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Sample records for chronic arm lymphoedema

  1. Liposuction of arm lymphoedema.

    OpenAIRE

    Brorson, Håkan

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common disease in women, and up to 38% develop lymphedema of the arm following mastectomy, standard axillary node dissection and postoperative irradiation. Limb reductions have been reported utilising various conservative therapies such as manual lymph and pressure therapy. Some patients with long-standing pronounced lymphedema do not respond to these conservative treatments because slow or absent lymph flow causes the formation of excess subcutaneous adipose tissue....

  2. A vicious circle in chronic lymphoedema pathophysiology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cucchi, F; Rossmeislova, L; Simonsen, L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphoedema is a disease caused by a congenital or acquired damage to the lymphatic system and characterized by complex chains of pathophysiologic events such as lymphatic fluid stasis, chronic inflammation, lymphatic vessels impairment, adipose tissue deposition and fibrosis. These event....... Together, these observations indicate strong reciprocal relationship between lymphatics and adipose tissue and suggest a possible key role of the adipocyte in the pathophysiology of chronic lymphoedema's vicious circle....

  3. Chronic progressive lymphoedema in draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Buys, N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this review was to summarise and evaluate the current state of knowledge about chronic progressive lymphoedema in draught horses. Clinical signs of this multifactorial disorder are mainly restricted to the lower limbs, comprising progressively deteriorating skin, swelling and deformation. Although typical lesions were first reported at the beginning of the 20th century, chronic progressive lymphoedema was recognised as a specific syndrome only in 2003, and since then research has driven forward. Despite the high prevalence in some breeds and the serious economic impact, the pathogenesis is not fully understood, and the available treatment options remain symptomatic and noncurative. There is a need to improve diagnostic techniques and to develop selection tools. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Non-randomised phase II trial of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with chronic arm lymphoedema and tissue fibrosis after radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gothard, Lone; Stanton, Anthony; MacLaren, Julie; Lawrence, David; Hall, Emma; Mortimer, Peter; Parkin, Eileen; Pritchard, Joyce; Risdall, Jane; Sawyer, Robert; Woods, Mary; Yarnold, John

    2004-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced arm lymphoedema is a common and distressing complication of curative treatment for early breast cancer. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO 2 ) therapy promotes healing in bone rendered ischaemic by radiotherapy, and may help some soft-tissue injuries too, but is untested in arm lymphoedema. Methods: Twenty-one eligible research volunteers with a minimum 30% increase in arm volume in the years after axillary/supraclavicular radiotherapy (axillary surgery in 18/21 cases) were treated with HBO 2 . The volunteers breathed 100% oxygen at 2.4 ATA for 100 min in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber on 30 occasions over a period of 6 weeks. The volume of the ipsilateral limb, measured opto-electronically by a perometer and expressed as a percentage of contralateral limb volume, was selected as the primary endpoint. A secondary endpoint was local lymph drainage expressed as fractional removal rate of radioisotopic tracer, measured using lymphoscintigraphy. Results: Three out of 19 evaluable patients experienced >20% reduction in arm volume at 12 months. Six out of 13 evaluable patients experienced a >25% improvement in 99 Tc-nanocolloid clearance rate from the ipsilateral forearm measured by quantitative lymphoscintigraphy at 12 months. Overall, there was a statistically significant, but clinically modest, reduction in ipsilateral arm volume at 12 months follow-up compared with baseline (P=0.005). The mean percentage reduction in arm volume from baseline at 12 months was 7.51. Moderate or marked lessening of induration in the irradiated breast, pectoral fold and/or supraclavicular fossa was recorded clinically in 8/15 evaluable patients. Twelve out of 19 evaluable patients volunteered that their arms felt softer, and six reported improvements in shoulder mobility at 12 months. No significant improvements were noted in patient self-assessments of quality of life. Conclusion: Interpretation is limited by the absence of a control group. However, measurement of

  5. The effect of yoga on women with secondary arm lymphoedema from breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loudon Annette

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women who develop secondary arm lymphoedema subsequent to treatment associated with breast cancer require life-long management for a range of symptoms including arm swelling, heaviness, tightness in the arm and sometimes the chest, upper body impairment and changes to a range of parameters relating to quality of life. While exercise under controlled conditions has had positive outcomes, the impact of yoga has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of yoga in the physical and psycho-social domains, in the hope that women can be offered another safe, holistic modality to help control many, if not all, of the effects of secondary arm lymphoedema. Methods and design A randomised controlled pilot trial will be conducted in Hobart and Launceston with a total of 40 women receiving either yoga intervention or current best practice care. Intervention will consist of eight weeks of a weekly teacher-led yoga class with a home-based daily yoga practice delivered by DVD. Primary outcome measures will be the effects of yoga on lymphoedema and its associated symptoms and quality of life. Secondary outcome measures will be range of motion of the arm and thoracic spine, shoulder strength, and weekly and daily physical activity. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline, weeks four, eight and a four week follow up at week twelve. Range of motion of the spine, in a self-nominated group, will be measured at baseline, weeks eight and twelve. A further outcome will be the women’s perceptions of the yoga collected by interview at week eight. Discussion The results of this trial will provide information on the safety and effectiveness of yoga for women with secondary arm lymphoedema from breast cancer treatment. It will also inform methodology for future, larger trials. Trial registration ACTRN12611000202965

  6. Using VAC to facilitate healing of traumatic wounds in patients with chronic lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, U; Hansel, G; Krönert, C; Heinig, B

    2010-01-01

    Healing of traumatic injuries in patients with chronic lymphoedema is often delayed. This article describes how topical negative pressure was used to promote healing in two such cases. It also eliminated pain and prevented re-infection.

  7. Lymphoscintigraphy of draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Wisner, E R; Larson, R F; Ferraro, G L

    2006-03-01

    Early diagnosis of chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) may result in more effective interventions and provide a basis for further investigation of whether early diagnosis could be used as a means of eliminating potential genetic influences by cessation of breeding from affected individuals. Lymphoscintigraphy may be useful in draught horses to differentiate early lesions of CPL from other conditions in the pastern region. Forelimbs of 2 normal and 5 CPL-affected draught horses were evaluated with lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoscintigraphy showed clearly the presence of interstitial fluid stasis and delayed lymphatic drainage in the affected extremities of diseased animals in contrast to normal animals of these breeds. The rate of decreased clearance of a particulate radiopharmaceutical from the tissues was related positively to the severity of clinical signs. Our findings support the hypothesis that lymph stasis is probably responsible for the progressive swelling and concurrent skin lesions observed in association with CPL in draught horses. Lymphoscintigraphy should also prove useful in diagnosis of CPL in draught horses, even in the mild stages of the disease; such early diagnosis may result in more effective intervention.

  8. Exploring patient perception of success and benefit in self-management of breast cancer-related arm lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Eunice; Ream, Emma; Shewbridge, Amanda; Cowan-Dickie, Siobhan; Crawshaw, Diana; Huit, Martine; Wiseman, Theresa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing patient perception of success and benefit with self-management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) and explore how patients decide whether their swollen limb has improved or deteriorated. This qualitative study used a Grounded Theory approach. Twenty-one women in the BCRL self-management phase participated in one in-depth interview exploring their experience and perspective on self-managing their BCRL. Seven enablers and blocks to self-management were identified: routine, recognising benefit of self-management and consequences of non-treatment, owning treatment, knowledge and understanding, problem-solving, time required for treatment and aesthetics of hosiery. Women determined treatment outcome by monitoring size, appearance, texture and internal sensations within the affected arm. Women who participated in this study showed varying degrees of acceptance and adjustment to life with lymphoedema. This appears to directly impact their ability to self-manage lymphoedema. Lymphoedema practitioners and oncology nurses have a valuable role providing knowledge and support to patients transitioning to independent self-care. A better understanding of factors facilitating patients to become experts in their condition may improve longer term outcomes and reduce cost pressures on lymphoedema services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of limb adiposity by bioimpedance spectroscopy in lymphoedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. C.; Essex, T.; Gaw, R.; Czerniec, S.; Dylke, E.; Abell, B.; Kilbreath, S. L.

    2013-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic debilitating condition that may occur in approximately 25% of women treated for breast cancer. As the condition progresses, accumulated lymph fluid becomes fibrotic with infiltration of adipose tissue. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is the preferred method for early detection of lymphoedema based on the measurement of impedance of extracellular fluid. The present study assessed whether these impedance measurements could also be used to estimate the adipose tissue content of the arm based on a model previously used to predict whole body composition. Estimates of arm adipose tissue in a cohort of women with lymphoedema were found to be highly correlated (r > 0.82) with measurements of adipose tissue obtained using the reference method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Paired t-tests confirmed that there was no significant difference between the adipose tissue volumes obtained by the two methods. These results support the view that the method shows promise for the estimation of arm adiposity in lymphoedema.

  10. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of dermal elastin of draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, H E V; Van Brantegem, L; Affolter, V K; Oosterlinck, M; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2009-01-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) in horses, a disease of certain draught breeds, is associated with altered elastin metabolism. The characteristic lesions are seen in the skin of the lower (distal) limbs. This study was based on horses of susceptible breeds, with and without CPL, and on horses of a non-susceptible breed. Skin samples were obtained for examination from the neck (considered a non-affected region) and from the distal limb. The skin lesions were characterized histologically and the dermal elastic fibres were evaluated morphologically and quantitatively. In all horses the mean elastin concentrations were highest in the superficial dermis, gradually decreasing in the mid-dermis and deep dermis. As compared with horses of a non-susceptible breed, affected horses had increased amounts of dermal elastin in both the distal limb and neck, while non-affected horses of a susceptible breed had decreased amounts. The findings support an earlier hypothesis that CPL of horses is a generalized disease. Reduced efficiency of the elastic network in supporting the dermal lymphatics may explain the development of CPL.

  11. Antibodies to elastin peptides in sera of Belgian Draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brantegem, L; de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Duchateau, L; Hoogewijs, M K; Govaere, J; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2007-09-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) is a recently recognised disease of the lymphatic system characterised by lesions in the skin of the lower legs in several draught horse breeds, including the Belgian Draught hourse. Clinical signs slowly progress and result in severe disfigurement of the limbs. Ideally, supportive treatment should be started early in the disease process. However early diagnosis and monitoring progression of CPL is still a challenge. Elastin changes, characterised by morphological alterations as well as increased desmosine levels, in the skin of the distal limbs of horses affected with CPL are probably associated with a marked release of elastin degradation products, which elicit production of circulating anti-elastin antibodies (AEAbs) in the serum. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum AEAbs may document elastin breakdown. An ELISA technique was used to evaluate levels of AEAbs in sera of 97 affected Belgian Draught horses that were clinically healthy except for possible skin lesions, associated with CPL in their distal limbs. The horses were divided into 5 groups according to the severity of these skin lesions: normal horses (Group 1, n = 36), horses with mild lesions (Group 2, n = 43), horses with moderate lesions (Group 3, n = 8), horses with severe lesions (Group 4, n = 10) and, as a control, healthy Warmblood horses, unaffected by the disease (Group 5, n = 83). Horses with clinical signs of CPL had significantly higher AEAb levels compared to clinically normal Belgian Draught horses and to healthy Warmblood horses. These levels correlated with severity of lesions. CPL in draught horses is associated with an increase of serum AEAbs. Evaluation of serum levels of AEAbs by ELISA might be a useful diagnostic aid for CPL. Pathological degradation of elastic fibres, resulting in deficient support of the distal lymphatics, is proposed as a contributing factor for CPL in Belgian Draught horses.

  12. Lymphoedema: a study of Otago women treated for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R; Wasilewska, T; Carter, J

    1997-07-01

    Lymphoedema, the swollen arm that can follow treatment for breast cancer, is the build up of lymph fluid which is unable to flow normally due to the surgical removal of axillary lymph nodes or the scarring of these nodes from radiotherapy. Previous studies indicate a lack of recognition of preventative measures and treatment of lymphoedema amongst health professionals and women treated for breast cancer. There also appears to be a lack of acknowledgement of the effects that lymphoedema can have on those who develop it. Of 181 women surveyed 68 (38%) reported having developed arm swelling at some stage since their treatment, 56 (31%) of whom met the study criteria for lymphoedema. Of those with lymphoedema 21 (37%) women had not consulted anyone regarding their swollen arm; a further 10 (18%) sought advice, but were offered no treatment. Therefore, in total, 31 (55%) of the women with lymphoedema received no treatment. The remaining 25 (45%) were offered a variety of treatments. In the group of women with lymphoedema, most arm swelling occurred within the first year. For a smaller number, swelling occurred up to 25 years later. Twenty-one percent of those affected, recalled advice about its prevention, compared with 36% in the group who had not experienced lymphoedema. Lifestyles were affected in many ways, with 21 (37.5%) of the women reporting pain of varying intensity and frequency. Other effects were on dress/choice of clothing, household duties, sleep, employment and sports.

  13. Giant peno-scrotal lymphoedema: surgical considerations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic lymphoedema can affect any parts of the body, including the scrotum and penis. Massive scrotal lymphoedema with gross genital deformation is called penoscrotal elephantiasis1. Penoscrotal elephantiasis can be a functionally and emotionally incapacitating dilemma to the patients. Usually patients suffer from ...

  14. Tuberculosis Lymphoedema Cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangopadhyay Asok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoedema following cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare occurrence. A case of elephantiasis of leg following lupus vulgaris is presented. It can still be seen in rural India in untreated advanced cutaneous tuberculosis.

  15. Congenital lymphoedema of the genitalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, R. J.; Peelen, W.; Nikkels, P. G.; de Jong, T. P.

    1998-01-01

    Isolated congenital lymphoedema of the external genitalia in boys is extremely rare. It can have major physical and emotional consequences for the children. Three male patients with primary lymphoedema of the penis and scrotum are described. The first case presented with lymphoedema of the prepuce

  16. Factitious lymphoedema as a psychiatric condition mimicking reflex sympathetic dystrophy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaejike Nnamdi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Reflex sympathetic dystrophy can result in severe disability with only one in five patients able to fully resume prior activities. Therefore, it is important to diagnose this condition early and begin appropriate treatment. Factitious lymphoedema can mimic reflex sympathetic dystrophy and is caused by self-inflicted tourniquets, blows to the arm or repeated skin irritation. Patients with factitious lymphoedema have an underlying psychiatric disorder but usually present to emergency or orthopaedics departments. Factitious lymphoedema can then be misdiagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. The treatment for factitious lymphoedema is dealing with the underlying psychiatric condition. Case presentation We share our experience of treating a 33-year-old man, who presented with factitious lymphoedema, initially diagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Conclusion Awareness of this very similar differential diagnosis allows early appropriate treatment to be administered.

  17. Assessment of plasma anti-elastin antibodies for use as a diagnostic aid for chronic progressive lymphoedema in Belgian Draught Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, K; Berth, M; Christensen, N; Willaert, S; Janssens, S; Ducatelle, R; Goddeeris, B M; De Cock, H E V; Buys, N

    2015-01-15

    Diagnosis of chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) in draught horses, including the Belgian Draught Horse, is mainly based on clinical evaluation of typical lower limb lesions. A deficient perilymphatic elastic support, caused by a pathological elastin degradation in skin and subcutis, has been suggested as a contributing factor for CPL. Elastin degradation products induce the generation of anti-elastin Ab (AEAb), detectable in horse serum by ELISA. For a clinically healthy group of draught horses, a significantly lower average AEAb-level than 3 clinically affected groups (mild, moderate and severe symptoms) was demonstrated previously. To improve CPL-diagnosis, we evaluated the AEAb-ELISA as an in vitro diagnostic aid in individual horses. Test reproducibility was assessed, performing assays independently in 2 laboratories on a total of 345 horses. Possible factors associated with AEAb-levels (age, gender, pregnancy, test lab and date of blood collection) were analyzed using a mixed statistical model. Results were reproducible in both laboratories. AEAb-levels in moderately and severely affected horses were significantly higher than in healthy horses. Nevertheless, this was only demonstrated in barren mares, and, there was a very large overlap between the clinical groups. Consequently, even when a high AEAb cut-off was handled to obtain a reasonable specificity of 90%, a very low sensitivity (21%) of AEAb for CPL-diagnosis was obtained. Results on the present sample demonstrate that the described ELISA procedure is of no use as a diagnostic test for CPL in individual horses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa: a rare complication of lower limb lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar Keong, Neoh; Siing Ngi, Angelina Tang; Muniandy, Pubalan; Voon Fei, Wong

    2017-08-28

    We reported a case of a 49-year-old man who had chronic lymphoedema of bilateral lower limbs for 30 years, but he did not seek treatment. His disease was complicated with irreversible changes of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa and had recurrent admissions due to infection. He was not keen for surgical intervention. This case report illustrated a rare and non-reversible complication of a common skin disease, lymphoedema and also the importance of identifying and treating it early. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Lymphoedema management: an international intersect between developed and developing countries. Similarities, differences and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Nicole L; Brantus, Pierre; Moffatt, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic swelling condition that contributes to disability, dysfunction and lost quality of life. Significant disparities exist worldwide regarding the availability of resources necessary to identify, treat and manage lymphoedema. This disparity transcends socio-economic status and is a common problem in both developed and developing countries. The overall impact of lymphoedema as a public health problem, however, is underestimated, principally due to the lack of epidemiologic data. These problems pose barriers to optimal identification and management of this disabling, lifelong condition. In 1997, the World Health Organization (50.29) resolved that lymphatic filariasis should be eliminated as a public health problem. A component of this strategy focuses on disability management for those suffering from lymphatic filariasis-related morbidity. This initiative has enhanced lymphoedema awareness in developing countries. However, significant deficits persist in health care providers' knowledge, educational initiatives and basic disease identification and treatment. In developed countries, lymphoedema continues to be an underrecognised condition and assumed to be only cancer-related. Health care resources allocated to treat and manage the disease are insufficient for basic and ongoing care, resulting in disease progression and disability. The International Lymphoedema Framework project, established in 2002, seeks to establish a consensus for best practices in the management of lymphoedema worldwide to reduce this disability burden. A basic global construct for lymphoedema management is needed to decrease morbidity and promote optimal disease management across all cultural and socio-economic boundaries. Many countries are unaware of the importance of lymphoedema management and have not defined a national strategy with respect to this problem. The objective of this article is to define similarities and differences in strategies for lymphoedema management

  20. Progressive strength training to prevent LYmphoedema in the first year after breast CAncer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Lanng, Charlotte; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphoedema is a common late effect after breast cancer (BC) that has no effective cure once chronic. Accumulating evidence supports progressive strength training (PRT) as a safe exercise modality in relation to the onset and exacerbation of lymphoedema. In the 'preventive intervention...... against LYmphoedema after breast CAncer' (LYCA) feasibility study we examined the feasibility of a program of PRT in the first year after BC to inform a planned randomised controlled trial (RCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: LYCA was a one-group prospective pilot trial inviting women operated with axillary lymph...

  1. Lymphoedema management in breast cancer-related lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joanne

    2013-04-01

    Due to developments in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, survival rates are rising. This leads to a population of mainly women, who also experience breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL). Long after the cancer has been treated, lymphoedema persists at a time when individuals have returned to work. Large limb volumes can present a problem to these individuals and innovative treatments are needed, in order to retain as much normality as possible and reduce excessive limb volumes that patients can experience with lymphoedema long after treatment. It is also important that these treatments do not disrupt daily living and, for some, work-life balance. With the introduction of wrap around compression systems and collaborative working with the patient, it is possible to achieve an acceptable outcome to those patients with these issues. This approach leads to patient satisfaction and stabilisation of limb volume to within acceptable limits for these patients, in conjunction with the therapist.

  2. Nonparetic arm force does not overinhibit the paretic arm in chronic poststroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimyan, Michael A; Perez, Monica A; Auh, Sungyoung; Tarula, Erick; Wilson, Matthew; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether nonparetic arm force overinhibits the paretic arm in patients with chronic unilateral poststroke hemiparesis. Case-control neurophysiological and behavioral study of patients with chronic stroke. Research institution. Eighty-six referred patients were screened to enroll 9 participants (N=9) with a >6 month history of 1 unilateral ischemic infarct that resulted in arm hemiparesis with residual ability to produce 1Nm of wrist flexion torque and without contraindication to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Eight age- and handedness-matched healthy volunteers without neurologic diagnosis were studied for comparison. Not applicable. Change in interhemispheric inhibition targeting the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) during nonparetic arm force. We hypothesized that interhemispheric inhibition would increase more in healthy controls than in patients with hemiparesis. Healthy age-matched controls had significantly greater increases in inhibition from their active to resting M1 than patients with stroke from their active contralesional to resting ipsilesional M1 in the same scenario (20%±7% vs -1%±4%, F1,12=6.61, P=.025). Patients with greater increases in contralesional to ipsilesional inhibition were better performers on the 9-hole peg test of paretic arm function. Our findings reveal that producing force with the nonparetic arm does not necessarily overinhibit the paretic arm. Though our study is limited in generalizability by the small sample size, we found that greater active contralesional to resting ipsilesional M1 inhibition was related with better recovery in this subset of patients with chronic poststroke. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Manual lymphatic drainage therapy in patients with breast cancer related lymphoedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Helena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphoedema is a common and troublesome condition that develops following breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage in the treatment of postmastectomy lymphoedema in order to reduce the volume of lymphoedema and evaluate the improvement of the concomitant symptomatology. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial in 58 women with post-mastectomy lymphoedema. The control group includes 29 patients with standard treatment (skin care, exercise and compression measures, bandages for one month and, subsequently, compression garnments. The experimental group includes 29 patients with standard treatment plus Manual Lymphatic Drainage. The therapy will be administered daily for four weeks and the patient's condition will be assessed one, three and six months after treatment. The primary outcome parameter is volume reduction of the affected arm after treatment, expressed as a percentage. Secondary outcome parameters include: duration of lymphoedema reduction and improvement of the concomitant symptomatology (degree of pain, sensation of swelling and functional limitation in the affected extremity, subjective feeling of being physically less atractive and less feminine, difficulty looking at oneself naked and dissatisfaction with the corporal image. Discussion The results of this study will provide information on the effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage and its impact on the quality of life and physical limitations of these patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT01152099

  4. [Kinesiotaping--treatment of upper limb lymphoedema in patients after breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubińska, Agnieszka; Mosiejczuk, Hanna; Rotter, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of lymphatic kinesiotaping in patients after unilateral breast cancer surgery. Complex decongestive therapy in patients after right-side breast-conserving surgery was done once a week for 2 months (from November to December 2014). It involved manual lymph drainage and lymphatic application of kinesiotaping. An original kinesiology tape (Nitto Denko, Japan) was used for the treatment. Lymphoedema was measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment in centimetres in specific places: metatarsal, wrist, at the mid-length of the forearm, in the elbow and at the mid-length of the upper arm. The volume of oedema was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. The reduction of lymphoedema in different places. Kinesiotaping may be an alternative method in relation to the use of materials in complex decongestive therapy. However, this technique requires further research.

  5. Psychological consequences of lymphoedema associated with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Olsen, Maja Halgren; Zinckernagel, Line

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective cohort study of women attending a rehabilitation course at the Dallund Rehabilitation Centre was to explore the emotional and psychological aspects of living with lymphoedema, expressed as psychological distress, poorer quality of life and poorer self...... times. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of women with breast cancer, women with lymphoedema after surgery for breast cancer had significantly worse overall emotional well-being and adjustment to life compared to women without lymphoedema....

  6. Training the Unimpaired Arm Improves the Motion of the Impaired Arm and the Sitting Balance in Chronic Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Alice; Giannoni, Psiche; Vernetti, Honore; Capra, Cristina; Lentino, Carmelo; Checchia, Giovanni Antonio; Casadio, Maura

    2017-07-01

    Robot-assisted rehabilitation of stroke survivors mainly focuses on the impaired side of the body while the role of the unimpaired side in the recovery after stroke is still controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence on sitting balance and paretic arm functions of a training protocol based on movements of the unimpaired arm. Sixteen chronic stroke survivors underwent nineteen training sessions, in which they performed active movements with the unimpaired arm supported by a passive exoskeleton. Performance of the trunk and upper limbs was evaluated before treatment, after treatment and at six months follow up with clinical scales and an instrumented evaluation. A reaching test executed with the exoskeleton was used to assess changes in performance of both arms. The treatment based on the unimpaired arm's movements executed with a correct body posture led to benefits in control of the trunk and of both the trained and the untrained arm. The amount of impaired arm improvement in the Fugl-Meyer score was comparable to the outcome of robotic treatments focused directly on this arm. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account all body schema in the rehabilitation robotic program, instead of focusing only on the impaired side of the body.

  7. Renegotiating hope while living with lymphoedema after cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, R; Thomas, R

    2016-09-01

    Hope is defined as a multi-dimensional life force, a coping resource and a necessity for coping with illness. Concepts of normalcy, hope and loss are explored in this qualitative study and positioned within recent scholarship on hope in cancer survivors. The experiences of 13 participants (11 women, 2 men) in two Canadian provinces who were living with lymphoedema secondary to cancer were analysed. For these participants, hope assumed various meanings. For some, hope was seen as passive inaction, whereas hope for others was positive and action-oriented, even when faced with the uncertainty of chronic illness. Hope for the individual with lymphoedema is also juxtaposed with hope associated with cancer treatment where a desired return to normal is the object of hope and paramount to coping. However, when met with the chronic nature of lymphoedema, the hope of a return to normalcy is lost and the meaning, direction and actions of hope must be renegotiated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A new concept of a multidisciplinary lymphoedema centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkballe, S; Karlsmark, T; Noerregaard, S

    2012-01-01

    Lymphoedema is increasingly recognized as a significant problem in healthcare. The number of patients is growing, posing a future challenge to healthcare systems and economics. Over the past decade, specialized lymphoedema management has been established around the world to accommodate the growin...

  9. The management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Definition. Breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) is a secondary form of lymphoedema and a major complication of post-breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy. It occurs when the network of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes is damaged by disease, surgery or radiotherapy. The lymph, a protein-rich fluid, then ...

  10. Lymphoedema of the lower limbs: management problems in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigun, A I; Ogundipe, O K

    2008-01-01

    Lymphoedema is a clinical condition involving the extremities that is characterized by accumulation of protein rich fluid within the intercellular space of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue. It most frequently occurs in the extremities. Developing countries are mostly faced with cases of secondary lymphoedema where patients present lately. In addition to swollen limbs, there are lot of skin changes on the affected limb, these create a lot of problems to the managing clinician. We hereby present five cases out of several patients managed to highlight the challenges. We review the case notes of three patients managed by our unit and present the summary of each patient. Majority of our patients present late to the hospital, mainly because of the socio-cultural and spiritual beliefs concerning the aetiology of the condition. Most of them have visited the spiritualist, herbalist and the clergymen for solution. Clinicians in the developing countries are seriously handicapped by lack of modern equipment for both diagnostic and therapeutic management of these clinical conditions. Chronic lymphoedema is a major cause of permanent disability. Excisional surgery such as Charles procedure even though old is still very much relevant in our environment. Patients need to be enlightened on the need for early presentation, adequate post-operative care and prolonged follow-up.

  11. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis......, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy...... in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical...

  12. Double autologous lymph node transplantation (ALNT) at the level of the knee and inguinal region for advanced lymphoedema of the lower limb (elephantiasis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Martín, C; Murillo, C; Maldonado, A A; Cristóbal, L; Fernández-Cañamaque, J L

    2014-02-01

    Primary lower-limb lymphoedema is a chronic, progressive and debilitating condition with a difficult management, especially in advanced cases (elephantiasis). Recently, autologous lymph node transplantation (ALNT) appears to be a promising treatment for extremity lymphoedema. A case of a double ALNT for an advanced primary lower-limb lymphoedema is here reported: a contralateral inguinal lymph node flap was transferred to the knee and, in a second surgery, a thoracic lymph node flap was transplanted to the inguinal region. Clinical outcomes at 5 months postoperatively are very satisfactory with reduction in limb circumferences and improvement in skin quality and social impairment. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lymphatic filariasis-specific immune responses in relation to lymphoedema grade and infection status. I. Cellular responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N. O.; Bloch, P.; Simonsen, P. E.

    2002-01-01

    leg lymphoedema of varying severity ranging from early to more advanced grades (pathology groups 1-5). Another group comprised individuals with mixed grades of lymphoedema and positive for mf and/or CFA (mixed pathology group). Three asymptomatic groups consisted of individuals without leg pathology...... in uninfected as compared to infected individuals. High levels of IL-10 were observed in asymptomatic individuals without infection and in asymptomatic CFA-positive but mf-negative individuals. Asymptomatic individuals with mf had relatively low IL-10 levels. Groups presenting with chronic pathology generally......The filariasis-specific cellular responsiveness was assessed in 109 adult individuals from a Wuchereria bancrofti-endemic area in north-east Tanzania. There were 9 study groups. Five groups of individuals were negative for microfilariae (mf) and specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and had...

  14. Gravity-supported exercise with computer gaming improves arm function in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kimberlee; Sampson, Michael; King, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of 4 to 6 weeks of exergaming with a computer mouse embedded within an arm skate on upper limb function in survivors of chronic stroke. Intervention study with a 4-week postintervention follow-up. In home. Survivors (N=13) of chronic (≥6 mo) stroke with hemiparesis of the upper limb with stable baseline Fugl-Meyer assessment scores received the intervention. One participant withdrew, and 2 participants were not reassessed at the 4-week follow-up. No participants withdrew as a result of adverse effects. Four to 6 weeks of exergaming using the arm skate where participants received either 9 (n=5) or 16 (n=7) hours of game play. Upper limb component of the Fugl-Meyer assessment. There was an average increase in the Fugl-Meyer upper limb assessment score from the beginning to end of the intervention of 4.9 points. At the end of the 4-week period after the intervention, the increase was 4.4 points. A 4- to 6-week intervention using the arm skate significantly improved arm function in survivors of chronic stroke by an average of 4.9 Fugl-Meyer upper limb assessment points. This research shows that a larger-scale randomized trial of this device is warranted and highlights the potential value of using virtual reality technology (eg, computer games) in a rehabilitation setting. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of chronic back pain on kinematic reactions to unpredictable arm pulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Martin; Ernst, Michael; Koch, Markus; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence that muscle reflexes are delayed in patients with chronic low back pain in response to perturbations. It is still unrevealed whether these delays accompanied by an altered kinematic or compensated by adaption of other muscle parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic low back pain patients show an altered kinematic reaction and if such data are reliable for the classification of chronic low back pain. In an experiment involving 30 females, sudden lateral perturbations were applied to the arm of a subject in an upright, standing position. Kinematics was used to distinguish between chronic low back pain patients and healthy controls. A calculated model of a stepwise discriminant function analysis correctly predicted 100% of patients and 80% of healthy controls. The estimation of the classification error revealed a constant rate for the classification of the healthy controls and a slightly decreased rate for the patients. Observed reflex delays and identified kinematic differences inside and outside the region of pain during impaired movement indicated that chronic low back pain patients have an altered motor control that is not restricted to the lumbo-pelvic region. This applied paradigm of external perturbations can be used to detect chronic low back pain patients and also persons without chronic low back pain but with an altered motor control. Further investigations are essential to reveal whether healthy persons with changes in motor function have an increased potential to develop chronic back pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiological features of late-onset lymphoedema in Noonan's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Wan-Ling; Wang, Jou-Kou; Li, Yiu-Wah

    2003-01-01

    Noonan's syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with diverse manifestations. Lymphatic abnormalities occur in less than 20% of patients. We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with swollen lower limbs and dysmorphic features characteristic of Noonan's syndrome. The radiological features of this unusual case of late-onset lymphoedema in association with Noonan's syndrome are presented. (orig.)

  17. Radiological features of late-onset lymphoedema in Noonan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wan-Ling; Wang, Jou-Kou; Li, Yiu-Wah

    2003-03-01

    Noonan's syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with diverse manifestations. Lymphatic abnormalities occur in less than 20% of patients. We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with swollen lower limbs and dysmorphic features characteristic of Noonan's syndrome. The radiological features of this unusual case of late-onset lymphoedema in association with Noonan's syndrome are presented.

  18. Conservative interventions for preventing clinically detectable upper-limb lymphoedema in patients who are at risk of developing lymphoedema after breast cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, Martijn M.; ten Tusscher, Marieke R.; Agasi-Idenburg, Carla S.; Lucas, Cees; Aaronson, Neil K.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer-related lymphoedema can be a debilitating long-term sequela of breast cancer treatment. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of different treatment strategies to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Objectives To assess the effects of

  19. Chronic prenatal caffeine exposure impairs novel object recognition and radial arm maze behaviors in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soellner, Deborah E; Grandys, Theresa; Nuñez, Joseph L

    2009-12-14

    In this report, we demonstrate that chronic prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of caffeine disrupts novel object recognition and radial arm maze behaviors in adult male and female rats. Pregnant dams were administered either tap water or 75 mg/L caffeinated tap water throughout gestation. Oral self-administration in the drinking water led to an approximate maternal intake of 10mg/kg/day, equivalent to 2-3 cups of coffee/day in humans based on a metabolic body weight conversion. In adulthood, the offspring underwent testing on novel object recognition, radial arm maze, and Morris water maze tasks. Prenatal caffeine exposure was found to impair 24-h memory retention in the novel object recognition task and impair both working and reference memory in the radial arm maze. However, prenatal caffeine exposure did not alter Morris water maze performance in either a simple water maze procedure or in an advanced water maze procedure that included reversal and working memory paradigms. These findings demonstrate that chronic oral intake of caffeine throughout gestation can alter adult cognitive behaviors in rats.

  20. Computer Aided Measurement Laser (CAML): technique to quantify post-mastectomy lymphoedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Felici, Antonella; Ljoka, Concetta; Foti, Calogero; Cori, Sandro Di; Rosato, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Lymphoedema can be a side effect of cancer treatment. Eventhough several methods for assessing lymphoedema are used in clinical practice, an objective quantification of lymphoedema has been problematic. The aim of the study was to determine the objectivity, reliability and repeatability of the computer aided measurement laser (CAML) technique. CAML technique is based on computer aided design (CAD) methods and requires an infrared laser scanner. Measurements are scanned and the information describing size and shape of the limb allows to design the model by using the CAD software. The objectivity and repeatability was established in the beginning using a phantom. Consequently a group of subjects presenting post-breast cancer lymphoedema was evaluated using as a control the contralateral limb. Results confirmed that in clinical settings CAML technique is easy to perform, rapid and provides meaningful data for assessing lymphoedema. Future research will include a comparison of upper limb CAML technique between healthy subjects and patients with known lymphoedema.

  1. Design and implementation of a training strategy in chronic stroke with an arm robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoli, Antonio; Sotgiu, Edoardo; Procopio, Caterina; Bergamasco, Massimo; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2011-01-01

    The distinguishing features of active exoskeletons are the capability of guiding arm movement at the level of the full kinematic chain of the human arm, and training full 3D spatial movements. We have specifically developed a PD sliding mode control for upper limb rehabilitation with gain scheduling for providing "assistance as needed", according to the force capability of the patient, and an automatic measurement of the impaired arm joint torques, to evaluate the hypertonia associated to the movement during the execution of the training exercise. Two different training tasks in Virtual Reality were devised, that make use of the above control, and allow to make a performance based evaluation of patient's motor status. The PERCRO L-Exos (Light-Exoskeleton) was used to evaluate the proposed algorithms and training exercises in two clinical case studies of patients with chronic stroke, that performed 6 weeks of robotic assisted training. Clinical evaluation (Fugl-Meyer Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale, Bimanual Activity Test) was conducted before and after treatment and compared to the scores and the quantitative indices, such as task time, position/joint error and resistance torques, associated to the training exercises. © 2011 IEEE

  2. The Danish version of Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire (Lymph-ICF) for breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Karin R; Devoogdt, Nele; Strand, Liv Inger

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To translate and culturally adapt the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire (Lymph-ICF) for breast cancer survivors with arm lymphedema into Danish and examine its content validity and reliability. METHODS: (1) Translation and cultural adaptation was performed in 10...... steps following international guidelines (International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcome Research); (2) cognitive interviewing (step 7) was conducted in 15 women with breast cancer related arm lymphedema to explore understandability, interpretation, and cultural relevance; (3) after adjustments...... for the domains ranged from 0.84 to 0.94. SEM values differed for the domains, 6.4 (physical function), 5.7 (mobility activities), 7.09 (life and social activities), 9.1 (mental functions), and 10.2 (household activities). CONCLUSION: The translated and adjusted Lymph-ICF DK (Denmark) is reliable and valid...

  3. Factors associated with psychological distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that lymphoedema impacts negatively on an individual, including psychological distress and body image disturbance, particularly for younger women. This study identified psychological factors associated with distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema and determined whether age moderated the specific relationship between body image disturbance and distress. Australian women (n = 166) diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphoedema were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organisation and lymphoedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online survey assessing lymphoedema-related cognitions (personal control, perceived treatment effectiveness, and consequences of lymphoedema), perceived ability to self-regulate lymphoedema-related negative affect, body image disturbance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and demographic/medical information. Beliefs about the consequences, perceived effectiveness of treatment and controllability of lymphoedema, perceived ability to self-regulate negative affect, body image disturbance, and number of lymphoedema symptoms were correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that body image disturbance was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, and perceived treatment effectiveness was associated with stress. Age was a significant moderator of the relationship between body image disturbance and depression and anxiety, with older women with greater body image disturbance more distressed. Health professionals need to be aware that women diagnosed with lymphoedema are at risk of experiencing psychological distress, particularly arising from body image disturbance and beliefs that treatment cannot control lymphoedema. Furthermore, older women may be at an increased risk of anxiety and depression arising from body image disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  4. Dynamic lymph flow scintigraphy in lymphoedema: Description of a new procedure and normal and abnormal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, K.; Hamad, M.M.; Sadek, S.; Awdeh, M.; Eklof, B.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic study of lymphatic flow was performed in 23 patients complaining of lymphoedema of the lower limbs. All were injected intradermally with 1 mCi (37 MBq) of 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in the medial web on the dorsum of each foot. Image acquisition for the lower pelvis and both thighs was started within 5 min. A GE 500A gamma camera with an extra-large field of view and a low energy, all purpose collimator interfaced with a GE Star computer was used. Images were acquired in the dynamic mode with a 128x128 matrix every minute up to 40 min. Delayed images for the same region and for both legs were taken at 90 min. Time-activity curves for equal regions of interest over the inguinal regions on both sides were generated. Three patterns were recognized. (1) Normal flow (12 patients) with symmetrical or slightly increased or decreased flow on one side compared with the other, characterized by early appearance of medial bands and inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes in the early and delayed images. (2) An obstructed pattern (5 patients) characterized by subcutaneous pooling, absent medial bands in the dynamic part of the study, a flat curve on the affected side representing background activity, and absent inguinal and pelvic nodes in the delayed images. Occasionally the obstruction was incomplete and there was a delayed appearance of the nodes, which were less in number and smaller in size than on the normal side. (3) An enhanced pattern (6 patients) characterized by fast flow of lymph through the dilated lymphatics, occasionally subcutaneous pooling and an increase in the number and size of inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes on the affected side. The authors conclude that intradermal injection of 99 Tcsup(m)-HSA can be used to study the pathophysiology of lymphatic flow in the most difficult group of patients suffering from chronic lymphoedema of the lower limbs

  5. Primary lower limb lymphoedema. Classification with non-contrast MR lymphography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrive, Lionel; Derhy, S.; El Mouhadi, S.; Monnier-Cholley, L.; Menu, Y. [Saint-Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Universite Paris 06, Faculte de Medecine Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Dahan, B. [Cochin Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Paris (France); Becker, C. [HEGP, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Paris (France)

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the performance of non-contrast MR lymphography for the classification of primary lower limb lymphoedema in 121 consecutive patients with 187 primary lower limb lymphoedemas. 121 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed primary lower limb lymphoedema underwent non-contrast MR lymphography with a free-breathing 3D fast spin-echo sequence with a very long TR/TE (4000/884 ms). MR examinations were retrospectively reviewed for severity of lymphoedema (absent, mild, moderate, severe) and characteristics of inguinal lymph nodes and iliac and inguinal lymphatic trunks graded as aplasic (no lymph nodes or lymphatic trunks), hypoplasic (less lymph nodes or lymphatic trunks), normal and hyperplasic (more lymph nodes or more and/or dilated trunks). There was an excellent correlation between clinical stage and severity of lymphoedema (Cramer's V of 0,73 (p < 0.001)). Differentiation was feasible between inguinal lymphatic vessel aplasia (21%), hypoplasia (15%), normal pattern (53%) and hyperplasia (11%). Severe lymphoedema was observed in 46% of aplasic patterns and in 37% of hyperplasic patterns, but in only 15% of hypoplasic patterns and never observed in normal patterns (p < 0.001). Non-contrast MR lymphography is able to classify primary lower limb lymphoedemas into hyperplasic, aplasic, hypoplasic and normal patterns. (orig.)

  6. Lymphoscintigraphy in paediatric patients for suspected lymphoedema: normal variants, abnormal and syndromic patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, T.; Howman-Giles, R.; Martin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Background: Lymphoscintigraphy (LS) is the diagnostic test of choice differentiating lymphoedema from other causes of extremity swelling. The LS patterns in normal and congenital lymphoedema in the paediatric population are not well defined. The impact of LS on clinical decision making is also not well reported. Aims: 1. define normal LS patterns in the pediatric population 2. describe types of abnormality (aplasia, hypoplasia, hyperplasia/dilated system) 3. describe LS patterns in syndromic lymphatic vascular disease 4. correlate LS with clinical impact on patient management. Methods: Retrospective review of all paediatric patients who had LS from July 1996-April 2008 was undertaken. Indications, sites of abnormality, LS patterns and clinical outcome were reviewed. Results: 118 patients (3mths-21yrs, mean 6 yrs) underwent LS. Normal LS patterns and variations were identified in 57 pts (48%). Sixty-one scans (52%) were abnormal showing lymph node aplasia (11%), hypoplasia (17%), mixed-pattern (8%), hyperplasia/dilated system (4%) and other patterns ie intestinal/pulmonary lymphangiectasia and vascual lymphatic malformations (11%). Patients with no signs of lymphoedema may still have aplasia or hypoplasia on LS. Dermal back flow is not always seen in lymphoedema. Management impact related to diagnosis and potential for development of lymphoedema in other limbs, differentiation of lymphoedema in patients with other vascular anomalies, stratification for lymphoedema therapy or referral to the dysmorphology clinic. Conclusion: LS is a valuable tool in the evaluation of lymphoedema in pediatric patients. Recognition of scan patterns in patients with suspected lymphoedema or lymphatic vascular diseases is essential as it plays a major role in the clinical management.

  7. Health-related quality of life in melanoma patients: Impact of melanoma-related limb lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Groenvold, Mogens; Hendel, Helle W; Dahlstroem, Karin; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Klausen, Tobias W; Hölmich, Lisbet R

    2017-11-01

    To explore health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in recurrence-free melanoma patients, with a focus on the association between melanoma-related limb lymphoedema and HRQoL. HRQoL was evaluated using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the breast cancer module (EORTC QLQ-BR23) subscales body image and future perspective, the Functional Assessment for Cancer Therapy-General subscale social/family well-being and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Data were analysed using linear and ordinal logistic regression adjusting for age and gender. A total of 431 melanoma patients who had undergone wide local excision and axillary or inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or complete lymph node dissection (CLND) participated. No patients had had recurrence of the disease or had received adjuvant radiotherapy. The HRQoL scores improved with time after surgery. Melanoma-related limb lymphoedema was present in 109 patients (25%). Patients with lymphoedema had significantly worse HRQoL scores in the EORTC QLQ-C30 subscales global health status/quality of life, role and social functioning, fatigue, pain and financial difficulties, as well as in the QLQ-BR23 body image subscale. No associations were found between the limb affected (upper or lower limb), clinical stage of lymphoedema, duration of lymphoedema or type of surgery (SLNB or CLND) and HRQoL. We found an interaction with age and gender in the associations between lymphoedema and HRQoL: younger patients and women with lymphoedema had worse social functioning and women had significantly more impaired body image. The negative impact of melanoma-related limb lymphoedema on HRQoL emphasises the importance of developing strategies for increasing awareness and improving prevention and treatment of lymphoedema. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of lymphoedema and quality of life among patients attending a hospital-based wound management and vascular clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gethin, Georgina

    2012-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic, incurable, debilitating condition, usually affecting a limb and causes discomfort, pain, heaviness, limited motion, unsatisfactory appearance and impacts on quality of life. However, there is a paucity of prevalence data on this condition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of lymphoedema among persons attending wound management and vascular clinics in an acute tertiary referral hospital. Four hundred and eighteen patients meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed. A prevalence rate of 2.63% (n = 11) was recorded. Thirty-six percent (n = 4) had history of cellulitis and broken skin, 64% (n = 7) had history of broken skin and 36% (n = 4) had undergone treatment for venous leg ulcers. The most common co-morbidities were hypertension 55% (n = 6), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) 27% (n = 3), hypercholesterolemia 36% (n = 4) and type 2 diabetes 27% (n = 3). Quality of life scores identified that physical functioning was the domain most affected among this group. This study has identified the need to raise awareness of this condition among clinicians working in the area of wound management.

  9. Use of compression garments by women with lymphoedema secondary to breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, E; Dylke, E S; Kilbreath, S L

    2018-02-19

    This aim of this study was to determine the use of compression garments by women with lymphoedema secondary to breast cancer treatment and factors which underpin use. An online survey was distributed to the Survey and Review group of the Breast Cancer Network Australia. The survey included questions related to the participants' demographics, breast cancer and lymphoedema medical history, prescription and use of compression garments and their beliefs about compression and lymphoedema. Data were analysed using principal component analysis and multivariable logistic regression. Compression garments had been prescribed to 83% of 201 women with lymphoedema within the last 5 years, although 37 women had discontinued their use. Even when accounting for severity of swelling, type of garment(s) and advice given for use varied across participants. Use of compression garments was driven by women's beliefs that they were vulnerable to progression of their disease and that compression would prevent its worsening. Common reasons given as to why women had discontinued their use included discomfort, and their lymphoedema was stable. Participant characteristics associated with discontinuance of compression garments included their belief that (i) the garments were not effective in managing their condition, (ii) experienced mild-moderate swelling and/or (iii) had experienced swelling for greater than 5 years. The prescription of compression garments for lymphoedema is highly varied and may be due to lack of underpinning evidence to inform treatment.

  10. Estimating outcomes and cost effectiveness using a single-arm clinical trial: ofatumumab for double-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hatswell, Anthony J.; Thompson, Gwilym J.; Maroudas, Penny A.; Sofrygin, Oleg; Delea, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Ofatumumab (Arzerra?, Novartis) is a treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab [double refractory (DR-CLL)]. Ofatumumab was licensed on the basis of an uncontrolled Phase II study, Hx-CD20-406, in which patients receiving ofatumumab survived for a median of 13.9?months. However, the lack of an internal control arm presents an obstacle for the estimation of comparative effectiveness. Methods The objective of the study was to present a metho...

  11. Effects of intensive arm training with the rehabilitation robot ARMin II in chronic stroke patients: four single-cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nef Tobias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robot-assisted therapy offers a promising approach to neurorehabilitation, particularly for severely to moderately impaired stroke patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intensive arm training on motor performance in four chronic stroke patients using the robot ARMin II. Methods ARMin II is an exoskeleton robot with six degrees of freedom (DOF moving shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. Four volunteers with chronic (≥ 12 months post-stroke left side hemi-paresis and different levels of motor severity were enrolled in the study. They received robot-assisted therapy over a period of eight weeks, three to four therapy sessions per week, each session of one hour. Patients 1 and 4 had four one-hour training sessions per week and patients 2 and 3 had three one-hour training sessions per week. Primary outcome variable was the Fugl-Meyer Score of the upper extremity Assessment (FMA, secondary outcomes were the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT, the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS, the Maximal Voluntary Torques (MVTs and a questionnaire about ADL-tasks, progress, changes, motivation etc. Results Three out of four patients showed significant improvements (p Conclusion Data clearly indicate that intensive arm therapy with the robot ARMin II can significantly improve motor function of the paretic arm in some stroke patients, even those in a chronic state. The findings of the study provide a basis for a subsequent controlled randomized clinical trial.

  12. Preliminary results of training with gravity compensation of the arm in chronic stroke survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Herman; Prange, Grada Berendina; Prange, G.B.; Krabben, T.; Krabben, T.; Renzenbrink, G.H.; Boer, J.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Jannink, M.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    After stroke, arm function can be limited by a reduction in the selectivity of movements, due to involuntary coupling of shoulder abduction and elbow flexion, limiting the ability to reach. Gravity compensation of the arm reduces the required active shoulder abduction torques, which results in a

  13. Robot-assisted reaching exercise promotes arm movement recovery in chronic hemiparetic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymer W Zev

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Providing active assistance to complete desired arm movements is a common technique in upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke. Such active assistance may improve recovery by affecting somatosensory input, motor planning, spasticity or soft tissue properties, but it is labor intensive and has not been validated in controlled trials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of robotically administered active-assistive exercise and compare those with free reaching voluntary exercise in improving arm movement ability after chronic stroke. Methods Nineteen individuals at least one year post-stroke were randomized into one of two groups. One group performed 24 sessions of active-assistive reaching exercise with a simple robotic device, while a second group performed a task-matched amount of unassisted reaching. The main outcome measures were range and speed of supported arm movement, range, straightness and smoothness of unsupported reaching, and the Rancho Los Amigos Functional Test of Upper Extremity Function. Results and discussion There were significant improvements with training for range of motion and velocity of supported reaching, straightness of unsupported reaching, and functional movement ability. These improvements were not significantly different between the two training groups. The group that performed unassisted reaching exercise improved the smoothness of their reaching movements more than the robot-assisted group. Conclusion Improvements with both forms of exercise confirmed that repeated, task-related voluntary activation of the damaged motor system is a key stimulus to motor recovery following chronic stroke. Robotically assisting in reaching successfully improved arm movement ability, although it did not provide any detectable, additional value beyond the movement practice that occurred concurrently with it. The inability to detect any additional value of robot-assisted reaching

  14. Pulsatile dry cupping in chronic low back pain - a randomized three-armed controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teut, M; Ullmann, A; Ortiz, M; Rotter, G; Binting, S; Cree, M; Lotz, F; Roll, S; Brinkhaus, B

    2018-04-02

    We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of two different forms of dry pulsatile cupping in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) compared to medication on demand only in a three-armed randomized trial. 110 cLBP patients were randomized to regular pulsatile cupping with 8 treatments plus paracetamol on demand (n = 37), minimal cupping with 8 treatments plus paracetamol on demand (n = 36) or the control group with paracetamol on demand only (n = 37). Primary outcome was the pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-100 mm) after 4 weeks, secondary outcome parameter included VAS pain intensity after 12 weeks, back function as measured with the 'Funktionsfragebogen Hannover Rücken' (FFbH-R) and health related quality of life questionnaire Short form 36 (SF-36) after 4 and 12 weeks. The mean baseline-adjusted VAS after 4 weeks was 34.9 mm (95% CI: 28.7; 41.2) for pulsatile cupping, 40.4 (34.2; 46.7) for minimal cupping and 56.1 (49.8; 62.4) for control group, resulting in statistically significant differences between pulsatile cupping vs. control (21.2 (12.2; 30.1); p back function after 4 weeks, but not after 12 weeks (- 5.4 (- 11.7;0.8); p = 0.088), pulsatile cupping also showed better improvements on SF-36 physical component scale compared to control at 4 and 12 weeks (- 5.6 (- 9.3;-2.0); p = 0.003; - 6.1 (- 9.9;-2.4); p = 0.002). For back function and quality of life minimal cupping group was not statistically different to control after 4 and 12 weeks. Paracetamol intake did not differ between the groups (cupping vs. control (7.3 (- 0.4;15.0); p = 0.063); minimal cupping vs. control (6.3 (- 2.0;14.5); p = 0.133). Both forms of cupping were effective in cLBP without showing significant differences in direct comparison after four weeks, only pulsatile cupping showed effects compared to control after 12 weeks. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02090686 ).

  15. Incidence and Severity of Lymphoedema following Limb Salvage of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Friedmann

    2011-01-01

    Material and Method. Patient and tumor characteristics, treatment modalities and complications and functional outcomes (MSTS 1987, TESS, and lymphoedema severity (Stern were all collected from prospective databases. Charts were retrospectively abstracted for BMI and comorbidities. Results. There were 289 patients (158 males. Mean age was 53 (16–88. Followup ranged between 12 and 60 months with an average of 35 and a median of 36 months. Mean BMI was 27.4 (15.8–52.1. 72% had lower extremity tumors and 38% upper extremity. Mean tumor size was 8.1 cm (1.0–35.6 cm. 27% had no adjuvant radiation, 62% had 50 Gy, and 11% received 66 Gy. The incidence of lymphoedema was 28.8% (206 none, 58 mild, 22 moderate, 3 severe, and 0 very severe. Mean MSTS score was 32 (11–35 and TESS was 89.4 (32.4–100. Radiation dose was significantly correlated with tumor size>5 cm (P=0.0001 and TESS score (P=0.001, but not MSTS score (P=0.090. Only tumor size>5 cm and depth were found to be independent predictors of significant lymphoedema. Conclusion. Nine percent of STS patients in our cohort developed significant (grade≥2 lymphoedema. Tumor size>5 cm and deep tumors were associated with an increased occurrence of lymphoedema but not radiation dosage.

  16. Prognosis, with evaluation of general biochemistry, of liver disease in lymphoedema cholestasis syndrome 1 (LCS1/Aagenaes syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivdal, Monica; Trydal, Torleif; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Bergstad, Ingunn; Aagenaes, Oystein

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the prognosis of liver disease in Aagenaes syndrome (lymphoedema cholestasis syndrome 1 (LCS1)), which is an autosomal recessive inherited syndrome consisting of neonatal cholestasis with intermittent cholestatic episodes in childhood into adulthood and development of lymphoedema. Forty Norwegian patients are known to have this condition, 25 of whom are alive. A clinical description of the liver disease is supplied with a case-control study. In this paper we review the course of the liver disease in the Norwegian cohort of patients and present results from a case-control study in the patients above 10 years of age. The case-control study was performed on 15 patients without clinical cholestasis (itching and sometimes jaundice) at the time of the study. An evaluation of 11 patients above 15 years of age without chronic biochemical cholestasis (increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and/or serum bile acids) was also carried out. For each patient one randomly identified control person was included (15 in one study, 11 in the other). Cirrhosis with either transplantation or death in infancy or early childhood occurred in six patients; slowly developing cirrhosis occurred in three patients. Two patients may be in the process of developing cirrhosis. Significantly increased ALP and GGT levels were found in patients with normal liver biochemistry in the preceding years when compared with the case control group. Additionally, albumin was found to be lower in older patients. Compared with that for other types of hereditary neonatal cholestasis, patients with LCS1 have a relatively good prognosis. More than 50% can expect a normal life span.

  17. Social disclosure about lymphoedema symptoms: A qualitative study among Japanese breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Miyako; Horn, Sandra; Ingham, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Disclosing illness-related problems is the first step in help-seeking. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Japanese breast cancer (BC) survivors' decision-making about disclosure of lymphoedema symptoms to people in their social networks. A total of ten women participated in group discussions in Japan. A dual analytic approach, thematic analysis and conceptual analysis, was applied to the transcripts. Two themes (perceived responsibility of social roles within the family and unsupportive reactions to BC from others) affected participants' decision-making. Support programs for Japanese BC survivors who feel unable to disclose lymphoedema symptoms to family members are suggested.

  18. Yoga, breast cancer-related lymphoedema and well-being: A descriptive report of women's participation in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Annette; Barnett, Tony; Williams, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    To describe the experiences of women taking part in a yoga intervention trial for breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Around 20% of women will experience lymphoedema as a consequence of treatment for breast cancer. Specialist lymphoedema clearing, along with self-management, remains the mainstay of therapy. Yoga, an increasingly popular complementary therapeutic practice, may provide another tool to augment self-management. A qualitative, descriptive design. Interviews were conducted with 15 women with stage one breast cancer-related lymphoedema who had completed an 8-week yoga intervention trial. The intervention consisted of a weekly teacher-led 1.5-hr yoga class and a daily home practice using a 45-min DVD. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. These data were then analysed using an iterative-thematic approach. Participants reported improved well-being, increased awareness of their physical body as well as improved physical, mental and social functioning. They gained from being part of the yoga group that also provided a forum for them to share their experiences. Nine women felt empowered to describe their yoga participation as a transformative journey through illness. When safe to do so, the holistic practice of yoga may augment and provide additional benefit to current self-management and treatment practices for women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Patients with breast cancer-related lymphoedema may seek advice and guidance from nurses and other healthcare professionals on a range of complementary therapies to help relieve symptoms and promote recovery. Patients who choose to augment their treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema by practicing yoga should be carefully assessed, be taught an appropriate technique by a qualified yoga teacher/therapist and its impact monitored by their yoga teacher/therapist, breast care nurse, lymphoedema therapist or treating clinician. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Estimating outcomes and cost effectiveness using a single-arm clinical trial: ofatumumab for double-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatswell, Anthony J; Thompson, Gwilym J; Maroudas, Penny A; Sofrygin, Oleg; Delea, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    Ofatumumab (Arzerra ® , Novartis) is a treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab [double refractory (DR-CLL)]. Ofatumumab was licensed on the basis of an uncontrolled Phase II study, Hx-CD20-406, in which patients receiving ofatumumab survived for a median of 13.9 months. However, the lack of an internal control arm presents an obstacle for the estimation of comparative effectiveness. The objective of the study was to present a method to estimate the cost effectiveness of ofatumumab in the treatment of DR-CLL. As no suitable historical control was available for modelling, the outcomes from non-responders to ofatumumab were used to model the effect of best supportive care (BSC). This was done via a Cox regression to control for differences in baseline characteristics between groups. This analysis was included in a partitioned survival model built in Microsoft ® Excel with utilities and costs taken from published sources, with costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were discounted at a rate of 3.5% per annum. Using the outcomes seen in non-responders, ofatumumab is expected to add approximately 0.62 life years (1.50 vs. 0.88). Using published utility values this translates to an additional 0.30 QALYs (0.77 vs. 0.47). At the list price, ofatumumab had a cost per QALY of £130,563, and a cost per life year of £63,542. The model was sensitive to changes in assumptions regarding overall survival estimates and utility values. This study demonstrates the potential of using data for non-responders to model outcomes for BSC in cost-effectiveness evaluations based on single-arm trials. Further research is needed on the estimation of comparative effectiveness using uncontrolled clinical studies.

  20. Radiological features of late-onset lymphoedema in Noonan's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Wan-Ling; Wang, Jou-Kou [Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Li, Yiu-Wah [Department of Radiology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2003-03-01

    Noonan's syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with diverse manifestations. Lymphatic abnormalities occur in less than 20% of patients. We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with swollen lower limbs and dysmorphic features characteristic of Noonan's syndrome. The radiological features of this unusual case of late-onset lymphoedema in association with Noonan's syndrome are presented. (orig.)

  1. A Galvanic Intrabody Method for Assessing Fluid Flow in Unilateral Lymphoedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Ogugua Asogwa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoedema is a disease associated with abnormal functioning of the lymph that leads to swelling of the body due to accumulation of tissue fluid on the affected area. Tissue fluid contains ions and electrolytes that affect electrical conductivity. The flow of tissue fluid helps to distribute vital nutrients and other important elements necessary for healthy living. When tissue fluid is stagnated, a high concentration of electrolytes accumulate on the affected area, which in turn affects an electrical signal passing through that area to be minimally attenuated in relation to a free-flowing fluid. We demonstrate that a galvanic coupled signal propagating along a lymphoedema affected limb could capture these changes by the amount of attenuation the propagating signal experiences in time. Our results show that average rate of signal attenuation on a lymphoedema affected part of the body could be as slow as 0.16 dB/min, while the rate of signal attenuation on a healthy part is as high as 1.83 dB/min. This means that fluid accumulation could slow down the exchange of body electrolytes up to twice less the rate on an unaffected contralateral part of the body. Monitoring these changes by observing the average rate of change of a galvanic coupled signal attenuation on the affected body part can be used for diagnosing early developments of oedema in the body and for evaluating recovery in response to treatment procedures.

  2. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire for Lower Limb Lymphoedema into Portuguese Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Kamila Rodrigues; Carvalho, Raquel Boechat de Moura; de Andrade, Mauro Figueiredo Carvalho; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Bergmann, Anke

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to describe the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability, and Health Questionnaire for Lower Limb Lymphoedema (Lymph-ICF-LL) into (Brazilian) Portuguese. The process was comprised of five steps - translation, back translation, revision by an expert panel, pretest, and final translation. The first translation was performed by two professionals of the healthcare area, and the back translation was performed by two translators. An expert panel assessed the questions for semantics and idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. The pretest was conducted on 10 patients with lymphedema. Small differences were identified between the translated and back-translated versions, which were revised by the expert panel. The patients included in the pretest found 10 questions difficult to understand; these questions were reassessed by the same expert panel. The results of the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Lymph-ICF-LL resulted in a Brazilian Portuguese version, which still requires validation with various samples of the local population. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. Lymphoedema after mastectomy for breast cancer: Importance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    baseline body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) (<17.9, 18 - 24.9, 25 - 25.9, or 30 - 34.9), and ... Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women today. Each ... present and classifying it as mild, moderate or severe, self-reporting techniques .... of life, satisfaction with surgery and shoulder-arm morbidity in breast cancer survivors ...

  4. The management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If BCRL is not detected and treated in its early stages, it becomes chronic and ... breast cancer diagnosis and treatment; however, it may occur at any stage during the .... dermatological problems are important to minimise the risk of infection.

  5. Feasibility study into self-administered training at home using an arm and hand device with motivational gaming environment in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Sharon M; Prange, Gerdienke B; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Sale, Patrizio; Infarinato, Francesco; Nasr, Nasrin; Mountain, Gail; Hermens, Hermie J; Stienen, Arno H A; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S

    2015-10-09

    Assistive and robotic training devices are increasingly used for rehabilitation of the hemiparetic arm after stroke, although applications for the wrist and hand are trailing behind. Furthermore, applying a training device in domestic settings may enable an increased training dose of functional arm and hand training. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and potential clinical changes associated with a technology-supported arm and hand training system at home for patients with chronic stroke. A dynamic wrist and hand orthosis was combined with a remotely monitored user interface with motivational gaming environment for self-administered training at home. Twenty-four chronic stroke patients with impaired arm/hand function were recruited to use the training system at home for six weeks. Evaluation of feasibility involved training duration, usability and motivation. Clinical outcomes on arm/hand function, activity and participation were assessed before and after six weeks of training and at two-month follow-up. Mean System Usability Scale score was 69 % (SD 17 %), mean Intrinsic Motivation Inventory score was 5.2 (SD 0.9) points, and mean training duration per week was 105 (SD 66) minutes. Median Fugl-Meyer score improved from 37 (IQR 30) pre-training to 41 (IQR 32) post-training and was sustained at two-month follow-up (40 (IQR 32)). The Stroke Impact Scale improved from 56.3 (SD 13.2) pre-training to 60.0 (SD 13.9) post-training, with a trend at follow-up (59.8 (SD 15.2)). No significant improvements were found on the Action Research Arm Test and Motor Activity Log. Remotely monitored post-stroke training at home applying gaming exercises while physically supporting the wrist and hand showed to be feasible: participants were able and motivated to use the training system independently at home. Usability shows potential, although several usability issues need further attention. Upper extremity function and quality of life improved after training

  6. Factors Associated with Lower Extremity Dysmorphia Caused by Lower Extremity Lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Yamamoto, N; Yoshimatsu, H; Narushima, M; Koshima, I

    2017-07-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography has been reported to be useful for the early diagnosis of lymphoedema. However, no study has reported the usefulness of ICG lymphography for evaluation of lymphoedema with lower extremity dysmorphia (LED). This study aimed to elucidate independent factors associated with LED in secondary lower extremity lymphoedema (LEL) patients. This was a retrospective observational study of 268 legs of 134 secondary LEL patients. The medical charts were reviewed to obtain data of clinical demographics and ICG lymphography based severity stage (leg dermal backflow [LDB] stage). LED was defined as a leg with a LEL index of 250 or higher. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with LED. LED was observed in 106 legs (39.6%). Multivariate analysis revealed that independent factors associated with LED were higher LDB stages compared with LDB stage 0 (LDB stage III; OR 17.586; 95% CI 2.055-150.482; p = .009) (LDB stage IV; OR 76.794; 95% CI 8.132-725.199; p < .001) (LDB stage V; OR 47.423; 95% CI 3.704-607.192; p = .003). On the other hand, inverse associations were observed in higher age (65 years or older; OR 0.409; 95% CI 0.190-0.881; p = .022) and higher body mass index (25 kg/m 2 or higher; OR 0.408; 95% CI 0.176-0.946; p = .037). Independent factors associated with LED were elucidated. ICG lymphography based severity stage showed the strongest association with LED, and was useful for evaluation of progressed LEL with LED. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ibrutinib plus rituximab for patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a single-arm, phase 2 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jan A.; Keating, Michael J.; Wierda, William G.; Hartmann, Elena; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Rosin, Nathalie Y.; de Weerdt, Iris; Jeyakumar, Ghayathri; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Lerner, Susan; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Nogueras-González, Graciela M.; Zacharian, Gracy; Huang, Xuelin; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garg, Naveen; Rosenwald, Andreas; O’Brien, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), is an effective therapy for patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We investigated the activity and safety of the combination of ibrutinib with the monoclonal antibody rituximab (iR) in patients with high-risk CLL. Methods In this single-arm, phase 2 studywe enrolled 40 patients with high-risk CLL at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA. Patients with symptomatic CLL requiring therapy received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg , together with rituximab (weekly during cycle 1, then once per cycle until cycle 6), followed by continuous single-agent ibrutinib. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01520519 and is no longer accruing patients. Findings Between February 28, 2012 and September 11, 2012, we enrolled 40 CLL patients with high-risk disease features. 20 patients had del17p or TP53 mutations (16 previously treated, 4 untreated), 13 had relapsed CLL with del11q, and 7 patients a PFS infections occurred in 4 patients (10%), no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. At 18 months, the Kaplan Meier estimate of progression-free survival was 78% (95% CI 60.6–88.5) (del[17p] or TP53 mutation: 72%, 95% CI: 45.6–87.6) Interpretation Ibrutinib in combination with rituximab is a well-tolerated regimen for patients with high-risk CLL. It induces high rates of remissions and has positive impact on QOL in this difficult-to-treat patient population. These encouraging data merit further investigation of the added benefit of rituximab as combination partner for ibrutinib in an ongoing randomized trial, in which single-agent ibrutinib is compared to iR combination therapy (NCT02007044). Funding Pharmacyclics, Inc., Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT), Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, NCI Grant P30 CA

  8. Comparison of C-arm Computed Tomography and Digital Subtraction Angiography in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Jan B., E-mail: hinrichs.jan@mh-hannover.de; Marquardt, Steffen, E-mail: marquardt.steffen@mh-hannover.de; Falck, Christian von, E-mail: falck.christian.von@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL) (Germany); Hoeper, Marius M., E-mail: hoeper.marius@mh-hannover.de; Olsson, Karen M., E-mail: olsson.karen@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pneumology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL) (Germany); Wacker, Frank K., E-mail: wacker.frank@mh-hannover.de; Meyer, Bernhard C., E-mail: meyer.bernhard@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL) (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo assess the feasibility and diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced, C-arm computed tomography (CACT) of the pulmonary arteries compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).MaterialsFifty-two patients with CTEPH underwent ECG-gated DSA and contrast-enhanced CACT. Two readers (R1, R2) independently evaluated pulmonary artery segments and their sub-segmental branching using DSA and CACT for optimal image quality. Afterwards, the diagnostic findings, i.e., intraluminal filling defects, stenosis, and occlusion, were compared. Inter-modality and inter-observer agreement was calculated, and subsequently consensus reading was done and correlated to a reference standard representing the overall consensus of both modalities. Fisher’s exact test and Cohen’s Kappa were applied.ResultsA total of 1352 pulmonary segments were evaluated, of which 1255 (92.8 %) on DSA and 1256 (92.9 %) on CACT were rated to be fully diagnostic. The main causes of the non-diagnostic image quality were motion artifacts on CACT (R1:37, R2:78) and insufficient contrast enhancement on DSA (R1:59, R2:38). Inter-observer agreement was good for DSA (κ = 0.74) and CACT (κ = 0.75), while inter-modality agreement was moderate (R1: κ = 0.46, R2: κ = 0.47). Compared to the reference standard, the inter-modality agreement for CACT was excellent (κ = 0.96), whereas it was inferior for DSA (κ = 0.61) due to the higher number of abnormal consensus findings read as normal on DSA.ConclusionCACT of the pulmonary arteries is feasible and provides additional information to DSA. CACT has the potential to improve the diagnostic work-up of patients with CTEPH and may be particularly useful prior to surgical or interventional treatment.

  9. Use of compression shorts in the management of lymphoedema and lipoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigg, Jane; Lee, Natalie

    2014-10-01

    Compression therapy is the mainstay of treatment in the management of lymphoedema and lipoedema. However, due to variance in the location, severity and type of the condition, patients often have to compromise on garments to ensure that the affected area of oedema is controlled. This article discusses the use of Veni compression shorts (Haddenham Healthcare) and Capri garments as an alternative treatment option to full-leg compression garments. The article explains treatment areas and conditions where the application of these garments will enhance care-for example, for trunkal swelling-and where compression may not generally be required-for example, in the feet.

  10. Improving arm function in chronic stroke: a pilot study of sensory amplitude electrical stimulation via glove electrode during task-specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jane; Girardi, Madeline; Hensley, Melissa; Rohaus, Jordan; Schewe, Clay; Whittey, Colby; Hansen, Piper; Muir, Kimberly

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of sensory amplitude electrical stimulation (SES) delivered by glove electrode during task-specific exercise on arm movement, function, and sensation in chronic stroke. The design was an intervention pilot study, pre-test, post-test, follow-up design. The settings used were a university research laboratory and home-based intervention. Participants comprised of 11 individuals with chronic stroke (7.2 ± 4.1 years post onset) and moderate arm paresis, 10.82/20 ± 2.27 on the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) - Arm Subscale. Participants were seven males and four females (mean age: 59 years). Participants were recruited from university-based database. Intervention- Participants engaged in task-specific training at home for 30 min, twice daily, for 5 weeks, while receiving SES via glove electrode. Participants received supervised task practice at least twice during intervention period for 1 hour. Main outcome measures- Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT), STREAM - Arm Subscale, Motor Activity Log-14 (MAL-14) - Amount and Quality Subscales, and Nottingham Stereognosis Assessment (NSA). Significant changes were found in group mean pre- and post-test comparisons on the NSA (P = 0.042), MAL amount subscale (P = 0.047), and JTHFT (with writing item 29 excluded) (P = 0.003) and in pre-test to follow-up comparisons on NSA (P = 0.027) and JTHFT (writing item excluded) (P = 0.009). There was no significant change on the STREAM (P = 1.0). Individuals with a greater baseline motor capacity determined by STREAM scores (P = 0.048) and more recent stroke (P = 0.014) had significantly greater improvements. Combining task-specific training with glove-based SES in chronic stroke resulted in changes in arm sensation and function that were maintained at 3-month follow-up.

  11. Brain-Computer Interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Keng eAng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG-based Motor Imagery (MI Brain-Computer Interface (BCI coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA score 10-50, recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 minutes per session. The BCI-HK group received 1 hour of BCI coupled with HK intervention, and the HK group received 1 hour of HK intervention per session. Both BCI-HK and HK groups received 120 trials of robot-assisted hand grasping and knob manipulation followed by 30 minutes of therapist-assisted arm mobilization. The SAT group received 1.5 hours of therapist-assisted arm mobilization and forearm pronation-supination movements incorporating wrist control and grasp-release functions. In all, 14 males, 7 females, mean age 54.2 years, mean stroke duration 385.1 days, with baseline FMMA score 27.0 were recruited. The primary outcome measure was upper-extremity FMMA scores measured mid-intervention at week 3, end-intervention at week 6, and follow-up at weeks 12 and 24. Seven, 8 and 7 subjects underwent BCI-HK, HK and SAT interventions respectively. FMMA score improved in all groups, but no intergroup differences were found at any time points. Significantly larger motor gains were observed in the BCI-HK group compared to the SAT group at weeks 3, 12 and 24, but motor gains in the HK group did not differ from the SAT group at any time point. In conclusion, BCI-HK is effective, safe, and may have the potential for enhancing motor recovery in chronic stroke when combined with therapist-assisted arm mobilization.

  12. Brain-computer interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu; Zhou, Longjiang; Tang, Ka Yin; Ephraim Joseph, Gopal J; Kuah, Christopher Wee Keong; Chua, Karen Sui Geok

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG)-based Motor Imagery (MI) Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK) robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA) score 10-50), recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT) groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 min per session. The BCI-HK group received 1 h of BCI coupled with HK intervention, and the HK group received 1 h of HK intervention per session. Both BCI-HK and HK groups received 120 trials of robot-assisted hand grasping and knob manipulation followed by 30 min of therapist-assisted arm mobilization. The SAT group received 1.5 h of therapist-assisted arm mobilization and forearm pronation-supination movements incorporating wrist control and grasp-release functions. In all, 14 males, 7 females, mean age 54.2 years, mean stroke duration 385.1 days, with baseline FMMA score 27.0 were recruited. The primary outcome measure was upper extremity FMMA scores measured mid-intervention at week 3, end-intervention at week 6, and follow-up at weeks 12 and 24. Seven, 8 and 7 subjects underwent BCI-HK, HK and SAT interventions respectively. FMMA score improved in all groups, but no intergroup differences were found at any time points. Significantly larger motor gains were observed in the BCI-HK group compared to the SAT group at weeks 3, 12, and 24, but motor gains in the HK group did not differ from the SAT group at any time point. In conclusion, BCI-HK is effective, safe, and may have the potential for enhancing motor recovery in chronic stroke when combined with therapist-assisted arm mobilization.

  13. Lymphatic filariasis-specific immune responses in relation to lymphoedema grade and infection status. II. Humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N. O.; Bloch, P.; Simonsen, P. E.

    2002-01-01

    The filarial-specific humoral responses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgE) to a Brugia pahangi antigen was assessed in 9 groups of adult individuals from a Wuchereria bancrofti-endemic area in north-east Tanzania. In 5 of the groups, individuals were negative for microfilariae (mf) and circulating...... filarial antigen (CFA) and had leg lymphoedema of varying severity ranging from early to more advanced grades. A 6th group had mixed grades of lymphoedema and were actively infected with mf and/or CFA. Three groups of asymptomatic individuals with different infection status (mf+CFA+; mf-CFA+; mf-CFA-) were...... also included. No differences in the antibody levels were observed between the 5 uninfected pathology groups. However, groups with advanced lymphoedema had a significantly higher level of IgG3 as compared to groups with early lymphoedema. A decline in the IgG4/IgE ratios were observed when moving from...

  14. Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial lymphoedema in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices.

  15. Health-Seeking Behaviors and Self-Care Practices of People with Filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Kumar Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices.

  16. First results of a comparison between gaming and equal intensity conventional training to improve arm function after chronic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prange, Grada Berendina; Kottink, A.I.R.; Krabben, T.; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Buurke, Jaap; Pons, J.L.; Torricelli, D.; Pajaro, M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of new technologies in rehabilitation, such as virtual reality (VR) and/or gaming, is promising to enable patients to practice intensively in a motivating way. In the present study changes in arm function after conventional reach training are compared to reach training within a gaming

  17. A crossover pilot study evaluating the functional outcomes of two different types of robotic movement training in chronic stroke survivors using the arm exoskeleton BONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Marie-Hélène; Spencer, Steven J; Chan, Vicky; Allington, James P; Klein, Julius; Chou, Cathy; Bobrow, James E; Cramer, Steven C; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-12-19

    To date, the limited degrees of freedom (DOF) of most robotic training devices hinders them from providing functional training following stroke. We developed a 6-DOF exoskeleton ("BONES") that allows movement of the upper limb to assist in rehabilitation. The objectives of this pilot study were to evaluate the impact of training with BONES on function of the affected upper limb, and to assess whether multijoint functional robotic training would translate into greater gains in arm function than single joint robotic training also conducted with BONES. Twenty subjects with mild to moderate chronic stroke participated in this crossover study. Each subject experienced multijoint functional training and single joint training three sessions per week, for four weeks, with the order of presentation randomized. The primary outcome measure was the change in Box and Block Test (BBT). The secondary outcome measures were the changes in Fugl-Meyer Arm Motor Scale (FMA), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and quantitative measures of strength and speed of reaching. These measures were assessed at baseline, after each training period, and at a 3-month follow-up evaluation session. Training with the robotic exoskeleton resulted in significant improvements in the BBT, FMA, WMFT, MAL, shoulder and elbow strength, and reaching speed (p robotic training programs. However, for the BBT, WMFT and MAL, inequality of carryover effects were noted; subsequent analysis on the change in score between the baseline and first period of training again revealed no difference in the gains obtained between the types of training. Training with the 6 DOF arm exoskeleton improved motor function after chronic stroke, challenging the idea that robotic therapy is only useful for impairment reduction. The pilot results presented here also suggest that multijoint functional robotic training is not decisively superior to single joint robotic training. This challenges the idea that

  18. Is there a relationship between psychological stress or anxiety and chronic nonspecific neck-arm pain in adults? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego, Gorka; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doménech-García, Victor; Berjano, Pedro; Bertozzi, Lucia; Herrero, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    To systematically review and analyze the research evidence linking stress or anxiety to chronic nonspecific neck-arm pain (NSNAP) in adults. Data were obtained from Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and The Cochrane library database from their inception to July 2015. Two authors independently conducted the searches, extracted data, and completed methodological quality assessments. The methodological quality of the cohort and case-control studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, whilst the quality of the Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Twenty-eight studies involving 39,166 participants met the inclusion criteria. Four studies, including 5 pair-wise comparisons, were included in the meta-analysis: Three were cohort studies and 1 was a cross-sectional study. The meta-analysis outcome demonstrated a relationship between chronic NSNAP and psychological stress. The estimate odds ratio for all studies combined was 2.33 (95% CI, 1.04-5.18; p=0.039). A high heterogeneity of the findings appeared (Q=28.94, I 2 =86% p=0.00). This study shows that there is a strong relationship between stress and chronic NSNAP. Despite this finding, we cannot support that stress is a risk factor for chronic NSNAP due to the low quality of the results according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). It was not possible to make a quantitative analysis comparing the relationship between anxiety and chronic NSNAP. However, according to the qualitative analysis there is a strong relationship between anxiety and chronic NSNAP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early primary lymphoedema treated by en bloc excision: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. García-Espinoza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lymphoedema is a pathological condition with a low global incidence where protein-rich fluid accumulates in the interstitium, causing inflammation and degenerative changes in the affected limbs. It is divided into primary and secondary; worldwide the most common causes are cancer or its treatment and filariasis infection. It is diagnosed through the patient's medical history and treatment depends on the severity. Case report: Twenty-one-year-old male with the condition for 8 years, with a gradual increase in volume in the right lower limb, seen in the emergency department due to functional disability; en bloc excision plus split-thickness grafting was performed, fixed with sutures and ABThera, with 85% integration and functional improvement. Conclusions: Lymphoedema has a high socio-economic impact. Its treatment involves several specialists and must be multidisciplinary, who then find the cause and propose management according to the stage. Combined medical and surgical therapy is the best choice for advanced stages. Resumen: Introducción: El linfedema es una condición patológica de baja incidencia mundial, que acumula líquido rico en proteínas en el intersticio, provocando inflamación y cambios degenerativos en las extremidades afectas. Se divide en primario y secundario, la causa global más frecuente es el cáncer o su tratamiento y la infección por filarias. El diagnostico se realiza a través de historia clínica y el tratamiento depende del grado de severidad. Caso clínico: Masculino de 21 años con padecimiento de 8 años, con aumento progresivo de volumen en extremidad inferior derecha, acude a urgencias por incapacidad funcional; se realizó escisión en bloque más aplicación de injertos de espesor parcial, fijados con suturas y Abthera, con integración de 85% y mejoría funcional. Conclusiones: El linfedema tiene alto impacto socioeconómico, su tratamiento involucra diversos especialistas, debe ser

  20. Radionuclide studies of the lymphatic systems and their particular role in the assessment of the lymphoedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakkou, E.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic radionuclide studies of the lymphatic system are used to measure the length of time required for the tracer to transit the upper and lower extremities as well as to determine, for any given point of time, the transportation and storage capacities of lymph vessels and nodes, respectively. Secondary lymphoedemas of more substantial proportions can reliably be diagnosed and classified on the basis of degrees of severity. The presence of those lymphoedemas is typically indicated by dermal back flow at circulatory bottlenecks, delays or marked delays (by more than 15 min) in transit and durations of transit beyond the measurable range. Further characteristic signs are passive dilatation of the prefacial bundle of lymph vessels (which is likely to be a first degree dilatation, if seen in late scintigrams and a second or third degree dilatation in cases escaping scintigraphic detection) and wide-spread inhibitions of activity over the entire extremity examined. Combined oedematous changes of lymph vessels and veins can only be predicted from lymph circulation disorders. This method permits an immediate diagnosis of any conditions precluding the use of endolymphatic therapy in malignant melanomas, thus sparing the patient the discomforts of treatment and helping to avoid unnecessary expenditure. Dynamic scintigraphy offers advantages over lymphography in that it has a greater discriminating power in diagnostic evaluations of active or passive dilatation of the bundle of lymph vessels, dermal back flow as well as the functional performance of damaged lymph vessels and also in that it permits a more precise visualisation of the superfacial and deep vessels of the lymphatic systems. (TRV) [de

  1. Predictors and brain connectivity changes associated with arm motor function improvement from intensive practice in chronic stroke [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F. Wittenberg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The brain changes that underlie therapy-induced improvement in motor function after stroke remain obscure. This study sought to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of measuring motor system physiology in a clinical trial of intensive upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke-related hemiparesis. Methods: This was a substudy of two multi-center clinical trials of intensive robotic and intensive conventional therapy arm therapy in chronic, significantly hemiparetic, stroke patients. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure motor cortical output to the biceps and extensor digitorum communus muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to determine the cortical anatomy, as well as to measure fractional anisotropy, and blood oxygenation (BOLD during an eyes-closed rest state. Region-of-interest time-series correlation analysis was performed on the BOLD signal to determine interregional connectivity. Functional status was measured with the upper extremity Fugl-Meyer and Wolf Motor Function Test. Results: Motor evoked potential (MEP presence was associated with better functional outcomes, but the effect was not significant when considering baseline impairment. Affected side internal capsule fractional anisotropy was associated with better function at baseline. Affected side primary motor cortex (M1 activity became more correlated with other frontal motor regions after treatment. Resting state connectivity between affected hemisphere M1 and dorsal premotor area (PMAd predicted recovery. Conclusions: Presence of motor evoked potentials in the affected motor cortex and its functional connectivity with PMAd may be useful in predicting recovery. Functional connectivity in the motor network shows a trends towards increasing after intensive robotic or non-robotic arm therapy. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00372411 \\& NCT00333983.

  2. Abundance in proteins expressed after functional electrical stimulation cycling or arm cycling ergometry training in persons with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Graham, Zachary A; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher; Gater, David R

    2017-07-01

    Longitudinal design. The study determined the effects of two forms of exercise training on the abundance of two proteins, (glucose transporter-4 [GLUT-4], adenosine monophosphate kinase [AMPK]) involved in glucose utilization and the transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha [PGC-1α]), in muscles in men with chronic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Clinical trial at a Medical Center. Nine men with chronic motor-complete SCI participated in functional electrical stimulation lower extremity cycling (FES-LEC; n = 4) or arm cycling ergometer (arm-cycling ergometer [ACE]; n = 5) 5 days/week for 16 weeks. Whole body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose effectiveness (Sg) and insulin sensitivity (Si). Muscle biopsies of the right vastus lateralis (VL) and triceps muscles were collected one week prior to and post the exercise training intervention. Neither training intervention altered body composition or carbohydrate metabolism. GLUT-4 increased by 3.8 fold in the VL after FES training and increased 0.6 fold in the triceps after ACE training. PGC-1α increased by 2.3 fold in the VL after FES training and 3.8 fold in the triceps after ACE training. AMPK increased by 3.4 fold in the VL after FES training and in the triceps after ACE training. FES-LEC and ACE training were associated with greater protein expressions in the trained muscles by effectively influencing the abundance of GLUT-4, AMPK and PGC-1α. Thus, FES-LEC training of paralyzed muscle can modulate protein expression similar to that of trained and innervated muscle.

  3. [Genital elephantiasis: reconstructive treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema with a myocutaneous M. gracilis flap. Experiences from a District Hospital in Ethiopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prica, S; Donati, O F; Schaefer, D J; Peltzer, J

    2008-08-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an illness leading to serious functional and aesthetic as well as psychosocial impairment. Since the 19th century there have been articles describing methods for surgical ablative treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema. However, most of these methods ignore the creation a new drainage for the lymph. We now describe a new technique using a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap for the reconstruction of the soft tissue damage resulting from radical excision, thus ensuring drainage of the lymph into the deep muscle compartment of the thigh. In the District Hospital "Mettu-Karl Hospital" in the Ethiopian rain forest region of Illubabor, during a period of 6 months the described surgical procedure was applied to 9 patients suffering from severe forms of this grotesquely disfiguring disease. Two patients presented with combined penoscrotal oedema, while the other 7 patients were suffering from isolated scrotal lymphoedema alone. All patients benefited from reconstruction with a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap after radical excision of the affected tissue. All patients were evaluated after 3 and 12 months postoperatively in the presence of a translator. All nine patients showed a functionally and aesthetically satisfying result after 3 months without postoperative occurrence of infection. The evaluation 12 months postoperatively showed no recurrence of genitoscrotal lymphoedema. All patients reported on having regained normal ability for sexual intercourse and no occurrence of urinary tract infections since the operation. Concerning fertility, no statements could be made. A significant improvement in the quality of life was observed by the regained ability to walk and work and consequently the reintegration of the patients into their socio-economic environment. Radical excision of the affected tissue followed by transferring a functioning lymphatic drainage into the deep muscle compartment of the ipsilateral thigh using a proximally based

  4. Cerebral manifestations, hemihypertrophy and lymphoedema of one leg in a child with epidermal nevus syndrome (Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Luitgard M.; Kunze, Juergen; Scheer, Ianina; Stoever, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    The report focuses on a rare variant form of epidermal nevus syndrome (ENS) (Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome) describing lesions involving the skin, eyes, skeleton, heart and brain in an 11-year-old boy. Despite his evident brain pathology, the boy lacks neurological symptoms and mental retardation. We describe his unusual MRI appearances and radiographic skeletal findings. To our knowledge this is the first report of ENS with lymphoedema occurring together in the same individual. (orig.)

  5. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness and safety of kinesiology taping in the management of cancer-related lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, M; Willis, S; Leuschner, S

    2017-09-01

    Patients with cancer-related lymphoedema (CRL) commonly refuse treatment with bandaging or hosiery because of hot and humid weather conditions. This review aims to determine the effectiveness and safety of kinesiotaping (KT) in the management of CRL compared to compression bandaging or hosiery. A systematic search of the literature was conducted until July 2015. The primary outcomes were reduction in body part volume or circumference and adverse effects of the interventions. The secondary outcomes were subjective experience of the treatment, severity of lymphoedema-related symptoms and patients' quality of life (QoL). Six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this review. Five were included in the meta-analysis of the primary outcome limb volume (n = 203, KTn = 91, compression n = 112). It revealed no significant difference between the interventions [WMD -205.33 mL CI (-454.69 to 44.04) P = 0.11]. An increased risk of skin complications with KT was reported in five studies affecting between 10% and 21% of patients. Where lymphoedema-related symptoms were reported KT was found to be superior to compression. Paradoxically, patients receiving bandaging reported a higher QoL. KT was not found to be more comfortable than bandaging. KT should only be used with great caution where bandaging cannot be used. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of a heart attack. Seek emergency treatment if you have: Arm, shoulder or back ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/arm-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050870 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  7. Measuring the physical and economic impact of filarial lymphoedema in Chikwawa district, Malawi: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michelle C; Yamauchi, Masato; Mkwanda, Square Z; Ndhlovu, Paul; Matipula, Dorothy Emmie; Mackenzie, Charles; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2017-04-03

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the primary causes of lymphoedema in sub-Saharan Africa, and has a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL) of those affected. In this paper we assess the relative impact of lymphoedema on mobility and income in Chikwawa district, Malawi. A random sample of 31 people with lymphoedema and 31 matched controls completed a QoL questionnaire from which both an overall and a mobility-specific score were calculated. Two mobility tests were undertaken, namely the 10 m walking test [10MWT] and timed up and go [TUG] test, and a subset of 10 cases-control pairs wore GPS data loggers for 3 weeks to measure their mobility in a more natural setting. Retrospective economic data was collected from all 31 case-control pairs, and each participant undertaking the GPS activity recorded daily earnings and health expenditure throughout the observation period. Cases had a significantly poorer overall QoL (cases = 32.2, controls = 6.0, P disability differed from their measured disability, whereas the results were consistent for controls (10MWT correlation = -0.61, 95% CI = (-0.79, -0.34)). GPS summaries indicated that cases generally walk shorter distances at slower speeds than control, covering a smaller geographical area (median area by kernel smoothing: cases = 1.25 km 2 , controls = 2.10 km 2 , P = 0.16). Cases reported earning less than half that earned by controls per week (cases = $0.70, controls = $1.86, P = 0.064), with a smaller proportion of their earnings (16% vs 22%, P = 0.461) being spent on healthcare. Those affected by lymphoedema are at a clear disadvantage to their unaffected peers, experiencing a lower QoL as confirmed by both subjective and objective mobility measures, and lower income. This study also indicates that objective measures of mobility may be a useful supplement to self-assessed QoL questionnaires when assessing the future impact of lymphoedema management

  8. Long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult rats: radial-arm maze performance and operant food reinforced responding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Risher

    Full Text Available Adolescence is not only a critical period of late-stage neurological development in humans, but is also a period in which ethanol consumption is often at its highest. Given the prevalence of ethanol use during this vulnerable developmental period we assessed the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure during adolescence, compared to adulthood, on performance in the radial-arm maze (RAM and operant food-reinforced responding in male rats.Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CIE (or saline and then allowed to recover. Animals were then trained in either the RAM task or an operant task using fixed- and progressive- ratio schedules. After baseline testing was completed all animals received an acute ethanol challenge while blood ethanol levels (BECs were monitored in a subset of animals. CIE exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood decreased the amount of time that animals spent in the open portions of the RAM arms (reminiscent of deficits in risk-reward integration and rendered animals more susceptible to the acute effects of an ethanol challenge on working memory tasks. The operant food reinforced task showed that these effects were not due to altered food motivation or to differential sensitivity to the nonspecific performance-disrupting effects of ethanol. However, CIE pre-treated animals had lower BEC levels than controls during the acute ethanol challenges indicating persistent pharmacokinetic tolerance to ethanol after the CIE treatment. There was little evidence of enduring effects of CIE alone on traditional measures of spatial and working memory.These effects indicate that adolescence is a time of selective vulnerability to the long-term effects of repeated ethanol exposure on neurobehavioral function and acute ethanol sensitivity. The positive and negative findings reported here help to further define the nature and extent of the impairments observed after adolescent CIE and provide direction for future

  9. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure in Adolescent and Adult Rats: Radial-Arm Maze Performance and Operant Food Reinforced Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risher, Mary-Louise; Fleming, Rebekah L.; Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Wilson, Wilkie A.; Levin, Edward D.; Markou, Athina; Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Acheson, Shawn K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescence is not only a critical period of late-stage neurological development in humans, but is also a period in which ethanol consumption is often at its highest. Given the prevalence of ethanol use during this vulnerable developmental period we assessed the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure during adolescence, compared to adulthood, on performance in the radial-arm maze (RAM) and operant food-reinforced responding in male rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CIE (or saline) and then allowed to recover. Animals were then trained in either the RAM task or an operant task using fixed- and progressive- ratio schedules. After baseline testing was completed all animals received an acute ethanol challenge while blood ethanol levels (BECs) were monitored in a subset of animals. CIE exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood decreased the amount of time that animals spent in the open portions of the RAM arms (reminiscent of deficits in risk-reward integration) and rendered animals more susceptible to the acute effects of an ethanol challenge on working memory tasks. The operant food reinforced task showed that these effects were not due to altered food motivation or to differential sensitivity to the nonspecific performance-disrupting effects of ethanol. However, CIE pre-treated animals had lower BEC levels than controls during the acute ethanol challenges indicating persistent pharmacokinetic tolerance to ethanol after the CIE treatment. There was little evidence of enduring effects of CIE alone on traditional measures of spatial and working memory. Conclusions/Significance These effects indicate that adolescence is a time of selective vulnerability to the long-term effects of repeated ethanol exposure on neurobehavioral function and acute ethanol sensitivity. The positive and negative findings reported here help to further define the nature and extent of the impairments observed

  10. Can tissue dielectric constant measurement aid in differentiating lymphoedema from lipoedema in women with swollen legs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkballe, Susanne; Jensen, Maj-Britt Raaby; Noerregaard, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distinguishing lymphoedema from lipoedema in women with swollen legs can be difficult. Local tissue water content can be quantified using tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether TDC measurements can differentiate untreated lower extremity...... controls. All subjects were measured at three predefined sites (foot, ankle and lower leg). All groups except U-LP were measured by three blinded investigators. Using a handheld device, a 300-MHz electromagnetic wave is transmitted into the skin via a 2.5-mm depth probe. TDC calculated from the reflected...... wave is directly proportional to tissue water content ranging from 1 (vacuum) to 78.5 (pure water). RESULTS: Mean ± SD TDC values for U-LP were 48.8 ± 5.2. TDC values of T-LP, LipP and controls were 34.0 ± 6.6, 29.5 ± 6.2 and 32.3 ± 5.7, respectively. U-LP had significantly higher TDC values in all...

  11. Robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwech, H.

    1989-01-01

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs

  12. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  13. Efficacy of Modified Atkins Ketogenic Diet in Chronic Cluster Headache: An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubino Di Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDrug-resistant cluster headache (CH is still an open clinical challenge. Recently, our group observed the clinical efficacy of a ketogenic diet (KD, usually adopted to treat drug-resistant epilepsies, on migraine.AimHere, we aim to detect the effect of KD in a group of drug-resistant chronic CH (CCH patients.Materials and methodsEighteen drug-resistant CCH patients underwent a 12-week KD (Modified Atkins Diet, MAD, and the clinical response was evaluated in terms of response (≥50% attack reduction.ResultsOf the 18 CCH patients, 15 were considered responders to the diet (11 experienced a full resolution of headache, and 4 had a headache reduction of at least 50% in terms of mean monthly number of attacks during the diet. The mean monthly number of attacks for each patient at the baseline was 108.71 (SD = 81.71; at the end of the third month of diet, it was reduced to 31.44 (SD = 84.61.ConclusionWe observed for the first time that a 3-month ketogenesis ameliorates clinical features of CCH.Clinical Trial Registrationwww.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03244735.

  14. Comparison of three-dimensional, assist-as-needed robotic arm/hand movement training provided with Pneu-WREX to conventional tabletop therapy after chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinkensmeyer, David J; Wolbrecht, Eric T; Chan, Vicky; Chou, Cathy; Cramer, Steven C; Bobrow, James E

    2012-11-01

    Robot-assisted movement training can help individuals with stroke reduce arm and hand impairment, but robot therapy is typically only about as effective as conventional therapy. Refining the way that robots assist during training may make them more effective than conventional therapy. Here, the authors measured the therapeutic effect of a robot that required individuals with a stroke to achieve virtual tasks in three dimensions against gravity. The robot continuously estimated how much assistance patients needed to perform the tasks and provided slightly less assistance than needed to reduce patient slacking. Individuals with a chronic stroke (n = 26; baseline upper limb Fugl-Meyer score, 23 ± 8) were randomized into two groups and underwent 24 one-hour training sessions over 2 mos. One group received the assist-as-needed robot training and the other received conventional tabletop therapy with the supervision of a physical therapist. Training helped both groups significantly reduce their motor impairment, as measured by the primary outcome measure, the Fugl-Meyer score, but the improvement was small (3.0 ± 4.9 points for robot therapy vs. 0.9 ± 1.7 for conventional therapy). There was a trend for greater reduction for the robot-trained group (P = 0.07). The robot group largely sustained this gain at the 3-mo follow-up. The robot-trained group also experienced significant improvements in Box and Blocks score and hand grip strength, whereas the control group did not, but these improvements were not sustained at follow-up. In addition, the robot-trained group showed a trend toward greater improvement in sensory function, as measured by the Nottingham Sensory Test (P = 0.06). These results suggest that in patients with chronic stroke and moderate-severe deficits, assisting in three-dimensional virtual tasks with an assist-as-needed controller may make robotic training more effective than conventional tabletop training.

  15. Efficacy and safety of bilateral continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS for the treatment of chronic tinnitus: design of a three-armed randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plontke Stefan K

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus, the perception of sound and noise in absence of an auditory stimulus, has been shown to be associated with maladaptive neuronal reorganization and increased activity of the temporoparietal cortex. Transient modulation of tinnitus by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS indicated that these areas are critically involved in the pathophysiology of tinnitus and suggested new treatment strategies. However, the therapeutic efficacy of rTMS in tinnitus is still unclear, individual response is variable, and the optimal stimulation area disputable. Recently, continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS has been put forward as an effective rTMS protocol for the reduction of pathologically enhanced cortical excitability. Methods 48 patients with chronic subjective tinnitus will be included in this randomized, placebo controlled, three-arm trial. The treatment consists of two trains of cTBS applied bilaterally to the secondary auditory cortex, the temporoparietal associaction cortex, or to the lower occiput (sham condition every working day for four weeks. Primary outcome measure is the change of tinnitus distress as quantified by the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. Secondary outcome measures are tinnitus loudness and annoyance as well as tinnitus change during and after treatment. Audiologic and speech audiometric measurements will be performed to assess potential side effects. The aim of the present trail is to investigate effectiveness and safety of a four weeks cTBS treatment on chronic tinnitus and to compare two areas of stimulation. The results will contribute to clarify the therapeutic capacity of rTMS in tinnitus. Trial registration The trial was registered with the clinical trials register of http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00518024.

  16. Broken Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of falling — including football, soccer, gymnastics, skiing and skateboarding — also increases the risk of a broken arm. ... for high-risk activities, such as in-line skating, snowboarding, rugby and football. Don't smoke. Smoking ...

  17. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial to assess the effects of homoeopathic medicines on chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Manchanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is one of the most common illnesses interfering with patient′s quality of life and work. Observational studies conducted by the Council indicate positive outcome. This protocol has been developed to ascertain the usefulness of homoeopathic intervention in comparison with control group in a randomised control setting. Objectives: Primary objective is to evaluate the changes in TSS (Total Symptoms Score and SNOT-22 (Sino-nasal Outcome Test-22 within the two groups of the study (Homoeopathy + Placebo. Secondary objective is to evaluate changes in SNOT-22 at end of the trial, changes in Lund and Mackay staging of CT scan, rhinoscopy grading, absolute eosinophil count, global assessment by investigator and patient, and number of acute exacerbations of CRS (for frequency, duration and intensity as per TSS scale compared to placebo. Methods/Design: This is a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial of 6 months (three months treatment and three months observation period with 14 days run-in period. The primary outcome is a composite of the changes in the TSS and SNOT-22 over 3 months from baseline with area under the curve and changes over 3 months in the Sinus Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22 from baseline. Prescription shall be made as per the homoeopathic principles. Efficacy data will be analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Discussion: This trial will help to evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathic individualised treatment using LM-potencies versus placebo in patients suffering from CRS as per the homoeopathic dictum.

  18. C-Arm computed tomography adds diagnostic information in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and a positive V/Q SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Jan B.; Werncke, Thomas; Kaireit, Till [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; and others

    2017-01-15

    To determine if C-Arm computed tomography (CACT) has added diagnostic value in patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with a positive mismatch pattern in ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT). 28 patients (23 men, 5 women, 62±18 years) with CTEPH who had undergone SPECT, followed by CACT and right heart catheterization (RHC) were included. Two independent readers reviewed SPECT and CACT. Findings indicating CTEPH and their location (segmental or sub-segmental) were identified (V/Q mismatch in SPECT and vascular pathologies in CACT). Inter-modality agreement was calculated (Cohen's Kappa). Findings were scored on a 3-point-scale. The sum of the score (pulmonary artery CTEPH severity score (PACSS)) was calculated for each patient and imaging modality, correlated to RHC (spearman's correlation) and compared to the final therapeutic decision of the CTEPH board (including the consensus of SPECT, selective pulmonary DSA and CACT). Overall, 504 pulmonary artery segments were assessed in SPECT and CACT. SPECT had identified 266/504 (53%) arterial segments without and 238/504 (47%) segments with a V/Q mismatch indicating CTEPH. CACT detected 131/504 (26%) segments without abnormal findings and 373/504 (74%) segments with findings indicating CTEPH. Inter-modality agreement was fair (k=0.38). PACSS of CACT correlated mildly significantly with the mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAPmean; rho=0.48, p=0.01), while SPECT missed significance (rho=0.32, p=0.1). Discrepant findings were mostly attributed to a higher frequency of sub-segmental pulmonary arterial pathologies on CACT (145 sub-segmental findings indicating CTEPH) rated as normal on SPECT. In patients with CTEPH, contrast-enhanced CACT detects additional findings with a better correlation to the severity of PAPmean than V/Q SPECT. CACT indicates abnormalities even in segments without V/Q abnormalities.

  19. Mid-arm and calf circumferences are stronger mortality predictors than body mass index for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shu-Chuan Ho,1,2 Jiun-Yi Wang,3,4 Han-Pin Kuo,5 Chien-Da Huang,5 Kang-Yun Lee,2,6 Hsiao-Chi Chuang,1,2 Po-Hao Feng,2,6 Tzu-Tao Chen,2,* Min-Fang Hsu7,* 1School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, 3Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Wufeng, 4Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, 5Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 6Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 7Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu City, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is currently the third most common cause of death in the world. Patients with COPD experience airflow obstruction, weight loss, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and comorbidities. Anthropometric indicators are risk factors for mortality in geriatric assessment. Purpose: This study examined and compared the associations of anthropometric indicators, such as low body mass index (BMI, low mid-arm circumference (MAC, and low calf circumference (CC, with the prediction of a 3-year follow-up mortality risk in patients with COPD. Methods: We recruited nonhospitalized patients with COPD without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. The BMI, MAC, and CC of all patients were measured, and they were followed for 3 years through telephone interviews and chart reviews. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves stratified by BMI, MAC, and CC were analyzed. Variables univariately associated with survival were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model. The Bayesian information criterion was used to compare the predictive ability of the three anthropometric

  20. Safety and activity of ibrutinib plus rituximab for patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a single-arm, phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jan A; Keating, Michael J; Wierda, William G; Hartmann, Elena; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Rosin, Nathalie Y; de Weerdt, Iris; Jeyakumar, Ghayathri; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Lerner, Susan; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Nogueras-González, Graciela M; Zacharian, Gracy; Huang, Xuelin; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garg, Naveen; Rosenwald, Andreas; O'Brien, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), is an effective treatment for relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We investigated the activity and safety of the combination of ibrutinib with the monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with high-risk CLL. In this single-arm phase 2 study, we enrolled adult patients with high-risk CLL at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). All enrolled participants had high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (deletion 17p, TP53 mutation, or deletion 11q) or a short progression-free survival (PFS ibrutinib 420 mg together with rituximab (375 mg/m(2), intravenously, every week during cycle 1, then once per cycle until cycle 6), followed by continuous daily single-agent ibrutinib 420 mg until disease progression or until toxicities or complications precluded further treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01520519, and is no longer accruing patients. Between Feb 28, 2012, and Sept 11, 2012, we enrolled 40 patients with CLL with high-risk disease features, 20 of whom had deletion 17p (del[17p]) or TP53 mutations (16 previously treated, four untreated), 13 had relapsed CLL with deletion 11q (del[11q]), and seven a PFS less than 36 months after first-line chemoimmunotherapy. 18-month PFS in all patients was 78·0% (95% CI 60·6-88·5), whereas in those with a del(17p) or TP53 mutation it was 72·4% (45·6-87·6) Toxicity was mainly mild to moderate in severity (grade 1-2). Diarrhoea occurred in ten (25%) patients (grade 1 in nine patients and grade 2 in one), bleeding events in 14 (33%) patients (eight grade 1 and five grade 2), nausea or vomiting in 15 patients (38%) (ten grade 1 and five grade 2), and fatigue in seven (18%) patients (four grade 1 and three grade 2). Five patients (13%) had grade 3 infections (two lung infections, one upper respiratory tract

  1. Lymphoscintigraphy of a patient with secondary leg lymphoedema provides evidence for the existence of axillo-inguinal anastomotic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, D.T.; Piller, N.B.; Goodear, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The aim of treatment for lymphoedema is to open collateral pathways to allow lymph to pass any blocked or restricted region and to move across watershed areas. These areas and drainage territories have been postulated by Foldi and Kubic. Some groups have stated that in over 400 lymphoscintigrams they have not been able to corroborate tracer collateral pathways. However, we have been able to demonstrate the existence of axillo-inguinal anastomotic pathways. A 37-year-old female presented with leg oedema subsequent to a total abdominal hysterectomy and radiotherapy Lymphoscintigraphy was requested to assess lymphatic drainage of both legs to assist optimization of treatment. 99 Tc m -antimony trisulphide colloid was injected at each of four sites intra-dermally, in the first inter-digital space and latero-dorsal areas of each foot. Anterior images, these being from the feet to above the liver, were then performed at 40, 85, 180 and 307 min post-injection. From 40 min, and continuing throughout the study, isotope distribution representing dermal diffusion was seen throughout both limbs up to and including the pelvic area. Tracer was first observed in the axillary region at 85 min and at that time clear superficial anastomotic pathways were observable. The axillary nodes continued to appear throughout the rest of the study. As important as it was to localize the areas of dermal diffusion and lymphatic pathways in the lower limbs, the most significant discovery in this instance was the confirmation of the axillo-inguinal anastomotic pathways previously postulated by Foldi and Kubic. This should help to increase the confidence of those professionals involved in the treatment of lymphoedema

  2. Do the filarial lymphoedema patients''3 months recall' on acute dermato-lymphangio-adenitis (ADLA) correlate with streptococcal serology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Britto, L J; Das, L K

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to know the correlation of patients' 3 months recall on acute dermato-lymphangio-adenitis (ADLA) with anti-streptolysin O (ASO) serology and its application as a tool to know the burden of ADLA in the community. Fifty-nine lymphoedema (LE) patients and 27 age matched controls were clinically assessed for LE and the occurrence of ADLA during the previous 3 months was obtained by recall. After obtaining the informed consent, 2 mL of venous blood sample was collected and ASO was quantified in Olympus AU400 auto-analyzer. When the results were computed as two groups, controls and LE patients with no reported ADLA and LE patients with reported ADLA (by 3 months recall), the ASO positivity and ASO titre was significantly higher in the later group (P LE patients with no reported ADLA and LE patients with reported ADLA, the ASO titre was significantly higher in LE patients reported ADLA (P titre for making conclusion. Patients' 3 months recall on ADLA correlates with the ASO titre and therefore, it could be considered as a tool to measure the burden of ADLA in the community. Multicentre community-based studies are needed to ascertain the findings. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. A pragmatic, phase III, multisite, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, dose increment randomised trial of regular, low-dose extended-release morphine for chronic breathlessness: Breathlessness, Exertion And Morphine Sulfate (BEAMS) study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currow, David; Watts, Gareth John; Johnson, Miriam; McDonald, Christine F; Miners, John O; Somogyi, Andrew A; Denehy, Linda; McCaffrey, Nicola; Eckert, Danny J; McCloud, Philip; Louw, Sandra; Lam, Lawrence; Greene, Aine; Fazekas, Belinda; Clark, Katherine C; Fong, Kwun; Agar, Meera R; Joshi, Rohit; Kilbreath, Sharon; Ferreira, Diana; Ekström, Magnus

    2017-07-17

    Chronic breathlessness is highly prevalent and distressing to patients and families. No medication is registered for its symptomatic reduction. The strongest evidence is for regular, low-dose, extended- release (ER) oral morphine. A recent large phase III study suggests the subgroup most likely to benefit have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and modified Medical Research Council breathlessness scores of 3 or 4. This protocol is for an adequately powered, parallel-arm, placebo-controlled, multisite, factorial, block-randomised study evaluating regular ER morphine for chronic breathlessness in people with COPD. The primary question is what effect regular ER morphine has on worst breathlessness, measured daily on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Uniquely, the coprimary outcome will use a FitBit to measure habitual physical activity. Secondary questions include safety and, whether upward titration after initial benefit delivers greater net symptom reduction. Substudies include longitudinal driving simulation, sleep, caregiver, health economic and pharmacogenetic studies. Seventeen centres will recruit 171 participants from respiratory and palliative care. The study has five phases including three randomisation phases to increasing doses of ER morphine. All participants will receive placebo or active laxatives as appropriate. Appropriate statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be used. Ethics approval has been obtained. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, findings presented at relevant conferences and potentially used to inform registration of ER morphine for chronic breathlessness. NCT02720822; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. A Single-Arm Feasibility Trial of Problem-Solving Skills Training for Parents of Children with Idiopathic Chronic Pain Conditions Receiving Intensive Pain Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily F; Fales, Jessica L; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Failo, Alessandro; Logan, Deirdre; Randall, Edin; Weiss, Karen; Durkin, Lindsay; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-05-01

    To adapt problem-solving skills training (PSST) for parents of children receiving intensive pain rehabilitation and evaluate treatment feasibility, acceptability, and satisfaction. Using a prospective single-arm case series design, we evaluated the feasibility of delivering PSST to 26 parents (84.6% female) from one of three pediatric pain rehabilitation programs. Parents completed four to six sessions of PSST delivered during a 2-4-week period. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess treatment acceptability and satisfaction. We also assessed changes in parent mental health and behavior outcomes from pretreatment to immediate posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Parents demonstrated excellent treatment adherence and rated the intervention as highly acceptable and satisfactory. Preliminary analyses indicated improvements in domains of mental health, parenting behaviors, health status, and problem-solving skills. Findings demonstrate the potential role of psychological interventions directed at reducing parent distress in the context of intensive pediatric pain rehabilitation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. ATTIRE: Albumin To prevenT Infection in chronic liveR failurE: study protocol for a single-arm feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Louise; Muirhead, Nicola; Skene, Simon S; Shabir, Zainib; De Maeyer, Roel P H; Maini, Alexander A N; Gilroy, Derek W; O'Brien, Alastair J

    2016-01-25

    Circulating prostaglandin E2 levels are elevated in acutely decompensated cirrhosis and have been shown to contribute to immune suppression. Albumin binds and inactivates this hormone. Human albumin solution could thus be repurposed as an immune restorative drug in these patients.This feasibility study aims to determine whether it is possible and safe to restore serum albumin to >30 g/L and maintain it at this level in patients admitted with acute decompensated cirrhosis using repeated 20% human albumin infusions according to daily serum albumin levels. Albumin To prevenT Infection in chronic liveR failurE (ATTIRE) stage 1 is a multicentre, open label dose feasibility trial. Patients with acutely decompensated cirrhosis admitted to hospital with a serum albumin of albumin solution will be infused, according to serum albumin levels, for up to 14 days or discharge in all patients. The primary end point is daily serum albumin levels for the duration of the treatment period and the secondary end point is plasma-induced macrophage dysfunction. The trial will recruit 80 patients. Outcomes will be used to assist with study design for an 866 patient randomised controlled trial at more than 30 sites across the UK. Research ethics approval was given by the London-Brent research ethics committee (ref: 15/LO/0104). The clinical trials authorisation was issued by the medicines and healthcare products regulatory agency (ref: 20363/0350/001-0001). Will be disseminated through peer reviewed journals and international conferences. Recruitment of the first participant occurred on 26/05/2015. The trial is registered with the European Medicines Agency (EudraCT 2014-002300-24) and has been adopted by the NIHR (ISRCTN 14174793). This manuscript refers to V.4.0 of the protocol; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. JPRS Report Arms Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Table of Contents: (1) COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES - (A) GENERAL Flaws in U.S.-Russian SSD Agreement Viewed, Khariton - Espionage Not Crucial in Soviet Nuclear Arms Development, Further on Espionage Role in Nuclear Arms Projects...

  7. Haemodynamic Performance of Low Strength Below Knee Graduated Elastic Compression Stockings in Health, Venous Disease, and Lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, C R; Kalodiki, E; Azzam, M; Geroulakos, G

    2016-07-01

    To test the in vivo haemodynamic performance of graduated elastic compression (GEC) stockings using air-plethysmography (APG) in healthy volunteers (controls) and patients with varicose veins (VVs), post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), or lymphoedema. Responsiveness data were used to determine which group benefited the most from GEC. There were 12 patients per group compared using no compression, knee-length Class 1 (18-21 mmHg) compression, and Class 2 (23-32 mmHg) compression. Stocking/leg interface pressures (mmHg) were measured supine in two places using an air-sensor transducer. Stocking performance parameters, investigated before and after GEC, included the standard APG tests (working venous volume [wVV], venous filling index [VFI], venous drainage index [VDI], ejection fraction [EF]) and the occlusion plethysmography tests (incremental pressure causing the maximal increase in calf volume [IPMIV], outflow fraction [OF]). Results were expressed as median and interquartile range. Significant graduated compression was achieved in all four groups with higher interface pressures at the ankle. Only the VVs patients had a significant reduction in their wVV (without: 133 [109-146] vs. class1: 93 [74-113] mL) and the VFI (without: 4.6 [3-7.1] vs. class1: 3.1 [1.9-5] mL/s), both at p <.05. The IPMIV improved significantly in all groups except in the PTS group (p <.05). The OF improved only in the controls (without: 43 [38-51] vs. class1: 50 [48-53] %) and the VVs patients (without: 47 [39-58] vs. class1: 56 [50-64] %), both at p <.05. There were no significant differences in the VDI or the EF with GEC. Compression dose-response relationships were not observed. Patients with varicose veins improved the most, whereas those with PTS improved the least. Performance seemed to depend more on disease pathophysiology than compression strength. However, the lack of responsiveness to compression strength may be related to the low external pressures used. Stocking performance tests

  8. Effectiveness of a simple lymphoedema treatment regimen in podoconiosis management in southern ethiopia: one year follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sikorski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis caused by long-term barefoot exposure to volcanic soils in endemic areas. Irritant silicate particles penetrate the skin, causing a progressive, debilitating lymphoedema of the lower leg, often starting in the second decade of life. A simple patient-led treatment approach appropriate for resource poor settings has been developed, comprising (1 education on aetiology and prevention of podoconiosis, (2 foot hygiene (daily washing with soap, water and an antiseptic, (3 the regular use of emollient, (4 elevation of the limb at night, and (5 emphasis on the consistent use of shoes and socks.We did a 12-month, non-comparative, longitudinal evaluation of 33 patients newly presenting to one clinic site of a non-government organization (the Mossy Foot Treatment & Prevention Association, MFTPA in southern Ethiopia. Outcome measures used for the monitoring of disease progress were (1 the clinical staging system for podoconiosis, and (2 the Amharic Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, both of which have been recently validated for use in this setting. Digital photographs were also taken at each visit. Twenty-seven patients completed follow up. Characteristics of patients completing follow-up were not significantly different to those not. Mean clinical stage and lower leg circumference decreased significantly (mean difference -0.67 (95% CI -0.38 to -0.96 and -2.00 (95% CI -1.26 to -2.74, respectively, p<0.001 for both changes. Mean DLQI diminished from 21 (out of a maximum of 30 to 6 (p<0.001. There was a non-significant change in proportion of patients with mossy lesions (p = 0.375.This simple, resource-appropriate regimen has a considerable impact both on clinical progression and self-reported quality of life of affected individuals. The regimen appears ideal for scaling up to other endemic regions in Ethiopia and internationally. We recommend that further research in the area include analysis of cost

  9. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  10. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mouee, Theodore; Vertut, Jean; Marchal, Paul; Germon, J.C.; Petit, Michel

    1975-01-01

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved [fr

  11. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  12. Arms control and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty commits each party to work towards nuclear disarmament and to negotiations to stop the nuclear arms race. All parties to the Treaty are included and a wide range of arms control and disarmament issues are covered. However the main focus at Treaty review conferences has been on nuclear disarmament by the nuclear weapon states which are party to the Treaty. This has led to bilateral United States - Soviet Union negotiations resulting in the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty in December 1987 and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in July followed by unilateral arms control measures in September and October 1991. (UK)

  13. Sirolimus-induced lymphoedema

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prednisolone and byclosporine for induction immune suppression and then triple therapy with cyclosporine, ... receiving tacrolimus, MMF and prednisone for immune suppression, and his graph function has remained .... Nonetheless, we needed to consider the psychological effect of his deformity and the effect it might have ...

  14. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  15. Security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, E.A.; Morgan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book attempts to clarify and define selected current issues and problems related to security and arms control from an international perspective. The chapters are organized under the following headings. Conflict and the international system, Nuclear deterrence, Conventional warfare, Subconventional conflict, Arms control and crisis management

  16. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1992-01-01

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  17. Bilateral movements increase sustained extensor force in the paretic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2018-04-01

    Muscle weakness in the extensors poststroke is a common motor impairment. Unfortunately, research is unclear on whether bilateral movements increase extensor force production in the paretic arm. This study investigated sustained force production while stroke individuals maximally extended their wrist and fingers on their paretic arm. Specifically, we determined isometric force production in three conditions: (a) unilateral paretic arm, (b) unilateral nonparetic arm, and (c) bilateral (both arms executing the same movement simultaneously). Seventeen chronic stroke patients produced isometric sustained force by executing wrist and fingers extension in unilateral and bilateral contraction conditions. Mean force, force variability (coefficient of variation), and signal-to-noise ratio were calculated for each contraction condition. Analysis of two-way (Arm × Type of Condition: 2 × 2; Paretic or Nonparetic Arm × Unilateral or Bilateral Conditions) within-subjects ANOVAs revealed that the bilateral condition increased sustained force in the paretic arm, but reduced sustained force in the nonparetic arm. Further, although the paretic arm exhibited more force variability and less signal-to-noise ratio than the nonparetic arm during a unilateral condition, there were no differences when participants simultaneously executed isometric contractions with both arms. Our unique findings indicate that bilateral contractions transiently increased extensor force in the paretic arm. Implications for Rehabilitation Bilateral movements increased isometric wrsit extensor force in paretic arms and redcued force in nonparetic arms versus unilateral movements. Both paretic and nonparetic arms produced similar force variability and signal-to-noise ratio during bilateral movements. Increased sustained force in the paretic arm during the bilateral condition indicates that rehabilitation protocols based on bilateral movements may be beneficial for functional recovery.

  18. Technology-supported training of arm-hand skills in stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Impaired arm-hand performance is a serious consequence of stroke that is associated with reduced self-efficacy and poor quality of life. Task-oriented arm training is a therapy approach that is known to improve skilled arm-hand performance, even in chronic stages after stroke. At the start of this

  19. Association of lumbar spine stiffness and flexion-relaxation phenomenon with patient-reported outcomes in adults with chronic low back pain - a single-arm clinical trial investigating the effects of thrust spinal manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Long, Cynthia R; Vining, Robert D; Gudavalli, Maruti R; DeVocht, James W; Kawchuk, Gregory N; Wilder, David G; Goertz, Christine M

    2017-06-09

    Spinal manipulation (SM) is used commonly for treating low back pain (LBP). Spinal stiffness is routinely assessed by clinicians performing SM. Flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) was shown to distinguish between LBP and healthy populations. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association of these two physiological variables with patient-reported pain intensity and disability in adults with chronic LBP (>12 weeks) receiving SM. A single-arm trial provided 12 sessions of side-lying thrust SM in the lumbosacral region over 6 weeks. Inclusion criteria included 21-65 years old, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) score ≥ 6 and numerical pain rating score ≥ 2. Spinal stiffness and FRR were assessed pre-treatment at baseline, after 2 weeks and after 6 weeks of treatment. Lumbar spine global stiffness (GS) were calculated from the force-displacement curves obtained using i) hand palpation, ii) a hand-held device, and iii) an automated indenter device. Lumbar FRR was assessed during trunk flexion-extension using surface electromyography. The primary outcomes were RMDQ and pain intensity measured by visual analog scale (VAS). Mixed-effects regression models were used to analyze the data. The mean age of the 82 participants was 45 years; 48% were female; and 84% reported LBP >1 year. The mean (standard deviation) baseline pain intensity and RMDQ were 46.1 (18.1) and 9.5 (4.3), respectively. The mean reduction (95% confidence interval) after 6 weeks in pain intensity and RMDQ were 20.1 mm (14.1 to 26.1) and 4.8 (3.7 to 5.8). There was a small change over time in the palpatory GS but not in the hand-held or automated GS, nor in FRR. The addition of each physiologic variable did not affect the model-estimated changes in VAS or RMDQ over time. There was no association seen between physiological variables and LBP intensity. Higher levels of hand-held GS at L3 and automated GS were significantly associated with higher levels of RMDQ (p

  20. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  1. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  2. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cragin, Kim; Hoffman, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    ... to traditional definitions of a security threat. For this analysis, the term "small arms" refers to man-portable personal and military weapons, ranging from handguns to assault rifles to surface-to-air missiles (SAMs...

  3. Arms Races and Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Baliga; Tomas Sjostrom

    2003-01-01

    Two players simultaneously decide whether or not to acquire new weapons in an arms race game. Each player's type determines his propensity to arm. Types are private information, and are independently drawn from a continuous distribution. With probability close to one, the best outcome for each player is for neither to acquire new weapons (although each prefers to acquire new weapons if he thinks the opponent will). There is a small probability that a player is a dominant strategy type who alw...

  4. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  5. Prognostic significance of between-arm blood pressure differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Bunaye, Zerihun; Bekele, Dagim M

    2008-03-01

    Blood pressure (BP) recordings often differ between arms, but the extent to which these differences are reproducible and whether the differences have prognostic importance is unknown. We enrolled 421 consecutive patients from a medicine and a renal clinic at a veterans' hospital. Three BP recordings were obtained in each arm using an oscillometric device in a sequential manner and repeated in 1 week. Patients were followed for all-cause mortality arm had 5.1-mm Hg higher systolic BP that attenuated by approximately 2.2 mm Hg a week later. Systolic BP dropped 6.9 mm Hg over 1 week and by an additional 5.3 mm Hg in patients with chronic kidney disease. Accounting for the visit and arm effect improved the reproducibility of the BP measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.74, which improved to 0.88 after accounting for visit and 0.93 after accounting for arm. The crude mortality rate was 6.33 per 100 patient-years. Every 10-mm Hg difference in systolic BP between the arms conferred a mortality hazard of 1.24 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.52) after adjusting for average systolic BP and chronic kidney disease. BP differences between arms are reproducible and carry prognostic information. Patients should have evaluation of BP in both arms at the screening visit.

  6. Ultrasound elastography as an objective diagnostic measurement tool for lymphoedema of the treated breast in breast cancer patients following breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriaenssens, Nele; Belsack, Dries; Buyl, Ronald; Ruggiero, Leonardo; Breucq, Catherine; De Mey, Johan; Lievens, Pierre; Lamote, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Lymphoedema of the operated and irradiated breast is a common complication following early breast cancer treatment. There is no consensus on objective diagnostic criteria and standard measurement tools. This study investigates the use of ultrasound elastography as an objective quantitative measurement tool for the diagnosis of parenchymal breast oedema. The elasticity ratio of the subcutis, measured with ultrasound elastography, was compared with high-frequency ultrasound parameters and subjective symptoms in twenty patients, bilaterally, prior to and following breast conserving surgery and breast irradiation. Elasticity ratio of the subcutis of the operated breast following radiation therapy increased in 88.9% of patients, was significantly higher than prior to surgery, unlike the non operated breast and significantly higher than the non operated breast, unlike preoperative results. These results were significantly correlated with visibility of the echogenic line, measured with high-frequency ultrasound. Big preoperative bra cup size was a significant risk factor for the development of breast oedema. Ultrasound elastography is an objective quantitative measurement tool for the diagnosis of parenchymal breast oedema, in combination with other objective diagnostic criteria. Further research with longer follow-up and more patients is necessary to confirm our findings

  7. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  8. PHENIX Muon Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akikawa, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Archuleta, J.B.; Archuleta, J.R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baldisseri, A.; Barker, A.B.; Barnes, P.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Batsouli, S.; Behrendt, J.; Bellaiche, F.G.; Bland, A.W.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Borel, H.; Brooks, M.L.; Brown, A.W.; Brown, D.S.; Bruner, N.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chavez, L.L.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Chung, M.S.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D.J.; Cobigo, Y.; Dabrowski, C.M.; Debraine, A.; DeMoss, J.; Dinesh, B.V.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Drapier, O.; Echave, M.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; En'yo, H.; Fields, D.E.; Fleuret, F.; Fried, J.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Gadrat, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T.F.; Glenn, A.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hance, R.H.; Hart, G.W.; Hayashi, N.; Held, S.; Hicks, J.S.; Hill, J.C.; Hoade, R.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Horaguchi, T.; Hunter, C.T.; Hurst, D.E.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Isenhower, L.D.L. Davis; Isenhower, L.D.L. Donald; Ishihara, M.; Jang, W.Y.; Johnson, J.; Jouan, D.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, J.H.; Kapoor, S.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kinnison, W.W.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Koehler, D.; Kotchenda, L.; Kuberg, C.H.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G.S.; LaBounty, J.J.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lee, D.M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, M.X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lockner, E.; Lopez, J.D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, X.B.; McCain, M.C.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R.E.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montoya, B.C.; Moss, J.M.; Murata, J.; Murray, M.M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nakada, Y.; Newby, J.; Obenshain, F.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S.F.; Plasil, F.; Pope, K.; Qualls, J.M.; Rao, G.; Read, K.F.; Robinson, S.H.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosnet, P.; Roth, R.; Saito, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sandhoff, W.F.; Sanfratello, L.; Sato, H.D.; Savino, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Shaw, M.R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sim, K.S.; Skank, H.D.; Smith, D.E.; Smith, G.D.; Sondheim, W.E.; Sorensen, S.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P.W.; Steffens, S.; Stein, E.M.; Stepanov, M.; Stokes, W.; Sugioka, M.; Sun, Z.; Taketani, A.; Taniguchi, E.; Tepe, J.D.; Thornton, G.W.; Tian, W.; Tojo, J.; Torii, H.; Towell, R.S.; Tradeski, J.; Vassent, M.; Velissaris, C.; Villatte, L.; Wan, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Watkins, L.C.; Whitus, B.R.; Williams, C.; Willis, P.S.; Wong-Swanson, B.G.; Yang, Y.; Yoneyama, S.; Young, G.R.; Zhou, S.

    2003-01-01

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons (∼10 -3 ). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described

  9. PHENIX Muon Arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akikawa, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Archuleta, J.B.; Archuleta, J.R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baldisseri, A.; Barker, A.B.; Barnes, P.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Batsouli, S.; Behrendt, J.; Bellaiche, F.G.; Bland, A.W.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Borel, H.; Brooks, M.L.; Brown, A.W.; Brown, D.S.; Bruner, N.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chavez, L.L.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Chung, M.S.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D.J.; Cobigo, Y.; Dabrowski, C.M.; Debraine, A.; DeMoss, J.; Dinesh, B.V.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Drapier, O.; Echave, M.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; En' yo, H.; Fields, D.E.; Fleuret, F.; Fried, J.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Gadrat, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T.F.; Glenn, A.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hance, R.H.; Hart, G.W.; Hayashi, N.; Held, S.; Hicks, J.S.; Hill, J.C.; Hoade, R.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Horaguchi, T.; Hunter, C.T.; Hurst, D.E.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Isenhower, L.D.L. Davis; Isenhower, L.D.L. Donald; Ishihara, M.; Jang, W.Y.; Johnson, J.; Jouan, D.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, J.H.; Kapoor, S.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kinnison, W.W.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Koehler, D.; Kotchenda, L.; Kuberg, C.H.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G.S.; LaBounty, J.J.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lee, D.M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, M.X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lockner, E.; Lopez, J.D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, X.B.; McCain, M.C.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R.E.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montoya, B.C.; Moss, J.M.; Murata, J.; Murray, M.M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nakada, Y.; Newby, J.; Obenshain, F.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S.F.; Plasil, F.; Pope, K.; Qualls, J.M.; Rao, G.; Read, K.F. E-mail: readkf@ornl.gov; Robinson, S.H.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosnet, P.; Roth, R.; Saito, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sandhoff, W.F.; Sanfratello, L.; Sato, H.D.; Savino, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Shaw, M.R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sim, K.S.; Skank, H.D.; Smith, D.E.; Smith, G.D. [and others

    2003-03-01

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons ({approx}10{sup -3}). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described.

  10. An unusual case of angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowdell, C P; Cary, N; Burdge, A; Howard, N; Makey, A R

    1988-10-01

    A case of angiosarcoma arising in an arm affected by chronic lymphoedema and treated initially by intraarterial cytotoxic perfusion chemotherapy and radiotherapy is described. The patient is still alive twenty years after presentation. This represents the longest reported survival for this condition.

  11. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-28

    NACHRICHTEN , 18 Oct 85) 39 Presummit Polish Reporting on SDI Issues (Warsaw RZECZPOSPOLITA, 19-20 Oct 85; Warsaw ZYCIE WARSZAWY, 15 Oct 85) 42...28 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS MEETING REVEALS SOME SUPPORT FOR EUREKA LINK TO MILITARY Puesseldbrf VDI NACHRICHTEN in German 18 Oct 85 p 10

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-04

    8217Unpredictable Consequences’ of SDI (Moscow PRAVDA, 7 Dec 85) 22 Moscow TV on ASTEC Meeting, Military Monopolies, SDI (Tomas Kolesnichenko; Moscow...planet. /8309 CSO: 5200/1228 22 JPRS-TAO86*014 4 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS MOSCOW TV ON ASTEC MEETING, MILITARY MONOPOLIES, SDI

  13. Affine pairings on ARM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, T.; Lauter, K.; Naehrig, M.; Shumow, D.; Abdalla, M.; Lange, T.

    2013-01-01

    We report on relative performance numbers for affine and projective pairings on a dual-core Cortex A9 ARM processor. Using a fast inversion in the base field and doing inversion in extension fields by using the norm map to reduce to inversions in smaller fields, we find a very low ratio of

  14. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    chronology of the intensification of violence in the area, see Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá...Arms, London, UK: Zed Books, 2000, pp. 155–178. Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá: Cinep & Justicia

  15. Validity of soft-tissue thickness of calf measured using MRI for assessing unilateral lower extremity lymphoedema secondary to cervical and endometrial cancer treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qing; Li, Yulai; Chen, Tian-Wu; Yao, Yuan; Zhao, Zizhou; Li, Yang; Xu, Jianrong; Jiang, Zhaohua; Hu, Jiani

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether soft-tissue thickness of the calf measured using MRI could be valid for assessing unilateral lower extremity lymphoedema (LEL) secondary to cervical and endometrial cancer treatments. Materials and methods: Seventy women with unilateral LEL and 25 without LEL after cervical or endometrial cancer treatments underwent MRI examinations of their calves. Total thickness of soft-tissue (TT), muscle thickness (MT), and subcutaneous tissue thickness (STT) of the calf, and the difference between the affected and contralateral unaffected calf regarding TT (DTT), MT (DMT), and STT (DSTT) were obtained using fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging in the middle of the calves. The volume of the calf and difference in volume (DV) between calves were obtained by the method of water displacement. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the validity of MRI measurements by volume measurements in staging LEL. Results: There was a close correlation between volume and TT for the affected (r = 0.927) or unaffected calves (r = 0.896). STT of the affected calf, and DTT or DSTT of the calves were closely correlated with volume of the affected calf or DV of the calves (all p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed significant differences in TT, STT, volume of the affected calf, DTT, DSTT, and DV between stages except in volume of the affected calf or in DV between stage 0 and 1. For staging LEL, DSTT showed the best discrimination ability among all the parameters. Conclusions: Soft-tissue thickness of the calf measured at MRI could be valid for quantitatively staging unilateral LEL, and DSTT of the calves could be the best classifying factor. - Highlights: • The soft tissue thickness of calves on MRI could quantitatively assess secondary LEL. • Calf soft tissue thickness indicated concurrent or construct validity of calf volume. • The difference of subcutaneous tissue thickness of calves could be used to stage LEL

  16. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  17. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  18. Safeguarding arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    This essay reviews the evolution of various safeguards concepts associated with U.S. Soviet arms control negotiations over the past twenty-five years. It explore in some detail the origins, nature, and effectiveness of the safeguards packages associated with six agreements: the Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963), the SALT I Interim Agreement (1972), the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (1972), the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (1974), the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (1976) and the SALT II Treaty (1979). Finally, the implications of this historical record for developing future nuclear and conventional arms control accords and for shoring up existing pacts, such as the ABM Treaty, are assessed with a view towards practicable prescriptions for Western policymakers. The treaty eliminating intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) incorporates several verification safeguards, and it is very likely that analogous measures would be attached to any accord constraining conventional forces in Europe

  19. Coat of Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  20. Arms Production in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    studied engineering in the United States. Cardoen produces a wide spectrum of munitions, security equipment and especially armored vehicles, and has...capabilities are: a. The amount of capital available for investment. Arms industry development requires enormous amounts of capital, especially if the...Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5100 5. Director de Educacion de La Armada 1 Comandancia General de La Armada Av. Vollmer, Urb. San

  1. Scientific coats of arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-09-01

    With their mythical creatures and arcane symbolism, coats of arms seem to have little connection with modern science. Yet despite its chivalric origins, the ancient language of heraldry has long fascinated famous scientists. Although this idiosyncratic tradition was parodied by Victorian geologists, who laughingly replaced unicorns and griffins with images of dinosaurs that they had recently discovered, it has been perpetuated since by Ernest Rutherford, who liked to present himself as a new alchemist.

  2. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  3. Strategic arms limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1983-10-01

    Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-22

    dinosaurs (and a large number of other species which disappeared "simultaneously") might have become extinct because a large comet hit the earth’s...clear yet aeain the reasons why Washington is in such haste in the arms race for "star wars" and why it refuses to assume a commitment not to be...Kolesnichenko says: [Begin Kolesnichenko recording in Russian with English translation] In an effort to calm the American public and provide a logical reason

  5. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  6. Removable molar power arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment of force elements from the gingival hook of maxillary molar tubes during the retraction of the anterior teeth is very common in orthodontic practice. As the line of force passes below the center of resistance (CR of molar, it results its mesial tipping and also anchorage loss. To overcome this problem, the line of force should pass along the CR of molar. This article highlights a method to overcome this problem by attaching a removable power arm to the headgear tube of molar tube during the retraction of the anterior teeth.

  7. Disarmament and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, B.

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses how far science and technology can provide methods of making arms control and disarmament agreements more controlable in an objective way. Two case studies have been considered, the test ban treaty and the verification of the number of strategic nuclear weapons. These lead to the conclusion that both science and politics are closely interwoven and that within what appear to be scientific arguments, political positions are being defended. Consequently scientists and technologists and the contexts in which they work, play a prominent role. (C.F.)

  8. Nature of galaxy spiral arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of galaxy spiral arms is discussed in a popular form. Two approaches in the theory of spiral arms are considered; they are related to the problem of differential galaxy rotation and the spiral structure wave theory. The example of Galaxy M31 is considered to compare the structural peculiarity of its spiral arms with the wave theory predictions. The situation in the central and south-eastern part of arm S4 in Galaxy M31 noted to be completely explained by the wave theory and modern concepts on the origin of massive stars

  9. Nuclear arms cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Soviet Union's demise five years ago brought an end to the Cold War, the 45-year arms race between the Soviet superpower and the United States. The euphoria that greeted the end of this bloodless conflict has dampened somewhat, however, as U.S. officials and their counterparts in the former Soviet republics come to grips with its legacy: thousands of highly toxic and politically destabilizing nuclear weapons. With no more perceived need for much of their vast arsenals, the governments have agreed to dismantle large numbers of nuclear warheads. But the agencies involved in this task face a daunting technical and political problem: what to do with the thousands of tons of plutonium and uranium that are the main ingredients of nuclear weapons

  10. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Have Third-World Arms Industries Reduced Arms Imports?

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Current Research on Peace and Violence, no. 1, 1989. Refereed Journal Article In 1945 only Argentina, Brazil, India and South Africa in the Third World possessed domestic arms industries which produced weapons systems other than small arms and ammunition (SIPRI, 1987, 76).

  12. Extracorporal Shock Waves Activate Migration, Proliferation and Inflammatory Pathways in Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes, and Improve Wound Healing in an Open-Label, Single-Arm Study in Patients with Therapy-Refractory Chronic Leg Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschermann, Ilknur; Noor, Seema; Venturelli, Sascha; Sinnberg, Tobias; Mnich, Christian D; Busch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Chronic leg ulcers (CLUs) are globally a major cause of morbidity and mortality with increasing prevalence. Their treatment is highly challenging, and many conservative, surgical or advanced therapies have been suggested, but with little overall efficacy. Since the 1980s extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has gained interest as treatment for specific indications. Here, we report that patients with CLU showed wound healing after ESWT and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We performed cell proliferation and migration assays, FACS- and Western blot analyses, RT-PCR, and Affymetrix gene expression analyses on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and a tube formation assay on human microvascular endothelial cells to assess the impact of shock waves in vitro. In vivo, chronic therapy-refractory leg ulcers were treated with ESWT, and wound healing was assessed. Upon ESWT, we observed morphological changes and increased cell migration of keratinocytes. Cell-cycle regulatory genes were upregulated, and proliferation induced in fibroblasts. This was accompanied by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from keratinocytes, which are known to drive wound healing, and a pro-angiogenic activity of endothelial cells. These observations were transferred "from bench to bedside", and 60 consecutive patients with 75 CLUs with different pathophysiologies (e.g. venous, mixed arterial-venous, arterial) were treated with ESWT. In this setting, 41% of ESWT-treated CLUs showed complete healing, 16% significant improvement, 35% improvement, and 8% of the ulcers did not respond to ESWT. The induction of healing was independent of patient age, duration or size of the ulcer, and the underlying pathophysiology. The efficacy of ESWT needs to be confirmed in controlled trials to implement ESWT as an adjunct to standard therapy or as a stand-alone treatment. Our results suggest that EWST may advance the treatment of chronic, therapy-refractory ulcers. © 2017 The Author

  13. Extracorporal Shock Waves Activate Migration, Proliferation and Inflammatory Pathways in Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes, and Improve Wound Healing in an Open-Label, Single-Arm Study in Patients with Therapy-Refractory Chronic Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Aschermann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic leg ulcers (CLUs are globally a major cause of morbidity and mortality with increasing prevalence. Their treatment is highly challenging, and many conservative, surgical or advanced therapies have been suggested, but with little overall efficacy. Since the 1980s extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT has gained interest as treatment for specific indications. Here, we report that patients with CLU showed wound healing after ESWT and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: We performed cell proliferation and migration assays, FACS- and Western blot analyses, RT-PCR, and Affymetrix gene expression analyses on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and a tube formation assay on human microvascular endothelial cells to assess the impact of shock waves in vitro. In vivo, chronic therapy-refractory leg ulcers were treated with ESWT, and wound healing was assessed. Results: Upon ESWT, we observed morphological changes and increased cell migration of keratinocytes. Cell-cycle regulatory genes were upregulated, and proliferation induced in fibroblasts. This was accompanied by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from keratinocytes, which are known to drive wound healing, and a pro-angiogenic activity of endothelial cells. These observations were transferred “from bench to bedside”, and 60 consecutive patients with 75 CLUs with different pathophysiologies (e.g. venous, mixed arterial-venous, arterial were treated with ESWT. In this setting, 41% of ESWT-treated CLUs showed complete healing, 16% significant improvement, 35% improvement, and 8% of the ulcers did not respond to ESWT. The induction of healing was independent of patient age, duration or size of the ulcer, and the underlying pathophysiology. Conclusions: The efficacy of ESWT needs to be confirmed in controlled trials to implement ESWT as an adjunct to standard therapy or as a stand-alone treatment. Our results suggest that EWST may advance the

  14. Nuclear Arms Race and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Anpeng

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new factor, environment, into nuclear arms race model. In this model, nuclear weapons produce larger defense power compared with conventional arms, but hurt the environment meanwhile. In the global welfare maximum level, both conventional and nuclear weapons budget are zero. However, the competitive equilibrium may not achieve the optimum. I give the condition to jump out of the prisoner's dilemma.

  15. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  16. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-15

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy.

  17. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  18. How do octopuses use their arms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J A

    1998-09-01

    A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed. Components consist of movements of the arm itself, the ventral suckers and their stalks, as well as the relative position of arms and the skin web between them. Within 1 arm, combinations of components result in a variety of behaviors. At the level of all arms, 1 group of behaviors is described as postures, on the basis of the spread of all arms and the web to make a 2-dimensional surface whose position differs in the 3rd dimension. Another group of arm behaviors is actions, more or less coordinated and involving several to all arms. Arm control appears to be based on radial symmetry, relative equipotentiality of all arms, relative independence of each arm, and separability of components within the arm. The types and coordination of arm behaviors are discussed with relationship to biomechanical limits, muscle structures, and neuronal programming.

  19. Study protocol: a phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel arm, stratified, block randomised, placebo-controlled trial investigating the clinical effect and cost-effectiveness of sertraline for the palliative relief of breathlessness in people with chronic breathlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Gareth J; Clark, Katherine; Agar, Meera; Davidson, Patricia M; McDonald, Christine; Lam, Lawrence T; Sajkov, Dimitar; McCaffrey, Nicola; Doogue, Matthew; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C

    2016-11-29

    Breathlessness remains a highly prevalent and distressing symptom for many patients with progressive life-limiting illnesses. Evidence-based interventions for chronic breathlessness are limited, and there is an ongoing need for high-quality research into developing management strategies for optimal palliation of this complex symptom. Previous studies have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline may have a role in reducing breathlessness. This paper presents the protocol for a large, adequately powered randomised study evaluating the use of sertraline for chronic breathlessness in people with progressive life-limiting illnesses. A total of 240 participants with modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale breathlessness of level 2 or higher will be randomised to receive either sertraline or placebo for 28 days in this multisite, double-blind study. The dose will be titrated up every 3 days to a maximum of 100 mg daily. The primary outcome will be to compare the efficacy of sertraline with placebo in relieving the intensity of worst breathlessness as assessed by a 0-100 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A number of other outcome measures and descriptors of breathlessness as well as caregiver assessments will also be recorded to ensure adequate analysis of participant breathlessness and to allow an economic analysis to be performed. Participants will also be given the option of continuing blinded treatment until either study data collection is complete or net benefit ceases. Appropriate statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be used to describe the wealth of data obtained. Ethics approval was obtained at all participating sites. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and the key findings presented at national and international conferences. ACTRN12610000464066. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  20. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  1. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  2. Technology and the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.

    1988-01-01

    This article makes a review of the book Innovation and the Arms Race: How the United States and the Soviet Union Develop New Military Technologies written by Matthew Evangelista. For at least the last two decades, scholars have struggled to come to grips with the role of technological change in the arms race. Possible relationships between theories on technology and politics are examined. The contrasts between U.S. and Soviet approaches are highlighted

  3. Changing patterns of arms transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, H.

    1998-01-01

    Three factors in the international system have been of importance for the trade of arms: the role of the main actors on the supply side and since 1970 on the demand side, the permanently increasing importance of economics, and the balance trade, industrial capacity and jobs in supplier countries and purchasing power of potential importers. Two political events in 1991 had lasting effect on the development of the trade in arms: the dissolution of Soviet Union and the Gulf War

  4. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  5. Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Hand and Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Safren, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychological treatment that emphasizes the interrelation among thoughts, behaviors, feelings, and sensations. CBT has been proved effective not only for treatment of psychological illness but also for teaching adaptive coping strategies in the context of chronic illnesses, including chronic pain. The present article provides general information on CBT, specific information on CBT for pain, as well as guidelines and strategies for using CBT for hand and arm pain patients, as part of multidisciplinary care models. PMID:21051204

  6. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  7. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Kigawa

    Full Text Available Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  8. Neck and arm pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de las Peñas, César Fernández; Cleland, Joshua; Huijbregts, Peter

    approaches.It uniquely addresses the expanding role of the various health care professions which require increased knowledge and skills in screening for contra-indications and recognizing the need for medical-surgical referral. Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes also stresses the integration of experiential......The first of its kind, Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes is a comprehensive evidence- and clinical-based book, covering research-based diagnosis, prognosis and management of neuromusculoskeletal pathologies and dysfunctions of the upper quadrant, including joint, muscle, myofascial and neural tissue...... of the most commonly seen pain syndromes in clinical practice over 800 illustrations demonstrating examination procedures and techniques....

  9. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  10. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    of authority and practices of rule that originate in the colonial era. In particular, the article shows that by appealing to both local customary and national forms of political community and citizenship, armed groups are able to assume public authority to tax civilians. However, their public authority may...

  11. Distinguishing targets in armed conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main object of international humanitarian law (IHL) is the amelioration of the effect of armed conflict on the populace. It seeks to accomplish this by establishing rules that ensure that objects the destruction of which will not give military advantage e are protected; thus, such objects are not to be targeted or destroyed.

  12. How Computers are Arming biology!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. In-vitro to In-silico - How Computers are Arming biology! Geetha Sugumaran Sushila Rajagopal. Face to Face Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 83-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Blood pressure measurement: one arm or both arm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad K; Shekhar, Susheela; Reddy, B N; Nirmala, B C

    2011-09-01

    Guidelines for measuring blood pressure includes measurement of blood pressure on both arms but it is often ignored. Our case report aims at highlighting the need follow the guidelines. A 60 year old 59 kg weighing male asymptomatic patient without any comobidities was posted for bilateral inguinal hernia repair. The interarm blood pressure difference was discovered incidentally during his preanaesthetic evalution. On further evaluation patient was found to be having subclavian stenosis on left side which was asymptomatic. Intraoperative and post operative period was uneventful. Blood pressure measurement should be done in accordance with the stipulated guidelines. Inter arm blood pressure difference should be noted in all patients as not only for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension but also as a tool to diagnose asymptomatic peripheral vascular disesase.

  14. Controlling robot arm with the mind

    National Science Foundation

    2017-05-31

    Full Text Available Research test subjects at the University of Minnesota who were fitted with a specialized noninvasive brain cap were able to move a robotic arm just by imagining moving their own arms.

  15. Chaotic evolution of arms races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomochi, Masaki; Kono, Mitsuo

    1998-12-01

    A new set of model equations is proposed to describe the evolution of the arms race, by extending Richardson's model with special emphases that (1) power dependent defensive reaction or historical enmity could be a motive force to promote armaments, (2) a deterrent would suppress the growth of armaments, and (3) the defense reaction of one nation against the other nation depends nonlinearly on the difference in armaments between two. The set of equations is numerically solved to exhibit stationary, periodic, and chaotic behavior depending on the combinations of parameters involved. The chaotic evolution is realized when the economic situation of each country involved in the arms race is quite different, which is often observed in the real world.

  16. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  17. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  18. Dual arm master controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  19. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arm sling is a device intended for medical purposes to immobilize the arm, by means of a fabric band... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  20. Limited consensus around ARM information protection practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An existing enterprise IP SoP was adapted to ARM through literature analysis and produced a draft ARM SoP. The draft ARM SoP was applied in a rote fashion to a small sample of government-operated archives to identify likely areas of consensus and lack of consensus surrounding the various elements of the SoP.

  1. The MVACS Robotic Arm Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Hartwig, H.; Kramm, R.; Koschny, D.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Thomas, N.; Fernades, M.; Smith, P. H.; Reynolds, R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Weinberg, J.; Marcialis, R.; Tanner, R.; Boss, B. J.; Oquest, C.; Paige, D. A.

    2001-08-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is one of the key instruments newly developed for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor payload of the Mars Polar Lander. This lightweight instrument employs a front lens with variable focus range and takes images at distances from 11 mm (image scale 1:1) to infinity. Color images with a resolution of better than 50 μm can be obtained to characterize the Martian soil. Spectral information of nearby objects is retrieved through illumination with blue, green, and red lamp sets. The design and performance of the camera are described in relation to the science objectives and operation. The RAC uses the same CCD detector array as the Surface Stereo Imager and shares the readout electronics with this camera. The RAC is mounted at the wrist of the Robotic Arm and can characterize the contents of the scoop, the samples of soil fed to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer, the Martian surface in the vicinity of the lander, and the interior of trenches dug out by the Robotic Arm. It can also be used to take panoramic images and to retrieve stereo information with an effective baseline surpassing that of the Surface Stereo Imager by about a factor of 3.

  2. Performance of arm locking in LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, Kirk; Spero, Robert E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    For the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) to reach its design sensitivity, the coupling of the free-running laser frequency noise to the signal readout must be reduced by more than 14 orders of magnitude. One technique employed to reduce the laser frequency noise will be arm locking, where the laser frequency is locked to the LISA arm length. In this paper we detail an implementation of arm locking. We investigate orbital effects (changing arm lengths and Doppler frequencies), the impact of errors in the Doppler knowledge that can cause pulling of the laser frequency, and the noise limit of arm locking. Laser frequency pulling is examined in two regimes: at lock acquisition and in steady state. The noise performance of arm locking is calculated with the inclusion of the dominant expected noise sources: ultrastable oscillator (clock) noise, spacecraft motion, and shot noise. We find that clock noise and spacecraft motion limit the performance of dual arm locking in the LISA science band. Studying these issues reveals that although dual arm locking [A. Sutton and D. A. Shaddock, Phys. Rev. D 78, 082001 (2008)] has advantages over single (or common) arm locking in terms of allowing high gain, it has disadvantages in both laser frequency pulling and noise performance. We address this by proposing a modification to the dual arm-locking sensor, a hybrid of common and dual arm-locking sensors. This modified dual arm-locking sensor has the laser frequency pulling characteristics and low-frequency noise coupling of common arm locking, but retains the control system advantages of dual arm locking. We present a detailed design of an arm-locking controller and perform an analysis of the expected performance when used with and without laser prestabilization. We observe that the sensor phase changes beneficially near unity-gain frequencies of the arm-locking controller, allowing a factor of 10 more gain than previously believed, without degrading stability. With a time

  3. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  4. To Arm or Not to Arm: The Case Against Arming Vietnam and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    designed to allay 9 Leaf (accessed Oct 24, 2014). 10 Ankit Panda , “What to Expect if the U.S. Lifts...their animated populations. Despite the rhetoric, no ideology or nation is monolithic, thus opportunities exist to improve the U.S.-Sino...Joint Forces Quarterly 2 (2014): 76-80. Panda , Ankit. “What to Expect if the U.S. Lifts Its Vietnam Arms Embargo.” The Diplomat. September 29

  5. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  6. Inter-Arm Difference in Brachial Blood Pressure in the General Population of Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo Mi; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Dong Phil

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the inter-arm difference in blood pressure of the general Korean population to identify associated factors. A total of 806 participants aged 30 to 64 years without history of major cardiovascular disease were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. They participated in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort study that began in 2013. Brachial blood pressure was measured simultaneously for both arms using an automated oscillometric device equipped with two cuffs in seated position. After five minutes of rest, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured three times. The average of the three measurements was used for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with inter-arm differences in blood pressure. The mean inter-arm difference was 3.3 mmHg for SBP and 2.0 mmHg for DBP. Large inter-arm differences (≥10 mmHg) in SBP and in DBP were found in 3.7% and 0.9% of subjects, respectively. A large inter-arm difference in SBP was associated with mean SBP (p=0.002) and C-reactive protein (p=0.014) while a large inter-arm different in DBP was only associated with body mass index (p=0.015). Sex, age, and anti-hypertensive medication use were not associated with differences in inter-arm blood pressure. Large inter-arm difference in blood pressure is only present in a small portion of healthy Korean adults. Our findings suggest that high SBP, chronic inflammation, and obesity may be associated with larger difference in inter-arm blood pressure.

  7. Safety and efficacy of combination therapy of interferon-alpha2 + JAK1-2 Inhibitor in the philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Preliminary results from the danish combi-trial-an open label, single arm, non-randomized multicenter phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, S. U.; Kjaer, L.; Skov, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Philadelphia-negative, chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) include essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (MF) (PMF). Chronic inflammation and a deregulated immune system are considered important for clonal evolution and disease...

  8. Dual arm master controller development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  9. Arming shoes of the fifteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Volken Marquita

    2017-01-01

    Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming sh...

  10. Star distribution in the Orion spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharina, T.S.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Filippova, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the Orion spiral arm is studied by numerical experiments, assuming that in each direction considered the star distribution along the line of sight is a combination of two Gaussian laws. The corresponding parameters are evaluated for four Milky Way fields; the bimodal laws now fit the observations by the chi 2 criterion. In the Orion arm the line-of-sight star densities follow asymmetric curves, steeper at the outer edge of the arm

  11. Arms races between and within species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, R; Krebs, J R

    1979-09-21

    An adaptation in one lineage (e.g. predators) may change the selection pressure on another lineage (e.g. prey), giving rise to a counter-adaptation. If this occurs reciprocally, an unstable runaway escalation or 'arms race' may result. We discuss various factors which might give one side an advantage in an arms race. For example, a lineage under strong selection may out-evolve a weakly selected one (' the life-dinner principle'). We then classify arms races in two independent ways. They may be symmetric or asymmetric, and they may be interspecific or intraspecific. Our example of an asymmetric interspecific arms race is that between brood parasites and their hosts. The arms race concept may help to reduce the mystery of why cuckoo hosts are so good at detecting cuckoo eggs, but so bad at detecting cuckoo nestlings. The evolutionary contest between queen and worker ants over relative parental investment is a good example of an intraspecific asymmetric arms race. Such cases raise special problems because the participants share the same gene pool. Interspecific symmetric arms races are unlikely to be important, because competitors tend to diverge rather than escalate competitive adaptations. Intraspecific symmetric arms races, exemplified by adaptations for male-male competition, may underlie Cope's Rule and even the extinction of lineages. Finally we consider ways in which arms races can end. One lineage may drive the other to extinction; one may reach an optimum, thereby preventing the other from doing so; a particularly interesting possibility, exemplified by flower-bee coevolution, is that both sides may reach a mutual local optimum; lastly, arms races may have no stable and but may cycle continuously. We do not wish necessarily to suggest that all, or even most, evolutionary change results from arms races, but we do suggest that the arms race concept may help to resolve three long-standing questions in evolutionary theory.

  12. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  14. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  15. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  16. Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stram, Michelle; Liu, Shu; Singhi, Aatur D

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may be confused with chronic pancreatitis, the main distinguishing features between these 2 diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  18. Stress analysis for robot arm version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar Abdul Rahman; Fikri, A.; Salleh, M. S.; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Azraf Azman; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Rizal Mamat

    2010-01-01

    The design of a robot needs to be analyzed to ensure the specification and requirement by the user is full filled. Therefore, stress analysis has been performed on the robot arm version 2 after its complete fabrication. This paper discusses the result of the analysis and proposed measures to improve the future design of robot arm. (author)

  19. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as

  20. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  1. TOWARDS UNIFORM RULES FOR ARMED CONFLICTS Pieter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the two Additional Protocols that followed in 1977, divide armed conflict into two legal categories: ... Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Third Convention ... Nationalist China; ibid 116. ... 17 Pictet op cit 43; Junod, S 'Additional Protocol II: History and Scope' (1983) 33 The. American ...

  2. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  3. Simple model of the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zane, L.I.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model of a two-party arms race is developed based on the principle that the race will continue so long as either side can unleash an effective first strike against the other side. The model is used to examine how secrecy, the ABM, MIRV-ing, and an MX system affect the arms race

  4. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M; Mazzolai, B; Dario, P; Mattoli, V

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups

  5. Arm locking with Doppler estimation errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yinan; Wand, Vinzenz; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: yinan@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study LISA interferometry with hardware in the loop at a system level. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking. Arm locking uses an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA arm signals as a frequency reference. We will report about experiments in which we demonstrated arm locking using UFLIS. During these experiments we also discovered a problem associated with the Doppler shift of the return beam. The initial arm locking publications assumed that this Doppler shift can perfectly be subtracted inside the phasemeter or adds an insignificant offset to the sensor signal. However, the remaining Doppler knowledge error will cause a constant change in the laser frequency if unaccounted for. Several ways to circumvent this problem have been identified. We performed detailed simulations and started preliminary experiments to verify the performance of the proposed new controller designs.

  6. Picking Robot Arm Trajectory Planning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The picking robot arm is scheduled to complete picking tasks in the working space, to overcome the shaking vibration to improve the picking stability, its movement should follow specific consistence trajectory points. Usually we should give definite multiple feature picking points, map their inverse kinematics to the joint space, establish motion equation for the corresponding point in the joint space, then follow these equations motion for the interpolation on the joint so that we can meet the movement requirements. Trajectory planning is decisive significance for accuracy and stability of controlling robot arm. The key issue that picking arm complete picking task will be come true by trajectory planning, namely, robot arm track the desired trajectory. which based on kinematics and statics picking analysis in a joint space according to the requirements of picking tasks, and obtain the position and orientation for picking robot arm, study and calculate the theory of trajectory parameters timely.

  7. Rolling motions in an inner spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, F.M.; Poeppel, W.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen line observations made at low galactic latitudes for l=318degree, 326degree, 334degree, and 337degree show the presence of velocity gradients in latitude in the nearest inner spiral arm, similar to those found by other observations in different regions. Maximum velocity change is about 10 km s -1 for l=337degree. By generating synthetic line profiles constructed from a model spiral arm, several possible causes of these ''rolling motions'' were studied, such as a vertical displacement or a tilt of the arm (which failed to account for the observations) and rotation or shearing in the arm. It was futher shown that a typical arm can maintain such a motion (approx. =75 km s -1 kpc -1 ) with its own gravitational potential. The results are used to study the origin and tilt of Gould's Belt

  8. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is unknown. However, it may be caused by cancer, tuberculosis , or an underactive thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism ), and it occasionally occurs in people with chronic ...

  9. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  10. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  11. CyARM: Haptic Sensing Device for Spatial Localization on Basis of Exploration by Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Akita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new type of perception aid device based on user's exploration action, which is named as CyARM (acronym of “Cyber Arm”. The user holds this device in her/his arm, the extension of the arm is controlled by tension in wires, which are attached to her/his body according to the distance to the object. This user interface has unique characteristics that give users the illusion of an imaginary arm that extends to existing objects. The implementations of CyARM and our two experiments to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of CyARM are described. The results show that we could confirm that CyARM can be used to recognize the presence of an object in front of the user and to measure the relative distance to the object.

  12. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Government imposed sanctions on Russian arms sellers and producers, Rosoboroneksport, Russia's main arms-selling agency, and Sukhoi, which manufactures aircraft, because of their arms sales to Iran...

  13. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  14. Arming shoes of the fifteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volken Marquita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming shoes. The question of why medieval military footwear shows no purposed development is addressed.

  15. ARM Unmanned Aerial Systems Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) coupled with changes in the regulatory environment for operations of UAS in the National Airspace increase the potential value of UAS to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. UAS include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and tethered balloon systems (TBS). The roles UAVs and TBSs could play within the ARM Facility, particularly science questions they could help address, have been discussed in several workshops, reports, and vision documents, including: This document describes the implementation of a robust and vigorous program for use of UAV and TBS for the science missions ARM supports.

  16. Passive detection of nuclear-armed SLCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Effective procedures have been developed, using national technical measures (photoreconnaissance satellites, radiointercept stations, etc.), for verification of reductions in land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, such as marine-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers. However, there is agreement on procedures for verifying limitations of numbers of long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles. The difficulties in developing such procedures are sometimes regarded (by opponents of nuclear disarmament) as a reason why cruise missiles based on ships and submarines ought not to be limited by future arms-reduction treaties. This paper considers the detectability of nuclear-armed cruise missiles through the penetrating radiation emitted spontaneously from their warheads

  17. Arms control, nonproliferation, and US national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The continuation of the arms race and the failure of arms control and disarmament negotiations lend support to the belief that US and Soviet power, prestige, and security depend upon nuclear weapons. Therefore, the argument goes, the non-nuclear-weapon states (particularly those that are not allied with nuclear-weapon states and do not share their nuclear shield) may conclude that they would be well served by possession of these weapons. In this sense, the failure of nuclear arms reductions could create incentives for further proliferation

  18. Isolated effects of peripheral arm and central body cooling on arm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, G G; Wu, M P; White, M D; Johnston, C E; Bristow, G K

    1995-10-01

    Whole body cooling impairs manual arm performance. The independent contributions of local (peripheral) and/or whole body (central) cooling are not known. Therefore, a protocol was developed in which the arm and the rest of the body could be independently cooled. Biceps temperature (Tmus), at a depth of 20 mm, and esophageal temperature (Tes) were measured. Six subjects were immersed to the clavicles in a tank (body tank) of water under 3 conditions: 1) cold body-cold arm (CB-CA); 2) warm body-cold arm (WB-CA); and 3) cold body-warm arm (CB-WA). In the latter two conditions, subjects placed their dominant arm in a separate (arm) tank. Water temperature (Tw) in each tank was independently controlled. In conditions requiring cold body and/or cold arm, Tw in the appropriate tanks was 8 degrees C. In conditions requiring warm body and/or warm arm, Tw in the appropriate tanks was adjusted between 29 and 38 degrees C to maintain body/arm temperature at baseline values. A battery of 6 tests, requiring fine or gross motor movements, were performed immediately before immersion and after 15, 45, and 70 minutes of immersion. In CB-CA, Tes decreased from an average of 37.2 to 35.6 degrees C and Tmus decreased from 34.6 to 22.0 degrees C. In WB-CA, Tmus decreased to 18.1 degrees C (Tes = 37.1 degrees C), and in CB-WA, Tes decreased to 35.8 degrees C (Tmus = 34.5 degrees C). By the end of immersion, there were significant decrements (43-85%) in the performance of all tests in CB-CA and WB-CA (p body and/or the arm elicits large decrements in finger, hand and arm performance. The decrements are due almost entirely to the local effects of arm tissue cooling.

  19. Standing "the Watches" with Armed UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the additional Options available to the operational commander in charge of conducting 'presence and monitoring' missions with the introduction of an armed capability on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs...

  20. Science team participation in the ARM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cess, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This progress report discusses the Science Team participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program for the period of October 31, 1992 to November 1, 1993. This report summarized the research accomplishments of six papers

  1. U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2008-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...

  2. U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2007-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...

  3. Arming and firing system for DISTANT RUNNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skenandore, L.H.; Johnson, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia A and F systems Division 1132 provided arming and firing support for the DISTANT RUNNER Test Program at White Sands Missile Range. This report describes the field support and the firing system that was used

  4. The Prototype Automated Research Management System (ARMS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prekop, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Automated Research Management System (ARMS) is a knowledge management application designed to address many of the knowledge management problems identified by SmartWays and FASSP's Knowledge Management Review...

  5. Radiation Pattern of Chair Armed Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rabindra Kishore; Sahu, Kumar Satyabrat

    2016-12-01

    This work analyzes planar antenna conformable to chair arm shaped surfaces for WLAN application. Closed form expressions for its radiation pattern are developed and validated using measurements on prototype and commercial EM code at 2.4 GHz.

  6. Inverse kinematics of OWI-535 robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    DEBENEC, PRIMOŽ

    2015-01-01

    The thesis aims to calculate the inverse kinematics for the OWI-535 robotic arm. The calculation of the inverse kinematics determines the joint parameters that provide the right pose of the end effector. The pose consists of the position and orientation, however, we will focus only on the second one. Due to arm limitations, we have created our own type of the calculation of the inverse kinematics. At first we have derived it only theoretically, and then we have transferred the derivation into...

  7. Animals and the law of armed conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Roscini, M.

    2017-01-01

    The main purposes of this article are to assess whether the existing rules of the law of armed conflict provide adequate protection to animals and to highlight the fault lines in the law. The article distinguishes the general provisions of the law of armed conflict, i.e. those that were not adopted with specific regard to animals but the application of which might restrict the killing and injuring of animals, from the provisions that specifically provide protection to animals. The analysis es...

  8. Hysteresis of targeting civilians in armed conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Uih Ran Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article explores warring groups’ intentional targeting behavior against civilians, a strictly prohibited war strategy by international norms. Using dynamic panel regressions run on a comprehensive dataset of contemporary warfare which covers 22 years (1989-2010), I find that warring actors, both sovereign states and formally organized armed groups, behave systematically in terms of civilian targeting when they are involved in prolonged armed conflict (15-22 years). Warring actors’ lethal...

  9. Student measurement of blood pressure using a simulator arm compared with a live subject's arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer J; Sobieraj, Diana M; Kuti, Effie L

    2010-06-15

    To compare accuracy of blood pressure measurements using a live subject and a simulator arm, and to determine students' preferences regarding measurement. This was a crossover study comparing blood pressure measurements from a live subject and a simulator arm. Students completed an anonymous survey instrument defining opinions on ease of measurement. Fifty-seven students completed blood pressure measurements on live subjects while 72 students completed blood pressure measurements using the simulator arm. There were no significant systematic differences between the 2 measurement techniques. Systolic blood pressure measurements from a live subject arm were less likely to be within 4 mm Hg compared with measurements of a simulator arm. Diastolic blood pressure measurements were not significantly different between the 2 techniques. Accuracy of student measurement of blood pressure using a simulator arm was similar to the accuracy with a live subject. There was no difference in students' preferences regarding measurement techniques.

  10. ARM assembly language with hardware experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Ata

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on approach to learning ARM assembly language with the use of a TI microcontroller. The book starts with an introduction to computer architecture and then discusses number systems and digital logic. The text covers ARM Assembly Language, ARM Cortex Architecture and its components, and Hardware Experiments using TILM3S1968. Written for those interested in learning embedded programming using an ARM Microcontroller. ·         Introduces number systems and signal transmission methods   ·         Reviews logic gates, registers, multiplexers, decoders and memory   ·         Provides an overview and examples of ARM instruction set   ·         Uses using Keil development tools for writing and debugging ARM assembly language Programs   ·         Hardware experiments using a Mbed NXP LPC1768 microcontroller; including General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) configuration, real time clock configuration, binary input to 7-segment display, creating ...

  11. Gaming and Conventional Exercises for Improvement of Arm Function After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottink, Anke I R; Prange, Gerdienke B; Krabben, Thijs; Rietman, Johan S; Buurke, Jaap H

    2014-06-01

    The use of new technologies in rehabilitation, such as virtual reality and/or computerized gaming exercises, may be useful to enable patients to practice intensively in a motivating way. The objective of the present randomized controlled pilot study was to compare the effect of reach training using a target group specific-designed rehabilitation game to time-matched standardized conventional reach training on arm function after stroke. Twenty chronic stroke patients were randomized to either the rehabilitation game group or the conventional training group. Both groups received three arm training sessions of 30 minutes each week, during a period of 6 weeks. Arm (the upper extremity part of Fugl-Meyer [FM] assessment) and hand (the Action Research Arm [ARA] test) functions were tested 1 week before (T0) and 1 week after (T1) training. A follow-up measurement was performed at 1 month after T1 (T2). ARA and FM scores improved significantly within both groups. Post hoc comparisons revealed significant increases in test scores between T0 and T1 and between T0 and T2 for both ARA and FM, but not for changes from T1 to T2. There were no significant differences between both groups for either clinical test. The present randomized controlled pilot study showed that both arm and hand function improved as much after training with a rehabilitation game as after time-matched conventional training.

  12. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  13. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallée, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  14. Dual Arm Work Module Development and Appplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    The dual arm work module (DAWM) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) as a development test bed to study issues related to dual arm manipulation, including platform cotilguration, controls, automation, operations, and tooling. The original platform was based on two Schilling Titan II manipulators mounted to a 5-degree-of- freedom (DOF) base fabricated by RedZone Robotics, Inc. The 5-DOF articulation provided a center torso rotation, linear actuation to change the separation between the arms, and arm base rotation joints to provide "elbows up," elbows down," or "elbows out" orientation. A series of tests were conducted on operations, tooling, and task space scene analysis (TSSA)-driven robotics for overhead transporter- mounted and crane hook-deployed scenarios. A concept was developed for DAWM deployment from a large remote work vehicle, but the project was redirected to support dismantlement of the Chicago Pile #5 (CP-5) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1997. Support of CP-5 required a change in focus of the dual arm technology from that of a development test bed to a system focussed for a specific end user. ORNL teamed with the Idaho National Environmental ,Engineering Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Technology Center to deliver a crane-deployed derivative of the DAWM, designated the dual arm work platform (DAWP). RTDP staff supported DAWP at CP-5 for one FY; Argonne staff continued operation through to dismantlement of the reactor internals. Lessons learned from this interaction were extensive. Beginning in FY 1999, dual arm development activities are again being pursued in the context of those lessons learned. This paper describes the progression of philosophy of the DAWM from initial test bed to lessons learned through interaction at CP-5 and to the present investigation of telerobotic assist of teleoperation and TSSA- driven robotics.

  15. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tom, M. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sweeney, C. [NOAA Earth Systems Research Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  16. Organization of octopus arm movements: a model system for studying the control of flexible arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Yarom, Y; Fiorito, G; Segev, I; Hochner, B

    1996-11-15

    Octopus arm movements provide an extreme example of controlled movements of a flexible arm with virtually unlimited degrees of freedom. This study aims to identify general principles in the organization of these movements. Video records of the movements of Octopus vulgaris performing the task of reaching toward a target were studied. The octopus extends its arm toward the target by a wave-like propagation of a bend that travels from the base of the arm toward the tip. Similar bend propagation is seen in other octopus arm movements, such as locomotion and searching. The kinematics (position and velocity) of the midpoint of the bend in three-dimensional space were extracted using the direct linear transformation algorithm. This showed that the bend tends to move within a single linear plane in a simple, slightly curved path connecting the center of the animal's body with the target location. Approximately 70% of the reaching movements demonstrated a stereotyped tangential velocity profile. An invariant profile was observed when movements were normalized for velocity and distance. Two arms, extended together in the same behavioral context, demonstrated identical velocity profiles. The stereotyped features of the movements were also observed in spontaneous arm extensions (not toward an external target). The simple and stereotypic appearance of the bend trajectory suggests that the position of the bend in space and time is the controlled variable. We propose that this strategy reduces the immense redundancy of the octopus arm movements and hence simplifies motor control.

  17. Armed guards on vessels : insurance and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Mudrić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paper examines the insurance and liability issues resulting from the use of armed guards on board vessels. The study begins with an overview of the available data on key economic fi gures representing the projected overall annual costs of modern piracy. The focus is then shifted to the issue of public versus private security, where possible dangers of private-based security options are discussed in general. After explaining why the Somalia region deserves a closer attention when compared to other pirate-infested waters, a brief summary of the international effort to combat piracy threat is presented, followed by a structured overview of the use of private maritime security options in the maritime sector in general. One security option is the use of armed guards on board vessels. This option is explored both from the political (the acceptance by stakeholders and legal standpoint (legal issues arising from the use of armed guards. An important remedy for the shipping companies/ operators threatened by the piracy hazard is the existence of affordable and effective (specialized marine insurance. A study of available piracy insurance policies is presented, followed by an analysis of case law and other legal issues arising from piracy attacks, which could prove important when considering the legal implications of armed guards employment. Finally, a simplifi ed economic analysis of available security options is presented, followed by the final assessment of benefi ts derived from the use of armed guards.

  18. Stellar complexes in spiral arms of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.

    The history of the introduction and development of the star complexes conception is briefly described. These large groups of stars were picked out and named as such ones in our Galaxy with argumentation and evidence for their physical unity (using the Cepheid variables the distances and ages of which are easy determined from their periods); anyway earlier the complexes were noted along the spiral arms of the Andromeda galaxy, but were not recognized as a new kind of star group. The chains of complexes along the spiral arms are observed quite rarely; their origin is explained by magneto- gravitational or purely gravitational instability developing along the arm. It is not clear why these chains are quite a rare phenomenon - and more so why sometimes the regular chain of complexes are observed in one arm only. Probably intergalactic magnetic field participated in formation of such chains. Apart from the complexes located along the arms, there are isolated giant complexes known (up to 700 pc in diameter) which look like super-gigantic but rather rarefied globular clusters. Until now only two of these formations are studied, in NGC 6946 and M51.

  19. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ARM-ACME VI) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, Sebastien [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    From October 1, 2015 through September 30, 2016, AAF deployed a Cessna 206 aircraft over the Southern Great Plains, collecting observations of trace gas mixing ratios over the ARM/SGP Central Facility. The aircraft payload included two Atmospheric Observing Systems (AOS Inc.) analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2, and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2). The aircraft payload also includes solar/infrared radiation measurements. This research (supported by DOE ARM and TES programs) builds upon previous ARM-ACME missions. The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of: (a) the carbon exchange of the ARM region; (b) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM region, and (c) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  20. Fractures of the humerus during arm wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumbaširević Marko Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Humeral shaft fractures may occur as a result of arm wrestling. The aim of this study was to present our treatment of humerus fracture sustained during arm wrestling. Methods. A total of six patients, aged 22 to 48, were treated at our department form January 2008 to January 2010 with open reduction and internal fixation and with hanging arm casts. A review of all the relevant literature on the subject was also presented. Results. In all the cases, the fractures healed and function returned to normal. No patient had any neural or vascular compromise. Conclusion. Closed and operative treatments were equally successful in all reported cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175-095

  1. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  2. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  3. CHARACTERIZING SPIRAL ARM AND INTERARM STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreckel, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Meidt, S. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanc, G. A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Groves, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Adamo, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Hughes, A., E-mail: kreckel@mpia.de [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2016-08-20

    Interarm star formation contributes significantly to a galaxy’s star formation budget and provides an opportunity to study stellar birthplaces unperturbed by spiral arm dynamics. Using optical integral field spectroscopy of the nearby galaxy NGC 628 with VLT/MUSE, we construct H α maps including detailed corrections for dust extinction and stellar absorption to identify 391 H ii regions at 35 pc resolution over 12 kpc{sup 2}. Using tracers sensitive to the underlying gravitational potential, we associate H ii regions with either arm (271) or interarm (120) environments. Using our full spectral coverage of each region, we find that most physical properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) of H ii regions are independent of environment. We calculate the fraction of H α luminosity due to the background of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) contaminating each H ii region, and find the DIG surface brightness to be higher within H ii regions than in the surroundings, and slightly higher within arm H ii regions. Use of the temperature-sensitive [S ii]/H α line ratio instead of the H α surface brightness to identify the boundaries of H ii regions does not change this result. Using the dust attenuation as a tracer of the gas, we find depletion times consistent with previous work (2 × 10{sup 9} yr) with no differences between the arm and interarm, but this is very sensitive to the DIG correction. Unlike molecular clouds, which can be dynamically affected by the galactic environment, we see fairly consistent properties of H ii regions in both arm and interarm environments. This suggests either a difference in star formation and feedback in arms or a decoupling of dense star-forming clumps from the more extended surrounding molecular gas.

  4. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...... the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  5. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  6. MPL-net at ARM Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Berkoff, T. A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA MPL-net project goal is consistent data products of the vertical distribution of clouds and aerosol from globally distributed lidar observation sites. The four ARM micro pulse lidars are a basis of the network to consist of over twelve sites. The science objective is ground truth for global satellite retrievals and accurate vertical distribution information in combination with surface radiation measurements for aerosol and cloud models. The project involves improvement in instruments and data processing and cooperation with ARM and other partners.

  7. Neurobiology: motor control of flexible octopus arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, Germán; Fiorito, Graziano; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-02-10

    Animals with rigid skeletons can rely on several mechanisms to simplify motor control--for example, they have skeletal joints that reduce the number of variables and degrees of freedom that need to be controlled. Here we show that when the octopus uses one of its long and highly flexible arms to transfer an object from one place to another, it employs a vertebrate-like strategy, temporarily reconfiguring its arm into a stiffened, articulated, quasi-jointed structure. This indicates that an articulated limb may provide an optimal solution for achieving precise, point-to-point movements.

  8. Arms Control, Disarmament, and Peace Newsletters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Considers the research value of four types of newsletters on arms control, disarmament, and peace: direct-action, informational, scholarly, and single-issue. An annotated list of 58 newsletters includes those considered most significant of their type and recommended for library collections. (EM)

  9. STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi [Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Hasegawa, Tetsuo [NAOJ Chile Observatory, Joaquin Montero 3000 Oficina 702, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0409 (Chile); Koda, Jin, E-mail: sawada.tsuyoshi@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  10. Colleges Grapple with the "Behavioral Broken Arm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    After the fatal shootings at Virginia Tech last April, colleges went shopping for hardware. They bought sirens, mass-messaging systems, surveillance cameras, and door locks. Some colleges armed their police departments for the first time. Others added assault rifles to their arsenals. "Active shooter" drills happened everywhere. As administrators…

  11. Neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Yo; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system that provides assistance throughout the complete bone drilling process. The system comprised neurosurgical robotic arm navigation combining robotic and surgical navigation, 3D medical imaging based surgical planning that could identify lesion location and plan the surgical path on 3D images, and automatic bone drilling control that would stop drilling when the bone was to be drilled-through. Three kinds of experiment were designed. The average positioning error deduced from 3D images of the robotic arm was 0.502 ± 0.069 mm. The correlation between automatically and manually planned paths was 0.975. The average distance error between automatically planned paths and risky zones was 0.279 ± 0.401 mm. The drilling auto-stopping algorithm had 0.00% unstopped cases (26.32% in control group 1) and 70.53% non-drilled-through cases (8.42% and 4.21% in control groups 1 and 2). The system may be useful for neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment explores new hardware and software platforms that, in the future, may be more suited to its data intensive workloads. One such alternative hardware platform is the ARM architecture, which is designed to be extremely power efficient and is found in most smartphones and tablets. CERN openlab recently installed a small cluster of ARM 64-bit evaluation prototype servers. Each server is based on a single-socket ARM 64-bit system on a chip, with 32 Cortex-A57 cores. In total, each server has 128 GB RAM connected with four fast memory channels. This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto these new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the "external" packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adj...

  13. 49 CFR 236.702 - Arm, semaphore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arm, semaphore. 236.702 Section 236.702 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., semaphore. The part of a semaphore signal displaying an aspect. It consists of a blade fastened to a...

  14. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...

  15. Endpoints of arm movements to visual targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dobbelsteen, John; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2001-01-01

    Reaching out for objects with an unseen arm involves using both visual and kinesthetic information. Neither visual nor kinesthetic information is perfect. Each is subject to both constant and variable errors. To evaluate how such errors influence performance in natural goal-directed movements, we

  16. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  17. Light Duty Utility Arm Software Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes how validation testing of the software will be implemented for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm System (LDUA). The purpose of LDUA software validation testing is to demonstrate and document that the LDUA software meets its software requirements specification

  18. Instructional Technology in the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Howard B., Jr.

    Broad areas of communications media used in technical training in specific occupational skills within the armed forces are examined in the first part of this report. These areas include: traditional audiovisual media, television, the techniques of programed instruction and instructional systems development, and the use of computers. In the second…

  19. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO)

  20. Parallelogram mechanisms for mine manipulator arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoncheva, N

    1983-01-01

    Kinematic equations are written for the mechanism of a manipulator arm which is used as the operational element of a basic machine and is shaped like a parallelogram. The drive is accomplished using a hydraulic cylinder. A transfer functions method is used to acquire kinematic equations of the final shifts and equations for determining accelerations.

  1. The lure of disarmament and arms reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear disarmament and arms reduction do not have the same aims. Confusing their definitions means misunderstanding the logic which currently drives the power calculations of yesterday's Great Powers, and their associated approaches to the new strategic actor: China. The author knows the subject well from personal experience. (author)

  2. Chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeff, Jorg; Whitcomb, David C; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Esposito, Irene; Lerch, Markus M; Gress, Thomas; Mayerle, Julia; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Rebours, Vinciane; Akisik, Fatih; Muñoz, J Enrique Domínguez; Neoptolemos, John P

    2017-09-07

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a pathological fibro-inflammatory syndrome of the pancreas in individuals with genetic, environmental and/or other risk factors who develop persistent pathological responses to parenchymal injury or stress. Potential causes can include toxic factors (such as alcohol or smoking), metabolic abnormalities, idiopathic mechanisms, genetics, autoimmune responses and obstructive mechanisms. The pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis is fairly complex and includes acinar cell injury, acinar stress responses, duct dysfunction, persistent or altered inflammation, and/or neuro-immune crosstalk, but these mechanisms are not completely understood. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by ongoing inflammation of the pancreas that results in progressive loss of the endocrine and exocrine compartment owing to atrophy and/or replacement with fibrotic tissue. Functional consequences include recurrent or constant abdominal pain, diabetes mellitus (endocrine insufficiency) and maldigestion (exocrine insufficiency). Diagnosing early-stage chronic pancreatitis is challenging as changes are subtle, ill-defined and overlap those of other disorders. Later stages are characterized by variable fibrosis and calcification of the pancreatic parenchyma; dilatation, distortion and stricturing of the pancreatic ducts; pseudocysts; intrapancreatic bile duct stricturing; narrowing of the duodenum; and superior mesenteric, portal and/or splenic vein thrombosis. Treatment options comprise medical, radiological, endoscopic and surgical interventions, but evidence-based approaches are limited. This Primer highlights the major progress that has been made in understanding the pathophysiology, presentation, prevalence and management of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.

  3. European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F; Papademetriou, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    In recent months, discussions have been held within the European Union (EU) on the question of lifting the embargo on arms exports to the People's Republic of China that was imposed on China on June 27, 1989...

  4. How does a planet excite multiple spiral arms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2018-01-01

    Protoplanetary disk simulations show that a single planet excites multiple spiral arms in the background disk, potentially supported by the multi-armed spirals revealed with recent high-resolution observations in some disks. The existence of multiple spiral arms is of importance in many aspects. It is empirically found that the arm-to-arm separation increases as a function of the planetary mass, so one can use the morphology of observed spiral arms to infer the mass of unseen planets. In addition, a spiral arm opens a radial gap as it steepens into a shock, so when a planet excites multiple spiral arms it can open multiple gaps in the disk. Despite the important implications, however, the formation mechanism of multiple spiral arms has not been fully understood by far.In this talk, we explain how a planet excites multiple spiral arms. The gravitational potential of a planet can be decomposed into a Fourier series, a sum of individual azimuthal modes having different azimuthal wavenumbers. Using a linear wave theory, we first demonstrate that appropriate sets of Fourier decomposed waves can be in phase, raising a possibility that constructive interference among the waves can produce coherent structures - spiral arms. More than one spiral arm can form since such constructive interference can occur at different positions in the disk for different sets of waves. We then verify this hypothesis using a suite of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Finally, we present non-linear behavior in the formation of multiple spiral arms.

  5. [Chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Teresa; Heuss, Ludwig Theodor

    2014-09-01

    Defined by lasting more than four weeks - is a common but often challenging clinical scenario. It is important to be aware that diarrhoea means different things to different patients. The evaluation of chronic diarrhoea depends on taking an excellent history and careful physical examination as well as planning investigations thoughtfully. Functional diarrhea ist the most common cause of chronic diarrhea in the developed countries and motility disorders are more common than inflammatory, osmotic or secretory causes. In some cases categorizing patients by their stool characteristics can be helpful in directing further evaluation.

  6. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    .... Arms sales thus have become the main source of its revenue until the present and will play a key role in Russia's ongoing attempt to regenerate its armed forces while winning friends and influence abroad...

  7. Feasibility Analysis of an All Volunteer Armed Force in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alanc, Ozgun U

    2007-01-01

    .... Accordingly, this project report provides a Draft versus All Volunteer Forces (AVF) analysis for the Turkish Armed Forces, by evaluating the feasibility and the desirability of an AVF for the Turkish Armed Forces...

  8. 77 FR 42707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-35] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Force (DAY) [[Page 42709

  9. Limited consensus around ARM information protection practices1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATUU, Shadrack

    surrounding Information Protection (IP) has been ... compares IP and ARM information protection through .... decision-making methodology used to help ... and differing requirements of institutions into account. ARM literature is prescriptive with.

  10. ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) Solar Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) was conducted at the Department of Energy's ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility between September 22, 1995...

  11. Chronic pain and other sequelae in long-term breast cancer survivors: Nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, V.; Ekholm, O.; Rasmussen, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    %, chronic pain 29%, arm/shoulder swelling 25%, phantom sensations 19%, and allodynia 15%. Chronic pain related to breast cancer was significantly associated with poorer HRQOL and higher medicine consumption, and, in multiple logistic regression analysis, with age (education, being single...... (divorced, widowed, separated), radiotherapy, and time since operation

  12. Kinematic decomposition and classification of octopus arm movements

    OpenAIRE

    Zelman, Ido; Titon, Myriam; Yekutieli, Yoram; Hanassy, Shlomi; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    The octopus arm is a muscular hydrostat and due to its deformable and highly flexible structure it is capable of a rich repertoire of motor behaviors. Its motor control system uses planning principles and control strategies unique to muscular hydrostats. We previously reconstructed a data set of octopus arm movements from records of natural movements using a sequence of 3D curves describing the virtual backbone of arm configurations. Here we describe a novel representation of octopus arm move...

  13. Simulation of Octopus Arm Based on Coupled CPGs

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tian; Qiang Lu

    2015-01-01

    The octopus arm has attracted many researchers’ interests and became a research hot spot because of its amazing features. Several dynamic models inspired by an octopus arm are presented to realize the structure with a large number of degrees of freedom. The octopus arm is made of a soft material introducing high-dimensionality, nonlinearity, and elasticity, which makes the octopus arm difficult to control. In this paper, three coupled central pattern generators (CPGs) are built and a 2-dimens...

  14. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00529764; The ATLAS collaboration; Stewart, Graeme; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  15. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Stewart, Graeme A.; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  16. China and nuclear arms limitation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    The Chinese attitudes from 1949 to 1980 towards nuclear arms limitation are divided into four distinct periods: 1949-1956, 1957-1963, 1964-1972 and 1973-1980. During 1949-1956, China held the view that an atom bomb or nuclear weapons are not decisive for the outcome of any war. It is the people who decide the outcome of a war. The period 1957-1963, after Soviet refusal to transfer nuclear technology, is marked by the development of the nuclear programme which led to the explosion of a nuclear device in 1964. China continued to build nuclear capability during 1964-1972. Mao died in 1976 and the relations with the U.S.A. were normalised in 1979. Taking an anti-Soviet stance China now takes the view that any nuclear arms agreement with Soviet Union is futile and describes SALT II agreement as an absolute farce. (M.G.B.)

  17. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  18. Special Gripper for a Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel SELLES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New structures for gripping objects in robotic manipulation processes are oriented to the new arrangement of mechanical structures using new materials and processing technologies and innovative procedures for the implementation of contact gripping element links to an object with a high degree of adaptively of applications together with the ability to alter the structure of grip and limiting the intensity of the contact stiffness variation of snap elements custody and pliability. The application of elastomeric materials and surface finishes is important. This paper presents both a new gripper design for robot arms but also the search of the selected materials to make an experimental evaluation of technical parameters that are used to assess their application potential and suitability for the targeted applications. Also the results and conclusions for gripper testing in manipulation operations with two different robot arms are presented.

  19. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  20. Chronic Meningococcaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical features, complications, laboratory findings and treatment of this condition are discussed. The resemblance, both clinically and histologically, to allergic vasculitis is stressed. S. Air. Med. J., 48, 2154 (1974). Chronic meningococcaemia is an uncommon condition today, but was well recognised in the early decades of.

  1. Chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.

  2. Chronic Pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancur, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    It is presented a case of a man with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, whose marked dilatation of the ducts reasoned the issue. The severe untreatable pain was the surgery indication, which was practiced without complications either during or after the surgery. By the way, a shallow revision of the literature is made, by mentioning classification, physiopatholoy, clinical square, medical, surgical and endoscopic treatment

  3. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  4. Robot-Arm Dynamic Control by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Tarn, Tzyh J.; Chen, Yilong J.

    1987-01-01

    Feedforward and feedback schemes linearize responses to control inputs. Method for control of robot arm based on computed nonlinear feedback and state tranformations to linearize system and decouple robot end-effector motions along each of cartesian axes augmented with optimal scheme for correction of errors in workspace. Major new feature of control method is: optimal error-correction loop directly operates on task level and not on joint-servocontrol level.

  5. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Larsen, Esben Salling

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative....

  6. Gorbachev’s Arms Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-22

    on- site inspection for verifying nuclear tests as well as for dismantling missiles on Soviet territory. Clearlv Gorbachev wants an arms , -4- control...bring its seismological test equipment to what he called the "holy of holies", the area adjoining the Soviet proving ground near Semipalatinsk to offer...prenotification and observation of military exercises including on- site inspection on Soviet territory. But on the big issues--- nuclear testing , strategic weapons

  7. Memories of the armed struggle in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita Pasquali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and develops some of the edges on working of the guerrilla that emerge in the memories of the former militants of the armed organizations in Argentina. Beginig from this journey we will have access to the registration that one has presently on it, which will allows us to establish part of the subjective environment of the moment, the main characters consideration of the activism and their significance in the general context of the militancy.

  8. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location. 'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team. The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape. The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been. This image was taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The view is to the north northeast of the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Financial Ratio Analysis using ARMS Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrendsen, Bruce L.; Katchova, Ani L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the financial performance measures calculated and reported by Economic Resource Service (ERS) from ARMS data. The evaluation includes the calculation method and the underlying assumptions used in obtaining the reported values. The financial measures calculated and reported are compared with those recommended by the Farm Financial Standards Council (FFSC). The underlying assumptions are identified by analyzing the software code used in calculating th...

  10. Putting the Glare of Publicity on International Arms Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a United Nations committee recommendation that the Security Council establish a universal register of arms. Suggests that such a register would limit the destabilizing influence of major arms sales on developing nations. Argues that visibility of arms sales may help reduce their number. (DK)

  11. 49 CFR 236.810 - Spectacle, semaphore arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectacle, semaphore arm. 236.810 Section 236.810 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Spectacle, semaphore arm. That part of a semaphore arm which holds the roundels and to which the blade is...

  12. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  13. Arms control agency faces uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ember, L.

    1993-01-01

    National security cognoscenti are busy sifting tea leaves trying to puzzle out the fate of arms control and nonproliferation policy in the new Administration. Of special concern to these policy gurus is the future of the semiautonomous Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). ACDA's existence as a separate entity on the executive branch's organization chart is precarious. The agency has never functioned as intended since Congress created it in 1961. Its stock over the decades has ebbed and flowed, paralleling the prominence and clout of its director. And except for a few notable successes--the conclusion of the chemical weapons treaty being one--the agency's authority has plummeted in the past 14 years. Today, almost every interested party agrees that something has to be done, that the agency cannot continue as it now functions. Several recent studies have called for its rejuvenation. Still other studies have suggested that ACDA be dismantled, and those activities relevant to national security in a post-Cold War environment be shifted to and integrated into the State Department. Observers expect ACDA to evolve into an agency whose primary focus is on problems of proliferation. In a world in which tighter export controls on dual-use technologies, restraint on arms transfers, and economic assistance conditional on a recipients's security behavior will be the norm for security and stability, a role for ACDA as the U.S.'s nonproliferation nanny is not a bad one

  14. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  15. The Perseus arm in the anticenter direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguió, M.; Grosbøl, P.; Figueras, F.

    2015-05-01

    The stellar overdensity due to the Perseus arm has been detected in the anticenter direction through individual field stars. For that purpose, a Str&{uml;o}mgren photometric survey covering 16° ^2 was developed with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope. This photometry allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for these stars using a new method based on atmospheric models and evolutionary tracks. The analysis of the surface density as a function of distance for intermediate young stars in this survey allowed us to detect an overdensity at 1.6±0.2 kpc from the Sun, that can be associated with the Perseus arm, with a surface density amplitude of ˜14%. The significance of the detection is above 4σ for all the cases. The fit for the radial scale length of the Galactic disk provided values in the range [2.9,3.5] kpc for the population of the B4-A1 stars. We also analyzed the interstellar visual absorption distribution, and its variation as a function of distance is coherent with a dust layer before the Perseus arm location.

  16. Galactic spiral arms formed by central explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havnes, O.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations have been made of spiral arm formation due to central explosions in a nucleus surrounded by a disc containing most of the galactic mass with the purpose of obtaining estimates on lifetimes of arms and the requirements on the energy involved in the process. The ejected gas is taken to be a few percent, or less, of the central nucleus and is ejected with velocities of the order of 1000 km s -1 . The gas, considered to be in forms of blobs, moves under the gravitational force from the disc and the nucleus and the drag force by the gas in the disc. The orbits of the blobs evolve towards the circular orbits of the disc due to this drag force and the velocities in the arms will therefore, after some time, approach those of a normal rotation curve. A relatively open structure will last 8 years. Stable ring structures with longer lifetimes may be formed by some explosions. With an energy of approximately 5 x 10 57 erg in the initial gas-blob motion and a duration of the explosion of approximately 10 7 years, the energy output in such explosions has to be > 10 43 erg s -1 . (Auth.)

  17. Design of a multi-arm randomized clinical trial with no control arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaret, Amalia; Angus, Derek C; Adhikari, Neill K J; Banura, Patrick; Kissoon, Niranjan; Lawler, James V; Jacob, Shevin T

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trial designs that include multiple treatments are currently limited to those that perform pairwise comparisons of each investigational treatment to a single control. However, there are settings, such as the recent Ebola outbreak, in which no treatment has been demonstrated to be effective; and therefore, no standard of care exists which would serve as an appropriate control. For illustrative purposes, we focused on the care of patients presenting in austere settings with critically ill 'sepsis-like' syndromes. Our approach involves a novel algorithm for comparing mortality among arms without requiring a single fixed control. The algorithm allows poorly-performing arms to be dropped during interim analyses. Consequently, the study may be completed earlier than planned. We used simulation to determine operating characteristics for the trial and to estimate the required sample size. We present a potential study design targeting a minimal effect size of a 23% relative reduction in mortality between any pair of arms. Using estimated power and spurious significance rates from the simulated scenarios, we show that such a trial would require 2550 participants. Over a range of scenarios, our study has 80 to 99% power to select the optimal treatment. Using a fixed control design, if the control arm is least efficacious, 640 subjects would be enrolled into the least efficacious arm, while our algorithm would enroll between 170 and 430. This simulation method can be easily extended to other settings or other binary outcomes. Early dropping of arms is efficient and ethical when conducting clinical trials with multiple arms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Yellow nail syndrome and bronchiectasis | Adegboye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome includes slow growing, opaque yellow nails with exaggerated lateral curvature, associated with lymphoedema and chronic respiratory disorders. The nail changes may precede the lymphoedema by a number of years. Bronchiectasis may be the only chronic respiratory disorder; others include ...

  19. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, James E.; Meek, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs across the

  20. Effects of age, sex and arm on the precision of arm position sense—left-arm superiority in healthy right-handers

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lena; Depper, Lena; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Position sense is an important proprioceptive ability. Disorders of arm position sense (APS) often occur after unilateral stroke, and are associated with a negative functional outcome. In the present study we assessed horizontal APS by measuring angular deviations from a visually defined target separately for each arm in a large group of healthy subjects. We analyzed the accuracy and instability of horizontal APS as a function of age, sex and arm. Subjects were required to specify verbally th...

  1. Spiral-arm instability: giant clump formation via fragmentation of a galactic spiral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-03-01

    Fragmentation of a spiral arm is thought to drive the formation of giant clumps in galaxies. Using linear perturbation analysis for self-gravitating spiral arms, we derive an instability parameter and define the conditions for clump formation. We extend our analysis to multicomponent systems that consist of gas and stars in an external potential. We then perform numerical simulations of isolated disc galaxies with isothermal gas, and compare the results with the prediction of our analytic model. Our model describes accurately the evolution of the spiral arms in our simulations, even when spiral arms dynamically interact with one another. We show that most of the giant clumps formed in the simulated disc galaxies satisfy the instability condition. The clump masses predicted by our model are in agreement with the simulation results, but the growth time-scale of unstable perturbations is overestimated by a factor of a few. We also apply our instability analysis to derive scaling relations of clump properties. The expected scaling relation between the clump size, velocity dispersion, and circular velocity is slightly different from that given by the Toomre instability analyses, but neither is inconsistent with currently available observations. We argue that the spiral-arm instability is a viable formation mechanism of giant clumps in gas-rich disc galaxies.

  2. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia Overview Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is an uncommon type of cancer of the blood cells. The term "chronic" in chronic myelogenous leukemia indicates that this cancer ...

  3. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  4. Disability correlates in Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James M; Pranger, Tina; Sweet, Jill; VanTil, Linda; McColl, Mary Ann; Besemann, Markus; Shubaly, Colleen; Pedlar, David

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to inform disability mitigation for military veterans by identifying personal, environmental, and health factors associated with activity limitations. A sample of 3154 Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force Veterans who were released during 1998-2007 participated in the 2010 Survey on Transition to Civilian Life. Associations between personal and environmental factors, health conditions and activity limitations were explored using ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of activity reduction in life domains was higher than the Canadian general population (49% versus 21%), as was needing assistance with at least one activity of daily living (17% versus 5%). Prior to adjusting for health conditions, disability odds were elevated for increased age, females, non-degree post-secondary graduation, low income, junior non-commissioned members, deployment, low social support, low mastery, high life stress, and weak sense of community belonging. Reduced odds were found for private/recruit ranks. Disability odds were highest for chronic pain (10.9), any mental health condition (2.7), and musculoskeletal conditions (2.6), and there was a synergistic additive effect of physical and mental health co-occurrence. Disability, measured as activity limitation, was associated with a range of personal and environmental factors and health conditions, indicating multifactorial and multidisciplinary approaches to disability mitigation.

  5. Mantle cell lymphoma relapsing at the lymphedematous arm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Massini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema (LE is a chronic medical condition characterized by lymphatic fluid retention, resulting in tissue swelling. Cancer treatments involving lymph nodes can damage lymph drainage routes, causing accumulation of lymph fluid in the interstitial tissue of related limbs and body areas and secondary LE.  Basically, the LE has a negative impact on physical and mental quality of life. Moreover, 0.07-0.04% of long term survivors (most patients undergone mastectomy can develop the Stewart-Treves syndrome,  a rare and aggressive multifocal lymphangiosarcoma arising within the LE region. Here we describe a   45-year-old woman  with a massive LE of the left arm,  as a consequence of previous breast cancer,  who  was diagnosed after 4 years  of stage IV mantle cell lymphoma (MCL . The patient after obtaining complete remission with chemotherapy and ABMT  relapsed of MCL in lymphedema site.

  6. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  7. Control of octopus arm extension by a peripheral motor program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, G; Gutfreund, Y; Fiorito, G; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2001-09-07

    For goal-directed arm movements, the nervous system generates a sequence of motor commands that bring the arm toward the target. Control of the octopus arm is especially complex because the arm can be moved in any direction, with a virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom. Here we show that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms whose connection with the brain has been severed. These extensions show kinematic features that are almost identical to normal behavior, suggesting that the basic motor program for voluntary movement is embedded within the neural circuitry of the arm itself. Such peripheral motor programs represent considerable simplification in the motor control of this highly redundant appendage.

  8. Visual Display of 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA Expression with a Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chao-Yu; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Chiu, Chien-Yuan; Lin, Wen-Chang

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in human cancers. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that both 5p-arm and 3p-arm of mature miRNAs could be expressed from the same precursor and we further interrogated the 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression with a comprehensive arm feature annotation list. To assist biologists to visualize the differential 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression patterns, we utilized a user-friendly mobile App to display. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) miRNA-Seq expression information. We have collected over 4,500 miRNA-Seq datasets from 15 TCGA cancer types and further processed them with the 5p-arm and 3p-arm annotation analysis pipeline. In order to be displayed with the RNA-Seq Viewer App, annotated 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression information and miRNA gene loci information were converted into SQLite tables. In this distinct application, for any given miRNA gene, 5p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the top of chromosome ideogram and 3p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the bottom of chromosome ideogram. Users can then easily interrogate the differentially 5p-arm/3p-arm expressed miRNAs with their mobile devices. This study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of RNA-Seq Viewer App in addition to mRNA-Seq data visualization.

  9. Visual Display of 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA Expression with a Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yu Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in human cancers. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that both 5p-arm and 3p-arm of mature miRNAs could be expressed from the same precursor and we further interrogated the 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression with a comprehensive arm feature annotation list. To assist biologists to visualize the differential 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression patterns, we utilized a user-friendly mobile App to display. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA miRNA-Seq expression information. We have collected over 4,500 miRNA-Seq datasets from 15 TCGA cancer types and further processed them with the 5p-arm and 3p-arm annotation analysis pipeline. In order to be displayed with the RNA-Seq Viewer App, annotated 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression information and miRNA gene loci information were converted into SQLite tables. In this distinct application, for any given miRNA gene, 5p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the top of chromosome ideogram and 3p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the bottom of chromosome ideogram. Users can then easily interrogate the differentially 5p-arm/3p-arm expressed miRNAs with their mobile devices. This study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of RNA-Seq Viewer App in addition to mRNA-Seq data visualization.

  10. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  11. Association between intramuscular fat in the arm following arm training and INSIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popadic Gacesa, J Z; Secher, N H; Momcilovic, M

    2014-01-01

    ) ; mean ± standard deviation) carried out a 12-week two-arm elbow extensor training (10 maximal extensions with 1 min recovery between bouts) five times per day, five times per week. For 17 volunteers, upper arm muscle and adipose tissue [subcutaneous (SCAT) and intramuscular (IMAT)] volumes were.......0 ± 0.9%; GC/CC: %IMAT 0.6 ± 0.5% (P > 0.05). However, in the year following the training, accumulation of upper arm IMAT was twice as large in participants homozygous for the G allele (GG: Δ%IMAT +2.5 ± 0.8%; GC/CC: Δ%IMAT +1.1 ± 0.7%; P 

  12. Planet-driven Spiral Arms in Protoplanetary Disks. II. Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2018-06-01

    We examine whether various characteristics of planet-driven spiral arms can be used to constrain the masses of unseen planets and their positions within their disks. By carrying out two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations varying planet mass and disk gas temperature, we find that a larger number of spiral arms form with a smaller planet mass and a lower disk temperature. A planet excites two or more spiral arms interior to its orbit for a range of disk temperatures characterized by the disk aspect ratio 0.04≤slant {(h/r)}p≤slant 0.15, whereas exterior to a planet’s orbit multiple spiral arms can form only in cold disks with {(h/r)}p≲ 0.06. Constraining the planet mass with the pitch angle of spiral arms requires accurate disk temperature measurements that might be challenging even with ALMA. However, the property that the pitch angle of planet-driven spiral arms decreases away from the planet can be a powerful diagnostic to determine whether the planet is located interior or exterior to the observed spirals. The arm-to-arm separations increase as a function of planet mass, consistent with previous studies; however, the exact slope depends on disk temperature as well as the radial location where the arm-to-arm separations are measured. We apply these diagnostics to the spiral arms seen in MWC 758 and Elias 2–27. As shown in Bae et al., planet-driven spiral arms can create concentric rings and gaps, which can produce a more dominant observable signature than spiral arms under certain circumstances. We discuss the observability of planet-driven spiral arms versus rings and gaps.

  13. Arm and neck pain in ultrasonographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Frank; Berger, Jan; Stassijns, Gaëtane

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of upper-body-quadrant pain among ultrasonographers and to evaluate the association between individual ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, and occurrence of neck pain. A hundred and ten (N = 110) Belgian and Dutch male and female hospital ultrasonographers were consecutively enrolled in the study. Data on work-related ergonomic and musculoskeletal disorders were collected with an electronic inquiry, including questions regarding ergonomics (position of the screen, high-low table, and ergonomic chair), symptoms (neck pain, upper-limb pain), and work-related factors (consecutive working hours a day, average working hours a week). Subjects with the screen on their left had significantly more neck pain (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, p = .0286). Depending on the workspace, high-low tables increased the chance of developing neck pain (OR = 12.9, p = .0246). A screen at eye level caused less neck pain (OR = .22, p = .0610). Employees with a fixed working space were less susceptible to arm pain (OR = 0.13, p = .0058). The prevalence of arm pain was significantly higher for the vascular department compared to radiology, urology, and gynecology departments (OR = 9.2, p = .0278). Regarding prevention of upper-limb pain in ultrasonograph, more attention should be paid to the work environment and more specialty to the ultrasound workstation layout. Primary ergonomic prevention could provide a painless work situation for the ultrasonographer. Further research on the ergonomic conditions of ultrasonography is necessary to develop ergonomic solutions in the work environment that will help to alleviate neck and arm pain. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Limitation and reduction of conventional arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervov, N.

    1989-01-01

    We are living at a time when war between East and West---not only nuclear but also conventional war--- is totally senseless. It cannot solve any problem---political, economic, or other. From the military point of view, war between East and West is madness. Calculations show that after 20 days of conventional warfare Europe could become another Hiroshima. Therefore we must work out forms of long-term cooperation. Before it is too late, we must radically reduce our military potentials and rethink our military doctrines. The reduction by 500,000 men is for the USSR no simple solution. But that step may become a model for further actions by East and West. The West's proposal that armed forces should be reduced to the level of 95 percent of NATO's armed forces is not a solution. Both sides---the Warsaw Treaty Organization and NATO---must be deprived of the capacity to launch a sudden attack; they must be deprived of their attack potential. The USSR initiative shows the true way toward that goal. What is happening in connection with our decision is not always correctly interpreted in the West, and so I should like to draw attention to some distinctive features of the Soviet armed forces reductions and, first of all, their scale (equivalent to the Bundeswehr of the Federal Republic of Germany). With respect to Europe, Soviet troops are to be reduced in the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and the European part of the Soviet Union---a total of 240,000 men, 10,000 tanks, 9,500 artillery systems, and 800 combat aircraft

  15. Nuclear disarmament or survival of nuclear arms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroot, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    START II has not yet been ratified by the US or Russian parliaments. Doubts may be raised over whether it will ever be. In the best case there will be more than 20,000 nuclear warheads in the arsenals of these two countries by the year 2003. All five nuclear states consider that nuclear weapons are an essential component of their national defense. It might sound childish but, the whole story is is so often childish: the five powers refuse to break their nuclear toys. They take even all possible measures to maintain and improve them and to ensure the survivability of their arsenals. To prepare for the next arms race..

  16. Well ARMed and FiRM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Zenios, Stavros A.

    2007-01-01

    of mortgage loans of a homeowner and apply it to data from the Danish market. Even in the presence of mortgage origination costs it is shown that most risk averse homeowners will do well to consider a diversified portfolio of both fixed (FRM) and adjustable (ARM) rate mortgages. This is particularly so if one...... or the homeowner's situation warrants it. And while, traditionally, a single mortgage loan would serve borrower needs, today it appears that a portfolio of loans may satisfy much better the mortgage needs of the individual and his or her appetite for risk. In this paper we develop a model for the diversification...

  17. HS06 Benchmark for an ARM Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  18. An Approach to Naval Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    commentary pro and con on the control of SLCM’s has 9 I: been uttered by people not known to be expert on maritime strategy and the roles of navies in crisis ... transcultural misunderstanding is indeed deep and widespread (e.g., witness the surprise on the part of America’s leading television pundits that China’s...force on behalf of (U.S definition of) international order in situations short of war; 0 alliance cohesion; 37 i * crisis , arms race, and political

  19. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  20. The extended arm of health professionals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Martinsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    responsibility for both the patient's well-being and for the patient's compliance with the daily regimen. Relatives were caught in a conflicting double role. They were the extended arm of the health professionals but also the caring, supporting partner. A tension arose between relatives' desire to help....... Due to the early discharge and the increasing demands on patients for self-care, patients' relatives seem to play a pivotal role in fast-track programmes. However, research is limited into how patients' close relatives are affected by and involved in the postoperative recovery process. Design...

  1. Keeping the lid on nuclear arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhollin, G.; Weeks, J.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 Brazil and Argentina agreed not to produce nuclear weapons and to allow mutual inspections of their secret nuclear sites. This exciting move towards nuclear arms control may form the basis of a model of international inspection which other countries may seek to follow. However, neither country will yet unconditionally accept the verification scale proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA seeks to ensure that civilian nuclear materials are not diverted for military use. Military authorities in both countries oppose the plan. It is anticipated that existing difficulties will be overcome. (UK)

  2. HS06 benchmark for an ARM server

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  3. ARM assembly language fundamentals and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hohl, William

    2009-01-01

    Written by the director of ARM's worldwide academic program, this volume gives computer science professionals and students an edge, regardless of their preferred coding language. For those with some basic background in digital logic and high-level programming, the book examines code relevant to hardware and peripherals found on today's microcontrollers and looks at situations all programmers will eventually encounter. The book's carefully chosen examples teach easily transferrable skills that will help readers optimize routines and significantly streamline coding, especially in the embedded sp

  4. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F. [Fish and Wildlife Science and Allocation, Ministry of Environment, Province of British Columbia

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate

  5. Arm-to-arm variation when evaluating neuromuscular block: an analysis of the precision and the bias and agreement between arms when using mechanomyography or acceleromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Skovgaard, L T; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2010-01-01

    Studies comparing acceleromyography and mechanomyography indicate that the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. However, it is uncertain to what extent differences in precision between the methods and the naturally occurring arm-to-arm variation have influenced the results of these studies...

  6. Robust coordinated control of a dual-arm space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingling; Kayastha, Sharmila; Katupitiya, Jay

    2017-09-01

    Dual-arm space robots are more capable of implementing complex space tasks compared with single arm space robots. However, the dynamic coupling between the arms and the base will have a serious impact on the spacecraft attitude and the hand motion of each arm. Instead of considering one arm as the mission arm and the other as the balance arm, in this work two arms of the space robot perform as mission arms aimed at accomplishing secure capture of a floating target. The paper investigates coordinated control of the base's attitude and the arms' motion in the task space in the presence of system uncertainties. Two types of controllers, i.e. a Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) and a nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (MPC) are verified and compared with a conventional Computed-Torque Controller (CTC) through numerical simulations in terms of control accuracy and system robustness. Both controllers eliminate the need to linearly parameterize the dynamic equations. The MPC has been shown to achieve performance with higher accuracy than CTC and SMC in the absence of system uncertainties under the condition that they consume comparable energy. When the system uncertainties are included, SMC and CTC present advantageous robustness than MPC. Specifically, in a case where system inertia increases, SMC delivers higher accuracy than CTC and costs the least amount of energy.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIRAL ARMS IN LATE-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, Z. N.; Reid, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184, and NGC 5194 (M51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outermost parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ∼5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these characteristics are consistent with properties seen in the large N-body simulations of D'Onghia et al. and others

  8. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-11-07

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P arm muscle strength (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.70, P = 0.04, I² = 72%), but the quality of the evidence was low to very low

  9. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J.

    2004-12-31

    Like a rock that slowly wears away beneath the pressure of a waterfall, planet earth?s climate is almost imperceptibly changing. Glaciers are getting smaller, droughts are lasting longer, and extreme weather events like fires, floods, and tornadoes are occurring with greater frequency. Why? Part of the answer is clouds and the amount of solar radiation they reflect or absorb. These two factors clouds and radiative transfer represent the greatest source of error and uncertainty in the current generation of general circulation models used for climate research and simulation. The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 established an interagency program within the Executive Office of the President to coordinate U.S. agency-sponsored scientific research designed to monitor, understand, and predict changes in the global environment. To address the need for new research on clouds and radiation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. As part of the DOE?s overall Climate Change Science Program, a primary objective of the ARM Program is improved scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere.

  10. The politics of arms control treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepon, M.; Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book presents a critical examination of executive-congressional relations and the domestic politics of arms control treaty ratification within the United States during the twentieth century. The staring point of this study is the hypothesis that the politics of treaty ratification can be as important as the negotiations leading up to agreements. Benefits to international peace and security sought in years of painstaking diplomatic effort can be lost without Senate consent, as was the case with the Treaty of Versailles and the second treaty arising from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II). The authors of the case studies were requested to present first a brief, historical introduction to the case indicating why the case was important, the background concerning the origins of the treaty, and the treaty's major provisions. The purpose of the introduction to the case was not to provide a complete picture of the negotiating record but to set the stage for a more in-depth discussion of the events that followed after the treaty was signed. The authors address five substantive areas: the international political context of the treaty, the domestic political context, the role of the president, executive-congressional relations, and public opinion and the role of interest groups. The questions and issues concerning each of these areas are briefly summarized

  11. An Articulated Inspection Arm for fusion purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villedieu, E.; Bruno, V.; Pastor, P.; Gargiulo, L.; Song, Y.T.; Cheng, Y.; Feng, H.; Liu, C.; Shi, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Requirements for in vacuum tokamak inspection are presented. • Development of a prototype of the Articulated Inspection Arm is described. • The upgrade of the prototype to convert it into a fully operational device is detailed. • Future applications of inspection robots in the new fusion reactors is discussed. - Abstract: Fusion Tokamaks are complex machines which require special conditions for their operation, in particular, high vacuum inside the vessel and high temperature of the vessel walls. During plasma phases, the first wall components are highly stressed and a control is necessary in case of doubt about their condition. To be able to make safely such an inspection in a short period of time is a great advantage. The Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) developed by the CEA provides the capability for fast inspections of the first wall overall surface keeping the vacuum and temperature conditions of the vessel. The robot prototype was validated in Tore Supra in 2008. In the frame of a joint laboratory, CEA/IRFM and ASIPP have decided to upgrade the existing AIA prototype to use it routinely in the EAST and WEST tokamaks. The robot has followed an important upgrade program in 2013 and 2014. The document presents the various upgrades made on the mechanics, the sensors, the electronics, the control station and the integration adaptation for the operation on EAST. From the AIA experience, thoughts for future inspection robots are given.

  12. An Articulated Inspection Arm for fusion purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villedieu, E., E-mail: eric.villedieu@cea.fr [CEA-IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bruno, V.; Pastor, P.; Gargiulo, L. [CEA-IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Song, Y.T.; Cheng, Y.; Feng, H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Liu, C. [CEA-IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Shi, S.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Requirements for in vacuum tokamak inspection are presented. • Development of a prototype of the Articulated Inspection Arm is described. • The upgrade of the prototype to convert it into a fully operational device is detailed. • Future applications of inspection robots in the new fusion reactors is discussed. - Abstract: Fusion Tokamaks are complex machines which require special conditions for their operation, in particular, high vacuum inside the vessel and high temperature of the vessel walls. During plasma phases, the first wall components are highly stressed and a control is necessary in case of doubt about their condition. To be able to make safely such an inspection in a short period of time is a great advantage. The Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) developed by the CEA provides the capability for fast inspections of the first wall overall surface keeping the vacuum and temperature conditions of the vessel. The robot prototype was validated in Tore Supra in 2008. In the frame of a joint laboratory, CEA/IRFM and ASIPP have decided to upgrade the existing AIA prototype to use it routinely in the EAST and WEST tokamaks. The robot has followed an important upgrade program in 2013 and 2014. The document presents the various upgrades made on the mechanics, the sensors, the electronics, the control station and the integration adaptation for the operation on EAST. From the AIA experience, thoughts for future inspection robots are given.

  13. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  14. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  15. Europe, arms control and American security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    What has come to be called the Revolution of 1989 has swept away longstanding political and economic arrangements in Eastern Europe. Perhaps more important, it has also called into question the fundamental underpinnings of European security created during the nonpeace that followed World War II. In June 1990, the Warsaw Treaty Organization abandoned the notion that NATO was the ideological enemy. At the same time, NATO ministers agreed at Tunberry, Scotland, to consider defining the Atlantic Alliance as more of a partner of the Soviet Union than as an enemy. The Washington summit of May 1990 between president Mikhail Gorbachev and president George Bush further highlighted the recent changes in the Soviet Union and its former satellites. Issues going to the heart of the viability of the Soviet Union and the communist system of political and economic organization competed with German reunification as central themes. Arms control issues, particularly as they pertain in European military stability, became contingent and dependent on the development of a broader political and economic framework for a new Europe. Whether this framework is viable remains an open question as Gorbachev's role is challenged more and more within the Soviet Union. This paper deals with European arms control issues from the point of view of the United States and its own security interests. The United States involved its security inextricably with that of Western Europe as a conscious decision in the turmoil following World War II

  16. A multisession evaluation of an adaptive competitive arm rehabilitation game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goršič, Maja; Cikajlo, Imre; Goljar, Nika; Novak, Domen

    2017-12-06

    People with neurological injuries such as stroke should exercise frequently and intensely to regain their motor abilities, but are generally hindered by lack of motivation. One way to increase motivation in rehabilitation is through competitive exercises, but such exercises have only been tested in single brief sessions and usually did not adapt difficulty to the patient's abilities. We designed a competitive arm rehabilitation game for two players that dynamically adapts its difficulty to both players' abilities. This game was evaluated by two participant groups: 15 participants with chronic arm impairment who exercised at home with an unimpaired friend or relative, and 20 participants in the acute or subacute phase of stroke who exercised in pairs (10 pairs) at a rehabilitation clinic. All participants first played the game against their human opponent for 3 sessions, then played alone (against a computer opponent) in the final, fourth session. In all sessions, participants' subjective experiences were assessed with the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory questionnaire while exercise intensity was measured using inertial sensors built into the rehabilitation device. After the fourth session, a final brief questionnaire was used to compare competition and exercising alone. Participants who played against an unimpaired friend or relative at home tended to prefer competition (only 1 preferred exercising alone), and exhibited higher enjoyment and exercise intensity when competing (first three sessions) than when exercising alone (last session). Participants who played against each other in the clinic, however, did not exhibit significant differences between competition and exercising alone. For both groups, there was no difference in enjoyment or exercise intensity between the first three sessions, indicating no negative effects of habituation or novelty. Competitive exercises have high potential for unsupervised home rehabilitation, as they improve enjoyment and exercise

  17. Mid-upper-arm-circumference and mid-upper-arm circumference z-score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J; Andersen, A; Fisker, A B

    2012-01-01

    Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) is a simple method of assessing nutritional status in children above 6 months of age. In 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a MUAC z-score for children above 3 months of age. We evaluated whether MUAC or MUAC z-score had the best ability to identify...

  18. Robots testing robots: ALAN-Arm, a humanoid arm for the testing of robotic rehabilitation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Jack; Kuznecovs, Maksims; Kanakis, Menelaos; Grigals, Arturs; Narvidas, Mazvydas; Gallagher, Justin; Levesley, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Robotics is increasing in popularity as a method of providing rich, personalized and cost-effective physiotherapy to individuals with some degree of upper limb paralysis, such as those who have suffered a stroke. These robotic rehabilitation systems are often high powered, and exoskeletal systems can attach to the person in a restrictive manner. Therefore, ensuring the mechanical safety of these devices before they come in contact with individuals is a priority. Additionally, rehabilitation systems may use novel sensor systems to measure current arm position. Used to capture and assess patient movements, these first need to be verified for accuracy by an external system. We present the ALAN-Arm, a humanoid robotic arm designed to be used for both accuracy benchmarking and safety testing of robotic rehabilitation systems. The system can be attached to a rehabilitation device and then replay generated or human movement trajectories, as well as autonomously play rehabilitation games or activities. Tests of the ALAN-Arm indicated it could recreate the path of a generated slow movement path with a maximum error of 14.2mm (mean = 5.8mm) and perform cyclic movements up to 0.6Hz with low gain (<1.5dB). Replaying human data trajectories showed the ability to largely preserve human movement characteristics with slightly higher path length and lower normalised jerk.

  19. Axillary Reconstruction for Hidradenitis Suppurativa with an Inner-Arm Transposition Flap Creating a Brachioplasty Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Ching

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic skin condition that can affect any area with apocrine sweat glands and has the potential to involve multiple sites concurrently. Commonly affected sites include the axilla, groin, perineum and perianal areas. In this study we performed a literature review on the surgical methods for HS and describe an innovative technique for reconstructing axilla HS using an inner-arm transposition flap.MethodsWe reviewed all cases (5 cases from 4 patients of transposition flap reconstruction performed by the senior author at a single London tertiary hospital from 2008–2013. Patient related outcome measures were collected using the Derriford appearance scale (DAS 24 and a study specific questionnaire.ResultsAll patients were satisfied with their final result. One out of five cases had a complication but did not result in flap failure. There is no disease recurrence to date. DAS 24 scores collected demonstrated acceptable postoperative distress that did not deviate far from the norm tables while study specific questionnaire reveal desirable outcomes.ConclusionsWe have managed to achieve our aim through the use of the innovative inner-arm transposition flap. Our study hopes to provide an additional technique for axillary reconstruction. This technique offers the effective concealment of scars with the benefit of tightening of the arm tissue producing ‘brachioplasty like’ effects. All things considered it would be reasonable to conclude the innovative flap technique is a reliable, effective, and simple method that results in multiple benefits.

  20. Chronic Pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrecka, A.; Bilicky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an ongoing inflammatory process that may over time lead to mal digestion, malabsorption and diabetic syndrome. Identification of risk (etiological) factors based on classifications TIGAR-O or later M-ANNHEIM. These factors (environmental and / or genetic) leads to failure of the stability of the digestive and lysosomal enzymes in the acinar cells, resulting in premature activation of digestive enzymes in the pancreas, and repeated nekroinflamation and fibrosis. The incidence has of the upward trend. Clinically the disease manifests itself in most cases with pain and possibly with nonspecific dyspeptic troubles. Decisive role in the diagnosis playing imaging methods, trans abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic cholangiopancretography and foremost endoscopic ultrasonography, which has the highest sensitivity and specificity. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is currently regarded as a method for therapy, not for diagnosis. Less importance is now attached to a functional test. Symptomatic treatment is usually conservative. Abstinence is necessary, easily digestible, but calorie-rich diet with reduced fat. Most patients needed treatment with analgesics. In case of insufficient effect of analgesics is necessary to consider endoscopic therapy or surgery. If the external secretory insufficiency is present are served pancreatic extracts. Diabetic syndrome requires insulin delivery. Generally, chronic pancreatitis is a disease treatable but incurable. Proportion of patients are also dying of pancreatic cancer. (author)

  1. Poly(glycolide multi-arm star polymers: Improved solubility via limited arm length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian K. Wolf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low solubility of poly(glycolic acid (PGA, its use is generally limited to the synthesis of random copolyesters with other hydroxy acids, such as lactic acid, or to applications that permit direct processing from the polymer melt. Insolubility is generally observed for PGA when the degree of polymerization exceeds 20. Here we present a strategy that allows the preparation of PGA-based multi-arm structures which significantly exceed the molecular weight of processable oligomeric linear PGA (<1000 g/mol. This was achieved by the use of a multifunctional hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG macroinitiator and the tin(II-2-ethylhexanoate catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of glycolide in the melt. With this strategy it is possible to combine high molecular weight with good molecular weight control (up to 16,000 g/mol, PDI = 1.4–1.7, resulting in PGA multi-arm star block copolymers containing more than 90 wt % GA. The successful linkage of PGA arms and PG core via this core first/grafting from strategy was confirmed by detailed NMR and SEC characterization. Various PG/glycolide ratios were employed to vary the length of the PGA arms. Besides fluorinated solvents, the materials were soluble in DMF and DMSO up to an average arm length of 12 glycolic acid units. Reduction in the Tg and the melting temperature compared to the homopolymer PGA should lead to simplified processing conditions. The findings contribute to broadening the range of biomedical applications of PGA.

  2. The globalization of the arms industry: The next proliferation challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitzinger, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The globalization of the arms industry entails a significant shift away from traditional, single-country patterns of weapons production toward internationalization of the development, production, and marketing of arms. While wholly indigenous armaments production may be on the decline, multinational arms production - through collaboration on individual weapon systems and increasingly via interfirm linkages across the international arms industry - appears actually to be expanding. In several instances, in fact, multinational armaments production is increasingly supplementing or even supplanting indigenous or autonomous weapons production or arms imports. The emergence of an increasingly transnational defense technology and industrial base is fundamentally affecting the shape and content of much of the global arms trade. This changing defense market, in turn, will have a profound impact on a number of national security issues concerning the Western industrialized nations. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, Jimmy W

    2015-05-01

    This procedure exists to define the key milestones, necessary steps, and process rules required to commission and operate an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), with a specific focus toward on-time product delivery to the ARM Data Archive. The overall objective is to have the physical infrastructure, networking and communications, and instrument calibration, grooming, and alignment (CG&A) completed with data products available from the ARM Data Archive by the Operational Start Date milestone.

  4. The Role of Ethics in International Arms Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    i THE ROLE OF ETHICS IN INTERNATIONAL ARMS TRANSFERS BY MAJOR ROB ARNETT A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF...War’s Ends” provided the intellectual spark to explore the topic of ethics in international arms sales. Additionally, Dr. Murphy was kind enough to... ethics in American arms transfer policy to determine whether the Just War tradition’s jus ad bellum framework can help policymakers through a complex

  5. Participation in Armed Forces, National, and International Sports Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-09

    American Games , Olympic Games , and other authorized national and international sports competitions (to include qualifying and preparatory events) as long...concerning the participation of Armed Forces personnel in Armed Forces, national, and international sports competitions ; establishes a Senior Military Sports ...program is to ensure that the U.S. Armed Forces are appropriately represented in national and international sports competitions . 3. The purpose of this

  6. A Unified Approach for Reporting ARM Measurement Uncertainties Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, E [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sisterson, Douglas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is observationally based, and quantifying the uncertainty of its measurements is critically important. With over 300 widely differing instruments providing over 2,500 datastreams, concise expression of measurement uncertainty is quite challenging. The ARM Facility currently provides data and supporting metadata (information about the data or data quality) to its users through a number of sources. Because the continued success of the ARM Facility depends on the known quality of its measurements, the Facility relies on instrument mentors and the ARM Data Quality Office (DQO) to ensure, assess, and report measurement quality. Therefore, an easily accessible, well-articulated estimate of ARM measurement uncertainty is needed. Note that some of the instrument observations require mathematical algorithms (retrievals) to convert a measured engineering variable into a useful geophysical measurement. While those types of retrieval measurements are identified, this study does not address particular methods for retrieval uncertainty. As well, the ARM Facility also provides engineered data products, or value-added products (VAPs), based on multiple instrument measurements. This study does not include uncertainty estimates for those data products. We propose here that a total measurement uncertainty should be calculated as a function of the instrument uncertainty (calibration factors), the field uncertainty (environmental factors), and the retrieval uncertainty (algorithm factors). The study will not expand on methods for computing these uncertainties. Instead, it will focus on the practical identification, characterization, and inventory of the measurement uncertainties already available in the ARM community through the ARM instrument mentors and their ARM instrument handbooks. As a result, this study will address the first steps towards reporting ARM measurement uncertainty

  7. Naval trends in ASEAN: is there a new arms race?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Frank Curtis

    1995-01-01

    Global military spending is decreasing. However this trend does not apply to some regions of the world, specifically Southeast Asia. This thesis describes the ongoing naval arms buildup in this region and examines why it is occurring when the rest of the world is decreasing military spending. Next, this thesis asks if this arms build-up is dangerous. Unlike many other arms races around the world, the Southeast Asian build-up is not particularly dangerous because of the parallel development of...

  8. WORKSPACE DRAWING FROM A MANIPULATOR ARM WITH 6 DOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAIDIN Gigi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling and simulation is an important aspect in robotic field. Knowing of the workspace is very important to the operation of manipulators arm. This paper investigates operational performance of space manipulator arm destined for industrial manufacturing, by defining and analyzing their workspace and manipulability measure. The authors show that manipulator arm developing requires the consideration of more efficient dynamic models and use of dedicated processing techniques such as Autodesk-Inventor 9, MATLAB, WorkSpace software.

  9. Effects of wrist tendon vibration on arm tracking in people poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Megan O; Scheidt, Robert A; Schmit, Brian D

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of wrist tendon vibration on a multijoint elbow/shoulder tracking task. We hypothesized that tendon vibration applied at the wrist musculature would improve upper arm tracking performance in chronic stroke survivors through increased, Ia-afferent feedback to the central nervous system (CNS). To test this hypothesis, 10 chronic stroke and 5 neurologically intact subjects grasped the handle of a planar robot as they tracked a target through a horizontal figure-8 pattern. A total of 36 trials were completed by each subject. During the middle trials, 70-Hz tendon vibration was applied at the wrist flexor tendons. Position, velocity, and electromyography data were evaluated to compare the quality of arm movements before, during, and after trials with concurrent vibration. Despite tracking a target that moved at a constant velocity, hand trajectories appeared to be segmented, displaying alternating intervals of acceleration and deceleration. Segments were identifiable in tangential velocity data as single-peaked, bell-shaped speed pulses. When tendon vibration was applied at the wrist musculature, stroke subjects experienced improved tracking performance in that hand path lengths and peak speed variability decreased, whereas movement smoothness increased. These performance improvements were accompanied by decreases in the muscle activity during movement. Possible mechanisms behind improved movement control in response to tendon vibration may include improved sensorimotor integration or improved cortical modulation of spinal reflex activity.

  10. SIPRI's new conceptual approach to arms control and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotfeld, Adam Daniel

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war deprioritized arms control and disarmament, and progress in the field was no longer a measure of relations among the major powers. In that context, the future of arms control and disarmament was discussed at the Nobel Symposium in October 1999. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) views arms control as an instrument for shaping a new inclusive and cooperative security order. The author questions whether arms control challenges today can and should be resolved in the institutions established and the procedures elaborated in the bipolar framework. (author)

  11. Transforming the Albanian Armed Forces, Overcoming the Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cahani, Nazmi

    2009-01-01

    The Albanian Armed Forces (AAF) are currently undergoing an extensive defense reform process that consists of transformation of its strategic concept, doctrine, organizational structure, personnel management system, military...

  12. Information booklet on personal protective equipment: arm and hand protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Fire, heat, cold, electro-magnetic and ionising radiation, electricity, chemicals, impacts, cuts, abrasion, etc. are the common hazards for arms and hands at work. The gloves chosen for protection of the arm and hand should cover those parts adequately and the material of the gloves should be capable of offering protection against the specific hazard involved. Criteria for choosing arm and hand protection equipment will be based on their shape and part of the arm and hand protected. Guide lines for choosing such personal protection equipment for nuclear facilities are given. (M.K.V.). 3 annexures, 1 appendix

  13. Simulation of Octopus Arm Based on Coupled CPGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The octopus arm has attracted many researchers’ interests and became a research hot spot because of its amazing features. Several dynamic models inspired by an octopus arm are presented to realize the structure with a large number of degrees of freedom. The octopus arm is made of a soft material introducing high-dimensionality, nonlinearity, and elasticity, which makes the octopus arm difficult to control. In this paper, three coupled central pattern generators (CPGs are built and a 2-dimensional dynamic model of the octopus arm is presented to explore possible strategies of the octopus movement control. And the CPGs’ signals treated as activation are added on the ventral, dorsal, and transversal sides, respectively. The effects of the octopus arm are discussed when the parameters of the CPGs are changed. Simulations show that the octopus arm movements are mainly determined by the shapes of three CPGs’ phase diagrams. Therefore, some locomotion modes are supposed to be embedded in the neuromuscular system of the octopus arm. And the octopus arm movements can be achieved by modulating the parameters of the CPGs. The results are beneficial for researchers to understand the octopus movement further.

  14. Manipulator arm for a nuclear reactor vessel inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A manipulator arm for a reactor vessel in-service inspection apparatus is adapted to transport a transducer array for ultrasonic examination of welds at any point in the vessel. The removal of the inspection device from the reactor vessel in an emergency presents a problem where a relatively long manipulator arm is used. This invention provides an improved arm with means for changing the normal orientation of the arm to a shorter one to permit safe removal of the inspection device from the reactor vessel. (author)

  15. Hot Galactic Arms Point To Vicious Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed the aftermath of a titanic explosion that wracked the elliptical galaxy known as NGC 4636. This eruption could be the latest episode in a cycle of violence that is triggered by gas falling into a central massive black hole. Chandra's images of NGC 4636 show spectacular symmetric arms, or arcs, of hot gas extending 25,000 light years into a huge cloud of multimillion-degree-Celsius gas that envelopes the galaxy. At a temperature of 10 million degrees, the arms are 30 percent hotter than the surrounding gas cloud. "The temperature jump, together with the symmetry and scale of the arms, suggests that we are observing the effects of a tremendous outburst that occurred in the center of the galaxy," said Christine Jones of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., lead author of a paper on these observations scheduled for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The energy of this explosion would be the equivalent of several hundred thousand supernovas." The arms appear to be the leading edges of a galaxy-sized shock wave that is racing outward at 700 kilometers per second, or 1.6 million miles per hour. At this speed, it would take 3 million years for the structures to attain their present size. Cavities detected in the hot gas cloud to the east and west of the center of the galaxy support the shockwave explanation. The authors suggest that the explosion is part of a majestic cosmic feedback process that keeps the galaxy in a state of turmoil. Over a period of a few million years, a hot gas cloud that envelops the stars in the galaxy cools and falls inward toward a central, massive black hole. The feeding of the black hole by the infalling material leads to an explosion that heats the hot gaseous envelope, starting the cycle anew. NGC 4636 NGC 4636 Background Subtracted This feedback cycle may explain one puzzling feature of the galaxy - the lack of a strong radio source of the type that is

  16. Phoenix Robotic Arm's Workspace After 90 Sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide. The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation.

  18. Magnetic spiral arms in galaxy haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    We seek the conditions for a steady mean field galactic dynamo. The parameter set is reduced to those appearing in the α2 and α/ω dynamo, namely velocity amplitudes, and the ratio of sub-scale helicity to diffusivity. The parameters can be allowed to vary on conical spirals. We analyse the mean field dynamo equations in terms of scale invariant logarithmic spiral modes and special exact solutions. Compatible scale invariant gravitational spiral arms are introduced and illustrated in an appendix, but the detailed dynamical interaction with the magnetic field is left for another work. As a result of planar magnetic spirals `lifting' into the halo, multiple sign changes in average rotation measures forming a regular pattern on each side of the galactic minor axis, are predicted. Such changes have recently been detected in the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) survey.

  19. Testbed model and data assimilation for ARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this contract are to further develop and test the ALFA (AER Local Forecast and Assimilation) model originally designed at AER for local weather prediction and apply it to three distinct but related purposes in connection with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program: (a) to provide a testbed that simulates a global climate model in order to facilitate the development and testing of new cloud parametrizations and radiation models; (b) to assimilate the ARM data continuously at the scale of a climate model, using the adjoint method, thus providing the initial conditions and verification data for testing parameumtions; (c) to study the sensitivity of a radiation scheme to cloud parameters, again using the adjoint method, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the testbed model. The data assimilation will use a variational technique that minimizes the difference between the model results and the observation during the analysis period. The adjoint model is used to compute the gradient of a measure of the model errors with respect to nudging terms that are added to the equations to force the model output closer to the data. The radiation scheme that will be included in the basic ALFA model makes use of a gen two-stream approximation, and is designed for vertically inhonogeneous, multiple-scattering atmospheres. The sensitivity of this model to the definition of cloud parameters will be studied. The adjoint technique will also be used to compute the sensitivities. This project is designed to provide the Science Team members with the appropriate tools and modeling environment for proper testing and tuning of new radiation models and cloud parametrization schemes

  20. Nuclear arms race gearing for speedup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heylin, M.

    1981-01-01

    To probe the rationale behind the big buildup in US strategic arms that is presaged by the current enhanced R and D effort - and to explore the broader, more long-term role of science and technology in the nuclear arms race - C and EN in recent months spoke with a host of experts both within and outside the defense establishment. It is a topic of incredible complexity, high controversy, and of the highest stakes imaginable - the survival of civilization. This buildup will include over the next decade, apart from the MX, a new, highly accurate, submarine-launched ballistic missile and a fleet of very large submarines to carry it; an air-launched cruise missile; a new long-range bomber; a new intermediate-range missile and a new ground-launched cruise missile, both capable of hitting targets in the Soviet Union from proposed bases in Western Europe; and a new sea-launched cruise missile that can be fired from conventional submarines or other naval vessels. To spokesmen for, and members of, the defense establishment the US buildup is prudent, even minimal. According to them, it is needed to keep the US at least on a par with the growth of Soviet strategic might which was very substantial in the 1970's and which will carry over into the 1980's with further major gains. It also is needed to keep the lid on Soviet expansionism; and it is the best way to prevent a nuclear war. To critics, the proposed buildup is the height of lunacy. According to them, the US strategic arsenal is more than adequate today. And it can continue to serve its only legitimate purpose - to deter nuclear war, no matter how much the Soviets may choose to build up their nuclear forces - with a much-more-modest modernization program

  1. The Illusion of Owning a Third Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Could it be possible that, in the not-so-distant future, we will be able to reshape the human body so as to have extra limbs? A third arm helping us out with the weekly shopping in the local grocery store, or an extra artificial limb assisting a paralysed person? Here we report a perceptual illusion in which a rubber right hand, placed beside the real hand in full view of the participant, is perceived as a supernumerary limb belonging to the participant's own body. This effect was supported by questionnaire data in conjunction with physiological evidence obtained from skin conductance responses when physically threatening either the rubber hand or the real one. In four well-controlled experiments, we demonstrate the minimal required conditions for the elicitation of this “supernumerary hand illusion”. In the fifth, and final experiment, we show that the illusion reported here is qualitatively different from the traditional rubber hand illusion as it is characterised by less disownership of the real hand and a stronger feeling of having two right hands. These results suggest that the artificial hand ‘borrows’ some of the multisensory processes that represent the real hand, leading to duplication of touch and ownership of two right arms. This work represents a major advance because it challenges the traditional view of the gross morphology of the human body as a fundamental constraint on what we can come to experience as our physical self, by showing that the body representation can easily be updated to incorporate an additional limb. PMID:21383847

  2. The illusion of owning a third arm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Guterstam

    Full Text Available Could it be possible that, in the not-so-distant future, we will be able to reshape the human body so as to have extra limbs? A third arm helping us out with the weekly shopping in the local grocery store, or an extra artificial limb assisting a paralysed person? Here we report a perceptual illusion in which a rubber right hand, placed beside the real hand in full view of the participant, is perceived as a supernumerary limb belonging to the participant's own body. This effect was supported by questionnaire data in conjunction with physiological evidence obtained from skin conductance responses when physically threatening either the rubber hand or the real one. In four well-controlled experiments, we demonstrate the minimal required conditions for the elicitation of this "supernumerary hand illusion". In the fifth, and final experiment, we show that the illusion reported here is qualitatively different from the traditional rubber hand illusion as it is characterised by less disownership of the real hand and a stronger feeling of having two right hands. These results suggest that the artificial hand 'borrows' some of the multisensory processes that represent the real hand, leading to duplication of touch and ownership of two right arms. This work represents a major advance because it challenges the traditional view of the gross morphology of the human body as a fundamental constraint on what we can come to experience as our physical self, by showing that the body representation can easily be updated to incorporate an additional limb.

  3. Version of the galaxy spiral structure model with opposite-directed arms and inter-arm links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolidze, M V [AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Abastumani. Abastumanskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya

    1963-05-01

    An attempt is made to explain some peculiarities of the local spiral structure and large-scale distribution of HII regions in the Galaxy by coexistence of the trailing and leading arm systems of different power and development. The existence of opposite-directed arms and inter-arm links in the circular zone (5-15 kpc) is analysed from the point of view of different Galaxy models.

  4. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P

    2015-05-13

    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems.

  5. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  6. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used for painful and enlarged lymph nodes. Blood transfusions or platelet transfusions may be required if blood ... unexplained fatigue, bruising, excessive sweating, or weight loss. Alternative ... Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL); Blood cancer - chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Bone marrow cancer - chronic ...

  7. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-News Sign-Up Home Patient Information Children/Pediatric Chronic Pancreatitis in Children Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? Frequent or chronic abdominal pain is the most common symptom of pancreatitis. The ...

  8. Chronic subdural hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subdural hemorrhage - chronic; Subdural hematoma - chronic; Subdural hygroma ... A subdural hematoma develops when bridging veins tear and leak blood. These are the tiny veins that run between the ...

  9. Chronic Diseases Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Templates All Chronic Surveillance Systems Communications Center Social Media Press Room Press Release Archives Multimedia Communication Campaigns Publications Chronic Disease Overview 2016–2017 At A ...

  10. Re-usable low density polyethylene arm glove for puerperal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To design a long arm glove that can be used within a puerperal uterus to prevent the health-care worker contracting HIV from an infected patient. The designed long arm glove should be cheap (affordable) and readily available in low resource centres and must have proven sterility assurance and tensile strength ...

  11. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  12. A Review of the Effects of Armed Conflict on Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among many countries that have experienced one form of conflict, this paper tried to review the experiences of children during armed conflict in Nepal, Columbia and Nigeria. The review also delved into the impact of armed conflict on health, nutrition and education of children and further, outlined some international ...

  13. Kinematic properties of supergiants in the Perseus spiral arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, T P [Ural' skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Sverdlovsk (USSR)

    1963-05-01

    Large-scale inhomogeneity of the velocity field in the Perseus spiral arm region is found on the basis of the analysis of spatial motions of supergiants. The inhomogeneity seems to be connected with both presence of large groups of young stars and systematic motions in the arm predicted by the density wave theory. Proper motions of 78 stars are presented.

  14. Why and how the EU should act on armed drones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Backhaus, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    This article systematizes the reasons that demand EU action on the issue of armed drones. It argues that a clear positioning of Brussels is required due to consistency with former practices in similar events and fundamental vectors of EU foreign and security policy, as well as legal and strategic...... position itself in the international debate on the regulation of armed drones....

  15. Systematic medical data collection of intentional injuries during armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Abdel-Jabbar Al-Qadi, Ashraf Hasan; Al-Jabriri, Jalal

    2004-01-01

    A study was undertaken on implementing medical data collection as a tool to assess the relative number and character of intentional injuries before and during an armed conflict.......A study was undertaken on implementing medical data collection as a tool to assess the relative number and character of intentional injuries before and during an armed conflict....

  16. The Accountability of Armed Groups under Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin, K.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The starting point for this NWOI funded Ph.D. research is the observation that although UN accountability mechanisms are increasingly holding armed groups ‘accountable’ under human rights law, the legal basis for the responsibility of armed groups under human rights law remains controversial

  17. Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Jang, Cheongjae; Park, Frank C

    2014-01-01

    We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780–4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226–35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear–quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law. (paper)

  18. Brain-Machine Interface Enables Bimanual Arm Movements in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifft, Peter J.; Shokur, Solaiman; Li, Zheng; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are artificial systems that aim to restore sensation and movement to severely paralyzed patients. However, previous BMIs enabled only single arm functionality, and control of bimanual movements was a major challenge. Here, we developed and tested a bimanual BMI that enabled rhesus monkeys to control two avatar arms simultaneously. The bimanual BMI was based on the extracellular activity of 374–497 neurons recorded from several frontal and parietal cortical areas of both cerebral hemispheres. Cortical activity was transformed into movements of the two arms with a decoding algorithm called a 5th order unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The UKF is well-suited for BMI decoding because it accounts for both characteristics of reaching movements and their representation by cortical neurons. The UKF was trained either during a manual task performed with two joysticks or by having the monkeys passively observe the movements of avatar arms. Most cortical neurons changed their modulation patterns when both arms were engaged simultaneously. Representing the two arms jointly in a single UKF decoder resulted in improved decoding performance compared with using separate decoders for each arm. As the animals’ performance in bimanual BMI control improved over time, we observed widespread plasticity in frontal and parietal cortical areas. Neuronal representation of the avatar and reach targets was enhanced with learning, whereas pairwise correlations between neurons initially increased and then decreased. These results suggest that cortical networks may assimilate the two avatar arms through BMI control. PMID:24197735

  19. 78 FR 46579 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-30] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: FMS case YAD-$22M-16Jan10. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None...

  20. 76 FR 17111 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-10] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  1. 78 FR 62590 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-43] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii) Sensitivity of...

  2. 76 FR 37071 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-03] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  3. 75 FR 60424 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-28 and 10-30] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to...

  4. 78 FR 78939 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-68] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...-$98M (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: N/A (vii) Sensitivity of...

  5. 76 FR 37075 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-77] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  6. 76 FR 43659 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-28] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  7. 78 FR 78941 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-70] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... any: FMS Case GAC--$82M--12Mar10 (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid...

  8. 76 FR 27026 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-13] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  9. 76 FR 37078 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-68] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  10. 77 FR 42709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-24] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Cases, if any: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii...

  11. 77 FR 60384 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-54] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is...

  12. 76 FR 43662 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-15] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...) Military Department: Navy (AAR) (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc...

  13. 75 FR 61440 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-47, 10-48, and 10-51] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications...

  14. 77 FR 37884 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-19] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Department: Navy (LAN). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid...

  15. 76 FR 72686 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-47] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This..., if any: FMS Case FAL-$73M-6Apr11 (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed To Be...

  16. 75 FR 29998 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-22] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  17. 76 FR 29212 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-75] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  18. 78 FR 26324 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-20] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Gasoline). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: Numerous cases dating back to 1995. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee...

  19. 75 FR 48646 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-27, 10-31 and 10-41] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications...

  20. 75 FR 23247 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-08] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  1. 76 FR 60461 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-27] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... any: FMS Case JAH-$402 million-11Dec91. FMS Case ZUF-$375 million-22Dec08. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee...

  2. 78 FR 76114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-66] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii) Sensitivity of Technology...

  3. 77 FR 42711 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-20] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This..., Amd 3). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: FMS case ULJ-$46M-15Jan10. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc...

  4. 75 FR 27314 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-19] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  5. 75 FR 11865 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-12] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  6. 78 FR 76112 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-63] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... case LAJ-$22M--8Mar07 FMS case GAU-$45M--25Jul08 FMS case LAL-$293M--5Jan09 (vi) Sales Commission, Fee...

  7. 78 FR 42051 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-26] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... any: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii...

  8. 75 FR 76418 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-65] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  9. 75 FR 76415 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-72] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  10. 78 FR 32632 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-28] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...-31Dec06. FMS case NZU-$93 million-19Aug10. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to...

  11. 75 FR 74011 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-24] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  12. 78 FR 26326 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-09] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...-20Feb08. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None. (vii) Sensitivity of...

  13. 78 FR 62600 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-47] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed To Be Paid: None (vii) Sensitivity of...

  14. 75 FR 76412 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-69] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  15. 77 FR 60391 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-32] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is...

  16. 76 FR 60455 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-71] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... support. (iv) Military Department: Army (UJT). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None. (vi) Sales...

  17. 75 FR 74014 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-49] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  18. 76 FR 27022 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-12] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  19. 77 FR 60387 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-26] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is...

  20. 77 FR 51780 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-42] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... support. (iv) Military Department: Air Force (QAZ). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None. (vi) Sales...

  1. 78 FR 26328 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-06] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...) Prior Related Cases, if any: FMS case QAA-$301M-3Dec08. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered...

  2. 77 FR 70151 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-56] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: Army (UAK). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or...

  3. 77 FR 13564 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-53] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This..., if any: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii...

  4. 78 FR 62588 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-53] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii) Sensitivity of Technology...

  5. 77 FR 12037 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-11] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... support. (iv) Military Department: Navy (SAF). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None. (vi) Sales...

  6. 76 FR 60459 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-19] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...-$280 million-29Nov07. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None. (vii...

  7. 75 FR 76408 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-73] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  8. 75 FR 41820 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-05, 10-11, 10-18, 10-21 and 10-29] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION...) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164, dated 21...

  9. 77 FR 46417 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-39] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: USA (UAF) (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: FMS case UAD-$95M-23Jan12 (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc...

  10. 76 FR 60467 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: a Foreign Military Sales Order II (FMSO II) to provide funds for blanket order requisitions, under...

  11. 78 FR 69073 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-59] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...) Military Department: Air Force (QAH) (v) Prior Related Cases: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid...

  12. 78 FR 54242 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-38] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...--$54.3M--5May04 FMS case QZX--$62.4M--24Dec03 FMS case CCZ--$48.4M--12Aug02 [[Page 54244

  13. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  14. Sample size determinations for group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Litwin, Alain H; Blackstock, Oni; Kim, Namhee; Arnsten, Julia H

    2017-02-01

    We derived sample size formulae for detecting main effects in group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms. Such designs are necessary when experimental interventions need to be administered to groups of subjects whereas control conditions need to be administered to individual subjects. This type of trial, often referred to as a partially nested or partially clustered design, has been implemented for management of chronic diseases such as diabetes and is beginning to emerge more commonly in wider clinical settings. Depending on the research setting, the level of hierarchy of data structure for the experimental arm can be three or two, whereas that for the control arm is two or one. Such different levels of data hierarchy assume correlation structures of outcomes that are different between arms, regardless of whether research settings require two or three level data structure for the experimental arm. Therefore, the different correlations should be taken into account for statistical modeling and for sample size determinations. To this end, we considered mixed-effects linear models with different correlation structures between experimental and control arms to theoretically derive and empirically validate the sample size formulae with simulation studies.

  15. The European Union and armed drones: framing the debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Armed drones are an issue extremely relevant for the EU. The recent emergence of targeted killings as a common counter-terrorism technique, the existence of several EU member states using armed and surveillance drones in military scenarios, the presence of member states troops in areas where armed...... drones have been active, the US use of European-originated intelligence to execute targeted killings, and the broader status of international law, are developments that illustrate the importance of the topic. Yet, the EU still does not have an official position on armed drones. In 2014 the European...... Parliament recognized that this is problematic, adopting a Resolution that expressed “grave concern over the use of armed drones outside the international legal framework” and that urged the EU to “develop an appropriate policy response at both European and global level”. This Forum answers to the European...

  16. A Unified Approach for Reporting ARM Measurement Uncertainties Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, E [Argonne National Laboratory; Sisterson, DL [Argonne National Laboratory

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is observationally based, and quantifying the uncertainty of its measurements is critically important. With over 300 widely differing instruments providing over 2,500 datastreams, concise expression of measurement uncertainty is quite challenging. The ARM Facility currently provides data and supporting metadata (information about the data or data quality) to its users through a number of sources. Because the continued success of the ARM Facility depends on the known quality of its measurements, the Facility relies on instrument mentors and the ARM Data Quality Office (DQO) to ensure, assess, and report measurement quality. Therefore, an easily-accessible, well-articulated estimate of ARM measurement uncertainty is needed.

  17. A software radio platform based on ARM and FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xin.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise in computational performance offered by computer systems has greatly increased the number of practical software radio applications. A scheme presented in this paper is a software radio platform based on ARM and FPGA. FPGA works as the coprocessor together with the ARM, which serves as the core processor. ARM is used for digital signal processing and real-time data transmission, and FPGA is used for synchronous timing control and serial-parallel conversion. A SPI driver for real-time data transmission between ARM and FPGA under ARM-Linux system is provided. By adopting modular design, the software radio platform is capable of implementing wireless communication functions and satisfies the requirements of real-time signal processing platform for high security and broad applicability.

  18. Effects of age, sex and arm on the precision of arm position sense-left-arm superiority in healthy right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lena; Depper, Lena; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Position sense is an important proprioceptive ability. Disorders of arm position sense (APS) often occur after unilateral stroke, and are associated with a negative functional outcome. In the present study we assessed horizontal APS by measuring angular deviations from a visually defined target separately for each arm in a large group of healthy subjects. We analyzed the accuracy and instability of horizontal APS as a function of age, sex and arm. Subjects were required to specify verbally the position of their unseen arm on a 0-90° circuit by comparing the current position with the target position indicated by a LED lamp, while the arm was passively moved by the examiner. Eighty-seven healthy subjects participated in the study, ranging from 20 to 77 years, subdivided into three age groups. The results revealed that APS was not a function of age or sex, but was significantly better in the non-dominant (left) arm in absolute errors (AE) but not in constant errors (CE) across all age groups of right-handed healthy subjects. This indicates a right-hemisphere superiority for left APS in right-handers and neatly fits to the more frequent and more severe left-sided body-related deficits in patients with unilateral stroke (i.e. impaired APS in left spatial neglect, somatoparaphrenia) or in individuals with abnormalities of the right cerebral hemisphere. These clinical issues will be discussed.

  19. Changes in arm-hand function and arm-hand skill performance in patients after stroke during and after rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Johan Anton; Smeets, Rob Johannes Elise Marie; Seelen, Henk Alexander Maria

    2017-01-01

    Arm-hand rehabilitation programs applied in stroke rehabilitation frequently target specific populations and thus are less applicable in heterogeneous patient populations. Besides, changes in arm-hand function (AHF) and arm-hand skill performance (AHSP) during and after a specific and well-described rehabilitation treatment are often not well evaluated. This single-armed prospective cohort study featured three subgroups of stroke patients with either a severely, moderately or mildly impaired AHF. Rehabilitation treatment consisted of a Concise_Arm_and_hand_ Rehabilitation_Approach_in_Stroke (CARAS). Measurements at function and activity level were performed at admission, clinical discharge, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after clinical discharge. Eighty-nine stroke patients (M/F:63/23; mean age:57.6yr (+/-10.6); post-stroke time:29.8 days (+/-20.1)) participated. All patients improved on AHF and arm-hand capacity during and after rehabilitation, except on grip strength in the severely affected subgroup. Largest gains occurred in patients with a moderately affected AHF. As to self-perceived AHSP, on average, all subgroups improved over time. A small percentage of patients declined regarding self-perceived AHSP post-rehabilitation. A majority of stroke patients across the whole arm-hand impairment severity spectrum significantly improved on AHF, arm-hand capacity and self-perceived AHSP. These were maintained up to one year post-rehabilitation. Results may serve as a control condition in future studies.

  20. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

  1. Keeping nuclear hazards at arm's length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    As national and international regulations are tightened, the permitted radiation dose limits for nuclear workers are being lowered. But sharing the same dose among more people is raising nuclear industry costs. At the same time tasks such as refurbishment and decommissioning are multiplying as the nuclear industry matures. As a result of these trends, work in the nuclear power sector is increasingly having to be done under remote control. European and American progress in the technology was reported recently at a two-day international conference held in London and is reported here. In France 'Frastar' carries out tours of inspection inside reactor buildings under remote control and 'Suzy' is a finger walker robot carrying an arm which is a 3-actuator manipulator. Anglo-American advances are reported; robots with manipulator, cameras, audio signalling and the ability to climb stairs and ramps. A European Community research programme called Teleman was started in 1989 to develop advanced teleoperators for the nuclear industry. The projects underway in this programme are listed. (UK)

  2. Virtual sine arm kinematic mount system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Randall, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel kinematic mount system for a vertical focusing mirror of the soft x-ray spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The system contains three points in a horizontal plane. Each point consists of two horizontal linear precision stages, a spherical ball bearing, and a vertical precision stage. The horizontal linear stages are aligned orthogonally and are conjoined by a spherical ball bearing, supported by the vertical linear stage at each point. The position of each confined horizontal stage is controlled by a motorized micrometer head by spring-loading the flat tip of the micrometer head onto a tooling ball fixing on the carriage of the stage. A virtual sine arm is formed by tilting the upstream horizontal stage down and the two downstream horizontal stages up by a small angle. The fine pitch motion is achieved by adjusting the upstream stage. This supporting structure is extremely steady due to a relatively large span across the supporting points and yields extremely high resolution on the pitch motion. With a one degree tilt and a microstepping motor, the authors achieved a 0.4 nanoradian resolution on the mirror pitch motion

  3. Research on ARM Numerical Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xu; JiHong, Chen

    Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools is the foundation of modern manufacturing systems, whose advanced digital technology is the key to solve the problem of sustainable development of machine tool manufacturing industry. The paper is to design CNC system embedded on ARM and indicates the hardware design and the software systems supported. On the hardware side: the driving chip of the motor control unit, as the core of components, is MCX314AL of DSP motion control which is developed by NOVA Electronics Co., Ltd. of Japan. It make convenient to control machine because of its excellent performance, simple interface, easy programming. On the Software side, the uC/OS-2 is selected as the embedded operating system of the open source, which makes a detailed breakdown of the modules of the CNC system. Those priorities are designed according to their actual requirements. The ways of communication between the module and the interrupt response are so different that it guarantees real-time property and reliability of the numerical control system. Therefore, it not only meets the requirements of the current social precision machining, but has good man-machine interface and network support to facilitate a variety of craftsmen use.

  4. Arm-in-Arm Response Regulator Dimers Promote Intermolecular Signal Transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Anna W.; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Morales, Neydis Moreno; Forest, Katrina T. (UW)

    2016-02-01

    ABSTRACT

    Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphPs) and their cognate response regulators make up two-component signal transduction systems which direct bacteria to mount phenotypic responses to changes in environmental light quality. Most of these systems utilize single-domain response regulators to transduce signals through unknown pathways and mechanisms. Here we describe the photocycle and autophosphorylation kinetics of RtBphP1, a red light-regulated histidine kinase from the desert bacteriumRamlibacter tataouinensis. RtBphP1 undergoes red to far-red photoconversion with rapid thermal reversion to the dark state. RtBphP1 is autophosphorylated in the dark; this activity is inhibited under red light. The RtBphP1 cognate response regulator, theR. tataouinensisbacteriophytochrome response regulator (RtBRR), and a homolog, AtBRR fromAgrobacterium tumefaciens, crystallize unexpectedly as arm-in-arm dimers, reliant on a conserved hydrophobic motif, hFWAhL (where h is a hydrophobic M, V, L, or I residue). RtBRR and AtBRR dimerize distinctly from four structurally characterized phytochrome response regulators found in photosynthetic organisms and from all other receiver domain homodimers in the Protein Data Bank. A unique cacodylate-zinc-histidine tag metal organic framework yielded single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phases and may be of general interest. Examination of the effect of the BRR stoichiometry on signal transduction showed that phosphorylated RtBRR is accumulated more efficiently than the engineered monomeric RtBRR (RtBRRmon) in phosphotransfer reactions. Thus, we conclude that arm-in-arm dimers are a relevant signaling intermediate in this class of two-component regulatory systems.

  5. AN OUTER ARM IN THE SECOND GALACTIC QUADRANT: STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xinyu; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Sun, Yan; Li, Facheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Zhou, Xin, E-mail: xydu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-05-01

    The lack of arm tracers, especially remote tracers, is one of the most difficult problems preventing us from studying the structure of the Milky Way. Fortunately, with its high-sensitivity CO survey, the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) project offers such an opportunity. Since completing about one-third of its mission, an area of l = [100, 150]°, b = [−3, 5]° has nearly been covered. The Outer arm of the Milky Way first clearly revealed its shape in the second galactic quadrant in the form of molecular gas—this is the first time that the Outer arm has been reported in such a large-scale mapping of molecular gas. Using the 115 GHz {sup 12}CO(1–0) data of MWISP at the LSR velocity ≃[−100, −60] km s{sup −1} and in the area mentioned above, we have detected 481 molecular clouds in total, and among them 332 (about 69%) are newly detected and 457 probably belong to the Outer arm. The total mass of the detected Outer arm clouds is ∼3.1 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙}. Assuming that the spiral arm is a logarithmic spiral, the pitch angle is fitted as ∼13.°1. Besides combining both the CO data from MWISP and the 21 cm H i data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), the gas distribution, warp, and thickness of the Outer arm are also studied.

  6. Kinematic decomposition and classification of octopus arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelman, Ido; Titon, Myriam; Yekutieli, Yoram; Hanassy, Shlomi; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    The octopus arm is a muscular hydrostat and due to its deformable and highly flexible structure it is capable of a rich repertoire of motor behaviors. Its motor control system uses planning principles and control strategies unique to muscular hydrostats. We previously reconstructed a data set of octopus arm movements from records of natural movements using a sequence of 3D curves describing the virtual backbone of arm configurations. Here we describe a novel representation of octopus arm movements in which a movement is characterized by a pair of surfaces that represent the curvature and torsion values of points along the arm as a function of time. This representation allowed us to explore whether the movements are built up of elementary kinematic units by decomposing each surface into a weighted combination of 2D Gaussian functions. The resulting Gaussian functions can be considered as motion primitives at the kinematic level of octopus arm movements. These can be used to examine underlying principles of movement generation. Here we used combination of such kinematic primitives to decompose different octopus arm movements and characterize several movement prototypes according to their composition. The representation and methodology can be applied to the movement of any organ which can be modeled by means of a continuous 3D curve.

  7. Kinematic decomposition and classification of octopus arm movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido eZelman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The octopus arm is a muscular hydrostat and due to its deformable and highly flexible structure it is capable of a rich repertoire of motor behaviors. Its motor control system uses planning principles and control strategies unique to muscular hydrostats. We previously reconstructed a data set of octopus arm movements from records of natural movements using a sequence of 3D curves describing the virtual backbone of arm configurations. Here we describe a novel representation of octopus arm movements in which a movement is characterized by a pair of surfaces that represent the curvature and torsion values of points along the arm as a function of time. This representation allowed us to explore whether the movements are built up of elementary kinematic units by decomposing each surface into a weighted combination of 2D Gaussian functions. The resulting Gaussian functions can be considered as motion primitives at the kinematic level of octopus arm movements. These can be used to examine underlying principles of movement generation. Here we used combination of such kinematic primitives to decompose different octopus arm movements and characterize several movement prototypes according to their composition. The representation and methodology can be applied to the movement of any organ which can be modeled by means of a continuous 3D curve.

  8. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inter-arm blood pressure differences in young, healthy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Prokupetz, Alex; Gordon, Barak; Morag-Koren, Nira; Grossman, Ehud

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence and magnitude of inter-arm BP difference (IAD) in young healthy patients is not well characterized. Flight academy applicants and designated aviators undergo annual evaluation that includes blood pressure (BP) measurement on both arms. All BP measurements performed from January 1, 2012, to April 30, 2012, were recorded and IAD was calculated. Results were compared between patients in whom BP was initially measured in the right arm (group 1), those in whom BP was initially measured in the left arm (group 2), and those in whom the arm in which BP was initially measured was not recorded (group 3). A total of 877 healthy patients had BP measured during the study period. In the entire group, mean systolic BP was the same in both arms. Absolute IAD was 5.6±5.5 mm Hg for systolic and 4.7±4.5 mm Hg for diastolic BP. IAD >10 mm Hg was recorded in 111 (12.6%) and 77 (8.8%) patients for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. IAD was the same in the 3 groups and was unrelated to age, body mass index, and heart rate, but was related to systolic BP. IAD is common in young healthy patients, is not dependent on which arm was measured first, and unrelated to age, body mass index, and heart rate. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Design and analysis on robotic arm for serving hazard container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Zol Bahri; Kader, Mohamed Mydin M. Abdul; Yi, Khoo Zern; Daud, Mohd Hisam

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents about design, analyses development and fabrication of robotic arm for sorting multi-material. The major problem that urges the initiation of the project is the fact that manufacturing industry is growing at relatively faster rate. Most of the company produce high load robotic arm. Less company creates light weight, and affordable robotic arm. As the result, light weight and affordable robot is developing to cover this issue. Plastic material was used to construct the body of the robotic arm, and an optical sensor was implemented to provide basic recognition of object to be carried. The robotic arm used five servomotors for overall operation; four for its joints, and one for the gripping mechanism. The gripper was designed and fabricated using Perspex due to the light weight and high strength of the material. The operation of the robotic arm was governed by Basic Stamp programming sequence and the device was expected to differentiate material and other objects based on reflective theory, and perform subsequent operations afterwards. The SolidWorks was used to model the detail design of the robotic arm, and to simulate the motion of the device.

  11. EEG Mind Controlled Smart Prosthetic Arm – A Comprehensive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Beyrouthy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the field of prosthetics has seen many accomplishments especially with the integration of technological advancements. In this paper, different arm types (robotic, surgical, bionic, prosthetic and static are analyzed in terms of resistance, usage, flexibility, cost and potential. Most of these techniques have some problems; they are extremely expensive, hard to install and maintain and may require surgery. Therefore, our work introduces the initial design of an EEG mind controlled smart prosthetic arm. The arm is controlled by the brain commands, obtained from an electroencephalography (EEG headset, and equipped with a network of smart sensors and actuators that give the patient intelligent feedback about the surrounding environment and the object in contact. This network provides the arm with normal hand functionality, smart reflexes and smooth movements. Various types of sensors are used including temperature, pressure, ultrasonic proximity sensors, accelerometers, potentiometers, strain gauges and gyroscopes. The arm is completely 3D printed built from various lightweight and high strength materials that can handle high impacts and fragile elements as well. Our project requires the use of nine servomotors installed at different places in the arm. Therefore, the static and dynamic modes of servomotors are analyzed. The total cost of the project is estimated to be relatively cheap compared to other previously built arms. Many scenarios are analyzed corresponding to the actions that the prosthetic arm can perform, and an algorithm is created to match these scenarios. Experimental results show that the proposed EEG Mind-controlled Arm is a promising alternative for current solutions that require invasive and expensive surgical procedures.

  12. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans... Control No. 2900- NEW (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability...

  13. US-Russian relations: the arms control agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, W

    2001-07-01

    At a time when US-Russian relations are widely regarded to be in a state of flux, it is appropriate to examine the degree of continuity and change in the sphere of nuclear arms control. More specifically, this brief essay identifies a number of propositions about nuclear weapons, arms control, and nonproliferation that increasingly reflect the conventional wisdom in Washington, although these propositions may be neither true nor wise; and assesses the prospects for arms control progress in the areas of strategic and non-strategic nuclear weapons and nonproliferation in light of these prevailing views. (author)

  14. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be

  15. Tracked Robot with Blade Arms to Enhance Crawling Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Jhu-Wei Ji; Fa-Shian Chang; Lih-Tyng Hwang; Chih-Feng Liu; Jeng-Nan Lee; Shun-Min Wang; Kai-Yi Cho

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tracked robot with blade arms powered to assist movement in difficult environments. As a result, the tracked robot is able to pass a ramp or climb stairs. The main feature is a pair of blade arms on both sides of the vehicle body working in collaboration with previously validated transformable track system. When the robot encounters an obstacle in a terrain, it enlists the blade arms with power to overcome the obstacle. In disaster areas, there usually will be terrains t...

  16. US-Russian relations: the arms control agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.

    2001-01-01

    At a time when US-Russian relations are widely regarded to be in a state of flux, it is appropriate to examine the degree of continuity and change in the sphere of nuclear arms control. More specifically, this brief essay identifies a number of propositions about nuclear weapons, arms control, and nonproliferation that increasingly reflect the conventional wisdom in Washington, although these propositions may be neither true nor wise; and assesses the prospects for arms control progress in the areas of strategic and non-strategic nuclear weapons and nonproliferation in light of these prevailing views. (author)

  17. Light Duty Utility Arm computer software configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    This plan describes the configuration management for the Light Duty Utility Arm robotic manipulation arm control software. It identifies the requirement, associated documents, and the software control methodology. The Light Duty Utility Ann (LDUA) System is a multi-axis robotic manipulator arm and deployment vehicle, used to perform surveillance and characterization operations in support of remediation of defense nuclear wastes currently stored in the Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) through the available 30.5 cm (12 in.) risers. This plan describes the configuration management of the LDUA software

  18. Driving pockels cells in multi-arm lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carder, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the method used to drive Pockels cells on the 20-arm Shiva laser for inertial confinement fusion research at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Shiva became operational last fall, and has just completed a series of 20-arm target shots. It uses two pockels cell gates in each laser arm for suppression of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) that can damage or destroy the target before the main pulse arrives. Two additional Pockels cells are used in the preamplification stages, so that a total of 42 cells must be driven by the pulser system

  19. Supporting Self-management of Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-04

    Chronic Pain Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Chronic Pain Due to Injury; Chronic Pain Due to Trauma; Chronic Pain Due to Malignancy (Finding); Chronic Pain Post-Procedural; Chronic Pain Hip; Chronic Pain, Widespread

  20. Arms control and the rule of law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War

  1. New developments in prosthetic arm systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaklija I

    2016-07-01

    functionality. This article is aimed at reviewing the latest state of the upper limb prosthetic market, offering insights on the accompanying technologies and techniques. We also examine the capabilities and features of some of academia’s flagship solutions and methods. Keywords: prosthetic, amputations, rehabilitation, hand, arm

  2. Light duty utility arm walkdown report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1998-09-25

    This document is a report of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) drawing walkdown. The purpose of this walkdown was to validate the essential configuration of the LDUA in preparation of deploying the equipment in a Hanford waste tank. The LDUA system has, over the course of its development, caused the generation of a considerable number of design drawings. The number of drawings is estimated to be well over 1,000. A large number consist of vendor type drawings, furnished by both Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and SPAR Aerospace Limited (SPAR). A smaller number, approximately 200, are H-6 type drawing sheets in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) document control system. A preliminary inspection of the drawings showed that the physical configuration of the LDUA did not match the documented configuration. As a result of these findings, a scoping walkdown of 20 critical drawing sheets was performed to determine if a problem existed in configuration management of the LDUA system. The results of this activity showed that 18 of the 20 drawing sheets were found to contain errors or omissions of varying concern. Given this, Characterization Engineering determined that a walkdown of the drawings necessary and sufficient to enable safe operation and maintenance of the LDUA should be performed. A review team was assembled to perform a review of all of the drawings and determine the set which would need to be verified through an engineering walkdown. The team determined that approximately 150 H-6 type drawing sheets would need to be verified, 12 SPAR/PNNL drawing sheets would need to be verified and converted to H-6 drawings, and three to six new drawings would be created (see Appendix A). This report documents the results of that walkdown.

  3. Arms control and the rule of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  4. Light duty utility arm walkdown report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a report of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) drawing walkdown. The purpose of this walkdown was to validate the essential configuration of the LDUA in preparation of deploying the equipment in a Hanford waste tank. The LDUA system has, over the course of its development, caused the generation of a considerable number of design drawings. The number of drawings is estimated to be well over 1,000. A large number consist of vendor type drawings, furnished by both Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and SPAR Aerospace Limited (SPAR). A smaller number, approximately 200, are H-6 type drawing sheets in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) document control system. A preliminary inspection of the drawings showed that the physical configuration of the LDUA did not match the documented configuration. As a result of these findings, a scoping walkdown of 20 critical drawing sheets was performed to determine if a problem existed in configuration management of the LDUA system. The results of this activity showed that 18 of the 20 drawing sheets were found to contain errors or omissions of varying concern. Given this, Characterization Engineering determined that a walkdown of the drawings necessary and sufficient to enable safe operation and maintenance of the LDUA should be performed. A review team was assembled to perform a review of all of the drawings and determine the set which would need to be verified through an engineering walkdown. The team determined that approximately 150 H-6 type drawing sheets would need to be verified, 12 SPAR/PNNL drawing sheets would need to be verified and converted to H-6 drawings, and three to six new drawings would be created (see Appendix A). This report documents the results of that walkdown

  5. Age and disease at an arms length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    How are the boundaries of disease and health, age, life and death negotiated through technology and active aging? The paper focuses on how disease and age are dealt with by active elderly at activity centres in the Copenhagen area. New health technologies lead to new expectations to the longevity...... of life. A new ethics is emerging, focused on longevity and spreading through healthcare policies and technologies . At activity centres active elderly talk about health in old age, share experiences with health technologies and reflect on longevity, while working out. Chronic diseases are common in old...... age, but this does not mean that you give up or accept decreased quality of life. Ends change as new means emerge . The technological and medical abilities change the reflexive longevity. One expects to live a long and healthy life. Thus, technology can be conceived as a world-changing mediation. What...

  6. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Application of C-arm computed tomography in cardiology; Kardiale Anwendung der C-Arm-Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, J. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Innenstadt, Abteilung fuer Kardiologie, Medizinische Poliklinik, Muenchen (Germany); Rohkohl, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Mustererkennung, Department Informatik, Erlangen (Germany); Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Forchheim (Germany); Lauritsch, G. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Forchheim (Germany); Rittger, H. [Krankenhaus Coburg, Abteilung fuer Kardiologie, Coburg (Germany); Meissner, O. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Forchheim (Germany); Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    C-arm computed tomography is currently being introduced into cardiac imaging and offers the potential for three-dimensional imaging of the cardiac anatomy within the interventional environment. This detailed view is necessary to support complex interventional strategies, such as transcutaneous valve replacement, interventional therapy of atrial fibrillation, implantation of biventricular pacemakers and assessment of myocardial perfusion. Currently, the major limitation of this technology is its insufficient temporal resolution which limits the visualization of fast moving parts of the heart. (orig.) [German] Durch die Entwicklung der C-Arm-Computertomographie- (CACT-)Angiographie ist es erstmals moeglich, waehrend einer Herzkatheteruntersuchung eine detaillierte dreidimensionale Darstellung der kardialen Anatomie zu erhalten. Derartige zusaetzliche Informationen koennten die Durchfuehrung der immer komplexer werdenden Strategien der interventionellen Kardiologie wirkungsvoll unterstuetzen. Hierzu zaehlen u. a. der transkutane Klappenersatz, die interventionelle Behandlung von Vorhofflimmern, die Implantation biventrikulaerer Schrittmacher sowie die Beurteilung der Myokardperfusion. Die derzeit groesste Limitation dieser Methode ist die relativ geringe zeitliche Aufloesung, die aufgrund der Bewegung des Herzens die Anwendung dieser Technologie einschraenkt. (orig.)

  8. A Comparison of Image Quality and Radiation Exposure Between the Mini C-Arm and the Standard C-Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rappard, Juliaan R M; Hummel, Willy A; de Jong, Tijmen; Mouës, Chantal M

    2018-04-01

    The use of intraoperative fluoroscopy has become mandatory in osseous hand surgery. Due to its overall practicality, the mini C-arm has gained popularity among hand surgeons over the standard C-arm. This study compares image quality and radiation exposure for patient and staff between the mini C-arm and the standard C-arm, both with flat panel technology. An observer-based subjective image quality study was performed using a contrast detail (CD) phantom. Five independent observers were asked to determine the smallest circles discernable to them. The results were plotted in a graph, forming a CD curve. From each curve, an image quality figure (IQF) was derived. A lower IQF equates to a better image quality. The patients' entrance skin dose was measured, and to obtain more information about the staff exposure dose, a perspex hand phantom was used. The scatter radiation was measured at various distances and angles relative to a central point on the detector. The IQF was significantly lower for the mini C-arm resulting in a better image quality. The patients' entrance dose was 10 times higher for the mini C-arm as compared with the standard C-arm, and the scatter radiation threefold. Due to its improved image quality and overall practicality, the mini C-arm is recommended for hand surgical procedures. To ensure that the surgeons' radiation exposure is not exceeding the safety limits, monitoring radiation exposure using mini C-arms with flat panel technology during surgery should be done in a future clinical study.

  9. Unilateral versus bilateral robot-assisted rehabilitation on arm-trunk control and functions post stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Yi; Yang, Chieh-Ling; Chen, Ming-de; Lin, Keh-Chung; Wu, Li-Ling

    2013-04-12

    Although the effects of robot-assisted arm training after stroke are promising, the relative effects of unilateral (URT) vs. bilateral (BRT) robot-assisted arm training remain uncertain. This study compared the effects of URT vs. BRT on upper extremity (UE) control, trunk compensation, and function in patients with chronic stroke. This was a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. The intervention was implemented at 4 hospitals. Fifty-three patients with stroke were randomly assigned to URT, BRT, or control treatment (CT). Each group received UE training for 90 to 105 min/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks. The kinematic variables for arm motor control and trunk compensation included normalized movement time, normalized movement units, and the arm-trunk contribution slope in unilateral and bilateral tasks. Motor function and daily function were measured by the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and ABILHAND Questionnaire. The BRT and CT groups elicited significantly larger slope values (i.e., less trunk compensation) at the start of bilateral reaching than the URT group. URT led to significantly better effects on WMFT-Time than BRT. Differences in arm control kinematics and performance on the MAL and ABILHAND among the 3 groups were not significant. BRT and URT resulted in differential improvements in specific UE/trunk performance in patients with stroke. BRT elicited larger benefits than URT on reducing compensatory trunk movements at the beginning of reaching. In contrast, URT produced better improvements in UE temporal efficiency. These relative effects on movement kinematics, however, did not translate into differential benefits in daily functions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00917605.

  10. 'Arming the Rebels for Development': Parental Involvement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Arming the Rebels for Development': Parental Involvement among Fishing ... raise themselves or/and attach themselves to any other available authority. ... present or absent from school for the children is not always a question of lack of time; ...

  11. The Armed Force of the Philippines and Special Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    149 Abueva, J. (1971). Ramon Magsaysay: A Political Biography. Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House. (p. 180). 150...Biography. Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House. Armed Force of the Philippines Field Circular 3-7-1. (2001). Knowing the Terrorists: The Abu

  12. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    .... Congress has oversight of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), P.L. 96-8, which has governed arms sales to Taiwan since 1979, when the United States recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) instead of Taiwan...

  13. Development of the OPESCOPE mobile C-arm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hisao; Kadowaki, Toshio; Shimizu, Yasumitsu

    1994-01-01

    A new mobile C-arm X-ray fluoroscopy system called the 'OPESCOPE' equipped with a CCD TV camera and high-definition Image Intensifier has been developed. All the cables for the I.I. and X-ray generator are held inside the C-arm to prevent interference with operation and the C-arm is locked electromagnetically. Moreover, the C-arm is spring counterbalanced in the vertical motion axis. These features enable smooth positioning and uncluttered operation. The X-ray generator uses a high-frequency inverter designed to assure noiseless operation and a compact size. With the new DFS-700 videoprocessor unit being combined, clearer, more informative images can be obtained. In addition to its inherent portability this unit can be upgraded in DSA function to allow angiographic examinations in the surgical theater. (author)

  14. Beyond arms control? Looking for the lost paradigm.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, P.

    2002-01-01

    Since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the international relations have become more complex and the arms control concept, born during the cold war and implemented during the 3 last decades is today marking time. Disarmament and non-proliferation, which were the keystones of arms control and international negotiations, are today undergoing erosion. This article analyzes the change of situation between the end of the 20. century and the beginning of the 21. century. Three steps are defined by the author: a 'flux' step with the signature of a huge number of international agreements about non-proliferation and arms control, a stagnation step marked by the difficulties of implementing some of the existing treaties and by the violation by some states of some of them, and a 'reflux' step marked by a freezing up of the bilateral US-Russian disarmament process and a general renouncement of the multilateral arms control concept. (J.S.)

  15. 76 FR 46754 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... armed forces. The proposed sale of this equipment and support will not alter the basic military balance... support. (iv) Military Department: Navy (LAR) (v) Prior Related Cases: FMS case GAD-$6M-23Mar00 FMS case...

  16. Piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jianhua; Cui, Tianhong; Shao, Peige; Wang, Liding

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a new piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms. Serial bending arms are composed of two piezoelectric bimorphs with one end fixed and the other end free, driven by two signals of a biased square wave with a phase difference of pi/2. The free end of a cantilever arm will move along an elliptic orbit so that the cantilever is used to drive a cylinder rotor. The rotor's end surface contacts the free end of the cantilever, resulting in the rotor's rotation. There are six serial bending arms anchored on the base. The driving mechanism of the micromotor is proposed and analyzed. A new micromotor prototype, 5 mm in diameter, has been fabricated and characterized. The maximum rotational speed reaches 325 rpm, and the output torque is about 36.5 microNm.

  17. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to...

  18. High Performance Arm for an Exploration Space Suit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design (FFD) proposes to develop and deliver an advanced pressure garment arm with low torque and high Range of Motion (ROM), and increased...

  19. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    .... Although Russian observers believe that Washington did so because of these firms arms sales to Venezuela, these sales to such dangerous states oblige us to analyze the Russian defense export program...

  20. Test report light duty utility arm power distribution system (PDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Power Distribution System has completed vendor and post-delivery acceptance testing. The Power Distribution System has been found to be acceptable and is now ready for integration with the overall LDUA system

  1. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen

  2. Re-growth, morphogenesis and differentiation during starfish arm regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Khadra, Yousra Ben; Ferrario, Cinzia; Said, Khaled; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Bonasoro, Francesco; Candia Carnevali, M. Daniela; Sugni, Michela

    2015-01-01

    The red starfish Echinaster sepositus is an excellent model for studying arm regeneration processes following traumatic amputation. The initial repair phase was described in a previous paper in terms of the early cicatrisation phenomena, and tissue

  3. Overview of Actuated Arm Support Systems and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Lomonova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Arm support systems provide support throughout daily tasks, training or in an industrial environment. During the last decades a large diversity of actuated arm support systems have been developed. To analyze the actuation principles in these systems, an overview of actuated arm support systems is provided. This overview visualizes the current trends on research and development of these support systems and distinguishes three categories. These categories depend mainly on the functional status of the user environment, which defines the specifications. Therefore, the actuated arm support systems are classified according to their user environment, namely: ambulatory, rehabilitation and industrial. Furthermore, three main actuation principles and three mechanical construction principles have been identified.

  4. Facing the Future: Slovenian Armed Forces Officer Corps and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    United Nations WWW World Wide Web YPA Yugoslav People’s Army ix ILLUSTRATIONS Page Figure 1. Professional officer...and “profesionalni.” 56Anton Zabkar, “Ahilova Peta Sistema Izobrazevanja Castnikov (Razprava)” [The Achilles’ heels of the education system for SAF...Primerjalna Analiza Urejanja Sistema Plac Pripadnikov Obrambnih Sil” [Comparative analysis of salary systems of armed forces members], Slovenian Armed

  5. Swiss Armed Forces Reform: Doctrinal and Organizational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    conservatism and military innovation since this is where the essence of the Armed Forces resides. Sound doctrine and coherent organizations enables the...established doctrine can become part of the conservatism of the military institution. So the innovative capabilities of the military organization affect...in other fields. They challenged the inherent conservatism of the military institution. The down-sizing of the Armed Forces, the reduction of

  6. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    flights and tourism across the Taiwan Strait in July. While the resumption of the cross-strait dialogue for the first time in a decade was welcomed... Taiwan : Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990 Shirley A. Kan Specialist in Asian Security Affairs March 3, 2014 Congressional Research Service 7...number. 1. REPORT DATE 03 MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Taiwan : Major U.S. Arms

  7. Practical application with plc in manipulation of a robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Barz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a robotic arm PLC Siemens in order not using CNC commands. This is done by programming the PLC ladder diagram language that makes movement on the three axes of the arm by means of stepper motors. Required command console PLC is built with the help of a touch screen HMI Weintek. In the user interface are introduced distances and displacement speeds on the three axes.

  8. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  9. Arm to leg coordination in elite butterfly swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2006-04-01

    This study proposed the use of four time gaps to assess arm-to-leg coordination in the butterfly stroke at increasing race paces. Fourteen elite male swimmers swam at four velocities corresponding to the appropriate paces for, respectively, the 400-m, 200-m, 100-m, and 50-m events. The different stroke phases of the arm and leg were identified by video analysis and then used to calculate four time gaps (T1: time gap between entry of the hands in the water and the high break-even point of the first undulation; T2: time gap between the beginning of the hands' backward movement and the low break-even point of the first undulation; T3: time gap between the hands' arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders and the high break-even point of the second undulation; T4: time gap between the hands' release from the water and the low break-even point of the second undulation), the values of which described the changing relationship of arm to leg movements over an entire stroke cycle. With increases in pace, elite swimmers increased the stroke rate, the relative duration of the arm pull, the recovery and the first downward movement of the legs, and decreased the stroke length, the relative duration of the arm catch phase and the body glide with arms forward (measured by T2), until continuity in the propulsive actions was achieved. Whatever the paces, the T1, T3, and T4 values were close to zero and revealed a high degree of synchronisation at key motor points of the arm and leg actions. This new method to assess butterfly coordination could facilitate learning and coaching by situating the place of the leg undulation in relation with the arm stroke.

  10. 77 FR 46413 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-29] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...-$131.7M-15Jun10 FMS case ZUM-$32.1M-15Jun10 FMS case ULU-$150.3M-20Oct10 (vi) Sales Commission, Fee...

  11. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  12. Ray tracing reconstruction investigation for C-arm tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malalla, Nuhad A. Y.; Chen, Ying

    2016-04-01

    C-arm tomosynthesis is a three dimensional imaging technique. Both x-ray source and the detector are mounted on a C-arm wheeled structure to provide wide variety of movement around the object. In this paper, C-arm tomosynthesis was introduced to provide three dimensional information over a limited view angle (less than 180o) to reduce radiation exposure and examination time. Reconstruction algorithms based on ray tracing method such as ray tracing back projection (BP), simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) were developed for C-arm tomosynthesis. C-arm tomosynthesis projection images of simulated spherical object were simulated with a virtual geometric configuration with a total view angle of 40 degrees. This study demonstrated the sharpness of in-plane reconstructed structure and effectiveness of removing out-of-plane blur for each reconstruction algorithms. Results showed the ability of ray tracing based reconstruction algorithms to provide three dimensional information with limited angle C-arm tomosynthesis.

  13. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B

    1998-08-01

    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm.

  14. Evaluation of arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Leblanc, H; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2004-10-01

    This study proposes a new method to evaluate arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke. Five arm and leg stroke phases were defined with a velocity-video system. Five time gaps quantified the time between arm and leg actions during three paces of a race (200 m, 100 m and 50 m) in 16 top level swimmers. Based on these time gaps, effective glide, effective propulsion, effective leg insweep and effective recovery were used to identify the different stroke phases of the body. A faster pace corresponded to increased stroke rate, decreased stroke length, increased propulsive phases, shorter glide phases, and a shorter T1 time gap, which measured the effective body glide. The top level swimmers showed short time gaps (T2, T3, T4, measuring the timing of arm-leg recoveries), which reflected the continuity in arm and leg actions. The measurement of these time gaps thus provides a pertinent evaluation of swimmers' skill in adapting their arm-leg coordination to biomechanical constraints.

  15. Galaxy Zoo: constraining the origin of spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ross E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Keel, William C.; Kruk, Sandor J.; Masters, Karen L.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Smethurst, Rebecca J.

    2018-05-01

    Since the discovery that the majority of low-redshift galaxies exhibit some level of spiral structure, a number of theories have been proposed as to why these patterns exist. A popular explanation is a process known as swing amplification, yet there is no observational evidence to prove that such a mechanism is at play. By using a number of measured properties of galaxies, and scaling relations where there are no direct measurements, we model samples of SDSS and S4G spiral galaxies in terms of their relative halo, bulge and disc mass and size. Using these models, we test predictions of swing amplification theory with respect to directly measured spiral arm numbers from Galaxy Zoo 2. We find that neither a universal cored or cuspy inner dark matter profile can correctly predict observed numbers of arms in galaxies. However, by invoking a halo contraction/expansion model, a clear bimodality in the spiral galaxy population emerges. Approximately 40 per cent of unbarred spiral galaxies at z ≲ 0.1 and M* ≳ 1010M⊙ have spiral arms that can be modelled by swing amplification. This population display a significant correlation between predicted and observed spiral arm numbers, evidence that they are swing amplified modes. The remainder are dominated by two-arm systems for which the model predicts significantly higher arm numbers. These are likely driven by tidal interactions or other mechanisms.

  16. One arm exercise induces significant interarm diastolic blood pressure difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dezhi; Wang, Jiwei; Su, Hai; Xu, Jingsong; Liu, Yanna; Peng, Qiang; Wang, Lijuan

    2011-06-01

    This study is designed to investigate the inducing effect of one arm exercise on interarm difference (IAD) in the blood pressure (BP). Fifty healthy young participants were included in the study. Three-minute exercises of the right arm elbow flexion and extension were performed. The bilateral brachial BP was simultaneously measured with two automatic BP measurement devices before (basic) and immediately 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after exercise. The absolute difference in the systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) between the left and right BP of at least 10 mmHg was recognized as sIAD and dIAD. The baseline data of the SBP and DBP in left and right arms revealed no significant difference (SBP: 110 ± 10 vs. 111 ± 11 mmHg; DBP: 66 ± 8 vs. 66 ± 9 mmHg, both not significant). The prevalence of dIAD was 2% at the baseline. However, this prevalence increased to 80% at 0 min, as right arm exercise induced the right DBP decrease and left DBP increase, and then the prevalence decreased gradually within a 30-min recovery period. The prevalence of sIAD was zero at the baseline and the maximal prevalence was 8% during the 20-min postexercise period. One arm exercise can lead to a significant IAD in DBP. Any arm exercise should be avoided before BP measurement.

  17. Natural Resource Extraction, Armed Violence, and Environmental Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Bonds, Eric; Clark, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this article is to demonstrate that environmental sociologists cannot fully explain the relationship between humans and the natural world without theorizing a link between natural resource extraction, armed violence, and environmental degradation. The authors begin by arguing that armed violence is one of several overlapping mechanisms that provide powerful actors with the means to (a) prevail over others in conflicts over natural resources and (b) ensure that natural resources critical to industrial production and state power continue to be extracted and sold in sufficient quantities to promote capital accumulation, state power, and ecological unequal exchange. The authors then identify 10 minerals that are critical to the functioning of the U.S. economy and/or military and demonstrate that the extraction of these minerals often involves the use of armed violence. They further demonstrate that armed violence is associated with the activities of the world's three largest mining companies, with African mines that receive World Bank funding, and with petroleum and rainforest timber extraction. The authors conclude that the natural resource base on which industrial societies stand is constructed in large part through the use and threatened use of armed violence. As a result, armed violence plays a critical role in fostering environmental degradation and ecological unequal exchange.

  18. Nudging Armed Groups: How Civilians Transmit Norms of Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kaplan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What are the varying roles that norms play to either enable or constrain violence in armed conflict settings? The article examines this question by drawing on experiences from communities and armed groups in Colombia and Syria. It begins by presenting an explanation of how norms of violence and nonviolence may arise within communities and influence the behavior of civilian residents, reducing the chances of them becoming involved with armed groups. It then considers how civilian communities can transmit those same norms, shared understandings, and patterns of interaction to the ranks of illegal armed groups and subsequently shape their decisions about the use of violence against civilians. The author argues that civilians may be better positioned to promote the principles codified in International Humanitarian Law than international humanitarian organizations because they have closer contact with irregular armed actors and are viewed with greater legitimacy. The analysis illustrates that to better understand civilian protection mechanisms it is essential to study the interactions between communities and armed actors.

  19. Screened selection design for randomised phase II oncology trials: an example in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Christina; Pettitt, Andrew; Billingham, Lucinda

    2013-07-03

    As there are limited patients for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia trials, it is important that statistical methodologies in Phase II efficiently select regimens for subsequent evaluation in larger-scale Phase III trials. We propose the screened selection design (SSD), which is a practical multi-stage, randomised Phase II design for two experimental arms. Activity is first evaluated by applying Simon's two-stage design (1989) on each arm. If both are active, the play-the-winner selection strategy proposed by Simon, Wittes and Ellenberg (SWE) (1985) is applied to select the superior arm. A variant of the design, Modified SSD, also allows the arm with the higher response rates to be recommended only if its activity rate is greater by a clinically-relevant value. The operating characteristics are explored via a simulation study and compared to a Bayesian Selection approach. Simulations showed that with the proposed SSD, it is possible to retain the sample size as required in SWE and obtain similar probabilities of selecting the correct superior arm of at least 90%; with the additional attractive benefit of reducing the probability of selecting ineffective arms. This approach is comparable to a Bayesian Selection Strategy. The Modified SSD performs substantially better than the other designs in selecting neither arm if the underlying rates for both arms are desirable but equivalent, allowing for other factors to be considered in the decision making process. Though its probability of correctly selecting a superior arm might be reduced, it still performs reasonably well. It also reduces the probability of selecting an inferior arm. SSD provides an easy to implement randomised Phase II design that selects the most promising treatment that has shown sufficient evidence of activity, with available R codes to evaluate its operating characteristics.

  20. Defining and comparing learning actions in two simulation modalities: students training on a latex arm and each other's arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravik, Monika; Havnes, Anton; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2017-12-01

    To explore, describe and compare learning actions that nursing students used during peripheral vein cannulation training on a latex arm or each other's arms in a clinical skills centre. Simulation-based training is thought to enhance learning and transfer of learning from simulation to the clinical setting and is commonly recommended in nursing education. What students actually are doing during simulation-based training is, however, less explored. The analysis of learning actions used during simulation-based training could contribute to development and improvement of simulation as a learning strategy in nursing education. A qualitative explorative and descriptive research design, involving content analysis of video recordings, was used. Video-supported observation of nine nursing students practicing vein cannulation was conducted in a clinical skills centre in late 2012. The students engaged in various learning actions. Students training on a latex arm used a considerably higher number of learning actions relative to those training on each other's arms. In both groups, students' learning actions consisted mainly of seeking and giving support. The teacher provided students training on each other's arms with detailed feedback regarding insertion of the cannula into the vein, while those training on a latex arm received sparse feedback from the teacher and fellow students. The teacher played an important role in facilitating nursing students' practical skill learning during simulation. The provision of support from both teachers and students should be emphasised to ensure that nursing students' learning needs are met. This study suggest that student nurses may be differently and inadequately prepared in peripheral vein cannulation in two simulation modalities used in the academic setting; training on a latex arm and on each other's arms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.