sleep disturbances in a well-characterized sample of young children with ASD and to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Initial efficacy favored the BPT program over the comparison group and suggested that this manualized parent training approach is worthy of further examination of the efficacy within a larger RCT. PMID:23993773

  20. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  1. Increased Orexin Expression Promotes Sleep/Wake Disturbances in the SOD1-G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Liu; Zhao-Fu Sheng; Bing Cai; Yong-He Zhang; Dong-Sheng Fan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Sleep/wake disturbances in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are well-documented,however,no animal or mechanistic studies on these disturbances exist.Orexin is a crucial neurotransmitter in promoting wakefulness in sleep/wake regulation,and may play an important role in sleep disturbances in ALS.In this study,we used SOD1-G93A transgenic mice as an ALS mouse model to investigate the sleep/wake disturbances and their possible mechanisms in ALS.Methods:Electroencephalogram/electromyogram recordings were performed in SOD1-G93A transgenic mice and their littermate control mice at the ages of 90 and 120 days,and the samples obtained from these groups were subjected to quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction,western blotting,and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results:For the first time in SOD1-G93A transgenic mice,we observed significantly increased wakefulness,reduced sleep time,and up-regulated orexins (prepro-orexin,orexin A and B) at both 90 and 120 days.Correlation analysis confirmed moderate to high correlations between sleep/wake time (total sleep time,wakefulness time,rapid eye movement [REM] sleep time,non-REM sleep time,and deep sleep time) and increase in orexins (prepro-orexin,orexin A and B).Conclusion:Sleep/wake disturbances occur before disease onset in this ALS mouse model.Increased orexins may promote wakefulness and result in these disturbances before and after disease onset,thus making them potential therapeutic targets for amelioration of sleep disturbances in ALS.Further studies are required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in the future.

  2. Sleep disturbances and related factors in the elderly%老年人睡眠障碍与相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小静; 孙桂平; 李艳玲; 谢秀君

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查老年人睡眠障碍与其相关因素.方法 本研究为横断面研究,应用一般资料调查表及睡眠问卷调查某市468位老年人,评估睡眠障碍并分析其影响因素.结果 男性平均睡眠时间长于女性(P<0.05),女性入睡困难频率高于男性(P<0.05).睡眠障碍与退休,高BMI,服用安眠药,无规律就寝,关节炎或关节痛、抑郁及心血管疾病、前列腺增生病史有关,男性主观幸福感低也导致睡眠障碍;与婚姻状况、居住状况、吸烟习惯、IADL受限、高血压和中风等慢性疾病曾经发作无关.结论 老年人睡眠障碍与此年龄段常见的某些不良习惯和精神健康问题有关,针对老年人睡眠障碍,医疗卫生人员应考虑到老年人睡眠障碍对健康的影响及潜在的健康问题.%OBJECTIVE To observe the sleep disturbances and related factors of the elderly. METHODS 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and epidemiological data were collected by a general information questionnaire and The Leeds Sleep Scale to access the sleep disturbances and related factors in the elderly. RESULTS The mean sleep duration was longer in men than that in women (P < 0.05) , and women reported dif culty in falling asleep more frequently than men (P < 0.05). Sleep disturbances were associated with retirement from work, higher body mass index (BMI), the use of sleeping pills, irregular bedtime, arthritis or joint pain, depression, history of cardiovascular disease and prostatic hypertrophy, and lower subjective well-being in men, but not with marital status, residential conditions, smoking habits, limited instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and past episode of such chronic diseases as hypertension and stroke. CONCLUSION Our study suggests a close association of sleep disturbances among elderly with the unhealthy lifestyle and several medical and psychiatric health problems that are usually more prevalent in such an age

  3. Time-of-day modulation of homeostatic and allostatic sleep responses to chronic sleep restriction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurveilher, S; Rusak, B; Semba, K

    2012-06-15

    To study sleep responses to chronic sleep restriction (CSR) and time-of-day influences on these responses, we developed a rat model of CSR that takes into account the polyphasic sleep patterns in rats. Adult male rats underwent cycles of 3 h of sleep deprivation (SD) and 1 h of sleep opportunity (SO) continuously for 4 days, beginning at the onset of the 12-h light phase ("3/1" protocol). Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) recordings were made before, during, and after CSR. During CSR, total sleep time was reduced by ∼60% from baseline levels. Both rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during SO periods increased initially relative to baseline and remained elevated for the rest of the CSR period. In contrast, NREMS EEG delta power (a measure of sleep intensity) increased initially, but then declined gradually, in parallel with increases in high-frequency power in the NREMS EEG. The amplitude of daily rhythms in NREMS and REMS amounts was maintained during SO periods, whereas that of NREMS delta power was reduced. Compensatory responses during the 2-day post-CSR recovery period were either modest or negative and gated by time of day. NREMS, REMS, and EEG delta power lost during CSR were not recovered by the end of the second recovery day. Thus the "3/1" CSR protocol triggered both homeostatic responses (increased sleep amounts and intensity during SOs) and allostatic responses (gradual decline in sleep intensity during SOs and muted or negative post-CSR sleep recovery), and both responses were modulated by time of day.

  4. Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝菁华; 石军; 任万华; 韩国庆; 朱菊人; 王书运; 谢英渤

    2002-01-01

    Objective To document morphological changes in hepatic microcirculation in liver tissue with hepatitis B and the pathogenesis of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances. Methods Liver tissue samples were obtained from patients with hepatitis B by liver biopsy. These samples were examined with a light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances existed in patients with hepatitis B, including those with normal liver function, manifested by red blood cell aggregation in sinusoids seen under light microscope and sinusoidal capillarization seen under electron microscope. Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells were seen in 26 out of 53 cases. Intimate contacts were found between lymphocyte/Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Conclusions Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances exist in patients with hepatitis B .The appearance of Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells may be a key step in the development of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances.

  5. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and…

  6. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and therefore…

  7. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep disturbances in treating posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Chan, Christian S; Tang, Kristen Nga-Sze

    2016-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence that sleep disturbance is not only a secondary symptom but also a risk factor for PTSD. Sleep-specific psychological treatments provide an alternative to conventional trauma-focused psychological treatments. The current meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of sleep-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in mitigating PTSD, sleep, and depressive symptoms. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analytic comparisons between sleep-specific CBT and waiting-list control groups at posttreatment. Random effects models showed significant reduction in self-report PTSD and depressive symptoms and insomnia severity in the sleep-specific CBT group. The corresponding effect sizes, measured in Hedges' g, were 0.58, 0.44, and 1.15, respectively. The effect sizes for sleep diary-derived sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency were 0.83, 1.02 and 1.15, respectively. The average study attrition rate of sleep-specific CBT was relatively low (12.8%), with no significant difference from the control group (9.4%). In conclusion, sleep-specific CBT appears to be efficacious and feasible in treating PTSD symptoms. Due to the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials available, further research is warranted to confirm its efficacy and acceptability, especially in comparison to trauma-specific psychological treatments.

  8. Effect of escitalopram combined with zolpidem on sleep structure, sleep process and neurotransmitter in elderly patients with chronic insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Peng Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of escitalopram combined with zolpidem on sleep structure, sleep process and neurotransmitter in elderly patients with chronic insomnia.Methods:A total of 112 elderly patients with chronic insomnia treated in our hospital were included in the study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=56). Control group received zolpidem therapy alone, observation group received escitalopram combined with zolpidem therapy, and then differences in sleep structure and process, neurotransmitter, stress hormones, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis indexes and so on were compared between two groups of patients.Results: The sleep structure and sleep process parameters SL, RL and S2 levels of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group while TST, S3 and REM levels were significantly higher than those of control group; Orexin, ACTH, 5-HT, NE, CRH, E, AngⅡ, Cor, ALD, DA and TGA content in serum were significantly lower than those of control group while T3, T4, TSH and TRH content were significantly higher than those of control group.Conclusions:Escitalopram combined with zolpidem can optimize the sleep structure and process in elderly patients with chronic insomnia, and also plays a prominent role in regulating the body's homeostasis.

  9. Associations of sleep disturbance and duration with metabolic risk factors in obese persons with type 2 diabetes: data from the Sleep AHEAD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Onge MP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Pierre St-Onge,1 Gary Zammit,2 David M Reboussin,3 Samuel T Kuna,4 Mark H Sanders,8 Richard Millman,6 Anne B Newman,5 Thomas A Wadden,4 Rena R Wing,6 F Xavier Pi-Sunyer,1 Gary D Foster7 Sleep AHEAD Research Group*1New York Obesity Research Center, St Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2Clinilabs, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 7Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA*A full list of the members of the Sleep AHEAD Research Group is available in an online appendixPurpose: Some studies have found an association between sleep disturbances and metabolic risk, but none has examined this association in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sleep disturbances and metabolic risk factors in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.Patients and methods: This study was a cross-sectional examination of the relationship between sleep parameters (apnea/hypopnea index [AHI], time spent in various sleep stages and metabolic risk markers (fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, lipids using baseline data of the Sleep AHEAD cohort. Subjects (n = 305 were participants in Sleep AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes, a four-center ancillary study of the Look AHEAD study, a 16-center clinical trial of overweight and obese participants with type 2 diabetes, designed to assess the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular events. All participants underwent one night of in-home polysomnography

  10. Chronic sleep loss during pregnancy as a determinant of stress: impact on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo; Banti, Susanna; Manconi, Mauro; Mauri, Mauro; Riemann, Dieter

    2014-08-01

    Short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and insomnia frequently characterize sleep in pregnancy during all three trimesters. We aimed: (i) to review the clinical evidence of the association between conditions of sleep loss during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) to discuss the potential pathophysiological mechanisms that may be involved. A systematic search of cross-sectional, longitudinal studies using Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO, and MeSH headings and key words for conditions of sleep loss such as 'insomnia', 'poor sleep quality', 'short sleep duration', and 'pregnancy outcome' was made for papers published between January 1, 1960 and July 2013. Twenty studies met inclusion criteria for sleep loss and pregnancy outcome: seven studies on prenatal depression, three on gestational diabetes, three on hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, six on length of labor/type of delivery, eight on preterm birth, and three on birth grow/birth weight. Two main results emerged: (i) conditions of chronic sleep loss are related to adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) chronic sleep loss yields a stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and abnormal immune/inflammatory, reaction, which, in turn, influences pregnancy outcome negatively. Chronic sleep loss frequently characterizes sleep throughout the course of pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Common pathophysiological mechanisms emerged as being related to stress system activation. We propose that in accordance to the allostatic load hypothesis, chronic sleep loss during pregnancy may also be regarded as both a result of stress and a physiological stressor per se, leading to stress 'overload'. It may account for adverse pregnancy outcomes and somatic and mental disorders in pregnancy.

  11. Weighing the balance: how analgesics used in chronic pain influence sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Miqdad H; Kaushik, Chhavi; Temple, Daniel; Chung, Sharon A; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-08-01

    Pain and sleep share a bidirectional relationship, with each influencing the other. Several excellent reviews have explored this relationship. In this article, we revisit the evidence and explore existing research on this complex inter-relationship. The primary focus of the article is on the pharmacological treatment of chronic non-malignant pain and the main purpose is to review the effect of various pharmacological agents used in the management of chronic pain on sleep. This has not been comprehensively done before. We explore the clinical use of these agents, their impact on sleep architecture and sleep physiology, the mechanism of action on sleep parameters and sleep disorders associated with these agents. Pharmacological classes reviewed include antidepressants, opioid analgesics, anti-epileptics, cannabinoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs most commonly used to manage chronic pain. The objective is to help health professionals gain better insight into the complex effect that commonly used analgesics have on an individual's sleep and how this could impact on the effectiveness of the drug as an analgesic. We conclude that antidepressants have both positive and negative effects on sleep, so do opioids, but in the latter case the evidence shifts towards the counterproductive side. Some anticonvulsants are sleep sparing and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are sleep neutral. Cannabinoids remain an underexplored and researched group.

  12. Postoperative Sleep Disturbances after Zolpidem Treatment in Fast-Track Hip and Knee Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Jennum, Poul; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated pronounced reduction of REM sleep on the first nights following major surgery which may influence pain, analgesic use, and recovery. This placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study set out to evaluate the effect of zolpidem on sleep....... Polysomnography measures were performed for 2 nights, 1 night at home prior to surgery and on the first night after surgery, when the patient received placebo or zolpidem 10 mg. Analgesic use, pain levels, and subjective measures of fatigue and sleep quality were recorded. Analysis of sleep data was performed...... according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine manual. RESULTS: Objective sleep data did not show a significant difference between groups in any of the sleep stages. However, subjective data on sleep quality and fatigue showed significantly less fatigue and better sleep quality in the zolpidem group (p...

  13. EFFECT OF MYOFASCIAL RELEASE THERAPY ON PAIN RELATED DISABILITY, QUALITY OF SLEEP AND DEPRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. B.Arun, MPT, PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain was experienced by 50% of older adults that has threatened to quality of life. The economic cost of low back pain is more in older adults. Various literatures found that there is strong relationships exist between the low back pain and the psychosocial factors like sleep disturbances, depression, mood sway and chronic illness. Studies has found that depression is one of the commonest psychological problem faced by older adults which relates to other factors like pain, sleep disturbances ect.. Physiotherapy has been shown very effective in the management of chronic low back pain. Various approaches in physiotherapy play a major role in rehabilitation of patients with chronic low back pain. This study estimates to find out the effect of myofascial release therapy on pain related disability, quality of sleep and depression in older adults with chronic low back pain. Study is a single group pre test and post test design. 37 Patients with chronic low back pain were selected from a community setup. Selected subjects were undergone 6 weeks of myofascial release therapy along with moist heat therapy. At the end the outcome measured are pain related disability using pain disability index, Quality of sleep using Insomnia severity index and depression using beck depression inventory. The paired ‘t’ test was used to find out the differences between variables. The result showed that there was a significant improvement in the pre test and post test variables. The beck depression inventory was 21.3 (p<0.05%, and the pain disability index was 24.9 (p<0.05%. The study concludes that the myofascial release therapy is very effective in reducing the pain related disability, quality of sleep and depression on older adults with chronic low back pain.

  14. Sleep diaries of Vietnam War veterans with chronic PTSD: the relationships among insomnia symptoms, psychosocial stress, and nightmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Harb, Gerlinde C; Cook, Joan M; Barilla, Holly; Ross, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired sleep and nightmares are known symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the veteran population. In order to assess prospectively the sleep disturbances in this population, sleep diaries are an effective way to obtain information over an extended period of time. In this investigation, a sample of veterans (N = 105) completed daily sleep diaries for a 6-week period. Greater PTSD severity and nightmare-related distress were correlated with more awakenings, shorter duration of sleep, longer sleep latency, and greater frequency of nightmares. Perceived frequency of daytime stressors was associated with an increased number of nightmares, nightmare-related distress, and longer sleep latency. The use of sleep diaries in future investigations may allow targeted treatments for veteran populations with PTSD and sleep disturbances.

  15. Gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome with and without severe sleep disturbance: an integrated analysis of subjective and novel sleep endpoints from two studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogan RK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard K Bogan,1 Aaron Ellenbogen,2 Philip M Becker,3 Clete Kushida,4 Eric Ball,5 William G Ondo,6 Christine K Caivano,7 Sarah Kavanagh71SleepMed, Columbia, SC, 2Quest Research Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 3Sleep Medicine Associates of Texas, Dallas, TX, 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Center for Human Sleep Research, Stanford, CA, 5Walla Walla Clinic, Walla Walla, WA, 6University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 7Global Regulatory Affairs (CKC* and Neurosciences MDC (SK, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA*Development Sciences department at the time of the analysisPurpose: The aim of the study reported here was assessment of subjective and novel sleep endpoints, according to sleep disturbance severity at baseline, in adult subjects with moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome (RLS treated with gabapentin enacarbil (GEn 1200 mg or placebo.Methods: Integrated analysis of two 12-week randomized trials in subjects with RLS was undertaken. Sleep outcomes from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Sleep Scale and the Post Sleep Questionnaire were evaluated. Novel sleep endpoints derived from the 24-Hour RLS Symptom Diary were compared with similar endpoints derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD. Subjects were divided into two subgroups based on their level of sleep disturbance (responses to item 4 of the International Restless Legs Scale at baseline. Data were analyzed using a last observation carried forward approach.Results: The modified intent-to-treat population comprised 427 subjects (GEn 1200 mg, n = 223; placebo, n = 204. GEn significantly improved all MOS Sleep Scale domain scores from baseline compared with placebo (P < 0.05 in both subgroups. Compared with placebo, GEn-treated subjects with very severe to severe sleep disturbance reported higher overall sleep quality, fewer nighttime awakenings, and fewer hours awake per night due to RLS

  16. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on job satisfaction, exhaustion and sleep disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Framke, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Ole Henning; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined whether the implementation of a participatory organizational-level intervention aiming to improve the working environment with a focus on the core task at work, increased job satisfaction and reduced exhaustion and sleep disturbances among pre-school employees. Methods...... at work. We analyzed within-group changes in the three outcome variables from baseline to follow-up with t-tests for paired samples, separately for intervention and control group. Between-group differences in changes in the three outcome variables were analyzed using a mixed model with a repeated...... aiming to improve the working environment with a focus on the core task at work has an effect on pre-school employees’ job satisfaction, exhaustion and sleep disturbances. Trial registration: ISRCTN16271504, November 15, 2016....

  17. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers.

  18. Sleep disturbances and post-traumatic stress disorder; a perpetual circle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep facilitates the consolidation of fear extinction memory. Disrupted sleep has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, nightmares and insomnia are hallmark symptoms of PTSD, possibly interfering with fear extincti

  19. Melatonin for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children: A Randomized placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Heijden, J.A.M. van der; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    To establish the efficacy of melatonin treatment in childhood sleep onset insomnia, 40 elementary school children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more than 1 year from chronic sleep onset insomnia, were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The children were randomly assigned to r

  20. Acupuncture in the treatment of a female patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.H.; Staudte, H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    Background. The use of acupuncture in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with chronic schizophrenia is investigated. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 44-year-old female outpatient of German origin who had been suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders. The patien

  1. Relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators on sleep disturbance-data from the 4th Korean working conditions survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Taejun; Ye, Byeongjin; Kim, Jung-Il; Park, Siwoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. Methods The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one...

  2. Prevalence of Sleep Disturbance and Neuropsychological Learning Disabilities in Preschool Children in Isfahan City

    OpenAIRE

    M Ghaneian; H Kazemi-Zahrani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of sleep disorders is different in international studies. Sleep disorders with the increasing prevalence among children is common. Cognitive problems are the most serious complication of sleep disorders in children. The present study, the prevalence of sleep problems and neuropsychological learning disabilities were evaluated on pre-school children (4-6 years old) in Isfahan in the year of (1393-1394). Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 350 pre-s...

  3. Behavioral Interventions to Address Sleep Disturbances in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kylan S.; Johnson, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the adverse effects that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, these sleep problems also present significant challenges for the entire family. This article outlines the results of a…

  4. Sleep Disturbance and Expressive Language Development in Preschool-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgin, Jamie O.; Tooley, Ursula; Demara, Bianca; Nyhuis, Casandra; Anand, Payal; Spanò, Goffredina

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that sleep may facilitate language learning. This study examined variation in language ability in 29 toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to levels of sleep disruption. Toddlers with DS and poor sleep (66%, n = 19) showed greater deficits on parent-reported and objective measures of language, including…

  5. Annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance due to night-time railway noise examined in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennig, Sibylle; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Rolny, Vinzent; Maass, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria

    2012-11-01

    Railway noise interferes with daytime activities and disturbs sleep leading to annoyance of exposed residents. The main objective of this paper was to establish exposure-response relationships between nocturnal railway noise exposure and annoyance and to examine self-reported sleep disturbances as short-term reactions to noise. In a field study 33 residents living close to railway tracks in the Cologne/Bonn area (Germany) were investigated. Railway noise was measured indoors during nine consecutive nights at each site. Questionnaires referring to annoyance and non-acoustical factors were performed. Annoyance ratings increased significantly with the total number of trains and freight trains per night, and non-significantly with rising number of passenger trains and energy equivalent sound pressure level (L(Aeq)), when adjusting the model for non-acoustical variables. The total number of trains and the number of freight trains also significantly affected self-reported awakening frequency, but no other aspects of subjective sleep disturbances. The responses of this subject sample referring to railway noise in the previous night point to rather low impairments of exposed residents.

  6. Delayed Circadian Rhythm in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest circadian rhythm disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep-onset insomnia (SOI). We investigate here sleep and rhythms in activity and melatonin in adults with ADHD. Methods: Sleep logs and actigraphy data were collec

  7. Influence of Various Lifestyle and Psychosocial Factors on Sleep Disturbances among the College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Urban Area of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R. Kadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep occupies nearly 1/3rd of our life and is essential for overall growth and stability. Sleep deprivation results weakening of physical functions, mental health problems like depression and lowering of productivity, thus resulting in loss to an individual and society. Aim and Objectives: Sleep is essential for physical and mental stability. Its deprivation lowers work productivity and results in mental problem like depression. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors may have impact on the sleep. In the western countries the subject is amply explored; however studies on student from developing countries like India are limited. Our objective was to study the extent of sleep disturbance and associated factors among the graduating college students. Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Arts, Commerce and Science graduating college students from an urban area. The sampling technique was cluster random sampling with the sample size of 890. A pretested, selfadministered questionnaire was used as a study tool. Statistical Analysis was done using percentages, chisquare test and bi-variate logistic regression. Results: The mean duration of sleep reported by the 900 study subjects was 7.3 hours (std. deviation 1 hour. Any sleep disturbance was reported by 826 (91.8% subjects; with day time sleepiness (77.5% and difficulty in falling asleep (65.4% being the commonest complaint. Sleep disturbance score was associated with exercise, outdoor games and tea / coffee intake. It was also associated with nocturnal use of mobiles and feeling depressed. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances were present in majority of college students with day time sleepiness as its commonest manifestation. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors had impact on the sleep. Proper lifestyle modification and good family environment areimportant to avoid sleep disturbances among the college students.

  8. Clinical Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Suan Zao Ren Tang, for Sleep Disturbance during Methadone Maintenance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yu Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance therapy is an effective treatment for opiate dependence, but more than three-quarters of persons receiving the treatment report sleep quality disturbances. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we recruited 90 individuals receiving methadone for at least one month who reported sleep disturbances and had Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI scores > 5. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Suan Zao Ren Tang, one of the most commonly prescribed traditional Chinese medications for treatment of insomnia, improves subjective sleep among methadone-maintained persons with disturbed sleep quality. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to intervention group (n=45 and placebo group (n=45, and all participants were analyzed. Compared with placebo treatment, Suan Zao Ren Tang treatment for four weeks produced a statistically significant improvement in the mean total PSQI scores (P=0.007 and average sleep efficiency (P=0.017. All adverse events (e.g., lethargy, diarrhea, and dizziness were mild in severity. Suan Zao Ren Tang is effective for improving sleep quality and sleep efficiency among methadone-maintained patients with sleep complaints.

  9. Clinical Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Suan Zao Ren Tang, for Sleep Disturbance during Methadone Maintenance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Yi-Hung; Yang, Szu-Nian; Lo, Wan-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Methadone maintenance therapy is an effective treatment for opiate dependence, but more than three-quarters of persons receiving the treatment report sleep quality disturbances. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we recruited 90 individuals receiving methadone for at least one month who reported sleep disturbances and had Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores > 5. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Suan Zao Ren Tang, one of the most commonly prescribed traditional Chinese medications for treatment of insomnia, improves subjective sleep among methadone-maintained persons with disturbed sleep quality. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 45) and placebo group (n = 45), and all participants were analyzed. Compared with placebo treatment, Suan Zao Ren Tang treatment for four weeks produced a statistically significant improvement in the mean total PSQI scores (P = 0.007) and average sleep efficiency (P = 0.017). All adverse events (e.g., lethargy, diarrhea, and dizziness) were mild in severity. Suan Zao Ren Tang is effective for improving sleep quality and sleep efficiency among methadone-maintained patients with sleep complaints.

  10. [Sleep disorders: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsboer-Trachsler, E; Kocher, R

    1995-12-02

    Disturbed or inadequate sleep is a frequent complaint with a great impact on daily functions and an often chronic course requiring adequate treatment. To choose an appropriate therapy it is necessary to develop a useful, reliable, valid and specific diagnostic procedure. Primary care physicians can recognize and treat most sleep disorders. For special diagnostic cases sleep centers are recommended. Sleep disorders may be managed by adequate pharmacological as well as nonpharmacological treatment. Besides specific pharmacological means, education in sleep/wake physiology and hygiene and several psychotherapeutic strategies may be valuable.

  11. Treatment of chronic insomnia with yoga: a preliminary study with sleep-wake diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2004-12-01

    There is good evidence for cognitive and physiological arousal in chronic insomnia. Accordingly, clinical trial studies of insomnia treatments aimed at reducing arousal, including relaxation and meditation, have reported positive results. Yoga is a multicomponent practice that is also known to be effective in reducing arousal, although it has not been well evaluated as a treatment for insomnia. In this preliminary study, a simple daily yoga treatment was evaluated in a chronic insomnia population consisting of sleep-onset and/or sleep-maintenance insomnia and primary or secondary insomnia. Participants maintained sleep-wake diaries during a pretreatment 2-week baseline and a subsequent 8-week intervention, in which they practiced the treatment on their own following a single in-person training session with subsequent brief in-person and telephone follow-ups. Sleep efficiency (SE), total sleep time (TST), total wake time (TWT), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings, and sleep quality measures were derived from sleep-wake diary entries and were averaged in 2-week intervals. For 20 participants completing the protocol, statistically significant improvements were observed in SE, TST, TWT, SOL, and WASO at end-treatment as compared with pretreatment values.

  12. Evaluating night wakings in sleep-disturbed infants: a methodological study of parental reports and actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, A

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of objective and subjective sleep measures in diagnostic assessment of night-waking problems during infancy. Infant sleep-wake measures obtained from parental daily logs were compared with objective sleep measures derived from activity monitoring during a week-long period in 66 referred infants. Reported sleep measures were significantly correlated with objective sleep measures and showed a significant level of day-to-day stability. Parents were accurate reporters of sleep-schedule measures (e.g. sleep onset, r = 0.88; sleep duration, r = 0.74; p sleep quality measures, significantly overestimating the time that their infants spent in actual sleep and underestimating the number of their night-wakings (r = 0.41 and r = 0.60, respectively; P < 0.001). It is suggested that subjective and objective measures should play a complementary role in the clinical assessment of night-waking problems in early childhood.

  13. Sleep and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental illness that can have a debilitating effect on daily functioning. A body of research reveals altered sleep behaviour in OCD sufferers; however, findings are inconsistent and there is no consensus on the nature of this relationship. Understanding sleep disturbance in OCD is of critical importance given the known negative consequences of disturbed sleep for mood and emotional wellbeing. A systematic literature search was conducted of five databases for studies assessing sleep in adults diagnosed with OCD. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria and qualitative data analysis methods were used to identify common themes. There was some evidence of reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency in OCD patients. Many of the sleep disturbances noted were characteristic of depression. However, some OCD sufferers displayed delayed sleep onset and offset and an increased prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Severe OCD symptoms were consistently associated with greater sleep disturbance. While the sleep of OCD patients has not been a major focus to date, the existing literature suggests that addressing sleep disturbance in OCD patients may ensure a holistic approach to treatment, enhance treatment efficacy, mitigate relapse and protect against the onset of co-morbid psychiatric illnesses.

  14. Disturbed skin barrier in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background There are limited data on skin lesions in children with end-stage renal failure. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the skin barrier in children with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of xerosis, its severity, as well as its link selected demographic factors, were examined. Methods The study included 103 children: 72 with CKD stages 3–5 (38 on conservative treatment and 34 on dialysis) and 31 patients with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enur...

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Therapy (CBSRT) for Sleep and Mood Disturbances in Veterans with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Bosshart, T., Williamson, M., McQuaid, J., Ancoli-Israel, S., & Haynes, P. (2007). The Relationship between Maternal Bonding and Sleep in Adults With and...between Maternal Bonding, Sleep, and Depression in Adults Ongoing Projects, Funded Haynes, P. L. (PI). Do Undetected or Undiagnosed Sleep Disorders...in the revised script was related to a smaller reduction in nightmare frequency. Resolving or ad- dressing the nightmare theme in the revised script

  16. Comprehensive Health-Related Quality of Life is Influenced by Nocturia and Sleep Disturbance: Investigation Based on the SF-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suekane, Shigetaka; Ueda, Kousuke; Suyama, Shunsuke; Hayashi, Tokumasa; Toyozawa, Noriyuki; Yoshitake, Maki; Nishihara, Kiyoaki; Sakashita, Nao; Uchimura, Naohisa; Matsuoka, Kei

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of nocturia and sleep disturbance on health-related quality of life(HRQOL) using the Medical Outcomes Study 8-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-8) in patients with nocturia. We also assessed the effect of therapeutic intervention by means of an anticholinergic agent on the results of the SF-8. One hundred and eighty-four patients who voided at least once per night were surveyed using the SF-8, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). These parameters were also evaluated before and after 12 weeks of imidafenacin treatment in 51 patients with OAB accompanied by nocturia. The SF-8 physical component summary score (PCS) showed a significant decrease as nighttime voiding frequency increased. The mental health component summary score was 47.1 and 47.6 (which were lower than the standard value of 50) in the group with a nighttime frequency of once and ≥3/night, respectively. The SF-8 PCS and 6 subscales were negatively associated with nighttime voiding frequency, while the PSQI global score was positively associated with it. Imidafenacin significantly improved the OABSS, PSQI, and ESS, as well as the SF-8 score. This is the first study using the SF-8 to show that nocturia and sleep disturbance have a major influence on comprehensive HRQOL and that the SF-8 can be used to monitor HRQOL in OAB patients receiving treatment for nocturia.

  17. Neurodegenerative Properties of Chronic Pain: Cognitive Decline in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.L.A.; Postma, S.A.E.; Souren, P.M.; Arns, M.W.; Gordon, E.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Rijn, C.M. van; Goor, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain has been associated with impaired cognitive function. We examined cognitive performance in patients with severe chronic pancreatitis pain. We explored the following factors for their contribution to observed cognitive deficits: pain duration, comorbidity (depression, sleep disturbance),

  18. On the role of noradrenergic system in PTSD and related sleep disturbances. The use of terazosin in PTSD related nightmares: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salviati, M; Pallagrosi, M; Valeriani, G; Carlone, C; Todini, L; Biondi, M

    2013-01-01

    In PTSD, sleep disorders represent an important symptoms dimension which is associated with more severe PTSD and increased risk of relapse. The basic treatment for PTSD is not always associated to an improvement of sleep disturbances and nightmares. Alpha-blockers, and more specifically Prazosin, have shown a specific action on sleep disorders in PTSD. We report the clinical case of a young women with PTSD, who was suffering from severe sleep disorder and distressing nightmare. The patient was treated with Terazosin, a conger of Prazosin, and has shown symptom remission. Further studies on the use of alpha-blokers might reveal new therapeutic options in PTSD.

  19. Chronic agomelatine treatment corrects the abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of motor activity and sleep/wake cycle induced by prenatal restraint stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jerome; Silletti, Viviana; Laloux, Charlotte; Zuena, Anna Rita; Giovine, Angela; Consolazione, Michol; van Camp, Gilles; Malagodi, Marithe; Gaetani, Silvana; Cianci, Silvia; Catalani, Assia; Mennuni, Gioacchino; Mazzetta, Alessandro; van Reeth, Olivier; Gabriel, Cecilia; Mocaër, Elisabeth; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Maccari, Stefania

    2013-03-01

    Agomelatine is a novel antidepressant acting as an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist/5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. Because of its peculiar pharmacological profile, this drug caters the potential to correct the abnormalities of circadian rhythms associated with mood disorders, including abnormalities of the sleep/wake cycle. Here, we examined the effect of chronic agomelatine treatment on sleep architecture and circadian rhythms of motor activity using the rat model of prenatal restraint stress (PRS) as a putative 'aetiological' model of depression. PRS was delivered to the mothers during the last 10 d of pregnancy. The adult progeny ('PRS rats') showed a reduced duration of slow wave sleep, an increased duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an increased number of REM sleep events and an increase in motor activity before the beginning of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. In addition, adult PRS rats showed an increased expression of the transcript of the primary response gene, c-Fos, in the hippocampus just prior to the beginning of the dark phase. All these changes were reversed by a chronic oral treatment with agomelatine (2000 ppm in the diet). The effect of agomelatine on sleep was largely attenuated by treatment with the MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist, S22153, which caused PRS-like sleep disturbances on its own. These data provide the first evidence that agomelatine corrects sleep architecture and restores circadian homeostasis in a preclinical model of depression and supports the value of agomelatine as a novel antidepressant that resynchronizes circadian rhythms under pathological conditions.

  20. Dim light at night disturbs the daily sleep-wake cycle in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenvers, Dirk Jan; van Dorp, Rick; Foppen, Ewout; Mendoza, Jorge; Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H; Meijer, Johanna H; Kalsbeek, A.; Deboer, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed

  1. Association of sleep disturbances with cognitive impairment and depression in maintenance memodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few data on the relationship of sleep with measures of cognitive function and symptoms of depression in dialysis patients. We evaluated the relationship of sleep with cognitive function and symptoms of depression in 168 hemodialysis patients, using multivariable linear and logistic regress...

  2. Chronic moderate sleep restriction in older long sleepers and older average duration sleepers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Bootzin, Richard R; Kripke, Daniel F; Cooper, Jonnifer; Dean, Lauren R; Catao, Fabio; James, Shelli; Vining, Caitlin; Williams, Natasha J; Irwin, Michael R

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that sleeping sleep may be consistent with results from experimental sleep deprivation studies. However, there has been little study of chronic moderate sleep restriction and little evaluation of older adults who might be more vulnerable to negative effects of sleep restriction, given their age-related morbidities. Moreover, the risks of long sleep have scarcely been examined experimentally. Moderate sleep restriction might benefit older long sleepers who often spend excessive time in bed (TIB) in contrast to older adults with average sleep patterns. Our aims are: (1) to examine the ability of older long sleepers and older average sleepers to adhere to 60 min TIB restriction; and (2) to contrast effects of chronic TIB restriction in older long vs. average sleepers. Older adults (n = 100) (60-80 years) who sleep 8-9 h per night and 100 older adults who sleep 6-7.25 h per night will be examined at 4 sites over 5 years. Following a 2-week baseline, participants will be randomized to one of two 12-week treatments: (1) a sleep restriction involving a fixed sleep-wake schedule, in which TIB is reduced 60 min below each participant's baseline TIB; and (2) a control treatment involving no sleep restriction, but a fixed sleep schedule. Sleep will be assessed with actigraphy and a diary. Measures will include glucose tolerance, sleepiness, depressive symptoms, quality of life, cognitive performance, incidence of illness or accident, and inflammation.

  3. Knee Pain and Low Back Pain Additively Disturb Sleep in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Nagahama Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Murase

    Full Text Available Association of knee and low back pain with sleep disturbance is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the independent and combined effects of these orthopedic symptoms on sleep in a large-scale general population.Cross-sectional data about sleep and knee/low back pain were collected for 9,611 community residents (53±14 years old by a structured questionnaire. Sleep duration less than 6 h/d was defined as short sleep. Sleep quality and the presence of knee and low back pain were evaluated by dichotomous questions. Subjects who complained about knee or low back pains were graded by tertiles of a numerical response scale (NRS score and a Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ score respectively. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the correlates of short sleep duration and poor sleep quality.Frequency of participants who complained of the orthopedic symptoms was as follows; knee pain, 29.0%; low back pain, 42.0% and both knee and low back pain 17.6%. Both knee and low back pain were significantly and independently associated with short sleep duration (knee pain: odds ratio (OR = 1.19, p<0.01; low back pain: OR = 1.13, p = 0.01 and poor sleep quality (knee pain: OR = 1.22, p<0.01; low back pain; OR = 1.57, p<0.01. The group in the highest tertile of the NRS or RDQ score had the highest risk for short sleep duration and poor sleep quality except for the relationship between the highest tertile of the RDQ score and short sleep duration.(the highest tertile of the NRS: OR for short sleep duration = 1.31, p<0.01; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.47, p<0.01; the highest tertile of the RDQ: OR for short sleep duration = 1.11, p = 0.12; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.81, p<0.01 Further, coincident knee and low back pain raised the odds ratios for short sleep duration (either of knee or low back pain: OR = 1.10, p = 0.06; both knee and low back pain: OR = 1.40, p<0.01 and poor sleep quality (either of knee or low back pain: OR

  4. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy--repercussion on cardiovascular and renal functioning of male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ingrid L B; Rodrigues, Aline F A C; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Campos, Ruy R; Hirata, Aparecida E; Tufik, Sergio; Xylaras, Beatriz D P; Visniauskas, Bruna; Chagas, Jair R; Gomes, Guiomar N

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C) and chronic sleep restricted (CSR). Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC) and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR). Indirect blood pressure (BPi - tail cuff) was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127 ± 2.6 (19); OCSR: 144 ± 2.5 (17) mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: -2.6 ± 0.15 (9); OCRS: -1.6 ± 0.13 (9)]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4 ± 15 (18); OSR: 60.2 ± 3.6 (16) UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4 ± 0.2 (10); OCSR: 7.4 ± 0.3 (7)]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring.

  5. Use of intranasal corticosteroids in the management of congestion and sleep disturbance in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Bob Q

    2008-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis affects a large number of children and exerts a considerable socioeconomic impact. It is underdiagnosed and inadequately treated, which predisposes children to potentially serious comorbidities. Allergic rhinitis symptoms may create nighttime breathing problems and sleep disturbances and have a negative effect on a child's ability to learn in the classroom. Although antihistamines have shown efficacy in relieving many symptoms, they have little effect on nasal congestion. This article summarizes the advantages of intranasal corticosteroids, including their effectiveness against congestion and excellent safety profile. Intranasal corticosteroids with minimal systemic bioavailability provide topical drug delivery that minimizes the potential for systemic side-effects.

  6. Systematic analysis of circadian genes in a population-based sample reveals association of TIMELESS with depression and sleep disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddheshwar J Utge

    Full Text Available Disturbances in the circadian pacemaker system are commonly found in individuals with depression and sleep-related problems. We hypothesized that some of the canonical circadian clock genes would be associated with depression accompanied by signs of disturbed sleep, early morning awakening, or daytime fatigue. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based sample of the Health 2000 dataset from Finland, including 384 depressed individuals and 1270 controls, all with detailed information on sleep and daytime vigilance, and analyzed this set of individuals with regard to 113 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 18 genes of the circadian system. We found significant association between TIMELESS variants and depression with fatigue (D+FAT+ (rs7486220: pointwise P = 0.000099, OR = 1.66; corrected empirical P for the model of D+FAT+ = 0.0056; haplotype 'C-A-A-C' of rs2291739-rs2291738-rs7486220-rs1082214: P = 0.0000075, OR = 1.72 in females, and association to depression with early morning awakening (D+EMA+ (rs1082214: pointwise P = 0.0009, OR = 2.70; corrected empirical P = 0.0374 for the model D+EMA+; haplotype 'G-T' of rs7486220 and rs1082214: P = 0.0001, OR = 3.01 in males. There was significant interaction of gender and TIMELESS (for example with rs1082214, P = 0.000023 to D+EMA+ and P = 0.005 to D+FAT+. We obtained supported evidence for involvement of TIMELESS in sleeping problems in an independent set of control individuals with seasonal changes in mood, sleep duration, energy level and social activity in females (P = 0.036, = 0.123 for rs1082214 and with early morning awakening or fatigue in males (P = 0.038 and P = 0.0016, respectively, for rs1082214. There was also some evidence of interaction between TIMELESS and PER1 in females to D+FAT+ as well as between TIMELESS and ARNTL, RORA or NR1D1 in males to D+EMA+. These findings support a connection between circadian genes and gender-dependent depression and defective sleep regulation.

  7. Gender Differences in Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Shan-Ai; Li, Yong-Chun; Li, Wen-Jie; Li, Yan; Jeong, Jin-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an important component in our lives as it is necessary throughout one’s entire life span. This study was conducted to elucidate whether there are gender differences in sleep quality and what factors can affect sleep quality in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. A total of 382 subjects (175 males and 207 females) were recruited among elderly aged 45 or over who participated in the 2010 Hallym Aging Study (HAS). They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioecono...

  8. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sleep: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is sleep? Sleep is a period of unconsciousness during which ...

  9. How mindfulness changed my sleep: focus groups with chronic insomnia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbling, Amber; Reilly-Spong, Maryanne; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Gross, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic insomnia is a major public health problem affecting approximately 10% of adults. Use of meditation and yoga to develop mindful awareness (‘mindfulness training’) may be an effective approach to treat chronic insomnia, with sleep outcomes comparable to nightly use of prescription sedatives, but more durable and with minimal or no side effects. The purpose of this study was to understand mindfulness training as experienced by patients with chronic insomnia, and suggest proced...

  10. [On the detrimental metabolic impact of short, disturbed and erratic sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallschmid, Manfred; Oster, Henrik; Schultes, Bernd; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2015-08-01

    Our modern 24-hour society shows an increasing trend towards shortened and erratic sleep.  A large number of epidemiological studies indicate that in parallel, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its key components, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, is on the rise. Short-term interventional experiments point to a causal relationship between sleep duration and quality and energy metabolism and have identified underlying mechanisms. In particular, changes in the neuroendocrine regulation of glucose metabolism, in circadian rhythmicity as well as in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior are assumed to mediate the detrimental effect of insufficient sleep on energy balance. Although long-term interventional studies are still sparse, existing evidence suggests that improving sleep hygiene represents an attractive approach for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.

  11. Relationship Between Subtypes of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Sleep Disturbance in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Rachel J; Shui, Amy; Malow, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of two types of restricted and repetitive behaviors, repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS), with sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 532 children (aged 2-17) who participated in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network research registry. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised detected the presence of RSM and IS. RSM behaviors were positively associated with parent-reported sleep problems, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for anxiety symptoms. IS was not significantly associated with sleep problems. Better understanding of the relationship between specific types of repetitive behaviors and sleep problems may allow providers to tailor interventions to the individual presentations of their patients with ASD.

  12. Effects of early nightmares on the development of sleep disturbances in motor vehicle accident victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Sledjeski, Eve M; Spoonster, Eileen; Fallon, William F; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-12-01

    The present study prospectively examined the extent to which trauma-related nightmares affected the subsequent development of insomnia symptoms in 314 motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims. Participants were assessed in-hospital and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year post-MVA. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that 6-week PTSD symptoms (PTSS) and 3-month nightmares, but not 2-week nightmares were positively associated with sleep onset and maintenance problems reported at 3-month post-MVA. Nightmares reported at 3-months post-MVA were positively associated with 1-year sleep maintenance problems. These findings highlight the dynamic relationship between PTSS and sleep problems as well as the potential importance of early intervention for trauma-related nightmares as a means to prevent sleep problems after a traumatic experience.

  13. Sleep Disturbances and Glucose Metabolism in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Linn Beate; Carnethon, Mercedes; Biggs, Mary Lou; Djoussé, Luc; Kaplan, Robert C.; David S Siscovick; Robbins, John A.; Redline, Susan; Patel, Sanjay R.; Janszky, Imre; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the associations of symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which was defined as loud snoring, stopping breathing for a while during sleep, and daytime sleepiness, and insomnia with glucose metabolism and incident type 2 diabetes in older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Between 1989 and 1993, the Cardiovascular Health Study recruited 5,888 participants ≥65 years of age from four U.S. communities. Participants reported SDB and insomnia symptoms yearly through 19...

  14. [Sleep disturbances in Smith-Magenis syndrome: treatment with melatonin and beta-adrenergic antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thillo, A; Devriendt, K; Willekens, D

    2010-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome is a generic disorder, characterised by physical, neurological and behavioural features and caused by a 17p11.2 deletion. Patients with this syndrome typically display an inversion of the sleep-wake cycle. In this article we describe clinical developments in a two-year-old girl with Smith-Magenis syndrome whose sleep problems were successfully treated with melatonin and beta-adrenergic blockers. We also mention relevant data obtained in our literature search.

  15. Influence of sleep disorders on somatic symptoms, mental health, and quality of life in patients with chronic constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ya; Tang, Yu-Rong; Xie, Chen; Yu, Ting; Xiong, Wen-Jie; Lin, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in CC patients, and it is positively related to greater somatic and psychiatric symptoms. Methods: The participants were 126 adult outpatients with CC. The measures were: constipation—Constipation Scoring System (CSS) and Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM); sleep—Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); anxiety—General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7); depression—Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); and QOL—Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) and SF-36. Patients were divided into sleep-disorder and normal-sleep groups by their PSQI scores. Results: The sleep-disorder group had significantly higher rates of incomplete defecation and blockage and higher CSS scores, PAC-SYM total scores, and PAC-SYM rectal-item scores than the normal-sleep group. GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher in patients with poor sleep. Furthermore, sleep disorders, depression, and anxiety were all positively correlated with constipation severity. “Worry/anxiety” score of PAC-QOL scale was significantly higher and scores for seven SF-36 subscales were significantly lower in patients with poor sleep. In addition, correlation analyses showed significant negative relations between QOL and constipation, sleep disturbance, anxiety as well as depression. However, multiple regression revealed that PAC-QOL was positively associated with severe constipation and SF-36 was negatively associated with anxiety and depression. But sleep disturbance was not the independent risk factor for QOL of CC patients. Conclusion: Sleep disorders may worsen the physical- and mental health of CC patients. Sleep disturbance may lower CC patients’ QOL indirectly through the combined effects of anxiety, depression, and constipation. PMID:28207519

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with disturbed sleep in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverment, Shaaron; Clarke, Emily; Wadeley, Alison; Sengupta, Raj

    2017-02-01

    This review explores the prevalence and factors associated with disturbed sleep for patients with ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis in order to clarify consistent findings in this otherwise disparate research field. The association of physical, demographic and psychological factors correlating with poor sleep was explored, and the effectiveness of interventions assessed. Ten electronic databases were searched: AMED, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, OpenGrey and BASE. Following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 articles were critically assessed on the basis of methodology, experimental design, ethics and quality of sleep data, leading to the selection of 15 studies for final review. Poor sleep was reported in 35-90% of patients with axial spondyloarthritis and is more prevalent within this clinical population compared to healthy control subjects. Disturbed sleep is an important aspect of disease for patients and reflects the severity of disease activity, pain, fatigue and functional disability. However, the direction of this relationship is undetermined. Associations with age, gender, years spent in education, quality of life and depression have also been demonstrated. Anti-TNF medication is effective in reducing poor sleep, and exercise has also produced beneficial results. Future research into poor sleep should take account of its multifactorial nature. There is also a current lack of research investigating non-pharmacological interventions or combination therapies. A standardised, validated measurement of poor sleep, appropriate for regular patient screening, would be a useful first step for future research.

  17. Relation between sleep quality and physical activity in chronic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Hiraki, Koji; Morio, Yuji; Kasahara, Yusuke; Takeichi, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Takae; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Makuuchi, Haruo

    2011-09-01

    To determine self-reported sleep quality-related differences in physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and target values of PA for high-quality sleep in chronic heart failure (CHF) outpatients, 149 CHF outpatients (mean age 58 years) were divided into two groups by sleep-quality level determined via self-reported questionnaire: shallow sleep (SS) group (n = 77) and deep sleep (DS) group (n = 72). Steps were assessed by electronic pedometer, HRQOL was assessed with the Short Form 36 (SF-36) survey, and data were compared between groups. PA resulting in high-quality sleep was determined by receiver-operating characteristics curves. All SF-36 subscale scores except that of bodily pain were significantly decreased in the SS versus DS group. A cutoff value of 5723.6 steps/day and 156.4 Kcal/day for 1 week were determined as target values for PA. Sleep quality may affect PA and HRQOL, and attaining target values of PA may improve sleep quality and HRQOL of CHF outpatients. Patents relevant to heart failure are also discussed in this article.

  18. Disturbance of intracardiac hemodynamics in children with chronic rheumatic cardiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratiev V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By means of Doppler echocardiography there have been studied disturbances of intracardiac hemodynamics in 44 children aged 8-17 years with chronic rheumatic cardiac disease and developed mitral aortal and combined heart defects, as well as in chronic rheumatic cardiac disease without developed valvar defect. Differential approach has been defined to administration of inhibitors of angiotensin-converting factor in rheumatic heart defects: developed insufficiency of mitral and/or aortal valves II-III stage leads to remodeling of the left heart portions with developing chronic insufficiency of blood circulation, being an index for prolonged, not less than a year usage of the angiotensin-converting factor. In the presence of isolated mitral regurgitation, I stage in children with chronic rheumatic cardiac disease usage of the angiotensin-converting factor may be cancelled due to insignificant disturbances of valvar hemodynamics and a small risk of developing blood circulation insufficiency. Timely sanation of chronic infection foci in nasopharynx (conservative and surgical treatment of chronic tonsillitis, adenoid vegetations, therapy of hemolytic streptococcus presence decreases risk of developing rheumatic heart defect in children suffered acute rheumatic fever.

  19. Chronic sleep deprivation alters the myosin heavy chain isoforms in the masseter muscle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ruihua; Huang, Fei; Wang, Peihuan; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Lei; Wu, Gaoyi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the changes in myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms of rat masseter muscle fibres caused by chronic sleep deprivation and a possible link with the pathogenesis of disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A total of 180 male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=60 in each): cage controls, large platform controls, and chronic sleep deprivation group. Each group was further divided into three subgroups with different observation periods (7, 14, and 21 days). We investigated he expression of MyHC isoforms in masseter muscle fibres by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. In rats with chronic sleep deprivation there was increased MyHC-I expression in layers of both shallow and deep muscles at 7 and 21 days compared with the control groups, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with significantly decreased MyHC-II expression. At 21 days, there were no differences in MyHC-I or MyHC-II expression between the groups and there were no differences between the two control groups at any time point. These findings suggest that chronic sleep deprivation alters the expression of MyHC isoforms, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of disorders of the TMJ.

  20. Sleep Disturbance and Cognitive Deficits in Bipolar Disorder: Toward An Integrated Examination of Disorder Maintenance and Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Elaine M.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is frequently associated with a number of poor outcomes including, but not limited to, a significant impairment in the ability to return to premorbid levels of occupational and psychosocial functioning, often despite the remission of mood symptoms. Sleep disturbance is an oft-reported residual symptom of manic and depressive episodes that has likewise been associated with the onset of manic episodes. Also present during affective episodes as well as the inter-episode periods are reports of deficits in cognitive functioning, which many reports have shown to play an important role in this persistent disability. Despite the presence of deficits in these two domains of functioning during affective episodes as well as the inter-episode phase, there has been no evaluation of the degree to which these systems may interact to maintain such high rates of functional disability. The aim of this review is to examine evidence for the study of the relationship between sleep disturbance and cognitive impairments in bipolar disorder as well as the ways in which deficits in these domains may work together to maintain functional impairment. PMID:23123569

  1. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källman Tiia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS, are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals.

  2. Increased food intake and changes in metabolic hormones in response to chronic sleep restriction alternated with short periods of sleep allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, R. Paulien; Desprez, Tifany; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Barf RP, Desprez T, Meerlo P, Scheurink AJ. Increased food intake and changes in metabolic hormones in response to chronic sleep restriction alternated with short periods of sleep allowance. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 302: R112-R117, 2012. First published October 19, 2011; doi:10.1152/aj

  3. Sleep assessment in a population-based study of chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Michele

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disabling condition that affects approximately 800,000 adult Americans. The pathophysiology remains unknown and there are no diagnostic markers or characteristic physical signs or laboratory abnormalities. Most CFS patients complain of unrefreshing sleep and many of the postulated etiologies of CFS affect sleep. Conversely, many sleep disorders present similarly to CFS. Few studies characterizing sleep in unselected CFS subjects have been published and none have been performed in cases identified from population-based studies. Methods The study included 339 subjects (mean age 45.8 years, 77% female, 94.1% white identified through telephone screen in a previously described population-based study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas. They completed questionnaires to assess fatigue and wellness and 2 self-administered sleep questionnaires. Scores for five of the six sleep factors (insomnia/hypersomnia, non-restorative sleep, excessive daytime somnolence, sleep apnea, and restlessness in the Centre for Sleep and Chronobiology's Sleep Assessment Questionnaire© (SAQ© were dichotomized based on threshold. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was used as a continuous variable. Results 81.4% of subjects had an abnormality in at least one SAQ© sleep factor. Subjects with sleep factor abnormalities had significantly lower wellness scores but statistically unchanged fatigue severity scores compared to those without SAQ© abnormality. CFS subjects had significantly increased risk of abnormal scores in the non-restorative (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 28.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 7.4–107.0 and restlessness (OR = 16.0; 95% CI = 4.2–61.6 SAQ© factors compared to non-fatigued, but not for factors of sleep apnea or excessive daytime somnolence. This is consistent with studies finding that, while fatigued, CFS subjects are not sleepy. A strong correlation (0.78 of Epworth score was found only for the excessive

  4. Self-reported sleep disturbances in patients with dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder and how they relate to cognitive failures and fantasy proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heugten-van der Kloet, Dalena; Huntjens, Rafaele; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, and dissociative symptoms are related to each other. However, the co-occurrence of these phenomena has been primarily studied in non-clinical samples. We investigated the correlations between these phenomena in dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, and healthy controls. Both patient groups reported more sleep problems and lower sleep quality and displayed higher levels of fantasy proneness and cognitive failures than controls. However, the two patient groups did not differ with regard to these variables. Moreover, a higher level of unusual sleep experiences tended to predict participants belonging to the DID group, while specifically a lower sleep quality and more cognitive failures tended to predict participants belonging to the PTSD group.

  5. Chronic circadian disturbance by a shortened light-dark cycle increases mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Noheon; Cheon, Solmi; Son, Gi Hoon; Cho, Sehyung; Kim, Kyungjin

    2012-06-01

    Chronic circadian disturbance, a condition of desynchronization between endogenous clock and environmental light-dark (LD) cycle, is known to cause adverse physiological changes including mortality. However, it is yet unclear whether these consequences result from disturbance of endogenous clock or condition of the LD cycle per se. To address this issue, we imposed 3 different periods of LD cycle (T) on wild type and functional clock-defective (Per1(-/-)Per2(-/-)) mice. We found that the disturbed rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature resulted from interaction of endogenous clock and T cycle and the chronic state of the disturbance suppressed the endogenous circadian rhythm. Interestingly, the endogenous clock and the T cycles affected body weight and food intake independently, while their interaction affected the life span resulting increased mortality of wild type mice in a shortened T cycle. These results strongly indicate the presence of both separate and combined effects of the endogenous clock and T cycle on different physiological variables implying that shift work scheduling can be an important influence on health parameters.

  6. The impact of sleep interruptions on vital measurements and chronic fatigue of female caregivers providing home care in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Keiko; Kido, Teruhiko; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Naganuma, Rie; Ohno, Masami; Sunaga, Kyoko

    2006-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the impact of sleep interruptions on diurnal changes in blood pressure and chronic fatigue in middle-aged and elderly caregivers by using a cross-sectional quantitative method. Thirty-five female caregivers who were not taking antihypertensive and/or sleeping drugs were recruited for this study. Blood pressure was monitored over a 24 h period. Sleeping or waking periods were monitored with an actigraph. Fatigue was determined from a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were classified into four groups by cause of sleep interruption. One-way analysis of variance showed no differences in blood pressure, but hypertension was prevalent (40%). Sleep duration differed significantly, with the longest duration for those scheduled to wake up for care. Substantial variations were identified in the eight subcategories of chronic fatigue, with those without sleep interruption having the worst profile. This suggests that multiple factors in addition to sleep interruption affect the care burden.

  7. Disturbances in the circadian pattern of activity and sleep after laparoscopic versus open abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Bisgaard, Thue; Burgdorf, Stefan;

    2008-01-01

    scale (sleep quality, general well-being and pain) and fatigue was measured by a ten-point fatigue scale. The activity levels of the patients were monitored by actigraphy (a wrist-worn device measuring patient activity). Measures of circadian activity level [interday stability (IS), intraday variability...

  8. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  9. Chronic sleep restriction induces long-lasting changes in adenosine and noradrenaline receptor density in the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEISSHAUPT, ANGELA; WEDEKIND, FRANZISKA; KROLL, TINA; MCCARLEY, ROBERT W.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Although chronic sleep restriction frequently produces long-lasting behavioural and physiological impairments in humans, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here we used a rat model of chronic sleep restriction to investigate the role of brain adenosine and noradrenaline systems, known to regulate sleep and wakefulness, respectively. The density of adenosine A1 and A2a receptors and β-adrenergic receptors before, during and following 5 days of sleep restriction was assessed with autoradiography. Rats (n = 48) were sleep-deprived for 18 h day–1 for 5 consecutive days (SR1–SR5), followed by 3 unrestricted recovery sleep days (R1–R3). Brains were collected at the beginning of the light period, which was immediately after the end of sleep deprivation on sleep restriction days. Chronic sleep restriction increased adenosine A1 receptor density significantly in nine of the 13 brain areas analysed with elevations also observed on R3 (+18 to +32%). In contrast, chronic sleep restriction reduced adenosine A2a receptor density significantly in one of the three brain areas analysed (olfactory tubercle which declined 26–31% from SR1 to R1). A decrease in b-adrenergic receptors density was seen in substantia innominata and ventral pallidum which remained reduced on R3, but no changes were found in the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that chronic sleep restriction can induce long-term changes in the brain adenosine and noradrenaline receptors, which may underlie the long-lasting neurocognitive impairments observed in chronic sleep restriction. PMID:25900125

  10. Barriers to Engagement in Sleep Restriction and Stimulus Control in Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Norah; Lewycky, Samantha; Finnegan, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Sleep restriction (SRT) and stimulus control (SC) have been found to be effective interventions for chronic insomnia (Morgenthaler et al., 2006), and yet adherence to SRT and SC varies widely. The objective of this study was to investigate correlates to adherence to SC/SRT among 40 outpatients with primary or comorbid insomnia using a…

  11. Over-the-Counter Agents for the Treatment of Occasional Disturbed Sleep or Transient Insomnia: A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Larry; Wingertzahn, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of evidence supporting the use of common over-the-counter (OTC) agents (diphenhydramine, doxylamine, melatonin, and valerian) for occasional disturbed sleep or insomnia. Data sources: A systematic review of the literature was conducted on July 31, 2014, using MEDLINE (PubMed) and the search terms (insomnia OR sleep) AND (over*the*counter OR OTC OR non*prescription OR antihistamine OR doxylamine OR diphenhydramine OR melatonin OR valerian) with the filters English, human, and clinical trials. Study selection: Identified publications (from 2003 to July 31, 2014, following previous published literature reviews) that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The criteria included randomized placebo-controlled clinical studies that utilized overnight objective (polysomnography) or next-day participant-reported sleep-related endpoints and that were conducted in healthy participants with or without occasional disturbed sleep or diagnosed insomnia. Results: Measures of efficacy and tolerability were summarized for each study individually and grouped according to OTC agent: H1 antagonists or antihistamines (3 studies, diphenhydramine), melatonin (8), and valerian or valerian/hops (7). Of the 3 sleep agents, studies conducted with melatonin, especially prolonged-release formulations in older individuals with diagnosed insomnia, demonstrated the most consistent beneficial effects (vs placebo) on sleep measures, specifically sleep onset and sleep quality, with favorable tolerability. In contrast, the clinical trial data for diphenhydramine, immediate-release melatonin, and valerian suggested limited beneficial effects. Conclusions: A review of randomized controlled studies over the past 12 years suggests commonly used OTC sleep-aid agents, especially diphenhydamine and valerian, lack robust clinical evidence supporting efficacy and safety. PMID:27057416

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of randomized controlled trials of sensory stimulation interventions for sleeping disturbances in patients with dementia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriou TD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tatiana-Danai Dimitriou,1 Magdalini Tsolaki2 1Neuroscience Department, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 2Third Department of Neurology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece Objective: The current review aims to evaluate the sensory stimulation interventions in terms of reducing sleeping disturbances in patients with dementia. The nonpharmacological interventions seem to be an efficient, inexpensive, and easy tool for family caregivers. Moreover, sleeping disorders increase caregivers’ distress and may lead to hospitalization.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed. Eleven randomized controlled trials have been found. Among these eleven trials, one referred to massage therapy and acupuncture, and the other ten studies referred to bright light therapy.Results: The results demonstrated that there are no relevant randomized controlled trials of music therapy, aromatherapy, and multisensory environment/Snoezelen referring to sleeping disturbances. Several studies have been conducted about the effect of the bright light therapy, and there is also another study that combines massage therapy and acupuncture therapy.Conclusion: Sensory stimulation interventions are inexpensive and practical for dementia caregivers; however, only bright light therapy seems to be useful to reduce sleeping problems in dementia. The other sensory stimulation interventions lack evidence, and there is a strong need for further research. Keywords: sensory stimulation interventions, nonpharmacological interventions, sleeping disturbances, dementia, randomized controlled trials, review

  13. Field study on the impact of nocturnal road traffic noise on sleep: the importance of in- and outdoor noise assessment, the bedroom location and nighttime noise disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrera, Sandra; De Valck, Elke; Cluydts, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this field study is to gain more insight into the way nocturnal road traffic noise impacts the sleep of inhabitants living in noisy regions, by taking into account several modifying variables. Participants were tested during five consecutive nights in their homes and comparisons between effective indoor and outdoor noise levels (LAeq, LAmax, number of noise events), sleep (actigraphy and sleep logs) and aspects of well-being (questionnaires) were made. Also, we investigated into what extent nocturnal noise exposure - objectively measured as well as perceived - directly relates to sleep outcomes and how the bedroom location influenced our measurements. We found that subjects living and sleeping in noisy regions correctly perceive their environment in terms of noise exposure and reported an overall discomfort due to traffic noise. In the evaluation of the objective noise levels, the inside noise levels did not follow the outside noise levels, though the different noise patterns could be described as characteristic for a noise and quiet environment. The impact on sleep, however, was only modest and we did not find any influence of noise intrusion on mood or pre-sleep arousal levels. Concerning the subjectively reported noise disturbances during the night, a clear relationship between noise and sleep outcomes could be established; with sleep onset latencies and judged sleep quality being particularly affected. The importance of inside and outside noise assessment as well as the use of multiple noise indicators in a home environment is further described. Additional emphasis is put on the determination of quiet control regions and the bedroom location, as this can alter noise levels and sleep outcomes. Also, including subjective noise evaluations during the night might not only provide crucial information on how participants experience the noise, but also allows for a more qualitative interpretation of the actual noise situation.

  14. Rhythm disturbances in childhood obstructive sleep apnea during apnea-hypopnea episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Khositseth

    2013-01-01

    Methods: In a retrospective cross sectional study, records of children aged < 15 years with history of snoring and suspected OSA, who had undergone polysomnography (PSG for first time were analyzed. The cardiac rhythm and heart rate variability were studied during PSG. Results: A total of 124 patients diagnosed with OSA were grouped into mild ( n = 52, moderate ( n = 30, and severe ( n = 42 OSA. During PSG, all had sinus arrhythmias and only three patients had premature atrial contractions (PACs. The standard deviation of heart rate (SD-HR during rapid eye movement (REM sleep in severe OSA (9.1 ± 2.4 was significantly higher than SD-HR in mild OSA (7.5 ± 1.3, P < 0.0001. The maximum heart rate (max-HR during REM-sleep in severe OSA (132.1 ± 22.1 was significantly higher than the max-HR in mild OSA (121.3 ± 12.6 bpm, P = 0.016. Conclusions: There was no significant arrhythmia in children with OSA during their sleep. Heart rate variability correlated with the severity of OSA.

  15. The Neurobiology of Orofacial Pain and Sleep and Their Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Sessle, B J

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the neurobiology of orofacial pain as well as the neural processes underlying sleep, with a particular focus on the mechanisms that underlie pain and sleep interactions including sleep disorders. Acute pain is part of a hypervigilance system that alerts the individual to injury or potential injury of tissues. It can also disturb sleep. Disrupted sleep is often associated with chronic pain states, including those that occur in the orofacial region. The article presents many insights that have been gained in the last few decades into the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in orofacial pain and its modulation, as well as the circuits and processes in the central nervous system that underlie sleep. Although it has become clear that sleep is essential to preserve and maintain health, it has also been found that pain, particularly chronic pain, is commonly associated with disturbed sleep. In the presence of chronic pain, a circular relationship may prevail, with mutual deleterious influences causing an increase in pain and a disruption of sleep. This article also reviews findings that indicate that reducing orofacial pain and improving sleep need to be targeted together in the management of acute to chronic orofacial pain states in order to improve an orofacial pain patient's quality of life, to prevent mood alterations or exacerbation of sleep disorder (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) that can negatively affect their pain, and to promote healing and optimize their health.

  16. Self-reported sleep disturbances in patients with dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder and how they relate to cognitive failures and fantasy proneness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten-van der Kloet, Dalena; Huntjens, Rafaele; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, and dissociative symptoms are related to each other. However, the co-occurrence of these phenomena has been primarily studied in non-clinical samples. We investigated the correlations between these phenomena in dissociative identity disorder

  17. Sleep deprivation disturbed regional brain activity in healthy subjects: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance-imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Li Wang, Yin Chen, Ying Yao, Yu Pan, Yi Sun Department of Neurology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF to explore regional brain activities in healthy subjects after sleep deprivation (SD.Materials and methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight females, eight males underwent the session twice: once was after normal sleep (NS, and the other was after SD. ALFF was used to assess local brain features. The mean ALFF-signal values of the different brain areas were evaluated to investigate relationships with clinical features and were analyzed with a receiver-operating characteristic curve.Results: Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed a lower response-accuracy rate, longer response time, and higher lapse rate. Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed higher ALFF area in the right cuneus and lower ALFF area in the right lentiform nucleus, right claustrum, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left inferior parietal cortex. ALFF differences in regional brain areas showed high sensitivity and specificity. In the SD group, mean ALFF of the right claustrum showed a significant positive correlation with accuracy rate (r=0.687, P=0.013 and a negative correlation with lapse rate (r=-0.706, P=0.01. Mean ALFF of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed a significant positive correlation with response time (r=0.675, P=0.016.Conclusion: SD disturbed the regional brain activity of the default-mode network, its anticorrelated “task-positive” network, and the advanced cognitive function brain areas. Keywords: sleep deprivation, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, default-mode network, functional magnetic resonance imaging

  18. Psycho-cognitive behavioral problems in sleep disordered children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaneh Karimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in childhood and adolescence. Sleep problems in early infants tend to be persistent and prominent in preschool and school-aged children. Chronic sleep disorders, especially in young children may lead to neurobehavioral problems and psycho-cognitive impairment. Sleep difficulties may be the result of underlying medical conditions, (breathing disorders) or psychological problems. Research studies have shown the association between sleep disorders and day time cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, poor school performance and inattention in children. Appropriate diagnosis and early management of sleep disorders in children lead to improvement of neurocognitive function and behavioral problems in these children.

  19. Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Zamarrón1, Vanesa García Paz1, Emilio Morete1, Felix del Campo Matías21Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago, Spain; 2Servicio de Neumologia, Hospital Universitario Rio Ortega de Vallaclolid, Vallaclolid, SpainAbstract: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are two diseases that often coexist within an individual. This coexistence is known as overlap syndrome and is the result of chance rather than a pathophysiological link. Although there are claims of a very high incidence of OSAS in COPD patients, recent studies report that it is similar to the general population. Overlap patients present sleep-disordered breathing associated to upper and lower airway obstruction and a reduction in respiratory drive. These patients present unique characteristics, which set them apart from either COPD or OSAS patients. COPD and OSAS are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events and their coexistence in overlap syndrome probably increases this risk. The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular risk are still unclear, but may involve systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and tonic elevation of sympathetic neural activity. The treatment of choice for overlap syndrome in stable patients is CPAP with supplemental oxygen for correction of upper airway obstructive episodes and hypoxemia during sleep.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, overlap syndrome, sleep, cardiovascular disease

  20. Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases, Julien; Ibarra, Alvin; Feuillère, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sukkar, Samir G

    2011-12-01

    Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia. Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which Cyracos(®), a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos(®) contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was a prospective, open-label, 15-day study to evaluate the efficacy of Cyracos(®) on stressed volunteers, who have mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Using clinician rating criteria, primary outcomes showed improvement of symptoms. Cyracos(®) reduced anxiety manifestations by 18% (p insomnia by 42% (p insomnia, and 70% (14/20) for both. Our study demonstrates, for the first time that chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. relieves stress-related effects. It is critical that further studies incorporate a placebo and investigate physiological stress markers.

  1. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy--repercussion on cardiovascular and renal functioning of male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L B Lima

    Full Text Available Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C and chronic sleep restricted (CSR. Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR. Indirect blood pressure (BPi - tail cuff was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127 ± 2.6 (19; OCSR: 144 ± 2.5 (17 mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: -2.6 ± 0.15 (9; OCRS: -1.6 ± 0.13 (9]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4 ± 15 (18; OSR: 60.2 ± 3.6 (16 UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4 ± 0.2 (10; OCSR: 7.4 ± 0.3 (7]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring.

  2. Chronic Sleep Restriction during Pregnancy - Repercussion on Cardiovascular and Renal Functioning of Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ingrid L. B.; Rodrigues, Aline F. A. C.; Bergamaschi, Cássia T.; Campos, Ruy R.; Hirata, Aparecida E.; Tufik, Sergio; Xylaras, Beatriz D. P.; Visniauskas, Bruna; Chagas, Jair R.; Gomes, Guiomar N.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C) and chronic sleep restricted (CSR). Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC) and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR). Indirect blood pressure (BPi – tail cuff) was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127±2.6 (19); OCSR: 144±2.5 (17) mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: −2.6±0.15 (9); OCRS: −1.6±0.13 (9)]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4±15 (18); OSR: 60.2±3.6 (16) UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4±0.2 (10); OCSR: 7.4±0.3 (7)]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring. PMID:25405471

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders in clinical practice, and cardiovascular diseases represent a major comorbidity in each disorder. The two disorders coexist (overlap syndrome) in approximately 1% of adults but asymptomatic lower airway obstruction together with sleep-disordered breathing is more prevalent. Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has similar prevalence in COPD as the general population, and vice versa, factors such as body mass index and smoking influence relationships. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation develops in COPD, independent of apnea\\/hypopnea, and is more severe in the overlap syndrome, thus predisposing to pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, upper airway flow limitation contributes to nocturnal desaturation in COPD without apnea\\/hypopnea. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, involving C-reactive protein and IL-6, in addition to nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8, provides insight into potential basic interactions between both disorders. Furthermore, oxidative stress develops in each disorder, in addition to activation and\\/or dysfunction of circulating leukocytes. These findings are clinically relevant because systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the cell\\/molecular pathways involved are similar to those identified in COPD and sleep apnea. However, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea is not proven, and thus, studies of patients with the overlap syndrome should provide insight into the mechanisms of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  4. Chronic Powder Diet After Weaning Induces Sleep, Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and Neurophysiological Changes in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Anegawa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of chronic powder diet feeding on sleep patterns and other physiological/anatomical changes in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into two groups from weaning: a group fed with solid food (SD and a group fed with powder food (PD, and sleep and physiological and anatomical changes were compared between the groups. PD exhibited less cranial bone structure development and a significant weight gain. Furthermore, these PD mice showed reduced number of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Sleep analysis showed that PD induced attenuated diurnal sleep/wake rhythm, characterized by increased sleep during active period and decreased sleep during rest period. With food deprivation (FD, PD showed less enhancement of wake/locomotor activity compared to SD, indicating reduced food-seeking behavior during FD. These results suggest that powder feeding in mice results in a cluster of detrimental symptoms caused by abnormal energy metabolism and anatomical/neurological changes.

  5. Exploring association between sleep deprivation and chronic periodontitis: A pilot study

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    Vishakha Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep deprivation has become a global phenomenon, and epidemiologic data indicate that short sleep duration adversely impacts human physical health. Underlying mechanisms involve modulation of immune-inflammatory mechanisms. These changes might contribute to potentiation of destructive periodontal disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess if there is an association of sleep deprivation with chronic periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects were categorized into 3 groups (n = 20 each viz. clinically healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis. Periodontal status of subjects was assessed by gingival index and pocket probing depth. All the study subjects were administered Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire for the assessment of sleep deprivation. Results: Present investigation revealed that mean PSQI was highest in the periodontitis group as compared to other two groups and the difference among three groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study with preliminary results suggestive of the association of sleep deprivation with severity of periodontal disease, definitely calls on for future studies with larger samples.

  6. Psychological and sleep quality differences between chronic daily headache and temporomandibular disorders patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Delgado, E; Schmidt, J E; Carlson, C R; DeLeeuw, R; Okeson, J P

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic daily headache (CDH) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients present with different psychological and sleep quality characteristics. Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with CDH, according to classification criteria from Silberstein et al., were matched by age and sex with 67 patients who had a primary diagnosis of myofascial pain (MP) and 67 patients with a primary diagnosis of TMJ intracapsular pain (IC) according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. The CDH group was comprised of three mutually exclusive diagnostic groups: chronic migraine (n = 35); chronic tension-type headache (n = 26); 'other CDH' (n = 6). All patients completed a battery of psychological and sleep quality questionnaires. All CDH subgroups showed similar psychological and sleep quality profiles. Pain intensity and duration were controlled in the multivariate analyses (Mancova) by treating them as covariates. The CDH and MP groups revealed higher levels of psychological distress than the IC group on most psychological domains. The MP group also revealed numerically higher levels of psychological distress in most psychological domains than the CDH group, although these differences were generally not significant. We did not find significant differences between the three groups on post traumatic stress symptoms either. Sleep quality was significantly worse in the MP group than in the CDH and IC groups. These results are discussed in the context of multimodal patient evaluation and treatments that are often necessary for successful clinical management.

  7. A cloud computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic diseases collaborative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hung, Shu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a Cloud Computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic disease collaborative research. The platform consists of two main components: (1) a sensing bed sheet with textile sensors to automatically record patient's sleep behaviors and vital signs, and (2) a service-oriented cloud computing architecture (SOCCA) that provides a data repository and allows for sharing and analysis of collected data. Also, we describe our systematic approach to implementing the SOCCA. We believe that the new cloud-based platform can provide nurse and other health professional researchers located in differing geographic locations with a cost effective, flexible, secure and privacy-preserved research environment.

  8. An Epidemiologic Study of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Mackenzie J.; Aggen, Steven H.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; York, Timothy P.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is linked to negative consequences, including insomnia. Few studies have examined enduring effects of CSA on adult insomnia. Given the relationship between sleep and poor health, a better understanding of these effects has clinical implications. Method We used a representative sample of adult twins. Both men and women were assessed with a broad variable representative of CSA, while a subset of females (n=424) were given additional items that captured escalating physical contact and abuse characteristics. A sum score of past month insomnia symptoms was calculated from the shortened version of the SCL-90. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of CSA on insomnia symptoms, as well as the effects of physical contact and incident characteristics. Results Of the full sample (n=8184), 9.8% reported broad CSA. CSA significantly predicted insomnia symptoms in the female sample (n=1407) (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.35–2.06, p<0.0001). The continuum of physical contact did not predict sleep. On a univariate level, more than one perpetrator and feeling forced/threatened increased risk for sleep problems, while having a male perpetrator (vs. female or multiple perpetrators) decreased risk. These associations did not hold at a multivariate level. In the mixed-sex sample (n=6777), we replicated our CSA finding (OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.34–2.03, p<0.0001) and found that female gender (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03–1.30, p=0.0125) was significant. However, the female gender*CSA interaction was not significant. Conclusion CSA predicts insomnia symptoms in adults 25–30 years post-abuse, but the small sample size for incident characteristics (n=424) resulted in limited conclusions about associated risk. PMID:26390111

  9. Sleep and pain: interaction of two vital functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Disturbed sleep is a key complaint of people experiencing acute and chronic pain. These two vital functions, sleep and pain, interact in complex ways that ultimately impact the biological and behavioral capacity of the individual. Polysomnographic studies of patients experiencing acute pain during postoperative recovery show shortened and fragmented sleep with reduced amounts of slow wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and the recovery is accompanied by normalization of sleep. Objective assessments of sleep in patients with various chronic pain conditions have been less definitive with some studies showing fragmented and shortened sleep and others showing normal sleep. Although daytime fatigue is a frequent complaint associated with complaints of pain-related disturbed sleep, objective assessments of daytime sleepiness reveal minimally elevated levels of sleepiness and emphasize the importance of distinguishing sleepiness and fatigue. The pain-sleep nexus has been modeled in healthy pain-free subjects and the studies have demonstrated the bidirectionality of the sleep-pain relation. Given this bidirectionality, treatment must focus on alleviation of both the pain and sleep disturbance. Few of the treatment studies have done such, and as a result no clear consensus on treatment approaches, much less on differential etiology-based treatment strategies, has emerged.

  10. Chronically Restricted Sleep Leads to Depression-Like Changes in Neurotransmitter Receptor Sensitivity and Neuroendocrine Stress Reactivity in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novati, Arianna; Roman, Viktor; Cetin, Timur; Hagewoud, Roelina; den Boer, Johan A.; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our Western society. In the long run, insufficient sleep may have repercussions for health and may sensitize individuals to psychiatric diseases. In this context, we applied an animal model of chronic

  11. Differential effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation and stress on serotonin-1A and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Viktor; Hagewoud, Roelina; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Disrupted sleep and stress are often linked to each other, and considered as predisposing factors for psychopathologies such as depression. The depressed brain is associated with reduced serotonergic and enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission. In an earlier study, we showed that chronic sleep restri

  12. Chronic intermittent hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea: an experimental and clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sforza E

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emilia Sforza, Fréderic Roche Service de Physiologie Clinique et de l'Exercice, Pole NOL, CHU, EA SNA-EPIS 4607, Faculté de Médecine J. Lisfranc, UJM Saint-Etienne, Université de Lyon, Saint-Etienne, France Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a prevalent sleep disorder considered as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, metabolic disorders, and cognitive dysfunction. The pathogenesis of OSA-related consequence is assumed to be chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH inducing alterations at the molecular level, oxidative stress, persistent systemic inflammation, oxygen sensor activation, and increase of sympathetic activity. Overall, these mechanisms have an effect on vessel permeability and are considered to be important factors for explaining vascular, metabolic, and cognitive OSA-related consequences. The present review attempts to examine together the research paradigms and clinical studies on the effect of acute and chronic IH and the potential link with OSA. We firstly describe the literature data on the mechanisms activated by acute and chronic IH at the experimental level, which are very helpful and beneficial to explaining OSA consequences. Then, we describe in detail the effect of IH in patients with OSA that we can consider "the human model" of chronic IH. In this way, we can better understand the specific pathophysiological mechanisms proposed to explain the consequences of IH in OSA. Keywords: hypoxia, intermittent hypoxia, experimental studies, obstructive sleep apnea

  13. Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional and prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Norborg, Malene; Sørensen, Tilde Sand;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze if adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), increase the risk of sleep disturbances in the Danish workforce. METHODS: Analyses were conducted both cross-sectionally and prospectively in a representative...... with gender-stratified, multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for numerous covariates. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, a 1 S.D. increase in the ERI ratio was associated with sleep disturbances among both men [odds ratio (OR)=1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20-2.27] and women (OR=1.......82, 95% CI=1.46-2.28). In the prospective analysis, a 1 S.D. increase of the ERI ratio at baseline predicted the onset of sleep disturbances among men (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.03-1.87) but not among women (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.76-1.24). CONCLUSION: Among men, ERI is a risk factor for the development of sleep...

  14. Correlation between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a general population in Iran

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    Babak Amra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnea syndrome in a sample of Persian population. Methods: As a part of a population-based cross-sectional study, 3900 randomly selected individuals aged 15 years or older were invited to take part in the survey; 3770 individuals (96.6% agreed to fill out the respiratory and sleep questionnaire. Those subjects suspected to have either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and/or obstructive sleep apnea underwent spirometry and polysomnography test if indicated. Spirometric measurements were performed on 420 invited responders. Polysomnography measurements were performed on 25 of the responders. Results: Prevalence rates for sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and current asthma were 4.98%, 5.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Logistic regression showed independent associations between sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There was no significant independent association between sleep apnea symptoms and current asthma and wheeze ever. Conclusions: These observations indicated relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea. These observations indicated the necessity of further studies to explain the possible common pathogenic mechanisms involved in two disease entities.

  15. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  16. Modeling the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin on self-reported changes in sleep disturbances in outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder managed in routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz MA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Miguel A Ruiz,1 Enrique Álvarez,2 Jose L Carrasco,3 José M Olivares,4 María Pérez,5 Javier Rejas6 1Department of Methodology, School of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau, Barcelona, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, 4Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Meixoeiro, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Vigo, 5Medical Department, Pfizer, S.L.U., Alcobendas, Madrid, 6Health Economics and Outcomes Research Department, Pfizer, S.L.U., Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain Background: Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being one of the most common. Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in GAD patients. While treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across many controlled clinical trials, mediational analysis has suggested that a substantial portion of this effect could be the result of a direct effect of pregabalin. Thus, the objective of this study was to model the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin or usual care (UC therapies on changes in sleep in outpatients with GAD under routine clinical practice. Methods: Male and female GAD outpatients, aged 18 years or above, from a 6-month prospective noninterventional trial were analyzed. Direct and indirect effects of either pregabalin or UC changes in anxiety symptoms (assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale and sleep disturbances (assessed with Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale [MOS-S] were estimated by a conditional latent curve model applying structural equation modeling. Results: A total of 1,546 pregabalin-naïve patients were analyzed, 984 receiving pregabalin and 562 UC. Both symptoms of anxiety and sleep disturbances were significantly improved in both groups, with higher mean (95% confidence interval score reductions in subjects receiving

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Subsequent Risk of Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Ting Kao; Shih-Han Hung; Herng-Ching Lin; Chih-Kuang Liu; Hung-Meng Huang; Chuan-Song Wu

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) still remains unclear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the relationship between OSA and subsequent CRS using a population-based dataset. The study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We selected 971 patients with OSA for the study cohort and 4855 patients without OSA for the comparison cohort. Each patient was tracked for 5 years to determine those wh...

  18. Hypothalamic L-Histidine Decarboxylase Is Up-Regulated During Chronic REM Sleep Deprivation of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gloria E.; Koban, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A competition of neurobehavioral drives of sleep and wakefulness occurs during sleep deprivation. When enforced chronically, subjects must remain awake. This study examines histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus in response to enforced wakefulness in rats. We tested the hypothesis that the rate-limiting enzyme for histamine biosynthesis, L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), would be up-regulated during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) because histamine plays a major role in maintaining wakefulness. Archived brain tissues of male Sprague Dawley rats from a previous study were used. Rats had been subjected to REM-SD by the flowerpot paradigm for 5, 10, or 15 days. For immunocytochemistry, rats were transcardially perfused with acrolein-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of L-HDC; separate controls used carbodiimide-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of histamine. Immunolocalization of histamine within the tuberomammillary nucleus was validated using carbodiimide. Because HDC antiserum has cross-reactivity with other decarboxylases at high antibody concentrations, titrations localized L-HDC to only tuberomammillary nucleus at a dilution of ≥ 1:300,000. REM-SD increased immunoreactive HDC by day 5 and it remained elevated in both dorsal and ventral aspects of the tuberomammillary complex. Our results suggest that up-regulation of L-HDC within the tuberomammillary complex during chronic REM-SD may be responsible for maintaining wakefulness. PMID:27997552

  19. The Effectiveness of Hypnotherapy in Treating Depression, Anxiety and Sleep Disturbance Caused by Subjective Tinnitus

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    Seyed Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with tinnitus encounter many problems, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, increased sensitivity to sound, and negativity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy on the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus. Materials and Methods: This study was a pilot research with a pretest-posttest and control design. The statistical population included individuals who suffered from tinnitus and its associated symptoms. Twenty patients with tinnitus were selected through available sampling. The subjects were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. Both groups completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in both pretest and post-test phases. Only the experimental group received 10 sessions of hypnotherapy. In this study, independent and dependent t-tests were used to obtain the data.Results: The two groups were similar in terms of tinnitus severity and age range. The results of independent and dependent t-tests at p=0.05 level in all three variables of depression, anxiety, and insomnia showed a significant difference between the scores of pretest and post-test as well as the post-test scores of control and experimental groups.Conclusion: The results indicated the effectiveness and usefulness of hypnotherapy in the reduction and treatment of the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus in the experimental group.

  20. DIFFERENTIAL KINETICS IN ALTERATION AND RECOVERY OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES FROM A CHRONIC SLEEP RESTRICTION IN YOUNG HEALTHY MEN.

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    Arnaud Alexandre Rabat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep restriction (CSR induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e. attention, executive under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8h TIB followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4h TIB, 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8h TIB and 2 more ones 8 days later (R12-R13. Subjective sleepiness (KSS, maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT were evaluated 4 times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m. and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m. and evening (6:30 p.m. sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13 and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12 samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1, tardily (after R2 and no recovered (R13. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741.

  1. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject's capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12-R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject's age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject's performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject's capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741).

  2. Changes in Sleep Problems and Psychological Flexibility Following Interdisciplinary Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain: An Observational Cohort Study

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    Aisling Daly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT for sleep problems and chronic pain have shown good results, although these results could improve. More recent developments based on the psychological flexibility model, the model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT may offer a useful addition to traditional CBT. The aim of this study was to examine whether an ACT-based treatment for chronic pain is associated with improved sleep. Secondly, we examined the associations between changes on measures of psychological flexibility and sleep-related outcomes.Methods: The study used an observational cohort methodology. Participants were 252 patients (73.8% female attending a four-week, interdisciplinary, pain management program in London, United Kingdom. Participants completed standard self-report measures of pain and functioning, sleep outcomes, and processes of psychological flexibility. Pre- to post-treatment, and pre-treatment to follow-up measures were examined for statistically significant differences using paired samples t-tests. Secondarily, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine change in process measures in relation to change in treatment outcome.Results: Participants showed statistically significant improvements (all p<.001 at post-treatment on measures of insomnia severity (d=.45, sleep interference (d=61, and sleep efficiency (d=.32. Significant improvements in insomnia severity and sleep interference were also observed at nine-month follow up. Small to medium effect sizes were observed across the sleep outcomes. Statistically significant changes were also observed on measures of psychological flexibility, and these improvements were significantly associated with improvements on sleep-related outcomes, independently contributing up to 19% of unique variance. Conclusion: This study supports the potential usefulness of ACT-based treatments for chronic pain for addressing co-occurring sleep difficulties

  3. EVALUATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA - OVERLAP SYNDROME

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    Vaddadi Sailendra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The drop in oxygen saturation during sleep is more than during exercise and patients of COPD who spend more time in sleeping. Significant sleep desaturation and the sleep disturbances are greater in overlap syndrome than in OSA alone. The present study is conducted in Gayathri Vidya Parishad Institute of Healthcare and Medical Technology, Visakhapatnam, AP, India, to find the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in the patients with COPD. AIMS The present study was a cross-sectional study prospectively carried out with an aim to evaluate the breathing disorders during sleep in patients with COPD and to correlate these disorders with the stage of the disease. SETTINGS AND DESIGN The study Cohort was constituted by patients of COPD registered into Chest OPD or admitted in Indoor units of Gayathri Vidya Parishad Institute of Healthcare and Medical Technology, Visakhapatnam, AP, India, from July 2014 to May 2016. A total of thirty six consecutive COPD patients who consented to be enrolled into the study were classified into Mild, Moderate and Severe stages based on the Indian Guidelines for the management of COPD. METHODS AND MATERIAL Spirometric evaluation and bronchial reversibility testing was conducted in all the patients. Arterial Blood Gas Analysis was done using ABL3 arterial blood gas analyser (Radiometer, Copenhagen. POLYSOMNOGRAPHY Patients were hooked to Compumedics ProFusion Polysomnographic Machine (Compumedics Private Limited 2001, USA, by standard gold cups/electrodes. Thereafter, the patients were subjected to a full night sleep study (Overnight polysomnography. The electrode and sensor connection system utilises E-series EEG/PSG system in order to record the PSG study. The impedance of electrodes was checked and set to <10. A total of 20 leads were utilised for the study. The various parameters monitored included Electroencephalogram (EEG, Electro-oculogram (EOG, Electrocardiogram (ECG, chin and leg Electromyogram (EMG

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Latisha K; Avidan, Alon Y

    2008-01-01

    Sleep and stroke have an important and fascinating interaction. Patients with sleep-disordered breathing present with cardiovascular heart disease, cognitive decline, and increased risk of stroke. Stroke adversely affects sleep and factors such as prolonged immobilization, chronic pain, nocturnal hypoxia, and depression, which can also adversely impact sleep quality. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), one of the most common and serious sleep disturbances, manifests itself in almost 50% of all stroke patients. Sleep apnea patients who experience a stroke may be at a greater impairment in their rehabilitation potential and have increased risk of secondary stroke and mortality. Given these factors, the practicing neurologist should possess the skills to appropriately recognize, rapidly diagnose, and properly manage stroke patients with OSA.

  5. Intraspecific variation in physiological condition of reef-building corals associated with differential levels of chronic disturbance.

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    Chiara Pisapia

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching, corals are subject to high levels of partial or whole-colony mortality, often caused by chronic and small-scale disturbances. Depending on levels of background mortality, these chronic disturbances may undermine individual fitness and have significant consequences on the ability of colonies to withstand subsequent acute disturbances or environmental change. This study quantified intraspecific variations in physiological condition (measured based on total lipid content and zooxanthellae density through time in adult colonies of two common and widespread coral species (Acropora spathulata and Pocillopora damicornis, subject to different levels of biological and physical disturbances along the most disturbed reef habitat, the crest. Marked intraspecific variation in the physiological condition of A. spathulata was clearly linked to differences in local disturbance regimes and habitat. Specifically, zooxanthellae density decreased (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B =  -121255, p = 0.03 and total lipid content increased (r2 = 14, df = 5,42, p = 0.01, B = 0.9, p = 0.01 with increasing distance from exposed crests. Moreover, zooxanthellae density was strongly and negatively correlated with the individual level of partial mortality (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B =  -7386077, p = 0.01. Conversely, P. damicornis exhibited very limited intraspecific variation in physiological condition, despite marked differences in levels of partial mortality. This is the first study to relate intraspecific variation in the condition of corals to localized differences in chronic disturbance regimes. The next step is to ascertain whether these differences have further ramifications for susceptibility to periodic acute disturbances, such as climate-induced coral bleaching.

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of randomized controlled trials of sensory stimulation interventions for sleeping disturbances in patients with dementia: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Tatiana-Danai; Tsolaki, Magdalini

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current review aims to evaluate the sensory stimulation interventions in terms of reducing sleeping disturbances in patients with dementia. The nonpharmacological interventions seem to be an efficient, inexpensive, and easy tool for family caregivers. Moreover, sleeping disorders increase caregivers’ distress and may lead to hospitalization. Methods A systematic literature search was performed. Eleven randomized controlled trials have been found. Among these eleven trials, one referred to massage therapy and acupuncture, and the other ten studies referred to bright light therapy. Results The results demonstrated that there are no relevant randomized controlled trials of music therapy, aromatherapy, and multisensory environment/Snoezelen referring to sleeping disturbances. Several studies have been conducted about the effect of the bright light therapy, and there is also another study that combines massage therapy and acupuncture therapy. Conclusion Sensory stimulation interventions are inexpensive and practical for dementia caregivers; however, only bright light therapy seems to be useful to reduce sleeping problems in dementia. The other sensory stimulation interventions lack evidence, and there is a strong need for further research. PMID:28360513

  7. [Chronic snoring and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carlos Villafranca, F; Cobo Plana, J; Díaz-Esnal, B; Fernández-Mondragón, P; Macías Escalada, E; Puente Rodríguez, M

    2003-09-01

    The problems children have in sleeping are manifold; the gamut of disorders that have been described ranges from simple, occasional snoring with no accompanying complications, through the syndrome of increased blockage of the upper airways to the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) where respiratory difficulties accompanied by hypoxemia, hypercapnia and structural sleep difficulties. Mouth breathing and chronic snoring occur frequently in children, with the incidence of snoring, identical for both sexes, varying between 3.2 and 27%. Difficulties in sleeping begin between the ages of the 3 and 9, peaking between 3 and 6. These results demonstrate, in a general way, the disparity between growth of the adenoids and tonsils, and upper airway growth. A differential diagnosis between the various pathological possibilities is based on the observed clinical signs and symptoms, analysis of cephalometric radiographs, polysomnography, a nocturnal cardio-respiratory polygraph and a video film taken during sleep. Snoring is the most characteristic sign of OSAHS in children. We do not yet have available any synthetic study that would sum up results of studies of sleep disorders in children. Nevertheless, we can define obstructive sleep apnea in children as the partial or total cessation of nose and mouth breathing for a period double that of the normal respiratory cycle. Classical treatment of children who suffer from severe respiratory difficulties during sleep, after identification of the etiology of the problem, consists of surgical removal of the adenoids or tonsils and, in certain, continuous positive pressure to assist breathing. The authors of this article have worked with 137 patients between the ages of 6 and 9, 77 of whom were chronic snorers with an average age of 7 years 6 months. The average age of the control group of 60 children was 7 years 2 months. We collected clinical data, medical histories, and distributed a questionnaire to determine

  8. Sleep disturbances are associated with reduced health-related quality of life in patients with substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnée, E.H.B.; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Wijdeveld, T.A.G.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Sleep problems and substance use are strongly linked. Sleep problems play a role in the etiology of substance use, but also may be a result of it. After detoxification, sleep problems may worsen leading to relapse. Nowadays, most substance dependence treatment programs aim

  9. Sleep disturbances are associated with reduced health-related quality of life in patients with substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnee, E.H.; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Wijdeveld, T.A.G.M.; Coenen, A.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sleep problems and substance use are strongly linked. Sleep problems play a role in the etiology of substance use, but also may be a result of it. After detoxification, sleep problems may worsen leading to relapse. Nowadays, most substance dependence treatment programs aim

  10. Diagnostics Of Renal Hemodynamics Disturbance In Children And Teenagers With Chronic Constipation, Encopresis And Their Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Malykh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the detailed issue of results of complex inspection of 90 children and teenagers aged 4-17 with problems of chronic constipation, incontinence and encopresis. Ultrasonic screening has shown various pathology in the functional condition of arterial renal vessels. The method of biological feedback has been considered as prospective method of treatment excluding medication of bladder and small bowel dysfunction. The efficiency of the method was marked at combination of encopresis and incontinence. The purpose of the present research was the study of renal hemodynamics disturbances and working out methods of their correction. The examination included ultrasonic investigation, electromyography and uroflowmetry. The study of functional condition of anterior abdominal wall muscles and pelvic floor muscles was performed by means of «Miomed - 938». All patients received complex therapy on the basis of which the method of biological feedback was used

  11. Relationship between chronic disturbance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism in erythrocytes and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenko, Elena A; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Kaminsky, Yury G

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders widely occurring among the elderly. The pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of this disease are still unknown. In AD, in addition to brain, a number of peripheral tissues and cells are affected, including erythrocytes. In this study, we analyzed glycolytic energy metabolism, antioxidant status, glutathione, adenylate and proteolytic systems in erythrocytes from patients with AD and compared with those from age-matched controls and young adult controls. Glycolytic enzymes hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, bisphosphoglycerate mutase and bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase displayed lower activities in agematched controls, and higher activities in AD patients, as compared to those in young adult control subjects. In both aging and AD, oxidative stress is increased in erythrocytes whereas elevated concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio and glutathione transferase activity can be detected. These oxidative disturbances are also accompanied by reductions in ATP levels, adenine nucleotide pool size and adenylate energy charge. Caspase-3 and calpain activities in age-matched controls and AD patients were about three times those of young adult controls. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels were significantly decreased in AD patients. Taken together these data suggest that AD patients are associated with chronic disturbance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism in erythrocytes. These defects may play a central role in pathophysiological processes predisposing elderly subjects to dementia.

  12. Self-reported sleep quality and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Geiger-Brown J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeanne Geiger-Brown,1 Sarah Lindberg,2 Samuel Krachman,3 Charlene E McEvoy,4 Gerard J Criner,3 John E Connett,2 Richard K Albert,5 Steven M Scharf6 1Center for Health Outcomes Research, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, 2University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Division of Biostatistics, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 4Health Partners Institute of Education and Research, St Paul, MN, 5The Medicine Service, Denver Health and Department of Medicine, the University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, 6Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD suffer from poor sleep quality. We hypothesized that poor sleep quality in otherwise stable patients predicted exacerbations in these patients. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the results of a previously published randomized trial of azithromycin in 1,117 patients with moderate to severe COPD who were clinically stable on enrollment. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Other quality of life indices included the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey and the St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire. Outcomes included time to first exacerbation and exacerbation rate. Results: Sleep quality was “poor” (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5 in 53% of participants but was not related to age or severity of airflow obstruction. Quality of life scores were worse in “poor” sleepers than in “good” sleepers. Major classes of comorbid conditions, including psychiatric, neurologic, and musculoskeletal disease, were more prevalent in the “poor” sleepers. Unadjusted time to first exacerbation was shorter (190 versus 239 days and exacerbation rate (1

  13. Chronic conditions and sleep problems among adults aged 50 years or over in nine countries: a multi-country study.

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    Ai Koyanagi

    Full Text Available Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted.Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa conducted between 2011-2012 and 2007-2010 respectively were analyzed.The association between nine chronic conditions (angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke and self-reported severe/extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days was estimated by logistic regression with multiple variables. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep problems ranged from 2.8% (China to 17.0% (Poland. After adjustment for confounders, angina (OR 1.75-2.78, arthritis (OR 1.39-2.46, and depression (OR 1.75-5.12 were significantly associated with sleep problems in the majority or all of the countries. Sleep problems were also significantly associated with: asthma in Finland, Spain, and India; chronic lung disease in Poland, Spain, Ghana, and South Africa; diabetes in India; and stroke in China, Ghana, and India. A linear dose-dependent relationship between the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems was observed in all countries. Compared to no chronic conditions, the OR (95%CI for 1,2,3, and ≥ 4 chronic conditions was 1.41 (1.09-1.82, 2.55 (1.99-3.27, 3.22 (2.52-4.11, and 7.62 (5.88-9.87 respectively in the overall sample.Identifying co-existing sleep problems among patients with chronic conditions and treating them simultaneously may lead to better treatment outcome. Clinicians should be aware of the high risk for sleep problems among patients with multimorbidity. Future studies

  14. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on the Sleep Quality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Erdal İn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is well known that various sleep disorders are common in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, restless legs syndrome (RLS has not been extensively studied in these patients. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of RLS and its impact on sleep quality in patients with COPD. Methods: The study included a total of 50 patients with COPD with a mean age of 67.2±7.7 years; 39 (78% were male. The RLS diagnosis was made based on the questionnaire items standardized by the International RLS study group. Dyspnea severity (mMRC, quality of life (CAT, sleep quality [Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI], and daytime sleepiness [Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS] were evaluated using certain specific questionnaires. The subjects were studied in two groups: RLS-positive and RLS-negative groups. Results: In the study population, RLS was detected in 17 (34% patients. It was found that the RLS-positive subjects had a longer disease duration (p=0.006, a higher hospital admission rate (p=0.008, and lower spirometric values (p=0.023 for FVC; p=0.001 for FEV1. The CAT score was significantly higher in the RLS-positive group (p=0.019. The RLS-positive group had higher PSQI and ESS scores (p<0.001 for both. There were negative correlations between PSQI, ESS scores, and spirometric measures (FVC and FEV1, whereas PSQI and ESS scores had positive correlations with disease duration, mMRC, and CAT scores. Conclusion: In our study, it was observed that RLS is a common condition in patients with COPD. As the duration and severity of COPD increases, RLS becomes more prevalent and sleep quality deteriorates.

  15. Abnormal nocturnal heart rate variability response among chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients during wakefulness and sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Ranpuria, Reena; Hall, Martica; Hotchkiss, John R.; Chan, Chris T.; Mark L Unruh; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Background. Dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience a substantial risk for abnormal autonomic function and abnormal heart rate variability (HRV). It remains unknown whether HRV changes across sleep stages in patients with different severity of CKD or dialysis dependency. We hypothesized that high-frequency (HF) HRV (vagal tone) will be attenuated from wakefulness to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and then to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in dialysis patient...

  16. Sleep is associated with task-negative brain activity in fibromyalgia participants with comorbid chronic insomnia

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    Vatthauer KE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Karlyn E Vatthauer,1 Jason G Craggs,1 Michael E Robinson,1 Roland Staud,2 Richard B Berry,2 William M Perlstein,1 Christina S McCrae11Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Patients with chronic pain exhibit altered default mode network (DMN activity. This preliminary project questioned whether comorbid disease states are associated with further brain alterations. Thirteen women with fibromyalgia (FM only and 26 women with fibromyalgia with comorbid chronic insomnia (FMI underwent a single night of ambulatory polysomnography and completed a sleep diary each morning for 14 days prior to performing a neuroimaging protocol. Novel imaging analyses were utilized to identify regions associated with significantly disordered sleep that were more active in task-negative periods than task-oriented periods in participants with FMI, when compared to participants with FM. It was hypothesized that core DMN areas (ie, cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule, medial prefrontal cortex, medial temporal cortex, precuneus would exhibit increased activity during task-negative periods. Analyses revealed that significantly disordered sleep significantly contributed to group differences in the right cingulate gyrus, left lentiform nucleus, left anterior cingulate, left superior gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, right caudate, and the left inferior parietal lobules. Results suggest that FMI may alter some brain areas of the DMN, above and beyond FM. However, future work will need to investigate these results further by controlling for chronic insomnia only before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of FMI comorbidity on the DMN.Keywords: insomnia, fibromyalgia, neuroimaging, task-negative, brain activity, comorbidity

  17. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Villafuerte, Francisco C.; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS pa...

  18. Lower grade chronic inflammation is associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宏霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the existence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS)in patients with type 2 diabetes(T2DM) is associated with low grade chronic inflammation.Methods Fifty-four patients hospitalized for poor glycemic control from 12/2008 to 12/2009 were divided into 2 groups,OSAS group(T2DM with OSAS,27 cases)and NOSAS group(T2DM without OSAS,27 cases).The control group consisted of 26people from a health check-up program without diabetes

  19. Sex differences in reported and objectively measured sleep in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theorell-Haglöw J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jenny Theorell-Haglöw,1 Inga Sif Ólafsdóttir,1–3 Bryndís Benediktsdóttir,2,3 Thórarinn Gíslason,2,3 Eva Lindberg,1 Christer Janson1 1Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali University Hospital, 3Medical Faculty, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland Background: The aim was to assess and compare reported sleep disturbances and objectively measured sleep in men and women with COPD compared with controls and also explore sex differences. Methods: A total of 96 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex-matched controls answered a sleep questionnaire, underwent ambulatory polysomnography, a post-bronchodilatory spirometry, and blood sampling. Results: Of the patients with COPD, 51% reported sleep disturbances as compared with 31% in controls (P=0.008. Sleep disturbances were significantly more prevalent in males with COPD compared with controls, whereas there was no significant difference in females. The use of hypnotics was more common among patients with COPD compared with controls, both in men (15% vs 0%, P=0.009 and women (36% vs 16%, P=0.03. The men with COPD had significantly longer recorded sleep latency than the male control group (23 vs 9.3 minutes, P<0.001, while no corresponding difference was found in women. In men with COPD, those with reported sleep disturbances had lower forced vital capacity, higher C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, and higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis. Conclusion: The COPD was associated with impaired sleep in men while the association was less clear in women. This was also confirmed by recorded longer sleep latency in male subjects with COPD compared with controls. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep, polysomnography, quality of sleep, sex

  20. Correlation between obesity and chronic kidney disease: is obstructive sleep apnea an interfering factor?

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    Santos-Camilo M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariana Santos-Camilo, Stefanie Pires Arães, Camila Hirotsu, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil The increasing prevalence of obesity can be considered an alarming issue throughout the world.1 In only 4 years, for example, the People’s Republic of China has experienced an increase in the overweight population from 29.1% to 34.4%.2 Therefore, we would like to congratulate Xu et al3 for conducting an elegant study on a less explored topic: the accumulation of visceral fat in kidney disease. The rise in obesity may result, at least in part, from changes in lifestyle, currently characterized by sedentary, poor eating, and sleep habits. The reduction in sleep duration is known to predispose individuals to obesity by increasing the white adipose tissue deposits such as visceral fat.4,5 Of note, obesity and visceral fat accumulation are etiopathological factors for both chronic kidney disease (CKD and sleep disorders.6,7  View the original paper by Xu et al

  1. Effects of chronic treatment with two selective 5-HT2 antagonists on sleep in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, R H; Echevarria, E; Cox, B; Blackburn, T P; Tortella, F C

    1993-04-01

    The effect of chronic administration of 2(2-dimethylaminoethylthio)-3-phenylquinoline (ICI-169,369) and 2(2-dimethylamino-2-methylpropylthio)-3-phenylquinoline (ICI-170,809), two selective 5-HT2 antagonists, on sleep was studied in rats. As previously shown, the acute effect of ICI-170,809 was to increase latency to rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), decrease the number of REM periods (REMPs), suppress the cumulative amount of REMS over 12 h, and increase the duration of REMPs in the first 6 h, while having no effect on non-REM sleep (NREMS). Administration of ICI-169,369 had similar effects except no change was seen in the duration of REMPs and cumulative REMS was suppressed for 24 h. When given 2 x daily for 5 days, tolerance to the REMS suppressant effects developed in both drugs. After discontinuation of treatment, a REMS rebound occurred after ICI-170,809, but not ICI-169,369. No significant effect on NREMS was seen after administration of ICI-170,809, whereas ICI-169,369 lowered 24-h cumulative NREMS on the fifth day of administration.

  2. Adding Agnus Castus and Magnolia to Soy Isoflavones Relieves Sleep Disturbances Besides Postmenopausal Vasomotor Symptoms-Long Term Safety and Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale De Franciscis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness for vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders plus the long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination of agnus-castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI and lactobacilli were assessed in postmenopausal women. A controlled study was carried out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group with a formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group at the dosage recommended. The Kuppermann index, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, and Short Form 36 (SF-36 were determined at baseline, three, six and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. One hundred and eighty women were enrolled in the study (100 in the ESP group and 80 in the C group. At the end of the treatment, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. The Kuppermann index and particularly the tendency for hot flashes progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. At the same time, a significant increase in sleep quality and psychophysical wellness parameters was observed in the ESP versus C groups. No adverse events were observed. Agnus-castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. The endometrium, mammary glands and liver function were unaffected after 12 months of treatment.

  3. Piromelatine, a novel melatonin receptor agonist, stabilizes metabolic profiles and ameliorates insulin resistance in chronic sleep restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Meihua; Hu, Xiaobo; Su, Zehong; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Shenghua; Ding, Lin; Laudon, Moshe; Yin, Weidong

    2014-03-15

    Chronic sleep deprivation may speed the onset or increase the severity of age-related conditions such as Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity. Piromelatine (Neu-P11) is a novel melatonin agonist, which has been developed for the treatment of insomnia. Animal studies have suggested possible efficacy of piromelatine in sleep maintenance, anxiety and depression. In addition, piromelatine has been shown to inhibit weight gain and improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat/high-sucrose-fed (HFSD) rats. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piromelatine on insulin sensitivity in sleep restricted rats. Sleep restriction was established by rotating cages intermittently for 20h thereby sleeping time of rats was limited to 4h per day. During 8 days of sleep restriction, rats were injected intraperitoneally with piromelatine (20mg/kg), melatonin (5mg/kg) or a vehicle. The results showed that sleep restriction increased plasma glucose, fasting insulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and oxidative stress markers while HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) level and glucose tolerance were decreased. However, under piromelatine or melatonin treatment, the levels of plasma glucose, TG, TC decreased and HDL-C, glucose tolerance and antioxidative potency increased when compared with the vehicle-treated group. These data suggest that chronic sleep restriction in rats induce metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress and insulin resistance, and these symptoms were improved by treatment with piromelatine or melatonin. We conclude that piromelatine could regulate metabolic profiles and insulin sensitivity, and attenuate insulin resistance induced by sleep restriction.

  4. Ventilation, autonomic function, sleep and erythropoietin. Chronic mountain sickness of Andean natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Luciano; Roach, Robert C; Keyl, Cornelius; Spicuzza, Lucia; Passino, Claudio; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge; Malcovati, Luca; Schneider, Annette; Casiraghi, Nadia; Mori, Antonio; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola

    2003-01-01

    Polycythemia is one of the key factors involved in the chronic mountain sickness syndrome, a condition frequent in Andean natives but whose causes still remain unclear. In theory, polycythemia may be secondary to abnormalities in ventilation, occurring during day or night (e.g. due to sleep abnormalities) stimulating excessive erythropoietin (Epo) production, or else it may result from either autogenous production, or from co-factors like cobalt. To assess the importance of these points, we studied subjects with or without polycythemia, born and living in Cerro de Pasco (Peru, 4330m asl, CP) and evaluated the relationship between Epo and respiratory variables both in CP and sea level. We also assessed the relationship between sleep abnormalities and the circadian rhythm of Epo. Polycythemic subjects showed higher Epo in all conditions, lower SaO2 and hypoxic ventilatory response, higher physiological dead space and higher CO2, suggesting ventilatory inefficiency. Epo levels could be highly modified by the level of oxygenation, and were related to similar directional changes in SaO2. Cobalt levels were normal in all subjects and correlated poorly with hematologic variables. The diurnal variations in Epo were grossly abnormal in polycythemic subjects, with complete loss of the circadian rhythm. These abnormalities correlated with the levels of hypoxemia during the night, but not with sleep abnormalities, which were only minor even in polycythemic subjects. The increased Epo production is mainly related to a greater ventilatory inefficiency, and not to altered sensitivity to hypoxia, cobalt or sleep abnormalities. Improving oxygenation can represent a possible therapeutic option for this syndrome.

  5. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-07-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia.

  6. Temporal changes of sleep disturbances and their associations with CYP450 2B6 polymorphism and plasma drug level in HIV patients on efavirenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K To

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and sleep disturbances were commonly reported among HIV patients on efavirenz (EFV, the pharmacokinetic pattern varies with different CYP450 2B6 G516T genotypes. This prospective study aims to detect temporal changes and differences in the profile of these adverse reactions and their relation to plasma EFV level and host genotypes. HIV patients of Chinese ethnicity on an EFV-containing HAART regimen were recruited from a specialist clinic. Blood for CYP2B6 G516T genotypes was taken. A questionnaire assessing adverse neurological problems and sleep disturbance was administered, alongside testing for plasma EFV levels at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 months and 1 year intervals after treatment. Analysis was performed using χ2 and t-test. A total of 64 patients (31 GG, 27 GT, 6 TT genotypes, 59 male, and 5 female, mean age of 41±9.9 were recruited. At 4 weeks after EFV, 49 (76% gave a history of any one of the neurological side effects: dizziness, headache and drunk feeling. Sleep disturbances were common: bizarre dream (45%, nightmares (35%, waking at night (73%, poor sleep quality (31%, nocturia (84% and difficulty in falling asleep (67%. The mean plasma EFV level of GG genotype was 2.8 µg/ml and 3 µg/ml, GT genotype was 3.8 µg/ml and 3.9 µg/ml, at 4 weeks and 1 year respectively. The mean plasma EFV level of TT genotype was 11.9 µg/ml and 9.7 µg/ml at 4 weeks and 1 year respectively. There was no significant variation of drug level within each genotype over time (p>0.08, while EFV level of TT was significantly higher at all time points (p<0.01. Overall, nightmares and difficulty to fall asleep were significantly related to the plasma EFV level (p=0.021 and 0.017 respectively. However, the sleep quality, nocturnal awakening, nocturia or requirement of sleeping pills was not significantly associated with EFV level (p=0.28, 0.06, 0.1 and 0.5 respectively. When the side effects were separately evaluated according to time points, they all

  7. [Sleep in older adults: association between chronic insomnia and cognitive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov, Iris; Vadas, Limor

    2009-05-01

    Chronic insomnia and cognitive impairment are both common complaints among older adults. Even so, only a few studies have examined the effects of chronic insomnia on cognitive functioning among the elderly, and the results of these studies are contradictory. The authors therefore examined whether insomnia is associated with changes in cognitive functioning among elderly people. The study population comprised two groups: 64 older adult subjects without sleep disorders, and 48 older adult insomniacs. All subjects were living independently in the community and were in good clinical condition. The cognitive capacity of each subject was tested at the subject's home using the computerized "MindFit" test (CogniFit, Inc.). The results demonstrate that chronic insomnia in older adults is associated with impairment in cognitive functioning. Specifically, we found that older people suffering from late-life insomnia exhibit significantly reduced performance in memory span, allocating attention to a target, time estimation, working memory and integration of two dimensions. The present findings suggest that late-life insomnia may be one of the factors contributing to the decline in cognitive functioning seen among older people. Thus, it is particularly important for health care practitioners to screen for, evaluate and treat insomnia symptoms in the elderly. The findings of this study offer hope that treatment of insomnia in older adults can have beneficial effects in improving cognitive functioning in these patients. Therefore, attention to and effective treatment of chronic insomnia in older persons may not only improve the quality of their nighttime sleep, but conceivabLy, may also maintain cognitive function, thus improving their overall quality of life.

  8. [Heart rhythm disturbances in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in aggregate with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoĭkhet, Ia N; Klester, E B; Golovin, V A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study kinds, frequencies and features of heart rhythm disturbances (HRD) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subject to degree of severity, including presence of coronary heart disease (CHD). 1189 of patients with registered HRD were examined. 315 of them had COPD (group 1), 531--combination of COPD and CHD (group 2), 343 were CHD patients (group 3). The extent of examinations included electrocardiogram (ECG), Halter monitoring (HM), bicycle ergometry (BEM), external respiration function estimation. Supraventricular HRD were registered statistically more frequently in group 1: according to ECG data in rest - in 37.2% patients, by BEM results--in 18.8%, by HM--in 50%. Combined (supraventricular and ventricular) HRD were registered most frequently in group 2: 41.2 24.4, and 45.5% respectively. Ventricular HRD dominated in group 3: 47.6, 29.3 and 48.6% respectively. The results of the study indicate that supraventricular HRDprevaile in patients with COPD, combined HRD - in patients with COPD and CHD. Ventricular HRD, which most informatively reflect changes in intracardiac geometry and left ventricle hemodynamics, dominate in CHD patients. The optimization of therapy correction consists in early diagnostics of HRD subject to features of cardiorespiratory system functional state.

  9. Anxiety Sensitivity and Sleep-Related Problems in Anxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826

  10. Melatonin Treatment in Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Chronic Insomnia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Smits, M.; Curfs, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While several small-number or open-label studies suggest that melatonin improves sleep in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) with chronic sleep disturbance, a larger randomized control trial is necessary to validate these promising results. Methods: The effectiveness of melatonin for the treatment of chronic sleep…

  11. MBD5 haploinsufficiency is associated with sleep disturbance and disrupts circadian pathways common to Smith-Magenis and fragile X syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Pugliesi, Loren; Burns, Brooke; Shah, Zalak; Tahir, Raiha; Gu, Yanghong; Nelson, David L; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who have an identifiable single-gene neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), such as fragile X syndrome (FXS, FMR1), Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS, RAI1), or 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (del 2q23.1, MBD5) share phenotypic features, including a high prevalence of sleep disturbance. We describe the circadian deficits in del 2q23.1 through caregiver surveys in which we identify several frequent sleep anomalies, including night/early awakenings, coughing/snoring loudly, and difficulty falling asleep. We couple these findings with studies on the molecular analysis of the circadian deficits associated with haploinsufficiency of MBD5 in which circadian gene mRNA levels of NR1D2, PER1, PER2, and PER3 were altered in del 2q23.1 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), signifying that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 can result in dysregulation of circadian rhythm gene expression. These findings were further supported by expression microarrays of MBD5 siRNA knockdown cells that showed significantly altered expression of additional circadian rhythm signaling pathway genes. Based on the common sleep phenotypes observed in del 2q23.1, SMS, and FXS patients, we explored the possibility that MBD5, RAI1, and FMR1 function in overlapping circadian rhythm pathways. Bioinformatic analysis identified conserved putative E boxes in MBD5 and RAI1, and expression levels of NR1D2 and CRY2 were significantly reduced in patient LCLs. Circadian and mTOR signaling pathways, both associated with sleep disturbance, were altered in both MBD5 and RAI1 knockdown microarray data, overlapping with findings associated with FMR1. These data support phenotypic and molecular overlaps across these syndromes that may be exploited to provide therapeutic intervention for multiple disorders.

  12. The effect of MELatOnin on Depression, anxietY, cognitive function and sleep disturbances in patients with breast cancer. The MELODY trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt; Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Hageman, Ida

    2012-01-01

    to morbidity and mortality. Melatonin is a regulatory circadian hormone having, among others, a hypnotic and an antidepressive effect. It has very low toxicity and very few adverse effects compared with the more commonly used antidepressants and hypnotics. Methods and analysis The objective of this double......-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial is to investigate whether treatment with oral melatonin has a prophylactic or ameliorating effect on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction in women with breast cancer. Furthermore, the authors will examine whether a specific clock...

  13. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p  Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  14. Hypoxemia during bilevel positive airway pressure treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and chronic respiratory insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzecka, Anna; Piesiak, Pawel; Kosacka, Monika; Jankowska, Renata

    2013-01-01

    In patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome and chronic respiratory insufficiency one of the options of treatment is bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) during sleep. The aim of the study was to find out what are the factors influencing the early results of BPAP treatment in such OSA patients. The study was carried out in 55 adult obese patients (mean body mass index 45 ± 7 kg/m(2)), severe OSA syndrome (mean apnea/hypopnea index 62 ± 19), and chronic respiratory insufficiency (mean PaCO(2) 54 ± 5.7 torr) who underwent polysomnography during BPAP treatment. In 31 patients (56%) the mean SaO(2) during sleep was <88% despite the optimal BPAP and oxygen titration: 83 ± 4% during NREM and 81 ± 7% during REM sleep vs. 91 ± 2% and 90 ± 3%, respectively, in the remaining 24 patients (p < 0.001). The patients with advanced hypoxemia during sleep and BPAP treatment had lower forced vital capacity (2.2 ± 0.9 vs. 2.7 ± 0.8 l, p < 0.05), lower diurnal PaO(2) (49 ± 8 vs. 54 ± 7 torr), higher diurnal PaCO(2) (57 ± 5 vs. 52 ± 5 torr, p < 0.01), and higher PaCO(2) during sleep (75 ± 13 vs. 59.5 ± 7.5 torr). In conclusion, in obese patients with severe OSA syndrome and chronic alveolar hypoventilation there is a risk of sleep hypoxemia during BPAP treatment, despite optimal pressure titration.

  15. Relationship between Chronic Short Sleep Duration and Childhood Body Mass Index: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pileggi

    Full Text Available To assess relationship between obesity and chronic shorter sleep duration in children and to determine if lack of sleep represents an independent determinant of childhood Body Mass Index.This cross-sectional study was conducted in all children enrolled in the fifth class (approximately 10 years of age of all public primary schools in Catanzaro (Southern Italy. The overall response rate was 62% resulting in 542 participating children. Parents completed a questionnaire with information on their demographics and socio-economic characteristics, their health status, characteristics of their child birth and health status. The sleeping habits were investigated in the 3 months preceding the consultation and parents were asked to indicate hours of bedtime and wake-up of their children. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association between child BMI and chronic lack of sleep.36.7% of the children surveyed were overweight or obese. A quarter of children did not routinely play sports and many of them spent more than an hour a day watching TV (60.7% and using videogames or computer (51.1%. Widespread dietary habits were inadequate, especially concerning vegetables and fruit intake with more than 95% of children who consumed insufficient amounts. The average duration of sleep was equal to 9.4 (SD = ±0.6 hours, and the short-sleepers accounted for 38.9% of the total sample. The results of multivariate analysis showed a significant 0.77 Kg/m(2 increase of BMI for children classified as short compared to normal sleepers (95%CI = 0.16-1.38, p = 0.01.Chronic lack of sleep appears to be associated to higher BMI even in middle childhood and strongly suggests that public health strategies, focused on promoting healthy lifestyles should include an innovative approach to ensure an adequate duration of sleep at night especially in children, alongside more traditional approaches.

  16. Differential adaptation of REM sleep latency, intermediate stage and theta power effects of escitalopram after chronic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Szilvia; Kátai, Zita; Kostyalik, Diána; Pap, Dorottya; Molnár, Eszter; Petschner, Péter; Kalmár, Lajos; Bagdy, György

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants on sleep have been intensively investigated. However, only a few animal studies examined the effect of escitalopram, the more potent S-enantiomer of citalopram, and conclusions of these studies on sleep architecture are limited due to the experimental design. Here, we investigate the acute (2 and 10 mg/kg, i.p. injected at the beginning of the passive phase) or chronic (10 mg/kg/day for 21 days, by osmotic minipumps) effects of escitalopram on the sleep and quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) of Wistar rats. The first 3 h of EEG recording was analyzed at the beginning of passive phase, immediately after injections. The acutely injected 2 and 10 mg/kg and the chronically administered 10 mg/kg/day escitalopram caused an approximately three, six and twofold increases in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) latency, respectively. Acute 2-mg/kg escitalopram reduced REMS, but increased intermediate stage of sleep (IS) while the 10 mg/kg reduced both. We also observed some increase in light slow wave sleep and passive wake parallel with a decrease in deep slow wave sleep and theta power in both active wake and REMS after acute dosing. Following chronic treatment, only the increase in REMS latency remained significant compared to control animals. In conclusion, adaptive changes in the effects of escitalopram, which occur after 3 weeks of treatment, suggest desensitization in the function of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors.

  17. Sleep patterns and symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic pain Padrão do sono e sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em pacientes com dor crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M.C. Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety and depression have been shown to be involved in the genesis and perpetuation of chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sleep patterns and the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic pain. METHOD: Four hundred consecutive patients referred to a chronic pain outpatient clinic were investigated using patient charts, the numerical Visual Analogue Scale for the evaluation of pain, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 45.6±11.4 years. The most frequent medical diagnosis was myofascial pain followed by neuropathic pain. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety was 72.8%, depression 93% and altered sleep patterns 93%. CONCLUSION: This study revealed a high prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety and alterations in sleep patterns in patients with chronic pain, justifying investigation into these disturbances in this group of patients.CONTEXTO: Distúrbios do sono e sintomas de ansiedade e depressão tem sido vistos no envolvimento da origem e perpetuação da dor crônica. OBJETIVO:Avaliação do padrão do sono e da prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em pacientes com dor crônica. MÉTODO: Quatrocentos pacientes de dor crônica atendidos consecutivamente na clínica foram investigados usando os seguintes instrumentos a Escala Visual Analógica para a avalição da dor, a Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão e o Mini-Sleep Questionnaire. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos pacientes foi 45,6±11,4 anos. O diagnóstico mais frequente foi de dor miofascial seguido de dor neuropática. A prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade foi 72,8%, de depressão foi 61,5% e de alteração do sono 93%. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo revela uma alta prevalência de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade e alterações no padrão do sono em pacientes com dor crônica, justificando a investiga

  18. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  19. Sleep Patterns in Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Beck, Suzanne E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns and the association between sleep and perceived health for children with and without CF. Ninety families (45 CF) completed questionnaires about the child’s sleep and health. Significant group differences were found for sleep patterns (bedtime, wake time, total sleep time), symptoms of sleep disordered breathing, and sleep disturbances. Poorer perceived health was associated with sleep disturbances among children with CF, but not for children without CF. This...

  20. Movement disorders and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  1. [Inertia or overtreatment in children. When sleeping time is disturbed in infants: how to improve the family's distress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, O; Dominé, F

    2010-01-01

    Sleeping disorders are frequently encountered in infants and adolescents. They often induce a distress in the family, an individual sadness possibly leaving at time to maltreatment. In the normal infant or the medically fragile infant due to prematurity or an acute episode, complaints from the patient or family sources force the medical team to find an explanation or a treatment, which are not always adequate. In other conditions such as asthma, obesity, anorexia nervosa, autism, cerebral palsy, hyperactivity, the sleeping disorders may be so unnoticed or remain insufficiently investigated. Globally, in this domain, the clinical description is often imprecise and sleep studies underused. A more accurate assessment should lead to a better educative approach and more appropriate therapy.

  2. Prevention of depression and sleep disturbances in elderly with memory-problems by activation of the biological clock with light - a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheltens Philip

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression frequently occurs in the elderly and in patients suffering from dementia. Its cause is largely unknown, but several studies point to a possible contribution of circadian rhythm disturbances. Post-mortem studies on aging, dementia and depression show impaired functioning of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN which is thought to be involved in the increased prevalence of day-night rhythm perturbations in these conditions. Bright light enhances neuronal activity in the SCN. Bright light therapy has beneficial effects on rhythms and mood in institutionalized moderate to advanced demented elderly. In spite of the fact that this is a potentially safe and inexpensive treatment option, no previous clinical trial evaluated the use of long-term daily light therapy to prevent worsening of sleep-wake rhythms and depressive symptoms in early to moderately demented home-dwelling elderly. Methods/Design This study investigates whether long-term daily bright light prevents worsening of sleep-wake rhythms and depressive symptoms in elderly people with memory complaints. Patients with early Alzheimer's Disease (AD, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Subjective Memory Complaints (SMC, between the ages of 50 and 75, are included in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. For the duration of two years, patients are exposed to ~10,000 lux in the active condition or ~300 lux in the placebo condition, daily, for two half-hour sessions at fixed times in the morning and evening. Neuropsychological, behavioral, physiological and endocrine measures are assessed at baseline and follow-up every five to six months. Discussion If bright light therapy attenuates the worsening of sleep-wake rhythms and depressive symptoms, it will provide a measure that is easy to implement in the homes of elderly people with memory complaints, to complement treatments with cholinesterase inhibitors, sleep medication or anti-depressants or as a stand

  3. Sleep pattern in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and correlation among gasometric, spirometric, and polysomnographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos Eduardo Ventura Gaio dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are few studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD establishing differences between the functional parameters of the disease and sleep variables. The aim of the study was to describe the sleep pattern of these patients and to correlate spirometric, gasometric and polysomnographic variables. METHODS: Transversal study using COPD patients submitted to spirometry, arterial gasometry, and polysomnography. RESULTS: 21 male patients were studied with average age = 67 ± 9; 7 ± 4 average points in the Epworth sleepiness scale, average Tiffenau's index (FEV1/FVC = 54 ± 13.0%, average PaO2 = 68 ± 11 mmHg, average PaCO2 = 37 ± 6 mmHg. Sleep efficiency decreased (65 ± 16% with the reduction of slow wave sleep (8 ± 9% and rapid eye movement (REM sleep (15 ± 8%. Average T90 was 43 ± 41%. Average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI = 3 ± 5/h, where two patients (9.5% presented obstructive sleep apnea. A significant correlation was observed between PaO2 and T90 (p < 0.01, PaCO2 and T90 (p < 0.05, and AHI and the cardiac rate during REM (p < 0.01. A higher number of arousals and stage change was observed. There was no linear correlation between spirometric and polysomnographic variables. CONCLUSION: Poor sleep quality of these patients was characterized by low sleep efficiency, high number of awakenings and shift of stages. There were no correlations between the spirometric and polysomnographic variables.

  4. Why sleep is important for health: a psychoneuroimmunology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R

    2015-01-03

    Sleep has a critical role in promoting health. Research over the past decade has documented that sleep disturbance has a powerful influence on the risk of infectious disease, the occurrence and progression of several major medical illnesses including cardiovascular disease and cancer, and the incidence of depression. Increasingly, the field has focused on identifying the biological mechanisms underlying these effects. This review highlights the impact of sleep on adaptive and innate immunity, with consideration of the dynamics of sleep disturbance, sleep restriction, and insomnia on (a) antiviral immune responses with consequences for vaccine responses and infectious disease risk and (b) proinflammatory immune responses with implications for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and depression. This review also discusses the neuroendocrine and autonomic neural underpinnings linking sleep disturbance and immunity and the reciprocal links between sleep and inflammatory biology. Finally, interventions are discussed as effective strategies to improve sleep, and potential opportunities are identified to promote sleep health for therapeutic control of chronic infectious, inflammatory, and neuropsychiatric diseases.

  5. 帕金森病患者客观睡眠障碍的特点%Study on objective sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson' s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊康平; 刘春风; 李洁; 毛成洁; 沈丝丝; 唐晴; 黄隽英; 赵敏艳; 韩菲; 陈锐

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of the objective sleep disturbances in Parkinson' s disease (PD) and the factors related to it.Methods One hundred and one PD patients and 90 age- and sex- matched controls underwent a video-polysomnography.The sleep parameters and its related factors in two groups were analyzed.Results Sleep latency was not statistically different in comparing two groups.PD patients had a higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement( non-REM ) sleep stage 1 and a lower percentage of non-REM sleep stage 2 compared with controls ( 27.9 ± 1 7.8 vs 21.2 ± 11.7,t =3.034,P =0.003 ;47.8 ± 17.4 vs 54.7 + 12.9,t =- 3.043,P =0.003 ).Reduced sleep efficiency,decreased the proportion of slow wave sleep and REM sleep,increased awake time and longer REM sleep latency occurred in PD patients.There were no significant differences of these above parameters.Some sleep parameters in PD patients were correlated with advancing age,the severity of PD,and the degree of depression.The index of periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMSI) of 41 PD patients (40.6% ) was more than 15.These PD patients didn' t complain corresponding symptoms about their legs.The PLMSI in PD patients were significantly higher than the controls.PLMSI increased with aging in the PD group( r =0.261,P <0.01 ).PD patients didn' t suffer significantly lower apnea- hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index.The lowest SPO2 ( L-SPO2 ) increased in the PD group.REM sleep without atonia occurred in 83 patients (82.2%) with PD.Thirty-eight patients (37.6%) were diagnosed with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).The incidences of REM without atonia and RBD in the PD group were significantly higher than in the control s(0 and 8 patients (8.9%),x2 =42.271,102.480; both P < 0.01 ).Conclusions The sleep parameters in PD patients are changed.For PD patients,there is no difficulty in falling asleep.The PD patients also have sleep structure disorder and difficulty in maintaining sleep

  6. Speckle tracking echocardiography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and overlapping obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Pizarro,* Fabian van Essen,* Fabian Linnhoff, Robert Schueler, Christoph Hammerstingl, Georg Nickenig, Dirk Skowasch, Marcel Weber Department of Internal Medicine II, Cardiology, Pneumology and Angiology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD and congestive heart failure represent two disease entities of growing global burden that share common etiological features. Therefore, we aimed to identify the degree of left ventricular (LV dysfunction in COPD as a function of COPD severity stages and concurrently placed particular emphasis on the presence of overlapping obstructive sleep apnea (OSA.Methods: A total of 85 COPD outpatients (64.1±10.4 years, 54.1% males and 20 controls, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, underwent speckle tracking echocardiography for LV longitudinal strain imaging. Complementary 12-lead electrocardiography, laboratory testing, and overnight screening for sleep-disordered breathing using the SOMNOcheck micro® device were performed.Results: Contrary to conventional echocardiographic parameters, speckle tracking echocardiography revealed significant impairment in global LV strain among COPD patients compared to control smokers (-13.3%±5.4% vs -17.1%±1.8%, P=0.04. On a regional level, the apical septal LV strain was reduced in COPD (P=0.003 and associated with the degree of COPD severity (P=0.02. With regard to electrocardiographic findings, COPD patients exhibited a significantly higher mean heart rate than controls (71.4±13.0 beats per minute vs 60.3±7.7 beats per minute, P=0.001 that additionally increased over Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.01. Albeit not statistically significant, COPD led to elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (453.2±909.0 pg/mL vs 96.8±70.0 pg/mL, P=0.08. As to somnological testing, the portion of COPD patients exhibiting overlapping OSA accounted for 5.9% and

  7. Sleep at high altitude: guesses and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Konrad E; Buenzli, Jana C; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-12-15

    Lowlanders commonly report a poor sleep quality during the first few nights after arriving at high altitude. Polysomnographic studies reveal that reductions in slow wave sleep are the most consistent altitude-induced changes in sleep structure identified by visual scoring. Quantitative spectral analyses of the sleep electroencephalogram have confirmed an altitude-related reduction in the low-frequency power (0.8-4.6 Hz). Although some studies suggest an increase in arousals from sleep at high altitude, this is not a consistent finding. Whether sleep instability at high altitude is triggered by periodic breathing or vice versa is still uncertain. Overnight changes in slow wave-derived encephalographic measures of neuronal synchronization in healthy subjects were less pronounced at moderately high (2,590 m) compared with low altitude (490 m), and this was associated with a decline in sleep-related memory consolidation. Correspondingly, exacerbation of breathing and sleep disturbances experienced by lowlanders with obstructive sleep apnea during a stay at 2,590 m was associated with poor performance in driving simulator tests. These findings suggest that altitude-related alterations in sleep may adversely affect daytime performance. Despite recent advances in our understanding of sleep at altitude, further research is required to better establish the role of gender and age in alterations of sleep at different altitudes, to determine the influence of acclimatization and of altitude-related illness, and to uncover the characteristics of sleep in highlanders that may serve as a study paradigm of sleep in patients exposed to chronic hypoxia due to cardiorespiratory disease.

  8. Chronic Maternal Low-Protein Diet in Mice Affects Anxiety, Night-Time Energy Expenditure and Sleep Patterns, but Not Circadian Rhythm in Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sangeetha K.; Fiorotto, Marta L.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2017-01-01

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure. C57BL/6J dams were fed a protein restricted (8%protein, MLP) or a control protein (20% protein, C) diet from four weeks before mating until weaning of offspring. Male offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet (20% protein) and single-housed until 8–12 weeks of age. We examined body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous rearing activity and sleep patterns and performed behavioral assays for anxiety (open field activity, elevated plus maze [EPM], light/dark exploration), depression (tail suspension and forced swim test), sociability (three-chamber), repetitive (marble burying), learning and memory (fear conditioning), and circadian behavior (wheel-running activity during light-dark and constant dark cycles). We also measured circadian gene expression in hypothalamus and liver at different Zeitgeber times (ZT). Male offspring from separate MLP exposed dams had significantly greater body fat (P = 0.03), less energy expenditure (P = 0.004), less rearing activity (P = 0.04) and a greater number of night-time rest/sleep bouts (P = 0.03) compared to control. MLP offspring displayed greater anxiety-like behavior in the EPM (P<0.01) but had no learning and memory deficit in fear-conditioning assay (P = 0.02). There was an effect of time on Per1, Per 2 and Clock circadian gene expression in the hypothalamus but not on circadian behavior. Thus, transplacental and early developmental exposure of dams to chronic MLP reduces

  9. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Shirin Shafazand...PAP) will improve cognitive impairment, sleep quality, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) surrogate measures in persons with chronic

  10. Sleep Deprivation and Neurobehavioral Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Goel, Namni; David F. Dinges

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyles involving sleep deprivation are common, despite mounting evidence that both acute total sleep deprivation and chronically restricted sleep degrade neurobehavioral functions associated with arousal, attention, memory and state stability. Current research suggests dynamic differences in the way the central nervous system responds to acute versus chronic sleep restriction, which is reflected in new models of sleep-wake regulation. Chronic sleep restriction likely induces long-term neu...

  11. Prediction of melatonin efficacy by pretreatment dim light melatonin onset in children with idiopathic chronic sleep onset insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Smits, Marcel G; van Someren, Eus J W; Boudewijn Gunning, W

    2005-06-01

    Research has shown efficacy of melatonin treatment to advance sleep-wake rhythms in insomnia. In healthy adults, direction and magnitude of the phase shift depends on the timing of administration relative to the phase position of the circadian system. Therefore, in the present study we investigated whether in children with chronic sleep onset insomnia (SOI) efficacy of melatonin treatment in the early evening could be predicted from dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a phase marker of the circadian system. We combined data of two previously published double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in 110 participants, aged 6-12 years. Sleep was actigraphically estimated, and saliva collected, at baseline and in the third week of a 4-week treatment period with 5 mg melatonin or placebo at 18:00 or 19:00 hours. Primary outcome measures were pre- to post-treatment changes in dim light melatonin onset (DeltaDLMO), sleep onset (DeltaSO), sleep latency (DeltaSL), and total sleep duration (DeltaTSD). Melatonin advanced DLMO with +1:12 h (P melatonin-treated group, but not in the placebo-treated group, pretreatment DLMO was significantly related to DeltaDLMO [F(1, 29) = 7.28, P = 0.012] and DeltaSO [F(1, 25) = 7.72, P = 0.010]. The time interval between treatment administration and pretreatment DLMO (INT) was only significantly related to DeltaSO [F(1,26) = 5.40, P = 0.028]. The results suggest that in children with SOI, the efficacy of early evening melatonin to advance sleep onset and endogenous melatonin onset increases the later the pretreatment DLMO is.

  12. Better quality sleep promotes daytime physical activity in patients with chronic pain? A multilevel analysis of the within-person relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole K Y Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Promoting physical activity is key to the management of chronic pain, but little is understood about the factors facilitating an individual's engagement in physical activity on a day-to-day basis. This study examined the within-person effect of sleep on next day physical activity in patients with chronic pain and insomnia. METHODS: 119 chronic pain patients monitored their sleep and physical activity for a week in their usual sleeping and living environment. Physical activity was measured using actigraphy to provide a mean activity score each hour. Sleep was estimated with actigraphy and an electronic diary, providing an objective and subjective index of sleep efficiency (A-SE, SE and a sleep quality rating (SQ. The individual and relative roles of these sleep parameters, as well as morning ratings of pain and mood, in predicting subsequent physical activity were examined in multilevel models that took into account variations in relationships at the 'Day' and 'Participant' levels. RESULTS: Of the 5 plausible predictors SQ was the only significant within-person predictor of subsequent physical activity, such that nights of higher sleep quality were followed by days of more physical activity, from noon to 11 pm. The temporal association was not explained by potential confounders such as morning pain, mood or effects of the circadian rhythm. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of interventions, chronic pain patients spontaneously engaged in more physical activity following a better night of sleep. Improving nighttime sleep may well be a novel avenue for promoting daytime physical activity in patients with chronic pain.

  13. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder - related nightmares and other sleep disturbances with risperidone in combat veterans and victims of domestic and childhood abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Khachiyants

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances including nightmares are often reported as hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The literature related to the pharmacological treatment of PTSD-related nightmares is sparse and inconclusive. After reviewing the literature it was obvious that currently a limited data on studies supporting the use of antipsychotic medications for the treatment of PTSD are published. Moreover, even more limited scientific evidence is now available to formulate evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares which are often reported as the most intrusive and disruptive symptom. Objective for this study is to review comprehensively the current research literature which reflects use of antipsychotic medication risperidone for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares of different etiology.

  14. Long-term follow-up of melatonin treatment in children with ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebert, Michel; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M; Smits, Marcel G

    2009-08-01

    We conducted this study to assess long-term melatonin treatment course, effectiveness and safety in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia (CSOI). This was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire for the parents. The subjects of this study consisted of participants who previously participated in a randomised clinical trial on melatonin efficacy. The response rate was 93% (94/101). The mean time to follow up was 3.7 yr. No serious adverse events or treatment related co-morbidities were reported. Sixty-five percent of the children still used melatonin daily and 12% occasionally. Temporal discontinuation of treatment resulted in a delay of sleep onset in 92% of the children. Nine percent of the children could discontinue melatonin completely because of improvement of sleep onset insomnia. Long-term melatonin treatment was judged to be effective against sleep onset problems in 88% of the cases. Improvement of behaviour and mood was reported in 71% and 61% respectively. We conclude that melatonin remains an effective therapy on the long term for the treatment of CSOI in children with ADHD and has no safety concerns regarding serious adverse events or treatment related co-morbidity. Discontinuation of melatonin treatment usually leads to a relapse of sleep onset insomnia and in resuming melatonin treatment, even after several years of treatment.

  15. Prevalence of Sleep Disturbances A mong Retired Veterans and Their Spouses%军队离休老干部及配偶睡眠障碍调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏产; 倪竟全; 戴煌; 慈书平; 黄智平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of sleep disturbances among legionary retired veterans and their spou-ses.Methods 5786legionaryretiredveteransandtheirspouseswereinvestigatedwithPittsburghSleepQualityIndex(PSQI) from January 2010 to January 2012.There were 2 915 males and 2 871 females,whose average age was(79.36 ±12.21)years old.Results Subjective sleep quality scored(2.16 ±0.48).Sleep latency scored(2.12 ±0.39).Sleep duration scored(1.65 ± 0.71).Sleep efficiency scored(2.11 ±0.42).Sleep disturbances scored(2.13 ±0.49).Use of sleep medication scored(1.20 ± 0.5).Daytime dysfunction scored(2.02 ±0.32).Scores of male were higher than of female(P<0.01).Conclusion The inci-dence of sleep disturbances is very high among legionary retired veterans and their spouses,and sleep disturbances weaken their life quality seriously.%目的:调查军队离休老干部及配偶睡眠障碍发生情况。方法采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表,有经培训的医务人员进行指导。调查5786人,平均年龄(79.36±12.21)岁。男性2915人,女性2871人。结果睡眠质量(2.16±0.48)分、入睡时间(2.12±0.39)分、睡眠时间(1.65±0.71)分、睡眠效率(2.11±0.42)分、睡眠障碍(2.13±0.49)分、催眠药物(1.20±0.5)分、日间功能(2.02±0.32)分,男性较女性更为明显(P<0.01)。结论军队离休老干部及配偶睡眠障碍非常明显,严重影响生活质量,要高度重视。

  16. Hyperinflation is associated with lower sleep efficiency in COPD with co-existent obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeff S; Wolfe, Lisa F; Lu, Brandon S; Kalhan, Ravi

    2009-12-01

    Prior research has shown that individuals with obstructive lung disease are at risk for sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality. We postulated that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (known as overlap syndrome) who have more severe lung disease, as measured by lung hyperinflation (inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity), would have greater sleep disturbances independent of traditional measures of sleep apnea. We performed a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients evaluated and treated in an academic pulmonary clinic for overlap syndrome. Pulmonary function tests and polysomnogram data were collected. Thirty patients with overlap syndrome were included in the analysis. We found significant univariable associations between sleep efficiency and apnea/hypopnea index (beta = -0.285, p = 0.01) and between sleep efficiency and lung hyperinflation (beta = 0.654, p = 0.03). Using multivariable linear regression, the relationship between sleep efficiency and lung hyperinflation remained significant (beta = 1.13, p = 0.02) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, apnea/hypopnea index, FEV(1)% predicted, oxygen saturation nadir, medications, and cardiac disease. We conclude that increased severity of hyperinflation is associated with worse sleep efficiency, independent of apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia. The mechanisms underlying this observation are uncertain. We speculate that therapies aimed at reducing lung hyperinflation may improve sleep quality in patients with overlap syndrome.

  17. Update of sleep alterations in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Barrera Medina; DeboraYoaly Arana Lechuga; Oscar Sánchez Escandón; Javier Velázquez Moctezuma

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances in depression are up to 70%. Patients frequently have difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night and non-restorative sleep. Sleep abnormalities in depression are mainly characterized by increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced slow wave sleep. Among the mechanisms of sleep disturbances in depression are hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CLOCK gene polymorphism and primary sleep disorders. The habenula is a struct...

  18. Effect of Six-Month Diet Intervention on Sleep among Overweight and Obese Men with Chronic Insomnia Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Wang, Kun; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Wiklund, Petri; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2016-11-23

    Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30-65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28) or control (n = 21) groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1-3 times per week; 300-500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.

  19. Effect of Six-Month Diet Intervention on Sleep among Overweight and Obese Men with Chronic Insomnia Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30–65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28 or control (n = 21 groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1–3 times per week; 300–500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.

  20. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementat...

  1. Adolescent sleep misalignment: a chronic jet lag and a matter of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan

    2013-09-01

    Sleep is a key element, both physiologically and psychologically, in adolescent development. The prevalence of sleep disorders in western countries is important, as with age the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents becomes irregular and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and waking time resulting in rhythm desynchronization. A large number of adolescents sleep for 7-8h instead of 9-10h per night, which can lead to a cumulative sleep debt with fatigue, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. The effect of electronic media use (such as television, mobile phone, computer, and electronic gaming) on sleep has been the object of several international studies, though pubertal changes may also impact adolescent sleep. Adolescents and their parents should be educated by professionals, including physicians and nurses, on the key role of sleep in adolescent well being and quality of life. A number of basic rules are proposed to improve sleep in adolescents. The permanent social jet lag experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health.

  2. Actigraphy for measurements of sleep in relation to oncological treatment of patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Gögenur, Ismail; Tvilling Madsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are a prevalent and disabling problem for patients with cancer. Sleep disturbances are present throughout the cancer trajectory, especially during oncological treatment. Previously sleep disturbances have primarily been quantified with subjective rating scales. Actigraphy is an...

  3. Probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, nocturnal disturbances and quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a case-controlled study using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Keisuke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence provides a clear association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders (RBD and Parkinson’s disease (PD, but the clinical features that determine the co-morbidity of RBD and PD are not yet fully understood. Methods We evaluated the characteristics of nocturnal disturbances and other motor and non-motor features related to RBD in patients with PD and the impact of RBD on their quality of life. Probable RBD (pRBD was evaluated using the Japanese version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ-J. Results A significantly higher frequency of pRBD was observed in PD patients than in the controls (RBDSQ-J ≥ 5 or ≥ 6: 29.0% vs. 8.6%; 17.2% vs. 2.2%, respectively. After excluding restless legs syndrome and snorers in the PD patients, the pRBD group (RBDSQ-J≥5 showed higher scores compared with the non-pRBD group on the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale-2 (PDSS-2 total and three-domain scores. Early morning dystonia was more frequent in the pRBD group. The Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39 domain scores for cognition and emotional well-being were higher in the patients with pRBD than in the patients without pRBD. There were no differences between these two groups with respect to the clinical subtype, disease severity or motor function. When using a cut-off of RBDSQ-J = 6, a similar trend was observed for the PDSS-2 and PDQ-39 scores. Patients with PD and pRBD had frequent sleep onset insomnia, distressing dreams and hallucinations. The stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the PDSS-2 domain “motor symptoms at night”, particularly the PDSS sub-item 6 “distressing dreams”, was the only predictor of RBDSQ-J in PD. Conclusion Our results indicate a significant impact of RBD co-morbidity on night-time disturbances and quality of life in PD, particularly on cognition and emotional well-being. RBDSQ may be a useful tool for not only screening RBD in PD patients

  4. Melatonin treatment in individuals with intellectual disability and chronic insomnia: A randomised placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, W.J.; Didden, H.C.M.; Smits, M.G.; Curfs, L.M.G

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While several small-number or open-label studies suggest that melatonin improves sleep in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) with chronic sleep disturbance, a larger randomized control trial is necessary to validate these promising results. METHODS: The effectiveness of mela

  5. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Janna eMantua; Keenan M Mahan; Owen S Henry; Rebecca M. C. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of wor...

  6. Update on the role of melatonin in the prevention of cancer tumorigenesis and in the management of cancer correlates, such as sleep-wake and mood disturbances: review and remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena Anna; Perna, Simone; Antoniello, Neldo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article was to perform a systematic review on the role of melatonin in the prevention of cancer tumorigenesis--in vivo and in vitro--as well as in the management of cancer correlates, such as sleep-wake and mood disturbances. The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified "shift-work that involves circadian disruption" as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) based on "limited evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of shift-work that involves night-work", and "sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of light during the daily dark period (biological night)". The clinical implications and the potential uses of melatonin in terms of biologic clock influence (e.g. sleep and mood), immune function, cancer initiation and growth, as well as the correlation between melatonin levels and cancer risk, are hereinafter recorded and summarized. Additionally, this paper includes a description of the newly discovered effects that melatonin has on the management of sleep-wake and mood disturbances as well as with regard to cancer patients' life quality. In cancer patients depression and insomnia are frequent and serious comorbid conditions which definitely require a special attention. The data presented in this review encourage the performance of new clinical trials to investigate the possible use of melatonin in cancer patients suffering from sleep-wake and mood disturbances, also considering that melatonin registered a low toxicity in cancer patients.

  7. Sleep problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, R; Calhoun, S; Baweja, R; Singareddy, R

    2013-10-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disorders are common during childhood and adolescence. The impact of not getting enough sleep may affect children's' physical health as well emotional, cognitive and social development. Insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, parasomnias and sleep disturbances associated with medical and psychiatric disorders are some of the commonly encountered sleep disorders in this age group. Changes in sleep architecture and the amount of sleep requirement associated with each stage of development should be considered during an evaluation of sleep disorders in children. Behavioral treatments should be used initially wherever possible especially considering that most pharmacologic agents used to treat pediatric sleep disorders are off-label. In this review we address the most common sleep problems in children/adolescents as they relate to prevalence, presentation and symptoms, evaluation and management.

  8. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: Mechanisms, mitigation and research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( 55 dBA. Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO′s NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data.

  9. Mechanisms of gastric emptying disturbances in chronic and acute inflammation of the distal gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    . Thirteen healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, CCK, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured periodically......It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders in such patients...

  10. Long-term changes in sleep and electroencephalographic activity by chronic vagus nerve stimulation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Cruz, Alejandro; Magdaleno-Madrigal, Victor M; Martínez-Vargas, David; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Almazán-Alvarado, Salvador

    2008-04-01

    We previously reported the effect of vagus nerve electrical stimulation (VNS) on sleep and behavior in cats. The aim of the present study is to analyze the long-term effects of VNS on the electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum and on the different stages of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in the freely moving cat. To achieve this, six male cats were implanted with electrodes on the left vagal nerve and submitted to 15 rounds of 23 h continuous sleep recordings in three categories: baseline (BL), VNS and post-stimulus recording (PSR). The following parameters were analyzed: EEG power spectrum, total time and number of sleep phases, ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) wave density of the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and the number of times the narcoleptic reflex was present (sudden transition from wakefulness to REM sleep). Significant changes were detected, such as an enhancement of slow-wave sleep (SWS) stage II; a power increase in the bands corresponding to sleep spindles (8-14 Hz) and delta waves (1-4 Hz) with VNS and PSR; an increase in the total time, number of stages, and density of PGO wave in REM sleep with VNS; a decrease of wakefulness in PSR, and the eventual appearance of the narcoleptic reflex with VNS. The results show that the effect of the VNS changes during different stages of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. In REM sleep, the effect was present only during VNS, while the SWS II was affected beyond VNS periods. This suggests that ponto-medullar and thalamic mechanisms of slow EEG activity may be due to plastic changes elicited by vagal stimulation.

  11. Association of Nutritional Status with Depression and Sleep Disorders in Elderly End Stage Renal Disease Patients - Does Chronic Inflammation Cause it all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe BİLGİÇ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In our study we aimed to analyze the association between nutritional status and depression and sleep disturbance in elderly dialysis patients. MATERIAL and METHODS: Seventy-three patients receiving dialysis treatment older than 65 years of age were enrolled in this study. Nutritional status was determined by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA. Patients were also evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Demographic and laboratory data were recorded. RESULTS: According to SGA, 48 (65.8% patients were well nourished and 25 (34.2% patients had mild-moderate and severe malnutrition. When the well-nourished and malnourished patients were compared, the well-nourished group had higher albumin (p<.0001 and creatinine (p=.03 levels, higher body mass indices (p<.01, lower CRP levels (p<.0001, better quality of sleep (p<.0001 and lower depression scores (p<.0001 than the malnourished group. When we grouped patients as Group I (not depressive and good sleep quality, Group II (depressive but good sleep quality and Group III (both depressive and poor sleep quality, we found that Group III had the lowest albumin (p < .0001 and highest CRP (p < .0001 values when compared to the other two groups. CONCLUSION: Depression, sleep disorders, and the nutritional status are important factors which interact with each other and elderly dialysis patients with malnutrition should be well assessed for the presence of any inflammatory status and/or psychological-sleep disorders.

  12. Prevalência de distúrbios do sono na pós-menopausa Sleep disturbance prevalence in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hachul de Campos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência das queixas de distúrbios do sono pela polissonografia em amostra de mulheres na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas 33 mulheres na pós-menopausa com média de idade de 56 anos, índice de massa corporal médio de 27, tempo de pós-menopausa de 7,7 anos e índice de Kupperman de 17. Adotaram-se os seguintes critérios de inclusão: idade entre 50 e 65anos, no mínimo um ano de amenorréia e FSH plasmático superior ou igual a 30 mU/mL, sem uso de terapia hormonal prévia e exames laboratoriais normais. Foram excluídas as pacientes com doenças clínicas graves e/ou descompensadas, suspeita de câncer de endométrio e/ou mama; índice de massa corporal maior ou igual a 30 e uso de hipnóticos. As pacientes responderam a questionário específico contendo perguntas sobre as características do sono e foram submetidas a polissonografia completa durante uma noite inteira. Foram calculadas separadamente as freqüências em porcentagens das queixas de sono e dos diagnósticos polissonográficos. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de insônia subjetiva foi 61%, sendo que na polissonografia foi de 83%. A queixa de apnéia foi registrada em 23% e, na polissonografia, em 27%. A prevalência subjetiva de movimentos periódicos de pernas foi de 45% e a objetiva foi de 27%. CONCLUSÃO: houve alta prevalência de distúrbios do sono na pós-menopausa, em especial de insônia, apnéia e de movimentos periódicos das pernas. Nesta fase da vida, ocorre piora da qualidade do sono.PURPOSE: to evaluate the prevalence of reported sleep disturbances through polysomnographic recording (PSG in a sample of postmenopausal women. METHODS: thirty-three postmenopausal women with a mean age of 56 years, a mean body mass index (BMI of 27 kg/m², with 7.7 years of recognized postmenopausal period, and a mean Kupperman index of 17, were selected. The inclusion criteria were: age range from 50 to 65 years, at least one year of amenorrhea and

  13. Risk Factors for Eating Disturbances in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes and Chronic Asthma: The Role of Parenting Style and Self-Esteem.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research indicates that eating disturbances are twice as prevalent among adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to their healthy peers; comparisons with other chronic illness groups are inconclusive. Adolescent self-esteem and parenting factors have been found to be associated with eating disturbances in type 1 diabetes. However, to date the literature is methodologically limited by a lack of comparison group, and has failed to consider the role of parent care and overprotect...

  14. 慢性心力衰竭患者健康相关生活质量与睡眠质量的关系%Correlations between Quality of Life and Sleep Quality and Other Factors in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小秋; 吴贇; 赵微燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the correlations between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sleep quality and other factors in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods HRQOL and sleep quality of 144 chronic stable heart failure patients were evaluated using Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire(KC-CQ) ,Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) and self-designed demographic and CHF related characteristics questionnaire. Results The overall KCCQ score was (71. 7 ± 22. 9). Physical symptom domain scored the highest, while psychological satisfaction scored the lowest. The global PSQI score was (9. 5 ± 4. 8), 49.3% of the participants were identified as poor sleepers. Among the PSQI components, sleep latency scored the highest, and use of sleeping medication scored the lowest. Education, financial status, NYHA classification,global PSQI,subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction were identified as influencing factors of HRQOL. Conclusion Sleep disturbances are prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure. Psychological domain quality decreases most obviously in all domains of KCCQ,and sleep quality,education,economic status and NYHA class are closely correlated with HRQOL. It is important to strengthen psychological care and improve sleep quality for a better HRQOL in patients with chronic heart failure.%目的 探讨慢性心力衰竭(chronic heart failure,CHF)患者健康相关生活质量(health-related quality of life,HRQOL)与睡眠质量及其他因素之间的关系.方法 采用方便抽样法于2010年9月至2011年9月对144例稳定性CHF患者进行调查,调查内容包括堪萨斯城心脏病患者生活质量评分(Kansas city cardiomyopathy questionnaire,KCCQ)、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(Pittsburgh sleep quality index,PSQI)、社会人口学特点和心力衰竭特点.结果 144例稳定性CHF患者的KCCQ总分为(71.7±22.9)分,其中症状得分最高,

  15. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  16. Dose finding of melatonin for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia: an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijlswijk, I.M. van; Heijden, K.B. van der; Egberts, A.C.G.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Smits, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in children might differ from that in adults. Objectives This study aims to establish a dose–response relationship for melatonin in advancing dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), sleep onset (SO), and reducing sleep onset latency (SOL) in children between 6 and 1

  17. Chronically restricted or disrupted sleep as a causal factor in the development of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Havekes, Robbert; Steiger, Axel; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common complaint in the majority of people suffering from depression. While sleep complaints were traditionally seen as a symptom of mood disorders, accumulating evidence suggests that in many cases the relationship may be reverse as well. A long list of longitudinal studies sho

  18. Dose finding of melatonin for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia: an RCT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geijlswijk, I.M.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Korzilius, H.P.; Smits, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in children might differ from that in adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to establish a dose-response relationship for melatonin in advancing dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), sleep onset (SO), and reducing sleep onset latency (SOL) in children between 6 and

  19. Clinical research on related factors of poststroke sleep disturbances%脑卒中后睡眠障碍的临床相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娇; 梅丽; 孟会红; 梅风君

    2013-01-01

    目的研究脑卒中后睡眠障碍的相关因素,为临床诊断和防治提供依据.方法采用美国国立卫生院神经功能缺损评分(NIHSS)和阿森斯失眠量表(AIS)对61例住院脑卒中患者进行测评.结果睡眠障碍组与非睡眠障碍组性别、平均年龄、卒中部位比较无差别;但各年龄段中,< 50岁发生4例,50~60岁发生6例,61~ 70岁发生8例,>70岁发生8例(P<0.05).睡眠障碍组在既往病史、卒中性质、神经功能缺损程度与非睡眠障碍组比较差异有统计学意义.结论脑卒中后患者睡眠障碍较为常见,其与性别、卒中部位无相关性,但与年龄、既往病史(高血压、糖尿病、冠心病)、卒中性质及神经功能缺损程度有关.脑卒中后睡眠障碍的发生与诸多因素有关,及时发现其相关因素并积极预防、治疗,有利于加快脑卒中后患者机体康复及改善患者睡眠质量.%Objective The related factors of poststroke sleep disturbances were studied in order to provided the rationale for the diagnosis,prophylaxis and treatment.Methods National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Athens insomnia scale were used to evaluate the 61 stroke patients who were hospitalized.Results Comparing the gender,apoplectic part and mean age in sleep disorder group with the control group,it showed no statistical differences.But in the different age group,there were statistical differences.About the anamnesis,apoplectic type and the damage degree of nervous functions,the two groups had statistical differences.Conclusion Sleep disorder after stroke is rather common,it is not related to the gender and apoplectic part,but it is connected with the age,anamnesis,apoplectic type and the damage degree of nervous functions.Sleep disorder after stroke is connected with many factors,and the mechanism is complexity.Discovered the risk factors timely,positive prevent and treat are maked for speed up the patients' recovery and improve their sleep

  20. The role of sleep in pain and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Ernest H S

    2015-09-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common cause of chronic widespread pain, characterized by reduced pressure pain thresholds with hyperalgesia and allodynia. In addition to pain, common symptoms include nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, stiffness and mood disturbances. The latest research indicates that the dominant pathophysiology in fibromyalgia is abnormal pain processing and central sensitization. Neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with fibromyalgia have similar neural activation to healthy age-matched and gender-matched individuals; however, they have a lower pressure-pain threshold. Polysomnography data has demonstrated that these patients have reduced short-wave sleep and abnormal α-rhythms, suggestive of wakefulness during non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Sleep deprivation in healthy individuals can cause symptoms of fibromyalgia, including myalgia, tenderness and fatigue, suggesting that sleep dysfunction might be not only a consequence of pain, but also pathogenic. Epidemiological studies indicate that poor sleep quality is a risk factor for the development of chronic widespread pain among an otherwise healthy population. Mechanistically, sleep deprivation impairs descending pain-inhibition pathways that are important in controlling and coping with pain. Clinical trials of pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies have shown that improving sleep quality can reduce pain and fatigue, further supporting the hypothesis that sleep dysfunction is a pathogenic stimulus of fibromyalgia.

  1. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  2. Sleep parameters, functional status and time post-stroke are associated with off-line motor skill learning in people with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eSiengsukon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mounting evidence demonstrates that individuals with stroke benefit from sleep to enhance learning of a motor task. While stage NREM2 sleep and REM sleep have been associated with off-line motor skill learning in neurologically-intact individuals, it remains unknown which sleep parameters or specific sleep stages are associated with off-line motor skill learning in individuals with stroke. Methods: Twenty individuals with chronic stroke (> 6 months following stroke and 10 neurologically slept for three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Participants practiced a tracking task the morning before the third night and underwent a retention test the morning following the third night. Off-line learning on the tracking task was assessed. Pearson’s correlations assessed for associations between the magnitude of off-line learning and sleep variables, age, upper extremity motor function, stroke severity, depression and time since stroke occurrence.Results: Individuals with stroke performed with significantly less error on the tracking task following a night of sleep (p=.006 while the control participants did not (p=.816. Increased sleep efficiency (r= -.285, less time spent in stage NREM3 sleep (r=.260, and more time spent in stage REM sleep (r= -.266 was weakly-to-moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Furthermore, higher upper-extremity motor function (r = -.400, lower stroke severity (r = .360, and less time since stroke occurrence (r=.311 were moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Conclusion: This study is the first study to provide insight into which sleep stages and individual characteristics may be associated with off-line learning in people with stroke. Future work should continue to understand which factors or combination of factors promote off-line motor learning in people with neurologic injury to best promote motor recovery in

  3. Acute Total and Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions, Waking EEG and Renin-Angiotensin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1999-01-01

    protocol of the Quantitative EEG and Waking Neurobehavioral Function project. This will allow us to investigate two additional specific aims: 1) Test the hypothesis that chronic partial sleep deprivation during a 17 day bed rest experiment results in deterioration of neurobehavioral function during waking and increases in EEG power density in the theta frequencies, especially in frontal areas of the brain, as well as the nonREM- REM cycle dependent modulation of heart-rate variability. 2) Test the hypothesis that acute total sleep deprivation modifies the circadian rhythm of the renin-angiotensin system, changes the acute responsiveness of this system to posture beyond what a microgravity environment alone does and affects the nonREM-REM cycle dependent modulation of heart-rate variability.

  4. Chronic Sleep Disruption Alters Gut Microbiota, Induces Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poroyko, Valeriy A.; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Khalyfa, Ahamed A.; Leone, Vanessa; Peris, Eduard; Almendros, Isaac; Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Hubert, Nathaniel; Farré, Ramon; Chang, Eugene B.; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and inflammation, as well as circulating measures of inflammation, were assayed. Effect of fecal water on colonic epithelial permeability was also examined. Chronic SF-induced increased food intake and reversible gut microbiota changes characterized by the preferential growth of highly fermentative members of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and a decrease of Lactobacillaceae families. These lead to systemic and visceral white adipose tissue inflammation in addition to altered insulin sensitivity in mice, most likely via enhanced colonic epithelium barrier disruption. Conventionalization of germ-free mice with SF-derived microbiota confirmed these findings. Thus, SF-induced metabolic alterations may be mediated, in part, by concurrent changes in gut microbiota, thereby opening the way for gut microbiome-targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing the major end-organ morbidities of chronic SF. PMID:27739530

  5. Subjective sleep efficiency of hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C.P. Koch; J.E. Nagtegaal; E.C. Hagen; W.Th. van Dorp; J.B.S. Boringa; G.A. Kerkhof; P.M. ter Wee

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sleep disturbances have a major influence on quality of life. A commonly used measure of sleep disturbances is sleep efficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of decreased subjective sleep efficiency in hemodialysis patients. An additional goal was to identi

  6. Sleep Disorders in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Dragisic, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory disturbances during sleep are recognized as extremely common disorders with important clinical consequences. Breathing disorders during sleep can result in broad range of clinical manifestations, the most prevalent of which are unrefreshing sleep, daytime sleepiness and fatigue, and cognitive impairmant. There is also evidence that respiratory-related sleep disturbances can contribute to several common cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, including systemic hypertension, cardia...

  7. The effect of theophylline on sleep-disordered breathing in patients with stable chronic congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡克; 李清泉; 杨炯; 胡苏萍; 陈喜兰

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with stable, optimally treated chronic congestive heart failure and the effect of short-term oral theophylline therapy on periodic breathing in these patients.Methods Patients with stable, optimally treated chronic congestive heart failure were monitored by polysomnography during nocturnal sleep. The effects of theophylline therapy on periodic breathing associated with stable heart failure were observed before and after treatment.Results Patients were divided into two groups. GroupⅠ(n=21) consisted of individuals with 15 episodes of apnea and hypopnea [as determined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)] per hour or less; Group Ⅱ (n=15, 41.7%) individuals had an index of more than 15 episodes per hour. In group Ⅱ, the AHI varied from 16.8 to 78.8 (42.6±15.5) in which the obstructive AHI was 11.1±8.4 and the central AHI was 31.5±9.6. Group Ⅱ had significantly more arousals (36.8±21.3 compared with 19.4±11.2 in group Ⅰ) that were directly attributable to episodes of apnea and hypopnea, lower arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (76.7%±4.6% compared with 86.5%±2.8%) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (24.2%±8.8% compared with 31.5%±10.6%). Thirteen patients with compensated heart failure and periodic breathing received theophylline orally (at an average dose of 4.3 mg/kg) for five to seven days. After treatment, the mean plasma theophylline concentration was (11.3±2.5) μg/ml. Theophylline therapy resulted in significant decreases in the number of AHI (20.8±13.2 vs. 42.6±15.5; P<0.001) and the number of episodes of central apnea-hypopnea per hour (10.1±7.6 vs. 31.5±9.6; P<0.001). Furthermore, the percentage of total sleep time during which arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was less than 90 percent (8.8%±8.6% vs. 23.4%±24.1%; P<0.05) and the arousals per hour (18.7±21.2 vs. 36.8±21.3; P<0.05) were also lower. There were no significant differences in the

  8. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  9. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances.

  10. The reciprocal interaction between sleep and type 2 diabetes mellitus: facts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Martins

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by intolerance to glucose and peripheral resistance to insulin. This endocrine disease affects fundamental mechanisms of the central nervous system and jeopardizes the balance of vital functions such as the cardiovascular and circadian rhythm. The increased prevalence of metabolic disorders in our society is aggravated by endemic voluntary postponement of bedtime and by the current sedentary lifestyle, leading to epidemic proportions of obese people. Diabetes and chronic loss of sleep share the fact that both affect millions and one is detrimental to the other. Indeed, sleep deficits have marked modulatory effects on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity and foster metabolic syndrome that culminates in sleep disorders like restless syndrome and sleep apnea, which in turn lead to poor sleep quality. We examine the hypothesis that these two worldwide emerging disorders are due to two interlinked cycles. In our paradigm, we establish an intimate relationship between diabetes and sleep disturbances and postulate possible mechanisms that provide support for this conjecture. In addition, we propose some perspectives about the development of the reciprocal interaction between predictor components of metabolic syndrome and sleep disturbances that lead to poor sleep quality. The ability to predict the development and identify or associate a given mode of sleep disturbance to diabetes would be a valuable asset in the assessment of both. Furthermore, major advances in care coupled with healthy lifestyles can ensure a higher quality of life for people with diabetes.

  11. Effects of music videos on sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with chronic insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Chang, En-Ting; Li, Yin-Ming; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Lee, Li-Hua; Wang, Hsiu-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Listening to soothing music has been used as a complementary therapy to improve sleep quality. However, there is no empirical evidence for the effects of music videos (MVs) on sleep quality in adults with insomnia as assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In this randomized crossover controlled trial, we compared the effects of a peaceful Buddhist MV intervention to a usual-care control condition before bedtime on subjective and objective sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with chronic insomnia. The study was conducted in a hospital's sleep laboratory. We randomly assigned 38 subjects, aged 50-75 years, to an MV/usual-care sequence or a usual-care/MV sequence. After pretest data collection, testing was held on two consecutive nights, with subjects participating in one condition each night according to their assigned sequence. Each intervention lasted 30 min. Sleep was assessed using PSG and self-report questionnaires. After controlling for baseline data, sleep-onset latency was significantly shorter by approximately 2 min in the MV condition than in the usual-care condition (p = .002). The MV intervention had no significant effects relative to the usual care on any other sleep parameters assessed by PSG or self-reported sleep quality. These results suggest that an MV intervention may be effective in promoting sleep. However, the effectiveness of a Buddhist MV on sleep needs further study to develop a culturally specific insomnia intervention. Our findings also suggest that an MV intervention can serve as another option for health care providers to improve sleep onset in people with insomnia.

  12. Efficacy of extended release quetiapine fumarate monotherapy in elderly patients with major depressive disorder: secondary analyses in subgroups of patients according to baseline anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stuart A; Altamura, A Carlo; Katila, Heikki; Datto, Catherine; Szamosi, Johan; Eriksson, Hans

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) monotherapy in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) according to baseline levels of anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain. Post-hoc analyses of data from an 11-week (9-week randomized-treatment, 2-week post-treatment phase), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine XR (50-300 mg/day) monotherapy in elderly (≥66 years) patients (n=338) with MDD were carried out. Outcomes included randomization to week 9 change in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score and week 9 response (≥50% MADRS score reduction) rates. Post-hoc analyses were carried out to assess subgroups of patients with MDD according to baseline levels in terms of the following: higher or lower anxiety (Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety total score≥20 or Depression sleep disturbance factor (items 4+5+6) score≥5 or depressive symptoms in elderly patients with MDD, irrespective of baseline levels of anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain.

  13. Influence of SKF38393 on changes of gene profile in rat prefrontal cortex during chronic paradoxical sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaosa; Chen, Xinmin; Chen, Si; Tan, Yue; Rong, Fei; Zhu, Jiangbo; Ma, Wenling

    2016-05-01

    Chronic paradoxical sleep deprivation (CSD) can induce dramatic physiological and neurofunctional changes in rats, including decreased body weight, reduced learning and memory, and declined locomotor function. SKF38393, a dopamine D1 receptor agonist, can reverse the above damages. However, the mechanism of CSD syndrome and reversal role of SKF38393 remains largely unexplained. To preliminarily elucidate the mechanism of the neural dysfunction caused by CSD, in the present study we use gene chips to examine the expression profile of more than 28,000 transcripts in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Rats were sleep deprived by modified multi-platform method for 3 weeks. Totally 59 transcripts showed differential expressions in CSD group in contrast to controls; they included transcripts coding for caffeine metabolism, circadian rhythm, drug metabolism and some amino acid metabolism pathway. Among the 59 transcripts, 39 increased their expression and 20 decreased. Two transcripts can be specifically reversed with SKF38393, one of them is Homer1, which is related to 20 functional classifications and coding for Glutamatergic synapse pathway. Our findings in the present study indicate that long-term sleep deprivation may trigger the changes of some certain functions and pathways in the PFC, and lead to the dysfunction of this advanced neuron, and the activation of D1 receptor by SKF38393 might ameliorate these changes via modulation of some transcripts such as Homer1, which is involved in the Ca(2+) pathway and MAPK pathway related to Glutamatergic synapse pathway.

  14. Different types of errors in saccadic task are sensitive to either time of day or chronic sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowicz, Barbara; Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Fafrowicz, Magdalena; Gawlowska, Magda; Janik, Justyna; Lewandowska, Koryna; Oginska, Halszka; Marek, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms and restricted sleep length affect cognitive functions and, consequently, the performance of day to day activities. To date, no more than a few studies have explored the consequences of these factors on oculomotor behaviour. We have implemented a spatial cuing paradigm in an eye tracking experiment conducted four times of the day after one week of rested wakefulness and after one week of chronic partial sleep restriction. Our aim was to verify whether these conditions affect the number of a variety of saccadic task errors. Interestingly, we found that failures in response selection, i.e. premature responses and direction errors, were prone to time of day variations, whereas failures in response execution, i.e. omissions and commissions, were considerably affected by sleep deprivation. The former can be linked to the cue facilitation mechanism, while the latter to wake state instability and the diminished ability of top-down inhibition. Together, these results may be interpreted in terms of distinctive sensitivity of orienting and alerting systems to fatigue. Saccadic eye movements proved to be a novel and effective measure with which to study the susceptibility of attentional systems to time factors, thus, this approach is recommended for future research.

  15. 慢性肝病患者睡眠质量的调查分析%The analysis and investigation of sleep quality on chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任孟群

    2011-01-01

    目的:本文探讨影响肝病患者睡眠的相关因素并提出干预措施.方法:使用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)调查表及自行设计的睡眠影响因素调查问卷,对146例住院肝病患者睡眠状况进行调查分析.结果:肝病患者的睡眠质量较差,影响因素主要为环境因素、病理生理因素、心理因素、治疗护理因素等,通过干预,睡眠质量得到改善.结论:睡眠障碍对疾病转归有负性影响.要求我们在工作中要加强对病人睡眠质量的关注和评估,并积极采取措施控制影响因素,尽量满足病人的需要,提高患者的睡眠质量.%Objective To investigate and analysis the influencing factors of sleep quality on chronic liver disease. Methods Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in 146 chronic liver disease. Results Poor sleep are common in patients with chronic liver disease. Environmental, pathophysiological, psychological, treatment and care factors are main factors to influence sleep quality. But the phenomenon can be improved by some countermeasures. Conclusion Sleep disorders have the negative impact to patients. It is necessary to pay more attention on sleep quality and improve sleep disorder by taking active measures to control influencing factors.

  16. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  17. Immunological/virological peripheral blood biomarkers and distinct patterns of sleeping quality in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, C M O; de Lima, T A; Castro, D B; Torres, K L; da Silva Braga, W; Peruhype-Magalhães, V; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Martins-Filho, O A; Malheiro, A

    2011-05-01

    The rational of this study we intended to investigate whether the peripheral blood immunological/virological biomarkers were associated with distinct patterns of sleeping quality in patients with chronic hepatitis C-(HCV). Distinct well-established indexes/scores were used to categorize the sleeping quality of HCV patients, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Fatigue Severity Scores. Our findings demonstrated that HCV patients classified as 'good sleeper' displayed an enhanced frequency of circulating CD8(+) T cells, lower frequency of activated (CD69(+)) neutrophils and eosinophils but enhanced frequency of activated lymphocytes besides lower seric levels of IL-4/IL-8/IL-10 but higher levels of IL-12, besides lower HCV virus load and lower anti-HCV IgG levels. In contrast, HCV patients classified as 'poor sleeper' displayed enhanced levels of activated neutrophils and eosinophils but lower frequency of activated lymphocytes, higher seric levels of IL-6/TNF-α/IL-10 but lower levels of IL-12 besides higher HCV virus load and increased anti-HCV IgG levels. Positive correlation was further confirmed by the relationship between the leucocyte activation status, the cytokine levels, the HCV viral load and the anti-HCV IgG reactivity with the PSQI indexes. Analysis of cytokine signature curves demonstrated that lower frequency of IL-10 was observed in HCV patients classified as 'good sleepers', whereas enhanced frequency of IL-6 was found HCV patients classified as 'poor sleepers'. In conclusion, our data suggest that immunological biomarkers (leucocytes activation status and seric cytokines levels) are likely to be associated with sleeping quality patterns in HCV patients, suggesting their putative use for clinical monitoring purposes.

  18. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  19. Sleep disorders and depression: brief review of the literature, case report, and nonpharmacologic interventions for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antonina Luca,1 Maria Luca,2 Carmela Calandra2 1Department GF Ingrassia, Section of Neuroscience, 2Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, Italy Abstract: Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%–80% of depressed patients. Depressive symptoms are important risk factors for insomnia, and depression is considered an important comorbid condition in patients with chronic insomnia of any etiology. In addition, some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from the illness. The aim of this paper is to review briefly and discuss the following topics: common sleep disturbances during depression (in particular pavor nocturnus, nightmares, hypersomnia, and insomnia; circadian sleep disturbances; and treatment of depression by manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm (chronotherapy, light therapy, cycles of sleep, and manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm itself. Finally, we present a case report of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from insomnia associated with depression who was successfully treated with sleep deprivation. Keywords: sleep disorders, depression, insomnia, sleep-wake rhythm

  20. The impact of daily arthritis pain on spouse sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Lynn M; Keefe, Francis J; Schulz, Richard; Parris Stephens, Mary Ann; Mogle, Jacqueline A

    2013-09-01

    Although chronic pain has been linked to poorer psychosocial well-being in the spouse, the extent to which patient pain affects spouse sleep is unknown. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that greater daily knee pain would be associated with poorer sleep for the spouse that evening. We also tested the hypothesis that this pain contagion is exacerbated in couples who have a close relationship. A total of 138 knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and their spouses completed baseline interviews and a 22-day diary assessment. Multilevel lagged models indicated that greater knee OA pain at the end of the day was associated with spouses' poorer overall sleep quality that night and feeling less refreshed after sleep. In contrast, there was no evidence that spouse sleep was related to greater patient pain the next day. The effects of patient pain on spouse sleep were not due to disturbances in patient sleep and were also independent of spouse sex, depressive symptoms, and physical comorbidities; both partners' negative affect; and the quality of marital interactions throughout the day. As predicted, we also found that patient pain was more strongly related to less refreshing sleep for spouses who were in a close relationship. Findings illustrate that chronic pain may place the spouse's health at risk and suggest an important target for couple-oriented interventions.

  1. Melatonin improves health status and sleep in children with idiopathic chronic sleep-onset insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.G.; van Stel, H.F.; van der Heijden, K.; Meijer, A.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on health status and sleep in children with idiopathic sleep-onset insomnia. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a Dutch sleep center, involving 62 children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more

  2. INFLUENCE OF SLEEP ON OBESITY IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Paduraru, Dana-teodora; Teslariu, Oana; Mocanu, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic with long term implications. The main cause of obesity is an increase in calorie intake and a decrease in physical activity, but also there is clear evidence suggesting a link between the duration and quality of sleep and obesity risk. Good sleep habits are involved in increased ability to concentrate at school, improvement of general state, immune system development, increased quality of life. On the other hand, there are several mechanisms by which chronic sleep deprivation induces weight gain: disturbance of hormones that control hunger center, increased time for meals, reduced physical activity, metabolic changes. Recently, nighttime sleep duration has declined, in contrast with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Childhood sleep habits have a long term effect on weight, with repercussions even into adulthood. This is the reason why there is increasing interest to include sleep quality on the list for childhood obesity prevention. Sleep represents an important and independent risk factor of obesity in children and adolescents and it should be taken into consideration in the management of obesity.

  3. Actigraphy for measurement of sleep and sleep-wake rhythms in relation to surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing surgery have severe sleep and sleep-wake rhythm disturbances resulting in increased morbidity. Actigraphy is a tool that can be used to quantify these disturbances. The aim of this manuscript was to present the literature where actigraphy has been used to measure sleep and sleep...

  4. The association of testosterone, sleep, and sexual function in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Alvarenga, Tathiana F; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Hachul, Helena C; Tufik, Sergio

    2011-10-06

    Testosterone has been the focus of several investigations and review studies in males, but few have addressed its effects on sleep and sexual function, despite evidence of its androgenic effects on circadian activity in both sexes. Studies have been conducted to understand how sleeping increases (and how waking decreases) testosterone levels and how this rhythm can be related to sexual function. This review addresses the inter-relationships among testosterone, sexual function and sleep, including sleep-disordered breathing in both sexes, specifically its effects related to sleep deprivation. In addition, hormonal changes in testosterone that occur in the gonadal and adrenal axis with obstructive sleep apnea and other conditions of chronic sleep deprivation, and which consequently affect sexual life, have also been explored. Nevertheless, hormone-associated sleep disruptions occur across a lifetime, particularly in women. The association between endogenous testosterone and sex, sleep and sleep disturbances is discussed, including the results of clinical trials as well as animal model studies. Evidence of possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this relationship is also described. Unraveling the associations of sex steroid hormone concentrations with sleep and sexual function may have clinical implications, as sleep loss reduces testosterone levels in males, and low sex steroid hormone concentrations have been associated with sexual dysfunction.

  5. Chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals disturbs the hepatic expression of circadian genes in lean and obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthérieu, Sébastien; Le Guillou, Dounia; Coulouarn, Cédric; Begriche, Karima; Trak-Smayra, Viviane; Martinais, Sophie; Porceddu, Mathieu; Robin, Marie-Anne; Fromenty, Bernard

    2014-04-01

    Drinking water can be contaminated with pharmaceuticals. However, it is uncertain whether this contamination can be harmful for the liver, especially during obesity. Hence, the goal of our study was to determine whether chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals could have deleterious effects on livers of lean and obese mice. To this end, lean and ob/ob male mice were treated for 4 months with a mixture of 11 drugs provided in drinking water at concentrations ranging from 10 to 10⁶ ng/l. At the end of the treatment, some liver and plasma abnormalities were observed in ob/ob mice treated with the cocktail containing 10⁶ ng/l of each drug. For this dosage, a gene expression analysis by microarray showed altered expression of circadian genes (e.g. Bmal1, Dbp, Cry1) in lean and obese mice. RT-qPCR analyses carried out in all groups of animals confirmed that expression of 8 different circadian genes was modified in a dose-dependent manner. For some genes, a significant modification was observed for dosages as low as 10²-10³ ng/l. Drug mixture and obesity presented an additive effect on circadian gene expression. These data were validated in an independent study performed in female mice. Thus, our study showed that chronic exposure to trace pharmaceuticals disturbed hepatic expression of circadian genes, particularly in obese mice. Because some of the 11 drugs can be found in drinking water at such concentrations (e.g. acetaminophen, carbamazepine, ibuprofen) our data could be relevant in environmental toxicology, especially for obese individuals exposed to these contaminants.

  6. Chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals disturbs the hepatic expression of circadian genes in lean and obese mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthérieu, Sébastien; Le Guillou, Dounia; Coulouarn, Cédric; Begriche, Karima [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France); Trak-Smayra, Viviane [Pathology Department, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Martinais, Sophie [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France); Porceddu, Mathieu [Mitologics SAS, Hôpital Robert Debré, 48 Boulevard Sérurier, 75019 Paris (France); Robin, Marie-Anne [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France); Fromenty, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.fromenty@inserm.fr [INSERM, U991, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France)

    2014-04-01

    Drinking water can be contaminated with pharmaceuticals. However, it is uncertain whether this contamination can be harmful for the liver, especially during obesity. Hence, the goal of our study was to determine whether chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals could have deleterious effects on livers of lean and obese mice. To this end, lean and ob/ob male mice were treated for 4 months with a mixture of 11 drugs provided in drinking water at concentrations ranging from 10 to 10{sup 6} ng/l. At the end of the treatment, some liver and plasma abnormalities were observed in ob/ob mice treated with the cocktail containing 10{sup 6} ng/l of each drug. For this dosage, a gene expression analysis by microarray showed altered expression of circadian genes (e.g. Bmal1, Dbp, Cry1) in lean and obese mice. RT-qPCR analyses carried out in all groups of animals confirmed that expression of 8 different circadian genes was modified in a dose-dependent manner. For some genes, a significant modification was observed for dosages as low as 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} ng/l. Drug mixture and obesity presented an additive effect on circadian gene expression. These data were validated in an independent study performed in female mice. Thus, our study showed that chronic exposure to trace pharmaceuticals disturbed hepatic expression of circadian genes, particularly in obese mice. Because some of the 11 drugs can be found in drinking water at such concentrations (e.g. acetaminophen, carbamazepine, ibuprofen) our data could be relevant in environmental toxicology, especially for obese individuals exposed to these contaminants. - Highlights: • The contamination of drinking water with drugs may have harmful effects on health. • Some drugs can be more hepatotoxic in the context of obesity and fatty liver. • Effects of chronic exposure of trace drugs were studied in lean and obese mouse liver. Drugs and obesity present additive effects on circadian gene expression and toxicity. • Trace

  7. Update of sleep alterations in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Barrera Medina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances in depression are up to 70%. Patients frequently have difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night and non-restorative sleep. Sleep abnormalities in depression are mainly characterized by increased rapid eye movement (REM sleep and reduced slow wave sleep. Among the mechanisms of sleep disturbances in depression are hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CLOCK gene polymorphism and primary sleep disorders. The habenula is a structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain. The hyperactivation of the habenula has also been implicated, together with sleep disturbances, in depression. The presence of depression in primary sleep disorders is common. Sleep disturbances treatment include pharmacotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

  8. Update of sleep alterations in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Andrés Barrera; Lechuga, DeboraYoaly Arana; Escandón, Oscar Sánchez; Moctezuma, Javier Velázquez

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbances in depression are up to 70%. Patients frequently have difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night and non-restorative sleep. Sleep abnormalities in depression are mainly characterized by increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced slow wave sleep. Among the mechanisms of sleep disturbances in depression are hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CLOCK gene polymorphism and primary sleep disorders. The habenula is a structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain. The hyperactivation of the habenula has also been implicated, together with sleep disturbances, in depression. The presence of depression in primary sleep disorders is common. Sleep disturbances treatment include pharmacotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

  9. Sleep Disorders in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Dragisic, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory disturbances during sleep are recognized as extremely common disorders with important clinical consequences. Breathing disorders during sleep can result in broad range of clinical manifestations, the most prevalent of which are unrefreshing sleep, daytime sleepiness and fatigue, and cognitive impairmant. There is also evidence that respiratory-related sleep disturbances can contribute to several common cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, including systemic hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, and insulin-resistance. Correlations are found between asthma-related symptoms and sleep disturbances. Difficulties inducing sleep, sleep fragmentation on polysomnography, early morning awakenings and daytime sleepiness are more common in asthmatics compared with subjects without asthma. The “morning deep” in asthma is relevant for the characterization of asthma severity, and impact drugs’ choices. Sleep and night control of asthma could be relevant to evaluate disease’s control. Appropriate asthma control recovering is guarantor for better sleep quality in these patients and less clinical consequences of respiratory disturbances during sleep. PMID:23678304

  10. Health effects of chronic noise exposure in pregnancy and childhood: A systematic review initiated by ENRIECO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohmann, C.; Grabenhenrich, L.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Tischer, C.; Heinrich, J.; Chen, C.-M.; Thijs, C.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Keil, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic noise is an environmental pollutant and well-known to cause annoyance and sleep disturbance. Its association with clinical and subclinical adverse health effects has been discussed. Objectives: This systematic review aimed to examine associations between chronic noise exposure du

  11. Stress-related exhaustion disorder--clinical manifestation of burnout? A review of assessment methods, sleep impairments, cognitive disturbances, and neuro-biological and physiological changes in clinical burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Giorgio; Perski, Aleksander; Osika, Walter; Savic, Ivanka

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the literature on clinically significant burnout, focusing on its assessment, associations with sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments, as well as neurobiological and physiological correlates. Fifty-nine English language articles and six book chapters were included. The results indicate that exhaustion disorder (ED), as described in the Swedish version of the International Classification of Diseases, seems to be the most valid clini