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Sample records for chronic mentally ill

  1. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  2. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  3. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... financial problems, a loved one's death or a divorce An ongoing (chronic) medical condition, such as diabetes ... years, but most begin earlier in life. The effects of mental illness can be temporary or long ...

  4. Sociodrama in the rehabilitation of chronic mentally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, F W

    1989-04-01

    Sociodrama, a synthesis of group psychotherapy and theatrical presentation, was used from 1978 to 1981 to promote rehabilitation of chronic mentally ill patients at Bellevue Mental Hospital in Jamaica. Staff and patients collectively analyzed their recollections of the hospital's history, then wrote and staged dramatic productions based on the insights derived from those analyses. Changes in the major themes that emerged from the process reflected improvement in therapeutic attitudes and practices and in patient-staff communication over the four-year period. Patients who participated in the sociodramas had greater decreases in medication dosage and psychosocial disability scores and higher rates of improvement and discharge than a matched group of patients who did not participate.

  5. Complete mental health in adult siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallion, Madeleine; Taylor, Amanda; Roberts, Rachel

    2016-11-16

    Sibling relationships have lifelong significance and childhood chronic illness and disability can have considerable impacts on healthy siblings, influencing development into adulthood. Research has not yet assessed well-being in this population using measures of both mental health and mental illness. Thus, this study assessed well-being in a comprehensive manner using the complete mental health (CMH) model. Participants (N = 144) included both adult siblings of those with chronic illness or disability and adults with healthy siblings. Measures of positive social, psychological and emotional well-being were used to assess mental health and a measure of depression, anxiety, and stress was used to assess mental illness. A high proportion of participants, both with and without siblings with a chronic illness or disability, were experiencing symptoms of mental illness, accompanied by high wellbeing. This indicates that many participants fit into the struggling category of the CMH model. The present research highlights the need for early intervention services to ensure that siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability are well supported in developing strengths, as well as managing difficulties. Results also indicate that targeting students in mental health promotion is important to encourage participation in services. Implications for rehabilitation Siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability need to be included in assessments in order to understand the experience of the family unit. It is important for families and clinicians to be aware of the needs of healthy siblings and encourage them to interact with support services in order to maximise and maintain well-being. Skills-based support could be beneficial, particularly for providing caregivers with strategies to meet the needs of both their child with a chronic illness or disability and their healthy children.

  6. Attitudes toward mental illness in adults by mental illness-related factors and chronic disease status: 2007 and 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M

    2013-11-01

    We examined how attitudes toward mental illness treatment and its course differ by serious psychological distress, mental illness treatment, chronic disease, and sociodemographic factors using representative state-based data. Using data from jurisdictions supporting the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System's Mental Illness and Stigma Module (35 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico), we compared adjusted proportions of adults agreeing that "Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives" (treatment effectiveness) and that "People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness" (supportive environment), by demographic characteristics, serious psychological distress, chronic disease status, and mental illness treatment. Attitudes regarding treatment effectiveness and a supportive environment for people with mental illness varied within and between groups. Most adults receiving mental illness treatment agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer adults with serious psychological distress than those without such distress agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer of those receiving treatment, those with psychological distress, and those with chronic disease perceived the environment as supportive. These data can be used to target interventions for population subgroups with less favorable attitudes and for surveillance.

  7. [Development of Empowerment Program for Persons with Chronic Mental Illness and Evaluation of Impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Lee, Kyunghee

    2015-12-01

    This study was done to develop an empowerment program for people with chronic mental illness and to analyze effects of the program on level of empowerment. The research was conducted using a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Participants were 37 people with chronic mental illness (experimental group: 18, control group: 19). The empowerment program was provided for 8 weeks (15 sessions). Data were collected between July 21 and October 17, 2014. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Sapiro-Wilk test, and Repeated measure ANOVA with SPSS/WIN 18.0. Quantitative results show that self-efficacy, interpersonal relationships, attitudes in the workplace, occupational performance capacity, and levels of empowered execute were significantly better in the experimental group compared to the control group. Study findings indicate that this empowerment program for persons with chronic mental illness is effective for improving self efficacy, interpersonal skills, attitudes in the workplace, occupational performance capacity, levels of empowered execute.

  8. Feasibility of a multiple-choice mini mental state examination for chronically critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Following treatment in an ICU, up to 70% of chronically critically ill patients present neurocognitive impairment that can have negative effects on their quality of life, daily activities, and return to work. The Mini Mental State Examination is a simple, widely used tool for neurocognitive assessment. Although of interest when evaluating ICU patients, the current version is restricted to patients who are able to speak. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a visual, mul...

  9. Effects of Culturally Relevant Psychoeducation for Korean American Families of Persons with Chronic Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Kyung

    2004-01-01

    This study is to identify culturally relevant treatment methods and to assess the effects of family psychoeducational intervention for Korean Americans who had a family member with mental illness. 48 Korean Americans with children with mental illness were randomly assigned to either an experimental group program that provided culturally sensitive…

  10. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  11. Psychosis or temporal lobotomy: SPECT findings in a paraplegic patient with chronic mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, W; Thurber, S

    2006-08-01

    To ascertain if single proton emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging involving a patient with a history of head trauma, paraplegia, and chronic mental illness, would provide useful information regarding diagnosis and treatment. A case report. SPECT data indicated a convexity of the temporal lobe; it was significantly crumpled inward in the location of the traumatic blow suffered 18 years earlier. The center of hypoperfusion suggested a complete disruption of connections between the temporal lobe and Broca's area, and a practically ablated left temporal area. The patient was reclassified with an organic psychosis and as an individual who might benefit more from medications to treat temporal lobe irritability rather than antipsychotic medications. Despite these findings and recommendations, psychiatric personnel discharged the patient without implementation. He is currently in critical condition following a suicide attempt.

  12. Training for Direct Support Staff at Group Homes for People with Chronic Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsadri, Alireza; Pizzuti, Albert; Smith, Daicia; Duckett, Danielle; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2017-07-28

    For people with chronic mental illness, their support system (including direct support staff at group homes) play a key role in ameliorating exacerbations leading to crisis care. However, little information exists on curriculum or training programs focused on reducing exacerbations while promoting compassionate care. We developed, implemented and evaluated such a program that featured role-playing and animated videos supplemented with limited didactics. During development phase, direct support staff reviewed videos and rated them as depicting realistic situations with high acceptability. During implementation, the 6-week course (at least one staff from six different group homes not involved in the development phase) using a 3-month pre-post design found reductions in total number of incident reports and pre-specified outcomes of recipient right complaints, emergency calls, and psychiatric hospitalizations. The program demonstrated acceptability, improved care and better outcomes on some but not all outcomes. Improved training of direct support staff is possible and has positive outcomes.

  13. Childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood: mental health and socioeconomic status as explanatory factors and buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Mock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.

  14. Childhood Trauma and Chronic Illness in Adulthood: Mental Health and Socioeconomic Status as Explanatory Factors and Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Steven E.; Susan M Arai

    2011-01-01

    Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typic...

  15. Effects of fiscal retrenchment on public mental health services for the chronic mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surber, R W; Shumway, M; Shadoan, R; Hargreaves, W A

    1986-01-01

    In reviewing the public mental health services of 11 California counties during a period of fiscal retrenchment, we found several common trends: a greater focus on the severely mentally disabled; an increase in utilization of hospital-based care, residential treatment, day treatment, and case management services; and a decrease in the capacity of traditional outpatient services. Although the severely mentally disabled are receiving a higher priority for service, the findings imply that these service systems continue to inadequately address the need for long-term maintenance and supportive services to this population.

  16. Violence and Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, includi...

  17. [Social exclusion and discrimination of chronically mentally ill people in the Lodz region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmus, Paweł; Nowaczyńska, Ewa; Stetkiewicz-Lewandowicz, Agnieszka; Rasmus, Alicja; Sobów, Tomasz

    2013-11-01

    Mental crisis exerts a negative effect on somatic, psychological and social functioning of a mentally ill person. Mental disease is often accompanied by factors increasing the social exclusion and discrimination of patients. Another problem is deeply rooted stereotypes and prejudices functioning in the public opinion, according to which people who suffer from mental disorder are considered insane and often dangerous for society. In Poland, thanks to, amongst others, the ESF (The European Social Fund) funds, it is possible to finance and implement research concerning social exclusion and discrimination of people who have experienced a mental crisis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of social exclusion and discrimination of people suffering from mental disorders from the Lodz region on the basis of seven points scale assessing their personal, occupational, and social functioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS; The study included a group of 101 patients with mental disorders. Participants were selected randomly from mental health institutions from the region of Lodz. To evaluate the problem of social exclusion in the group of patients a interview questionnaire was used. Social exclusion concerned people suffering from schizophrenia and psychosis, more than six years of illness, those with allocated disability pension, non-working and non-learning, with the lowest levels of education and maintaining a one-person household or living with one parent. Those who experienced the lowest degree of social exclusion were mainly people suffering from mood disorders, people with higher education, learning and working, living with both parents. Groups experiencing discrimination were mostly people with schizophrenia, disorders due to psychoactive substances, those with secondary and professional education, patients having a certificate of disability and maintaining a one-person household. Social exclusion of mentally ill people was mainly related to their low education, civic

  18. Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Grievink, L.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill s

  19. Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: Are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Bellis van den; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris; Stellato, Rebecca K; Grievink, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill s

  20. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristi

  1. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  2. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  3. Coping with Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a long-term, or chronic, illness can disrupt your life in many ways. You may often be tired and in pain. Your illness might affect your ... able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not ...

  4. Collaborative recovery: an integrative model for working with individuals who experience chronic and recurring mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oades, Lindsay; Deane, Frank; Crowe, Trevor; Lambert, W Gordon; Kavanagh, David; Lloyd, Chris

    2005-09-01

    Recovery is an emerging movement in mental health. Evidence for recovery-based approaches is not well developed and approaches to implement recovery-oriented services are not well articulated. The collaborative recovery model (CRM) is presented as a model that assists clinicians to use evidence-based skills with consumers, in a manner consistent with the recovery movement. A current 5 year multisite Australian study to evaluate the effectiveness of CRM is briefly described. The collaborative recovery model puts into practice several aspects of policy regarding recovery-oriented services, using evidence-based practices to assist individuals who have chronic or recurring mental disorders (CRMD). It is argued that this model provides an integrative framework combining (i) evidence-based practice; (ii) manageable and modularized competencies relevant to case management and psychosocial rehabilitation contexts; and (iii) recognition of the subjective experiences of consumers.

  5. Gaius Caligula's mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned.

  6. Is there a protective effect of normal to high intellectual function on mental health in children with chronic illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundervold Astri J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intellectual function is considered as a protective factor for children's mental health. Few studies have investigated the effect of intellectual function on mental health in children with chronic illness (CI. The aim of the present study was twofold: First, we asked if normal to high intellectual function (IQ has a protective effect on mental health in children with CI, and secondly, if this effect is more substantial than in their peers (NCI. Methods The participants were selected among children who participated in the Bergen Child Study (BCS: 96 children with CI (the CI-group and 96 children without CI (the NCI-group. The groups were matched on intellectual function as measured by the WISC-III by selecting the same number of children from three levels of the Full Scale IQ Score (FSIQ: "very low" (84. CI was reported by parents as part of a diagnostic interview (Kiddie-SADS-PL that also generated the mental health measures used in the present study: the presence of a DSM-IV psychiatric diagnosis and the score on the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Results The risk of a psychiatric diagnosis was significantly lower for children with a normal to high FSIQ-level than for children with a very low and low FSIQ-level in the CI-group as well as in the NCI-group. The group differences were statistically non-significant for all three FSIQ-levels, and the effect of the interaction between the group-variable (CI/NCI and the FSIQ-level was non-significant on both measures of mental health. Conclusion The present study showed a protective effect of normal to high intellectual function on children's mental health. This protective effect was not more substantial in children with CI than in children without CI.

  7. The stigma of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Kordosi A; Saridi M; Souliotis K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the...

  8. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  9. Mental Illness And Brain Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrick Jeffrey D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  10. Living with Mentally Ill Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Buldukoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.

  11. Fiscal decentralization of public mental health care and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation program on chronic mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R G; Gaynor, M

    1994-01-01

    Organizational change for local mental health systems has been advanced as an important aspect of improving the performance of public mental health systems. Fiscal decentralization is a central element of many proposals for organizational change. We employ data from the states of Ohio and Texas to examine some of the consequences of fiscal decentralization of public mental health care. The data analysis shows that local mental health systems respond to financial incentives, even when they are modest; that fiscal decentralization leads to increased fiscal effort by localities; and that decentralization also results in greater inequality in service between poorer and wealthier localities.

  12. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  13. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  14. The stigma of mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordosi A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the individual. The search for sources of this review was made through books on the topic and articles of the last twenty years, from online internet sources (pubmed, scopus, google scholar. Literature Review:Stigma brought about by illness from mental illness, is a complex process and concept, located in social interaction and the dynamics of social relations. The social stigma borne by mental illness in general, as well as the lack of information, ignorance, stereotypes, myths and prejudices, are the main reasons that characterize, even today, depression as a taboo subject. The stigma of mental illness is indeliblyimprinted in the identity of human suffering. In any case, the impact of stigma is critical for people who are sick. The psychological stress and difficult conditions that shape their daily lives aggravate their already compromised mental health, having a significant impact on the course and outcome of the disease itself. Key strategies to address stigma are protest, education and contact. Conclusions:A significant step in combating the stigma is to raise public awareness on the issues of mental health and their inclusion in society.

  15. Help for Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. You can also go to the website ... coverage for mental health care. Participate in a Clinical Trial Clinical trials are part of clinical research ...

  16. [Creativity and mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Annamária

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that people with salient social and artistic creativity suffer more frequently from psychiatric illnesses than the average population. In their review paper, the authors assess the Hungarian and international scientific literature regarding the association of creativity and psychopathology. They conclude that contrary to the concept prevailing in the first part of the 20th century about the strong association between schizophrenia and creativity, the results of empirical research now unambiguously suggest that prominent social and artistic creativity is associated primarily with affective, and more specifically with bipolar affective illnesses. In addition, we already know that as regards the development of creativity, it is not the given affective (depressive, manic, hypomanic) episode which is important, but the hyperthymic or cyclothymic temperament structure which also predisposes for affective illness.

  17. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health.

  18. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl;

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  19. O doente mental crônico internado: uma revisão da literatura El enfermo mental crónico internado: una revisión de la literatura The chronic mentally ill patient: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyne Alves Pires Scherer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordagens alternativas no manejo da doença mental têm surgido no mundo inteiro com ênfase nos modelos extra-hospitalares, comunitários. Pouco se fala das pessoas cronicamente internadas. O objetivo da presente revisão da literatura foi levantar o que os estudiosos têm proposto na última década no que se refere ao trabalho com doentes mentais crônicos internados. Os artigos e textos encontrados foram divididos nos tópicos: características dos doentes crônicos internados, opinião destes sobre a internação e sugestões para melhorar a prática. Como conclusão, os autores propõem uma melhor avaliação com estudos sérios sobre esta clientela, a realidade que a cerca e as possibilidades de intervenção.Abordajes alternativos en el manejo de la enfermedad mental han surgido en el mundo entero con énfasis en los modelos extra-hospitalarios, comunitarios. Poco se habla de las personas crónicamente internadas. El objetivo de la presente revisión de la literatura fue levantar lo que los estudiosos han propuesto en la última década acerca del trabajo con enfermos mentales crónicos internados. Los artículos y textos encontrados fueron divididos en los tópicos: características de los enfermos crónicos internados, opinión de los mismos sobre la internación y sugerencias para mejorar la práctica. Como conclusión, los autores proponen una mejor evaluación con estudios serios sobre esta clientela, la realidad que la circunda y las posibilidades de intervención.Alternative approaches to manage mental illness have arisen all over the world with emphasis on outpatient community models. Little is said about chronically hospitalized patients. The purpose of this literature review was to access what researchers have proposed in the past decade concerning the work with chronic mentally ill inpatients. The articles found were divided in topics: characteristics of chronic mentally ill inpatients, their opinion about hospitalization and

  20. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  1. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  2. A comparison of the dental status and treatment needs of older adults with and without chronic mental illness in Sevilla, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Ortega, Eugenio; Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Córdoba Arenas, Sara; Jiménez Guerra, Álvaro; L. Monsalve Guil; López López, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the dental status and treatment needs of institutionalized older adults with chronic mental illness compared to a non-psychiatric control sample. Study Design: The sample size was 100, in which 50 were psychogeriatric patients (study group; SG) classified according to DSM-IV, with a mean age of 69.6 ± 6.7 years, and 50 non-psychiatric patients (control group; CG), with a mean age of 68.3 ± 6.9 years. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted and caries were recorde...

  3. Violence and mental illness: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of mental illness and violence by asking three questions: Are the mentally ill violent? Are the mentally ill at increased risk of violence? Are the public at risk? Mental disorders are neither necessary nor sufficient causes of violence. Major determinants of violence continue to be socio-demographic and economic factors. Substance abuse is a major determinant of violence and this is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent ...

  4. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  5. Epidemiology of trauma: Childhood adversities, neighborhood problems, discrimination, chronic strains, life events, and daily hassles among people with a severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Ritter, Christian; Bonfine, Natalie

    2015-12-15

    Trauma during childhood and adolescence is a common event among people with a serious psychological disorder. Few studies assess a wide range of stressors for this population. This is surprising given that these stressful events are implicated in poorer outcomes related to course and treatment of mental health problems. This study of 214 people with serious mental illness examines the prevalence of childhood traumas, perceived neighborhood problems, discrimination, chronic strains, negative life events, and daily hassles. We use regression analyses to determine if these stressors are associated with quality of life. Results show that 95% of the sample report at least one childhood adversity. Perceived neighborhood problems, experiences of discrimination, chronic strains, life events, and daily hassles were also common. Examining the relationship between demographic factors and stressors suggests that older respondents, Whites, those who have never been married, and people diagnosed with Schizophrenia reported fewer stressors compared to those who are older, non-White, ever married, or suffering from other types of mental health problems. Finally, three of the six types of stressors were related to lower quality of life and depression. We discuss the implications of these findings for the treatment of severe psychological problems.

  6. The Ubiquity of Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Claudia; Fleischer, Soraya; Rui, Taniele

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of five different books dealing with some aspect of what might be termed a "chronic illness" - Alzheimer's disease, lupus, addiction, erectile dysfunction, and leprosy. The array of different subjects examined in these books points to the negotiable limits of this hugely open category. What exactly constitutes an "illness"? Why not use a less biomedical term instead: "disturbance", "problem", or simply "condition"? And how are we to understand "chronic" - simply as the flipside of "acute" or "curable"?

  7. The Fight against Stigma toward Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Cam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 71-78

  8. Income and employment of people living with combined HIV/AIDS, chronic mental illness, and substance abuse disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Christopher J; Arno, Peter; Weaver, Marcia; Ang, Alfonso; Ettner, Susan L

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of HIV triply-diagnosed adults having a combination of HIV, mental illness and substance abuse problems. We sought to determine the sources of money income for HIV triply diagnosed adults (public or private), receipt of transfer income (e.g., welfare) and financial support from others. We further sought to ascertain their employment status and analyze the characteristics associated with full- and part-time employment. We use self-reported money income during the past 30 days and self-reported employment status. We calculate earnings losses due to illness by subtracting self-reported earnings from average earnings for all U.S. workers based on 5-year age and gender categories. We provide descriptive statistics to show how income and employment vary by patient characteristics and logistic regression analysis to examine correlates of income and employment. Average income is below the poverty level for single individuals, with more than two-thirds coming from public income sources. The likelihood of receiving disability/retirement income was lower among those with the worst mental health (RR=0.80; 95% CI=0.64, 0.97). Blacks were more likely than others to rely on public assistance (RR=1.24; 95% CI=1.02, 1.55) and married individuals were less likely (RR=0.60; 95% CI=0.41, 0.79). While most private income comes from employment, less than 15 percent of this population is employed full- or part-time. On a monthly basis, the average individual in our sample lost $2,726 in income when compared to the earnings of individuals of the same age and sex in the general population. The relative probability of current full-time/part-time employment was lower among females (RR=0.56; 95% CI=0.34, 0.83); such employment also was lower among those in the worst physical health (RR=0.39; 95% CI=0.26, 0.65) and those in moderate physical health (RR=0.55; 95% CI=0.34, 0.81) relative to those in the best physical health. This population

  9. Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

  10. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) for people with chronic mental illness: scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Rie; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kawakami, Norito

    2010-03-01

    Recovery is defined as a complex process of developing new meaning and purpose in life as one grows beyond the catastrophic effects of mental illness. To promote this process, the necessity of recovery assessment using psychometric measures has been emphasized; however, no measure to assess the individual recovery process is available in Japan. To develop a Japanese version of the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) and to examine its reliability and validity. The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Participants came from 1 daycare, 1 outpatient clinic of a psychiatric hospital, 5 sheltered workshops used for social rehabilitation, 3 peer support groups, and 6 inpatient wards of 2 psychiatric hospitals. The survey included 237 participants who had chronic mental illness and were aged 20 or older. For analysis, we used data from 209 participants who had no missing values on the RAS, with 58.9% male and a mean age of 48.3 years. The questionnaire consisted of the Japanese version of the 24-item RAS, developed by the authors with focus group cognitive interviews and the translation-back-translation procedure. Also included were the Herth Hope Index, Empowerment scale, Resilience scale, SF-8, and BASIS-32. Internal consistency reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, and test-retest reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and weighted kappa in a randomly selected subsample (n=24). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with other scales were used to examine the factor-based validity, concurrent and construct validity of the RAS. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.89 for the overall RAS. ICC and weighted kappa generally indicated good test-retest reliability. Factor analysis of the RAS items yielded five factors: (a) goal/success orientation and hope, (b) reliance on others, (c) personal confidence, (d) no domination by symptoms, and (e) willingness to ask for help. The item "Coping with

  11. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  12. Estimating the true global burden of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Daniel; Thornicroft, Graham; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the global burden of mental illness is underestimated and examine the reasons for under-estimation to identify five main causes: overlap between psychiatric and neurological disorders; the grouping of suicide and self-harm as a separate category; conflation of all chronic pain syndromes with musculoskeletal disorders; exclusion of personality disorders from disease burden calculations; and inadequate consideration of the contribution of severe mental illness to mortality from associated causes. Using published data, we estimate the disease burden for mental illness to show that the global burden of mental illness accounts for 32·4% of years lived with disability (YLDs) and 13·0% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), instead of the earlier estimates suggesting 21·2% of YLDs and 7·1% of DALYs. Currently used approaches underestimate the burden of mental illness by more than a third. Our estimates place mental illness a distant first in global burden of disease in terms of YLDs, and level with cardiovascular and circulatory diseases in terms of DALYs. The unacceptable apathy of governments and funders of global health must be overcome to mitigate the human, social, and economic costs of mental illness.

  13. A comparison of the dental status and treatment needs of older adults with and without chronic mental illness in Sevilla, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Córdoba-Arenas, Sara; Jiménez-Guerra, Alvaro; Monsalve-Guil, Loreto; López-López, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the dental status and treatment needs of institutionalized older adults with chronic mental illness compared to a non-psychiatric control sample. Study Design: The sample size was 100, in which 50 were psychogeriatric patients (study group; SG) classified according to DSM-IV, with a mean age of 69.6 ± 6.7 years, and 50 non-psychiatric patients (control group; CG), with a mean age of 68.3 ± 6.9 years. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted and caries were recorded clinically using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMFT). Results were analyzed statistically using the Student’s t-test or analysis of variance. Results: Caries prevalence was 58% and 62% in SG and CG, respectively. DMFT index was 28.3 ± 6.6 in SG and 21.4 ± 6.07 in CG (p Gerodontology, oral health, older adult, psychiatric patients, schizophrenia. PMID:23229258

  14. Social Work Faculty and Mental Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…

  15. World survey of mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Neil; Tang, Sabrina; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Ing, Alton

    2016-01-15

    To obtain rapid and reproducible opinions that address mental illness stigma around the world. Random global Web users were exposed to brief questions, asking whether they interacted daily with someone with mental illness, whether they believed that mental illness was associated with violence, whether it was similar to physical illness, and whether it could be overcome. Over a period of 1.7 years, 596,712 respondents from 229 countries completed the online survey. The response rate was 54.3%. China had the highest proportion of respondents in daily contact with a person with mental illness. In developed countries, 7% to 8% of respondents endorsed the statement that individuals with mental illness were more violent than others, in contrast to 15% or 16% in developing countries. While 45% to 51% of respondents from developed countries believed that mental illness was similar to physical illness, only 7% believed that mental illness could be overcome. To test for reproducibility, 21 repeats of the same questions were asked monthly in India for 21 months. Each time, 10.1 ± 0.11% s.e., of respondents endorsed the statement that persons who suffer from mental illness are more violent than others, indicating strong reproducibility of response. This study shows that surveys of constructs such as stigma towards mental illness can be carried out rapidly and repeatedly across the globe, so that the impact of policy interventions can be readily measured. The method engages English speakers only, mainly young, educated males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Tara W. Strine, MPH; Satvinder Dhingra, MPH; Lela R. McKnight-Eily, PhD; Carol D. Ryff, PhD; Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH; Ronald W. Manderscheid, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to ph...

  17. Evolving definitions of mental illness and wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderscheid, Ronald W; Ryff, Carol D; Freeman, Elsie J; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Dhingra, Satvinder; Strine, Tara W

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.

  18. [Illness behavior in chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle, Pilar; Clark, Patricia; Martínez, Homero; Mercado, Francisco; Ryan, Gery

    2008-01-01

    To describe the illness behaviour in patients with chronic pain. We conducted semi-structured interviews to 53 patients during 2000, in a tertiary care center. We explored their initial interpretations, responses and subsequent practices to chronic pain, until they received a diagnosis that satisfied them. Illness behaviour was determined by pain intensity and disability; beliefs regarding pain causes, trust in social networks, and quality and satisfaction with the health care systems. In terms of the decision to seek care, the first option was to go to the popular sector, followed by consulting a general physician, and as last resort, to go to a tertiary care center ("with a specialist"). Illness behaviour should be conceptualized as a process, which combines the use of different health care sectors by the same subjects, as a result of care provided sequentially by each previous sector.

  19. Electrotherapy and mental illness: then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2008-09-01

    Today electrotherapy has reappeared as a therapy of choice for the treatment of depression and other forms of mental illness. It had de facto vanished from allopathic medicine from the 1920s to the end of the century. The debates about electrotherapy mirror the question of whether mental illness was somatic and to be treated by somatic means or psychological to be treated with psychotherapy. Sigmund Freud's move from an advocate to an opponent of electrotherapy is exemplary for a shift in attitude and the decline of electrotherapy. With the re-somaticization of mental illness over the past decades has come the reappearance of somatic therapies such as electrotherapy.

  20. Communication About Chronic Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Judith E.; Mercado, Alice F.; Camhi, Sharon L.; Tandon, Nidhi; Wallenstein, Sylvan; August, Gary I.; Morrison, R. Sean

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite poor outcomes, life-sustaining treatments including mechanical ventilation are continued for a large and growing population of patients with chronic critical illness. This may be owing in part to a lack of understanding resulting from inadequate communication between clinicians and patients and families. Our objective was to investigate the informational needs of patients with chronic critical illness and their families and the extent to which these needs are met. Methods In this prospective observational study conducted at 5 adult intensive care units in a large, university-affiliated hospital in New York, New York, 100 patients with chronic critical illness (within 3–7 days of elective tracheotomy for prolonged mechanical ventilation) or surrogates for incapacitated patients were surveyed using an 18-item questionnaire addressing communication about chronic critical illness. Main outcome measures included ratings of importance and reports of whether information was received about questionnaire items. Results Among 125 consecutive, eligible patients, 100 (80%) were enrolled; questionnaire respondents included 2 patients and 98 surrogates. For all items, more than 78% of respondents rated the information as important for decision making (>98% for 16 of 18 items). Respondents reported receiving no information for a mean (SD) of 9.0 (3.3) of 18 items, with 95% of respondents reporting not receiving information for approximately one-quarter of the items. Of the subjects rating the item as important, 77 of 96 (80%) and 69 of 74 (93%) reported receiving no information about expected functional status at hospital discharge and prognosis for 1-year survival, respectively. Conclusions Many patients and their families may lack important information for decision making about continuation of treatment in the chronic phase of critical illness. Strategies for effective communication in this clinical context should be investigated and implemented. PMID

  1. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  2. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  3. Electrotherapy and mental illness: then and now

    OpenAIRE

    Sander L. Gilman

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Today electrotherapy has reappeared as a therapy of choice for the treatment of depression and other forms of mental illness. It had de facto vanished from allopathic medicine from the 1920s to the end of the century. The debates about electrotherapy mirror the question of whether mental illness was somatic and to be treated by somatic means or psychological to be treated with psychotherapy. Sigmund Freud's move from an advocate to an opponent of electrothera...

  4. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  5. Needs of people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can b

  6. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  7. Needs of people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can

  8. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  9. Meditation's impact on chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Ramita

    2003-01-01

    Meditation is becoming widely popular as an adjunct to conventional medical therapies. This article reviews the literature regarding the experience of chronic illness, theories about meditation, and clinical effects of this self-care practice. Eastern theories of meditation include Buddhist psychology. The word Buddha means the awakened one, and Buddhist meditators have been called the first scientists, alluding to more than 2500 years of precise, detailed observation of inner experience. The knowledge that comprises Buddhist psychology was derived inductively from the historical figure's (Prince Siddhartha Gautama) diligent self-inquiry. Western theories of meditation include Jungian, Benson's relaxation response, and transpersonal psychology. Clinical effects of meditation impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes, including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self-esteem, and decreased stress. Meditation has been studied in populations with fibromyalgia, cancer, hypertension, and psoriasis. While earlier studies were small and lacked experimental controls, the quality and quantity of valid research is growing. Meditation practice can positively influence the experience of chronic illness and can serve as a primary, secondary, and/or tertiary prevention strategy. Health professionals demonstrate commitment to holistic practice by asking patients about use of meditation, and can encourage this self-care activity. Simple techniques for mindfulness can be taught in the clinical setting. Living mindfully with chronic illness is a fruitful area for research, and it can be predicted that evidence will grow to support the role of consciousness in the human experience of disease.

  10. How the Media Cover Mental Illnesses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zexin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important to review research on mental illnesses and media. The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of studies on mental illnesses in the media and identifies…

  11. How the Media Cover Mental Illnesses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zexin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important to review research on mental illnesses and media. The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of studies on mental illnesses in the media and identifies…

  12. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  13. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  14. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  15. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  16. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  17. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  18. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara W. Strine, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an “absence of disease” model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.

  20. Nutrition in chronic critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingleton, S K

    2001-03-01

    Nutritional management of patients with respiratory failure can be a model of nutritional management in chronically critically ill patients. This model requires recognition of the differing metabolic states of starvation and hypermetabolism. Starvation can result in malnutrition, with adverse effect on respiratory muscle strength, ventilatory drive, and immune defense mechanisms. General nutritional goals include preservation of lean body mass by providing adequate energy and positive nitrogen balance. General nutritional prescriptions for both states include a substrate mix of 20% protein, 60% to 70% carbohydrates, and 20% to 30% fat. Positive nitrogen balance is difficult to attain in hypermetabolic patients and energy requirements are increased compared with starved patients. Enteral nutrition should be the mode of initial nutrient delivery unless the gastrointestinal tract is nonfunctional. Monitoring of nutritional support is essential. Complications of nutritional support are multiple. Nutritional hypercapnia is an important complication in a chronically critically ill patient. Outcomes of selected long-term acute patients are poor, with only 8% of patients fully functional 1 year after discharge. Appropriate nutritional therapy is one aspect of management of these patients that has the possibility of optimizing function and survival.

  1. Discrimination, poor mental health, and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination is a major public health issue. Discrimination is known and well recognized to be associated with poor physical and mental health, as well as creating social divisions and fear that undermines the success of society and economic progress. Policies to eradicate discrimination and prejudice in the public sphere, and in public life, need thoughtful and careful planning and engagement by all public institutions and in the way they conduct their business. This forms the basis of social justice. Employers, politicians, and public servants, as well as other stakeholders, irrespective of their professional status, all have ethical responsibilities to uphold such actions and policies, values, and supporting behaviours, as a core principle of successful societies.

  2. Mental Health Services Can Be Organized to Prevent Chronic Desirability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenberg, Ernest M.; Huxley, Judith

    1970-01-01

    The major burden of mental illness borne by our communities is imposed by severely mentally disordered people who become chronically deteriorated in their social functioning. Yet much of this burden is unnecessary. At least half the people currently becoming chronically deteriorated would not do so if our present knowledge was put to work. (Author)

  3. Mental illness in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almutairi AF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adel F Almutairi Population Health Research Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaWhile I was reading on this topic, I came across an online article attributed to a Saudi psychologist that contained information about mental illness among the Saudi population. What really struck me right away was the estimate that was given for the number of mentally ill people in the country. It was claimed that about half of the Saudi population is suffering from mental illness.1 This made me wonder on what grounds the psychologist was basing the claim and how she came up with this scary statistic. If the figure was based on an empirical study, what was the sample size and how robust was the research? Unfortunately, no details were given to answer these questions. Nevertheless, such an alarming figure was the main impetus and driving force for me to write this article and provide readers with an overview of the magnitude of mental illness in the world, and more specifically, in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, based on recent literature. This article also provides perspectives of scientists working at King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, on how we intend to tackle this issue.  

  4. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autism spectrum disorder: Signs and symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html. Accessed Dec. 8, 2014. Feb. 11, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/mental-illness-in-children/ ...

  5. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  6. Smoking, Mental Illness, and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C

    2016-12-16

    Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  7. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  8. The role of the psychiatrist in the care of children and adolescents with chronic somatic illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnič Radobuljac

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Children with chronic illness and their families are at a higher risk for the development of mental disorders, and these may negatively affect the psychosocial development of children at different developmental stages. Mental disorders in children or their families affect the compliance in the treatment of chronic somatic illness and consequently cause higher disability. The present article describes various ways in which a chronic illness can influence mental states of children and their families, as well as the role of family member’s mental disorder in treatment compliance. It also describes the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist in the management of these children and their families.

  9. Looking after chronically ill dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    thus face similar challenges when caring for their animals. This qualitative study uncovers impacts on an owner's life, when attending to the care of an aged or chronically ill dog and reflects on the differing roles of caregivers with animal and human patients. Twelve dog owners were selected for in......-depth interviews based on the dogs' diagnoses, and the choice of treatments and care expected to affect the owner's life. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. The dog owners reported several changes in their lives due to their dog's condition: practicalities like extra care, changes...... in use of the home, and restrictions relating to work, social life, and finances. These were time-consuming, tough, and annoying, but could often be dealt with through planning and prioritizing. Changes in the human–dog relationship and activities caused sadness and frustration, which in turn led...

  10. Mental illness in the nursing workplace: a collective autoethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P

    2010-01-01

    Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness.

  11. Mental Illness In Nursing Homes: Variations Across States

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, David C.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The institutionalization of individuals with mental illness in nursing homes is an important policy concern. Using nursing home Minimum Data Set assessments from 2005, we found large cross-state variation in both the rates of mental illness among nursing home admissions and the estimated rates of nursing home admissions among persons with mental illness. We also found that newly admitted individuals with mental illness were younger and more likely to become long-stay residents. Taken together...

  12. American Christian Engagement With Mental Health and Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Although religious belief and practice are relevant to mental health outcomes, many clinicians lack knowledge of particular religious traditions required to make informed judgments about referral to and collaboration with faith-based organizations and clinicians. This Open Forum examines five diverse American Christian approaches to mental health and mental illness-pastoral care and counseling, biblical counseling, integrationism, Christian psychology, and the work of the Institute for the Psychological Sciences--that are relevant for contemporary mental health service delivery. Each of these movements is briefly described and placed in historical, conceptual, and organizational context. Knowledge of the diverse and varied terrain of American Christian engagement with mental health care can inform clinicians' interactions with faith-based providers, clarify opportunities for responsible collaboration, and provide important insight into religious subcultures with faith-based concerns about contemporary psychiatric care.

  13. Resolving mental illness stigma: should we seek normalcy or solidarity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Two approaches have emerged to deal with the stigma of mental illness: normalcy, where people with mental illness are framed as 'just like everyone else'; and solidarity, where the public agrees to stand with those with mental illness regardless of their symptoms. Pros and cons of each approach are considered.

  14. Coping mediates the relationship between disease severity and illness intrusiveness among chronically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, Natalie E; Bensadon, Benjamin A; Stanley, Melinda A; Petersen, Nancy J; Kunik, Mark E; Kauth, Michael R; Cully, Jeffrey A

    2015-09-01

    Reducing perceptions of illness intrusiveness may improve quality of life and mental health among patients with cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand relationships between coping style, locus of control, perceived illness intrusiveness, and disease severity, we analyzed data from 227 older Veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or congestive heart failure. Regressions revealed illness intrusiveness to be associated with younger age and greater disease severity, less internal locus of control, and avoidant/emotion-focused coping. Avoidant/emotion-focused coping but not active coping mediated the relationship between illness severity and illness intrusiveness. Findings suggest that supportive psychological interventions may reduce illness intrusiveness by targeting an avoidant/emotion-focused coping style and associated behaviors. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

    2012-01-01

    Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood.

  16. Mental illness in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi AF

    2015-01-01

    Adel F Almutairi Population Health Research Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaWhile I was reading on this topic, I came across an online article attributed to a Saudi psychologist that contained information about mental illness among the Saudi population. What really struck me right away was the estimate that was given for the number of m...

  17. Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2005-12-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma we discuss two leading concepts of mental illness stigma and consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment and fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services. Finally, we discuss three main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- and give examples of current anti-stigma campaigns. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma.

  18. Beyond attributions: Understanding public stigma of mental illness with the common sense model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chong, Eddie S K; Wong, Celia C Y

    2014-03-01

    The present study applied the common sense model (i.e., cause, controllability, timeline, consequences, and illness coherence) to understand public attitudes toward mental illness and help-seeking intention and to examine the mediating role of perceived controllability between causal attributions with public attitudes and help seeking. Based on a randomized household sample of 941 Chinese community adults in Hong Kong, results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that people who endorsed cultural lay beliefs tended to perceive the course of mental illness as less controllable, whereas those with psychosocial attributions see its course as more controllable. The more people perceived the course of mental illness as less controllable, more chronic, and incomprehensible, the lower was their acceptance and the greater was mental illness stigma. Furthermore, those who perceived mental illness with dire consequences were more likely to feel greater stigma and social distance. Conversely, when people were more accepting, they were more likely to seek help for psychological services and felt a shorter social distance. The common sense model provides a multidimensional framework in understanding public's mental illness perceptions and stigma. Not only should biopsychosocial determinants of mental illness be advocated to the public, cultural myths toward mental illness must be debunked.

  19. Chronic illness in adolescents: a sociological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, T J

    1983-01-01

    This article relates chronic illness in adolescents to a sociological model of deviance. This is an area of controversy: the views of Freidson, Lorber and Robinson are presented as being representative of the dispute. Four situations are discussed in which the issues of prognosis, responsibility and stigma elicit societal response. The usefulness of a sociological model consists in making vague societal perception and rules explicit. The concept of the chronically ill adolescent as deviant is descriptive and devoid of value judgment. Only through such rigorous assessment is it possible to gain a realistic understanding of the societal role in the life of the chronically ill adolescent.

  20. Disparities in oral cancer survival among mentally ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Shou Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported excess cancer mortality in patients with mental illness. However, scant studies evaluated the differences in cancer treatment and its impact on survival rates among mentally ill patients. Oral cancer is one of the ten most common cancers in the world. We investigated differences in treatment type and survival rates between oral cancer patients with mental illness and without mental illness. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance (NHI database, we compared the type of treatment and survival rates in 16687 oral cancer patients from 2002 to 2006. The utilization rate of surgery for oral cancer was compared between patients with mental illness and without mental illness using logistic regression. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for survival analysis. RESULTS: Oral cancer patients with mental disorder conferred a grave prognosis, compared with patients without mental illness (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-1.93; P<0.001. After adjusting for patients' characteristics and hospital characteristics, patients with mental illness were less likely to receive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.34-0.65; P<0.001. In multivariate analysis, oral cancer patients with mental illness carried a 1.58-times risk of death (95% CI = 1.30-1.93; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Oral cancer patients with mental illness were less likely to undergo surgery with or without adjuvant therapy than those without mental illness. Patients with mental illness have a poor prognosis compared to those without mental illness. To reduce disparities in physical health, public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  1. Many Chronic Illnesses Linked to Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166776.html Many Chronic Illnesses Linked to Suicide Risk Odds 9 times higher for people with ... problems seem to have a higher risk of suicide, a new study suggests. And, for certain conditions -- ...

  2. Fathers with mental illness: implications for clinicians and health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard J; Maharaj, O'Neil N; Fletcher Watson, Chloe H; May, Chris; Skeates, Nigel; Gruenert, Stefan

    2013-08-05

    A significant proportion of fathers living with their natural, adopted, step or foster children experience mental illness. Psychiatric illness among fathers can have a devastating impact on children's wellbeing, and even milder forms of paternal mental illness can have serious developmental effects on children. While several pathways linking paternal mental illness with poor child outcomes have been identified, fathers' impaired parenting is an important, potentially malleable factor. Clinicians can assist fathers with mental illness and their families by proactively inquiring about children and by exploring fathering-focused psychological support.

  3. Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela

    2015-12-01

    As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group.

  4. [The aging of the mentally ill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckson, G

    1975-01-01

    The growing old of patients levels and reduces the affective impact of the mental diseases in the way of leucotomia (Muller). The author considers this problem of these patient's destiny. The fact of sending them to retreat-home may recreate new-focus of segregation. The chimiotherapy becomes illusory when treating old people (iatrogene pseudo-dementia. Irreversible tertiary effect of the medical treatments). The old psychotic dies more peacefully than the old person who has become psychotical late in life with a kind of serenity which evokes a bonze's wisdom, identification pattern for the young people. Is schizophrenia a chronic disease or is it made chronic by our society? Is there an analogy between the residual mental automatism and the Far-Eastern extasis?

  5. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  6. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  7. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  8. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  9. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  10. Mental illness-related stigma in healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantler, Ed; Szeto, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Mental illness-related stigma, including that which exists in the healthcare system and among healthcare providers, creates serious barriers to access and quality care. It is also a major concern for healthcare practitioners themselves, both as a workplace culture issue and as a barrier for help seeking. This article provides an overview of the main barriers to access and quality care created by stigmatization in healthcare, a consideration of contributing factors, and a summary of Canadian-based research into promising practices and approaches to combatting stigma in healthcare environments.

  11. The rights of americans with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, John A

    2011-08-01

    This contribution to the literature starts by summarizing the history of psychiatric services in America from the time of our colonization to the present. It then discusses the Bill of Rights and the subsequent "rights" gained by the mentally ill, largely through state legislative or legal actions. Finally, it concludes with a discussion of how the entire area of rights has been swept up in a larger attempt to achieve a federal Bill of Patients' Rights and then a Health Reform Act in 2010.

  12. Graphic Depictions: Portrayals of Mental Illness in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Samuel; Rotter, Merrill

    2016-11-01

    Although studies have examined portrayals of mental illness in the mass media, little attention has been paid to such portrayals in video games. In this descriptive study, the fifty highest-selling video games in each year from 2011 to 2013 were surveyed through application of search terms to the Wikia search engine, with subsequent review of relevant footage on YouTube. Depiction categories were then assigned based on the extent of portrayal and qualitative characteristics compared against mental illness stereotypes in cinema. Twenty-three of the 96 surveyed games depicted at least one character with mental illness. Forty-two characters were identified as portraying mental illness, with most characters classified under a "homicidal maniac" stereotype, although many characters did not clearly reflect cinema stereotypes and were subcategorized based on the shared traits. Video games contain frequent and varied portrayals of mental illness, with depictions most commonly linking mental illness to dangerous and violent behaviors.

  13. Work adjustments among the chronically ill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baanders, A.N.; Andries, F.; Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.

    2001-01-01

    Work(place) adjustments can help the work capacity of persons with a chronic disease. This study aims to to quantify the presence of work adjustments among chronically ill workers in the Netherlands, and to investigate the extent to which the presence of work adjustments are related to the

  14. Ministry to the Chronically Ill Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetta, Pat Deasy; Collins, Denis E.

    1993-01-01

    Reports growth in the number of chronically ill children attending Catholic schools. Describes the separate roles of home, school, and hospital in children's long-term care. Urges educators to obtain necessary information on children's attendance, peer interaction, education, and medical compliance. Reviews issues specific to chronically ill…

  15. Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders.

  16. Constructs and concepts comprising the stigma of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    People with mental illness frequently confront public stigma andmay experience self-stigma. This review discusses the concepts of mental illness stigma and its consequences for those with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma prominent consequences pertaining to public stigma (i.e.,employment, health care quality) and self-stigma (i.e., self-confidence, quality of life, “why try” effect) are reviewed. We discuss the three main public stigma change strategies - protest, educati...

  17. Return Migration among Elderly, Chronically Ill Bosnian Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from D...... of illness, health did matter. Viewed as physical, social and mental well-being in line with WHO’s definition of health, health was indeed one of the most important factors when the decision to return was made.......Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from...... Denmark and the role of health issues in their decision to return. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 33 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have moved back to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 10 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have remained in Denmark. The interviews show...

  18. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America. ... attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental ... Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language ...

  19. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.

  20. The Chronic Illness Initiative: Supporting College Students with Chronic Illness Needs at DePaul University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Lynn; Marshall, Olena

    2008-01-01

    College students with chronic illness find it difficult to succeed in traditional degree programs due to disruptions caused by relapses and unpredictable waxing and waning symptoms. College disability offices are often unable to help, both because their standard supports are not appropriate and because students with chronic illness frequently do…

  1. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Chronic Illness Anticipated Stigma Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Park, Crystal L.

    2015-01-01

    The Chronic Illness Anticipated Stigma Scale (CIASS) was developed to measure anticipated stigma (i.e., expectations of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination) among people living with chronic illnesses. The CIASS is a 12-item scale with three subscales differentiating among sources of anticipated stigma, including friends and family members, work colleagues, and healthcare workers. Results support the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the CIASS in two samples of people living with chronic illnesses. The CIASS was correlated with other stigma-related constructs as well as indicators of mental health, physical health, and health behaviors. The CIASS can help researchers gauge the degree to which people living with chronic illnesses anticipate stigma, better understand the processes by which anticipated stigma contributes to the health and behavior of people living with chronic illnesses, and compare the extent to which people living with different types of chronic illnesses anticipate stigma. PMID:22526525

  2. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

  3. Physical and mental illness burden: disability days among working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the association between physical and mental health conditions and disability days among a nationally representative working population, after controlling for basic sociodemographic variables, moderating variables, and comorbidities. Cross-sectional data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) for 2007 was used. T tests and linear regressions were used to examine differences in disability days by comorbidities. The average number of disability days by condition ranged from 4 days for impulse control disorders to a maximum of 18 days for stroke. Comorbidities explain all of the disability days for allergies. The contribution of comorbidities to disability days varied from 0% for stroke and 14% for cancer to 72% for diabetes and 77% for asthma. Among those with mental illnesses, comorbidities contributed 64% of the disability days for anxiety and only 18% for depression. The associations between comorbidities and disability days varied by type of physical and mental condition. Except for stroke, cancer, and depression, illness burden was exacerbated by comorbidities. Treatment strategies and plans must focus on comanagement of chronic conditions to reduce disability days.

  4. Attitudes toward patient expertise in chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, S E; Ternulf Nyhlin, K; Paterson, B L

    2000-08-01

    Although it has become an accepted standard to acknowledge the patient as a full partner in health care decisions, replacing traditional authoritative relationships with those based on an emancipatory model, the experiences of persons living with chronic illness confirm that this paradigm shift is not yet apparent in many health care relationships. In this paper, the authors present a qualitative secondary analysis of combined data sets from their research into chronic illness experience with two quite different chronic diseases - Type I Diabetes (a socially legitimized chronic disease) and Environmental Sensitivities (a disease which is currently treated with considerable scepticism). Comparing the experiences of individuals with diseases that are quite differently socially constructed, it becomes possible to detect common underlying health professional values and attitudes that powerfully influence the experience of living with and negotiating health care for a chronic illness. In the discussion of findings from this study, the authors examine the implications of the spiral of behaviors that fuels mutual alienation in chronic illness care relationships if professionals are unable to value patient expertise.

  5. Discrimination in health care against people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Rose, Diana; Kassam, Aliya

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses factors associated with low rates of help-seeking and poorer quality of physical healthcare among people with mental illnesses. Evidence is reviewed on the associations between low rates of mental health literacy, negative attitudes towards people with mental illness, and reluctance to seek help by people who consider that they may have a mental disorder. People with mental illness often report encountering negative attitudes among mental health staff about their prognosis, associated in part with 'physician bias'. 'Diagnostic overshadowing' appears to be common in general health care settings, meaning the misattribution of physical illness signs and symptoms to concurrent mental disorders, leading to underdiagnosis and mistreatment of the physical conditions.

  6. Children of Parents With Serious Mental Illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranning, Anne; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Thorup, Anne

    2016-01-01

    with a single mother with SMI. Conjugal families were dissolved at higher rates if a parent had SMI, especially if the mother (incidence rate ratio 2.98; 95% CI 2.80–3.17) or the father (incidence rate ratio 2.60; 95% CI 2.47–2.74) had schizophrenia. Risks for family dissolution varied greatly with parents...... analyses were performed assessing the risk of dissolution of the conjugal family. Results Children's living arrangements were characterized by fewer nuclear families and more single-parent–headed households when parents had serious mental illness (SMI). From birth, 15% to 20% of children lived......’ socioeconomic position in all diagnostic groups. Conclusion Parents’ SMI affects children's family living arrangements because fewer children live with both parents and more children live with a single parent or are separated from both parents. Family cohesion seems especially difficult to maintain when parents...

  7. Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

  8. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  9. Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

  10. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  11. Attitude towards Epilepsy and Mental Illness in Ekiti State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    and marriage options and to examine whether the level of education, gender and religious ... concerning the effect of gender on the attitude towards epilepsy and mental illness and that .... The more frequent a disorder, the higher the chance of its coinciding with .... What is Psychiatric Disability and Mental illness? Dada ...

  12. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  13. Model of Property Services Team in Hospitalized Patients with Chronic Mental Illness%住院慢性精神病患者开展物业服务队模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛嘉玲; 朱岚; 张建华; 顾燕; 吕珍术; 俞左英

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨住院慢性精神病患者开展院内物业服务队的康复模式,寻找恢复期慢性精神病患者职业康复的新途径.方法:101例恢复期慢性精神病患者分为物业组50例和对照组51例,均用精神病药物维持治疗.物业组开展理发、洗衣、商店、保洁及维修等类似物业的岗位训练,采用全开放和半开放管理方法.于入组前、治疗后3、6、12个月末时对2组患者进行阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)和住院精神病患者康复疗效评定量表(IPROS)评定.结果:物业组在治疗3个月末时,PANSS中阴性症状及精神病理单因子评分均明显低于对照组;6及12个月末时下降更显著,PANSS总分也出现明显下降(P92%,劳动态度和劳动质量均随时间的推移而提高.结论:院内物业服务队可成为恢复期慢性精神病患者新的职业康复途径,但让其回归社会还需要多渠道合作.%Objective: To investigate the rehabilitation model of hospital property services team in the convalescent inpatients with chronic mental illness, and find new ways to vocational rehabilitation of the inpatients with convalescent chronic mental illness.Methods.: 101 convalescent patients with chronic mental illness were divided into the property group (n= 50) and control group (nn= 51), and treated with psychiatric drugs for maintenance The patients in property group had the training of hairdressing, laundry, shopping, cleaning and repair, etc.The effects of one-year rehabilitation were observed by using all open and semi-open management methods.Results: The negative symptoms and psychopathology scores from the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) in property group were significantly lower than in control group at the end of 3rd month after treatment, more significantly at the end of 6th and 12th month.The total PANSS scores were also obviously declined.The life ability and regard and interest scores from Inpatient Psychiatric Rehabilitation

  14. Perceptions of discrimination among persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick; Thompson, Vetta; Lambert, David; Sangster, Yvette; Noel, Jeffrey G; Campbell, Jean

    2003-08-01

    The authors sought to gain further perspective on discrimination experienced by persons with mental illness by comparing self-reports of discrimination due to mental illness to self-reports of discrimination due to other group characteristics, such as race, gender, and sexual orientation. A total of 1,824 persons with serious mental illness who participated in a baseline interview for a multistate study on consumer-operated services completed a two-part discrimination questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire assessed participants' perceptions about discrimination due to mental illness as well as more than half a dozen other group characteristics. The second part of the questionnaire asked participants who reported some experience with discrimination to identify areas in which this discrimination occurred, such as employment, education, and housing. More than half of the study participants (949 participants, or 53 percent) reported some experience with discrimination. The most frequent sources of this discrimination were mental disability, race, sexual orientation, and physical disability. Areas in which discrimination frequently occurred included employment, housing, and interactions with law enforcement. Areas in which discrimination was experienced did not significantly differ among groups of study participants characterized by mental disability, race, gender, sexual orientation, or physical disability. Discrimination based on group characteristics other than mental illness does not diminish the impact of stigma associated with mental illness. Antistigma programs need to target not only discrimination related to mental illness but also that associated with other group characteristics, such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and physical disability.

  15. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed.

  16. Intensive case management for severe mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials (7328 participants) in this review. The trials provided data for two

  17. Mental illness and violence: lessons from the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard G

    2014-02-01

    The debate about addressing mental illness and violence often ignores key facts. Many people experience mental illnesses, so having had a diagnosed illness is not a very specific predictor of violent behavior. This means that many proposed policy approaches, from expanded screening to more institutionalization, are unlikely to be effective. Expanded access to effective treatments, although desirable, will have only modest impacts on violence rates. Most people with mental health problems do not commit violent acts, and most violent acts are not committed by people with diagnosed mental disorders.

  18. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  19. Mechanisms in Chronic Multisymptom Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Cancer Research UK Your research papers will be: available free of charge to the entire biomedical community peer reviewed and published immediately...in medical training. Curr Opin Pulmon Med 2001;7;411–418. 2. Bonnet MH, Arand DL. We are chronically sleep deprived. Sleep 1995;18:908–911. 3...significant cardiovascular, respira- tory, endocrine, genitourinary, liver, or kidney disease; sys- temic infection; cancer or current chemotherapy

  20. Mental illness--stigma and discrimination in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapungwe, A; Cooper, S; Mwanza, J; Mwape, L; Sikwese, A; Kakuma, R; Lund, C; Flisher, A J

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia. This is to facilitate the development of tailor-made antistigma initiatives that are culturally sensitive for Zambia and other low-income African countries. This is the first in-depth study on mental illness stigma in Zambia. Fifty semi-structured interviews and 6 focus group discussions were conducted with key stakeholders drawn from 3 districts in Zambia (Lusaka, Kabwe and Sinazongwe). Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Mental illness stigma and discrimination is pervasive across Zambian society, prevailing within the general community, amongst family members, amid general and mental health care providers, and at the level of government. Such stigma appears to be fuelled by misunderstandings of mental illness aetiology; fears of contagion and the perceived dangerousness of people with mental illness; and associations between HIV/AIDS and mental illness. Strategies suggested for reducing stigma and discrimination in Zambia included education campaigns, the transformation of mental health policy and legislation and expanding the social and economic opportunities of the mentally ill. In Zambia, as in many other low-income African countries, very little attention is devoted to addressing the negative beliefs and behaviours surrounding mental illness, despite the devastating costs that ensue. The results from this study underscore the need for greater commitment from governments and policy-makers in African countries to start prioritizing mental illness stigma as a major public health and development issue.

  1. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

  2. Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.  Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/5/2013.

  3. New European policy toward chronically ill employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.; Haafkens, J.; Elling, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current policies related to the chronically ill employees in the Netherlands. Different levels of policy are discussed: those formulated at the European, Dutch and organizational levels. A significantg percentage of Dutch employees suffer from longstanding diseas

  4. Public stigma towards mental illness in the Greek culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzouvara, V; Papadopoulos, C

    2014-12-01

    Mental illness stigma negatively affects the lives of individuals with mental health disorders. Studies have indicated that the type and degree of stigma significantly varies across cultures. This study aimed to add to this body of knowledge by examining the prevalence and the type of mental illness stigma among individuals who identified themselves as Greek. It also examined the influence of a range of potential within-culture stigma moderating factors, including levels of previous experience with mental illness and mental illness knowledge. A cross-sectional quantitative design was employed, and 111 participants living in England and Greece were sampled through the snowball sampling technique. Stigma prevalence was measured using the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness' questionnaire. The findings revealed that participants showed a high degree of sympathy for people with mental illness but also considered them to be inferior and of a lower social class, and needing strict societal control. Higher stigma was significantly associated with being educated in England (instead of Greece), higher religiosity, lower knowledge levels and lower levels personal experience of mental illness. Targeted antistigma campaigns specifically tailored for the Greek culture are required in order to help reduce stigmatizing attitudes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.

  6. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. © 2014 The Author(s).

  7. Can the common-sense model predict adherence in chronically ill patients? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Brandes; B. Mullan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether mental representations, derived from the common-sense model of illness representations (CSM), were able to predict adherence in chronically ill patients. Electronic databases were searched for studies that used the CSM and measured adherence behav

  8. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  9. Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Keyes, Cory L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core co

  10. Intensive case management for severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Bergman, Hanna; Khokhar, Mariam A; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2017-01-06

    Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community-based package of care aiming to provide long-term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. Intensive Case Management evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (fewer than 20) and high-intensity input. To assess the effects of ICM as a means of caring for severely mentally ill people in the community in comparison with non-ICM (caseload greater than 20) and with standard community care. We did not distinguish between models of ICM. In addition, to assess whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation (mean number of days per month in hospital) is influenced by the intervention's fidelity to the ACT model and by the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted (baseline level of hospital use). We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (last update search 10 April 2015). All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community care setting, where ICM is compared to non-ICM or standard care. At least two review authors independently selected trials, assessed quality, and extracted data. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a random-effects model for analyses.We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention's fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. We assessed overall quality for clinically important outcomes using the GRADE approach and investigated possible risk of bias within included trials. The 2016 update included two more

  11. The power gap: freedom, power and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2006-10-01

    Up to one in four individuals in the US meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness in any given year and a significant proportion have severe or recurring illnesses (e.g. schizophrenia). Despite this prevalence, mental health services remain poorly funded, mental illness remains misunderstood and individuals with recurring illness are constrained to live lives characterized by isolation, under-employment, stigma and denial of rights. Here I examine the idea that this situation is attributable, at least in part, to the ways in which the freedom and power of the mentally ill are undermined by a range of factors, including: (i) dispersion of political power amongst interest groups, which, combined with the relatively wide distribution of the 'interest' of mental illness, has the paradoxical result that mental health interest groups do not command political power proportional to the number affected; (ii) systematic exclusion of the mentally ill from full participation in civic, social and political life (structural violence), resulting in a lack of emphasis on mental health on political agendas and the exclusion of certain policy options as possible responses and (iii) difficulties the mentally ill may experience recognizing or articulating their own needs the absence of effective health-care systems, and the absence of knowledge about alternative systems. I argue that the enhancement of individual agency is central to efforts to address this power gap, including: (i) rights-based approaches, involving the enhancement of national mental health legislation, improvement of advocacy, empowerment and guardianship processes and development of governance, accountability and quality procedures in mental health services; (ii) approaches based on enhancing direct political participation, including voter-registration programmes and development of larger, more effective interest groups and (iii) additional approaches, including increasing accountability throughout services

  12. Role conflict, uncertainty in illness, and illness-related communication avoidance: College students facing familial chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    Suchak, Meghana

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the current study was on examining possible differences in college students' adjustment based on residency status (i.e., international Asian vs. domestic students) and illness status (i.e., having a family member with a chronic illness vs. not having a family member with a chronic illness). The study also examined the associations between overall college student adjustment and the family and illness-related factors of role conflict, uncertainty in illness, and illness-related com...

  13. [Mental illness and stigma or how to become mentally ill for life.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, J C; T-Brault, M M

    1979-01-01

    In this article mental illness is presented in a sociological perspective, giving prominence to social-interaction factors which, in many cases, are responsable for the permanence of this type of illness. Its thereotical base comes !form the psychology of social-interaction developped by G.H. Mead and his disciples. This perspective defines the social human being as derived from successive interactions, beginning, at birth, with maternal contacts and extending progressively to the entirety of the members of the community of which the individual is a part. This interactional network is comprised of messages, of responses, and of expectations which make up the norms and values which in turn from the basis for the distribution of roles and statuses- From these roles and statuses derive the behaviours acceptable to a given collectivity. Among other theoretical developments, interactionist sociology gave birth to formulations on deviance which became known, in american terminology as "labelling theory". In the case of mental illness many sociologists interested in the phenomenon have studied it, using the framework elaborated by the proponents of this approach to deviance. Thus, rather than considering the deviant as abnormal in himself, deviance is viewed as a process; that is, as the result of a series of interactions confronting the individual who is not, or does not behave like the collectivity as a whole and the milieu in which he lives. When the reaction of the entourage is negative, the so-called deviant is subjected to sanctions such as avoidance, rejection, exclusion, confinement, etc... This process terminates generally in stigmatization which wraps the deviant in a label from which he will probably never free himself. The studies cited demonstrate this interactional process at different stages of mental illness, these being; d) at the point of medical diagnosis, b) during hospitalisation, c) on leaving We psychiatric institution, d) and after the return to

  14. Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wang

    Full Text Available Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT. We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.

  15. Stigma and intellectual disability: potential application of mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchman, Nicole; Werner, Shirli; Kosyluk, Kristin; Jones, Nev; Elg, Brianna; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with mental illness are consistently found to be among the most socially excluded populations and continue to face substantial health, housing, and employment disparities due to stigma. Although this has spurred extensive research efforts and theoretical advancements in the study of stigma toward mental illness, the stigma of ID has received only limited attention. In this article we explore the application of mental illness stigma research for ID. We carefully reviewed the existing research on mental illness stigma as a foundation for a parallel summary of the empirical literature on attitudes and stigma related to ID. Based on our review, there has not been a systematic approach to the study of stigma toward ID. However, multilevel conceptual models of stigma have received much attention in the mental illness literature. These models have been used to inform targeted interventions and have application to the study of the stigma process for individuals with ID. Nonetheless, there are indeed key differences between-as well as substantial variability within-the ID and mental illness populations that must be considered. Stigma is an issue of social justice impacting the lives of individuals with ID, yet there remains virtually no systematic framework applied to the understanding of the stigma process for this group. Future research can draw on the stigma models developed in the mental illness literature to guide more rigorous research efforts and ultimately the development of effective, multilevel stigma-change strategies for ID.

  16. Art promoting mental health literacy and a positive attitude towards people with experience of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eugen; Shrimpton, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Exhibitions of art by people with experience of mental illness are increasingly being staged to improve awareness of mental health issues in the general community and to counter the stigma of mental illness. However, few exhibitions have incorporated research to ascertain their actual effectiveness. This paper reports the results of a study that considered the responses of 10,000 people after they viewed exhibitions of art produced by people with experience of mental illness. These works were selected from the Cunningham Dax Collection, one of the world's most extensive collection of artworks by people with experience of mental illness and/or psychological trauma. More than 90% of respondents agreed with three propositions that the exhibitions helped them: (1) gain a better understanding of mental illness; (2) gain a more sympathetic understanding of the suffering of people with mental illness; and (3) appreciate the ability and creativity of people with mental illness. The results suggest that exhibitions can successfully promote mental health literacy and contribute to positive attitudes towards people with experience of mental illness. This paper explores these findings and raises questions about how the presentation of artworks in an exhibition influences their effectiveness in mental health promotion.

  17. Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brohan, Elaine; Slade, Mike; Clement, Sarah; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-01-01

    .... This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness...

  18. Television coverage of mental illness in Canada: 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess television news coverage of mental illness in Canadian media, including change over time. Data consist of news clips mentioning terms including 'mental illness' (N = 579). These were systematically collected and coded over 3 years (2013-2015) using a media retrieval software. Trend analysis indicated a significant linear increase for positively oriented coverage. In 2013, less than 10% of clips had a positive overall tone, whereas in 2015, this figure reached over 40%. Articles linking mental illness to violence significantly decreased, though these remain over 50%. Improvement may be due to educational initiatives targeted at journalists.

  19. [Mental disorder and suicide prevention in patients with physical illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Masatoshi; Ohtsuki, Tsuyuka

    2012-01-01

    Suicide rate in Japan is 25/100,000 in a year. The rate is higher than those in other developed countries. Physical illness is a risk factor for suicide. To prevent suicide in patients with physical illness, identification of mental illness, such as depression, is important. In addition, palliative care for distressing physical and psychological symptoms is also important. In process of identification of mental illness and distressing physical symptoms, communications between medical staff and patients are essential. Enhancing communication skills of medical staff may be a key point to prevent suicide.

  20. Moving towards effective chronic illness management: asthma as an exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Tracy S

    2011-01-01

    The United States health care system is at a pivotal point in its ability to manage chronic illness. The demands and philosophical differences between the management of acute and chronic illnesses suggest the need for different strategies for effective and efficient management of chronic illness. The purpose of this article is to discuss the Chronic Care Model and the collaborative approach to managing chronic illnesses. Asthma, as an exemplar, will be used to illustrate the need for the development of new models of collaborative care for the treatment of chronic illnesses.

  1. Assessing illness- and non-illness-based motivations for violence in persons with major mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-02-01

    Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly.

  2. Filicide: mental illness in those who kill their children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Flynn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. METHOD: All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997-2006 were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. RESULTS: 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66% perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27% and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%, most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. CONCLUSION: In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research.

  3. Attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Poreddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students′ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students′. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115 and not exposed (n = 61 to psychiatry training using self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Our findings showed improvement in students′ attitudes after exposure to psychiatry in benevolent (t = 2.510, P < 0.013 and stigmatization (t = 2.656, P < 0.009 domains. Further, gender, residence, and contact with mental illness were the factors that found to be influencing students′ attitudes toward mental illness. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that psychiatric education proved to be effective in changing the attitudes of medical students toward mental illness to a certain extent. However, there is an urgent need to review the current curriculum to prepare undergraduate medical students to provide holistic care to the people with mental health problems.

  4. Attitude toward mental illness amongst urban nonpsychiatric health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Pande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to examine the attitude of nonpsychiatric health professionals about mental illness in urban multispeciality tertiary care setting. Aim: To assess attitude toward mental illness among urban nonpsychiatric health professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire was administered to 222 medical and paramedical staff at two tertiary care hospitals at Chandigarh. Results: There is an increased awareness of mental illness especially in military subjects. Literacy was associated with a positive attitude toward mental illness. Health care givers commonly fail to ask about the emotional well being of their patients. Many saw referral to psychiatrist as a form of punishment. There is uniform desire for more knowledge about psychiatric disorders in medical and paramedical staff. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the need for educational programs aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the nonpsychiatric medical professional would help to allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization toward such persons.

  5. [Community integrated services for persons with mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jung-Tai

    2007-10-01

    Anti-psychotic medications have changed the lives and treatment of persons with mental illness for the better since the social isolation of the 1950s and earlier. Community support programs break down barriers surrounding mental patients, but the stigma and negative attitudes about mental illness continue to block the development of community-based services. Individuals struggling to overcome a mental health issue find themselves facing a constant series of rejections and exclusions. Now that the Mental Health Law and Physically and Mentally Disabled Citizens Protection Act have been amended by The Legislative Yuan, the government will need to review the design of the Mental Health Care Network Project and to promote and facilitate friendly supportive communities for the mentally ill. All of us have to face these challenges to find a new balance between the civil rights of the public and the mentally ill. This paper examines issues concerning the gap between the development of the mental health system and the needs of patients and their families in the last two decades. The system often falls short of meeting needs. To meet the mental health needs of the people and make effective use of resources, changes must be made in the way services are designed, organized and delivered. The process of reforming mental health services, moreover, must not take money away from other services. Instead, changes must be made by reallocating funds. Following the revised Mental Health Law, the government should begin now to develop implementation planning guidelines to establish a comprehensive and integrated mental health services system, especially for the 80?% of patients with mild or moderate mental health problems who live in the community. We will monitor the process carefully, and ensure that patients and their families get the services they need, and help them remain in their communities as far as possible.

  6. Clinical Characteristics Related to Severity of Sexual Abuse: A Study of Seriously Mentally Ill Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Jon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Variables associated with sexual abuse were examined among youth, ages 5 through 18, with severe mental illness. Review of 499 patient records revealed abuse as an isolated event in 62 cases, intermittent abuse in 61 cases, and chronic abuse in 150. Sexual abuse was associated with inappropriate sexual behaviors, substance abuse, and posttraumatic…

  7. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Idealized: Multi-Setting Uses and Strategies over the Course of Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Rodney; Jewell, Thomas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a fictional case study that illustrates the usefulness of various psychiatric rehabilitation strategies over the long course of treatment for a consumer with chronic mental illness. Reviews the literature on specific psychiatric rehabilitation strategies as a way to introduce and clarify the use of psychiatric rehabilitation…

  8. Conceptualizing Social Integration among Formerly Homeless Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The multiple dimensions of social integration among formerly homeless adults with severe mental illness have not been well-studied. Previous studies have focused on clinical measures or narrow components of social integration. We used a multisite study of chronically homeless adults who were provided housing to (a) identify the main factors…

  9. Constructs and concepts comprising the stigma of mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Michaels

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available People with mental illness frequently confront public stigma andmay experience self-stigma. This review discusses the concepts of mental illness stigma and its consequences for those with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma prominent consequences pertaining to public stigma (i.e.,employment, health care quality and self-stigma (i.e., self-confidence, quality of life, “why try” effect are reviewed. We discuss the three main public stigma change strategies - protest, education, and contact – as well as current selfstigma change strategies (e.g., psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapy.We conclude by noting that anti-stigma initiatives with more tailored content for specific groups (e.g., police officers vs. general public may diminish the negative consequences of mental illness stigma by providing more concrete ways to help stigmatized people.

  10. Perceived and Measured Stigma Among Workers With Serious Mental Illness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Marjorie L; Marcus, Steven C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This research analyzed the extent to which self-reports of job-related discrimination by persons with serious mental illness are associated with econometric measures of discrimination. METHODS...

  11. Half of Opioid Prescriptions Go to People with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167031.html Half of Opioid Prescriptions Go to People With Mental Illness Those ... disorders receive a troubling percentage of the nation's opioid prescriptions, a new study finds. Of the 115 ...

  12. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  13. National Database for Clinical Trials Related to Mental Illness (NDCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Database for Clinical Trials Related to Mental Illness (NDCT) is an extensible informatics platform for relevant data at all levels of biological and...

  14. The epidemiology of mental illness in Afro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D H

    1986-01-01

    The epidemiologic study of mental illness among Afro-Americans has progressed since the antebellum period when the rate of mental illness among free Afro-Americans living in the North was inflated to justify continued slavery. Community-wide surveys conducted after World War II demonstrated that when socioeconomic variables were controlled, the rate of mental illness among Afro-Americans was no higher than that of other groups. The rates of mental illness and substance abuse of Afro-Americans vary according to socioeconomic class and are also related to differential family structure, early performance in school, and antisocial behavior of fathers. Despite progress, undersampling of middle-class Afro-Americans and poor, unemployed, young, urban Afro-American males are consistent deficiencies of surveys that even the ambitious NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program seems to share.

  15. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among relatives of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... participants many had positive attitude towards letting the patients be part of ... Keywords: schizophrenia, mental illness, sfigma, attitudes, beliefs ... (CAMI) scale [8]. ..... Conflict of interest: All authors have declared that there.

  16. Mental illness stigma and disclosure in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Kosyluk, Kristin A; Markowitz, Fred; Brown, Robyn Lewis; Conlon, Bridget; Rees, Jo; Rosenberg, Jessica; Ellefson, Sarah; Al-Khouja, Maya

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mental illness identity, shame, secrecy, public stigma, and disclosure amongst college students. Participants included 1393 college students from five postsecondary institutions. Structural equation modeling was used to examine two path models predicting disclosure and desire to join a program aiding with disclosure. Variables found to be significant in predicting disclosure included mental illness identity and public stigma. In turn, desire for disclosure predicted desire to join a program aiding in disclosure. Gender and race/ethnic differences were observed, with men and Whites more likely to want to disclose a mental illness or join a program aiding with disclosure compared with women and non-Whites, respectively. These findings suggest that some college students may find programs aiding in disclosure useful in assisting them to achieve their desire to be "out" with their mental illness.

  17. Mental illness - stigma and discrimination in Zambia : original article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mwanza, J; Lund, C; Flisher, A.J; Mwape, L; Sikwese, A; Cooper, S; Kakuma, R; Kapungwe, A

    2010-01-01

    Objective : The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia...

  18. Preventing the Epidemic of Mental Ill Health: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Mental ill health is an epidemic worldwide because of the combined effect of the modern diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Primary prevention of mental ill health starts, crucially, with optimal adult nutrition before the inception of pregnancy, includes breastfeeding, and continues throughout the life of th...

  19. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress.

  20. Increasing burden of mental illnesses across the globe: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Thyloth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders cause significant burden to individuals and society across the world, accounting for nearly 13% of the global burden of disease. Eighty percent of people with mental disorders now live in low and middle-income countries. With one million deaths per year, suicide is the major reason for years of life lost due to mental illness. Estimates suggest that the burden due to mental illness is likely to increase over next decade and appropriate interventions are need of the hour. We discuss this increasing burden as a consequence of (1 lack of resources, (2 low budget for mental health in lower and middle income countries, and (3 under-utilization of services and stigma attached to mental illnesses.

  1. Gender, mental illness and the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Shields, Laura; Bunders, Joske F G; Sagade, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    Section 5(ii) of The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (HMA) states that under certain circumstances, mental illness is accepted as a ground for the annulment of marriage, while Section 13(1) (iii) states that mental illness is a ground for divorce. There is little data on how this provision is used and applied in matrimonial petitions. This paper assesses judicial practices in divorce cases, exploring the extent to which gender and the diagnosis of mental illness affect the decision to grant annulment or divorce. The paper analyses judgments related to annulment and divorce at the Family Court in Pune and at the High Courts in India. In the Family Court at Pune, 85% of the cases were filed by husbands, who alleged that their spouse was mentally ill. Medical evidence of mental illness was presented in only 36% of the cases and in many cases, divorce/nullity was granted even in the absence of medical evidence. In 14% of the cases, nullity/divorce was granted even when both spouses were not present. Of the Family Court cases reaching the High Court, 95% were filed by male petitioners. The High Courts reversed the lower courts' judgments in 50% of the cases. Our analysis highlights the need for standardised guidelines for lower courts on what constitutes adequate medical proof of mental illness when hearing a petition related to nullity or divorce under HMA. It also provides a critical review of Section 5(ii) of HMA.

  2. Interpersonal violence and mental illness: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donna; O'brien, Louise

    2006-05-01

    There is a perception that people with a mental illness are dangerous. However, there are still arguments in the research literature as to whether the evidence supports this perception. The major aim of this paper is to review the findings of these studies in regard to the risk of violent behaviour in people with mental illness. An additional aim is to give an overview of the risk factors for violence in people with a mental illness. This systematic search of the literature resulted in good evidence that diagnoses such as schizophrenia and personality disorder are associated with an increased risk of violent behaviour. Substance abuse was the risk factor most associated with an increase in the risk of violent behaviour in people with a mental illness. However, there are substantial differences in the methods used in studies of the risk in violence in people with mental illness resulting in a large variability in the estimates of risk. One of the major causes of variation may be due to the different definitions of violence that are used. The need remains, therefore, for a meta-analysis of this literature based on clear definitions of violence in order to get a more accurate estimate of the risk of violence in people with a mental illness.

  3. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, K O; Roberts, P M

    2013-03-01

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in two widely disparate cultures, Canada and Cameroon, were compared using an experimental version of a survey instrument, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Mental Illness or POSHA-MI(e). 120 respondents rated POSHA-MI(e) items relating to mental illness on 1-9 equal appearing interval scales: 30 in English and 30 in French in both Cameroon and Canada. Additionally, 30 matched, monolingual English, American respondents were included as a comparison group. In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public regarding mental illness reflect stigma, especially in Cameroon. Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language influences. Results of this field test of the POSHA-MI(e), documenting differences in public attitudes toward mental illness in two divergent cultures, support its further development.

  4. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  5. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  6. [Social Networks of Children with Mentally Ill Parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiawa, Maja; Kilian, Reinhold

    2017-10-01

    Social Networks of Children with Mentally Ill Parents Mental illness of parents can be a load situation for children. Supporting social relations might be an important source in such a situation. Social relations can be shown by social network analysis. Studies about social networks and mental health indicate differences regarding structure and potential for support when compared with social networks of healthy individuals. If and how mental illness of parents has an impact on their children's network is widely unknown. This systematic review shows methods and results of studies about social networks of children with mentally ill parents. By systematic search in electronic databases as well as manual search, two studies were found who met the target criteria. Both studies were conducted in the USA. Results of studies indicate that parental mental illness affects the state of mental health and social networks of children. Symptomatology of children changed due to perceived social support of network contacts. Impact of social support and strong network contacts seems to depend on age of children and the family situation. That's why support offers should be adapt to children's age. Focusing on social networks as potential resource for support and needs of the family affected seems appropriate during treatment.

  7. Can the common-sense model predict adherence in chronically ill patients? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Kim; Mullan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether mental representations, derived from the common-sense model of illness representations (CSM), were able to predict adherence in chronically ill patients. Electronic databases were searched for studies that used the CSM and measured adherence behaviour in chronically ill patients. Correlations from the included articles were meta-analysed using a random-size effect model. A moderation analysis was conducted for the type of adherence behaviour. The effect sizes for the different mental representations and adherence constructs ranged from -0.02 to 0.12. Further analyses showed that the relationship between the mental representations and adherence did not differ by the type of adherence behaviour. The low-effect sizes indicate that the relationships between the different mental representations of the CSM and adherence are very weak. Therefore, the CSM may not be the most appropriate model to use in predictive studies of adherence.

  8. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larina Chi-Lap Yim

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists.The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18% of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study.The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals.

  9. Mental Illness May Make Teens Vulnerable to Drugs, Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160284.html Mental Illness May Make Teens Vulnerable to Drugs, Alcohol Brazilian study found half of those who smoked, drank, did pot had symptoms of psychological ... -- Teens who are struggling with mental health disorders are more likely to smoke cigarettes, ...

  10. Domestic violence: the hidden epidemic associated with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Kelsey

    2011-03-01

    Despite domestic violence being a very common problem in individuals with severe mental illness, there is very little research in this setting. Multiple barriers exist to disclosure by users and enquiry by providers. Training and systems for identification and responding to domestic violence are urgently needed in mental health clinics.

  11. Beliefs about mental illness among Chinese in the West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.-H.; Meeuwesen, L.; van Wesel, F.; Ingleby, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to test the widely held assumption that underutilisation of mental health services by Chinese living in western countries is due to their different beliefs regarding mental illness. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data were analysed from in-depth inte

  12. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Safarcherati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond

  13. Illness perception in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Christine Råheim; Moum, Torbjørn; Puline Lein, Martha; Austegard, Elise Lynn; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad

    2014-10-01

    Illness perception (IP) concerns how patients evaluate living with a disease. To get a broader understanding of IP in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we investigated whether breathlessness is an important precursor of IP and whether IP in its turn is related to mental health, physical health and global quality of life (QOL). One hundred and fifty-four patients with COPD participated in a cross-sectional survey. Participants underwent pulmonary function testing, provided socio-demographic and clinical information, and completed the following standardized instruments: Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Respiratory Quality of Life Questionnaire, Short-Form 12 Health Survey and the Quality of Life Scale. Multiple regression analyses were performed. A high IP score indicates that a patient believes that his/her illness represents a threat. Participants with a high score on the IP dimensions consequences, identity, concern and emotional representation, experienced more breathlessness. High scores on the IP dimensions consequences, identity and concern were associated with impaired physical health and high scores on the IP dimensions consequences, identity and emotional representation were associated with impaired mental health. Impaired global QOL was associated with high scores on the IP dimensions consequences, identity, concern, coherence and emotional representation. The strength of the associations between breathlessness and physical/mental health and global QOL decreased when certain dimensions of IP were included as predictors, indicating that IP to some extent acts as a mediating factor. These findings may have practical implications of patient counselling by helping COPD patients to cope with their disease by restructuring their personal models of illness. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Perceived and measured stigma among workers with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Marjorie L; Marcus, Steven C

    2006-03-01

    This research analyzed the extent to which self-reports of job-related discrimination by persons with serious mental illness are associated with econometric measures of discrimination. Data were from the 1994-1995 National Health Interview Survey-Disability Supplement. Data for workers with mood, psychotic, or anxiety disorders (N=1,139) were compared with data for those without such disorders (N=66,341). The main outcome measures were self-reports of wages and stigmatizing experiences in the workplace. After the analyses controlled for functional limitations and job characteristics, no significant difference in mean wages was found between workers with serious mental illness who did not report experiencing stigma and those with no mental illness. In contrast, for all types of mental disorders examined, mean wages for workers with serious mental illness who reported experiencing stigma were significantly lower than mean wages for those with no mental illness. Workers' self-reports of stigmatizing experiences in the labor market appear to be consistent with econometric measures of the effect of stigma on wages, suggesting that workers know when they are being discriminated against.

  15. Workplace accommodations for people with mental illness: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie

    2015-03-01

    Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations.

  16. Assessing the knowledge of perinatal mental illness among student midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise

    2015-11-01

    The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives.

  17. Severe Mental Illness in LGBT Populations: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A; Howison, Meg; Pilling, Merrick; Ross, Lori E; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing attention to diversity in psychiatric services and widespread recognition of the mental health implications of stigma for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups. However, these areas remain markedly underdeveloped in the area of severe mental illness. The aim of this review was to map out the existing base of knowledge in these areas to help inform future research, practice, and policy directions. A review of the literature was conducted to answer the following question: What factors and strategies need to be considered when developing services for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups who are experiencing severe mental illness? A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar was completed by using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework for scoping reviews. A total of 27 publications were identified for review. Mental health services research indicated generally lower levels of service satisfaction among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and transsexual (LGBT) individuals and minimal evidence regarding specific interventions. Descriptive research suggested an increased risk of severe mental illness in LGBT populations, an association between this increased risk and discrimination, and the potential benefit of cultivating spaces where individuals can be "out" in all aspects of themselves. There is a pressing need for research into interventions for LGBT populations with severe mental illness as well as descriptive studies to inform efforts to reduce illness morbidity linked to discrimination.

  18. An online intervention using information on the mental health-mental illness continuum to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, G; Angermeyer, M C; Baumeister, S E; Stolzenburg, S; Link, B G; Phelan, J C

    2016-02-01

    A core component of stigma is being set apart as a distinct, dichotomously different kind of person. We examine whether information on a continuum from mental health to mental illness reduces stigma. Online survey experiment in a quota sample matching the German population for age, gender and region (n=1679). Participants randomly received information on either (1) a continuum, (2) a strict dichotomy of mental health and mental illness, or (3) no information. We elicited continuity beliefs and stigma toward a person with schizophrenia or depression. The continuum intervention decreased perceived difference by 0.19 standard deviations (SD, Pmental illness can be improved by providing information on a mental health-mental illness continuum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceived Stress in Family Caregivers of Individuals With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa'Deh, Rami

    2017-06-01

    The current study aimed to measure the stress levels of family caregivers of individuals with mental illness and compare their stress levels according to the diagnosis and other sociodemographic characteristics. The sample comprised 310 family caregivers of individuals with mental illness in Jordan. Family caregivers completed a demographic checklist and the Arabic version of the Perceived Stress Scale 10-Item (PSS-10) questionnaire. A significant difference was found in PSS-10 levels among family caregivers according to gender, diagnosis of their family member, and time since diagnosis. Female caregivers reported significantly higher stress levels than male caregivers. Family members of individuals with schizophrenia reported the highest stress levels (p stress levels in family members of individuals with mental illness may be helpful when designing interventions to reduce such stress. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(6), 30-35.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Health professionals’ familiarity and attributions to mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghukwa Nkereuwem Chikaodiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few months from the time of this survey, the nearly completed inpatient psychiatric facility within the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital’s complex would be ready for admissions. Understanding the health workers’ level of experience of mental illness and their likely behavioural responses towards people with psychiatric illness, therefore, should be a good baseline to understanding their likely reactions towards admitting such patients within a general hospital setting. The study, which used a pre-tested and adapted attribution questionnaire, was pro­spective and cross-sectional. Randomly selected health workers in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital had their level of familiarity and attributions towards psychiatric patients assessed. The respondents showed a high level of experience with mental illness, with more than 3 in 5 of them having watched movies on mental illness before. More than half of them held positive (favorable attributions towards persons with mental illness on nine of the ten assessed attribution factors. Almost all held negative (unfavourable opinion towards intimate relationships with such persons. Attribution factors, “Responsibility, “Anger”, “Dangerousness”, “Fear” and “Segregation” were significantly related to the respondents’ level of education (P less than 0.05. Marital status of the respondents related significantly to “Pity” and “Avoidance” factors (P less than 0.05. Having watched movies on mental illness significantly related to “Responsibility” and “Fear” factors (P less than 0.05. Programs designed to improve the health workers mental health literacy, and increased positive professional contacts with mentally ill persons on treatment, would further enhance their perceived positive attributions towards them.

  1. Labor market conditions and employment of the mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Drake, Robert E.; Becker, Deborah R.; Clark, Robin E.

    1999-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The mental health services literature includes assertions that workers with mental illness are at earlier risk of unemployment than other workers when the economy contracts. This possibility is important for several reasons. One is that such a phenomenon would support the argument that the lives of mentally ill persons are made unnecessarily stressful by the stigma of mental illness. Another is that the phenomenon could distort comparisons of the effectiveness of programs designed to prepare persons with severe mental illness for work. Despite its importance, the assertion that severely mentally ill workers are at early risk of unemployment has never been empirically tested. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We aim to test the hypothesis that unemployment among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) increases before job loss among other workers. METHODS: We test the hypothesis by applying Granger causality methods to time-series data collected in two communities in the United States (i.e., Concord and Manchester, NH) over 131 weeks beginning on 12 May 1991. RESULTS: We find no relationship between job loss in the labor market and the likelihood that persons with SMI will be unemployed. DISCUSSION: We speculate that persons with SMI participate in the secondary labor market and that their employment status is unlikely to be well described by data gathered in the primary labor market. This implies that widely available measures of labor market status, which are designed to describe the primary labor market, cannot be used to improve the evaluation of programs intended to prepare the mentally ill for work. We also discuss the possibility that persons with SMI may have needs that are better met by the secondary than by the primary labor market. CONCLUSIONS: The intuition that workers with severe mental illness are affected earlier than other workers by labor market contraction may not be correct. We infer that persons with severe mental illness may participate in the

  2. Disparities in appendicitis rupture rate among mentally ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Ya-Mei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have been carried out that focus on mental patients' access to care for their mental illness, but very few pay attention on these same patients' access to care for their physical diseases. Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. Our population-based study was to test for any possible association between mental illness and perforated appendicitis. We hypothesized that there are significant disparities in access to timely surgical care between appendicitis patients with and without mental illness, and more specifically, between patients with schizophrenia and those with another major mental illness. Methods Using the National Health Insurance (NHI hospital-discharge data, we compared the likelihood of perforated appendix among 97,589 adults aged 15 and over who were hospitalized for acute appendicitis in Taiwan between the years 1997 to 2001. Among all the patients admitted for appendicitis, the outcome measure was the odds of appendiceal rupture vs. appendicitis that did not result in a ruptured appendix. Results After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES and hospital characteristics, the presence of schizophrenia was associated with a 2.83 times higher risk of having a ruptured appendix (odds ratio [OR], 2.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–3.64. However, the presence of affective psychoses (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.77–1.73 or other mental disorders (OR, 1.58; 95% CI: 0.89–2.81 was not a significant predictor for a ruptured appendix. Conclusion These findings suggest that given the fact that the NHI program reduces financial barriers to care for mentally ill patients, they are still at a disadvantage for obtaining timely treatment for their physical diseases. Of patients with a major mental illness, schizophrenic patients may be the most vulnerable ones for obtaining timely surgical care.

  3. Perception and coping with stigma of mental illness: Arab families' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalky, Heyam F

    2012-07-01

    Family stigma is well documented in the research literature; however, it has only been recently that efforts have been undertaken to discuss the perception of stigma as reported by Arab families of relatives with mental illness. This clinical paper aims to identify families' perception of stigma related to mental illness, and to compare Arab families' approaches with various aspects of caring from different countries. Further, this paper discusses, in-depth, specific areas related to families' perceptions of stigma: What impacts does stigma perception have on those families and on their relatives' care outcomes and what are coping strategies are used to handle stigma and its impacts in such countries? This paper emphasizes that chronic mental illness contributes the most to families' perception of stigma. In this study, Arab families perceived the experience of caring for a family member with a mental illness with fear, loss, embarrassment, and disgrace of family reputations. Further, secrecy, isolation, despair, and helplessness were reported the most among different family groups in Jordan and Morocco. This paper reminds us that cultural norms and beliefs shape family members' perception of coping and their ability to manage caring for relatives with mental illnesses. Thus, more studies are needed concerning coping and management strategies that are culturally relevant. This could eventually guide the establishment of stigma reduction initiatives and expand understanding of stigma from different cultural perspectives.

  4. 250 labels used to stigmatise people with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfold Vanessa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stigma against people with mental illness is a major barrier to help-seeking in young people for mental health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of stigma in relation to treatment avoidance in 14 year-old school students in England in relation to how they refer to people with mental illness. Methods This is a qualitative, cross-sectional study. The data were gathered as part of the baseline assessment for an intervention study intended to reduce stigma among 14 year old school students. The participating schools were two grammar (selective schools and three comprehensive (non-selective schools. At the start of the lesson, the students were asked 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' Words and terms used to refer to mental illness were enumerated. Using the grounded theory approach, words and terms were grouped in terms of their denotative and connotative meanings. Labels were then derived to capture the key themes attached by the students to the concepts of mental illness. The frequencies of occurrence for each word were also tabulated. Results 400 of the 472 participating students (85% provided 250 words and terms to describe a person with mental illness. Five themes were identified from the data. The first theme called 'popular derogatory terms' (116 items accounted for nearly half of the words examined. The second theme occurred less often and was described as 'negative emotional state' (61 items. The third theme demonstrated the confusion of young people between physical disabilities, learning difficulties and mental health problems (38 items. The use of psychiatric diagnoses (15 items and terms related to violence (9 items were unexpectedly uncommon. Conclusion Our findings suggest the hypothesis that help-seeking by mentally ill young people may be improved by interventions that address both their lack of factual

  5. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Lacko, S.; Brohan, E.; Mojtabai, R.; Thornicroft, G

    2012-01-01

    Background. Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems...

  6. [Meaning and spirituality in patients with chronic somatic illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, A

    2006-08-01

    Issues of the meaning of life and spirituality are particularly important subjects given the threat of a serious illness and the confrontation with the finiteness of one's own life. Thus, addressing questions of meaning and spiritual domains of supportive care has been identified as essential by patients as well as by health care professionals. In recent years more research has focussed on theoretical conceptualization, empirical examination as well as on the development of meaning-centred interventions in somatically ill patients. Theoretical models for the understanding, development and adaptation of concepts and interventions addressing meaning and spirituality in the chronically ill are offered by the philosophical tradition of existentialism, logotherapy as well as by cognitive and developmental psychology, in particular studies on autobiographical memory and life story. However, the current state of empirical research focussing on the association between meaning, spirituality and physical as well as mental health and underlying mechanisms is not sufficient to draw reliable conclusions. With regard to psychosocial care, meaning-centred interventions have been developed in recent years primarily within the context of palliative care. These interventions are intended to support patients to find meaning in life in the face of a serious illness and to experience their life as fulfilled.

  7. Uncivilizing "Mental Illness": Contextualizing Diverse Mental States and Posthuman Emotional Ecologies within The Icarus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Erica Hua

    2017-09-11

    This article argues humans should not be defined strictly at their physical boundaries with clear distinctions between anatomical bodies, mental states, and the rest of the world. Rather, diverse mental states, which are often diagnosed as "mental illness," take shape within greater environmental forces and flows, including those that are constructed online. Drawing from a multi-sited ethnography of The Icarus Project, a radical mental health community, the author situates online narratives written by two of its members within posthuman emotional ecologies in which the exchange of ideas online affects mental states in a profound way. These narratives can be seen as a new type of psychiatric resistance based in new technologies, one that "uncivilizes" mental illness by searching for alternative frameworks and metaphors to understand lived experiences with mental distress. This ethnographic perspective differs significantly from traditional bio-psychiatric models and interventions and can offer both patients and mental healthcare providers with an alternative language to frame mental health.

  8. Factors promoting mental health of adolescents who have a parent with mental illness: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and extern

  9. Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…

  10. Factors promoting mental health of adolescents who have a parent with mental illness: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and

  11. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  12. Factors promoting mental health of adolescents who have a parent with mental illness: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and extern

  13. Terrorism and mental illness: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherston, David; Moran, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    This article examines the connections between mental illness and terrorism. Most social scientists have discounted a causal relationship between mental illness and terrorism. This is not necessarily always the case within terrorism studies, the media, or political circles where the psychology of terrorism is often expressed in the language of mentalisms, and theories of pathologisation continue to exist. This article reaffirms the view that apart from certain pathological cases, there is no causal connection between an individual's mental disorder and engagement in terrorist activity. The individual terrorist's motivations can be explained by other factors, including behavioural psychology. However, there may be a connection between an individual engaging in terrorist activity and developing a mental disorder[s]. Certain stressors that occur because of terrorist activity may result in psychological disturbance in terrorist individuals. These factors may partially explain terrorist group instability and should be taken into account when detaining and interrogating terrorist suspects.

  14. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China's history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture.

  15. Psychiatric aspec ts of chronic physical illness in adolescence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-05-18

    May 18, 2008 ... Survival rates for children who suffer chronic physical illnesses have increased ... and adjust to the stress and limitations imposed by the illness. For a ... presents unique challenges for the adolescent, his/her family, and.

  16. Labour participation of the chronically ill: a profile sketch.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baanders, A.N.; Rijken, P.M.; Peters, L.

    2002-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the problematic labour market position of people with a chronic disease, this paper describes the participation rates of several subgroups of the chronically ill in the Netherlands, as well as the aspects by which the working chronically ill differ from those who are

  17. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signin form Forgot Sign In Create an Account Logging in... Learn More Find Support Get Involved Donate ... to function. Some standard alcohol and drug screening tools are used in mental health clinics to identify ...

  18. The Relationship between Age and Illness Duration in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kidd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness, but it is unclear if patient age and illness duration might affect symptoms and functioning of patients. In the current study, participants were categorized into four groups based upon age (under or over age 55 and illness duration (more or less than 10 years. The groups were compared on functioning and symptoms. Findings indicated that those who were older with a longer illness duration had significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than those who were younger with a shorter or longer illness duration and the older group with a shorter illness duration. The results suggest that older patients with an illness duration of over 10 years have significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than the three other groups. For symptoms, the younger/longer illness duration group had significantly worse immune and autonomic domains than the older/longer illness group. In addition, the younger patients with a longer illness duration displayed greater autonomic and immune symptoms in comparison to the older group with a longer illness duration. These findings suggest that both age and illness duration need to be considered when trying to understand the influence of these factors on patients.

  19. Mental illness in metropolitan, urban and rural Georgia populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, William C; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Nater, Urs M

    2013-04-30

    Mental illness represents an important public health problem. Local-level data concerning mental illness in different populations (e.g., socio-demographics and residence--metropolitan/urban/rural) provides the evidence-base for public health authorities to plan, implement and evaluate control programs. This paper describes prevalence and covariates of psychiatric conditions in Georgia populations in three defined geographic areas. Data came from the Georgia population-based random-digit-dialing study investigating unwellness and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia populations of three defined geographic areas (metropolitan, urban, and rural). Respondents were screened for symptoms of fatigue, sleep, cognition, and pain at household screening interviews, and a randomly selected sample completed detailed individual phone interviews. Based on the detailed phone interviews, we conducted one-day clinical evaluations of 292 detailed interview participants classified as unwell with a probable CFS (i.e. CFS-like; a functional somatic syndrome), 268 classified as other unwell, and 223 well (matched to CFS-like). Clinical evaluation included psychiatric classification by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). To derive prevalence estimates we used sample weighting to account for the complexity of the multistage sampling design. We used 2- and 3-way table analyses to examine socio-demographic and urbanicity specific associations and multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Anxiety and mood disorders were the most common psychiatric conditions. Nineteen percent of participants suffered a current anxiety disorder, 18% a mood disorder and 10% had two or more conditions. There was a significant linear trend in occurrence of anxiety or mood disorders from well to CFS-like. The most common anxiety disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (6.6%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (5.8%). Logistic regression showed that

  20. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, S; Brohan, E; Mojtabai, R; Thornicroft, G

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems is needed. This study links two large, international datasets to explore the association between public stigma in 14 European countries (Eurobarometer survey) and individual reports of self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among persons with mental illness (n=1835) residing in those countries [the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks (GAMIAN) study]. Individuals with mental illness living in countries with less stigmatizing attitudes, higher rates of help-seeking and treatment utilization and better perceived access to information had lower rates of self-stigma and perceived discrimination and those living in countries where the public felt more comfortable talking to people with mental illness had less self-stigma and felt more empowered. Targeting the general public through mass anti-stigma interventions may lead to a virtuous cycle by disrupting the negative feedback engendered by public stigma, thereby reducing self-stigma among people with mental health problems. A combined approach involving knowledge, attitudes and behaviour is needed; mass interventions that facilitate disclosure and positive social contact may be the most effective. Improving availability of information about mental health issues and facilitating access to care and help-seeking also show promise with regard to stigma.

  1. Accounting for unemployment among people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Richard C; Salzer, Mark S

    2002-01-01

    Persons diagnosed with a serious mental illness experience significantly high rates of unemployment compared with the general population. The explanations for this situation have included a focus on the symptoms associated with these disorders, a focus on the lack of effective vocational rehabilitation programs for this population, and, most recently, a focus on employer discrimination and the financial disincentives to employment in various public policies. The authors of this manuscript review the evolution in thought pertaining to the labor market experiences of persons with a serious mental illness and propose as an additional set of factors that should be considered, those labor market liabilities that this population shares with others without disabilities who experience similar employment histories. The authors conclude that the inclusion of these factors in our understanding of issues that persons with serious mental illness face in the competitive labor market will likely lead to a further evolution in program and policy development. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Challenging claims that mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busfield, Joan

    2012-08-01

    There has been a tendency by some social scientists and the media to claim that in advanced western societies like Britain and the US mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining over the period since the Second World War. In this paper I consider the evidence that is invoked in making such claims, along with the counter-evidence. In order to assess the evidence it is essential to take account of the different ways mental illness and mental well-being are measured and the definitions the measures embed. I argue that when the findings from studies using similar measures at different points in time are compared, there is little evidence of consistent secular increases in mental illness or declines in mental well-being. I suggest that such claims are encouraged by two main factors: first and most importantly, the major changes that have occurred in the official boundaries of mental disorder over the post-war period, which have also changed the ideas and perceptions of professionals and the public about mental health and illness; and second, the ready way in which data on mental health and illness can be used to support criticism of certain features of present-day society.

  3. Mental Health: Overcoming the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed April 25, 2017. Sickel AE, et al. Mental health stigma: Impact on mental health treatment attitudes and physical health. Journal of Health ... 2, 2017. Wong EC, et al. Effects of stigma and discrimination reduction trainings ... Health Services Authority. Rand Health Quarterly. 2016;5:9. ...

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of mental illness in mentally retarded children: a developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosen, A

    1989-01-01

    Attempts have been made in recent years to discover the roots of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded children by employing a developmental approach in which the child, not the handicap, is brought more clearly into focus. This paper provides a brief overview of the developmental model that has proven useful for the author in the psychiatric diagnosis of mentally retarded children. Application of this model to the treatment of mentally ill-mentally retarded children is also addressed.

  5. [Madness, poverty and society: When poverty becomes mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Andrés

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to review the literature on the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness. For both concepts there are different definitions, which will be promptly worked according to the analysis. The study of this issue, particularly outside the scope of our country just highlights the lack of information about this topic in our country. In addition, the following work aims to discuss the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness, as well as a new perspective of work with respect to this issue.

  6. Family influence in recovery from severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Whitley, Rob

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived influence of family on recovery from severe mental illness. 54 semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of people with severe mental illness living in Montreal. Results indicated that family both facilitated and impeded recovery processes. Specifically, family facilitated recovery through providing (a) moral support, (b) practical support and (c) motivation to recover. However family impeded recovery through (a) acting as a stressor, (b) displaying stigma and lack of understanding, and (c) forcing hospitalization. The study indicates the importance of family psychoeducation in promoting recovery.

  7. Newspaper coverage of mental illness in England 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Amalia; Goulden, Robert; Shefer, Guy; Rhydderch, Danielle; Rose, Diana; Williams, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire

    2013-04-01

    Better newspaper coverage of mental health-related issues is a target for the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma programme in England, whose population impact may be influenced by how far concurrent media coverage perpetuates stigma and discrimination. To compare English newspaper coverage of mental health-related topics each year of the TTC social marketing campaign (2009-2011) with baseline coverage in 2008. Content analysis was performed on articles in 27 local and national newspapers on two randomly chosen days each month. There was a significant increase in the proportion of anti-stigmatising articles between 2008 and 2011. There was no concomitant proportional decrease in stigmatising articles, and the contribution of mixed or neutral elements decreased. These findings provide promising results on improvements in press reporting of mental illness during the TTC programme in 2009-2011, and a basis for guidance to newspaper journalists and editors on reporting mental illness.

  8. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Hy Einstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students’ and psychiatry residents’ conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. Methods: The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant’s formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results: Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. Conclusions: If these notions are therefore part of students’ and residents’ conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  9. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic "hands-on" scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  10. How to improve interactions between police and the mentally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen eKrameddine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic hands-on scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioural change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  11. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NAMI to 741741 Find Help Living with a Mental Health Condition Family Members and Caregivers Teens and Young Adults Veterans & Active Duty Diverse Communities LGBTQ NAMI Programs Discussion Groups NAMI HelpLine Get Involved stigma free Learn how you can help replace stigma ...

  13. Adulthood and mental illness in full inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Dieter Stobäus

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reweaves the information included in Bins’ Master Dissertation discussions with his guide Stobäus and with Mosquera, centered in interfaces between Special Education and Full Inclusion, more in direction of the constitution of adult with mental deficiency and the relationship with learning, at the modality of teaching at Adolescent and Adult Education.

  14. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  15. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  16. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Stigma and Discrimination Among Californians Experiencing Mental Health Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eunice C; Collins, Rebecca L; Cerully, Jennifer; Seelam, Rachana; Roth, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Reports racial and ethnic differences on the California Well-Being Survey, a surveillance tool that tracks mental illness stigma and discrimination among a sample of California adults experiencing psychological distress.

  17. A Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Psychoeducational Group for Chinese People with Chronic Illnesses: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel F. K.; Ip, Priscilla S. Y.; Lee, Kim Man

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study attempted to examine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) psychoeducational group for Chinese people with chronic illness in Hong Kong. It adopted a single group design, and 52 participants joined the group. A questionnaire with three outcome measures, measuring general mental health, quality of life…

  18. Effects of Continued Care: A Study of Chronic Illness in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sidney; And Others

    This study of chronic illness in the home originates in theoretical and practical questions posed by physicians, nurses, and biometricians. The study covers the following elements: The research plan, the patient sample, providing continued care, interviewing, classification of disease and mental status, effect of treatment program, classification…

  19. Home Care for Children with Chronic Illnesses and Severe Disabilities: A Bibliography and Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alice; And Others

    The bibliography and resource guide summarizes relevant research and information on home care for children with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including those with such diagnoses as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, autism, or failure-to-thrive…

  20. Stigma, agency and recovery amongst people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that people with a severe mental illness still suffer high levels of stigma and discrimination. However little is known about how people with a severe mental illness manage such stigma. As such, the overall aim of this study is to document and analyze behavioral and psychological strategies of stigma management and control in a sample of people in recovery from a severe mental illness. To meet this aim, we conducted a five-year (2008-2012) qualitative longitudinal study in Washington D.C. Participants were recruited from small-scale congregate housing units ('recovery communities') for people in recovery, provided by a public mental health agency. We conducted regular focus groups at these communities, augmented by in-depth participant observation. Analysis was propelled by the grounded theory approach. A key finding of this study is that stigma and discrimination were not perceived as commonly experienced problems by participants. Instead, stigma and discrimination were perceived as omnipresent potential problems to which participants remained eternally vigilant, taking various preventive measures. Most notable among these measures was a concerted and self-conscious effort to behave and look 'normal'; through dress, appearance, conduct and demeanor. In this endeavor, participants possessed and deployed a considered degree of agency to prevent, avoid or preempt stigma and discrimination. These efforts appeared to have a strong semiotic dimension, as participants reported their developing 'normality' (and increased agentic power) was tangible proof of their ongoing recovery. Participants also routinely discussed severe mental illness in normative terms, noting its similarity to physical illnesses such as diabetes, or to generic mental health problems experienced by all. These behavioral and psychological strategies of normalization appeared to be consolidated within the recovery communities, which provided physical shelter and highly-valued peer

  1. Mental Illness Discrimination in Mental Health Treatment Programs: Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Lynn C; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y; Stromwall, Layne K

    2016-04-01

    People with mental illnesses (PWMI) who are of color and/or lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) experience mental health disparities, including within mental health treatment programs (MHTPs). Informed by a critical framework with attention to intersectionality and microaggressions, this qualitative study asked 20 PWMI and family members who also are of color and/or LGB whether they had experienced mental illness discrimination in MHTPs, a possible factor in disparities. We also asked participants about aspects of MHTPs that supported recovery. Participants reported that they were ignored/not listened to, not viewed as complex individuals, experienced condescension/lack of respect and violations of privacy or other rights, and were presumed to lack intelligence. In addition, identifying mental illness discrimination was complex due to intersections of identities. Despite these perceptions of discrimination, participants described supportive aspects of MHTPs. Implications for practice and research are offered.

  2. Mental Illness and Labour Market Outcomes: Employment and Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of severe mental illness on the capacity to hold a job and to earn an income. We find that the employment rate is reduced with about 1/3 during the development of the disease. Hospital admission seems to stabilize employment for all diagnoses. The employment rate...

  3. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  4. Improving somatic health of outpatients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Oud, Marian J. T.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience a 13-to 30-year reduction in life expectancy compared with the general population. The majority of these deaths can be attributed to somatic health problems. The risk on somatic health problems is partly increased due to a reduced abil

  5. Theory of Primary Rights for Persons with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreuth, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Argues for an organized scheme that considers the human rights of people with mental illness in a way that focuses attention on primary rights. The theory of primary rights emphasizes: life, liberty, and security of persons; the right to an adequate standard of living; all human beings being free and equal in dignity and rights; and conditional…

  6. Assertive community treatment for elderly people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stobbe (Jolanda); N.C.L. Mulder (Niels); B.J. Roosenschoon (Bert); M. Depla (Marja); H. Kroon (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Adults aged 65 and older with severe mental illnesses are a growing segment of the Dutch population. Some of them have a range of serious problems and are also difficult to engage. While assertive community treatment is a common model for treating difficult to engage severe m

  7. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  8. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  9. Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental…

  10. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  11. Reducing Psychotropic Polypharmacy in patients with severe mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, P; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Killian, R.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with mental illness receive psychotropic medicine in high dosages and from more than one drug. One of the consequences of this practice is obesity, which is a contributing factor to increased physical morbidity and premature death. METHODS: Our study was a cluster...

  12. Many with Mental Illness Miss Out on HIV Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163139.html Many With Mental Illness Miss Out on HIV Tests Rates of infection up to 15 times ...

  13. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  14. M Swanepoel LEGAL ASPECTS WITH REGARD TO MENTALLY ILL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Mental illness is a disorder (or a disease) of the mind that is judged by experts to interfere .... disorder. Often associated with the anti-psychiatry movement, he himself rejected the ... psychiatric treatments are ultimately far more damaging than helpful to patients. ... markedly incoherent speech, disorientation and confusion.

  15. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  16. Validity and Reliability of Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (Cantonese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus Y. N.; Pan, Jia-Yan; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Cantonese (ISMI-C). Methods: The original English version of ISMI is translated into the ISMI-C by going through forward and backward translation procedure. A cross-sectional research design is adopted that involved 295…

  17. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  18. The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

  19. Service-Learning with the Mentally Ill: Softening the Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Steve T.; Corser, Grant C.; White, Lynn H.

    2010-01-01

    Stigmas toward those who have mental illnesses are wide-spread and detrimental to the health and well-being of those suffering from these debilitating conditions, and to society as a whole. Stigma-reducing programs are plentiful but many are only marginally effective. In this paper we describe and evaluate a course in Psychopathology that included…

  20. The Sylvia Plath Effect: Mental Illness in Eminent Creative Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, James C.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies involving a total of 2149 writers and other eminent individuals found that female poets were significantly more likely to suffer from mental illness than female fiction writers, than male writers of any type, or than eminent individuals in other fields. This finding has been dubbed the "Sylvia Plath" effect. (Contains references.)…

  1. Creativity, self creation, and the treatment of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, A

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines how an understanding of systematic findings about creative processes involved in art, literature, and science can be applied to the effective treatment of mental illness. These findings and applications are illustrated by particular reference to the work of the poet Sylvia Plath and the treatment of a patient who aspired to become a writer.

  2. Parents, Teachers, and Medical Personnel: Helping Children with Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescon, Joan A. W.; Honig, Alice S.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews how chronic illness affects the psychosocial and cognitive development of ill children, using both Eriksonian and Piagetian theoretical rubrics. Explores family and child stress and coping with medical crises and manifestations of illness. Provides recommendations for enhancing parent and professional communication and educational…

  3. The MMPI-2 in chronic psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Peggy; Van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Van Den Noort, Maurits; Schenkwald, Julia; Kueppenbender, Nicole; Lim, Sabina; Egger, Jos; Coenen, Anton

    2014-10-01

    While previous studies on the MMPI-2 in patients with schizophrenia and depression have used mixed samples of both early stage and chronic psychiatric patients. Here, it is investigated whether chronicity itself might have a differential effect on the MMPI-2 profiles of these patients and whether demoralization 'associated with long-term illness' affects the scales of the MMPI-2. Thirty long-term patients with schizophrenia, 30 long-term patients with depression, and 30 healthy participants completed the MMPI-2. Groups were compared on Clinical Scales and on the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales. Patients with schizophrenia differed from patients with depression on 14 MMPI-2 scales and from healthy controls on 10 scales, generally showing mean UT-scores 65, indicating impaired functioning. Demoralization was higher in patients with depression than in patients with schizophrenia and both psychiatric groups differed from the healthy control group. It is concluded that long-term patients with depression show impaired functioning and high demoralization, while long-term patients with schizophrenia surprisingly show near normal functioning and less demoralization. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Disability and quality of life among elderly persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, Dharitri; Rao, N Suryanarayana; Kalyanasundaram, S

    2015-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to understand the level of disability and quality of life of elderly persons with chronic and persistent mental illnesses and to compare it with those who were elderly but well with no illness. For the purpose 200 elderly persons with mental illness (PMI), attending psychiatric services were included in the study. A comparison group of 103 well elderly persons was drawn from the same study area as control group (CG). They were assessed using WHO-DAS and WHOQOL-BREF. Results revealed that PMI experienced higher disability compared to the CG. Deficits in the domain of moving around, getting along with people, engaging in life activities and participation in society contributed most to the high level of disability in the PMI group. PMI from rural area had higher disability compared to the urban group. As for QOL, elderly PMI had a poor quality of life compared to the CG. Quality of life was found to be negatively associated with level of disability. Higher the level of disability, lower was the quality of life. The authors opine that persons with chronic mental illness continue to experience psychiatric disability in old age and this cannot be attributed to normal aging. Level of disability has a negative impact on their quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-management and support needs of chronically ill people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, self-management by patients has been recognized an important aspect of chronic illness care, as it can help avoid preventable mortality and morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients and their families. However, not all people with a chronic illness are able to

  6. Peer interaction in adolescents with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG

    2000-01-01

    This study examined behavioural, cognitive and affective aspects of peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness. The aim of the study was twofold: (1) describe peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness in comparison with norms of healthy adolescents; (2) examine the relations

  7. Social functioning in children with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG

    2000-01-01

    Behavioural, cognitive, and affective aspects of social functioning of 107 children with a chronic illness were studied. The aim of the study was twofold. (I) to describe peer interaction of children with a chronic illness in comparison with normative data of healthy children; (2) to examine whether

  8. Peer interaction in adolescents with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG

    2000-01-01

    This study examined behavioural, cognitive and affective aspects of peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness. The aim of the study was twofold: (1) describe peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness in comparison with norms of healthy adolescents; (2) examine the relations

  9. Severe Mental Illness, Somatic Delusions, and Attempted Mass Murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarteschi, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puteh, Ibrahim; Marthoenis, M; Minas, Harry

    2011-05-14

    Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill (called pasung in Indonesia) is common in Aceh. In early 2010, the local government initiated a program called Aceh Free Pasung 2010. The main goal of the program is to release the mentally ill in the province from restraint and to provide appropriate medical treatment and care. The aim of the paper is to report the findings of a preliminary investigation of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who have been admitted to the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital, where people who had been restrained or confined in the community are being admitted for psychiatric treatment and, where necessary, physical rehabilitation, as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Fifty-nine of former ex-pasung patients were examined. The majority (88.1%) of the patients were male, aged 18 to 68 years. The duration of pasung varied from a few days to 20 years, with a mean duration of 4.0 years. The reasons for applying pasung are many, with concerns about dangerousness being most common. The great majority (89.8%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The development of a community mental health system and the introduction of a health insurance system in Aceh (together with the national health insurance scheme for the poor) has enabled access to free hospital treatment for people with severe mental disorders, including those who have been in pasung. The demographic and clinical characteristics of this group of ex-pasung patients are broadly similar to those reported in previous studies. The Aceh Free Pasung program is an important mental health and human rights initiative that can serve to inform similar efforts in other parts of Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries where restraint and confinement of the mentally ill is receiving insufficient attention.

  11. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  12. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  13. The Relation Between Parental Mental Illness and Adolescent Mental Health: The Role of Family Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Witteman, C.L.M.; Hosman, C.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness are often found to be at high risk of developing psychological problems themselves. Little is known about the role of family factors in the relation between parental and adolescent mental health. The current study focused on parent-child interaction and

  14. Stigma of Mental Illness as Cause of Divorce in Byzantium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassia Nestor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Byzantium mentally ill persons were stigmatized, despite the fact that they could live normally. This stigma consisted a very serious problem not only for the patients themselves, but also for their families.Through the legislation of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and also the Leo's VI the Wise (9th – 10th A.C. legislation, mental illness was a main health cause of divorce and it concerned both males and females.During these years men were treated different than women, which had to wait five years in order to get a divorce. On the opposite men had to wait only three years to get a divorce for the cause of mentally retarded wife.

  15. Mental health services availability and admission of the seriously mentally ill from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Charles; Shen, Jay; Cochran, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study used a cross-sectional, multiple logistic regression design to examine the relationship between mental health service availability and the admission of 111,527 seriously mentally ill (SMI) patients from the emergency department (ED) in New York State in 2002. The study found that SMI patients were admitted from the ED in counties that were mental health professional shortage areas and in counties with less long-term inpatient psychiatric days. Contrary to expectations, counties with community mental health centers (CMHCs) had more admissions than counties without CMHCs. The results support prior research that indicates the need for more specialized mental health services for the SMI, including more psychiatric beds.

  16. Acceptance and Avoidance Processes at Different Levels of Psychological Recovery from Enduring Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius R. Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19 was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness.

  17. [Phobic syndromes in mentally ill adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaeva, N A; Golovina, A G

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of phobias in 1731 adolescents with mental disorders was estimated as 15,2%. A clinical follow-up study included 261 patients, aged 15-17 years, with ICD-10 diagnosis of phobic disorders. One third of patients was diagnosed with organic non-psychotic disorder, while one third with a disorder of endogenous cluster, the other nosologic units were represented rarely. The ratio of male to female was 6:1. Frequency allocation in a spectrum of phobic types was as follows: the fear of darkness (23%), social phobia (20,8%), with about a half of the fears being connected with the study process, thanatophobia (15,8%). Other types were found less often. The analysis of nosologic specificity of phobia content demonstrated an unspecific character of the fear of darkness. Mannered, with complicated content, exaggerated "childish" phobias were presented mainly in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  18. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  19. Parents with serious mental illness: differences in internalised and externalised mental illness stigma and gender stigma between mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E

    2015-02-28

    Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI.

  20. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  1. Stigmatising attitudes towards the mentally ill: A survey in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    workshop programme in UK and Canadian secondary schools are quite ... towards the mentally ill in a Nigerian university teaching hospital population using .... that mentally ill persons could be a threat to public safety (Table II). Seventy-five ...

  2. Provider-initiated HIV counselling and testing (PICT) in the mentally ill

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the social drift associated with mental illness (e.g. poverty, ... ill population and many mental health settings do not encourage. HIV testing. Studies ..... Geneva: WHO, 2011. http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/.

  3. Mental health, mental illness, and human rights in India and elsewhere: What are we aiming for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2016-12-01

    The Mental Health Care Bill 2013 was introduced to the Rajya Sabha (India's upper house of parliament) in August 2013 and following 134 official amendments, passed in August 2016. Properly implemented, mental health legislation such as this plays a key role in protecting the rights of the mentally ill, ensuring access to care, and promoting social justice for the mentally ill, their families and carers. In this context, the 2006 United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) presents a real opportunity to improve the position of people with disabilities and those disabled by long-term mental illness. The CRPD also presents many challenges to mental health legislators and service-providers, especially in relation to involuntary care, mental capacity, and substitute decision-making. Nevertheless, the CRPD has still generated strong incentive for reform and is an opportunity that should not be missed. Legislation along the lines of India's 2013 Bill offers much that is positive and progressive in terms of standards of care, revised processes for involuntary admission, and enhanced governance throughout mental health services. In this way, this kind of legislation, although imperfect in certain respects, promotes the principles of the CRPD (as outlined in the preamble to India's 2013 Bill). It is important that such initiatives focus not only on the right to liberty but also on rights to treatment, social care, social inclusion, and political empowerment of the mentally ill. Globally, the mentally ill have been neglected for far, far too long. It is time to fix this.

  4. Associations of serious mental illness with earnings: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Daphna; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Browne, Mark Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries. Aims To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Method The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated. Results Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (χ2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration. PMID:20679263

  5. Availability and Accessibility of Treatment for Persons with Mental Illness Through a Community Mental Health Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravya Raghunandan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes experiences in implementing a community mental health and development project in a rural district in southern India, including the  position of persons with mental illness when the project was initiated, the challenges the faced and the strategies that were developed to overcome these challenges. The authors conclude that when  services are locally available, persons with mental illness can be treated and rehabilitated within their own community. They can live with dignity and their rights are respected. There is a great need for inclusion of persons with mental illness in the existing developmental activities and in disabled persons’ organizations.doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.58

  6. Positive psychology: an approach to supporting recovery in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, B; Brownell, T; Tylee, A; Slade, M

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on positive psychology with a special focus on people with mental illness. It describes the characteristics, critiques, and roots of positive psychology and positive psychotherapy, and summarises the existing evidence on positive psychotherapy. Positive psychology aims to refocus psychological research and practice on the positive aspects of experience, strengths, and resources. Despite a number of conceptual and applied research challenges, the field has rapidly developed since its introduction at the turn of the century. Today positive psychology serves as an umbrella term to accommodate research investigating positive emotions and other positive aspects such as creativity, optimism, resilience, empathy, compassion, humour, and life satisfaction. Positive psychotherapy is a therapeutic intervention that evolved from this research. It shows promising results for reducing depression and increasing well-being in healthy people and those with depression. Positive psychology and positive psychotherapy are increasingly being applied in mental health settings, but research evidence involving people with severe mental illness is still scarce. The focus on strengths and resources in positive psychology and positive psychotherapy may be a promising way to support recovery in people with mental illness, such as depression, substance abuse disorders, and psychosis. More research is needed to adapt and establish these approaches and provide an evidence base for their application.

  7. 78 FR 28140 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... first factor is that ``having a mental illness is like having a disability.'' The second factor is that... Association (DSM-IV), and we recognize mental illness as a disability that can serve as the basis for an award... Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  8. The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.

  9. Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Community Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The…

  10. Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

    As part of a campaign to end discrimination against mentally ill persons, this educational packet is designed to provide health educators with the material necessary to teach the facts about mental illness. The objectives of the lesson plans are for middle school students to: (1) identify the stigmatizing words associated with mental illness and…

  11. Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For High School. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

    This educational packet is designed to provide health educators with materials necessary to teach high school students about the facts concerning mental illness. The objectives of the lesson plans are to (1) identify common fears and misconceptions about people who have mental illness; (2) discuss how stereotypes about mental illness are formed;…

  12. Chronic illness in the workplace: stigma, identity threat and strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L

    2014-10-01

    Chronic illness affects a large and growing number of workers in the United States and globally. Stigmatization (devaluation) at work based on chronic illness may be stressful for individuals and therefore may lead to negative psychological consequences (i.e. strains). In order to better understand stressful experiences of stigma for workers with chronic illnesses, a model of stigma-related identity threat (perceptions that one is at risk of being treated negatively at work because of chronic illness) was tested on a sample of 203 working adults with chronic illnesses. The following variables related to workers' perceptions of chronic illness-related identity threat: workers' boundary flexibility (flexibility in managing their work and life), their meta-perceptions of devaluation (perceptions of others' devaluation of them based on illness) and their job self-efficacy (feelings of confidence related to performing their job). In turn, perceptions of identity threat related to both feelings of psychological strain and (lower levels of) perceived work ability. Surprisingly, neither stigma centrality (how fundamental illness is to one's identity) nor supervisor support related to workers' identity threat perceptions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Myth of empowerment in chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, B

    2001-06-01

    This article presents several findings of a study, conducted between 1996 and 1998, to investigate self-care decision making in diabetes. The underlying assumption of many practitioners is that an invitation to people with chronic illness to participate as equal partners is sufficient to guarantee their empowerment. Using grounded theory, the research examined self-care decision making using a convenience sample of 22 Canadian adults with longstanding type 1 diabetes nominated as expert self-care managers. Participants audiotaped their decision making as it occurred for 3 weeks over the course of one calendar year. These audio-recordings were followed by an interview to clarify participants' decision making and factors that affected their decisions. Participants identified several covert and subtle ways that practitioners contradict their stated goal of empowerment in their interactions with diabetics. Participants revealed that despite their intention to foster participatory decision making, practitioners frequently discount the experiential knowledge of diabetes over time and do not provide the resources necessary to make informed decisions. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings for practice.

  14. Human rights of the mentally ill in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjannah, I; Mills, J; Park, T; Usher, K

    2015-06-01

    The mentally ill are vulnerable to human rights violations, particularly in Indonesia, where shackling is widespread. The aim of this study was to understand the provision of mental health care in Indonesia, thereby identifying ways to improve care and better support carers. Grounded theory methods were used. Study participants included health professionals, non-health professionals and individuals living with a mental disorder who were well at the time (n = 49). Data were collected through interviews conducted in 2011 and 2012. The core category of this grounded theory is 'connecting care' a term coined by the authors to describe a model of care that involves health professionals and non-health professionals, such as family members. Four main factors influence care-providers' decision-making: competence, willingness, available resources and compliance with institutional policy. Health professionals are influenced most strongly by institutional policy when deciding whether to accept or shift responsibility to provide care. Non-health professionals base their decisions largely on personal circumstances. Jointly-made decisions can be matched or unmatched. Unmatched decisions can result in forced provision of care, increasing risks of human rights violations. Generalization of this grounded theory is difficult as the research was conducted in two provinces of Indonesia. Institutional policy was important in the process of connecting care for the mentally ill in Indonesia and needs to be underpinned by legislation to protect human rights. Strengthening mental health legislation in Indonesia will allow nurses to connect care more effectively. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  15. Interprofessional education in mental health: An opportunity to reduce mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranzan, K Amanda

    2016-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is a common problem in healthcare students and professionals in addition to the general public. Stigma is associated with numerous negative outcomes and hence there is an urgent need to address it. This article explores the potential for interprofessional education (IPE) to emerge as a strategy to reduce mental illness stigma amongst healthcare students and professionals. Most anti-stigma strategies use a combination of knowledge and contact (with a person with lived experience) to change attitudes towards mental illness. Not surprisingly interprofessional educators are well acquainted with theory and learning approaches for attitude change as they are already used in IPE to address learners' attitudes and perceptions of themselves, other professions, and/or teamwork. This article, through an analysis of IPE pedagogy and learning methods, identifies opportunities to address mental illness stigma with application of the conditions that facilitate stigma reduction. The goal of this article is to raise awareness of the issue of mental illness stigma amongst healthcare students and professionals and to highlight interprofessional education as an untapped opportunity for change.

  16. Mythos and mental illness: psychopathy, fantasy, and contemporary moral life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Geoff

    2008-12-01

    Medical accounts of the absence of conscience are intriguing for the way they seem disposed to drift away from the ideal of scientific objectivity and towards fictional representations of the subject. I examine here several contemporary accounts of psychopathy by Robert Hare and Paul Babiak. I first note how they locate the truth about their subject in fiction, then go on to contend that their accounts ought to be thought of as a "mythos," for they betray a telling uncertainty about where "fact" ends and "fantasy" begins, as well as the means of distinguishing mental health from mental illness in regard to some social roles.

  17. Involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill: China's 2012 Mental Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    The long-awaited Mental Health Law of China was passed on 26 October 2012 and took effect on 1 May 2013. Being the first national legislation on mental health, it establishes a basic legal framework to regulate mental health practice and recognizes the fundamental rights of persons with mental disorders. This article focuses on the system of involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill under the new law, which is expected to prevent the so-called "Being misidentified as mentally disordered" cases in China. A systematic examination of the new system demonstrates that the Mental Health Law of China implicitly holds two problematic assumptions and does not provide adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the involuntary patients. Administrative enactments and further national legislative efforts are needed to remedy these flaws in the new law.

  18. Physical health indicators in major mental illness: data from the Quality and Outcome Framework in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie Langan; Lowrie, Richard; McConnachie, Alex; McLean, Gary; Mair, Frances; Mercer, Stewart; Smith, Daniel

    2015-02-26

    In the UK, the Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) has specific targets for general practictioners to record body-mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in major mental illness, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Although incentives are given for aspects of major mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and related psychoses), barriers to care can occur. Our aim was to compare recording of specific targets for BP and BMI in individuals with major mental illness relative to diabetes and chronic kidney disease across the UK. Using 2012 and 2013 QOF data from 9731 general practices across all four countries in the UK, we calculated median payment, population achievement, and exception rates for BP indicators in major mental illness and chronic kidney disease and BMI indicators in major mental illness and diabetes. Differences in unweighted rates between practices in the same UK country were tested with a sign test. Differences in population achievement rate between practices in different countries were compared with those in England by use of a quantile regression analysis. UK payment and population achievement rates for BMI recording in major mental illness were significantly lower than were those in diabetes (payment 92·7% vs 95·5% and population achievement 84·0% vs 92·5%, pUK payment and population achievement rates were significantly lower for major mental illness than for chronic kidney disease (94·1% vs 97·8% and 87·0% vs 97·1%, pUK countries. Median population achievement rates for BMI and BP recording in major mental illness were significantly lower in Scotland than in England (for BMI -1·5%, 99% CI -2·7 to -0·3, and for BP -1·8%, -2·7 to -0·9; pUK. We also found variation in these rates between countries. This finding is probably multifactorial, reflecting a combination of patient, clinician, and wider organisational factors; however, it might also suggest inequality in access to certain aspects of health care for people with major

  19. Perceived conflict in the couple and chronic illness management: Preliminary analyses from the Quebec Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudon Catherine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the relationship with the spouse/partner appears crucial among patients with multiple chronic conditions where illness management is complex and multifaceted. This study draws on data from the Quebec Health Survey (QHS to examine, among patients with one or more chronic conditions, the relation between marital status, the perceived conflict with the spouse/partner, and what the patients do to manage their illness as well as how they perceive their health. Methods Data from the QHS 1998 were used. The sample included 7547 coupled adults who had one or more chronic health problems lasting more than 6 months. Independent variables included marital status, perceived conflict with the spouse/partner, and the number of chronic conditions. Illness management was defined broadly as a measure of the patient's efforts at self-care and an illness status indicator, including visits to the generalist and the specialist, the use of telephone health line in the last 12 months, self-rated general health, mental health, and a measure of psychological distress. Linkages between the independent variables and illness management were assessed for males and females separately with logistic regressions, while accounting for the survey sampling design and household clustering. Results Female patients who did not live with their partner and had never been married were more likely to report a negative perception of their general health and a higher psychological distress than those who were married. Perceived conflict with the partner was linked to a negative perception of mental health and a higher psychological distress among both men and women. Compared to patients with only one chronic condition, males who reported more than one chronic condition were more likely to have consulted a generalist prior to the survey and used the telephone health line, whereas females were more likely to have consulted a specialist. Both males and

  20. An intelligent partner system for improving chronic illness care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Deutsch

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic care consists of a sequence of actions to treat a specific clinical disorder over time as a function of the ways in which illness progresses and patients respond to management actions. Outcomes depend on physicians' skills to select the actions best suited for their patients and competent self-management. This paper presents the architecture of an intelligent partner system (IPS, which helps to provide doctors with relevant data and skills and empowers chronically ill patients with the information and confidence to manage their health wisely. The services of this intelligent system are presented as 'therapies' for the information-processing 'pathologies' associated with traditional chronic illness care.

  1. Return Migration among Elderly, Chronically Ill Bosnian Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from...... Denmark and the role of health issues in their decision to return. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 33 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have moved back to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 10 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have remained in Denmark. The interviews show...

  2. Empowerment and serious mental illness: treatment partnerships and community opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2002-01-01

    The health goals of persons with serious mental illness are greatly improved when their personal power is advanced. Two targets of empowerment are discussed in this paper: treatment partnerships and community opportunities. Strategies that enhance treatment partnerships include provider endorsement of recovery rather than promoting an approach that suggests poor prognoses, treatment plans that are collaborative rather than unilateral decision making that is perceived as coercive, and treatment services provided in the person's community rather than geographically or psychological distant institutions. Approaches that focus on the person and treatment relationship are not sufficient however. Stigma and discrimination are significant barriers to the kind of community opportunities that are necessary to help people attain life goals. Communities that substitute stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behaviors with realistic views of mental illness are more likely to provide the kind of reasonable accommodations that some people need for work and independent living opportunities.

  3. Family representative payeeship and violence risk in severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Van Dorn, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Although representative payeeship is prevalent among people with mental illness and shows promise to positively influence clinically relevant outcomes, research also suggests this legal mechanism could be implemented in ways that are problematic. The current study examined whether family representative payeeship was associated with elevated risk of family violence perpetrated by persons with severe mental illness (SMI). Data were collected every 4 months for 1 year in structured interviews with N = 245 persons with SMI who received disability benefits. Multivariate analyses showed that substance abuse, history of violence, frequency of family contact, and family representative payeeship were associated with elevated odds of family violence. Analyses also showed family contact and family representative payeeship had a cumulative effect on increasing the predicted probability of family violence (controlling for covariates such as violence history and substance abuse). The data shed light on the potential for family representative payeeship to be associated with increased risk of interpersonal conflict and violence in SMI.

  4. DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Young, Michael A; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2010-08-01

    Stigma associated with mental illness has been shown to have devastating effects on the lives of people with psychiatric disorders, their families, and those who care for them. In the current article, the relationship between diagnostic labels and stigma is examined in the context of the forthcoming DSM-V. Three types of negative outcomes are reviewed in detail - public stigma, self-stigma, and label avoidance. The article illustrates how a clinical diagnosis may exacerbate these forms of stigma through socio-cognitive processes of groupness, homogeneity, and stability. Initial draft revisions recently proposed by the DSM-V work groups are presented, and their possible future implications for stigma associated with mental illness are discussed.

  5. Mentally ill persons who commit crimes: punishment or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety.

  6. Creative writing in recovery from severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority.

  7. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  8. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  9. Gene-Environment Interactions in Severe Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf eUher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe mental illness is a broad category that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression. Both genetic disposition and environmental exposures play important roles in the development of severe mental illness. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the roles of genetic and environmental depend on each other. Gene-environment interactions may underlie the paradox of strong environmental factors for highly heritable disorders, the low estimates of shared environmental influences in twin studies of severe mental illness and the heritability gap between twin and molecular heritability estimates. Sons and daughters of parents with severe mental illness are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, suggesting that the expression of genetic liability depends on environment. In the last decade, gene-environment interactions involving specific molecular variants in candidate genes have been identified. Replicated findings include an interaction between a polymorphism in the AKT1 gene and cannabis use in the development of psychosis and an interaction between the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment in the development of persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder has been underinvestigated, with only a single study showing an interaction between a functional polymorphism in BDNF and stressful life events triggering bipolar depressive episodes. The first systematic search for gene-environment interactions has found that a polymorphism in CTNNA3 may sensitise the developing brain to the pathogenic effect of cytomegalovirus in utero, leading to schizophrenia in adulthood. Strategies for genome-wide investigations will likely include coordination between epidemiological and genetic research efforts, systematic assessment of multiple environmental factors in large samples, and prioritization of genetic variants.

  10. [Evidence-based treatment of mentally ill homeless persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Maja; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-05-31

    A systematic review of the literature shows that it is possible to reduce homelessness among mentally ill homeless persons, partly by offering access to housing and partly by providing intensive care through Assertive Community Treatment. Assertive Community Treatment can, to some extent, decrease psychiatric symptoms and increase quality of life. It is evident that by offering housing, homelessness may be reduced, but the comparison of independent housing and group living did not reveal big differences.

  11. Paediatric chronic illness and educational failure: the role of emotional and behavioural problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layte, Richard; McCrory, Cathal

    2013-08-01

    Chronic illness in childhood is associated with worse educational outcomes. The association is usually explained via lowered cognitive development, decreased readiness to learn and school absence. However, this paper examines whether worse psychological adjustment may also play a role. We use data from the Growing Up in Ireland study, a cohort study, which collected data on 8,568 nine-year-old children through the Irish national school system using a two-stage sampling method. Maximum likelihood path analytic models are used to assess the direct effect of child chronic illness on reading and maths test scores and the mediating role of emotional and behavioural problems. In unadjusted analyses, children with a mental and behavioural condition scored 14.5 % points less on reading tests and 16.9 % points less on maths tests than their healthy peers. Children with non-mental and behavioural conditions scored 3 % points less on both tests, a significant difference. Mental and behavioural (OR, 9.58) and other chronic conditions (OR, 1.61) were significantly more likely to have 'high' levels of difficulties on the SDQ. Path analysis models showed that the association between chronic illness and educational test scores was completely mediated by emotional and behavioural problems controlling for school absence and bullying by peers. Child and adolescent chronic illness can have significant effects on educational development and a long-lasting impact on future life-chances. The psychological adjustment of the child is important in mediating the effect of chronic illness on educational outcomes. Interventions should target this developmental pathway.

  12. Gun policy and serious mental illness: priorities for future research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-01-01

    In response to recent mass shootings, policy makers have proposed multiple policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns. The political debate about these proposals is often uninformed by research. To address this gap, this review article summarizes the research related to gun restriction policies that focus on serious mental illness. Gun restriction policies were identified by researching the THOMAS legislative database, state legislative databases, prior review articles, and the news media. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for publications between 1970 and 2013 that addressed the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, the effectiveness of gun policies focused on serious mental illness, the potential for such policies to exacerbate negative public attitudes, and the potential for gun restriction policies to deter mental health treatment seeking. Limited research suggests that federal law restricting gun possession by persons with serious mental illness may prevent gun violence from this population. Promotion of policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns does not seem to exacerbate negative public attitudes toward this group. Little is known about how restricting gun possession among persons with serious mental illness affects suicide risk or mental health treatment seeking. Future studies should examine how gun restriction policies for serious mental illness affect suicide, how such policies are implemented by states, how persons with serious mental illness perceive policies that restrict their possession of guns, and how gun restriction policies influence mental health treatment seeking among persons with serious mental illness.

  13. The role of parental and adolescent attributions in adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Kimberly; Mrug, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    Previous literature has demonstrated the separate contributions of parental attributions and adolescent attributions to psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. However, it is unknown whether parental attributions affect adolescents' mental health directly or indirectly by influencing the youths' attributional style. This study evaluated the direct and indirect (through adolescent attributions) effects of parental attributions on internalizing and externalizing problems of adolescents with chronic illness. Adolescents (N = 128; M = 14.7 years) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes and their caregivers completed measures of attributional style and adolescent adjustment. Parents' optimistic attributions were associated with fewer adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. These effects were partly mediated by adolescent attributions. These results suggest that targeting both adolescent and parent attributions may be important for improving adolescents' adjustment to a chronic illness.

  14. [The mentally ill artist--a historical retrospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdolt, K

    1995-07-01

    The painting of the mentally ill has fascinated artists and their public throughout the 20th century. Yet the psychologically as well as art-historically interesting topic can be traced back over a long period in the history of Western culture. Aristotle emphasizes that all men who create great works, such as artists, philosophers, poets and politicians, are prone to melancholy, that excess of black gall which is characteristic of artists and depressive. Although Plato distinguished between creative and clinical mania, the topos of "genius and madness" prevails up to our century. The cult of melancholy is taken up bei Marsilio Ficino and becomes fashionable among the artists of the 16th and 17th centuries. During the Romantic period of the early 19th century the psychologically unstable or even sick intellectual and artist becomes the focus of attention. Artistic madness is glorified in an almost mystical fashion. However, disillusionment was soon to follow. Schopenhauer, Lombroso and many physicians stress the close relationship between genius and madness. However, they judge madness to be merely morbid and negative. During the 20th century the artists of the avantgarde show much interest in psychoanalysis and in the art of the mentally ill. The rise of National Socialism brought about a drastic break in the appraisal of the art of the mentally ill, which today is an acknowledged factor in contemporary art.

  15. Legal Aspects with Regard to Mentally Ill Offenders in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaleen Swanepoel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this note is to discuss legal aspects with regard to mentally ill offenders with specific reference to the defence raised as a result of mental illness. In order to fully understand this defence it is important to provide a clinical background on what forensic psychiatry is. It is also necessary to define certain clinical concepts such as the concept of mental illness, and the criteria for the classification of mental illnesses. This then leads to a discussion of the defence of mental illness. A conclusion is drawn at the end, with a summary of the findings.

  16. Telehomecare for patients with multiple chronic illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare; Dusseault, Joanne J.; Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Lemelin, Jacques; Humber, Jennie

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the feasibility and efficacy of integrating home health monitoring into a primary care setting. DESIGN A mixed method was used for this pilot study. It included in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. SETTING A semirural family health network in eastern Ontario comprising 8 physicians and 5 nurses caring for approximately 10 000 patients. PARTICIPANTS Purposeful sample of 22 patients chosen from the experimental group of 120 patients 50 years old or older in a larger randomized controlled trial (N = 240). These patients had chronic illnesses and were identified as being at risk based on objective criteria and physician assessment. INTERVENTIONS Between November 2004 and March 2006, 3 nurse practitioners and a pharmacist installed telehomecare units with 1 or more peripheral devices (eg, blood-pressure monitor, weight scale, glucometer) in patients’ homes. The nurse practitioners incorporated individualized instructions for using the unit into each patient’s care plan. Patients used the units every morning for collecting data, entering values into the system either manually or directly through supplied peripherals. The information was transferred to a secure server and was then uploaded to a secure Web-based application that allowed care providers to access and review it from any location with Internet access. The devices were monitored in the office on weekdays by the nurse practitioners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Acceptance and use of the units, patients’ and care providers’ satisfaction with the system, and patients’ demographic and health characteristics. RESULTS All 22 patients, 12 men and 10 women with an average age of 73 years (range 60 to 88 years), agreed to participate. Most were retired, and a few were receiving community services. Common diagnoses included hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All patients had blood pressure monitors installed, 11 had wired weight

  17. Chronic illness and family: impact of schizophrenia and Crohn's disease on the family quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loga, Slobodan; Sošić, Bojan; Kulenović, Alma Džubur; Svraka, Emira; Bosankić, Nina; Kučukalić, Abdulah; Cemalović, Omer; Hadžić, Alma

    2012-12-01

    Quality of life assessments are increasingly present in health research. Chronic and progressive illness of a family member unavoidably affects quality of life of a family as a whole. The goals of this study were to gain insight into the family burden of chronic disorders, especially possible differences in family quality of life (FQOL) in families that have members suffering from either schizophrenia or Crohn's disease, and families in which none of the members have chronic somatic or mental illness, as well as to pilot an instrument for this purpose. The sample consisted of 53 families with a member suffering from schizophrenia, 50 families with a member suffering from Crohn's disease, and 45 families with no identifiable chronic illnesses. An informant from each family underwent a structured face to face interview, using a questionnaire specially adapted from Family Quality of Life Survey, an instrument widely used to assess FQOL in families with members with disabilities, and which addresses nine areas of family life. In the domain of health, both groups of families with chronic illnesses believe they have significantly different conditions when compared to members of the Control group. In the Crohn's disease group, families had a great deal more of challenges in accessing healthcare services; and see themselves at a disadvantage when compared to both other groups in the domain of finances. Control group offered lowest rating in the domain of support from others. Overall measures of FQOL show significant variation among the three groups, Crohn's disease group offering lowest ratings, followed by families of mental health service users. Overall, FQOL seems to be lower in families that have members diagnosed with Crohn's disease than in families with members suffering from schizophrenia. Illness-specific studies are required, as well as instruments with stronger psychometric properties and studies of determinants of FQOL. Qualitative approach should be emphasised

  18. Impact of a population‐wide mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or recent mental health problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donovan, Rob; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Robinson, Katy; Lin, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives : To determine the impact of the Act‐Belong‐Commit mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or who had sought professional help for a mental health problem in the previous 12 months. Method...

  19. Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill (called pasung in Indonesia is common in Aceh. In early 2010, the local government initiated a program called Aceh Free Pasung 2010. The main goal of the program is to release the mentally ill in the province from restraint and to provide appropriate medical treatment and care. The aim of the paper is to report the findings of a preliminary investigation of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who have been admitted to the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital, where people who had been restrained or confined in the community are being admitted for psychiatric treatment and, where necessary, physical rehabilitation, as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Results Fifty-nine of former ex-pasung patients were examined. The majority (88.1% of the patients were male, aged 18 to 68 years. The duration of pasung varied from a few days to 20 years, with a mean duration of 4.0 years. The reasons for applying pasung are many, with concerns about dangerousness being most common. The great majority (89.8% had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Discussion The development of a community mental health system and the introduction of a health insurance system in Aceh (together with the national health insurance scheme for the poor has enabled access to free hospital treatment for people with severe mental disorders, including those who have been in pasung. The demographic and clinical characteristics of this group of ex-pasung patients are broadly similar to those reported in previous studies. Conclusions The Aceh Free Pasung program is an important mental health and human rights initiative that can serve to inform similar efforts in other parts of Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries where restraint and confinement of the mentally

  20. The role of "evidence" in recovery from mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2006-12-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP), a derivative of evidence-based medicine (EBM), is ascendant in the United States' mental health system; the findings of randomized controlled trials and other experimental research are widely considered authoritative in mental health practice and policy. The concept of recovery from mental illness is similarly pervasive in mental health programming and advocacy, and it emphasizes consumer expertise and self-determination. What is the relationship between these two powerful and potentially incompatible forces for mental health reform? This paper identifies four attempts, in the mental health literature, to delineate the role of "evidence" in recovery. One is the strong version of evidence-based practice-an applied science model-and three others address weaknesses in the first by limiting the authority of probabilistic findings. The paper also offers a fifth version, based on the concept of communicative accountability, which is derived from Habermas' work on communicative action. The fifth version responds to the other four and emphasizes learning, disclosure and respect in clinical and other helping relationships.

  1. Living as a family in the midst of chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årestedt, Liselott; Persson, Carina; Benzein, Eva

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to illuminate the meaning of lived experience of living as a family in the midst of chronic illness. Chronic illness implies a change for both the individual and the family. In this changed situation, all family members seem to benefit from sharing experiences and receiving support. Current research highlights the individual patient's or family member's perspectives on chronic illness, but family systems nursing (FSN) studies are warranted. A qualitative design with a FSN approach was chosen. Repeated qualitative narrative interviews with seven families living with chronic illness were performed. A phenomenological hermeneutic analysis, inspired by Ricoeur, was used to interpret the data. The phenomenon can be described as an ongoing movement towards well-being. The results included two themes and five sub-themes. The first theme was 'Co-creating a context for living with illness' with the subthemes; 'learning to live with the expressions of illness' and 'communicating the illness within and outside the family'. The second theme was 'Co-creating alternative ways for everyday life' with the subthemes; 'adapting to a new life rhythm', 'altering relationships' and 'changing roles and tasks in the family'. Living as a family in the midst of chronic illness can be described as an ongoing process where the family members co-create a context for living with illness. They also co-create a context for alternative ways of everyday life. Knowledge about lived experience of living as a family in the midst of chronic illness can help nurses to adopt a FSN care perspective. This can increase the chances of taking advantage of the ways family members manage situations together, as well as highlight resources within the family. © 2013 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Human Trafficking, Mental Illness, and Addiction: Avoiding Diagnostic Overshadowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; MacGibbon, Marti; Stoklosa, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews an emergency department-based clinical vignette of a trafficked patient with co-occurring pregnancy-related, mental health, and substance use disorder issues. The authors, including a survivor of human trafficking, draw on their backgrounds in addiction care, human trafficking, emergency medicine, and psychiatry to review the literature on relevant general health and mental health consequences of trafficking and propose an approach to the clinical complexities this case presents. In their discussion, the authors explicate the deleterious role of implicit bias and diagnostic overshadowing in trafficked patients with co-occurring addiction and mental illness. Finally, the authors propose a trauma-informed, multidisciplinary response to potentially trafficked patients.

  3. California's historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness: the Mental Health Services Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Wayne; Welch, Stephanie N; Berry, Sandra H; Collentine, Ann M; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L

    2013-05-01

    In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort.

  4. Living with a chronic illness - dealing with feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... art class, play an instrument, or listen to music. Call or spend time with a friend. Finding ... Larsen PD, ed. Lubkin's Chronic Illness: Impact and Intervention . 9th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; ...

  5. Disease Burden Among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness in a Community Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Kristin R; Bonfine, Natalie; Dugan, Sara E; Adams, Richard; Gallagher, Mary; Olds, R Scott; Piatt, Elizabeth; Ritter, Christian

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the prevalence of comorbid physical health conditions within a community sample of individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), compares them to a matched national sample without SMI, and identifies which comorbidities create the greatest disease burden for those with SMI. Self-reported health status, co-morbid medical conditions and perceived disease burden were collected from 203 adults with SMI. Prevalence of chronic health conditions was compared to a propensity-matched sample without SMI from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). Compared to NCS-R sample without SMI, our sample with SMI had a higher prevalence of seven out of nine categories of chronic health conditions. Chronic pain and headaches, as well as the number of chronic conditions, were associated with increased disease burden for individuals with SMI. Further investigation of possible interventions, including effective pain management, is needed to improve the health status of this population.

  6. Psychometric evaluation of the internalized stigma of mental illness scale for patients with mental illnesses: measurement invariance across time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale in a sample of patients with mental illness. In addition to the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity that previous studies have tested for the ISMI, we extended the evaluation to its construct validity and measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. METHODS: Three hundred forty-seven participants completed two questionnaires (i.e., the ISMI and the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale [DSSS], and 162 filled out the ISMI again after 50.23±31.18 days. RESULTS: The results of this study confirmed the frame structure of the ISMI; however, the Stigma Resistance subscale in the ISMI seemed weak. In addition, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were all satisfactory for all subscales and the total score of the ISMI, except for Stigma Resistance (α = 0.66; ICC = 0.52, and r = 0.02 to 0.06 with DSSS. Therefore, we hypothesize that Stigma Resistance is a new concept rather than a concept in internalized stigma. The acceptable fit indices supported the measurement invariance of the ISMI across time, and suggested that people with mental illness interpret the ISMI items the same at different times. CONCLUSION: The clinical implication of our finding is that clinicians, when they design interventions, may want to use the valid and reliable ISMI without the Stigma Resistance subscale to evaluate the internalized stigma of people with mental illness.

  7. Perspectives of Treatment Providers and Clients with Serious Mental Illness Regarding Effective Therapeutic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Alison; Pollock, Michele; Pope, Leah Gogel; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Smith, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the nature of clinical therapeutic relationships between mental health treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued treatment. Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 56 clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued care and 25 mental health treatment providers were completed. Both clients with serious mental illness and treatment providers emphasized the importance of client-focused goal setting, time and availability of treatment providers, a caring approach, and trust and honesty in the relationship. However, clients with serious mental illness placed greater emphasis on goals involving tangible services, a notable area of discord between the two groups. Individuals with serious mental illness and treatment providers agreed regarding several key elements to a positive clinical relationship. Further attention to client goals related to tangible services may serve to improve relationships between treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness.

  8. The Role of Mental Health Services in Addressing HIV Infection Among Women With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews how mental health services can best prevent and treat HIV infection among women with serious mental illness. This is a selective narrative review of the recent literature on mental health services and HIV. The author used the terms "HIV," "serious mental illness," and "women" to search Google Scholar. Out of 500 relevant papers retrieved, 82 were included, based on their state-of-the-art findings. Women with serious mental illness at risk of HIV were found to be an especially vulnerable group. The evidence suggests that discussion of the modes of viral transmission reduces the risk of infection in this population, as do psychoeducation; long-term antipsychotic medication; adherence therapy; community treatment orders; prevention of domestic violence and homelessness; disbursement of financial entitlements; provision of psychotherapy and social support; cognitive rehabilitation; promotion of abstinence, monogamy, or reduction in the number of sexual partners; access to and training in the use of condoms; prophylaxis with vaginal microbicides and oral antiretroviral drugs; prompt diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases; across-the-board offers of HIV testing; and preservation and monitoring of reproductive health. For HIV-positive individuals, comprehensive treatment measures have included prompt HIV treatment; long-term retention in care; supervision of medication adherence and drug interactions; rapid management of substance use disorders and all other comorbidities as well as drug side effects; and preclusion of professional stigmatization. There is now sufficient evidence to recommend effective combinations of strategies to prevent and treat HIV within mental health services.

  9. What do persons with mental illnesses need to quit smoking? Mental health consumer and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Chad D; Waxmonsky, Jeanette A; May, Mandy G; Giese, Alexis A

    2009-01-01

    Forty-one percent (41%) of persons in the U.S. who reported having recent mental illnesses also smoke cigarettes. Tobacco use among this population is associated with up to 25 less years of life and excess medical comorbidity compared to the general population. While research demonstrates that tobacco interventions can be effective for persons with mental illnesses, they are not commonly utilized in clinical practice. The current study explored how to adapt evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions to meet the unique physiological, psychological, and social challenges facing persons with mental illnesses. Ten focus groups were conducted utilizing a semi-structured discussion; 5 for adult mental health consumers (n = 62) and 5 with mental health clinicians and administrators (n = 22). Content analysis was used to organize themes into categories. Five thematic categories were found: (1) Barriers to treatment, (2) Resources and infrastructure, (3) Negative influences on smoking behavior, (4) Knowledge deficits, and (5) Treatment needs. These findings are instructive in developing appropriate tobacco cessation services for this population. Specifically, these data have been incorporated into a mental health provider toolkit for smoking cessation and have informed the development of a tobacco cessation intervention study.

  10. Serving severely mentally ill people in a major Canadian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, D A; Sladen-Dew, N; Russell, J S

    1994-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, GVMHS has been the single organization taking ultimate responsibility for the seriously mentally ill throughout the city. It uses central coordination coupled with community-based teams and partnership programs with other agencies to strike a useful balance between integration and flexibility. GVMHS's mission throughout that time has been to provide everyday community support, networking, case management, rehabilitation, and counseling services to as many seriously mentally ill persons with concomitant disabilities as possible. To carry out that mission, GVMHS has developed some innovative solutions for the problems of community support--problems such as psychiatric emergencies, crises, community demands for service outside the mandate, and workload management. GVMHS has also developed dual-diagnosis, multicultural, multiagency case coordination for the multiproblem client (Buckley and Bigelow, 1992), specialized family and child programs, and specialized geriatric programs. This has all been possible only because financial support is available on an ongoing basis at a level adequate to provide good, dependable services. GVMHS has been proven an effective service in a number of studies (Bigelow and Beiser, 1978; Beiser, Shore, Peters, and Tatum, 1985). It has also demonstrated good cost-efficiency (Bigelow and McFarland, 1989) and abundant innovation and adaptation to emerging challenges (Bigelow, McFarland, Russell, and Sladen-Dew, 1990). It has proven that dedicated, well-trained professionals working at the community level will work hard and smart and that an agency and its staff will stick to the mandate of serving people with serious mental illnesses and disabilities even under pressure to do otherwise. The intriguing thing is that this productivity is not driven by competition, incentives, or threat: none of these factors presses upon the Greater Vancouver Mental Health Services Society from without and none is built in. The

  11. Marriage as a perceived panacea to mental illness in India: Reality check

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Marriage is a consensual and contractual relationship recognized by law. In India, there is a tremendous social and cultural pressure to marry. It is of paramount importance to discuss the relationship between marriage and mental illness in Indian scenario as marriage is perceived to be a panacea to mental illness by many. This review aims to explore whether marriage contributes to mental-health problems; whether it has a protective role; what effect it has on pre-existing mental illnesses an...

  12. Illness perception in Polish patients with chronic diseases: Psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Banaszkiewicz, Dorota; Staśkiewicz, Izabela; Kopczyński, Piotr; Hajduk, Adam; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Ejdys, Mariola; Szostakiewicz, Małgorzata; Sablińska, Agnieszka; Kałużna, Anna; Tomaszewska, Magda; Siebert, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    The study evaluates the psychometric properties of a Polish translation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A total of 276 patients with chronic conditions (58.7% women) completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire measured with Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.74). Structural validity was demonstrated by significant inter-correlations between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire components. Discriminant validity was supported by the fact that the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire enables patients with various conditions to be differentiated. Significant correlations were found between Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and depression and anxiety levels. The Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire thus evaluated is a reliable and valid tool.

  13. Public stigma of mental illness in the United States: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2013-09-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.

  14. Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnilowicz, W

    2011-03-01

    Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient-healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity.

  15. Mental health provider perspectives regarding integrated medical care for patients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Greenwald, Devra E; Bauer, Mark S; Charns, Martin P; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2012-11-01

    Integrated care for medical conditions is essential for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). This qualitative study describes mental health provider perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators of integrated care for patients with SMI. We interviewed providers from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration facilities that scored in the top or bottom percentile in medical care quality. Providers from high-performing sites reported substantial in-person contacts with general medical providers, while providers from low-performing sites reported stigma and limited communication with medical providers as major concerns. Interventions to improve mental health and medical provider communication may facilitate integrated care for persons with SMI.

  16. Is the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale valid for use in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards the mentally ill? A confirmatory factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Roisin; Scott, Philomena Anne; Cocoman, Angela; Chambers, Mary; Guise, Veslemøy; Välimäki, Maritta; Clinton, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the construct validity of the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards mental illness and mental health patients. The harbouring of negative attitudes by nurses towards any patient can have implications for recovery. To gather robust evidence upon which to base information and education aimed at fostering acceptance, support and general positivity towards people with mental health illness, a valid and reliable system of data collection is required. A confirmatory factor analysis of both the original Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and two modified versions of the scale were carried out during May - June 2007 using a data set representing the responses of 858 European nurses to the scale. Data were subjected to three different confirmatory factor analyses using Maximum Likelihood estimation in the software package, Analysis of Moment Structures 7. A number of absolute, relative and incremental fit statistics were used to assess the fit of the original Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and two modified versions to the European nursing data. A modification of the scale was found to be most suitable for use in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards mental illness and people with mental illness. Further research is recommended to develop a valid and reliable research tool to specifically measure the attitudes of 'nurses' working across different mental healthcare facilities towards this vulnerable patient group. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. [Violence by and against people with mental illnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Tilman; Traub, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    There is robust evidence for an increased risk of violence through people with psychotic disorders. Until recently this was frequently denied to prevent stigmatization. Alcohol and drug abuse equally increases the risk, while appropriate treatment reduces it drastically. Staff in psychiatric hospitals is exposed to an elevated risk of aggressive assaults. A limited number of severely ill and socially disintegrated patients accounts for these incidents, which are often recurrent. Besides patient characteristics, factors such as ward climate, staffing levels, education and attitudes of staff, and physical environment play a major role in aggressive escalations. On the other hand, mentally ill people, particularly women, are themselves at a higher risk of becoming victims of violent and non-violent crime. This also applies after correction for variables such as social status and living environment. Additionally mentally ill people are confronted with violence in the form of coercive interventions legitimised by the state (involuntary admission, involuntary treatment, freedom-restrictive measures such as seclusion or manual/physical restraint). In contrast to other countries in Central and Western Europe, involuntary outpatient treatment has never been legalized in Germany. Efforts to reduce violence and coercion in psychiatric facilities by evidence-based interventions are widespread nowadays, treatment guidelines are available.

  18. Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

  19. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janki Shankar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals with mental illness want to return to work and stay in employment. Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce. The aim of the current research was to explore the challenges employers face and the support they need to hire and accommodate workers with mental illness (WWMI. A qualitative research design guided by a grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 employers selected from a wide range of industries in and around Edmonton, Canada. The employers were a mix of frontline managers, disability consultants, and human resource managers who had direct experience with hiring and supervising WWMI. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. The findings highlight several challenges that employers face when dealing with mental health issues of workers in the workplace. These challenges can act as barriers to hiring and accommodating WWMI.

  20. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Brien, Irene

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child\\'s siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. AIM: This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. METHOD: A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: \\'siblings\\

  1. Human rights violations among economically disadvantaged women with mental illness: An Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as "access to safe drinking water" (χ(2) = 8.994, P mentally ill in their community (χ(2) = 11.848, P disability allowance, housing and other social security for women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness.

  2. Undertreatment before the award of a disability pension for mental illness: the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Simon; Glozier, Nicholas; Krokstad, Steinar; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2007-11-01

    Mental illnesses are consistently underrecognized and undertreated, leading to underestimations of the societal burden of mental illness as a contributor to disability benefit expenditures. This study examined the extent of undertreatment before disability pensions for mental illness were awarded. Norwegian National Insurance Administration data were linked to data from the HUNT-2 study, a population-based health survey, and 403 persons awarded a disability pension for mental illness in the five years before the health survey were identified. The extent of help seeking for any mental illness before the pension was awarded was examined. Of the 403 adults who were pensioned out of the workforce for a disability involving mental illness, 128 (32%, 95% confidence interval=27%-36%) reported never having sought help for any mental health problem. Although self-report of receipt of treatment is a limitation of the study, the results suggest a potential for preventing permanent work-related disability through improved access to effective treatment.

  3. Mind-Body Approaches and Chronic Illness: Status of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Pliego, Jessica; Rae, William A.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of children experience chronic health issues that affect their academic and behavioral functioning, as well as psychological well-being. At the same time, psychological stress can exacerbate the chronic illness. The first line of treatment most often is medical (e.g., pharmacology, surgery, radiation). Even when the medical…

  4. Hypothalamic inflammation and food intake regulation during chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarkasing, J.T.; Marks, D.L.; Witkamp, R.F.; Norren, van K.

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom in chronic illness. It contributes to malnutrition and strongly affects survival and quality of life. A common denominator of many chronic diseases is an elevated inflammatory status, which is considered to play a pivotal role in the failure of food-intake regulating sys

  5. [Determinants of social participation and social inclusion of people with severe mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützwohl, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with mental disorders are known to be socially excluded so that improving social inclusion has become a major goal of healthcare provision. However, empirical research on specific determinants of social inclusion is rather scarce. A cross-sectional survey of adults with a severe mental illness (n =70) was conducted using a measure of participation and social inclusion for individuals with a chronic mental disorder (F-INK). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify determinants of social participation and social inclusion. Social participation increased with the number of friends and was, independently thereof, higher in adults living independently than in adults living in supported housing arrangements. The level of social inclusion was higher in those cohabitating and increased with duration of illness. Findings on social participation indicate the need for a re-organization of community-based supported housing arrangements, and, with respect to existing settings, an amendment of present conditions. To promote social inclusion, measures to prime a feeling of ongoing social affiliation should be taken during the first years of psychiatric illness.

  6. Marriage as a perceived panacea to mental illness in India: Reality check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Marriage is a consensual and contractual relationship recognized by law. In India, there is a tremendous social and cultural pressure to marry. It is of paramount importance to discuss the relationship between marriage and mental illness in Indian scenario as marriage is perceived to be a panacea to mental illness by many. This review aims to explore whether marriage contributes to mental-health problems; whether it has a protective role; what effect it has on pre-existing mental illnesses and its outcome in major mental illnesses.

  7. Mental illness and stigma: Has psychiatry done more harm than good?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Kanwar

    2015-01-01

    The result-for the mentally ill-could well be diminished access to social determinants of healthcare, employment, and housing. In addition, people with mental illnesses are exposed to numerous health risks such as malnutrition, drug abuse, violence and homelessness. Maybe this explains nondisclosure of illness in an increasingly degenerate civil society.

  8. Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry.

  9. Mental illness and Irish people: stereotypes, determinants and changing perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L

    1998-12-01

    The causes of psychological illness in Irish people have been identified with colonial rule and the catastrophic conditions deriving from famine in the nineteenth century. In particular, the scourge of unremitting emigration, resulting from famine, has formed a background against which speculative theories of inferiority, alienation and mental illness have been constructed. In particular, the long standing idea that Irish people exhibit higher rates of schizophrenia, both in Ireland and abroad, is discussed. Contemporary studies which suggest that these elevated rates do not correspond to international diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are introduced. Rather, these enhanced rates may reflect a malaise which resembles schizophrenia but which is really a product of historical dispossession. The importance of these factors is underscored by the previous neglect of Irish people, considered as an ethnic minority, as well as the particular distaste which many Irish people display towards such a notion.

  10. Sexual function of women with chronic illness and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Rosemary

    2010-05-01

    Addressing the sexual sequelae of chronic disease and its treatment is now accepted as a fundamental part of healthcare. Most of the sexual effects of chronic disease are negative, and ongoing illness continues to modulate a woman's sexual self-image, energy and interest in sexual activity, as well as her ability to respond to sexual stimuli with pleasurable sensations, excitement, orgasm and freedom from pain with genital stimulation or intercourse. Nevertheless, for many women with chronic illness, sexuality remains extremely important despite the commonly associated fatigue and acquired sexual dysfunctions; sexual resilience can be substantial. Following recovery from cancer surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, prognosis can be excellent and a return to full health can often be expected, and yet, there may have been devastating changes to sexual function owing to the cancer treatment. Women with metastatic disease may still treasure sexual intimacy. Assessment and management of sexual dysfunction is therefore necessary in all women with chronic illness or past or present cancer.

  11. Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The research…

  12. The Silent Parent: Developing Knowledge about the Experiences of Parents with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursnell, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the lived experiences of parents with mental illness in Australia. It draws on in-depth interviews with parents (n = 10) who have mental illness and provides an analysis of national mental health policies. The analysis of the parents' narratives is essential in building a picture for those involved in the issues associated with…

  13. The real mental illnesses: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema (1959-2013) in memoriam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2014-02-01

    Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's life work concerned rumination, gender differences in depression, and the "transdiagnostic" processes in mental illness. The articles in this special section expand on these themes. Her work on transdiagnostic processes leads us to consider that the real mental illnesses are not the congeries of symptoms in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, but these processes themselves.

  14. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  15. Breaking Down the Stigma of Mental Illness through an Adventure Camp: A Collaborative Education Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an outdoor adventure camp to help mental health consumers and nursing students explore the issues of mental health and illness through experiential and perceived risk challenges. Evaluation data reveals a breakdown in the stigma of mental illness as consumers and students came to know, trust, and count on each other in order to succeed…

  16. Guns, schools, and mental illness: potential concerns for physicians and mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2013-11-01

    Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public.

  17. Involuntary hospitalization of the mentally ill as a moral issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodoff, P

    1984-03-01

    Conflict exists between medical model and civil liberties approaches to involuntary hospitalization for mental illness. The amassing and analysis of data will not resolve this conflict because the two sides view the problem from differing moral vantage points. Medical model adherents are influenced chiefly by utilitarian or consequentialist considerations, while the civil libertarians take more of a deontological or absolutist position. Opinions about such issues as hospitalization criteria of dangerousness versus medical necessity and the relative role of rights versus obligations and of autonomy versus paternalism can be seen largely to depend on such underlying value judgments. Neither side has a monopoly on truth or right in the question of involuntary hospitalization.

  18. Setting the bar: athletes and vulnerability to mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Lynette; Leavey, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    Whereas physical sport activity is generally considered a health benefit, extreme exercise may be harmful. Of particular concern in this regard is the considerable variation between doctors in the primary care setting and those working within the sports setting around the diagnosis and treatment of athletes presenting with similar symptoms. Known risk factors for athletes are herein presented to raise awareness of the negative side of sport and to bring attention to the psychological outcomes and needs of athletes. The need for research into the incidence and aetiology of mental illness within elite level sport is also raised.

  19. Gender and violence against people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, Hind; Dean, Kimberlie

    2010-01-01

    Men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at significantly increased risk of violent victimisation, but the gender pattern for this has not been systematically examined. In the general population, men are at higher risk of overall and physical victimisation, whilst women are at increased risk of domestic and sexual violence. We re-examined published victimisation studies from a gender perspective, and found that, compared to the general population, women with SMI are at greater excess risk than men, leading to a narrowing in the 'gender gap'. We discuss theoretical explanations for this and implications for prevention and research.

  20. Treatment engagement of individuals experiencing mental illness: review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Lisa B; Holoshitz, Yael; Nossel, Ilana

    2016-02-01

    Individuals living with serious mental illness are often difficult to engage in ongoing treatment, with high dropout rates. Poor engagement may lead to worse clinical outcomes, with symptom relapse and rehospitalization. Numerous variables may affect level of treatment engagement, including therapeutic alliance, accessibility of care, and a client's trust that the treatment will address his/her own unique goals. As such, we have found that the concept of recovery-oriented care, which prioritizes autonomy, empowerment and respect for the person receiving services, is a helpful framework in which to view tools and techniques to enhance treatment engagement. Specifically, person-centered care, including shared decision making, is a treatment approach that focuses on an individual's unique goals and life circumstances. Use of person-centered care in mental health treatment models has promising outcomes for engagement. Particular populations of people have historically been difficult to engage, such as young adults experiencing a first episode of psychosis, individuals with coexisting psychotic and substance use disorders, and those who are homeless. We review these populations and outline how various evidence-based, recovery-oriented treatment techniques have been shown to enhance engagement. Our review then turns to emerging treatment strategies that may improve engagement. We focus on use of electronics and Internet, involvement of peer providers in mental health treatment, and incorporation of the Cultural Formulation Interview to provide culturally competent, person-centered care. Treatment engagement is complex and multifaceted, but optimizing recovery-oriented skills and attitudes is essential in delivery of services to those with serious mental illness.

  1. The MMPI-2 in chronic psychiatric illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Schenkwald, J.; Küppenbender, N.; Lim, S.; Egger, J.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2014-01-01

    While previous studies on the MMPI-2 in patients with schizophrenia and depression have used mixed samples of both early stage and chronic psychiatric patients. Here, it is investigated whether chronicity itself might have a differential effect on the MMPI-2 profiles of these patients and whether

  2. Benzodiazepine pathways in the chronically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hulten, Rolf; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Bakker, Albert; Leufkens, Hubert G.

    1999-01-01

    The association between patterns of use of benzodiazepines and chronic somatic morbidity was examined by applying the Chronic Disease Score (CDS). In the only pharmacy in a Dutch community, 6921 patients with data available covering a 10-year period (1983-1992) were included. In 1992, two-thirds of

  3. Using simulation to educate police about mental illness: A collaborative initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Stanyon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness is a major public health concern in Canada and also globally. According to the World Health Organization, five of the top ten disabilities worldwide are mental health disorders. Within Canada, one in five individuals is living with mental illness each year. Currently, there are 6.7 million Canadians living with mental illness and over 1 million Canadian youth living with mental illness. Police are frequently the first responders to situations in the community involving people with mental illness, and police services are increasingly aware of the need to provide officers with additional training and strategies for effectively interacting with these citizens. This study examined the effectiveness of four online, interactive video-based simulations designed to educate police officers about mental illness and strategies for interacting with people with mental illness. The simulations were created through the efforts of a unique partnership involving a police service, a mental health facility and two postsecondary institutions. Frontline police officers from Ontario were divided into one of three groups (simulation, face to face, control. Using a pre- and post-test questionnaire, the groups were compared on their level of knowledge and understanding of mental illness. In addition, focus groups explored the impact of the simulations on officers’ level of confidence in engaging with individuals with mental illness and officers’ perceptions of the simulations’ ease of use and level of realism. The study’s findings determined that the simulations were just as effective as face-to-face learning, and the officers reported the simulations were easy to use and reflected real-life scenarios they had encountered on the job. As mental health continues to be a major public concern, not only in Canada but also globally, interactive simulations may provide an effective and affordable education resource not only for police officers but for

  4. Experiencing community: perspectives of individuals diagnosed as having serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Gabrielian, Sonya; Brekke, Benjamin; Pahwa, Rohini; Daly, Kathleen A; Brekke, John S; Braslow, Joel T

    2013-07-01

    Community integration is recognized as a crucial component of recovery from serious mental illness. Although the construct of community integration can be measured with structured instruments, little is known about the subjective and experiential meaning of community and community involvement for persons with serious mental illness. In 2010, 30 individuals with serious mental illness treated in two public mental health clinics completed semistructured interviews that elicited the places and people that they associate with the experience of community and the larger meaning of community in their lives. Participants described four experiences as integral to their concepts of community: receiving help, minimizing risk, avoiding stigma, and giving back. Participants looked for communities that provide reliable support, and they described the need to manage community contact in order to protect themselves and others from their symptoms and from discrimination. Most participants experienced communities centered on mental health treatment or mentally ill peers as providing opportunities for positive engagement. The experience of having a serious mental illness shapes preferences for and perceptions of community in pervasive ways. Participants described community involvement not as a means to move away from illness experiences and identities but as a process that is substantially influenced by them. Mental health communities may help individuals with serious mental illness to both manage their illness and recognize and enjoy a sense of community. The findings indicate the need for further research on the relationship between community integration and outcome in serious mental illness.

  5. Problematizing health coaching for chronic illness self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lisa M; Ceci, Christine

    2013-09-01

    To address the growing costs associated with chronic illness care, many countries, both developed and developing, identify increased patient self-management or self-care as a focus of healthcare reform. Health coaching, an implementation strategy to support the shift to self-management, encourages patients to make lifestyle changes to improve the management of chronic illness. This practice differs from traditional models of health education because of the interactional dynamics between nurse and patient, and an orientation to care that ostensibly centres and empowers patients. The theoretical underpinnings of coaching reflect these differences, however in its application, the practices arranged around health coaching for chronic illness self-management reveal the social regulation and professional management of everyday life. This becomes especially problematic in contexts defined by economic constraint and government withdrawal from activities related to the 'care' of citizens. In this paper, we trace the development of health coaching as part of nursing practice and consider the implications of this practice as an emerging element of chronic illness self-management. Our purpose is to highlight health coaching as an approach intended to support patients with chronic illness and at the same time, problematize the tensions contained in (and by) this practice.

  6. Suggested avenues to reduce the stigma of mental illness in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewilam, Ahmed M; Watson, Annie M M; Kassem, Ahmed M; Clifton, Sue; McDonald, Margaret C; Lipski, Rebecca; Deshpande, Smita; Mansour, Hader; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2015-03-01

    Stigma toward mentally ill individuals acts as a barrier to accessing care and receiving treatment. To review current evidence pertaining to stigma toward mental illness in the Middle East in order to inform effective and sustainable interventions in this region. We conducted a systematic literature search using the PubMed database and evaluated all identified studies according to specific inclusion criteria. Stigma toward individuals with mental illness does exist in the Middle East. Stigmatizing attitudes are particularly high toward culturally proscribed mental illnesses like alcohol abuse and lower for other disorders such as depression and psychosis. We propose the following initiatives to reduce stigma toward mental illness in the Middle East: (a) educate families to enable them to support their affected relatives, (b) increase cooperation between psychiatrists and faith healers and (c) educate young people in schools to increase their awareness and understanding of mental illnesses and to combat negative stereotypes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Shared decision making in public mental health care: perspectives from consumers living with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltmann, Emily M; Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Most theoretical and empirical work regarding decision making in mental health suggests that mental health consumers have better outcomes when their preferences are integrated into quality of life decisions. A wealth of research, however, indicates that providers have difficulty predicting what their clients' priorities are. This study investigates consumer decision-making preferences and understanding of construction of decisions in community mental health. People living with severe mental illness being treated in the public mental health care system (N=16) participated in qualitative interviews regarding case management decision making as a part of a larger study investigating a decision support system to facilitate shared decision making. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and cross-case thematic analyses were conducted. Mental health consumers generally endorse a "shared" style of decision making. When asked what "shared" means, however, consumers describe a two-step process which first prioritizes autonomy, and if that is not possible, defers to case managers' judgment. Consumers also primarily focused on the relationship and affective components of decision making, rather than information-gathering or deliberating on options. Finally, when disagreements arose, consumers primarily indicated they handled them. Mental health consumers may have a different view of decision making than the literature on shared decision making suggests. Mental health consumers may consciously decide to at least verbally defer to their case managers, and remain silent about their preferences or wishes.

  8. VULNERABILITY AND JUST DESERT: A THEORY OF SENTENCING AND MENTAL ILLNESS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. LEA JOHNSTON

    2013-01-01

    .... Drawing upon social science research, the Article first establishes that offenders with serious mental illnesses are more likely than non-ill offenders to suffer physical and sexual assaults, endure...

  9. Health-seeking behaviour of mentally ill patients in Enugu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-01

    Mar 1, 2009 ... of disability throughout the world, 5 are psychiatric illnesses.2. According to the World ... Gender, educational status, attributing of the mental illness to a ... respondents, those with a high level of education, urban dwellers.

  10. Improving somatic health for outpatients with severe mental illness : the development of an intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, F.; Loonen, Antonius

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) suffer from more somatic illness than the general population. Possible causes are side effects of neuropsychiatric medication, genetic vulnerability, insufficient health care and lifestyle. This co-morbidity is potentially reversible and augments

  11. [Time in mental illness according to Nise da Silveira].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Jacileide; Saeki, Toyoko

    2007-01-01

    This research is about time at psychiatric hospitals. After a brief review of the literature on time and time at a psychiatric hospital, the author focused on psychiatry's approach and on studies by Nise da Silveira, a researcher who worked at the Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional do Engenho de Dentro, Rio de Janeiro (now named Centro Psiquiátrico Pedro II), where in 1946 she founded an Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation Division, which a patient named "the emotions coping room". Time of mental illness according to Nise is equal to the synthesis of time versus affection, with no considerations towards the sensitivities of scientific knowledge, but instead is a search for the real complexities of the human condition. Referring back on life and then suffering, Nise instead she considered affection as a sine qua non condition for the understanding of "difference" and "at the limit" referring to what the psychiatric jargon called " time and space disorientation ". Considering the trends of the adoption of new policies in psychiatric care in Brazil, an alternative for secluded time of mental illness is a contribution from Nise da Silveira as a dignifying survival measure in a time of psychosocial care.

  12. E-cigarette use among smokers with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith J Prochaska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined electronic cigarette (EC use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. METHODS: Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009-2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10 cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14 years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. FINDINGS: EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18-26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. INTERPRETATION: Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study.

  13. Schizophrenia and relationships: the effect of mental illness on sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östman, Margareta; Björkman, Ann-Christine

    2013-04-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the impact of mental illness on the sexuality of patients with a schizophrenic disorder who live in the community in a long-term relationship with a partner. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with five such patients who were in treatment at a psychiatric outpatient clinic, and three of their partners. The data were analyzed by thematic analysis and identified the following areas of concern: relationships outweigh sexuality; uncertainties about one’s sexual capacity; the dwindling of sexual fantasies, feelings of desire, and satisfaction; and, a lack of communication and support in sexual matters. Both patients and partners reported feeling overlooked by psychiatric services as sexual beings. They also expressed dissatisfaction with a patient-therapist treatment model that excluded their partners. Our findings indicate that dysfunctional sexuality affects both patients suffering from severe mental illness and their partners. Patients and partners deplore the lack of opportunity to discuss questions related to their sexuality and long-term relationships with psychiatric clinicians. Sexual problems arising from, or exacerbated by, schizophrenia require supportive services, whether in the form of general, psychiatric, or couples therapy.

  14. Social support and recovery in people with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Phelan, Sean M

    2004-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between objective and subjective measures of social support with recovery from serious mental illness; recovery has been described as both an outcome state and an ongoing process. One hundred and seventy six people with serious mental illness completed the Recovery Assessment Scale, a process measure of recovery that assessed, among other factors, personal confidence, goal orientation, and non-domination by symptoms. They also were administered the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, a semi-structured interview that assesses psychiatric symptom and represents recovery as an outcome. Finally, research participants completed the Social Network Scale, which assessed size of the overall network plus such important subnetworks as family, friends, and health professionals. The SNS also provided measures of the perceived satisfaction with, mutuality in, and obligation towards individuals in their support network. Results showed people with larger overall network size and more network satisfaction were likely to report higher factors on the Recovery Assessment Scale. For the most part, network size and satisfaction was not significantly associated with psychiatric symptoms. Implications of these findings for better understanding the association between social support and recovery are discussed.

  15. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a

  16. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Waqas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan.Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences.Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents. Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8% had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%. Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3% considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4% and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7% to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1% considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41% respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05.Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can

  17. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, JW; McGinty, EE; Fazel, S.; Mays, VM

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. METHODS: Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and ju...

  18. Skin disorders in chronic psychiatric illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E. J.; van de Kerkhof, P. C. M.; Hovens, J. E. J. M.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; Loonen, A. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic psychiatric patients are prone to develop skin diseases. However, epidemiological data are scarce. Objective To describe the prevalence of skin complaints and dermatological disorders in residential psychiatric patients. Methods Ninety-one randomly chosen patients of the

  19. The stigma of mental illness in Arab families: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, L A; Simmons, L A

    2015-11-01

    The stigma of mental illness varies significantly from culture to culture and from person to person. To date, little is known about how mental illness stigma manifests within the Arab community. This study aimed at bringing clarity to the concept of 'mental illness stigma' as it applies to Arab families. Nursing's holistic and patient-centered approach is integral to helping Arab patients and their families appropriately incorporate individual values, beliefs, and cultural perspectives into treatment plans. This study establishes a scientific alert for professionals at all levels to avoid making false generalizations about a specific culture that are not based on specific research findings from that culture. Accessing mental health services is a critical step towards reducing the burden of mental illness. The stigma of mental illness is one of the most common reasons for not seeking mental health care leading to negative health consequences and undue suffering for many individuals and their families. Stigma is embedded in its social context. What may be considered acceptable in one society may be considered unacceptable and open to stigmatization in other societies. Arabs have a shared set of values, beliefs, and traditions that are substantially different from those of Westerners. Further, in most Arab countries, formal mental health resources are scarce and people with mental illness experience the compounded disadvantages of poverty and illness stigma. To date, little is known about how mental illness stigma manifests within the Arab community making it difficult to design and test interventions that support Arab individuals with mental illness and their families in treatment seeking and adherence. Using Rodger's concept analysis method, we examined how 'mental illness stigma' operates within an Arab context as a first step towards elucidating culturally competent approaches to treatment. This analysis provides a foundation for future work in the areas of mental

  20. Facilitation of the mental health of couples in a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Cur. (Nursing Science) People play a major role in each other’s lives and this is because they rely on one another for survival. Many studies have been done on families and how they experience having persons challenged with mental illness but little has been done on couples and how they experience a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness or on the facilitation of the mental health of couples in a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness. The purpose of t...

  1. Facilitation of the mental health of couples in a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Cur. (Nursing Science) People play a major role in each other’s lives and this is because they rely on one another for survival. Many studies have been done on families and how they experience having persons challenged with mental illness but little has been done on couples and how they experience a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness or on the facilitation of the mental health of couples in a relationship where one is challenged with mental illness. The purpose of t...

  2. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; McGinty, E Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M

    2015-05-01

    This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms-related fatalities. Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitudes of Students at a US Medical School Toward Mental Illness and Its Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiles, Catherine; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Stigma among health care providers toward people with mental illness is a worldwide problem. This study at a large US university examined medical student attitudes toward mental illness and its causes, and whether student attitudes change as they progress in their education. An electronic questionnaire focusing on attitudes toward people with mental illness, causes of mental illness, and treatment efficacy was used to survey medical students at all levels of training. Exploratory factor analysis was used to establish attitudinal factors, and analysis of variance was used to identify differences in student attitudes among these factors. Independent-samples t tests were used to assess attitudes toward efficacy of treatments for six common psychiatric and medical conditions. The study response rate was 42.6 % (n = 289). Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors reflecting social acceptance of mental illness, belief in supernatural causes, and belief in biopsychosocial causes. Stages of student education did not differ across these factors. Students who had completed the psychiatry clerkship were more likely to believe that anxiety disorders and diabetes could be treated effectively. Students reporting personal experiences with mental illness showed significantly more social acceptance, and people born outside the USA were more likely to endorse supernatural causes of mental illness. Sociocultural influences and personal experience with mental illness have a greater effect than medical education on attitudes toward people with mental illness. Psychiatric education appears to have a small but significant effect on student attitudes regarding treatment efficacy.

  4. Return Migration among Elderly, Chronically Ill Bosnian Refugees: Does Health Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Neerup Handlos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from Denmark and the role of health issues in their decision to return. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 33 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have moved back to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 10 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have remained in Denmark. The interviews show that physical health, in the sense of the absence of illness and easy access to necessary health-care services and medicines, was not highly prioritized when the decision was made whether or not to return. However, if health is regarded more broadly as involving more than mere physical health and the absence of illness, health did matter. Viewed as physical, social and mental well-being in line with WHO’s definition of health, health was indeed one of the most important factors when the decision to return was made.

  5. Return Migration among Elderly, Chronically Ill Bosnian Refugees: Does Health Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie Louise

    2015-10-12

    Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from Denmark and the role of health issues in their decision to return. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 33 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have moved back to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 10 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have remained in Denmark. The interviews show that physical health, in the sense of the absence of illness and easy access to necessary health-care services and medicines, was not highly prioritized when the decision was made whether or not to return. However, if health is regarded more broadly as involving more than mere physical health and the absence of illness, health did matter. Viewed as physical, social and mental well-being in line with WHO's definition of health, health was indeed one of the most important factors when the decision to return was made.

  6. Understanding the impact of chronic childhood illness on families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbeth, B

    1984-02-01

    A great deal has been written about mothers and their relationships with their ill children. Fathers, however, have been relatively excluded from the research, as they have been from many pediatrician-mother-child interactions. Although it has been noted that some fathers tend to withdraw from the family, in fact very little is known about the impact of childhood illness on their lives. In general, studies of mothers, fathers, siblings, marriage, and families emphasize psychopathology and other psychosocial problems. Yet, there is a growing awareness in the social sciences that we have much to learn from the capacity to adjust. How is it that some families of chronically ill children survive so well? This question has not been addressed. Most studies focus on individual constituents of the family. Minuchin and others have taught us about aberrant family systems that sometimes develop around chronically ill children. Such systems are characterized by high cohesion and conformity, and the absence of apparent friction. How frequently do such systems develop? How can they be prevented? Finally, understanding the impact of chronic childhood illness on families is a difficult task. Parents have reasons for obscuring the impact, and particularly their distress, from the view of their pediatrician. Physicians are often uncertain how much understanding they ought to offer. Careful attention to the parent-pediatrician relationship is essential to a thorough understanding of the impact of childhood illness on the family.

  7. [Social representations and living conditions of the mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly in nursing homes.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorvil, H; Benoit, M

    1999-01-01

    The aging of the population in Québec as in the rest of the western world, brings to the fore people who until now were greatly marginalized. This is the case of mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly who until recently, lived their aging in the shadow of psychiatric institutions. Have these people now found with deinstitutionalization, the possibility of growing old within society ? This article analyses the conditions of integration and support networks, in sum a collective responsability of these aging people in nursing homes.

  8. Chronic stress, cognitive functioning and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Marie-France; Lord, Catherine; Andrews, Julie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sindi, Shireen; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Lupien, Sonia J

    2011-11-01

    This review aims to discuss the evidence supporting the link between chronic stress, cognitive function and mental health. Over the years, the associations between these concepts have been investigated in different populations. This review summarizes the findings that have emerged from older populations as well as from populations suffering from pathological aging, namely Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Although older adults are an interesting population to study in terms of chronic stress, other stress-related diseases can occur throughout the lifespan. The second section covers some of these stress-related diseases that have recently received a great deal of attention, namely burnout, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Given that chronic stress contributes to the development of certain pathologies by accelerating and/or exacerbating pre-existing vulnerabilities that vary from one individual to the other, the final section summarizes data obtained on potential variables contributing to the association between chronic stress and cognition.

  9. Concept analysis of recovery in mental illness in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, C O; McKenna, H P; Keeney, S; McLaughlin, D F

    2015-10-01

    Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts. Rodgers's (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery's conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. This analysis has revealed the derivation of the term recovery does not convey its identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatization, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection. The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Computational Psychiatry: towards a mathematically informed understanding of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rick A; Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency ('helplessness'), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods.

  11. Knowledge of mental illnesses: Two studies using a new test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Gee, Marcus; Weis, Laura

    2016-10-30

    While the benefits of public knowledge of physical diseases are widely recognised, knowledge about mental disorders (mental health literacy, MHL) has received much less attention. This paper reports on two studies using the new Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illness Test (MC-KOMIT), a 33 item test of MHL (Compton et al., 2011). In Study 1, we examined cross-cultural associations between country of origin and their MHL in an online sample of 250 adults. In line with previous findings, we demonstrate that British and American participants outperform respondents from India. Furthermore, males showed significantly lower MHL, but - contrary to expectations - age did not have a significant impact. Study 2 was conducted to validate and extend findings of study 1 concerning the impact of demographics and individual difference factors on MHL. Results of the second study, using American participants are consistent with findings of study 1. In addition we show that while religious beliefs may reduce MHL, higher levels of education and self-confidence are associated with higher levels of MHL.

  12. The contribution of exercise and sport to mental health promotion in serious mental illness: An interpretative project

    OpenAIRE

    Carless, D; Douglas, K

    2008-01-01

    In this article we synthesise the findings of previous research to explore the question: How can exercise and sport contribute to mental health promotion in the context of serious mental illness? We used an interpretive approach to gain insights into the sport and exercise experiences of 11 men with serious mental illness. Data were gathered through interviews and participant observation, and analysed through a content analysis and a narrative analysis of structure and form. These analyses su...

  13. Florence Nightingale: her Crimean fever and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale's Crimean fever and chronic illness have intrigued historians for more than a century and a half. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to discuss the facts that point to the cause of Nightingale's Crimean fever as brucellosis, (b) to show that her debilitating illness for 32 years (1855-1887) was compatible with the specific form of chronic brucellosis, and (c) to present new evidence that she was still having severe symptoms in December 1887, when it was previously felt that she had no severe symptoms after 1870.

  14. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, H.; Zamzam, R; Midin, M; Cohen, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours...

  15. Impact of a population-wide mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or recent mental health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Rob; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Robinson, Katy; Lin, Chad

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or who had sought professional help for a mental health problem in the previous 12 months. In 2013 and 2014, 1,200 adults in Western Australia were interviewed by telephone. The questionnaire measured campaign reach, impact on beliefs about mental health and mental illness and behavioural impact. Campaign impact on changing the way respondents thought about mental health was significantly higher among those with a mental illness or who had sought help (41.4% vs 24.2%; pmental health as a result of their exposure to the campaign (20.5% vs 8.7%; pmental illness or who recently sought help to take steps of their own to enhance their mental health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Carers of Mentally Ill People in Queensland: Their Perceived Relationships with Professional Mental Health Service Providers: Report on a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Orme; King, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationships of caregivers of mentally ill people with professional mental health providers since the introduction of community-based services. Respondents perceived mental health workers to be professional, friendly, respectful and positive in outlook. However they indicated dissatisfaction with accessibility, communication about…

  17. Impact of work experience placements on school students' attitude towards mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Vanathi; Belgamwar, Ravindra B

    2014-08-01

    Aims and method Research shows that 16- to 19-year-olds express the greatest level of negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of work experience placements in influencing secondary-school students' attitudes towards mental illness and career choices. The Adolescent Attitude Towards Mental Illness questionnaire measured and assessed the adolescents' attitude changes. Pre- and post-evaluation questionnaires assessed changes in their career choices. Results There was a statistically significant change in the adolescents' attitudes, especially regarding categorical thinking and perceptions that people with mental illness are violent and out of control. There was also a positive shift in their career choices towards options in the field of mental health. Clinical implications Work experience placements can have a positive impact on secondary-school students' attitudes towards mental illness and may improve the level of student recruitment into the field of psychiatry.

  18. Aggressive Children With Mental Illness: A Conceptual Model of Family-Level Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Karyn

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this research was to examine how families adapt and respond to an aggressive child with mental illness. This article presents findings from a qualitative study of four families, which were selected as typifying the experiences of a larger sample of 14 families; each family included a child with mental illness and a history of violent behavior. The analysis revealed a five-stage pattern in how families perceived and responded to victimization and their child or sibling's mental illness. The study suggests that families with a violent child with mental illness and other healthy children cannot live through episodes of violence without removing the child with mental illness from the home or suffering considerable damage to the family. The article concludes with recommendations for mental health practitioners and family intervention specialists.

  19. Perceptions of mental illness in Mexico: a descriptive study in the city of Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, F

    1987-01-01

    This work is a study of perceptions toward mental illness among respondents from the city of Chihuahua in Mexico. A non-probability sample of forty-seven respondents was taken during a two-week stay in the summer of 1985. To tap respondents' perceptions of mental illness, vignettes characterizing people normally thought to have symptoms of mental illness were employed. The study reveals that men and women perceive mental illness differently. In three out of four vignettes, women perceive mental disorder than men. It is argued that the reason for the disparity in perceptions between the sexes is the result of the sexual differentiation that exists in Mexico. With regard to whom the respondents would refer the person for help, the majority of the respondents recommended that, whether or not the person in the vignette is characterized as mentally ill or simply "sick", the person should seek professional help.

  20. Self-regulatory fatigue in chronic multisymptom illnesses: scale development, fatigue, and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nes, Lise Solberg; Ehlers, Shawna L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulatory capacity involves ability to regulate thoughts, emotions, and behavior. Chronic multisymptom illnesses such as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome are accompanied by numerous challenges, and have recently been associated with self-regulatory fatigue (SRF). Chronic multisymptom illnesses are also frequently associated with physical fatigue, and through development of a scale measuring SRF, the current study aimed to examine how SRF can be distinguished from physical fatigue. The study also sought to distinguish SRF from self-control. Two self-regulation researchers developed 30 items related to self-regulatory capacity. These items were distributed to patients (n = 296) diagnosed with chronic multisymptom illness together with validated measures of physical fatigue and self-control. A principal factor analysis was employed to examine factor structures, identify inter-item relationships, and aid in scale development. The final proposed scale consisted of 18 items measuring self-regulatory capacity (SRF-18) with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral SRF components. Internal consistency and reliability was acceptable (Cronbach's á = 0.81). The final scale was moderately correlated with self-control (r = -0.48) and highly correlated with physical fatigue (r = 0.75), although more so with emotional (r = 0.72) and mental (r = 0.65) than physical (r = 0.46) fatigue components. The current study suggests a new scale for measurement of SRF in chronic multisymptom illness. Although cross-validation studies are necessary, such a scale may contribute to a better understanding of the concept of self-regulation and the role of SRF in chronic illness. Although related to physical fatigue and self-control, the results point to SRF as a distinct construct.

  1. Care for patients with severe mental illness: the general practitioner's role perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenier Klaas H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with severe mental illness (SMI experience distress and disabilities in several aspects of life, and they have a higher risk of somatic co-morbidity. Both patients and their family members need the support of an easily accessible primary care system. The willingness of general practitioners and the impeding factors for them to participate in providing care for patients with severe mental illness in the acute and the chronic or residual phase were explored. Methods A questionnaire survey of a sample of Dutch general practitioners spread over the Netherlands was carried out. This comprised 20 questions on the GP's 'Opinion and Task Perspective', 19 questions on 'Treatment and Experiences', and 27 questions on 'Characteristics of the General Practitioner and the Practice Organisation'. Results 186 general practitioners distributed over urban areas (49%, urbanised rural areas (38% and rural areas (15% of the Netherlands participated. The findings were as follows: GPs currently considered themselves as the first contact in the acute psychotic phase. In the chronic or residual phase GPs saw their core task as to diagnose and treat somatic co-morbidity. A majority would be willing to monitor the general health of these patients as well. It appeared that GP trainers and GPs with a smaller practice setting made follow-up appointments and were willing to monitor the self-care of patients with SMI more often than GPs with larger practices. GPs also saw their role as giving support and information to the patient's family. However, they felt a need for recognition of their competencies when working with mental health care specialists. Conclusion GPs were willing to participate in providing care for patients with SMI. They considered themselves responsible for psychotic emergency cases, for monitoring physical health in the chronic phase, and for supporting the relatives of psychotic patients.

  2. Access to dental care and dental ill-health of people with serious mental illness: views of nurses working in mental health settings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David; Hanley, Christine

    2015-01-01

    People with serious mental illness experience higher rates of oral and dental health problems than the wider population. Little is known about how dental health is viewed or addressed by nurses working with mental health consumers. This paper presents the views of nurses regarding the nature and severity of dental health problems of consumers with serious mental illness, and how often they provide advice on dental health. Mental health sector nurses (n=643) completed an online survey, including questions on dental and oral health issues of people with serious mental illness. The majority of nurses considered the oral and dental conditions of people with serious mental illness to be worse than the wider community. When compared with a range of significant physical health issues (e.g. cardiovascular disease), many nurses emphasised that dental and oral problems are one of the most salient health issues facing people with serious mental illness, their level of access to dental care services is severely inadequate and they suffer significantly worse dental health outcomes as a result. This study highlights the need for reforms to increase access to dental and oral health care for mental health consumers.

  3. Attitude about mental illness of health care providers and community leaders in rural Haryana, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Ramesh Salve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attitude about mental illness determines health seeking of the people. Success of National Mental Health Programme (NMHP is dependent on attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders in the programme. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district in Haryana. We aimed to study attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders of health care providers (HCP, community leaders in rural area of Haryana, north India. Study area consisting of five Primary Health Centers (PHCs serving 2,12,000 rural population. All HCP working at PHCs, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and community leaders in study area were approached for participation. Hindi version of Opinion about Mental illness Scale for Chinese Community (OMICC was used to study attitude. Results: In total, 467 participants were participated in the study. Of which, HCP, ASHAs and community leaders were 81 (17.4%, 145 (31.0% and 241 (51.6% respectively. Community members reported socially restrictive, pessimistic and stereotyping attitude towards mentally ill person. ASHA and HCP reported stereotyping attitude about person with mental illness. None of the stakeholders reported stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion: Training programme focusing on spectrum of mental illness for HCP and ASHA working in rural area under NMHP programme is needed. Awareness generation of community leaders about bio-medical concept of mental illness is cornerstone of NMHP success in India.

  4. Information Technology to Support Improved Care For Chronic Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Alexander S.; Chaney, Edmund; Shoai, Rebecca; Bonner, Laura; Cohen, Amy N.; Doebbeling, Brad; Dorr, David; Goldstein, Mary K.; Kerr, Eve; Nichol, Paul; Perrin, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Background In populations with chronic illness, outcomes improve with the use of care models that integrate clinical information, evidence-based treatments, and proactive management of care. Health information technology is believed to be critical for efficient implementation of these chronic care models. Health care organizations have implemented information technologies, such as electronic medical records, to varying degrees. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the relative ...

  5. Complementary and alternative medical therapy utilization by people with chronic fatiguing illnesses in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ann-Britt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatiguing illnesses, including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Previous clinical reports addressed the utilization of health care provided to patients with CFS by a variety of practitioners with other than allopathic training, but did not examine the spectrum of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies used. This study was designed to measure CAM therapy use by persons with fatiguing illnesses in the United States population. Methods During a random-digit dialing survey to estimate the prevalence of CFS-like illness in urban and rural populations from different geographic regions of the United States, we queried the utilization of CAM including manipulation or body-based therapies, alternative medical systems, mind-body, biologically-based, and energy modalities. Results Four hundred forty fatigued and 444 non-fatigued persons from 2,728 households completed screening. Fatigued subjects included 53 persons with prolonged fatigue, 338 with chronic fatigue, and 49 with CFS-like illness. Mind-body therapy (primarily personal prayer and prayer by others was the most frequently used CAM across all groups. Among women, there was a significant trend of increasing overall CAM use across all subgroups (p-trend = 0.003. All categories of CAM use were associated with significantly poorer physical health scores, and all but one (alternative medicine systems were associated with significantly poorer mental health scores. People with CFS-like illness were significantly more likely to use body-based therapy (chiropractic and massage than non-fatigued participants (OR = 2.52, CI = 1.32, 4.82. Use of body-based therapies increased significantly in a linear trend across subgroups of non-fatigued, prolonged fatigued, chronic fatigued, and CFS-like subjects (p-trend = 0.002. People with chronic fatigue were also significantly more likely to use body-based therapy (OR = 1.52, CI = 1

  6. Economic hardship associated with managing chronic illness: a qualitative inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stephen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic illness and disability can have damaging, even catastrophic, socioeconomic effects on individuals and their households. We examined the experiences of people affected by chronic heart failure, complicated diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to inform patient centred policy development. This paper provides a first level, qualitative understanding of the economic impact of chronic illness. Methods Interviews were conducted with patients aged between 45 and 85 years who had one or more of the index conditions and family carers from the Australian Capital Territory and Western Sydney, Australia (n = 66. Content analysis guided the interpretation of data. Results The affordability of medical treatments and care required to manage illness were identified as the key aspects of economic hardship, which compromised patients' capacity to proactively engage in self-management and risk reduction behaviours. Factors exacerbating hardship included ineligibility for government support, co-morbidity, health service flexibility, and health literacy. Participants who were on multiple medications, from culturally and linguistically diverse or Indigenous backgrounds, and/or not in paid employment, experienced economic hardship more harshly and their management of chronic illness was jeopardised as a consequence. Economic hardship was felt among not only those ineligible for government financial supports but also those receiving subsidies that were insufficient to meet the costs of managing long-term illness over and above necessary daily living expenses. Conclusion This research provides insights into the economic stressors associated with managing chronic illness, demonstrating that economic hardship requires households to make difficult decisions between care and basic living expenses. These decisions may cause less than optimal health outcomes and increased costs to the health system. The findings support the necessity

  7. The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

    2013-03-01

    The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness.

  8. Older men and older women remand prisoners: mental illness, physical illness, offending patterns and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Mary; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Caddow, Fintan; Caddow, Martin; O'Neill, Conor; O'Neill, Helen; Kennedy, Harry G

    2015-05-01

    Older prisoners are the fastest growing group of prisoners in most countries. They have high rates of physical and psychiatric co-morbidity, compared to community dwelling older persons and also compared with other prisoner groups. Very high rates of mental illness have been found in remand (pre-trial) prisoners when compared with other prisoner groups; however to date there have been no studies examining older male and female remand prisoners. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all remands, to a male and a female prison, over a six and half-year period. Demographic data were collected pertaining to psychiatric and medical diagnoses and seriousness of offending. We found rising numbers of older prisoners amongst male remand prisoners. Older remand prisoners had very high rates of affective disorder and alcohol misuse. They had rates of psychotic illnesses and deliberate self-harm comparable to younger remand prisoners. High rates of vulnerability were found among older prisoners and older prisoners had a greater need for general medical and psychiatric services than younger prisoners. We also found comparable offending patterns with younger prisoners and high rates of sexual offending among the older male prisoner group. Given the ageing population of many countries it is likely the numbers of older prisoners will continue to grow and given their high levels of both physical and psychiatric illness this will have implications for future service delivery.

  9. Narrative processing of entertainment media and mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Nicole Mossing; Rouner, Donna

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the narrative effects of familiarity, transportation, whether a story is factual or fiction, and perceived realism on the stigmatizing behavior of social distancing behavior. A sample of N = 137 participants watched a commercial movie about mental illness. Genre was manipulated to determine whether fiction or nonfiction impacted social distancing behavior. Although there was no effect of the genre manipulation, transportation was found to have a relationship with social distancing, with the more relevant the participants found the story, the lower they demonstrated social distancing behavior. How much participants identified with the main character was found to have a partial mediating effect between perceived story relevance and social distancing behavior.

  10. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gelkopf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

  11. Violence and mental illness: what Lewis Carroll had to say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E Fuller; Miller, Judy

    2014-12-01

    In 1873 Skeffington Lutwidge, a Lunacy Commission inspector of asylums in England, was killed by an asylum patient. Lutwidge was the uncle and close friend of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, also known as Lewis Carroll. One year later, Carroll began writing The Hunting of the Snark, a poem whose meaning has mystified Carroll enthusiasts. In fact, the poem is a description of the Lunacy Commission inspection team and reflects Carroll's personal understanding of, and reaction to, the killing of his uncle by an individual with a severe mental illness. Carroll's close relationship with his uncle also explains the prominence of psychotic thinking in Carroll's work, including the Mad Hatter's tea party. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  14. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions.

  15. Cultural diversity in physical diseases among patients with mental illnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens I; Andersen, Ulla A; Becker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in accordance with ICD-10 were also registered. Psychiatric and physical comorbidity were calculated and standardized rate ratio incidences of background populations were our primary measures.Results:Incidence rate ratios were increased for both CVD, DM and overweight in both F2 and F3 in all cultures (Western...... in background populations was seen and was most marked in overweight.Conclusions:Overweight, CVD and DM were increased in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders in all three cultures investigated (Western Europe, Nigeria and Japan). Lifestyle diseases were also seen in Nigeria and Japan....... The results from this study indicate that cultural background might be seen as an important factor in dealing with lifestyle diseases among people with a severe mental illness, as it is in the general population....

  16. How to Respect the Will of Mentally Ill Persons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theda Rehbock

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article I oppose the current account of autonomy and informed consent in bioethics through criticising the four underlying prejudices of an objectivistic, dualistic, rationalistic and individualistic misunderstanding of the will. With special regard to the case of patients with dementia I argue for the thesis that the principle of autonomy, as moral principles in general, has unconditional and universal validity, but has to be applied differently in the face of specific situations and circumstances by means of the power of judgment (Urteilskraft. As the philosophical resp. anthropological basis of my argument I develop a broad understanding of the will in an Aristotelian and phenomenological sense. The practical consequences of my thesis consist in the ethical requirement of equal respect for the will of mentally ill patients.

  17. Violence and mental illness: a new analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidz, Charles W; Banks, Steven; Simon, Lorna; Schubert, Carol; Mulvey, Edward P

    2007-02-01

    Empirical studies of violence and mental illness have used many different methods. Current state-of-the-art methods gather information from both subject and collateral interviews as well as official records. Typically these sources are treated as additive. Any report of a violent incident from any source is treated as true and all reported incidents are added to generate estimates of frequency. This paper presents a new statistical technique that uses the level of agreement between the sources of data to adjust those estimates. The evidence suggests that, although the additive technique for using multiple sources correctly estimates how many people are involved, it substantially underestimates the number of incidents. The new technique substantially reduces both false negatives and false positives.

  18. Homelessness, mental illness, and criminal activity: examining patterns over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sean N; Shinn, Marybeth; Shrout, Patrick; Tsemberis, Sam

    2008-12-01

    This study examined whether street homelessness, sheltered homelessness, and the severity of psychological symptoms predicted non-violent and violent crime among 207 mentally ill participants who were homeless at baseline. Participants were interviewed at 9 time points over 4 years. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine whether changes in homelessness status and symptom severity predicted changes in criminal activity over time. Results indicated that homelessness both on the streets and in shelters and psychological symptom severity predicted increases in non-violent crime. Sheltered homelessness and symptom severity predicted increases in violent crime, although street homelessness did not. A separate mediational analysis with 181 participants showed that the relationship between diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and both non-violent and violent criminal activity was partially mediated through the severity of psychotic symptoms. Implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  19. Promoting Nature-Based Activity for People With Mental Illness Through the US "Exercise Is Medicine" Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Julie; Jette, Shannon

    2016-05-01

    Nature-based physical activity programming (e.g., countryside walks, hiking, horseback riding) has been found to be an effective way to help improve the health of people with mental illness. Exercise referral initiatives, whereby health practitioners prescribe exercise in an attempt to prevent or treat chronic illnesses, have helped make such nature-based activities accessible to this population in the United Kingdom and Australia; however, there is a dearth of research related to the most prominent exercise referral program in the United States: Exercise is Medicine. Taking into account the barriers to physical activity faced by people with mental illness, we explore how nature-based programming for this population might be mobilized in the United States through the growing Exercise is Medicine initiative.

  20. School Psychologists' Role Concerning Children with Chronic Illnesses in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Camille; Machek, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the role of school psychologists in working with children with chronic illnesses in the schools. A total of 300 practicing school psychologists in public schools, drawn from the National Association of School Psychologists membership directory, completed a standard mail survey. The survey solicited information on (a) graduate…

  1. Return Migration among Elderly, Chronically Ill Bosnian Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from...

  2. Supporting the Learning of Children with Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Bear, David

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the challenges that chronically ill students face in their learning as a result of prolonged and intermittent absences from school. It shows how the use of iPod technology as a communicative link minimized the impact of absences and allowed the student to experience true inclusion in their classroom, enabling the…

  3. Stigma associated with mental illness: perspectives of university students in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolezzi, Monica; Bensmail, Nawal; Zahrah, Farah; Khaled, Salma Mawfek; El-Gaili, Tayseer

    2017-01-01

    Background Stigma in relation to mental illness is one of the main factors inhibiting people from seeking help. Studies have been undertaken looking into the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) about mental illness among residents in Qatar; however, none have looked specifically at students in higher education. The aim of this study was to understand the KAB toward mental illness among students at a Qatari university and determine if there are any differences based on gender, nationality, and college type. Methods A convenience sample of students from all genders, colleges, and nationalities was approached to participate in a survey that consisted of four sections: demographic, beliefs, attitudes, and help-seeking and treatment preferences associated with mental illness. Chi-square testing was performed to test for differences in the distribution of proportions of our primary outcomes (students’ beliefs, attitudes, and help-seeking and treatment preferences). Results A total of 282 students completed the survey. The majority of the participating students were females (59.3%), non-Qataris (64.3%), and enrolled in science-based colleges (62.7%). Beliefs reflecting poor mental health literacy, such as “medications to treat mental illness can cause addiction”, “mental illness is not like any other illness”, or that “mental illness is a punishment from God”, were reported by a majority of students (84.4%, 56.7%, and 50.2%, respectively). Stigmatizing attitudes that were endorsed by a majority of students included believing that people with mental illness cannot have regular jobs (60.2%), that people with mental illness are dangerous (65.7%), and that they would not marry someone with a mental illness (88.9%). Additionally, 33.6% of students indicated they would be ashamed to mention if someone in their family or they themself, had a mental illness. A vast majority of students (86.3%) indicated to prefer family and friend’s support as treatment

  4. The role of illness perceptions in labour participation of the chronically ill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.R.L.; Heijmans, M.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Rijken, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations between work disability and illness perceptions, over and above medical assessment and self-reported health. METHODS: A representative sample of people aged 15-64 years with various chronic physical diseases was derived from the Panel of Patients with

  5. 老年慢性病患者抑郁、焦虑障碍认知情况及与身心疾病识别的相关性研究%Correlation between cognition of depression and anxiety and recognition of physical and mental illness in hospitalized elderly patients with chronic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦阳; 宋颖; 赵岳; 戴必兵

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查老年慢性病住院患者对抑郁和焦虑障碍的认知情况、对慢性躯体性疾病和心理疾病的识别情况,并分析两者的相关性,为老年慢性病住院患者常规进行抑郁和焦虑心理评估提供理论依据。方法采用横断面研究的方法,以简易精神状态检查量表(MMSE)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)以及老年慢性病患者调查问卷作为测量工具对某三甲医院的206例老年慢性病住院患者进行调查。结果老年慢性病住院患者对抑郁认知总水平得分为(5.95±3.05)分,焦虑认知总水平得分(4.92±3.20)分,对慢性病判断正确率为(97±8)%,对心理疾病判断正确率仅为(47±29)%。抑郁认知总分和心境、思维、精神3个维度与对心理疾病的识别呈正相关(P <0.01);对焦虑认知总分和情绪、其他症状两个维度与对心理疾病的识别呈正相关(P <0.01),而抑郁、焦虑认知中躯体维度与对心理疾病判断正确情况无显著相关性(P >0.05)。结论老年慢性病住院患者抑郁、焦虑认知水平低,且对以躯体症状为主要表现的抑郁、焦虑障碍识别能力低,将心理疾病误认为是慢性躯体性疾病,严重影响疾病的治疗和预后。因此,护士应为老年慢性病患者常规进行抑郁、焦虑心理健康评估,早期识别心理健康问题,避免延误心理干预和治疗的最佳时间。%Objective To investigate the cognition of depression and anxiety and recognition of physical and mental illness,and analyze their correlation in hospitalized elderly patients with chronic diseases. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed.A total of 206 hospitalized elderly patients with chronic diseases from a hospital were investigated using mini mental state examination (MMSE),Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD),self rating anxiety scale (SAS

  6. Disability income support design and mental illnesses: a review of Australia and Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Ashley; Hackett, Maree L; Leeder, Stephen R

    2017-04-27

    Mental illnesses have many distinctive features that make determining eligibility for disability income support challenging - for example, their fluctuating nature, invisibility and lack of diagnostic clarity. How do policy makers deal with these features when designing disability income support? More specifically, how do mental illnesses come to be considered eligible disabilities, what tools are used to assess mental illnesses for eligibility, what challenges exist in this process, and what approaches are used to address these challenges? We aimed to determine what evidence is available to policy makers in Australia and Ontario, Canada, to answer these questions. Ten electronic databases and grey literature in both jurisdictions were searched using key words, including disability income support, disability pension, mental illness, mental disability, addiction, depression and schizophrenia, for articles published between 1991 and June 2013. This yielded 1341 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. Limited evidence is available on disability income support design and mental illnesses in the Australian and Ontarian settings. Most of the evidence is from the grey literature and draws on case law. Many documents reviewed argued that current policy in Australia and Ontario is frequently based on negative assumptions about mental illnesses rather than evidence (either peer reviewed or in the grey literature). Problems relating to mental illnesses largely relate to interpretation of the definition of mental illness rather than the definition itself. The review confirmed that mental illnesses present many challenges when designing disability income support and that academic as well as grey literature, especially case law, provides insight into these challenges. More research is needed to address these challenges, and more evidence could lead to policies for those with mental illnesses that are well informed and do not reinforce

  7. A comparative study of attitude to mental illness between journalists and nurses in Uyo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasiubong, F; Ekott, J U; Bassey, E A

    2007-12-01

    The pernicious attitudes to mental illness often result from ignorance and enduring sociocultural prejudices. The endless negative depiction of mentally ill persons by the society is responsible for poor mental health services and care, thus the increasing number of persons with mental illness roaming the streets in our environment. The objectives of the study were: First to assess the attitude of the Journalists to mental illness. Secondly to compare the journalists' attitudes with that of the Nurses. Two hundred and fifty Journalists in Uyo were randomly assessed for attitudes to mental illness, using Taylor and Dear Inventory of Community Attitude to mental illness. This was compared with Nurses from Health Centers in Uyo. Data from 210 (84.0%) Journalists and 154 (85.6%) Nurses were analyzed, 40 (16.0%) of Journalists and 26 (14.4%) of Nurses were excluded due to incomplete information. The mean age of the two groups was 39.4 +/- 8.3 and 34.4 +/- 7.6 years respectively. The difference in the mean was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Responses were similar in the two groups. Negative opinions were prevalent among the respondents in the region of over 70% among Journalist and 60% in Nurses in most cases. Except marrying people with mental illness, other responses were statistically significant. There is a widespread negative attitude to mental illness among Journalists and this is a reflection of the general population. The media is the primary source of public information. Therefore, accurate and positive portrayal of mental illness on both electronic and printing media may be necessary to sensitize the public so as to improve the negative cultural environment surrounding persons with mental illness.

  8. Unfinished Business: Student Perspectives on Disclosure of Mental Illness and Success in VET. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Of all the different types of disability, mental illness can be particularly disruptive to education and training outcomes. In this report, the authors explore the factors contributing to successful course completion for students with a mental illness. The authors especially focus on the role of disclosure and the reasons why students choose to…

  9. Maternal Mental Illness and the Safety and Stability of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…

  10. Exploring the role of Islam in perceptions of mental illness in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental illness is influenced by their religion and culture. Furthermore, all ... a sample of Muslim psychiatrists based in Johannesburg. T Bulbulia .... management of mental illness. Conclusion ... Malaysia: Islamic Medical Association of Malaysia N. Sembilan, 2003. 5. Okasha ... Ethnic,cultural, and religious issues. In: Dulcan ...

  11. Exploring the Present and Projecting the Future: People with Severe Mental Illness Speaking for Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Montserrat; Pallisera, Maria; Fullana, Judit

    2016-01-01

    The participation of people with mental illness in research is key to their empowerment and provides them with a highly meaningful experience. The aim of this article was to explore the perspectives, views and experiences of people with severe mental illness (SMI) regarding their present life and projection of the future (desires, expectations…

  12. Exploring the Present and Projecting the Future: People with Severe Mental Illness Speaking for Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Montserrat; Pallisera, Maria; Fullana, Judit

    2016-01-01

    The participation of people with mental illness in research is key to their empowerment and provides them with a highly meaningful experience. The aim of this article was to explore the perspectives, views and experiences of people with severe mental illness (SMI) regarding their present life and projection of the future (desires, expectations…

  13. The social context of mental illness : individual, partner and parental resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, P.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent numbers show that a great deal of people experience mental illness during a period of time over the life course. Mental illness, however is not randomly distributed throughout society, but rather depends on one's social position in society. This book examines the link between the social conte

  14. Maternal Mental Illness and the Safety and Stability of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…

  15. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

  16. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  17. A Research Agenda Concerning Depictions of Mental Illness in Children's Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, John H.; Nairn, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review research on depictions of mental illness in mass media directed to children and to identify requirements for further research in this important field. Methods: The authors identified published research on depictions of mental illness in children's media and the important strengths and weaknesses of such research. Results: Only…

  18. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  19. Microsocial determinants of the formation verbal-behavioral social practices interact with the mentally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Pironkova

    2014-01-01

    For respondents with higher education and high social status were characterized by a more humanistic and tolerant practices of interaction with the mentally ill against the possibility of hidden­negativities attitude towards the mentally ill, which is reflected in social practices bypassing the declared position.

  20. Stigma Sentiments and Self-Meanings: Exploring the Modified Labeling Theory of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce "stigma sentiments" as a way to operationalize the cultural conceptions of the mentally ill. Stigma sentiments are the evaluation, potency, and activity (EPA) associated with the cultural category "a mentally ill person." We find consistent support for the validity of the evaluation and potency components as measures of these…

  1. Family matters: Infants, toddlers and preschoolers of parents affected by mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalenko, N.M.; Mares, S.P.; Newman, L.K.; Williams, A.E.S.; Powrie, R.M.; Doesum, K.T.M. van

    2012-01-01

    One in five young people in Australia, including infants, toddlers and preschoolers, lives in a family with a parent with a mental illness.1 Families affected by mental illness are more likely than other families to experience poverty and social isolation,2 and are more likely to have children taken

  2. John Stuart Mill on the liberty of the mentally ill: a historical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, J

    1977-12-01

    The author discusses the quote from Mill's On Liberty that is often cited by libertarians in opposition to involuntary commitment of the mentally ill. This quote has been taken out of context; other statements in the document indicate that Mill excluded from his libertarian credo those "without the ordinary amount of understanding," i.e., those people who would now be considered mentally ill.

  3. Measuring mental illness stigma with diminished social desirability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-06-01

    For persons with mental illness, stigma diminishes employment and independent living opportunities as well as participation in psychiatric care. Public stigma interventions have sought to ameliorate these consequences. Evaluation of anti-stigma programs' impact is typically accomplished with self-report questionnaires. However, cultural mores encourage endorsement of answers that are socially preferred rather than one's true belief. This problem, social desirability, has been circumvented through development of faux knowledge tests (KTs) (i.e., Error-Choice Tests); written to assess prejudice. Our KT uses error-choice test methodology to assess stigmatizing attitudes. Test content was derived from review of typical KTs for façade reinforcement. Answer endorsement suggests bias or stigma; such determinations were based on the empirical literature. KT psychometrics were examined in samples of college students, community members and mental health providers and consumers. Test-retest reliability ranged from fair (0.50) to good (0.70). Construct validity analyses of public stigma indicated a positive relationship with the Attribution Questionnaire and inverse relationships with Self-Determination and Empowerment Scales. No significant relationships were observed with self-stigma measures (recovery, empowerment). This psychometric evaluation study suggests that a self-administered questionnaire may circumvent social desirability and have merit as a stigma measurement tool.

  4. Chronic Sorrow: Lived Experiences of Caregivers of Schizophrenic Patients in Butabika Mental Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Grief is a central experience by people diagnosed with mental illness, families, and friends. Chronic sorrow is defined as pervasive sadness and/or other emotional reactions commonly associated with grief that is permanent, periodic and potentially progressive in nature. It is viewed as a normal reaction to loss that may be to a single event or ongoing. During the experience of chronic sorrow, people feel emotional commotion, discomfort, & hopelessness. It may progress to pathological grief o...

  5. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midin Marhani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356 gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298. Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented

  6. Trends in newspaper coverage of mental illness in Canada: 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Berry, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Much research suggests that the general public relies on the popular media as a primary source of information about mental illness. We assessed the broad content of articles relating to mental illness in major Canadian newspapers over a 6-year period. We also sought to assess if such content has changed over time. We conducted a retrospective analysis of Canadian newspaper coverage from 2005 to 2010. Research assistants used a standardized guide to code 11 263 newspaper articles that mention the terms mental health, mental illness, schizophrenia, or schizophrenic. Once the articles were coded, descriptive statistics were produced for overarching themes and time trend analyses from 2005 to 2010. Danger, violence, and criminality were direct themes in 40% of newspaper articles. Treatment for a mental illness was discussed in only 19% of newspaper articles, and in only 18% was recovery or rehabilitation a significant theme. Eighty-three per cent of articles coded lacked a quotation from someone with a mental illness. We did not observe any significant changes over time from 2005 to 2010 in any domain measured. There is scope for more balanced, accurate, and informative coverage of mental health issues in Canada. Newspaper articles infrequently reflect the common realities of mental illness phenomenology, course, and outcome. Currently, clinicians may direct patients and family members to other resources for more comprehensive and accurate information about mental illness.

  7. Perception and beliefs about mental illness among adults in Karfi village, northern Nigeria

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    Kabir Mohammed

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to examine the knowledge, attitude and beliefs about causes, manifestations and treatment of mental illness among adults in a rural community in northern Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional study design was used. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 250 adults residing in Karfi village, northern Nigeria. Results The most common symptoms proffered by respondents as manifestations of mental illness included aggression/destructiveness (22.0%, loquaciousness (21.2%, eccentric behavior (16.1% and wandering (13.3%. Drug misuse including alcohol, cannabis, and other street drugs was identified in 34.3% of the responses as a major cause of mental illness, followed by divine wrath/ God's will (19%, and magic/spirit possession (18.0%. About 46% of respondents preferred orthodox medical care for the mentally sick while 34% were more inclined to spiritual healing. Almost half of the respondents harbored negative feelings towards the mentally ill. Literate respondents were seven times more likely to exhibit positive feelings towards the mentally ill as compared to non-literate subjects (OR = 7.6, 95% confidence interval = 3.8–15.1. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the need for community educational programs in Nigeria aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the public would allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization towards such persons.

  8. A qualitative exploration of the perspectives of mental health professionals on stigma and discrimination of mental illness in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van Bortel, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Stigma of mental illness has been identified as a significant barrier to help-seeking and care. Basic knowledge of mental illness - such as its nature, symptoms and impact - are neglected, leaving room for misunderstandings on mental health and 'stigma'. Numerous researches have been conducted on stigma and discrimination of people with mental disorders. However, most of the literature investigates stigma from a cultural conception point of view, experiences of patients or public attitudes towards mental illness but little to none from the standpoint of mental health professionals. In Malaysia, this research on stigma is particularly limited. Therefore, the state of stigma and discrimination of people with mental illness was investigated from the perspectives of mental health professionals in Malaysia. In-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 mental health professionals from both government and private sectors including psychiatrists, psychologists and counsellors. The interviews were approximately 45-minutes long. The data was subsequently analysed using the basic thematic approach. Seven principal themes, each with their own sub-themes, emerged from the analysis of 'stigma of mental illness' from mental health professionals' point of view, including: (1) main perpetrators, (2) types of mental illness carrying stigma, (3) demography and geography of stigma, (4) manifestations of stigma, (5) impacts of stigma, (6) causes of stigma and (7) proposed initiatives to tackle stigma. Stigma of mental illness is widespread in Malaysia. This is most evident amongst people suffering from conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. Stigma manifests itself most often in forms of labelling, rejection, social exclusion and in employment. Family, friends and workplace staff are reported to be the main perpetrators of discriminatory conducts. According to the perspectives of the mental health professionals, implications of

  9. [Outreach services to clients with severe mental illness in the Okayama Prefectural Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Masayuki; Moriya, Akira; Fujita, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    The community mental health system in Japan is being adversely affected by diminishing public mental health services, including those provided by public healthcare centers and the mental health divisions of municipal governments. It seems reasonable to expect that this will lead to the inadequate detection, assessment, and treatment of the population with mental health problems, and thus to the flooding of psychiatric hospitals with excessive numbers of severely mentally ill patients. In this article, the author suggests the utility of a 'network-based outreach team' as a possible remedy for the current situation. The Okayama Prefectural Mental Health & Welfare Center is running a network-based outreach team on a trial basis to work with individuals with serious mental illness who are disengaged from mental health services. The team is composed of members from the Mental Health & Welfare Center, public mental health services, and human service agencies. The main aims of this team are two-fold: to enhance support for clients with severe mental illness who are overwhelmed with multiple complex problems, through collaborative intervention within the framework of a network-based outreach team; and to develop the qualities and skills of public mental health service and human agency personnel in order that they better assist people with severe mental illness, by providing joint training with mental health specialists of the Mental Health & Welfare Center in community settings. The author suggests that the team structure of the network-based outreach team will benefit public mental health services by reintegrating currently fragmented services into coordinated ones.

  10. Gender differences in caregiving among family - caregivers of people with mental illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nidhi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    All over the world women are the predominant providers of informal care for family members with chronic medical conditions or disabilities, including the elderly and adults with mental illnesses. It has been suggested that there are several societal and cultural demands on women to adopt the role of a family-caregiver. Stress-coping theories propose that women are more likely to be exposed to caregiving stressors, and are likely to perceive, report and cope with these stressors differently from men. Many studies, which have examined gender differences among family-caregivers of people with mental illnesses, have concluded that women spend more time in providing care and carry out personal-care tasks more often than men. These studies have also found that women experience greater mental and physical strain, greater caregiver-burden, and higher levels of psychological distress while providing care. However, almost an equal number of studies have not found any differences between men and women on these aspects. This has led to the view that though there may be certain differences between male and female caregivers, most of these are small in magnitude and of doubtful clinical significance. Accordingly, caregiver-gender is thought to explain only a minor proportion of the variance in negative caregiving outcomes. A similar inconsistency characterizes the explanations provided for gender differences in caregiving such as role expectations, differences in stress, coping and social support, and response biases in reporting distress. Apart from the equivocal and inconsistent evidence, there are other problems in the literature on gender differences in caregiving. Most of the evidence has been derived from studies on caregivers of elderly people who either suffer from dementia or other physical conditions. Similar research on other mental illnesses such as schizophrenia or mood disorders is relatively scarce. With changing demographics and social norms men are increasingly

  11. Characteristics of mentally ill offenders from 100 psychiatric court reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict crimes and offences was weak, as

  12. Characteristics of mentally ill offenders from 100 psychiatric court reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Zahrani Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict

  13. Social representations of illness among people with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gonçalves Pustiglione Campos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the social representations of illness among people with chronic kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis. METHOD: Descriptive, qualitative research, anchored on the social representations theory. This study was conducted in the municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, with 23 adults with chronic kidney disease. Data were collection between February and November 2012 by means of a semi-structured interview, and analyzed using Content Analysis. RESULTS: The interviews led to the categories "the meaning of kidney disease": awareness of finitude, and "survival": the visible with chronic kidney disease. The representation of illness unveiled a difference and interruption in life projects, and haemodialysis meant loss of freedom, imprisonment and stigma. CONCLUSION: Family ties and the individuals´ social role are determining representations for healthcare.

  14. Newspaper coverage of mental illness in the UK, 1992-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen a number of attempts to reduce the stigma related to mental illness; the media can play a significant role in perpetuating this stigma. This paper analyses trends in newspaper coverage of mental illness in the UK between 1992-2008 across a range of psychiatric diagnoses. Methods A content analysis was performed on a sample of articles (n = 1361) about mental illness in a range of UK newspapers in 1992, 2000, and 2008. Results There was a significant proportional reduction in negative articles about mental illness between 1992 and 2008, and a significant increase in articles explaining psychiatric disorders. Coverage improved for depression but remained largely negative for schizophrenia. Conclusions Newspaper coverage of mental illness became less stigmatising overall in the 1990s and 2000s, but this was not true for all diagnoses. PMID:21992410

  15. 'Individualism-collectivism' as an explanatory device for mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Chris; Foster, John; Caldwell, Kay

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is investigate whether the cross-cultural value paradigm 'individualism-collectivism' is a useful explanatory model for mental illness stigma on a cultural level. Using snowball sampling, a quantitative questionnaire survey of 305 individuals from four UK-based cultural groups (white-English, American, Greek/Greek Cypriot, and Chinese) was carried out. The questionnaire included the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness scale' and the 'vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism scale'. The results revealed that the more stigmatizing a culture's mental illness attitudes are, the more likely collectivism effectively explains these attitudes. In contrast, the more positive a culture's mental illness attitudes, the more likely individualism effectively explains attitudes. We conclude that a consideration of the individualism-collectivism paradigm should be included in any future research aiming to provide a holistic understanding of the causes of mental illness stigma, particularly when the cultures stigmatization levels are particularly high or low.

  16. Development of disaster pamphlets based on health needs of patients with chronic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Emi; Mori, Kikuko; Kaji, Hidesuke; Nonami, Yoko; Fukano, Chika; Kayano, Tomonori; Kawada, Terue; Kimura, Yukari; Yasui, Kumiko; Ueki, Hiroko; Ugai, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a pamphlet that would enable patients with diabetes, rheumatic diseases, chronic respiratory disease, and dialysis treatment to be aware of changes in their physical conditions at an early stage of a disaster, cope with these changes, maintain self-care measures, and recover their health. Illness-specific pamphlets were produced based on disaster-related literature, news articles, surveys of victims of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster and Typhoon Tokage, and other sources. Each pamphlet consisted of seven sections-each section includes items common to all illnesses as well as items specific to each illness. The first section, "Physical Self-Care", contains a checklist of 18 common physical symptoms as well as symptoms specific to each illness, and goes on to explain what the symptoms may indicate and what should be done about them. The main aim of the "Changes in Mental Health Conditions" section is to detect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at an early stage. The section "Preventing the Deterioration of Chronic Illnesses" is designed to prevent the worsening of each illness through the provision of information on cold prevention, adjustment to the living environment, and ways of coping with stress. In the sections, "Medication Control" and "Importance of Having Medical Examinations", spaces are provided to list medications currently being used and details of the hospital address, in order to ensure the continued use of medications. The section, "Preparing for Evacuations" gives a list of everyday items and medical items needed to be prepared for a disaster. Finally, the "Methods of Contact in an Emergency" section provides details of how to use the voicemail service. The following content-specific to each illness also was explained in detail: (1) for diabetes, complications arising from the deterioration of the illness, attention to nutrition, and insulin management; (2) for rheumatic diseases, a checklist of

  17. Does availability of illicit drugs mediate the association between mental illness and substance use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenbin; Lenton, Simon; Allsop, Steve; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the association between presence of mental illness, detected by an increased level of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score, and prevalence of exposure to opportunity to obtain illicit drugs among adolescents and young adults aged 12-24 years using data collected by the 2007 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey (N = 2,663). Adolescents and young adults with mental illness have increased prevalence of exposure to drug use opportunity. Higher exposure to opportunity to obtain illicit drugs among people with pre-existing mental illness may further contribute to the co-existence of drug dependence and other mental disorders that are frequently reported in the literature.

  18. Do everyday problems of people with chronic illness interfere with their disease management? Chronic Disease epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Houtum, Lieke; Rijken, Mieke; Groenewegen, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Being chronically ill is a continuous process of balancing the demands of the illness and the demands of everyday life. Understanding how everyday life affects self-management might help to provide better professional support. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of

  19. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Parcesepe, Angela M.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental...

  20. Just regionalisation: rehabilitating care for people with disabilities and chronic illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Frank

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regionalised models of health care delivery have important implications for people with disabilities and chronic illnesses yet the ethical issues surrounding disability and regionalisation have not yet been explored. Although there is ethics-related research into disability and chronic illness, studies of regionalisation experiences, and research directed at improving health systems for these patient populations, to our knowledge these streams of research have not been brought together. Using the Canadian province of Ontario as a case study, we address this gap by examining the ethics of regionalisation and the implications for people with disabilities and chronic illnesses. The critical success factors we provide have broad applicability for guiding and/or evaluating new and existing regionalised health care strategies. Discussion Ontario is in the process of implementing fourteen Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs. The implementation of the LHINs provides a rare opportunity to address systematically the unmet diverse care needs of people with disabilities and chronic illnesses. The core of this paper provides a series of composite case vignettes illustrating integration opportunities relevant to these populations, namely: (i rehabilitation and services for people with disabilities; (ii chronic illness and cancer care; (iii senior's health; (iv community support services; (v children's health; (vi health promotion; and (vii mental health and addiction services. For each vignette, we interpret the governing principles developed by the LHINs – equitable access based on patient need, preserving patient choice, responsiveness to local population health needs, shared accountability and patient-centred care – and describe how they apply. We then offer critical success factors to guide the LHINs in upholding these principles in response to the needs of people with disabilities and chronic illnesses. Summary This paper

  1. Matricide by Mentally Disordered Sons: Gaining a Criminological Understanding Beyond Mental Illness--A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanesi, Roberto; Rocca, Gabriele; Candelli, Chiara; Carabellese, Felice

    2015-12-01

    Matricide is one of the rarest of reported murders and has always been considered one of the most abhorrent crimes. Psychiatric investigations as to why a son might murder his mother yield indications of a high rate of mental illness, primarily psychotic disorders, in perpetrators. In an attempt to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of the mother-son bond in the etiology of matricide by mentally disordered sons, this article presents a qualitative study of nine cases of matricide examined at two Italian Forensic Psychiatry Departments between 2005 and 2010 and retrospective analysis of forensic psychiatry reports on the offenders. Most matricides suffered from psychotic disorders, especially schizophrenia. Nevertheless, not all the perpetrators had psychotic symptoms at the time of the crime. A "pathologic" mother-son bond was found in all cases. However, mental illness is not the only variable related to matricide and, taken alone, is not enough to explain the crime. Several factors in the history of the mother and son need to be probed, especially how their relationship developed over the years. The peculiar dynamics of the mother-son relationship and the unique personalities and life experiences of both subjects are the real key to cases of matricide. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latalova K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Klara Latalova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1,2 Jan Prasko1,2 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. Keywords: victimization, violence, severe mental illness, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

  3. A NARRATIVE: MEDITATION IN THE LIVES OF CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taunya WIDEMAN-JOHNSTON

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chronic illness in one’s life often entails endless appointments, tests, medications, treatments, and procedures. In the instances of children with chronic illness, they do not know what life consists of without their illness, and consequently, have lived with many restrictions. Children with chronic illness and their families are not only in need of traditional methods and strategies from the medical model but are often in need of additional strategies to support and cope with the nature and effects of the chronic illness. This paper focuses on how mediation, mindfulness, and visualization strategies aid individuals with chronic illness.

  4. Attitudes towards mental illness in Malawi: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Crabb, J.; Stewart, R.C.; Kokota, D.; Masson, N.; Chabunya, S.; Krishnadas, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness are strongly linked to suffering, disability and poverty. In order to protect the rights of those with mental disorders and to sensitively develop services, it is vital to gain a more accurate understanding of the frequency and nature of stigma against people with mental illness. Little research about this issue has been conducted in sub Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to describe levels of stigma in Malawi.\\ud \\ud Method: A...

  5. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.

  6. Vital Signs – Adult Smoking Among People with Mental Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-05

    This podcast is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.  Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/5/2013.

  7. Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

  8. [Strategies of coping with chronic illness in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Carvajal, Daniel; Urzúa M, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    To develop a tool to evaluate coping strategies for chronic illness in adolescents. Based on a theoretical review and semi-structured interviews with adolescents, a questionnaire was prepared that was finally evaluated by judges experienced in in understanding, relevance and viability. A scale is proposed that consists of 60 items grouped into 12 coping families. The scale may be a useful clinical tool to provide key information about the experience and ways to cope with illness in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental rearing style, premorbid personality, mental health, and quality of life in chronic regional pain: A causal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, For-Wey; Huang, Yi-Lin; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Fei-Yin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to establish the causal model among parental bonding, personality characteristics, mental health, quality of life, and chronic regional pain (CRP). Thirty CRP patients and 56 mental illness patients were compared using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief-Tawain Version (WHOQOL-BREF-TW), and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). There were significant differences in mental health, personality characteristics, and quality of life between the CRP and mental illness groups. Structural equation modeling showed that parental bonding could directly affect personality characteristics, and, hence, directly impact disease and quality of life. CRP is different from mental illness in many dimensions. In this study, CRP appeared to be caused by actual physical dysfunction rather than mental dysfunction.

  10. Shifting blame? Impact of reports of violence and mental illness in the context of terrorism on population attitudes towards persons with mental illness in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, Georg; Stolzenburg, Susanne; Bauch, Alexandra; Speerforck, Sven; Janowitz, Deborah; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2017-02-24

    We examine whether reporting on violent and terrorist acts committed in July 2016 by persons who, among other characteristics, were suspected to have mental health issues did impact on mental illness stigma, and whether any changes added to changes observed after the Germanwings plane crash in 2015. Three identical online surveys (in 2014, 2015 and 2016) were conducted among persons >15 years old from an established market research panel in Germany (N=2195). Participants answered questions about a woman ("Anne") with either depression or schizophrenia as described in an unlabeled vignette. In the 2016 survey (Mental illness ranked third among the most important perceived causes for the attacks in 2016, after 'religious beliefs' and 'being manipulated by others'. Overall, the observed attitude changes were small. We discuss how the context of the attacks may have prevented further attitude change regarding persons with mental illness.

  11. Perceptions and attitudes of students of mass communication toward mental illness in Nigerian Tertiary Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The power of the modern mass media is not limited to its ability to communicate information and entertain but derives primarily from its ability to define situations, thereby enabling it to construct social reality. Stigma is related to negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes that in turn lead to discriminatory practices. Aims: The study sought to know the perceptions of and attitudes of mass communication students towards mental illness and the mentally ill. Settings and Design: The study population comprised of final year Diploma students of Mass Communication of a foremost tertiary institution in Nigeria. Methods and Material: The World Psychiatric Association questionnaire measuring attitudes towards Schizophrenia was modified and administered to the students. Results: Study also showed only one-fifth of all respondents had contact with either an advert or a promotion about mental illness. About three-quarter (74.1% of those who had come in contact with information on mental illness had done so through audiovisuals including television and radio. More than half of the students ranked environmental factors foremost among causes of mental illness. Majority of the students (85.9% would definitely not marry someone with mental illness. Conclusions: The enormous potential and influence the media has on mental health issues would require that mental health professionals provide great input into the enlightenment program for these young and mental health-naïve potential image makers.

  12. Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

    2013-02-01

    To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster.

  13. Care and treatment of the mentally ill in the United States: historical developments and reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, J P; Goldman, H H

    1986-03-01

    Three major cycles of reform in public mental health care in the United States--the moral treatment, mental hygiene, and community mental health movements--are described as a basis for assessing the shifting boundaries between the mental health, social welfare, and criminal justice systems. Historical forces that led to the transinstitutionalization of the mentally ill from almshouses to the state mental hospitals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have now been reversed in the aftermath of recent deinstitutionalization policies. Evidence is suggestive that the mentally ill are also being caught up in the criminal justice system, a circumstance reminiscent of pre-asylum conditions in the early nineteenth century. These trends shape the current mental health service delivery system and the agenda for policy-relevant research on issues involving the legal and mental health fields.

  14. Characteristics and Attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers toward Individuals with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Mental health in children and adults has always been a controversial topic, however, recent mass shootings in schools have heightened the concern of many and raise questions for how to interact with the mentally ill. Schools, have the capacity to be one of the key stakeholders in delivering services to students with mental health concerns,…

  15. Oral health impacts of medications used to treat mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, N; Pradhan, A; Taing, M W; Kisely, S; Ford, P J

    2017-12-01

    Many psychotropic medications affect oral health. This review identified oral side effects for antidepressant, antipsychotic, anticonvulsant, antianxiety and sedative drugs that are recommended in Australia for the management of common mental illnesses and provides recommendations to manage these side-effects. The Australian Therapeutic Guidelines and the Australian Medicines Handbook were searched for medications used to treat common mental health conditions. For each medication, the generic name, class, and drug company reported side-effects were extracted from the online Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (eMIMs) and UpToDate databases. Meyler's Side Effect of Drugs Encyclopaedia was used to identify additional oral adverse reactions to these medications. Fifty-seven drugs were identified: 23 antidepressants, 22 antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, and 12 anxiolytic or sedative medications. Xerostomia (91%) the most commonly reported side effect among all classes of medications of the 28 identified symptoms. Other commonly reported adverse effects included dysguesia (65%) for antidepressants, and tardive dyskinesia (94%) or increased salivation (78%) for antipsychotic medications. While xerostomia has often been reported as a common adverse effect of psychotropic drugs, this review has identified additional side effects including dysguesia from antidepressants and tardive dyskinesia and increased salivation from antipsychotics. Clinicians should consider oral consequences of psychotropic medication in addition to other side-effects when prescribing. For antidepressants, this would mean choosing duloxetine, agomelatine and any of the serotonin re-uptake inhibitors except sertraline. In the case of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers, atypical agents have less oral side effects than older alternatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Special Educational Needs of Adolescents Living with Chronic Illness: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Rates of chronic illness are increasing around the world and, accordingly, numbers of adolescent students living with chronic illness are also increasing. The challenges faced by these students and their teachers are complex. One of these challenges is the need of the adolescent with chronic illness to achieve some level of social conformity.…

  17. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  18. Patients' and partners' perspectives of chronic illness and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checton, Maria G; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Venetis, Maria K

    2012-06-01

    This study is framed in theories of illness uncertainty (Babrow, A. S., 2007, Problematic integration theory. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 181-200). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Babrow & Matthias, 2009; Brashers, D. E., 2007, A theory of communication and uncertainty management. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 201-218). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Hogan, T. P., & Brashers, D. E. (2009). The theory of communication and uncertainty management: Implications for the wider realm of information behavior. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty and information regulation in interpersonal contexts: Theories and applications, (pp. 45-66). New York, NY: Routledge; Mishel, M. H. (1999). Uncertainty in chronic illness. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 17, 269-294; Mishel, M. H., & Clayton, M. F., 2003, Theories of uncertainty. In M. J. Smith & P. R. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing (pp. 25-48). New York, NY: Springer) and health information management (Afifi, W. A., & Weiner, J. L., 2004, Toward a theory of motivated information management. Communication Theory, 14, 167-190. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00310.x; Greene, K., 2009, An integrated model of health disclosure decision-making. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty and information regulation in interpersonal contexts: Theories and applications (pp. 226-253). New York, NY: Routledge) and examines how couples experience uncertainty and interference related to one partner's chronic health condition. Specifically, a model is hypothesized in which illness uncertainty (i.e., stigma, prognosis, and symptom) and illness interference predict communication efficacy and health condition management. Participants include 308 dyads in which one partner has a chronic health condition. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that there

  19. Attitudes of Jordanian Nursing Students towards Mental Illness: The Effect of Teaching and Contact on Attitudes Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaideh, Shaher H.; Mudallal, Rola

    2009-01-01

    Purposes: Attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness influence the treatment they receive and decisions of policy makers. The purposes of this study were to assess Jordanian nursing students' attitudes towards mental illness, and to assess the effectiveness of teaching and contact on changing nursing students' attitudes about…

  20. Estimating the employment and earnings costs of mental illness: recent developments in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, D E; Wilcox-Gök, V

    2001-07-01

    Substantial attention has recently been focused on both the prevalence and consequences of mental illness. Generally, public interest in the costs of mental illness has been limited to the direct costs of treating the mentally ill. In this paper, we consider the magnitude and importance of a major component of the indirect costs of mental illness: employment and earnings losses. We first describe the technical difficulties involved in estimating these costs. We then describe new data and recent advances in the United States that have improved our ability to make such estimates. Our conclusions from the recent research are that each year in the United States 5-6 million workers between the ages of 16 and 54 lose, fail to seek, or cannot find employment as a consequence of mental illness. Among those who do work, we estimate that mental illness decreases annual income by an amount between $3,500 and $6,000. We then discuss an emerging challenge to the traditional method for arriving at such estimates: the friction cost approach. We describe both the conceptual and technical differences between the friction cost method and the traditional human capital approach. We conclude that while economic context has much to do with whether one relies on human capital or friction cost estimates, each can offer useful information about labor market losses due to mental illness.

  1. Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening in women with mental illness: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arpita; Pandurangi, Ananda; Smith, Wally

    2013-04-01

    Breast and cervical cancer screening rates have improved substantially in the U.S. during the past decade. Cancer screening and other health outcomes in patients with mental illnesses, such as major depression and schizophrenia, remain suboptimal. Understanding the prevalence and root causes of these disparities is an essential first step toward developing effective interventions. This paper presents a systematic literature review of current evidence on breast and cervical cancer screening disparities in women with mental illness. A systematic PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO search completed in May 2012 retrieved articles pertaining to cancer screening and mentally ill patients using pertinent search terms. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were appraised critically for evidence quality related to screening disparities using defined criteria. Articles that reported cancer screening rates in patients with mental illness were reviewed to determine whether any barriers to screening or factors that promote screening were identified. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Many articles contributed to more than one of the identified areas of interest (i.e., screening utilization, barriers to screening, and factors that encourage screening). Substantial evidence in the current literature confirms disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening rates among women with mental illness. However, the mentally ill population is more complex and diverse than many studies imply. Using a global functional indicator that measures the overall impact of mental illness may yield a more useful categorization of influences on cancer screening. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses.

  3. Effectiveness of an intervention for reducing social stigma towards mental illness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Badia, Regina; Martínez-Zambrano, Francisco; Arenas, Otilia; Casas-Anguera, Emma; García-Morales, Esther; Villellas, Raúl; Martín, José Ramón; Pérez-Franco, María Belén; Valduciel, Tamara; Casellas, Diana; García-Franco, Mar; Miguel, Jose; Balsera, Joaquim; Pascual, Gemma; Julia, Eugènia; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-06-22

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention for reducing social stigma towards mental illness in adolescents. The effect of gender and knowledge of someone with mental illness was measured. Two hundred and eighty secondary school students were evaluated using the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) questionnaire. The schools were randomized and some received the intervention and others acted as the control group. The programme consisted of providing information via a documentary film and of contact with healthcare staff in order to reduce the social stigma within the school environment. The intervention was effective in reducing the CAMI authoritarianism and social restrictiveness subscales. The intervention showed significant changes in girls in terms of authoritarianism and social restrictiveness, while boys only showed significant changes in authoritarianism. Following the intervention, a significant reduction was found in authoritarianism and social restrictiveness in those who knew someone with mental illness, and only in authoritarianism in those who did not know anyone with mental illness. The intervention was effective to reduce social stigma towards people with mental illness, especially in the area of authoritarianism. Some differences were found depending on gender and whether or not the subjects knew someone with mental illness.

  4. Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

    2013-10-30

    We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Osteoporosis in Children with Chronic Illnesses: Diagnosis, Monitoring, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Monica; Bachrach, Laura K

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis is an under-recognized complication of chronic illness in childhood. This review will summarize recent literature addressing the risk factors, evaluation, and treatment for early bone fragility. Criteria for the diagnosis of pediatric osteoporosis include the presence of low trauma vertebral fractures alone or the combination of low bone mineral density and several long bone fractures. Monitoring for bone health may include screening for vertebral fractures that are common but often asymptomatic. Pharmacologic agents should be offered to those with fragility fractures especially when spontaneous recovery is unlikely. Controversies persist about the optimal bisphosphonate agent, dose, and duration. Newer osteoporosis drugs have not yet been adequately tested in pediatrics, though clinical trials are underway. The prevalence of osteoporosis is increased in children with chronic illness. To reduce the frequency of fragility fractures requires increased attention to risk factors, early intervention, and additional research to optimize therapy and potentially prevent their occurrence.

  6. Rural women, technology, and self-management of chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Clarann; Cudney, Shirley; Hill, Wade G

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the psychosocial status of 3 groups of chronically ill rural women participating in a computer intervention. The 3 groups were: intense intervention, less-intense intervention, and control. At baseline and following the intervention, measures were taken for social support, self-esteem, empowerment, self-efficacy, depression, stress, and loneliness. ANCOVA results showed group differences for social support and self-efficacy among the overall group. The findings differed for a vulnerable subgroup, with significant between-group differences for social support and loneliness. It was concluded that a computer-delivered intervention can improve social support and self-efficacy and reduce loneliness in rural women, enhancing their ability to self-manage and adapt to chronic illness.

  7. Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and related illnesses: a clinical model of assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Fred

    2010-06-01

    A clinically informative behavioral literature on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) has emerged over the past decade. The purpose of this article is to (a) define these conditions and their less severe counterparts, i.e., unexplained chronic fatigue (UCF) and chronic widespread pain; (b) briefly review the behavioral theory and intervention literature on CFS and FM; and (c) describe a user-friendly clinical model of assessment and intervention for these illnesses. The assessments described will facilitate understanding of the somewhat unusual and puzzling somatic presentations that characterize these patients. Using an individualized cognitive-behavioral approach the mental health clinician can offer significant help to these often stigmatized and medically underserved patients. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Role of University Support Services on Academic Outcomes for Students with Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Simpson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness in the university student population has come under increased scrutiny in recent years. Students with mental illness are understandably highly reluctant to disclose their condition to others due to fear of prejudice, “not blending in,” and a strong desire to appear self-reliant. This study considered whether disclosure to university support services, with all its perceived risks, had academic benefits for students with mental illness. Preliminary evidence was found that, for those students with mental illness who registered with the University’s Disability Support Service for assistance, academic achievement was significantly higher on average in the year following their joining the service. Academic retention for these students was comparable to their university peers. A number of recommendations are discussed that could accommodate for students’ learning needs, thereby benefitting those experiencing mental health difficulties.

  9. A New Outlook on Mental Illnesses: Glial Involvement Beyond the Glue

    KAUST Repository

    Elsayed, Maha

    2015-12-16

    Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment.

  10. Stigma and difficulty accessing medical care in a sample of adults with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Manderscheid, Ron; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2014-11-01

    Wellness of people with mental illness is increasingly a public health priority. This study examined factors associated with difficulties receiving medical care in adults with mental illness. In a sample of 1,670 adults with mental illness, we assessed difficulties in accessing medical care and stigma. A total of 465 (28%) participants reported difficulties in accessing medical care; 211 (13%) attributed difficulties in access to stigma. Lack of comprehensive medical care coverage and mental health symptoms were associated with increased odds of perceived difficulties in accessing medical care; personal empowerment was negatively associated with perceived difficulties attributed to stigma; education was positively associated. The findings highlight unmet need for medical care in this population and the need to recognize stigma as a barrier medical care. Interventions to empower patients and educate medical providers about wellness for people with serious mental illness could help to reduce barriers.

  11. Stigma towards mental illness among medical students in Australia and Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Zaza; Laugharne, Jonathan; Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John

    2015-06-01

    Stigma towards mental illness has been found to impact adversely on medical students' attitudes towards psychiatry. This study aimed to assess the impact of stigma among final year students at the University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana, and the University of Western Australia. A 28-item "Attitudes and stigma towards mental health" questionnaire was distributed to final year students at both universities. There was a significant difference in questionnaire scores, with Australian students showing more positive attitudes towards mental illness and lower levels of stigma compared with Ghanaian students. Stigmatization was expressed by Australian and Ghanaian students. A combination of medical school experiences and wider societal and cultural beliefs could be responsible for students' attitudes towards mental illness. Educators can develop locally relevant anti-stigma teaching resources throughout the psychiatry curriculum to improve students' attitudes towards psychiatry as a discipline and mental illness in general.

  12. Attitudes of Community-Living Staff Members toward Persons with Mental Retardation, Mental Illness, and Dual Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Attitudes of 340 staff members in 120 community living programs for people with mental retardation, mental illness, and dual diagnosis were assessed using the Community Living Attitudes Scale, a measure of attitudes toward inclusion. Findings identified attitudinal differences toward inclusion between managers and staff and between those working…

  13. Adapting a Psychosocial Intervention for Smartphone Delivery to Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Karen L; Lohman, Matthew C; Gill, Lydia E; Bruce, Martha L; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    To describe the process of adapting an integrated medical and psychiatric self-management intervention to a smartphone application for middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness using an adaptive systems engineering framework and user-centered design. First, we determined the technical abilities and needs of middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illnesses using smartphones. Then, we developed smartphone content through principles of user-centered design and modified an existing smartphone platform. Finally, we conducted a usability test using "think aloud" and verbal probing. We adapted a psychosocial self-management intervention to a smartphone application and tested its usability. Ten participants (mean age: 55.3 years, SD: 6.2 years) with serious mental illness and comorbid chronic health conditions reported a high level of usability and satisfaction with the smartphone application. Middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness and limited technical abilities were able to participate in a process involving user-centered design and adaptation of a self-management intervention to be delivered by a smartphone. High usability ratings suggest that middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness have the potential to use tailored smartphone interventions. Future research is indicated to establish effectiveness and to determine the type and intensity of clinical support needed to successfully implement smartphone applications as a component of community-based services for older adults with psychiatric and medical conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences.

  15. The Impact of Historical and Current Loss on Chronic Illness: Perceptions of Crow (Apsáalooke) People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sloane Real; Held, Suzanne; McCormick, Alma; Hallett, John; Martin, Christine; Trottier, Coleen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain a better understanding of perceptions about the impact of historical and current loss on Apsáalooke (Crow) people acquiring and coping with chronic illness. This study took a qualitative phenomenological approach by interviewing community members with chronic illness in order to gain insight into their perceptions and experiences. Participants emphasized 10 areas of impact of historical and current loss: the link between mental health and physical health/health behaviors; resiliency and strengths; connection and isolation; importance of language and language loss; changes in cultural knowledge and practices; diet; grieving; racism and discrimination; changes in land use and ownership; and boarding schools. The findings from this research are being used to develop a chronic illness self-care management program for Crow people.

  16. Teaching children about mental health and illness: a school nurse health education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desocio, Janiece; Stember, Lisa; Schrinsky, Joanne

    2006-04-01

    A mental health education program designed by school nurses for children ages 10- 12 was developed in 2000-2001 and expanded with broader distribution in 2004-2005. Six classroom sessions, each 45 minutes in length, provided information and activities to increase children's awareness of mental health and illness. Education program content included facts about the brain's connection to mental health, information about healthy ways to manage stress, resources and activities to promote mental health, common mental health problems experienced by children, and how to seek help for mental health problems. Classes included a combination of didactic presentation and open discussion, encouraging students to ask questions and allowing the school nurse to correct misinformation. Analysis of pre- and posttests from 370 elementary and middle school students revealed statistically significant improvements in their knowledge of mental health and mental illness.

  17. DIFFERENCES IN ILLNESS REPRESENTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagels, Agneta A; Söderquist, Birgitta Klang; Heiwe, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    To explore the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on individual illness representations, including symptoms and causal attributions. Fifty-four patients responded to the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and a further seven patients undertook cognitive interviews regarding the IPQ-R. All respondents had CKD stage 2-5, not undergoing renal replacement therapy. Those in earlier CKD stages and those with fewer symptoms perceived a significantly different understanding of their condition than those in more advanced disease stages or with more symptoms. Behavioural and psychological attributions were commonly referred to as contributing causes to CKD. These attributions were associated to negative illness representations. An uncertainty assessing symptoms attributed to CKD was indicated, especially in earlier disease stages. Illness representations differ with CKD stages and symptom burden. The patients in earlier disease stages or with fewer symptoms did not hold as strong beliefs about their illness as being a threat as those in advanced stages or with more symptoms. Self-blame emerged as a common causal attribution. Patients did not always relate symptoms to CKD, therefore this study identifies a gap in patients' disease knowledge, especially in earlier stages of the condition. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  18. Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, Y A; Minas, H

    2009-06-19

    Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and career organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness.

  19. Stigma: a Unique Source of Distress for Family Members of Individuals with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Anjana; Lucksted, Alicia; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    To distinguish the impact of mental illness stigma from that of other negative caregiving experiences, this study examined the unique relationships between stigma and caregiver/family functioning. Adult relatives (n = 437) of individuals with mental illness completed questionnaires regarding caregiving experiences, distress, empowerment, and family functioning, as part of a larger study. Regression analyses examined the relationship between stigma and caregiver/family variables, while controlling for other negative caregiving experiences. Stigma was uniquely associated with caregiver distress, empowerment, and family functioning. Mental illness stigma is a potent source of distress for families and an important target of family services.

  20. SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE’S MENTAL ILLNESS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with serious mental illness completed measures of coming out (called the Coming Out with Mental Illness Scale, COMIS), self-stigma, quality of life, and stra...