WorldWideScience

Sample records for chromosomes share common

  1. Genes on chromosomes 4, 9, and 19 involved in 11q23 abnormalities in acute leukemia share sequence homology and/or common motifs.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, T.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Alder, H; Y. Gu; R. Prasad; Canaani, O; Kamada, N; Gale, R P; Lange, B; Crist, W M; Nowell, P C

    1993-01-01

    Chromosome translocations involving band 11q23 are associated with human acute leukemias. These translocations fuse the ALL-1 gene, homolog of Drosophila trithorax and located at chromosome band 11q23, to genes from a variety of chromosomes. We cloned and sequenced cDNAs derived from transcripts of the AF-4 and AF-9 genes involved in the most common chromosome abnormalities, t(4:11)(q21:q23) and t(9:11)(p22:q23), respectively. Sequence analysis indicates high homology between the AF-9 gene pr...

  2. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  3. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in common variable immune deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorechovsky, Igor (Karolinska Institute, Center for BioTechnology, Huddinge (Sweden)); Scott, David (Cancer Research Campaign Department of Cancer Genetics, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)); Haeney, Mansel R. (Department of Immunology, Hope Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)); Webster, David A.B. (Clinical Research Centre, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom))

    1993-12-01

    From more than 500 tumours reported in human primary immune deficiencies a majority has been observed in two disorders: ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) and common variable immune deficiency (CVID). Since both diseases have an increased risk of lymphomas/leukaemias and gastrointestinal tumours, suggesting a common risk factor, and the cells derived from A-T patients exhibit an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity we analysed chromosome damage in the G[sub 2] lymphocytes of 24 CVID patients and 21 controls after X-irradiation in vitro. There was a significant difference in mean aberration yields between patients and controls. Three CVID patients had yields higher than the mean+3SD of the controls. Six patients but only one control had yields higher than the mean+2SD of controls. The patient with the highest chromosomal radiosensitivity subsequently developed a lymphoma. Repeat assays on the same blood sample, with a 24-h delay in setting up the second culture, showed as much variability for control donors as the variation between control donors although for CVID patients inter-individual variation was greater than the difference between results of repeat samples. There was a weak positive correlation between radiosensitivity and age of donor. Chromosomal radiosensitivity of five patients with X-linked hypogammaglobulinaemia was not different from healthy donors. The mean mitotic index (MI) for unirradiated samples from CVID patients was significantly lower than for controls and there was an inverse relationship between MI and aberration yields in the patients, but not in controls. We suggest that the defect in CVID patients that reduces response to mitogenic stimuli may have mechanism(s) in common with those involved in cellular repair processes.

  4. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H

    2013-01-01

    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat. PMID:23884766

  5. Communication and Output Sharing in Common Pool Resource Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Neil J.; Stuart Mestelman; R. Andrew Muller; Stephan Schott; Jingjing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    We study cheap-talk communication in common pool resource environments with and without output-sharing groups. Communication in groups of 12 does not improve efficiency over the non-cooperative Nash outcome without communication. Organizing subjects into output-sharing groups of four players introduces sufficient free-riding incentives to achieve full efficiency. Within-group communication decreases efficiency by countervailing the free-riding incentives induced by output sharing and enhancin...

  6. Dissection and cytological mapping of barley chromosome 2H in the genetic background of common wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Giri Prasad; Nasuda, Shuhei; Endo, Takashi R.

    2011-01-01

    We used gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes 2C and 3C[SAT] to dissect barley 2H added to common wheat. The Gc chromosome induces chromosomal breakage resulting in chromosomal aberrations in the progeny of the 2H addition line of common wheat carrying the monosomic Gc chromosome. We conducted in situ hybridization to select plants carrying structurally rearranged aberrant 2H chromosomes and characterized them by sequential C-banding and in situ hybridization. We established 66 dissection lines of com...

  7. Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Haber

    Full Text Available Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.

  8. A common allele on chromosome 9 associated with coronary heartdisease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Ruth; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Kavaslar, Nihan; Stewart, Alexandre; Roberts, Robert; Cox, David R.; Hinds, David; Pennachio, Len; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Folsom, Aaron R.; Boerwinkle,Eric; Hobbs, Helen H.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2007-03-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of death in Western countries. Here we used genome-wide association scanning to identify a 58 kb interval on chromosome 9 that was consistently associated with CHD in six independent samples. The interval contains no annotated genes and is not associated with established CHD risk factors such as plasma lipoproteins, hypertension or diabetes. Homozygotes for the risk allele comprise 20-25% of Caucasians and have a {approx}30-40% increased risk of CHD. These data indicate that the susceptibility allele acts through a novel mechanism to increase CHD risk in a large fraction of the population.

  9. The Staurotypus turtles and aves share the same origin of sex chromosomes but evolved different types of heterogametic sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki Kawagoshi

    Full Text Available Reptiles have a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms and types of sex chromosomes. Turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination and genotypic sex determination, with male heterogametic (XX/XY and female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes. Identification of sex chromosomes in many turtle species and their comparative genomic analysis are of great significance to understand the evolutionary processes of sex determination and sex chromosome differentiation in Testudines. The Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus, Kinosternidae, Testudines and the giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii have heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes with a low degree of morphological differentiation; however, their origin and linkage group are still unknown. Cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis revealed that the X and Y chromosomes of S. triporcatus have homology with P. sinensis chromosome 6, which corresponds to the chicken Z chromosome. We cloned cDNA fragments of S. triporcatus homologs of 16 chicken Z-linked genes and mapped them to S. triporcatus and S. salvinii chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sixteen genes were localized to the X and Y long arms in the same order in both species. The orders were also almost the same as those of the ostrich (Struthio camelus Z chromosome, which retains the primitive state of the avian ancestral Z chromosome. These results strongly suggest that the X and Y chromosomes of Staurotypus turtles are at a very early stage of sex chromosome differentiation, and that these chromosomes and the avian ZW chromosomes share the same origin. Nonetheless, the turtles and birds acquired different systems of heterogametic sex determination during their evolution.

  10. Explaining Common Variance Shared by Early Numeracy and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidse, N. J.; De Jong, M. T.; Bus, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    How can it be explained that early literacy and numeracy share variance? We specifically tested whether the correlation between four early literacy skills (rhyming, letter knowledge, emergent writing, and orthographic knowledge) and simple sums (non-symbolic and story condition) reduced after taking into account preschool attention control,…

  11. The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharo Elizabeth A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A. Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Results Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1 and early lactation (Phase 2A. The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI, spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5 genes. Conclusions Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species.

  12. Hereditary optic neuropathies share a common mitochondrial coupling defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrollier, Arnaud; Guillet, Virginie; Loiseau, Dominique; Gueguen, Naïg; de Crescenzo, Marie-Anne Pou; Verny, Christophe; Ferre, Marc; Dollfus, Hélène; Odent, Sylvie; Milea, Dan; Goizet, Cyril; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Procaccio, Vincent; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal

    2008-06-01

    Hereditary optic neuropathies are heterogeneous diseases characterized by the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells leading to optic nerve atrophy and impairment of central vision. We found a common coupling defect of oxidative phosphorylation in fibroblasts of patients affected by autosomal dominant optic atrophy (mutations of OPA1), autosomal dominant optic atrophy associated with cataract (mutations of OPA3), and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, a disorder associated with point mutations of mitochondrial DNA complex I genes. Interestingly, the energetic defect was significantly more pronounced in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy patients with a more complex phenotype, the so-called plus phenotype.

  13. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  14. Song type sharing in common nightingales, Luscinia megarhynchos, and its implications for cultural evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprau, P.; Mundry, R.

    2010-01-01

    The sharing of song types between males of the same local population is a common phenomenon in some songbird species. One presumed advantage of such sharing is that it enables ‘song matching’ (i.e. responding to an interactant with the song he just sang or another song of the interactant’s repertoir

  15. The 'atom-splitting' moment of synthetic biology: Nuclear physics and synthetic biology share common features

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Alex J; Kleinert, Aleysia; Verdier, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology and nuclear physics share many commonalities in terms of public perception and funding. Synthetic biologists could learn valuable lessons from the history of the atomic bomb and nuclear power.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng 6Ns chromosome addition in common wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Du

    Full Text Available The development of alien addition lines is important for transferring useful genes from exotic species into common wheat. A hybrid of common wheat cv. 7182 (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD and Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs via embryo culture produced the novel intergeneric disomic addition line 59-11. The seed morphology of 59-11 resembled the parent 7182 and it exhibited extreme agronomic characteristics, i.e., twin stable spikelets, fertile florets, and multi-kernel clusters. Furthermore, 59-11 produced plump kernels with a high seed-setting percentage during the advanced maturation stage. The line was screened based on genomic in situ hybridization, EST-SSR, EST-STS, and gliadin to identify P. huashanica chromatin in the wheat background. The chromosome number and configuration of 59-11 was 2n = 44 = 22 II and we confirmed the 6Ns disomic chromosome additions based on A-PAGE analysis and molecular markers. The results suggested that the production of twin spikelets and multiple kernels per spike in the wheat-P. huashanica addition line was related to homologous group 6 in the wheat chromosome. This is the first report of the introduction of improved spike traits into common wheat from the alien species P. huashanica and it opens up the possibility of increasing the wheat yield based on this enlarged gene pool.

  17. Knowledge Sharing for Common Understanding of Technical Specifications Through Artifactual Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    empirical knowledge about the key reasons and practices of using artifacts in GSD for knowledge sharing to support common understanding of technical specifications. Objective: This study aims at empirically studying the key motivators, practices, and drawbacks of artifact-based knowledge sharing......Context: Software engineering is a knowledge intensive activity that is supported by documenting and sharing the required knowledge through a wide variety of artifacts. Global Software Development (GSD) teams heavily rely on artifacts as a vital means of knowledge sharing. However, there is little...... for achieving common understanding of technical specifications in the context of GSD. Method: We conducted an exploratory case study in an organization that was involved in several GSD projects. Results: Our findings revealed the key challenges that necessitated the use of artifacts for sharing technical...

  18. Identification of candidate driver genes in common focal chromosomal aberrations of microsatellite stable colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Burghel

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chromosomal instability (CIN is a major driving force of microsatellite stable (MSS sporadic CRC. CIN tumours are characterised by a large number of somatic chromosomal copy number aberrations (SCNA that frequently affect oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. The main aim of this work was to identify novel candidate CRC driver genes affected by recurrent and focal SCNA. High resolution genome-wide comparative genome hybridisation (CGH arrays were used to compare tumour and normal DNA for 53 sporadic CRC cases. Context corrected common aberration (COCA analysis and custom algorithms identified 64 deletions and 32 gains of focal minimal common regions (FMCR at high frequency (>10%. Comparison of these FMCR with published genomic profiles from CRC revealed common overlap (42.2% of deletions and 34.4% of copy gains. Pathway analysis showed that apoptosis and p53 signalling pathways were commonly affected by deleted FMCR, and MAPK and potassium channel pathways by gains of FMCR. Candidate tumour suppressor genes in deleted FMCR included RASSF3, IFNAR1, IFNAR2 and NFKBIA and candidate oncogenes in gained FMCR included PRDM16, TNS1, RPA3 and KCNMA1. In conclusion, this study confirms some previously identified aberrations in MSS CRC and provides in silico evidence for some novel candidate driver genes.

  19. Identification of Candidate Driver Genes in Common Focal Chromosomal Aberrations of Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghel, George J.; Lin, Wei-Yu; Whitehouse, Helen; Brock, Ian; Hammond, David; Bury, Jonathan; Stephenson, Yvonne; George, Rina; Cox, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a major driving force of microsatellite stable (MSS) sporadic CRC. CIN tumours are characterised by a large number of somatic chromosomal copy number aberrations (SCNA) that frequently affect oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. The main aim of this work was to identify novel candidate CRC driver genes affected by recurrent and focal SCNA. High resolution genome-wide comparative genome hybridisation (CGH) arrays were used to compare tumour and normal DNA for 53 sporadic CRC cases. Context corrected common aberration (COCA) analysis and custom algorithms identified 64 deletions and 32 gains of focal minimal common regions (FMCR) at high frequency (>10%). Comparison of these FMCR with published genomic profiles from CRC revealed common overlap (42.2% of deletions and 34.4% of copy gains). Pathway analysis showed that apoptosis and p53 signalling pathways were commonly affected by deleted FMCR, and MAPK and potassium channel pathways by gains of FMCR. Candidate tumour suppressor genes in deleted FMCR included RASSF3, IFNAR1, IFNAR2 and NFKBIA and candidate oncogenes in gained FMCR included PRDM16, TNS1, RPA3 and KCNMA1. In conclusion, this study confirms some previously identified aberrations in MSS CRC and provides in silico evidence for some novel candidate driver genes. PMID:24367615

  20. Four distinct alpha satellite subfamilies shared by human chromosomes 13, 14 and 21.

    OpenAIRE

    Vissel, B; Choo, K H

    1991-01-01

    We describe the characterisation of four alpha satellite sequences which are found on a subset of the human acrocentric chromosomes. Direct sequence study, and analysis of somatic cell hybrids carrying specific human chromosomes indicate a unique 'higher-order structure' for each of the four sequences, suggesting that they belong to different subfamilies of alpha DNA. Under very high stringency of Southern hybridisation conditions, all four subfamilies were detected on chromosomes 13, 14 and ...

  1. Revitalization of the shared commons: education for sustainability and marginalized cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, George E.

    2010-06-01

    Education for sustainability provides a vision for revitalizing the environmental commons while preserving cultural traditions and human rights. What happens if the environmental commons is shared by two politically disparate and conflicting cultures? As in many shared common lands, what happens if one culture is dominant and represents a more affluent society with more resources and educational opportunities? In the case of the Tal and Alkaher study (Cult Stud Sci Edu, 2009), asymmetric power differences between the dominant Israeli society and the minority Arab population yielded different environmental narratives and perceptions of students involved in learning about a mediated conflict in national park land. Similarly, marginalized indigenous cultures in Malawi, Africa share common lands with the dominant European landowners but have distinctly different environmental narratives. Although indigenous ways of living with nature contribute to the sustainability of the environment and culture, African funds of knowledge are conspicuously absent from the Eurocentric school science curriculum. In contrast, examples of experiential learning and recent curriculum development efforts in sustainability science in Malawi are inclusive of indigenous knowledge and practices and are essential for revitalizing the shared commons.

  2. Search for common haplotypes on chromosome 22q in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, A.D; Mors, O;

    2002-01-01

    Islands were typed for 35 evenly distributed polymorphic markers on 22q in a search for shared risk genes in the two disorders. No single marker was strongly associated with either disease, but five two-marker segments that cluster within two regions on the chromosome have haplotypes occurring...

  3. Microdissection of additional chromosome in common wheat-Th. intermedium TAI-27 and screening of its special probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田靫; 卢一凡; 邓继先; 李滨; 张学勇; 刘广田

    2000-01-01

    It was identified that there were 4 St chromosomes derived from Th, intermedium in common wheat-Th. intermedium alien additional line TAI-27 by in situ hybridization. Two St chromosomes added to wheat chromosome in TAI-27 as well as two of them replaced two of 42 in wheat chromosomes. This indicates that TAI-27 is not only an alien additional line, but also a replacing line. The additional chromosomes in TAI-27 were microdissected and a microcloning library was constructed. A special probe of Th. intermedium was obtained from a microcloning library. The sequence analysis indicated that there were no homology with Genebank data. This makes it possible to screen genes with the disease-resistance, adversity-tolerance and fine character from Th.intermedium.

  4. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Nadjafova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetical and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011. However, rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists.It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008.

  5. Spontaneous and divergent hexaploid triticales derived from common wheat × rye by complete elimination of D-genome chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale.Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L. × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L. were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales.This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, "genome shock" was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced.

  6. No evidence for shared genetic basis of common variants in multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, An; van Setten, Jessica; Diekstra, Frank; Ripke, Stephan; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Sawcer, Stephen J.; van Es, Michael; Andersen, Peter M.; Melki, Judith; Meininger, Vincent; Hardiman, Orla; Landers, John E.; Brown, Robert H.; Shatunov, Aleksey; Leigh, Nigel; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Chiò, Adriano; Restagno, Gabriella; Mora, Gabriele; Ophoff, Roel A.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Van Damme, Philip; Compston, Alastair; Robberecht, Wim; Dubois, Bénédicte; van den Berg, Leonard H.; De Jager, Philip L.; Veldink, Jan H.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have been successful in identifying common variants that influence the susceptibility to complex diseases. From these studies, it has emerged that there is substantial overlap in susceptibility loci between diseases. In line with those findings, we hypothesized that shared genetic pathways may exist between multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While both diseases may have inflammatory and neurodegenerative features, epidemiological studies have indicated an increased co-occurrence within individuals and families. To this purpose, we combined genome-wide data from 4088 MS patients, 3762 ALS patients and 12 030 healthy control individuals in whom 5 440 446 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were successfully genotyped or imputed. We tested these SNPs for the excess association shared between MS and ALS and also explored whether polygenic models of SNPs below genome-wide significance could explain some of the observed trait variance between diseases. Genome-wide association meta-analysis of SNPs as well as polygenic analyses fails to provide evidence in favor of an overlap in genetic susceptibility between MS and ALS. Hence, our findings do not support a shared genetic background of common risk variants in MS and ALS. PMID:24234648

  7. Dissecting the correlation structure of a bivariate phenotype: common genes or shared environment?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saurabh Ghosh

    2005-08-01

    High correlations between two quantitative traits may be either due to common genetic factors or common environmental factors or a combination of both. In this study, we develop statistical methods to extract the genetic contribution to the total correlation between the components of a bivariate phenotype. Using data on bivariate phenotypes and marker genotypes for sib-pairs, we propose a test for linkage between a common QTL and a marker locus based on the conditional cross-sib trait correlations (trait 1 of sib 1 – trait 2 of sib 2 and conversely) given the identity-by-descent (i.b.d.) sharing at the marker locus. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed test under different trait parameters and quantitative trait distributions. An application of the method is illustrated using data on two alcohol-related phenotypes from a project on the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism.

  8. Structure, organization, and sequence of alpha satellite DNA from human chromosome 17: evidence for evolution by unequal crossing-over and an ancestral pentamer repeat shared with the human X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, J S; Willard, H F

    1986-09-01

    The centromeric regions of all human chromosomes are characterized by distinct subsets of a diverse tandemly repeated DNA family, alpha satellite. On human chromosome 17, the predominant form of alpha satellite is a 2.7-kilobase-pair higher-order repeat unit consisting of 16 alphoid monomers. We present the complete nucleotide sequence of the 16-monomer repeat, which is present in 500 to 1,000 copies per chromosome 17, as well as that of a less abundant 15-monomer repeat, also from chromosome 17. These repeat units were approximately 98% identical in sequence, differing by the exclusion of precisely 1 monomer from the 15-monomer repeat. Homologous unequal crossing-over is suggested as a probable mechanism by which the different repeat lengths on chromosome 17 were generated, and the putative site of such a recombination event is identified. The monomer organization of the chromosome 17 higher-order repeat unit is based, in part, on tandemly repeated pentamers. A similar pentameric suborganization has been previously demonstrated for alpha satellite of the human X chromosome. Despite the organizational similarities, substantial sequence divergence distinguishes these subsets. Hybridization experiments indicate that the chromosome 17 and X subsets are more similar to each other than to the subsets found on several other human chromosomes. We suggest that the chromosome 17 and X alpha satellite subsets may be related components of a larger alphoid subfamily which have evolved from a common ancestral repeat into the contemporary chromosome-specific subsets.

  9. Insights into the evolution of mammalian telomerase: Platypus TERT shares similarities with genes of birds and other reptiles and localizes on sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrdličková Radmila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TERT gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the telomerase complex and is responsible for maintaining telomere length. Vertebrate telomerase has been studied in eutherian mammals, fish, and the chicken, but less attention has been paid to other vertebrates. The platypus occupies an important evolutionary position, providing unique insight into the evolution of mammalian genes. We report the cloning of a platypus TERT (OanTERT ortholog, and provide a comparison with genes of other vertebrates. Results The OanTERT encodes a protein with a high sequence similarity to marsupial TERT and avian TERT. Like the TERT of sauropsids and marsupials, as well as that of sharks and echinoderms, OanTERT contains extended variable linkers in the N-terminal region suggesting that they were present already in basal vertebrates and lost independently in ray-finned fish and eutherian mammals. Several alternatively spliced OanTERT variants structurally similar to avian TERT variants were identified. Telomerase activity is expressed in all platypus tissues like that of cold-blooded animals and murine rodents. OanTERT was localized on pseudoautosomal regions of sex chromosomes X3/Y2, expanding the homology between human chromosome 5 and platypus sex chromosomes. Synteny analysis suggests that TERT co-localized with sex-linked genes in the last common mammalian ancestor. Interestingly, female platypuses express higher levels of telomerase in heart and liver tissues than do males. Conclusions OanTERT shares many features with TERT of the reptilian outgroup, suggesting that OanTERT represents the ancestral mammalian TERT. Features specific to TERT of eutherian mammals have, therefore, evolved more recently after the divergence of monotremes.

  10. Search for a shared segment on chromosome 10q26 in patients with bipolar affective disorder or schizophrenia from the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, Henrik; Flint, Tracey J; Jorgensen, Tove H;

    2002-01-01

    Previous linkage studies have suggested a new locus for bipolar affective disorder and possibly also for schizophrenia on chromosome 10q26. We searched for allelic association and chromosome segment and haplotype sharing on chromosome 10q26 among distantly related patients with bipolar affective ...... in patients with bipolar affective disorder was supported by Fisher's exact test, tests based on genealogy and by haplotype data mining. Our findings yield some support for a risk gene for bipolar affective disorder and possibly also for schizophrenia....... yielded empirical P-values around 0.003 at marker D10S1723. A haplotype data mining approach supported haplotype sharing in this region. In another, more distal, 11.5 cM region between markers D10S214 and D10S505, which has received support in previous linkage studies, increased haplotype sharing...

  11. Identification of RAPD Marker for Chromosome 1D of Common Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmad Khan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of genetically compensating nullisomic-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines of commonwheat (Triticum aestivum L. have been widely used to construct high density genetic maps of homoeologouswheat chromosomes. During present research, easier, cheaper and quicker procedure of Polymerase ChainReaction (PCR was used to map Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA primers on chromosome 1D ofcommon wheat. Genomic DNA was isolated from two genetic stocks of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring viz;NT-1D1B and NT-2A2B. PCR were conducted using RAPD primers GLC-07 and GLC-11. RAPD primerGLC-11 amplified a polymorphic allele of approximately 500 bp, which was present in NT-2A2B (used aspositive control but was absent in NT-1D1B indicating that the locus is present on chromosome 1D of commonwheat. Hence this marker (GLC-11 can reliably be used to keep track of chromosome 1D of hexaploid wheat.

  12. Developmental delay and connective tissue disorder in four patients sharing a common microdeletion at 6q13-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esch, Hilde; Rosser, Elisabeth M; Janssens, Sandra; Van Ingelghem, Ingrid; Loeys, Bart; Menten, Bjorn

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are rare, and most reported cases represent large, cytogenetically detectable deletions. The implementation of array comparative genome hybridisation in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with congenital disorders, including developmental delay, has enabled identification of many patients with smaller chromosomal imbalances. In this report, the cases are presented of four patients with a de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 6q13-14, resulting in a common microdeletion of 3.7 Mb. All presented with developmental delay, mild dysmorphism and signs of lax connective tissue. Interestingly, the common deleted region harbours 16 genes, of which COL12A1 is a good candidate for the connective tissue pathology.

  13. Characterization of Common Chromosomal Translocations and Their Frequencies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients of Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Amanollahi Kamaneh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Detection of chromosomal translocations has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of hematological disorders. We aimed to evaluate the 46 new cases of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients for common translocations and to assess the effect of geographic and ethnic differences on their frequencies. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used on 46 fresh bone marrow or peripheral blood samples to detect translocations t (8; 21, t (15; 17, t (9; 11 and inv (16. Patients were classified using the French-American-British (FAB criteria in to eight sub-groups (M0-M7. Immunophenotyping and biochemical test results of patients were compared with RT-PCR results. Results: Our patients were relatively young with a mean age of 44 years. AML was relatively predominant in female patients (54.3% and most of patients belonged to AML-M2. Translocation t (8; 21 had the highest frequency (13% and t (15; 17 with 2.7% incidence was the second most frequent. CD19 as an immunophenotypic marker was at a relatively high frequency (50% in cases with t (8; 21, and patients with this translocation had a specific immunophenotypic pattern of complete expression of CD45, CD38, CD34, CD33 and HLA-DR. Conclusion: Similarities and differences of results in Iran with different parts of the world can be explained with ethnic and geographic factors in characterizations of AML. Recognition of these factors especially in other comprehensive studies may aid better diagnosis and management of this disease.

  14. Identification of Candidate Driver Genes in Common Focal Chromosomal Aberrations of Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Burghel, George J.; Wei-Yu Lin; Helen Whitehouse; Ian Brock; David Hammond; Jonathan Bury; Yvonne Stephenson; Rina George; Angela Cox

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a major driving force of microsatellite stable (MSS) sporadic CRC. CIN tumours are characterised by a large number of somatic chromosomal copy number aberrations (SCNA) that frequently affect oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. The main aim of this work was to identify novel candidate CRC driver genes affected by recurrent and focal SCNA. High resolution genome-wide comparative genome hy...

  15. Characterization of FRA7B, a human common fragile site mapped at the 7p chromosome terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Nazario; Pelliccia, Franca; Rocchi, Angela

    2010-10-01

    Common fragile sites (CFS) are specific regions of the mammalian chromosomes that are particularly prone to gaps and breaks. They are a cause of genome instability, and the location of many CFS correlates with breakpoints of aberrations recurrent in some cancers. The molecular characterization of some CFS has not clarified the causes of their fragility. In this work, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with BAC and PAC clones, we determined the DNA sequence of the CFS FRA7B. The FRA7B sequence was then analyzed to identify coding sequences and some structural features possibly involved in fragility. FRA7B spans about 12.2 megabases, and is therefore one of the largest CFS analyzed. It maps at the 7p21.3-22.3 chromosome bands, therefore at the interface of G- and R-band regions that are probably difficult to replicate. A 90-kilobase long sequence that presents very high flexibility values was identified at the very beginning of the more fragile CFS region. Three large genes (THSD7A, SDK1, and MAD1L1) and two miRNA genes (MIRN589 and MIRN339) map in the fragile region. The chromosome band 7p22 is a recurrent breakpoint in chromosome abnormalities in different types of neoplasm. FRA7B is the first characterized CFS located in a chromosome terminal region.

  16. Sharing common pool resources at the border of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-IRINA DINCA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The common pool resources are a very actual topic a pproached by both scientists and practitioners preoccupied nowadays of gradually incr easing environmental problems. Protected areas in Romania and especially in Romanian Carpath ians of national and natural park type (IUCN II and V represent areas of particular interes t in the light of the common pool resources theory imposing conservation laws on areas meeting a n increased pressure from human communities around them. The important socio-econom ic and ownership changes that Romania met in the last decades changed its previous state unique ownership into a multiple stakeholder ownership. At the same time vulnerable human communi ties located in fragile mountain areas and depending to a high extent on natural resources met an increased stress when exploiting natural resources at the border of protected areas. Consequently sharing the common pool of resources in the buffer zone of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians represents a very actual and important topic to be treated in the pre sent study.

  17. Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

  18. Asymptotic stability of tri-trophic food chains sharing a common resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoč, Ivo; Křivan, Vlastimil

    2015-12-01

    One of the key results of the food web theory states that the interior equilibrium of a tri-trophic food chain described by the Lotka-Volterra type dynamics is globally asymptotically stable whenever it exists. This article extends this result to food webs consisting of several food chains sharing a common resource. A Lyapunov function for such food webs is constructed and asymptotic stability of the interior equilibrium is proved. Numerical simulations show that as the number of food chains increases, the real part of the leading eigenvalue, while still negative, approaches zero. Thus the resilience of such food webs decreases with the number of food chains in the web. PMID:26498384

  19. Seed storage proteins of spermatophytes share a common ancestor with desiccation proteins of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumlein, H; Braun, H; Kakhovskaya, I A; Shutov, A D

    1995-12-01

    The legumin- and vicilin-like seed storage globulins of spermatophytes are specifically accumulated during embryogenesis and seed development. Previous studies have shown that a precursor common to both legumin and vicilin genes might have evolved by duplication from a single-domain ancestral gene. We here report that amino acid sequences of legumin and vicilin domains share statistically significant similarity to the germination-specific germins of wheat as well as to the spherulation-specific spherulins of myxomycetes. This conclusion is further supported by the derived intron-exon structure of a spherulin gene. Spherulins are thought to be involved in tissue desiccation or hydration. It is suggested that the present-day seed globulins of spermatophytes have evolved from a group of ancient proteins functional in cellular desiccation/hydration processes.

  20. On the capacity of multiple cognitive links through common relay under spectrum-sharing constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we consider an underlay cognitive relaying network consisting of multiple secondary users and introduce a cooperative transmission protocol using a common relay to help with the communications between all secondary source-destination pairs for higher throughput and lower realization complexity. A whole relay-assisted transmission procedure is composed of multiple access phase and broadcast phase, where the relay is equipped with multiple antennas, and the secondary sources and destinations are single-antenna nodes. Considering the spectrum-sharing constraints on the secondary sources and the relay, we analyze the capacity behaviors of the underlay cognitive relaying network under study. The corresponding numerical results provide a convenient tool for the presented network design and substantiate a distinguishing feature of introduced design in that multiple secondary users\\' communications do not rely on multiple relays, hence allowing for a more efficient use of the radio resources. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Relating numeric cognition and language processing: do numbers and words share a common representational platform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmair, Martin; Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Numerical processing and language processing are both grounded in space. In the present study we investigated whether these are fully independent phenomena, or whether they share a common basis. If number processing activates spatial dimensions that are also relevant for understanding words, then we can expect that processing numbers may influence subsequent lexical access to words. Specifically, if high numbers relate to upper space, then they can be expected to facilitate understanding of words such as bird that are having referents typically found in the upper vertical space. The opposite should hold for low numbers. These should facilitate the understanding of words such as ground referring to entities with referents in the lower vertical space. Indeed, in two experiments we found evidence for such an interaction between number and word processing. By eliminating a contribution of linguistic factors gained from additional investigations on large text corpora, this strongly suggests that understanding numbers and language is based on similar modal representations in the brain. The implications of these findings for a broader perspective on grounded cognition will be discussed.

  2. Chromatin remodeling of human subtelomeres and TERRA promoters upon cellular senescence: commonalities and differences between chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Peter E; Tobi, Elmar W; Balog, Judit; Schouten, Suzanne G; Kremer, Dennis; El Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Henneman, Peter; Putter, Hein; Eline Slagboom, P; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2013-05-01

    Subtelomeres are patchworks of evolutionary conserved sequence blocks and harbor the transcriptional start sites for telomere repeat containing RNAs (TERRA). Recent studies suggest that the interplay between telomeres and subtelomeric chromatin is required for maintaining telomere function. To further characterize chromatin remodeling of subtelomeres in relation to telomere shortening and cellular senescence, we systematically quantified histone modifications and DNA methylation at the subtelomeres of chromosomes 7q and 11q in primary human WI-38 fibroblasts. Upon senescence, both subtelomeres were characterized by a decrease in markers of constitutive heterochromatin, suggesting relative chromatin relaxation. However, we did not find increased levels of markers of euchromatin or derepression of the 7q VIPR2 gene. The repressed state of the subtelomeres was maintained upon senescence, which could be attributed to a rise in levels of facultative heterochromatin markers at both subtelomeres. While senescence-induced subtelomeric chromatin remodeling was similar for both chromosomes, chromatin remodeling at TERRA promoters displayed chromosome-specific patterns. At the 7q TERRA promoter, chromatin structure was co-regulated with the more proximal subtelomere. In contrast, the 11q TERRA promoter, which was previously shown to be bound by CCCTC-binding factor CTCF, displayed lower levels of markers of constitutive heterochromatin that did not change upon senescence, whereas levels of markers of facultative heterochromatin decreased upon senescence. In line with the chromatin state data, transcription of 11q TERRA but not 7q TERRA was detected. Our study provides a detailed description of human subtelomeric chromatin dynamics and shows distinct regulation of the TERRA promoters of 7q and 11q upon cellular senescence.

  3. Effects on Genome Constitution and Novel Cell Wall Formation Caused by the Addition of 5RS Rye Chromosome to Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Cheng; Minoru Murata; Sodmergen; Xiao-Mei Li; Hai Nian; Jian-Min Wan

    2008-01-01

    The cytological instability of common wheat-rye addition lines was investigated in the present study. The chromosome numbers of almost all addition lines were considerably stable, but those of CS + 5R were very variable. The rye chromosome added in this line was found to be much shorter than expected. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 5S rDNA and the centromere-specific probes clearly revealed that the short rye chromosome contains only a short arm of chromosome 5R (5RS). In this line, chromosome numbers of both 5RS and common wheat were changeable. The chromosome numbers ranged from 2n = 36 to 2n = 44 in the cells carrying two 5RS, and ranged from 2n = 31 to 2n = 44 in one 5RS cells. In addition to the chromosome instability, the multicells wrapped in a sac-like structure were frequently observed in the root meristematic tissues of CS + 5RS after the enzyme treatment for chromosome preparation. Genomic in situ hybridization with rye DNA as a probe showed that all cells in sacs investigated were at the interphase stage and contained one or two 5RS chromosomes. An electron microscopic analysis revealed that the cells of CS + 5RS, particularly in sacs, have abnormal (irregular and curved) cell walls. These results indicate that 5RS has (a) specific factor(s) influencing the cell wall development as well as the genome stability.

  4. Turkish and Japanese Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineages share a remote common ancestor

    KAUST Repository

    Refregier, Guislaine

    2016-10-14

    Two geographically distant M. tuberculosis sublineages, Tur from Turkey and T3-Osaka from Japan, exhibit partially identical genotypic signatures (identical 12-loci MIRU-VNTR profiles, distinct spoligotyping patterns). We investigated T3-Osaka and Tur sublineages characteristics and potential genetic relatedness, first using MIRU-VNTR locus analysis on 21 and 25 samples of each sublineage respectively, and second comparing Whole Genome Sequences of 8 new samples to public data from 45 samples uncovering human tuberculosis diversity. We then tried to date their Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) using three calibrations of SNP accumulation rate (long-term = 0.03 SNP/genome/year, derived from a tuberculosis ancestor of around 70,000 years old; intermediate = 0.2 SNP/genome/year derived from a Peruvian mummy; short-term = 0.5 SNP/genome/year). To disentangle between these scenarios, we confronted the corresponding divergence times with major human history events and knowledge on human genetic divergence. We identified relatively high intrasublineage diversity for both T3-Osaka and Tur. We definitively proved their monophyly; the corresponding super-sublineage (referred to as “T3-Osa-Tur”) shares a common ancestor with T3-Ethiopia and Ural sublineages but is only remotely related to other Euro-American sublineages such as X, LAM, Haarlem and S. The evolutionary scenario based on long-term evolution rate being valid until T3-Osa-Tur MRCA was not supported by Japanese fossil data. The evolutionary scenario relying on short-term evolution rate since T3-Osa-Tur MRCA was contradicted by human history and potential traces of past epidemics. T3-Osaka and Tur sublineages were found likely to have diverged between 800 y and 2000 years ago, potentially at the time of Mongol Empire. Altogether, this study definitively proves a strong genetic link between Turkish and Japanese tuberculosis. It provides a first hypothesis for calibrating TB Euro-American lineage molecular clock

  5. Formation of share market prices under heterogeneous beliefs and common knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Yuri; Giannoccolo, Pierpaolo; Galam, Serge

    2012-11-01

    Financial economic models often assume that investors know (or agree on) the fundamental value of the shares of the firm, easing the passage from the individual to the collective dimension of the financial system generated by the Share Exchange over time. Our model relaxes that heroic assumption of one unique “true value” and deals with the formation of share market prices through the dynamic formation of individual and social opinions (or beliefs) based upon a fundamental signal of economic performance and position of the firm, the forecast revision by heterogeneous individual investors, and their social mood or sentiment about the ongoing state of the market pricing process. Market clearing price formation is then featured by individual and group dynamics that make its collective dimension irreducible to its individual level. This dynamic holistic approach can be applied to better understand the market exuberance generated by the Share Exchange over time.

  6. The formation of share market prices under heterogeneous beliefs and common knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Yuri; Galam, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Financial economic models often assume that investors know (or agree on) the fundamental value of the shares of the firm, easing the passage from the individual to the collective dimension of the financial system generated by the Share Exchange over time. Our model relaxes that heroic assumption of one unique "true value" and deals with the formation of share market prices through the dynamic formation of individual and social opinions (or beliefs) based upon a fundamental signal of economic performance and position of the firm, the forecast revision by heterogeneous individual investors, and their social mood or sentiment about the ongoing state of the market pricing process. Market clearing price formation is then featured by individual and group dynamics that make its collective dimension irreducible to its individual level. This dynamic holistic approach can be applied to better understand the market exuberance generated by the Share Exchange over time.

  7. Design and Performance Improvement of AC Machines Sharing a Common Stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lusu

    With the increasing demand on electric motors in various industrial applications, especially electric powered vehicles (electric cars, more electric aircrafts and future electric ships and submarines), both synchronous reluctance machines (SynRMs) and interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines are recognized as good candidates for high performance variable speed applications. Developing a single stator design which can be used for both SynRM and IPM motors is a good way to reduce manufacturing and maintenance cost. SynRM can be used as a low cost solution for many electric driving applications and IPM machines can be used in power density crucial circumstances or work as generators to meet the increasing demand for electrical power on board. In this research, SynRM and IPM machines are designed sharing a common stator structure. The prototype motors are designed with the aid of finite element analysis (FEA). Machine performances with different stator slot and rotor pole numbers are compared by FEA. An 18-slot, 4-pole structure is selected based on the comparison for this prototype design. Sometimes, torque pulsation is the major drawback of permanent magnet synchronous machines. There are several sources of torque pulsations, such as back-EMF distortion, inductance variation and cogging torque due to presence of permanent magnets. To reduce torque pulsations in permanent magnet machines, all the efforts can be classified into two categories: one is from the design stage, the structure of permanent magnet machines can be optimized with the aid of finite element analysis. The other category of reducing torque pulsation is after the permanent magnet machine has been manufactured or the machine structure cannot be changed because of other reasons. The currents fed into the permanent magnet machine can be controlled to follow a certain profile which will make the machine generate a smoother torque waveform. Torque pulsation reduction methods in both categories will be

  8. Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Alla G

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, which is considered to be the oldest of all the families in India, has a substantial presence in Southeast Asia. However, the possibility of any genetic link among the linguistic sub-families of the Indian Austro-Asiatics on the one hand and between the Indian and the Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics on the other has not been explored till now. Therefore, to trace the origin and historic expansion of Austro-Asiatic groups of India, we analysed Y-chromosome SNP and STR data of the 1222 individuals from 25 Indian populations, covering all the three branches of Austro-Asiatic tribes, viz. Mundari, Khasi-Khmuic and Mon-Khmer, along with the previously published data on 214 relevant populations from Asia and Oceania. Results Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia. However, maternal link based on mtDNA is not evident. The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442 – 132,230 and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor. Subsequently, in the process of expansion, the Mon-Khmer populations from Southeast Asia seem to have migrated and colonized Andaman and Nicobar Islands at a much later point of time. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

  9. Intranasal oxytocin increases social grooming and food sharing in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald G; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) delivery has been used to non-invasively manipulate mammalian cooperative behavior. Such manipulations can potentially provide insight into both shared and species-specific mechanisms underlying cooperation. Vampire bats are remarkable for their high rates of allogrooming and the presence of regurgitated food sharing among adults. We administered intranasal OT to highly familiar captive vampire bats of varying relatedness to test for an effect on allogrooming and food sharing. We found that intranasal OT did not have a detectable effect on food-sharing occurrence, but it did increase the size of regurgitated food donations when controlling for dyad and amount of allogrooming. Intranasal OT in females increased the amount of allogrooming per partner and across all partners per trial, but not the number of partners. We also found that the peak effect of OT treatments occurred 30-50min after administration, which is consistent with the reported latency for intranasal OT to affect relevant brain areas in rats and mice. Our results suggest that intranasal OT is a potential tool for influencing dyadic cooperative investments, but measuring prior social relationships may be necessary to interpret the results of hormonal manipulations of cooperative behavior and it may be difficult to alter partner choice in vampire bats using intranasal OT alone. PMID:26475061

  10. Differing Circumstances, Shared Challenges: Finding Common Ground between Urban and Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Diane M.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    The shared struggles facing urban and rural schools, such as changing cultural and linguistic classroom profiles, increased childhood poverty, and residential segregation patterns, influence financial inequities between people and communities thus contributing to gaps in academic achievement and teacher shortages in both settings. The…

  11. Intranasal oxytocin increases social grooming and food sharing in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald G; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) delivery has been used to non-invasively manipulate mammalian cooperative behavior. Such manipulations can potentially provide insight into both shared and species-specific mechanisms underlying cooperation. Vampire bats are remarkable for their high rates of allogrooming and the presence of regurgitated food sharing among adults. We administered intranasal OT to highly familiar captive vampire bats of varying relatedness to test for an effect on allogrooming and food sharing. We found that intranasal OT did not have a detectable effect on food-sharing occurrence, but it did increase the size of regurgitated food donations when controlling for dyad and amount of allogrooming. Intranasal OT in females increased the amount of allogrooming per partner and across all partners per trial, but not the number of partners. We also found that the peak effect of OT treatments occurred 30-50min after administration, which is consistent with the reported latency for intranasal OT to affect relevant brain areas in rats and mice. Our results suggest that intranasal OT is a potential tool for influencing dyadic cooperative investments, but measuring prior social relationships may be necessary to interpret the results of hormonal manipulations of cooperative behavior and it may be difficult to alter partner choice in vampire bats using intranasal OT alone.

  12. Terminal Versus Advanced Cancer: Do the General Population and Health Care Professionals Share a Common Language?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Shin, Dong Wook; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung Kook; Nam, Eunjoo; Jho, Hyun Jung; Ahn, Eunmi; Cho, Be Long; Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many end-of-life care studies are based on the assumption that there is a shared definition of language concerning the stage of cancer. However, studies suggest that patients and their families often misperceive patients’ cancer stages and prognoses. Discrimination between advanced cancer and terminal cancer is important because the treatment goals are different. In this study, we evaluated the understanding of the definition of advanced versus terminal cancer of the general populatio...

  13. Commonly Shared Foundation of Mathematics, Information Science, Natural Science, Social Science, and Theology

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Through a simple thought experiment, this paper shows that there must be a shared foundation of mathematics, information science, natural science, social science, and theology. The thought experiment is to ask a volunteer to write down an arbitrary real number between 0 and 1 with many digits. For example, 0.19823765010367129462…. would be one of such numbers. Then we analyze this experiment result by asking five simple questions: Is the real number a random real? Can the observed real numbe...

  14. Soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal fungi share many common species along an elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Nara, Kazuhide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted bioassay experiments to investigate the soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in old-growth forests along an elevation gradient and compared the elevation pattern with the composition of EM fungi on existing roots in the field. In total, 150 soil cores were collected from three forests on Mt. Ishizuchi, western Japan, and subjected to bioassays using Pinus densiflora and Betula maximowicziana. Using molecular analyses, we recorded 23 EM fungal species in the assayed propagule banks. Eight species (34.8 %) were shared across the three sites, which ranged from a warm-temperate evergreen mixed forest to a subalpine conifer forest. The elevation pattern of the assayed propagule banks differed dramatically from that of EM fungi on existing roots along the same gradient, where only a small proportion of EM fungal species (3.5 %) were shared across sites. The EM fungal species found in the assayed propagule banks included many pioneer fungal species and composition differed significantly from that on existing roots. Furthermore, only 4 of 23 species were shared between the two host species, indicating a strong effect of bioassay host identity in determining the propagule banks of EM fungi. These results imply that the assayed propagule bank is less affected by climate compared to EM fungal communities on existing roots. The dominance of disturbance-dependent fungal species in the assayed propagule banks may result in higher ecosystem resilience to disturbance even in old-growth temperate forests. PMID:26231215

  15. Training in High-Throughput Sequencing: Common Guidelines to Enable Material Sharing, Dissemination, and Reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffthaler, Bastian; Kostadima, Myrto; Delhomme, Nicolas; Rustici, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The advancement of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies and the rapid development of numerous analysis algorithms and pipelines in this field has resulted in an unprecedentedly high demand for training scientists in HTS data analysis. Embarking on developing new training materials is challenging for many reasons. Trainers often do not have prior experience in preparing or delivering such materials and struggle to keep them up to date. A repository of curated HTS training materials would support trainers in materials preparation, reduce the duplication of effort by increasing the usage of existing materials, and allow for the sharing of teaching experience among the HTS trainers' community. To achieve this, we have developed a strategy for materials' curation and dissemination. Standards for describing training materials have been proposed and applied to the curation of existing materials. A Git repository has been set up for sharing annotated materials that can now be reused, modified, or incorporated into new courses. This repository uses Git; hence, it is decentralized and self-managed by the community and can be forked/built-upon by all users. The repository is accessible at http://bioinformatics.upsc.se/htmr. PMID:27309738

  16. Do Ames dwarf and calorie-restricted mice share common effects on age-related pathology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Ikeno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, aging studies using several strains of long-lived mutant mice have been conducted. Among these studies, Ames dwarf mice have been extensively examined to seek clues regarding the role of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in the aging process. Interestingly, these projects demonstrate that Ames dwarf mice have physiological characteristics that are similar to those seen with calorie restriction, which has been the most effective experimental manipulation capable of extending lifespan in various species. However, this introduces the question of whether Ames dwarf and calorie-restricted (CR mice have an extended lifespan through common or independent pathways. To answer this question, we compared the disease profiles of Ames dwarf mice to their normal siblings fed either ad libitum (AL or a CR diet. Our findings show that the changes in age-related diseases between AL-fed Ames dwarf mice and CR wild-type siblings were similar but not identical. Moreover, the effects of CR on age-related pathology showed similarities and differences between Ames dwarf mice and their normal siblings, indicating that calorie restriction and Ames dwarf mice exhibit their anti-aging effects through both independent and common mechanisms.

  17. Single-molecule imaging reveals a common mechanism shared by G-quadruplex–resolving helicases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippana, Ramreddy; Hwang, Helen; Opresko, Patricia L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Myong, Sua

    2016-01-01

    G-quadruplex (GQ) is a four stranded DNA secondary structure that arises from a guanine rich sequence. Stable formation of GQ in genomic DNA can be counteracted by the resolving activity of specialized helicases including RNA helicase AU (associated with AU rich elements) (RHAU) (G4 resolvase 1), Bloom helicase (BLM), and Werner helicase (WRN). However, their substrate specificity and the mechanism involved in GQ unfolding remain uncertain. Here, we report that RHAU, BLM, and WRN exhibit distinct GQ conformation specificity, but use a common mechanism of repetitive unfolding that leads to disrupting GQ structure multiple times in succession. Such unfolding activity of RHAU leads to efficient annealing exclusively within the same DNA molecule. The same resolving activity is sufficient to dislodge a stably bound GQ ligand, including BRACO-19, NMM, and Phen-DC3. Our study demonstrates a plausible biological scheme where different helicases are delegated to resolve specific GQ structures by using a common repetitive unfolding mechanism that provides a robust resolving power. PMID:27407146

  18. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and Adipokinetic hormone signaling systems share a common evolutionary origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen eLindemans

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a critical and central hormone that regulates vertebrate reproduction. The high conservation of GnRH signaling within the chordates (deuterostomians raises the important question as to whether its appearance might date back prior to the divergence of protostomian and deuterostomian lineages, about 700 million years ago. This leads to several important questions regarding the evolution of the GnRH family. Has GnRH been retained in most protostomian lineages? And was regulation of reproduction already a function of ancestral GnRH? The first question can undoubtedly be answered affirmatively since several GnRH-like sequences have been found in wide variety of protostomian and deuterostomian phyla. However, based on their different primary functions in different phyla – which implies a less unanimous answer on the second question – consistency in the nomenclature of this peptide family has been lost. A comparative and phylogenetic approach shows that the ecdysozoan adipokinetic hormones (AKHs, lophotrozoan GnRHs and chordate GnRHs are structurally related and that they all originate from a common ancestor. This review supports the view that the AKH-GnRH signaling system probably arose very early in metazoan evolution, prior to the divergence of protostomians and deuterostomians.

  19. Components of coated vesicles and nuclear pore complexes share a common molecular architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Devos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous features distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes, chief among which are the distinctive internal membrane systems of eukaryotic cells. These membrane systems form elaborate compartments and vesicular trafficking pathways, and sequester the chromatin within the nuclear envelope. The nuclear pore complex is the portal that specifically mediates macromolecular trafficking across the nuclear envelope. Although it is generally understood that these internal membrane systems evolved from specialized invaginations of the prokaryotic plasma membrane, it is not clear how the nuclear pore complex could have evolved from organisms with no analogous transport system. Here we use computational and biochemical methods to perform a structural analysis of the seven proteins comprising the yNup84/vNup107-160 subcomplex, a core building block of the nuclear pore complex. Our analysis indicates that all seven proteins contain either a beta-propeller fold, an alpha-solenoid fold, or a distinctive arrangement of both, revealing close similarities between the structures comprising the yNup84/vNup107-160 subcomplex and those comprising the major types of vesicle coating complexes that maintain vesicular trafficking pathways. These similarities suggest a common evolutionary origin for nuclear pore complexes and coated vesicles in an early membrane-curving module that led to the formation of the internal membrane systems in modern eukaryotes.

  20. Allergens from birch pollen and pollen of the European chestnut share common epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschwehr, R; Jäger, S; Horak, F; Ferreira, F; Valenta, R; Ebner, C; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-09-01

    Type I allergy to pollen of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa) represents a major cause of pollinosis in (sub) Mediterranean areas. Using sera from 14 patients with established allergy to pollen of the European chestnut, 13/14 sera (92%) showed IgE-binding to a 22 kD protein, 2/14 (14%) displayed additional binding to a 14 kD protein and 1/14 (7%) bound only to the 14 kD protein of European chestnut pollen extract. Two monoclonal mouse antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, directed against different epitopes of Bet v I (the major birch pollen allergen), and a rabbit antibody to recombinant birch profilin (rBet v II) were used to characterize the proteins of the European chestnut pollen. The recombinant birch pollen allergens, rBet v I and rBet v II (profilin) were employed to show common allergenic structures on proteins from both birch and European chestnut pollen by IgE-inhibition experiments. Despite the fact that the 22 kD protein displayed a higher molecular weight in comparison to the 17 kD major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, we could demonstrate reactivity of both monoclonal antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, with this protein. A complete inhibiton of IgE-binding to this 22 kD protein was shown by pre-incubating sera with purified recombinant Bet v I. In addition, the 14 kD protein could be identified by IgE-inhibition studies with recombinant Bet v II and by using a rabbit anti-profilin antibody as the profilin from pollen of the European chestnut.

  1. Multiple quantitative trait loci for cortical and trabecular bone regulation map to mid-distal mouse chromosome 4 that shares linkage homology to human chromosome 1p36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Wesley G; Shultz, Kathryn L; Coombs, Harold F; Horton, Lindsay G; Donahue, Leah Rae; Rosen, Clifford J

    2012-01-01

    The mid-distal region of mouse chromosome 4 (Chr 4) is homologous with human Chr 1p36. Previously, we reported that mouse Chr 4 carries a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with strong regulatory effect on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). The intent of this study is to utilize nested congenic strains to decompose the genetic complexity of this gene-rich region. Adult females and males from 18 nested congenic strains carrying discrete C3H sequences were phenotyped for femoral mineral and volume by pQCT and for trabecular bone volume (BV), tissue volume (TV), trabecular number (Trab.no), and trabecular thickness (Trab.thk) by MicroCT 40. Our data show that the mouse Chr 4 region consists of at least 10 regulatory QTL regions that affected either or both pQCT and MicroCT 40 phenotypes. The pQCT phenotypes were typically similar between sexes, whereas the MicroCT 40 phenotypes were divergent. Individual congenic strains contained one to seven QTL regions. These regions conferred large positive or negative effects in some congenic strains, depending on the particular bone phenotype. The QTL regions II to X are syntenic with human 1p36, containing from 1 to 102 known genes. We identified 13 candidate genes that can be linked to bone within these regions. Six of these genes were linked to osteoblasts, three linked to osteoclasts, and two linked to skeletal development. Three of these genes have been identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) linked to 1p36. In region III, there is only one gene, Lck, which conferred negative pQCT and MicroCT 40 phenotypes in both sexes. This gene is important to development and functioning of T cells, has been associated with osteoclast activity, and represents a novel bone regulatory gene that merits further experimental evaluation. In summary, congenic strains are powerful tools for identifying regulatory regions that influence bone biology and offer models for testing hypotheses about gene-gene and gene

  2. Introduction of chromosome segment carrying the seed storage protein genes from chromosome 1V of Dasypyrum villosum showed positive effect on bread-making quality of common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiqi, Zhang; Mingyi, Zhang; Xiue, Wang; Peidu, Chen

    2014-03-01

    Development of wheat- D. villosum 1V#4 translocation lines; physically mapping the Glu - V1 and Gli - V1 / Glu - V3 loci; and assess the effects of the introduced Glu - V1 and Gli - V1 / Glu - V3 on wheat bread-making quality. Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci, located in the chromosome 1V of Dasypyrum villosum, were proved to have positive effects on grain quality. However, there are very few reports about the transfer of the D. villosum-derived seed storage protein genes into wheat background by chromosome manipulation. In the present study, a total of six CS-1V#4 introgression lines with different alien-fragment sizes were developed through ionizing radiation of the mature female gametes of CS--D. villosum 1V#4 disomic addition line and confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), chromosome C-banding, twelve 1V#4-specific EST-STS markers and seed storage protein analysis enabled the cytological physical mapping of Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci to the region of FL 0.50-1.00 of 1V#4S of D. villosum. The Glu-V1 allele of D. villosum was Glu-V1a and its coded protein was V71 subunit. Quality analysis indicated that Glu-V1a together with Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci showed a positive effect on protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value and the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough. In addition, the positive effect could be maintained when specific Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci were transferred to the wheat genetic background as in the case of T1V#4S-6BS · 6BL, T1V#4S · 1BL and T1V#4S · 1DS translocation lines. These results showed that the chromosome segment carrying the Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci in 1V#4S of D. villosum had positive effect on bread-making quality, and the T1V#4S-6BS · 6BL and T1V#4S · 1BL translocation lines could be useful germplasms for bread wheat improvement. The developed 1V#4S-specific molecular markers could be used to rapidly identify and trace the alien chromatin of 1V#4S in wheat background. PMID:24408374

  3. Haplotype-Sharing Analysis Implicates Chromosome 7q36 Harboring DPP6 in Familial Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Alders; T.T. Koopmann; I. Christiaans; P.G. Postema; L. Beekman; M.W.T. Tanck; K. Zeppenfeld; P. Loh; K.T. Koch; S. Demolombe; M.M.A.M. Mannens; C.R. Bezzina; A.A.M. Wilde

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation (IVF) is defined as spontaneous VF without any known structural or electrical heart disease. A family history is present in up to 20% of probands with the disorder, suggesting that at least a subset of IVF is hereditary. A genome-wide haplotype-sharing analysis wa

  4. [Effect of gametocidal chromosome 4S' on the phenotype segregation ratio in genetic analysis of common wheat lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovichenko, Zh V; Antoniuk, M Z; Ternovskaia, T K

    2003-01-01

    Using experimental data on genetic analysis of introgressive lines for the character "hairy leaf sheath" controlled by the "cuckoo" chromosome 4S1, the algorithm for calculation of the theoretical segregation ratio in F2 was developed. Segregation distortion is caused by non-viability of the majority of gametes lacking the chromosome 4S1. The frequency of functioning gametes without the chromosome 4S1 is determined by the probability p versus the theoretically expected ratio 7 nonviable: 9 viable ones. Since segregation involves two characters, gamete viability and hairiness, the ratio 15 hairy: 1 hairless was used as a basis for search of the frequency p by maximum-likelihood method using 16 populations F2 from crossing the lines differing in the character studied. PMID:14650327

  5. Two zebrafish alcohol dehydrogenases share common ancestry with mammalian class I, II, IV, and V alcohol dehydrogenase genes but have distinct functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Mark J; Hahn, Mark E; Tanguay, Robert L

    2004-09-10

    Ethanol is teratogenic to many vertebrates. We are utilizing zebrafish as a model system to determine whether there is an association between ethanol metabolism and ethanol-mediated developmental toxicity. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two cDNAs encoding zebrafish alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). Phylogenetic analysis of these zebrafish ADHs indicates that they share a common ancestor with mammalian class I, II, IV, and V ADHs. The genes encoding these zebrafish ADHs have been named Adh8a and Adh8b by the nomenclature committee. Both genes were genetically mapped to chromosome 13. The 1450-bp Adh8a is 82, 73, 72, and 72% similar at the amino acid level to the Baltic cod ADH8 (previously named ADH1), the human ADH1B2, the mouse ADH1, and the rat ADH1, respectively. Also, the 1484-bp Adh8b is 77, 68, 67, and 66% similar at the amino acid level to the Baltic cod ADH8, the human ADH1B2, the mouse ADH1, and the rat ADH1, respectively. ADH8A and ADH8B share 86% amino acid similarity. To characterize the functional properties of ADH8A and ADH8B, recombinant proteins were purified from SF-9 insect cells. Kinetic studies demonstrate that ADH8A metabolizes ethanol, with a V(max) of 13.4 nmol/min/mg protein, whereas ADH8B does not metabolize ethanol. The ADH8A K(m) for ethanol as a substrate is 0.7 mm. 4-Methyl pyrazole, a classical competitive inhibitor of class I ADH, failed to inhibit ADH8A. ADH8B has the capacity to efficiently biotransform longer chain primary alcohols (>/=5 carbons) and S-hydroxymethlyglutathione, whereas ADH8A does not efficiently metabolize these substrates. Finally, mRNA expression studies indicate that both ADH8A and ADH8B mRNA are expressed during early development and in the adult brain, fin, gill, heart, kidney, muscle, and liver. Together these results indicate that class I-like ADH is conserved in zebrafish, albeit with mixed functional properties. PMID:15231826

  6. Shared Genetic Factors Involved in Celiac Disease, Type 2 Diabetes and Anorexia Nervosa Suggest Common Molecular Pathways for Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Joanna; Montén, Caroline; Gudjonsdottir, Audur H.; Arnell, Henrik; Browaldh, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Agardh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic regions involved in immune-regulatory mechanisms to be associated with celiac disease. Previous GWAS also revealed an over-representation of genes involved in type 2 diabetes and anorexia nervosa associated with celiac disease, suggesting involvement of common metabolic pathways for development of these chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to extend these previous analyses to study the gene expression in the gut from children with active celiac disease. Material and Methods Thirty six target genes involved in type 2 diabetes and four genes associated with anorexia nervosa were investigated for gene expression in small intestinal biopsies from 144 children with celiac disease at median (range) age of 7.4 years (1.6–17.8) and from 154 disease controls at a median (range) age 11.4.years (1.4–18.3). Results A total of eleven of genes were differently expressed in celiac patients compared with disease controls of which CD36, CD38, FOXP1, SELL, PPARA, PPARG, AGT previously associated with type 2 diabetes and AKAP6, NTNG1 with anorexia nervosa remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Conclusion Shared genetic factors involved in celiac disease, type 2 diabetes and anorexia nervosa suggest common underlying molecular pathways for these diseases. PMID:27483138

  7. Origin of B chromosomes in the genus Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) and the limits of chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de A Silva, Duílio M Z; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Penitente, Manolo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryote genomes are frequently burdened with the presence of supernumerary (B) chromosomes. Their origin is frequently investigated by chromosome painting, under the hypothesis that sharing the repetitive DNA sequences contained in the painting probes is a sign of common descent. However, the intragenomic mobility of many anonymous DNA sequences contained in these probes (e.g., transposable elements) adds high uncertainty to this conclusion. Here we test the validity of chromosome painting to investigate B chromosome origin by comparing its results for seven B chromosome types in two fish species genus Astyanax, with those obtained (1) by means of the physical mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), H1 histone genes, the As51 satellite DNA and the (AC)15 microsatellite, and (2) by comparing the nucleotide sequence of one of these families (ITS regions from ribosomal DNA) between genomic DNA from B-lacking individuals in both species and the microdissected DNA from two metacentric B chromosomes found in these same species. Intra- and inter-specific painting suggested that all B chromosomes that were assayed shared homologous DNA sequences among them, as well as with a variable number of A chromosomes in each species. This finding would be consistent with a common origin for all seven B chromosomes analyzed. By contrast, the physical mapping of repetitive DNA sequences failed to give support to this hypothesis, as no more than two B-types shared a given repetitive DNA. Finally, sequence analysis of the ITS regions suggested that at least some of the B chromosomes could have had a common origin.

  8. Shared clonality in distinctive lesions of lymphomatoid papulosis and mycosis fungoides occurring in the same patients suggests a common origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza Bravo, Maria M; Patel, Keyur P; Loghavi, Sanam; Curry, Jonathan L; Torres Cabala, Carlos A; Cason, Ronald C; Gangar, Pamela; Prieto, Victor G; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Duvic, Madeleine; Tetzlaff, Michael T

    2015-04-01

    Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) lies within the spectrum of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. Approximately 10% to 15% of patients with LyP develop other lymphomas, most commonly mycosis fungoides (MF), suggesting a biological relationship between these distinctive diseases. Here, we describe the clinical and histopathologic features of 11 patients who had both LyP and MF, including a total of 30 biopsy specimens (14 LyP and 16 MF). Clinically, LyP lesions were characterized by clustered papules undergoing spontaneous regression and were classified as type A (n = 11), type C (n = 2), or type D (n = 1). All cases of MF were characterized clinically by patch/plaque disease, were stage I or II at the time of diagnosis, and consisted of a CD4-predominant epidermotropic T-cell infiltrate. We used polymerase chain reaction-based methods to assess the TCR-β chain (TCRB) and TCR-γ chain (TCRG) in both LyP and MF lesions of all patients. Monoclonal TCR gene rearrangements were detected in 13 LyP lesions from 10 of 11 patients and in 14 MF lesions from 10 of 11 patients. All 10 patients in whom their skin lesions carried monoclonal TCR gene rearrangements exhibited overlapping clones in both their LyP and MF lesions; additional non-overlapping clones were identified in 3 LyP lesions from 2 patients and 1 MF lesion from another patient. The demonstration of shared monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in LyP and MF lesions in almost all patients suggests a common origin between these distinctive clinicopathological diseases.

  9. Examining age-related shared variance between face cognition, vision, and self-reported physical health: a test of the common cause hypothesis for social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing), and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain). We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17-88 years old), we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident.

  10. Examining Age-Related Shared Variance Between Face Cognition, Vision, and Self-Reported Physical Health: A Test of the Common Cause Hypothesis for Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally eOlderbak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing, and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain. We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities, specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17 to 88 years old, we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident.

  11. Head Motion and Inattention/Hyperactivity Share Common Genetic Influences: Implications for fMRI Studies of ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne

    Full Text Available Head motion (HM is a well known confound in analyses of functional MRI (fMRI data. Neuroimaging researchers therefore typically treat HM as a nuisance covariate in their analyses. Even so, it is possible that HM shares a common genetic influence with the trait of interest. Here we investigate the extent to which this relationship is due to shared genetic factors, using HM extracted from resting-state fMRI and maternal and self report measures of Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity from the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviour (SWAN scales. Our sample consisted of healthy young adult twins (N = 627 (63% females including 95 MZ and 144 DZ twin pairs, mean age 22, who had mother-reported SWAN; N = 725 (58% females including 101 MZ and 156 DZ pairs, mean age 25, with self reported SWAN. This design enabled us to distinguish genetic from environmental factors in the association between head movement and ADHD scales. HM was moderately correlated with maternal reports of Inattention (r = 0.17, p-value = 7.4E-5 and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity (r = 0.16, p-value = 2.9E-4, and these associations were mainly due to pleiotropic genetic factors with genetic correlations [95% CIs] of rg = 0.24 [0.02, 0.43] and rg = 0.23 [0.07, 0.39]. Correlations between self-reports and HM were not significant, due largely to increased measurement error. These results indicate that treating HM as a nuisance covariate in neuroimaging studies of ADHD will likely reduce power to detect between-group effects, as the implicit assumption of independence between HM and Inattention or Hyperactivity-Impulsivity is not warranted. The implications of this finding are problematic for fMRI studies of ADHD, as failing to apply HM correction is known to increase the likelihood of false positives. We discuss two ways to circumvent this problem: censoring the motion contaminated frames of the RS-fMRI scan or explicitly modeling the relationship between HM and

  12. Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Anssi; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O; Brown, Keith S

    2013-06-01

    We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus. PMID:23865963

  13. Effects of methylmercury exposure on glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenow, Kevin P. [U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI 54603 (United States)], E-mail: kkenow@usgs.gov; Hoffman, David J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)], E-mail: djhoffman@usgs.gov; Hines, Randy K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI 54603 (United States)], E-mail: rkhines@usgs.gov; Meyer, Michael W. [Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 107 Sutliff Avenue, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States)], E-mail: michael.meyer@dnr.state.wi.us; Bickham, John W. [Center for the Environment and Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: bickham@purdue.edu; Matson, Cole W. [Integrated Toxicology and Environmental Health Program, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)], E-mail: matson@duke.edu; Stebbins, Katie R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Montagna, Paul [Texas A and M University-Corpus Christi, Harte Research Institute, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)], E-mail: paul.montagna@tamucc.edu; Elfessi, Abdulaziz [University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States)], E-mail: elfessi.abdu@uwlax.edu

    2008-12-15

    We quantified the level of dietary mercury (Hg), delivered as methylmercury chloride (CH{sub 3}HgCl), associated with negative effects on organ and plasma biochemistries related to glutathione (GSH) metabolism and oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks reared from hatch to 105 days. Mercury-associated effects related to oxidative stress and altered glutathione metabolism occurred at 1.2 {mu}g Hg/g and 0.4 {mu}g Hg/g, an ecologically relevant dietary mercury level, but not at 0.08 {mu}g Hg/g. Among the variables that contributed most to dissimilarities in tissue chemistries between control and treatment groups were increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH peroxidase, and the ratio of GSSG to GSH in brain tissue; increased levels of hepatic GSH; and decreased levels of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH). Our results also suggest that chronic exposure to environmentally relevant dietary Hg levels did not result in statistically significant somatic chromosomal damage in common loon chicks. - Oxidative stress and altered glutathione metabolism were evident in common loon chicks exposed to {>=}0.4 {mu}g Hg as CH{sub 3}HgCl per gram wet food intake.

  14. 35-Year Follow-Up of a Case of Ring Chromosome 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Catherine; Douzgou, Sofia; Kontos, Haris;

    2015-01-01

    Côté et al. [1981] suggested that ring chromosomes with or without deletions share a common pattern of phenotypic anomalies, regardless of which chromosome is involved. The phenotype of this 'general ring syndrome' consists of growth failure without malformations, few or no minor anomalies, and m...

  15. Centrosome clustering and cyclin D1 gene amplification in double minutes are common events in chromosomal unstable bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneuploidy, centrosome abnormalities and gene amplification are hallmarks of chromosome instability (CIN) in cancer. Yet there are no studies of the in vivo behavior of these phenomena within the same bladder tumor. Twenty-one paraffin-embedded bladder tumors were analyzed by conventional comparative genome hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cyclin D1 gene (CCND1)/centromere 11 dual-color probe. Immunofluorescent staining of α, β and γ tubulin was also performed. Based on the CIN index, defined as the percentage of cells not displaying the modal number for chromosome 11, tumors were classified as CIN-negative and CIN-positive. Fourteen out of 21 tumors were considered CIN-positive. All T1G3 tumors were included in the CIN-positive group whereas the majority of Ta samples were classified as CIN-negative tumors. Centrosome clustering was observed in six out of 12 CIN-positive tumors analyzed. CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions was present in six out of 14 CIN-positive tumors; three of them also showed amplification of this gene in double minutes. Complex in vivo behavior of CCND1 amplicon in bladder tumor cells has been demonstrated by accurate FISH analysis on paraffin-embedded tumors. Positive correlation between high heterogeneity, centrosome abnormalities and CCND1 amplification was found in T1G3 bladder carcinomas. This is the first study to provide insights into the coexistence of CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions and double minutes in primary bladder tumors. It is noteworthy that those patients whose tumors showed double minutes had a significantly shorter overall survival rate (p < 0.001)

  16. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  17. Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhan; Gay, Laura J.; Strange, Amy; Palles, Claire; Band, Gavin; Whiteman, David C.; Lescai, Francesco; Langford, Cordelia; Nanji, Manoj; Edkins, Sarah; van der Winkel, Anouk; Levine, David; Sasieni, Peter; Bellenguez, Celine; Howarth, Kimberley; Freeman, Colin; Trudgill, Nigel; Tucker, Art T.; Pirinen, Matti; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Peters, Wilbert H.; Reynolds, John V.; Kelleher, Dermot P.; McManus, Ross; Grabsch, Heike; Prenen, Hans; Bisschops, Raf; Krishnadath, Kausila; Siersema, Peter D.; van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.; Middleton, Mark; Petty, Russell; Gillies, Richard; Burch, Nicola; Bhandari, Pradeep; Paterson, Stuart; Edwards, Cathryn; Penman, Ian; Vaidya, Kishor; Ang, Yeng; Murray, Iain; Patel, Praful; Ye, Weimin; Mullins, Paul; Wu, Anna H.; Bird, Nigel C.; Dallal, Helen; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Murray, Liam J.; Koss, Konrad; Bernstein, Leslie; Romero, Yvonne; Hardie, Laura J.; Zhang, Rui; Winter, Helen; Corley, Douglas A.; Panter, Simon; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brian J.; Sargeant, Ian; Gammon, Marilie D.; Smart, Howard; Dhar, Anjan; McMurtry, Hugh; Ali, Haythem; Liu, Geoffrey; Casson, Alan G.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rutter, Matt; Tawil, Ashref; Morris, Danielle; Nwokolo, Chuka; Isaacs, Peter; Rodgers, Colin; Ragunath, Krish; MacDonald, Chris; Haigh, Chris; Monk, David; Davies, Gareth; Wajed, Saj; Johnston, David; Gibbons, Michael; Cullen, Sue; Church, Nicholas; Langley, Ruth; Griffin, Michael; Alderson, Derek; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah E.; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Anderson, Mark; Brooks, Claire; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas; Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Atherfold, Paul; Nicholson, Anna M.; Gellatly, Nichola L.; Glancy, Deborah; Cooper, Sheldon C.; Cunningham, David; Lind, Tore; Hapeshi, Julie; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Brown, Julia; Love, Sharon; Attwood, Stephen; MacGregor, Stuart; Watson, Peter; Sanders, Scott; Ek, Weronica; Harrison, Rebecca F.; Moayyedi, Paul; de Caestecker, John; Barr, Hugh; Stupka, Elia; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Peltonen, Leena; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Tomlinson, Ian; Donnelly, Peter; Jankowski, Janusz A. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on Barrett'

  18. Significance of common variants on human chromosome 8q24 in relation to the risk of prostate cancer in native Japanese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoi Takayuki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common variants on human chromosome 8q24, rs1447295 (C/A and rs6983267 (T/G, have been recently linked to the prevalence of prostate cancer in European and American populations. Here, we evaluated whether the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1447295 and rs6983267 were associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer as well as latent prostate cancer in a native Japanese population. Results We analyzed genomic DNA samples from 391 sporadic prostate cancer patients, 323 controls who had died from causes unrelated to cancer and 112 Japanese men who were diagnosed as having latent prostate cancer based on autopsy results. The polymorphisms were determined by allelic discrimination using a fluorescent-based TaqMan assay. The A allele of rs1447295 was significantly associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer (p = 0.04; age-adjusted OR, 1.34, while the G allele of rs6983267 showed a trend towards being a high-risk allele (p = 0.06; age-adjusted OR, 1.27. No significant difference between these two polymorphisms and the risk of latent prostate cancer was observed in the present Japanese population. Conclusion Known variants on human chromosome 8q24 may be risk factors for sporadic prostate cancer in native Japanese men.

  19. Neuropeptide Y and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) share a common pressor mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Kenneth A.; Fan, Wei (David); Akerberg, Helena; Larhammar, Dan; Chee, Melissa J. S.; Colmers, William F.; Cone, Roger D.

    2009-01-01

    Central circuits known to regulate food intake and energy expenditure also affect central cardiovascular regulation. For example, both the melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) peptide families, known to regulate food intake, also produce central hypertensive effects. Members of both families share a similar C-terminal amino acid residue sequence, RF(Y) amide, a sequence distinct from that required for melanocortin receptor binding. A recently delineated family of RFamide receptors recognizes...

  20. Spontaneous and Divergent Hexaploid Triticales Derived from Common Wheat × Rye by Complete Elimination of D-Genome Chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Li; Xiaoxue Guo; Changyou Wang; Wanquan Ji

    2015-01-01

    Background Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale. Methodology/Principal Findings Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L.) × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L.) were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improveme...

  1. Chromosome Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Over the last half century, knowledge about genetics, genetic testing, and its complexity has flourished. Completion of the Human Genome Project provided a foundation upon which the accuracy of genetics, genomics, and integration of bioinformatics knowledge and testing has grown exponentially. What is lagging, however, are efforts to reach and engage nurses about this rapidly changing field. The purpose of this article is to familiarize nurses with several frequently ordered genetic tests including chromosomes and fluorescence in situ hybridization followed by a comprehensive review of chromosome microarray. It shares the complexity of microarray including how testing is performed and results analyzed. A case report demonstrates how this technology is applied in clinical practice and reveals benefits and limitations of this scientific and bioinformatics genetic technology. Clinical implications for maternal-child nurses across practice levels are discussed. PMID:27276104

  2. Two Zebrafish Alcohol Dehydrogenases Share Common Ancestry with Mammalian Class I, II, IV, and V Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes but Have Distinct Functional Characteristics*

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, Mark J.; Hahn, Mark E.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Ethanol is teratogenic to many vertebrates. We are utilizing zebrafish as a model system to determine whether there is an association between ethanol metabolism and ethanol-mediated developmental toxicity. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two cDNAs encoding zebrafish alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). Phylogenetic analysis of these zebrafish ADHs indicates that they share a common ancestor with mammalian class I, II, IV, and V ADHs. The genes encoding these zebrafish ADHs have...

  3. Diverse strategies engaged in establishing stereotypic wiring patterns among neurons sharing a common input at the visual system's first synapse

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Felice A.; Rachel O L Wong

    2012-01-01

    Sensory circuits use common strategies such as convergence and divergence, typically at different synapses, to pool or distribute inputs. Inputs from different presynaptic cell types converge onto a common postsynaptic cell, acting together to shape neuronal output (Klausberger and Somogyi, 2008). Also, individual presynaptic cells contact several postsynaptic cell types, generating divergence of signals. Attaining such complex wiring patterns relies on the orchestration of many events across...

  4. Chromosomal evolution among leaf-nosed nectarivorous bats – evidence from cross-species chromosome painting (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromosome paints from the bat species Macrotus californicus. We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. By examining the chromosomal homologies defined by chromosome painting among two representatives of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Glossophaga soricina and Anoura cultrata) and one species from the subfamily Lonchophyllinae (Lonchophylla concava), we found chromosomal correspondence in regions not previously detected by other comparative cytogenetic techniques. We proposed the corresponding human chromosomal segments for chromosomes of the investigated species and found two syntenic associations shared by G. soricina and A. cultrata. Conclusion Comparative painting with whole chromosome-specific paints of M. californicus demonstrates an extensive chromosomal reorganization within the two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids, with a large number of chromosomes shared between M. californicus and G. soricina. We show that the evolution of nectar-feeding bats occurs mainly by reshuffling of chiropteran Evolutionarily Conserved Units (ECUs). Robertsonian fusions/fissions and inversions seem to be important modifiers of phyllostomid karyotypes, and autapomorphic character states are common within species. Macrotus californicus chromosome paints will be a valuable tool for documenting the pattern of

  5. Discovering Common Ground: How Future Search Conferences Bring People Together To Achieve Breakthrough Innovation, Empowerment, Shared Vision, and Collaborative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Marvin R.; And Others

    This book contains 35 papers about planning and holding future search conferences, as well as their benefits and likely future directions. The following papers are included: "Applied Common Sense" (Weisbord); "Inventing the Search Conference" (Weisbord); "Building Collaborative Communities" (Schindler-Rainman, Lippitt); "Parallel Paths to…

  6. Common chromosomal fragile sites (CFS) may be involved in normal and traumatic cognitive stress memory consolidation and altered nervous system immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, G S

    2010-05-01

    Previous reports of specific patterns of increased fragility at common chromosomal fragile sites (CFS) found in association with certain neurobehavioural disorders did not attract attention at the time due to a shift towards molecular approaches to delineate neuropsychiatric disorder candidate genes. Links with miRNA, altered methylation and the origin of copy number variation indicate that CFS region characteristics may be part of chromatinomic mechanisms that are increasingly linked with neuroplasticity and memory. Current reports of large-scale double-stranded DNA breaks in differentiating neurons and evidence of ongoing DNA demethylation of specific gene promoters in adult hippocampus may shed new light on the dynamic epigenetic changes that are increasingly appreciated as contributing to long-term memory consolidation. The expression of immune recombination activating genes in key stress-induced memory regions suggests the adoption by the brain of this ancient pattern recognition and memory system to establish a structural basis for long-term memory through controlled chromosomal breakage at highly specific genomic regions. It is furthermore considered that these mechanisms for management of epigenetic information related to stress memory could be linked, in some instances, with the transfer of the somatically acquired information to the germline. Here, rearranged sequences can be subjected to further selection and possible eventual retrotranscription to become part of the more stable coding machinery if proven to be crucial for survival and reproduction. While linkage of cognitive memory with stress and fear circuitry and memory establishment through structural DNA modification is proposed as a normal process, inappropriate activation of immune-like genomic rearrangement processes through traumatic stress memory may have the potential to lead to undesirable activation of neuro-inflammatory processes. These theories could have a significant impact on the

  7. CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION: NOVEL INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANISM AND REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Pozgajova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A crucial feature of every healthy living organism is accurate segregation of chromosomes. Errors in this process may lead to aneuploidy, which is responsible for diverse genetic defects and diseases such as Down syndrome, miscarriages, cancer and others. Although, chromosome segregation has been studied intensively in the past, the exact mechanism of accurate chromosome segregation still remains unclear. Identification and characterization of proteins and protein complexes involved in this process is essential for understanding of processes that lead to chromosome missegregation. Basic molecular mechanism share common principles in animals, humans, plants and unicellular organisms; it is therefore possible to study these mechanisms in simple model organisms such as yeasts. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an excellent model organism to study the function and regulation of chromosome segregation in both mitosis and meiosis.

  8. History of settlement of villages from Central Tunisia by studying families sharing a common founder Glycogenosis type III mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Faten Ben; Messai, Habib; Hsouna, Sana; Halim, Nizar Ben; Cherif, Wafa; Fadhel, Sihem Ben; Tiar, Afaf; Nagara, Majdi; Azzouz, Hatem; Sfar, Mohamed-Tahar; Dridi, Marie-Françoise Ben; Tebib, Neji; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III; Cori disease; Forbes disease) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder resulting from deficient glycogen debrancher enzyme activity in liver and muscle. In this study, we focused on a single AGL gene mutation p.W1327X in 16 Tunisian patients from rural area surrounding the region of Mahdia in Central Tunisia. This constitutes the largest pool of patients with this mutation ever described. This study was performed to trace the history of the patients' ancestries in a single region. After extraction of genomic DNA, exon 31 of AGL gene was sequenced. The patients were investigated for the hypervariable segment 1 of mitochondrial DNA and 17 Y-STR markers. We found that the p.W1327X mutation was a founder mutation in Tunisia Analysis of maternal lineages shows an admixture of autochthonous North African, sub-Saharan and a predominance of Eurasian haplogroups. Heterogeneity of maternal haplogroups indicates an ancient settlement. However, paternal gene flow was highly homogeneous and originates from the Near East. We hypothesize that the p.W1327X mutation was introduced into the Tunisian population probably by a recent migration event; then the mutation was fixed in a small region due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages and genetic drift. The screening for this mutation should be performed in priority for GSD III molecular diagnosis, for patients from the region of Mahdia and those from regions sharing the same settlement history. PMID:26704523

  9. Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 does not share hypersensitivity to nitric oxide with common types of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.M.; Thomsen, L.L.; Marconi, R.;

    2008-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM-2) and common types of migraine show phenotypic similarities which may indicate a common neurobiological background. The nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway plays a crucial role in migraine pathophysiology. Therefore, we tested...... the hypothesis that ATP1A2 mutations in patients with FHM-2 are associated with hypersensitivity to NO-cGMP pathway. Eight FHM-2 patients with R202Q, R763C, V138A and L764P mutations and nine healthy controls received intravenous infusions of 0.5 mu g kg(-1) min(-1) glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) over 20 min. We...... and area under the curve (AUC) for headache score during an immediate phase (0-120 min) and a delayed phase (2-14 h) after start of infusion. We found no difference in the incidence of reported migraine between FHM-2 patients, 25% (two out of eight), and controls, 0% (0 out of nine) (95% confidence...

  10. A hospital information system based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for exchanging distributed medical objects--an approach to future environment of sharing healthcare information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, K

    1998-01-01

    Tightly related subsystems in a HIS have to exchange medical data flexibly by the data object rather than by the battery of the data. We developed a CPR subsystem based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) that retrieves and stores clinical information in the object-oriented database via Internet Intra-ORB Protocol (IIOP). The system is hybridized with the legacy HIS applications on the client terminals. We believe that our solution and the experiences will contribute to the future CORBA-based environment in which computerized patient information is shared among hospitals, clinics, and tightly related systems.

  11. Major Chromosomal Rearrangements Distinguish Willow and Poplar After the Ancestral "Salicoid" Genome Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jing; Ye, Ning; Dong, Zhongyuan; Lu, Mengzhu; Li, Laigeng; Yin, Tongming

    2016-01-01

    Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) are sister genera in the Salicaceae family. In both lineages extant species are predominantly diploid. Genome analysis previously revealed that the two lineages originated from a common tetraploid ancestor. In this study, we conducted a syntenic comparison of the corresponding 19 chromosome members of the poplar and willow genomes. Our observations revealed that almost every chromosomal segment had a parallel paralogous segment elsewhere in the genomes, and the two lineages shared a similar syntenic pinwheel pattern for most of the chromosomes, which indicated that the two lineages diverged after the genome reorganization in the common progenitor. The pinwheel patterns showed distinct differences for two chromosome pairs in each lineage. Further analysis detected two major interchromosomal rearrangements that distinguished the karyotypes of willow and poplar. Chromosome I of willow was a conjunction of poplar chromosome XVI and the lower portion of poplar chromosome I, whereas willow chromosome XVI corresponded to the upper portion of poplar chromosome I. Scientists have suggested that Populus is evolutionarily more primitive than Salix. Therefore, we propose that, after the "salicoid" duplication event, fission and fusion of the ancestral chromosomes first give rise to the diploid progenitor of extant Populus species. During the evolutionary process, fission and fusion of poplar chromosomes I and XVI subsequently give rise to the progenitor of extant Salix species. This study contributes to an improved understanding of genome divergence after ancient genome duplication in closely related lineages of higher plants. PMID:27352946

  12. Major Chromosomal Rearrangements Distinguish Willow and Poplar After the Ancestral “Salicoid” Genome Duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jing; Ye, Ning; Dong, Zhongyuan; Lu, Mengzhu; Li, Laigeng; Yin, Tongming

    2016-01-01

    Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) are sister genera in the Salicaceae family. In both lineages extant species are predominantly diploid. Genome analysis previously revealed that the two lineages originated from a common tetraploid ancestor. In this study, we conducted a syntenic comparison of the corresponding 19 chromosome members of the poplar and willow genomes. Our observations revealed that almost every chromosomal segment had a parallel paralogous segment elsewhere in the genomes, and the two lineages shared a similar syntenic pinwheel pattern for most of the chromosomes, which indicated that the two lineages diverged after the genome reorganization in the common progenitor. The pinwheel patterns showed distinct differences for two chromosome pairs in each lineage. Further analysis detected two major interchromosomal rearrangements that distinguished the karyotypes of willow and poplar. Chromosome I of willow was a conjunction of poplar chromosome XVI and the lower portion of poplar chromosome I, whereas willow chromosome XVI corresponded to the upper portion of poplar chromosome I. Scientists have suggested that Populus is evolutionarily more primitive than Salix. Therefore, we propose that, after the “salicoid” duplication event, fission and fusion of the ancestral chromosomes first give rise to the diploid progenitor of extant Populus species. During the evolutionary process, fission and fusion of poplar chromosomes I and XVI subsequently give rise to the progenitor of extant Salix species. This study contributes to an improved understanding of genome divergence after ancient genome duplication in closely related lineages of higher plants. PMID:27352946

  13. Pathological relationships involving iron and myelin may constitute a shared mechanism linking various rare and common brain diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Moones; Gerami, Sam H.; Bassett, Brianna; Graham, Ross M.; Chua, Anita C.G.; Aryal, Ritambhara; House, Michael J.; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Bettencourt, Conceição; Houlden, Henry; Ryten, Mina; Olynyk, John K.; Trinder, Debbie; Johnstone, Daniel M.; Milward, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated elevated brain iron levels in myelinated structures and associated cells in a hemochromatosis Hfe−/−xTfr2mut mouse model. This was accompanied by altered expression of a group of myelin-related genes, including a suite of genes causatively linked to the rare disease family ‘neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation’ (NBIA). Expanded data mining and ontological analyses have now identified additional myelin-related transcriptome changes in response to brain iron loading. Concordance between the mouse transcriptome changes and human myelin-related gene expression networks in normal and NBIA basal ganglia testifies to potential clinical relevance. These analyses implicate, among others, genes linked to various rare central hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and peripheral neuropathies including Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease as well as genes linked to other rare neurological diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease. The findings may help understand interrelationships of iron and myelin in more common conditions such as hemochromatosis, multiple sclerosis and various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27500074

  14. Evolutionarily different alphoid repeat DNA on homologous chromosomes in human and chimpanzee.

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, A L; Laursen, H B; Jones, C; Bak, A L

    1992-01-01

    Centromeric alphoid DNA in primates represents a class of evolving repeat DNA. In humans, chromosomes 13 and 21 share one subfamily of alphoid DNA while chromosomes 14 and 22 share another subfamily. We show that similar pairwise homogenizations occur in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), where chromosomes 14 and 22, homologous to human chromosomes 13 and 21, share one partially homogenized alphoid DNA subfamily and chromosomes 15 and 23, homologous to human chromosomes 14 and 22, share anothe...

  15. 普通荞麦染色体的原位PCR技术研究%The In Situ PCR Technology on Chromosome of Common Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李分龙; 陈庆富

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索一种适合荞麦的简单易行的染色体原位PCR技术.[方法]采用16S套式引物、4.5S套式引物与psbA引物,以栽培甜荞为材料,进行染色体原位PCR、原位套式PCR与多次原位PCR试验.[结果]高温干燥可以起到与包埋类似的作用;染色体的原位套式PCR效果比原位PCR明显,多次原位PCR次数为5~6效果较佳.16S引物和4.5S引物均显示了4对信号,但位置不同;而psbA引物是单拷贝的,仅显示出1对信号.根据这些信号的位置差异可以区分普通荞麦的5对染色体.[结论]所使用的荞麦染色体原位PCR技术简单易行.%[ Objective ] The paper aimed to explore a simple in-situ PCR technology for buckwheat. [ Method ] Common buckwheat was taken as experimental material. By using 16S and 4.5S nested primers and psbA primer, the in-situ PCR, nested in-situ PCR and multiple in-situ PCR were carried out respectively. [ Result ] High-temperature drying treatment had the effects similar to that of embedding methods. The effect of the nested in-sim PCR is better than that as usual. A better result could be obtained when the multiple in-situ PCR was performed as many as 5 -6 times. Four pair of signals could be obtained by using both 16S and 4.5S primers, but their sites differed. and psbA primer is a single copy which only shows a signal. A total of five pairs of chromosome of common buchwbeat can be identified according to the difference in the signal's location. [ Conclusion] The used in situ PCR technique for buckwheat is simple and feasible.

  16. 普通荞麦染色体的原位PCR技术研究%The In Situ PCR Technology on Chromosome of Common Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李分龙; 陈庆富

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索一种适合荞麦的简单易行的染色体原位PCR技术.[方法]采用16S套式引物、4.5S套式引物与psbA引物,以栽培甜荞为材料,进行了染色体原位PCR、原位套式PCR与多次原位PCR试验.[结果]高温干燥可以起到与包埋类似的作用;染色体的原位套式PCR效果比原位PCR明显;多次原位PCR次数为5~6效果较佳.16S引物和4.5S引物均显示了4对信号,但位置不同;而psbA引物是单拷贝的,仅显示出1对信号.根据这些信号得位置差异可以区分普通荞麦的5对染色体.[结论]所使用的荞麦染色体原位PCR技术简单易行.%[ Objective] The paper aimed to explore a simple in situ PCR technology for buckwheat. [Method] By using 16S and 4.5S nested primers and psbA primer, the in situ PCR, nested in situ PCR, and multiple in situ PCR were carried out on common buckwheat, respectively.[Result] High-temperature drying treatment had the effects similar to that of embedding method. The effect of the nested in situ PCR is better than conventional in situ PCR. A better result could be obtained till the multiple in situ PCR was performed as many as 5 -6 times. Four pair of signals could be obtained by using both 16S and 4.5S primers, but their sites differed from each other; psbA primer as a single copy only showed a pair of signals. A total of five pairs of common buckwheat chromosome could be identified according to the difference of the signal's location. [ Conclusion ] The chrornosome in situ PCR technique for buckwheat was simple and feasible.

  17. Large scale fusion of gray matter and resting-state functional MRI reveals common and shared biological markers across the psychosis spectrum in the B-SNIP cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether aberrant interactions between brain structure and function present similarly or differently across probands with psychotic illnesses (schizophrenia (SZ, schizoaffective disorder (SAD, and bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BP and whether these deficits are shared with their first-degree non-psychotic relatives. A total of 1199 subjects were assessed, including 220 SZ, 147 SAD, 180 psychotic BP, 150 first-degree relatives of SZ, 126 SAD relatives, 134 BP relatives and 242 healthy controls. All subjects underwent structural MRI (sMRI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI scanning. Joint independent analysis (jICA was used to fuse sMRI gray matter (GM and rs-fMRI amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF data to identify the relationship between the two modalities. Joint ICA revealed two significantly fused components. The association between functional brain alteration in a prefrontal-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar network and structural abnormalities in the default mode network (DMN was found to be common across psychotic diagnoses and correlated with cognitive function, social function and Schizo-Bipolar Scale (SBS scores. The fused alteration in the temporal lobe was unique to SZ and SAD. The above effects were not seen in any relative group (including those with cluster-A personality. Using a multivariate fused approach involving two widely used imaging markers we demonstrate both shared and distinct biological traits across the psychosis spectrum. Further, our results suggest that the above traits are psychosis biomarkers rather than endophenotypes.

  18. Common Vision--Shared Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Chris M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been only a few years since the state of Montana adopted revised standards for Information Literacy/Library Media. In the years since their adoption, the district's curriculum review team, made up of K-12 school librarians, defined the local curriculum directly from these standards. As Montana's school librarians reflect on their…

  19. Large transcription units unify copy number variants and common fragile sites arising under replication stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Thomas E.; Arlt, Martin F.; Park, So Hae; Rajendran, Sountharia; Paulsen, Michelle; Ljungman, Mats; Glover, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) resulting from genomic deletions and duplications and common fragile sites (CFSs) seen as breaks on metaphase chromosomes are distinct forms of structural chromosome instability precipitated by replication inhibition. Although they share a common induction mechanism, it is not known how CNVs and CFSs are related or why some genomic loci are much more prone to their occurrence. Here we compare large sets of de novo CNVs and CFSs in several experimental cell systems ...

  20. 将知识共享进行到底——由Creative Commons到Science Commons%Carrying out Knowledge Sharing: From Creative Commons to Science Commons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海峰; 倪娟

    2009-01-01

    知识共享许可协议作为开放存取运动的一种模式正在为人们所接受,但是在学术出版领域,出版商却凭籍数字技术加强了对学术资源的控制,为此国际知识共享组织成立Science Commons(SC)分支机构,以知识共享的方式来维护作者和读者的利益.论文详细介绍与科研人员学术发表相关的SC出版计划,以期更多的科研人员能够参与其中.

  1. A Click Chemistry‐Based Proteomic Approach Reveals that 1,2,4‐Trioxolane and Artemisinin Antimalarials Share a Common Protein Alkylation Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; Barton, Victoria E.; Panchana, Matthew; Charoensutthivarakul, Sitthivut; Biagini, Giancarlo A.; Ward, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the recent increase in endoperoxide antimalarials under development, it remains unclear if all these chemotypes share a common mechanism of action. This is important since it will influence cross‐resistance risks between the different classes. Here we investigate this proposition using novel clickable 1,2,4‐trioxolane activity based protein‐profiling probes (ABPPs). ABPPs with potent antimalarial activity were able to alkylate protein target(s) within the asexual erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7). Importantly, comparison of the alkylation fingerprint with that generated from an artemisinin ABPP equivalent confirms a highly conserved alkylation profile, with both endoperoxide classes targeting proteins in the glycolytic, hemoglobin degradation, antioxidant defence, protein synthesis and protein stress pathways, essential biological processes for plasmodial survival. The alkylation signatures of the two chemotypes show significant overlap (ca. 90 %) both qualitatively and semi‐quantitatively, suggesting a common mechanism of action that raises concerns about potential cross‐resistance liabilities. PMID:27397940

  2. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  3. Shared Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  4. Delineation of a 6 cM commonly deleted region in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on the 6q chromosomal arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, B; Cavé, H; Guidal, C; Dastugue, N; Vilmer, E; Grandchamp, B

    1997-02-01

    Deletion of the long arm of human chromosome 6 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been shown by cytogenetic studies in 4-11% of cases. To characterize further the region of deletion and to precisely establish its frequency, we studied loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 120 children with ALL using polymorphic markers located from the 6q14-15 chromosomal band to the telomere. LOH was detected in eight patients. A single region of LOH, flanked distally by D6S1594 and proximally by D6S301 was detected. These DNA markers are separated by 6 cM and are approximately located at the 6q21-22 band. Our present results delineate a region that is likely to contain a tumor-suppressor gene involved in a subset of childhood ALLs.

  5. The linkage disequilibrium maps of three human chromosomes across four populations reflect their demographic history and a common underlying recombination pattern

    OpenAIRE

    De La Vega, Francisco M.; Isaac, Hadar; Collins, Andrew; Scafe, Charles R.; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Su, Xiaoping; Lippert, Ross A.; Wang, Yu; Laig-Webster, Marion; Koehler, Ryan T.; Ziegle, Janet S.; Wogan, Lewis T.; Stevens, Junko F.; Leinen, Kyle M.; Olson, Sheri J.

    2005-01-01

    The extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) determine the feasibility of association studies to map genes that underlie complex traits. Here we present a comparison of the patterns of LD across four major human populations (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese) with a high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map covering almost the entire length of chromosomes 6, 21, and 22. We constructed metric LD maps formulated such that the units measure the extent of...

  6. Karyotype, chromosome structure, reproductive modalities of three Southern Eurasian populations of the common lacertid lizard, Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787)

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Kupriyanova; Alex Kuksin; Gaetano Odierna

    2008-01-01

    According to a hypothesis of the evolution of viviparity the lacertid lizard Zootoca vivipara, rare relict oviparous populations of the species might occur in southern-eastern part of its distribution area. Such a hypothesis has been verified by comparing the karyotype, chromosome structure, and reproductive modality of three populations of south-eastern part of Russia, including Altai and neighbouring regions, where small territories remained isolated during the Pleistocene cooling and whe...

  7. [POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS ANALYSIS OF SCREENING IN PREGNANT WOMEN FOR DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER COMMON CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS OVER A PERIOD OF TWO YEARS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmerian M; Angelova L; Ivanov St; Kovachev E

    2016-01-01

    Maternal biochemical screening and the new non-invasive prenatal screening tests as well as prenatal diagnostic tests as tools to fight serious chromosomal diseases have their possibilities and limitations. The article presents analysis of the results in 7 201 pregnant women: 4426 first trimester and 2775 second trimester biochemical screening, together with 994 calculated integrated risks performed in the Laboratory of medical genetics in 2013 and 2014 year. A matter of mass screening in both periods is the criterion of efficiency--financially justified reasons on the basis of comparison "sensitivity" of different approaches. First trimester screening revealed 5 (71.42%) cases of chromosomal disease and 1 (14.28%) case with large congenital anomaly. From second trimester biochemical screening 3 (60%) cases were revealed. Chromosomal pathology in pregnant women with calculated integrated risk was found in 7 (70%) cases. From a total of 22 screened pregnant women with prenatal or postnatal verified diagnosis of Down syndrome, Edvards, Patau or Turner, highest detection rate is found in first trimester screening--6 of 7 (85.7%). Contingent approach is most widely used in Europe and we confidently recommend it. PMID:27514138

  8. A shared promoter region suggests a common ancestor for the human VCX/Y, SPANX, and CSAG gene families and the murine CYPT family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin A; Nielsen, John E; Retelska, Dorota;

    2008-01-01

    Many testis-specific genes from the sex chromosomes are subject to rapid evolution, which can make it difficult to identify murine genes in the human genome. The murine CYPT gene family includes 15 members, but orthologs were undetectable in the human genome. However, using refined homology search...

  9. Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular outcomes in a series of 66 patients with Pierre Robin sequence and literature review: 22q11.2 deletion is less common than other chromosomal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-04-01

    Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is an important craniofacial anomaly that can be seen as an isolated finding or manifestation of multiple syndromes. 22q11.2 deletion and Stickler syndrome are cited as the two most common conditions associated with PRS, but their frequencies are debated. We performed a retrospective study of 66 patients with PRS and reviewed their genetic testing, diagnoses, and clinical findings. The case series is complemented by a comprehensive literature review of the nature and frequency of genetic diagnosis in PRS. In our cohort 65% of patients had associated anomalies; of these, a genetic diagnosis was established in 56%. Stickler syndrome was the most common diagnosis, comprising approximately 11% of all cases, followed by Treacher Collins syndrome (9%). The frequency of 22q11.2 deletion was 1.5%. Chromosome arrays, performed for 72% of idiopathic PRS with associated anomalies, revealed two cases of 18q22→qter deletion, a region not previously reported in association with PRS. A review of the cytogenetic anomalies identified in this population supports an association between the 4q33-qter, 17q24.3, 2q33.1, and 11q23 chromosomal loci and PRS. We found a low frequency of 22q11.2 deletion in PRS, suggesting it is less commonly implicated in this malformation. Our data also indicate a higher frequency of cytogenetic anomalies in PRS patients with associated anomalies, and a potential new link with the 18q22→qter locus. The present findings underscore the utility of chromosomal microarrays in cases of PRS with associated anomalies and suggest that delaying testing for apparently isolated cases should be considered.

  10. Shared and Distinct Genetic Variants in Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smyth, Deborah J.; Plagnol, Vincent; Walker, Neil M.; Cooper, Jason D.; Downes, Kate; Yang, Jennie H. M.; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Stevens, Helen; McManus, Ross; Wijmenga, Cisca; Heap, Graham A.; Dubois, Patrick C.; Clayton, David G.; Hunt, Karen A.; van Heel, David A.; Todd, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Two inflammatory disorders, type 1 diabetes and celiac disease, cosegregate in populations, suggesting a common genetic origin. Since both diseases are associated with the HLA class II genes on chromosome 6p21, we tested whether non-HLA loci are shared. Methods: We evaluated the associat

  11. Chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two supernumerary ring chromosomes 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, N; Brisset, S; Benichou, J-J; Guérin, N; Mabboux, P; Maurin, M-L; Bas, C; Laroudie, M; Picone, O; Goldszmidt, D; Prévot, S; Labrune, P; Tachdjian, G

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of an additional ring chromosome 20 is a rare chromosome abnormality, and no common phenotype has been yet described. We report on two new patients presenting with a supernumerary ring chromosome 20 both prenatally diagnosed. The first presented with intrauterine growth retardation and some craniofacial dysmorphism, and the second case had a normal phenotype except for obesity. Conventional cytogenetic studies showed for each patient a small supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, these SMCs corresponded to ring chromosomes 20 including a part of short and long arms of chromosome 20. Detailed molecular cytogenetic characterization showed different breakpoints (20p11.23 and 20q11.23 for Patient 1 and 20p11.21 and 20q11.21 for Patient 2) and sizes of the two ring chromosomes 20 (13.6 Mb for case 1 and 4.8 Mb for case 2). Review of the 13 case reports of an extra r(20) ascertained postnatally (8 cases) and prenatally (5 cases) showed varying degrees of phenotypic abnormalities. We document a detailed molecular cytogenetic chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two cases of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20. These results emphasize the need to characterize precisely chromosomal breakpoints of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20 in order to establish genotype-phenotype correlation. This report may be helpful for prediction of natural history and outcome, particularly in prenatal diagnosis.

  12. Loss of heterozygosity in the chromosomal region 12p12-13 is very common in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and permits the precise localization of a tumor-suppressor gene distinct from p27KIP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavé, H; Gérard, B; Martin, E; Guidal, C; Devaux, I; Weissenbach, J; Elion, J; Vilmer, E; Grandchamp, B

    1995-11-15

    Abnormalities of the short arm of chromosome 12 are relatively common in hematologic malignancies and deletions of the region. 12p12-13 are found in approximately 5% of the patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). As a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, p27KIP1 prevents the progression of the cell cycle and the gene encoding p27KIP1 represents a potential tumor-suppressor gene. Its recent assignment to the chromosomal region (12p12.3) prompted us to study the p27KIP1 gene in a series of 61 children with ALL. Microsatellite polymorphic markers flanking the p27KIP1 gene were analyzed to detect losses of heterozygosity (LOH). Eleven patients displayed LOH for at least one of the markers. The deleted are encompassed the p27KIP1 gene locus in 10 cases, but inactivation of the remaining allele by deletion, translocation, or mutation was never observed. In addition, in 1 patient, the p27KIP1 gene was situated outside of the region of LOH. Thus, p27KIP1 does not seem to be the target gene of 12p12-13 alterations. However, this study indicates that 12p12-13 alterations at the molecular level, which are present in about 27% of the children with B-lineage ALL, are much more common than had previously been reported by usual chromosome analysis. Moreover, LOH mapping allowed us to better define the location of a putative tumor-suppressor gene implicated in these malignancies and should therefore help in identifying this gene.

  13. Application of quantitative fluorescence PCR for the prenatal diagnosis of common fetal chromosomal aneuploidies%定量荧光PCR在胎儿常见染色体非整倍体产前诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓亮; 张媛媛; 崔婉婷; 何蓉; 赵彦艳

    2015-01-01

    目的 评估定量荧光PCR(quantitative fluorescent PCR,QF-PCR)技术在胎儿常见染色体非整倍体产前诊断中的应用.方法 收集孕18~22周羊水标本2436份,针对21、18、13、性染色体上共32个多态性短串联重复序列(short tandem repeat,STR)位点进行多重QF-PCR扩增及毛细管电泳,所有标本同时进行染色体核型分析.结果 QF-PCR检出胎儿染色体非整倍体76例(3.12%).其中21-三体51例,18-三体12例,13-三体2例,三倍体1例,上述结果与核型分析完全一致;QF-PCR提示性染色体数目异常10例,其中9例与核型分析结果一致,1例经核型分析证实为X染色体结构异常.此外,核型分析检出染色体结构异常24例(0.99%),仅1例QF-PCR显示部分STR位点异常,提示可能存在染色体结构异常;核型分析另检出染色体数目异常嵌合体2例(0.08%),仅1例QF-PCR显示临界值,提示可能为嵌合体.结论 QF-PCR可以准确的诊断21、18、13及性染色体的非整倍体改变,可以用于胎儿常见染色体非整倍体的产前快速筛查.%Objective To assess the value of quantitative fluorescence PCR (QF-PCR) for the prenatal diagnosis of common fetal chromosomal aneuploidies.Methods A total of 2436 amniotic fluid samples were collected at 18 to 22 gestational weeks.Multiplex QF-PCR was performed with fluorescencelabeled primers specific for 32 polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) sites on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X and Y.The PCR products were assayed by capillary electrophoresis.All samples were also assayed by karyotyping.Results Seventy-six (3.12%) samples were diagnosed as chromosomal aneuploidies by QF-PCR, among which 51 were trisomy 21, 12 were trisomy 18, 2 were trisomy 13, and 1 was triploidy.The results were all consistent with those of karyotyping.Ten samples were suspected as sex chromosomal aneuploidies, among which 9 were confirmed, except for 1 case with X structural abnormality.In addition,karyotyping has diagnosed 24 (0

  14. Everyday executive functions in Down syndrome from early childhood to young adulthood: Evidence for both unique and shared characteristics compared to youth with sex chromosome trisomy (XXX and XXY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Raitano Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF are thought to be impaired in Down syndrome (DS and sex chromosome trisomy (Klinefelter and Trisomy X syndromes; +1X. However, the syndromic specificity and developmental trajectories associated with EF difficulties in these groups are poorly understood. The current investigation (a compared everyday EF difficulties in youth with DS, +1X, and typical development (TD; and (b examined relations between age and EF difficulties in these two groups and a TD control group cross-sectionally. Study 1 investigated the syndromic specificity of EF profiles on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF in DS (n=30, +1X (n=30, and a TD group (n=30, ages 5-18 years. Study 2 examined age effects on EF in the same cross-sectional sample of participants included in Study 1. Study 3 sought to replicate Study 2’s findings for DS by examining age-EF relations in a large independent sample of youth with DS (n=85 and TD (n=43, ages 4-24 years. Study 1 found evidence for both unique and shared EF impairments for the DS and +1X groups. Most notably, youth with +1X had relatively uniform EF impairments on the BRIEF scales, while the DS group showed an uneven BRIEF profile with relative strengths and weaknesses. Studies 2 and 3 provided support for fairly similar age-EF relations in the DS and TD groups. In contrast, for the +1X group, findings were mixed; 6 BRIEF scales showed similar age-EF relations to the TD group and 2 showed greater EF difficulties at older ages for +1X. These findings will be discussed within the context of efforts to identify syndrome specific cognitive-behavioral profiles for youth with different genetic syndromes in order to inform basic science investigations into the etiology of EF difficulties in these groups and to develop treatment approaches that are tailored to the needs of these groups.

  15. Everyday executive functions in Down syndrome from early childhood to young adulthood: evidence for both unique and shared characteristics compared to youth with sex chromosome trisomy (XXX and XXY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Anand, Payal; Will, Elizabeth; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I; Clasen, Liv S; Blumenthal, Jonathan D; Giedd, Jay N; Daunhauer, Lisa A; Fidler, Deborah J; Edgin, Jamie O

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are thought to be impaired in Down syndrome (DS) and sex chromosome trisomy (Klinefelter and Trisomy X syndromes; +1X). However, the syndromic specificity and developmental trajectories associated with EF difficulties in these groups are poorly understood. The current investigation (a) compared everyday EF difficulties in youth with DS, +1X, and typical development (TD); and (b) examined relations between age and EF difficulties in these two groups and a TD control group cross-sectionally. Study 1 investigated the syndromic specificity of EF profiles on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in DS (n = 30), +1X (n = 30), and a TD group (n = 30), ages 5-18 years. Study 2 examined age effects on EF in the same cross-sectional sample of participants included in Study 1. Study 3 sought to replicate Study 2's findings for DS by examining age-EF relations in a large independent sample of youth with DS (n = 85) and TD (n = 43), ages 4-24 years. Study 1 found evidence for both unique and shared EF impairments for the DS and +1X groups. Most notably, youth with +1X had relatively uniform EF impairments on the BRIEF scales, while the DS group showed an uneven BRIEF profile with relative strengths and weaknesses. Studies 2 and 3 provided support for fairly similar age-EF relations in the DS and TD groups. In contrast, for the +1X group, findings were mixed; 6 BRIEF scales showed similar age-EF relations to the TD group and 2 showed greater EF difficulties at older ages for +1X. These findings will be discussed within the context of efforts to identify syndrome specific cognitive-behavioral profiles for youth with different genetic syndromes in order to inform basic science investigations into the etiology of EF difficulties in these groups and to develop treatment approaches that are tailored to the needs of these groups. PMID:26539087

  16. Everyday executive functions in Down syndrome from early childhood to young adulthood: evidence for both unique and shared characteristics compared to youth with sex chromosome trisomy (XXX and XXY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Anand, Payal; Will, Elizabeth; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I; Clasen, Liv S; Blumenthal, Jonathan D; Giedd, Jay N; Daunhauer, Lisa A; Fidler, Deborah J; Edgin, Jamie O

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are thought to be impaired in Down syndrome (DS) and sex chromosome trisomy (Klinefelter and Trisomy X syndromes; +1X). However, the syndromic specificity and developmental trajectories associated with EF difficulties in these groups are poorly understood. The current investigation (a) compared everyday EF difficulties in youth with DS, +1X, and typical development (TD); and (b) examined relations between age and EF difficulties in these two groups and a TD control group cross-sectionally. Study 1 investigated the syndromic specificity of EF profiles on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in DS (n = 30), +1X (n = 30), and a TD group (n = 30), ages 5-18 years. Study 2 examined age effects on EF in the same cross-sectional sample of participants included in Study 1. Study 3 sought to replicate Study 2's findings for DS by examining age-EF relations in a large independent sample of youth with DS (n = 85) and TD (n = 43), ages 4-24 years. Study 1 found evidence for both unique and shared EF impairments for the DS and +1X groups. Most notably, youth with +1X had relatively uniform EF impairments on the BRIEF scales, while the DS group showed an uneven BRIEF profile with relative strengths and weaknesses. Studies 2 and 3 provided support for fairly similar age-EF relations in the DS and TD groups. In contrast, for the +1X group, findings were mixed; 6 BRIEF scales showed similar age-EF relations to the TD group and 2 showed greater EF difficulties at older ages for +1X. These findings will be discussed within the context of efforts to identify syndrome specific cognitive-behavioral profiles for youth with different genetic syndromes in order to inform basic science investigations into the etiology of EF difficulties in these groups and to develop treatment approaches that are tailored to the needs of these groups.

  17. 鲤鱼冻血细胞培养及染色体制备条件优化研究%Optimum Conditions Research on Frozen Blood Cell Cultivation and Chromosome Preparation of Common Carp( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晶; 张桂贤; 李运东; 刘青; 陈维伟

    2012-01-01

    鱼类染色体制备方法中,外周血淋巴细胞培养法远远优于PHA体内注射法,使用冻血省力省功。由于外周血培养需要一定的条件和技术。该文就鲤鱼血液保存方法、细胞培养温度、秋水仙素处理浓度及滴加时间、低渗温度、固定处理次数等条件进行分析,得到较好的鲤鱼全血细胞培养及染色体标本制备方法,可为鲤鱼分子细胞遗传的后续研究奠定基础。%Among fish chromosomes preparation methods ,the peripheral blood lymphocyte cuhure method is far superior to the PHA shots in the body.Frozen blood is easier to get ,but peripheral blood cultivation need some conditions and techniques. This experiment analyzed the common carp blood conservation techniques,cell culture temperature,concentrations of colchicine and adding-time,hypotonic treatment temperature,fixed processing times and so on.It got a good carp complete blood incubation and chromosome preparation methods,which laid the foundation of the follow-up molecular cytogenetics research of carp.

  18. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Data Modeling and Sharing Perspective for Development of a Common Operating Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This report documents analyses that were performed in support of Task #3 of Work Package #3 (WP3), ROA Impact on the NAS. The purpose of the overall work package was to determine if there are any serious issues that would prevent or prohibit ROA's flying in the NAS on a routine basis, and if so, what actions should be taken to address them. The purpose of Task #3 was to look at this problem from the perspective of data modeling and sharing.

  19. Chromosome therapy. Correction of large chromosomal aberrations by inducing ring chromosomes in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyun; Bershteyn, Marina; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The fusion of the short (p) and long (q) arms of a chromosome is referred to as a "ring chromosome." Ring chromosome disorders occur in approximately 1 in 50,000-100,000 patients. Ring chromosomes can result in birth defects, mental disabilities, and growth retardation if additional genes are deleted during the formation of the ring. Due to the severity of these large-scale aberrations affecting multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have so far been proposed. Our recent study (Bershteyn et al.) using patient-derived fibroblast lines containing ring chromosomes, found that cellular reprogramming of these fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resulted in the cell-autonomous correction of the ring chromosomal aberration via compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD). These observations have important implications for studying the mechanism of chromosomal number control and may lead to the development of effective therapies for other, more common, chromosomal aberrations.

  20. Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls

    OpenAIRE

    Craddock, Nick; Hurles, Matthew E.; Cardin, Niall; Pearson, Richard D.; Plagnol, Vincent; Robson, Samuel; Vukcevic, Damjan; Barnes, Chris; Conrad, Donald F.; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Holmes, Chris; Marchini, Jonathan L.; Stirrups, Kathy; Martin D Tobin; Wain, Louise V.

    2010-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed 19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pa...

  1. Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in two population samples: Azores Islands and Central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Mónica; Anjos, Maria João; Andrade, Lisa; Lopes, Virgínia; Santos, Márcia V.; Gamero, Joaquín-Jose; Corte Real, Francisco; Vide, Maria-Conceição

    2003-01-01

    The Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by nine STRs (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393) were studied in 207 unrelated individuals from Central Portugal and 63 from Azores Islands. The most common haplotype in Central Portugal was shared by 3.4% of the males, while 160 haplotypes were unique. In Azores Islands the most common haplotype was shared by 6.4% of the males, while 40 haplotypes were unique. The values of haplotype diversity were 0.993 for Central Portug...

  2. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH SPERM DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Y. Pylyp; L. A. Spinenko; V. D. Zukin; N. M. Bilko

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intrac...

  3. 红鲫(♀)×鲤(♂)杂交鱼的胚胎染色体组倍性研究%Studies of chromosome sets in embryonic cell of hybrid fish of red crucian crap( ♀ ) x common crap( ♂ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯; 刘少军; 李涛; 刘筠

    2011-01-01

    In the catalog,the red crucian carp( Carassius auratus red var. ) with 100 chromsomes belongs to the Cyprinidae, Cyprinidae subfamily, Carassius, with karyotype of 22m + S4sm + 22st + 22t; and the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. ) with 100 chromosomes belongs to the Cyprinidae, Cyprinidae subfamily, Cyprinus, with karyotype of 22m +34sm +22^ +22/. The previous studies had indicated that the first (F,) and second generation ( F2) of hybrid fish of red crucian carp ( 2 ) x common carp ( 8 ) were diploid, and F2 hybrids could produce unreduced eggs and sperms, which mated each other to form fertile allotetraploid hybrid fish( F3). In order to explore the pathway of polyploidy occurrence in distant crossing of red crucian caip and common carp and the potential of producing unreduced gametes of F2 hybrids, we studied the chromosome in embryonic cell of F, and F, hybrid fish. The result showed that the F, embryo was diploid, no haploid and polyploidy embryos were observed. While F3 embryos showed 100,150,200 and even 300 chromosomes, and it was inferred that the chromosomes number in germ cells of F2 had doubled one or more times, and the F2 produced diploid and polyploidy gametes, which mated each other to form F3 embryos with different ploidy. Taken together,it was concluded that F, hybrids which come from crossing parents with similar genome size and karyotype, have not displayed polyploidization, while the diploid hybrid progenies could produce unreduced gametes, they fertilized to form polyploidy fish in F3. The pathway provided important guidance for the study of breeding polyploidy fish by distant crossing.%红鲫属于鲤科、鲤亚科、鲫属,染色体数目为2n= 100,核型为22m +34sm +22st +22t;鲤属于鲤科、鲤亚科、鲤属,染色体数目为2n= 100,核型为22m+ 34sin+ 22st+ 22t.已有研究表明,红鲫(♀)×鲤(♂)杂交第一代(F1)和第二代(F2)为二倍体,F2能产生染色体数不减数的配子,在第三代(F3)

  4. The most common Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule shares peptide binding repertoire with the HLA-B7 supertype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, C.; Southwood, S.; Hoof, Ilka;

    2010-01-01

    Of the two rhesus macaque subspecies used for AIDS studies, the Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection, providing both insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel vaccines. Despite the Chinese rhesus...... macaque potentially being a more relevant model for AIDS outcomes than the Indian rhesus macaque, the Chinese-origin rhesus macaques have not been well-characterized for their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) composition and function, reducing their greater utilization. In this study, we...... sequences identified were novel. From all MHC alleles detected, we prioritized Mamu-A1*02201 for functional characterization based on its higher frequency of expression. Upon the development of MHC/peptide binding assays and definition of its associated motif, we revealed that this allele shares peptide...

  5. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed. PMID:26753081

  6. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed. PMID:26753081

  7. The Share Price Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Edward A. Dyl

    2006-01-01

    We document substantial variation in the prices of common stocks in U.S. markets due to firms selecting particular price ranges for their shares. Cross-sectional evidence indicates that variables consistent with Merton's model of capital market equilibrium explain roughly two-thirds of this variation in share prices. In addition, measures of trading range and share price appreciation predict stock splits, and the "investor base" of firms that split their stock increases compared to other firm...

  8. Immunity related genes in dipterans share common enrichment of AT-rich motifs in their 5' regulatory regions that are potentially involved in nucleosome formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Mario H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in response to environmental challenges is of fundamental importance in biology. Transcription factors associated to response elements and the chromatin structure had proven to play important roles in gene expression regulation. We have analyzed promoter regions of dipteran genes induced in response to immune challenge, in search for particular sequence patterns involved in their transcriptional regulation. Results 5' upstream regions of D. melanogaster and A. gambiae immunity-induced genes and their corresponding orthologous genes in 11 non-melanogaster drosophilid species and Ae. aegypti share enrichment in AT-rich short motifs. AT-rich motifs are associated with nucleosome formation as predicted by two different algorithms. In A. gambiae and D. melanogaster, many immunity genes 5' upstream sequences also showed NFκB response elements, located within 500 bp from the transcription start site. In A. gambiae, the frequency of ATAA motif near the NFκB response elements was increased, suggesting a functional link between nucleosome formation/remodelling and NFκB regulation of transcription. Conclusion AT-rich motif enrichment in 5' upstream sequences in A. gambiae, Ae. aegypti and the Drosophila genus immunity genes suggests a particular pattern of nucleosome formation/chromatin organization. The co-occurrence of such motifs with the NFκB response elements suggests that these sequence signatures may be functionally involved in transcriptional activation during dipteran immune response. AT-rich motif enrichment in regulatory regions in this group of co-regulated genes could represent an evolutionary constrained signature in dipterans and perhaps other distantly species.

  9. Defining the ancestral eutherian karyotype: a cladistic interpretation of chromosome painting and genome sequence assembly data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terence J; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2008-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of genome assemblies (syntenic associations) for eutherian mammals against two distant outgroup species--opossum and chicken--permitted a refinement of the 46-chromosome karyotype formerly inferred in the ancestral eutherian. We show that two intact chromosome pairs (corresponding to human chromosomes 13 and 18) and three conserved chromosome segments (10q, 19p and 8q in the human karyotype) are probably symplesiomorphic for Eutheria because they are also present as unaltered orthologues in one or both outgroups. Seven additional syntenies (4q/8p/4pq, 3p/21, 14/15, 10p/12pq/22qt, 19q/16q, 16p/7a and 12qt/22q), each involving human chromosomal segments that in various combinations correspond to complete chromosomes in the ancestral eutherian karyotype, are also present in one or both outgroup taxa and thus are probable symplesiomorphies for Eutheria. Interestingly, several of the symplesiomorphic characters identified in chicken and/or opossum are present in more distant outgroups such as pufferfish and zebrafish (for example 3p/21, 14/15, 19q/16q and 16p/7a), suggesting their retention since vertebrate common ancestry approximately 450 million years ago. However, eight intact pairs (corresponding to human chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 9, 11, 17, 20 and the X) and three chromosome segments (7b, 2p-q13 and 2q13-qter) are derived characters potentially consistent with eutherian monophyly. Our analyses clarify the distinction between shared-ancestral and shared-derived homology in the eutherian ancestral karyotype.

  10. Do long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice share common anti-aging mechanisms?--a pathological point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Yuji; Lew, Christie M; Cortez, Lisa A; Webb, Celeste R; Lee, Shuko; Hubbard, Gene B

    2006-06-01

    Rodent models are an invaluable resource for studying the mechanism of mammalian aging. In recent years, the availability of transgenic and knockout mouse models has facilitated the study of potential mechanisms of aging. Since 1996, aging studies with several long-lived mutant mice have been conducted. Studies with the long-lived mutant mice, Ames and Snell dwarf, and growth hormone receptor/binding protein knockout mice, are currently providing important clues regarding the role of the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor-1 axis in the aging process. Interestingly, these studies demonstrate that these long-lived mutant mice have physiological characteristics that are similar to the effects of calorie restriction, which has been the most effective experimental manipulation capable of extending lifespan in various species. However, a question remains to be answered: do these long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice extend their lifespan through a common underlying mechanism? PMID:19943137

  11. Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Saura, Anssi; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O.; Brown, Keith S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results i...

  12. Feasibility of physical map construction from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of polyploid plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doležel Jaroslav

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of closely related genomes in polyploid species makes the assembly of total genomic sequence from shotgun sequence reads produced by the current sequencing platforms exceedingly difficult, if not impossible. Genomes of polyploid species could be sequenced following the ordered-clone sequencing approach employing contigs of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones and BAC-based physical maps. Although BAC contigs can currently be constructed for virtually any diploid organism with the SNaPshot high-information-content-fingerprinting (HICF technology, it is currently unknown if this is also true for polyploid species. It is possible that BAC clones from orthologous regions of homoeologous chromosomes would share numerous restriction fragments and be therefore included into common contigs. Because of this and other concerns, physical mapping utilizing the SNaPshot HICF of BAC libraries of polyploid species has not been pursued and the possibility of doing so has not been assessed. The sole exception has been in common wheat, an allohexaploid in which it is possible to construct single-chromosome or single-chromosome-arm BAC libraries from DNA of flow-sorted chromosomes and bypass the obstacles created by polyploidy. Results The potential of the SNaPshot HICF technology for physical mapping of polyploid plants utilizing global BAC libraries was evaluated by assembling contigs of fingerprinted clones in an in silico merged BAC library composed of single-chromosome libraries of two wheat homoeologous chromosome arms, 3AS and 3DS, and complete chromosome 3B. Because the chromosome arm origin of each clone was known, it was possible to estimate the fidelity of contig assembly. On average 97.78% or more clones, depending on the library, were from a single chromosome arm. A large portion of the remaining clones was shown to be library contamination from other chromosomes, a feature that is unavoidable during the

  13. Structural Analysis of DFG-in and DFG-out Dual Src-Abl Inhibitors Sharing a Common Vinyl Purine Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C. (ARIAD)

    2010-09-30

    Bcr-Abl is the oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment of the disease with imatinib (Gleevec) often results in drug resistance via kinase mutations at the advanced phases of the disease, which has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, notably against the T315I gatekeeper mutation. As part of our efforts to discover such mutation resistant Abl inhibitors, we have focused on optimizing purine template kinase inhibitors, leading to the discovery of potent DFG-in and DFG-out series of Abl inhibitors that are also potent Src inhibitors. Here we present crystal structures of Abl bound by two such inhibitors, based on a common N9-arenyl purine, and that represent both DFG-in and -out binding modes. In each structure the purine template is bound deeply in the adenine pocket and the novel vinyl linker forms a non-classical hydrogen bond to the gatekeeper residue, Thr315. Specific template substitutions promote either a DFG-in or -out binding mode, with the kinase binding site adjusting to optimize molecular recognition. Bcr-Abl T315I mutant kinase is resistant to all currently marketed Abl inhibitors, and is the focus of intense drug discovery efforts. Notably, our DFG-out inhibitor, AP24163, exhibits modest activity against this mutant, illustrating that this kinase mutant can be inhibited by DFG-out class inhibitors. Furthermore our DFG-out inhibitor exhibits dual Src-Abl activity, absent from the prototypical DFG-out inhibitor, imatinib as well as its analog, nilotinib. The data presented here provides structural guidance for the further design of novel potent DFG-out class inhibitors against Src, Abl and Abl T315I mutant kinases.

  14. Inhibitory and excitatory axon terminals share a common nano-architecture of their Cav2.1 (P/Q-type Ca2+ channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eAlthof

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuning of the time course and strength of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter release is fundamental for the precise operation of cortical network activity and is controlled by Ca2+ influx into presynaptic terminals through the high voltage-activated P/Q-type Ca2+ (Cav2.1 channels. Proper channel-mediated Ca2+-signaling critically depends on the topographical arrangement of the channels in the presynaptic membrane. Here, we used high-resolution SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica immunoelectron microscopy together with automatized computational analysis of Cav2.1 immunogold labeling to determine the precise subcellular organization of Cav2.1 channels in both inhibitory and excitatory terminals. Immunoparticles labeling the pore-forming α1 subunit of Cav2.1 channels were enriched over the active zone of the boutons with the number of channels (3-62 linearly correlated with the area of the synaptic membrane. Detailed analysis showed that Cav2.1 channels are non-uniformly distributed over the presynaptic membrane specialization where they are arranged in clusters of an average 5 channels per cluster covering a mean area with a diameter of about 70 nm. Importantly, clustered arrangement and cluster properties did not show any significant difference between GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals. Our data demonstrate a common nano-architecture of Cav2.1 channels in inhibitory and excitatory boutons in CA1 hippocampal neurons suggesting that the cluster arrangement is crucial for the precise release of transmitters from the axonal boutons.

  15. Inhibitory and excitatory axon terminals share a common nano-architecture of their Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Daniel; Baehrens, David; Watanabe, Masahiko; Suzuki, Noboru; Fakler, Bernd; Kulik, Ákos

    2015-01-01

    Tuning of the time course and strength of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter release is fundamental for the precise operation of cortical network activity and is controlled by Ca(2+) influx into presynaptic terminals through the high voltage-activated P/Q-type Ca(2+) (Cav2.1) channels. Proper channel-mediated Ca(2+)-signaling critically depends on the topographical arrangement of the channels in the presynaptic membrane. Here, we used high-resolution SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica immunoelectron microscopy together with automatized computational analysis of Cav2.1 immunogold labeling to determine the precise subcellular organization of Cav2.1 channels in both inhibitory and excitatory terminals. Immunoparticles labeling the pore-forming α1 subunit of Cav2.1 channels were enriched over the active zone of the boutons with the number of channels (3-62) correlated with the area of the synaptic membrane. Detailed analysis showed that Cav2.1 channels are non-uniformly distributed over the presynaptic membrane specialization where they are arranged in clusters of an average five channels per cluster covering a mean area with a diameter of about 70 nm. Importantly, clustered arrangement and cluster properties did not show any significant difference between GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals. Our data demonstrate a common nano-architecture of Cav2.1 channels in inhibitory and excitatory boutons in stratum radiatum of the hippocampal CA1 area suggesting that the cluster arrangement is crucial for the precise release of transmitters from the axonal boutons. PMID:26321916

  16. The Digital Library of the Commons - A Public-Service Space for Resources Sharing%公众共享数字图书馆——国际文献资源共享空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕权; 田硕

    2011-01-01

    Designed to be "a gateway to the international literature on the commons", the Digital Library of the Commons is a collaborative project of the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis and Indiana University Digital Library Program (DLP). The library provides free and open access to full-text articles, papers and dissertations pertaining to the commons, common-pool resources and common property. It also provides space for sharing research on the concept and practical implications of the commons around the world, in physical and virtual communities. The article presents an extended review on the project's backgrounds, resources organization, technological features and services provided Authors' comments and suggestions are also presented for future improvements of the project%公众共享数字图书馆(Digital Library of the Commons)是一个服务公众的资源共享国际文献库,作为印第安纳大学政治理论和政策分析研究室和印第安纳大学数字图书馆项目的一个合作工程,其主要任务是免费向公众提供有关共享资源、公共集中资源和公共财产方面的国际文献.文章从项目概述、资源组织、服务及技术特征等方面对该数字图书馆进行了综合性描述和介绍,同时给出了作者的评价和建议.

  17. Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Constantiou, Ioanna; Thoma, Antonela

    De spite the hype the notion of the sharing economy is surrounded by, our understanding of sharing is surprisingly undertheorized. In this paper, we make a first step towards rem edying this state of affairs by analy sing sharing as a s ocial practice. Based on a multi ple - case study, we analys...

  18. Analysis of the DNA sequence and duplication history of human chromosome 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zody, Michael C; Garber, Manuel; Sharpe, Ted; Young, Sarah K; Rowen, Lee; O'Neill, Keith; Whittaker, Charles A; Kamal, Michael; Chang, Jean L; Cuomo, Christina A; Dewar, Ken; FitzGerald, Michael G; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Madan, Anup; Qin, Shizhen; Yang, Xiaoping; Abbasi, Nissa; Abouelleil, Amr; Arachchi, Harindra M; Baradarani, Lida; Birditt, Brian; Bloom, Scott; Bloom, Toby; Borowsky, Mark L; Burke, Jeremy; Butler, Jonathan; Cook, April; DeArellano, Kurt; DeCaprio, David; Dorris, Lester; Dors, Monica; Eichler, Evan E; Engels, Reinhard; Fahey, Jessica; Fleetwood, Peter; Friedman, Cynthia; Gearin, Gary; Hall, Jennifer L; Hensley, Grace; Johnson, Ericka; Jones, Charlien; Kamat, Asha; Kaur, Amardeep; Locke, Devin P; Madan, Anuradha; Munson, Glen; Jaffe, David B; Lui, Annie; Macdonald, Pendexter; Mauceli, Evan; Naylor, Jerome W; Nesbitt, Ryan; Nicol, Robert; O'Leary, Sinéad B; Ratcliffe, Amber; Rounsley, Steven; She, Xinwei; Sneddon, Katherine M B; Stewart, Sandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Stone, Sabrina M; Topham, Kerri; Vincent, Dascena; Wang, Shunguang; Zimmer, Andrew R; Birren, Bruce W; Hood, Leroy; Lander, Eric S; Nusbaum, Chad

    2006-03-30

    Here we present a finished sequence of human chromosome 15, together with a high-quality gene catalogue. As chromosome 15 is one of seven human chromosomes with a high rate of segmental duplication, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the duplication structure of the chromosome. Segmental duplications in chromosome 15 are largely clustered in two regions, on proximal and distal 15q; the proximal region is notable because recombination among the segmental duplications can result in deletions causing Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. Sequence analysis shows that the proximal and distal regions of 15q share extensive ancient similarity. Using a simple approach, we have been able to reconstruct many of the events by which the current duplication structure arose. We find that most of the intrachromosomal duplications seem to share a common ancestry. Finally, we demonstrate that some remaining gaps in the genome sequence are probably due to structural polymorphisms between haplotypes; this may explain a significant fraction of the gaps remaining in the human genome. PMID:16572171

  19. Shared pledge shared vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a pledge by African leaders to eradicate poverty and to promote sustainable growth and development. NEPAD is a 'new framework of interaction with the rest of the world, including the industrialised countries and multilateral organizations.' The agenda is based on regional priorities and development plans and its implementation relies on African ownership and management. As a UN system organisation, the IAEA strongly supports the priorities identified in the Millennium Declaration and the New Partnership for Africa's Development. As a technical agency, the IAEA shares its recognized core competencies and technical expertise in support of NEPAD goals. Efforts aim at strengthening institutional capacity building in nuclear sciences and technology and promoting the sustainable application of nuclear techniques for social and economic development. The IAEA has a membership of 34 African countries. The Agency supports them under its technical cooperation programme through provision of expertise, training opportunities and equipment in priority areas identified by the countries themselves. For many African Member States, meeting basic human needs through the implementation of poverty alleviation strategies remains the top priority on the agenda for national development plans and international cooperation programmes. In the context of sustainable development, special attention is being paid to enlarging the contribution of isotopes and nuclear techniques in major areas of economic and social significance and to promoting regional cooperation in nuclear science and technology related fields. As a partner in development, the Agency has promoted and undertaken programmes to support African countries' efforts to address priority development issues particularly in the areas of health care, food and agriculture and water resources development. The IAEA technical cooperation mechanism includes support to the African Regional

  20. X-Chromosome dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, flies, and worms, sex is determined by distinctive regulatory mechanisms that cause males (XO or XY) and females (XX) to differ in their dose of X chromosomes. In each species, an essential X chromosome-wide process called dosage compensation ensures that somatic cells of either sex express equal levels of X-linked gene products. The strategies used to achieve dosage compensation are diverse, but in all cases, specialized complexes are targeted specifically to the X chromosome(s) of only one sex to regulate transcript levels. In C. elegans, this sex-specific targeting of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) is controlled by the same developmental signal that establishes sex, the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A signal). Molecular components of this chromosome counting process have been defined. Following a common step of regulation, sex determination and dosage compensation are controlled by distinct genetic pathways. C. elegans dosage compensation is implemented by a protein complex that binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to reduce transcript levels by one-half. The dosage compensation complex resembles the conserved 13S condensin complex required for both mitotic and meiotic chromosome resolution and condensation, implying the recruitment of ancient proteins to the new task of regulating gene expression. Within each C. elegans somatic cell, one of the DCC components also participates in the separate mitotic/meiotic condensin complex. Other DCC components play pivotal roles in regulating the number and distribution of crossovers during meiosis. The strategy by which C. elegans X chromosomes attract the condensin-like DCC is known. Small, well-dispersed X-recognition elements act as entry sites to recruit the dosage compensation complex and to nucleate spreading of the complex to X regions that lack recruitment sites. In this manner, a repressed chromatin state is spread in cis over short or long distances, thus establishing the

  1. Value of quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction in the rapid prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal aneuploidies%QF-PCR快速产前诊断常见非整倍体病的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪妍; 朱津; 卢燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) in the prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal aneuploidies. Methods A total of 1 035 pregnant women received pre-natal diagnosis in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2014 were selected, which were all tested by karyotype analy-sis and QF-PCR. The results of the two methods were compared. Results Among the 1 008 cases that were normal by karyotype analysis, 4 were abnormal in QF-PCR, in which 1 was proved to be normal by follow-up and 3 were proved to be normal by short tandem report (STR). Eighteen cases were diagnosed as abnormal involving chromosome 21, 18, 13, X and Y both by karyotype analysis and QF-PCR, including 1 case of trisomy mosaicism 18 and 1 cases of transloca-tion trisomy 21. The coincidence rate was 100%. Conclusion QF-PCR could provide rapid and effective diagnosis for chromosomal aneuploidies, but misdiagnosis may still occur. The appropriate STR combination can improve the detec-tion efficiency. It is an efficient and reliable method for rapid prenatal diagnosis, which provides an important supple-ment for karyotype analysis.%目的 评价荧光定量聚合酶链反应(OF-PCR)技术在产前快速诊断常见染色体非整倍体病的临床价值.方法 选取2013年1月至2014年6月在我院进行产前诊断的孕妇1 035例,所有孕妇均接受染色体核型分析及QF-PCR检查,比较并分析两种检验结果的符合性.结果 染色体核型分析正常的孕妇1 008例中有4例QF-PCR怀疑异常,其中3例经增加短串联重复序列(STR)位点再次分析,结果正常,1例随访未见异常.18例21、18、13、X、Y染色体非整倍体两者结果一致(包括1例18三体嵌合体及1例易位型21-三体),符合率为100%.结论 QF-PCR能快速高效的检出染色体非整倍体,但仍有误诊可能,选择适宜的STR组合可以提高检测效率,QF-PCR作为染色体核型分析的有效补充在快速产前诊断中有重要价值.

  2. Detecting Long-Range Enhancer-Promoter Interactions by Quantitative Chromosome Conformation Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wulan; Blobel, Gerd A

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and its derivatives are currently the primary methodologies measuring contacts among genomic elements. In fact, the lion share of what is currently known about chromosome folding is based on 3C-related approaches. For example, distal enhancers are commonly in physically proximity with their target genes, forming chromatin loops. Additional layers of chromatin organization have been described using 3C-based techniques, including topological domains (TADs) and sub-TADs. Finally, inter-chromosomal interactions have been reported although they are much less frequent. 3C is becoming increasingly widespread in its use for understanding genome organization. Here we provide a protocol for quantitative 3C using real-time PCR analysis, along with essential quality controls and normalization methods. PMID:27662870

  3. How does DNA break during chromosomal translocations?

    OpenAIRE

    Nambiar, Mridula; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are one of the most common types of genetic rearrangements and are molecular signatures for many types of cancers. They are considered as primary causes for cancers, especially lymphoma and leukemia. Although many translocations have been reported in the last four decades, the mechanism by which chromosomes break during a translocation remains largely unknown. In this review, we summarize recent advances made in understanding the molecular mechanism of chromosomal t...

  4. Meiosis I: When Chromosomes Undergo Extreme Makeover

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Matthew P.; Amon, Angelika; Ünal, Elçin

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate success of cell division relies on the accurate partitioning of the genetic material. Errors in this process occur in nearly all tumors and are the leading cause of miscarriages and congenital birth defects in humans. Two cell divisions, mitosis and meiosis, use common as well as unique mechanisms to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. In mitosis, alternating rounds of DNA replication and chromosome segregation preserves the chromosome complement of the progenitor cell. In co...

  5. File sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Eijk

    2011-01-01

    ‘File sharing’ has become generally accepted on the Internet. Users share files for downloading music, films, games, software etc. In this note, we have a closer look at the definition of file sharing, the legal and policy-based context as well as enforcement issues. The economic and cultural impact

  6. Sharing Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Sahasranand, K R

    2010-01-01

    Almost all known secret sharing schemes work on numbers. Such methods will have difficulty in sharing graphs since the number of graphs increases exponentially with the number of nodes. We propose a secret sharing scheme for graphs where we use graph intersection for reconstructing the secret which is hidden as a sub graph in the shares. Our method does not rely on heavy computational operations such as modular arithmetic or polynomial interpolation but makes use of very basic operations like assignment and checking for equality, and graph intersection can also be performed visually. In certain cases, the secret could be reconstructed using just pencil and paper by authorised parties but cannot be broken by an adversary even with unbounded computational power. The method achieves perfect secrecy for (2, n) scheme and requires far fewer operations compared to Shamir's algorithm. The proposed method could be used to share objects such as matrices, sets, plain text and even a heterogeneous collection of these. S...

  7. Shared leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Müller, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, this paper comprehensively will review the conceptual and empirical literature to identify such critical underlying mechanisms which enable shared or collective leadership. Second, this article identifies the antecedents and outcomes of shared leadership...... according to the literature review to develop a re-conceptualised and synthesized framework for managing the organizational issues associated with shared leadership on various organizational levels. The paper rectifies this by identifying the critical factors and mechanisms which enable shared leadership...... and its antecedents and outcomes, and to develop a re-conceptualized and synthesized framework of shared leadership. The paper closes with a brief discussion of avenues for future research and implications for managers....

  8. Mine, yours, ours? Sharing data on human genetic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Milia

    Full Text Available The achievement of a robust, effective and responsible form of data sharing is currently regarded as a priority for biological and bio-medical research. Empirical evaluations of data sharing may be regarded as an indispensable first step in the identification of critical aspects and the development of strategies aimed at increasing availability of research data for the scientific community as a whole. Research concerning human genetic variation represents a potential forerunner in the establishment of widespread sharing of primary datasets. However, no specific analysis has been conducted to date in order to ascertain whether the sharing of primary datasets is common-practice in this research field. To this aim, we analyzed a total of 543 mitochondrial and Y chromosomal datasets reported in 508 papers indexed in the Pubmed database from 2008 to 2011. A substantial portion of datasets (21.9% was found to have been withheld, while neither strong editorial policies nor high impact factor proved to be effective in increasing the sharing rate beyond the current figure of 80.5%. Disaggregating datasets for research fields, we could observe a substantially lower sharing in medical than evolutionary and forensic genetics, more evident for whole mtDNA sequences (15.0% vs 99.6%. The low rate of positive responses to e-mail requests sent to corresponding authors of withheld datasets (28.6% suggests that sharing should be regarded as a prerequisite for final paper acceptance, while making authors deposit their results in open online databases which provide data quality control seems to provide the best-practice standard. Finally, we estimated that 29.8% to 32.9% of total resources are used to generate withheld datasets, implying that an important portion of research funding does not produce shared knowledge. By making the scientific community and the public aware of this important aspect, we may help popularize a more effective culture of data sharing.

  9. The molecular characterization of maize B chromosome specific AFLPs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The origin and evolution of B chromosomes could be explained by the specific DNA sequence on them.But the specific sequences known were quite limited. To investigate maize B chromosome sqicific DNA sequeces, maize genomes with and without B chromosomes were analyzed by AFLP. Only 5 markers were found specific to genomes with B chromosomes among about 2000 AFLP markers. Southern hybridization and sequence analysis revealed that only the sequence of M8-2D was a B chromosome specific sequence.This sequence contained the telomeric repeat unit AGGGTTT conserved in plant chromosome telomeres.In addition, the sequence of M8-2D shared low homology to clones from maize chromosome 4 centromere as well. M8-2D were localized to B chromosome centromeric and telomeric regions.

  10. Dosage compensation, the origin and the afterlife of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jan; Meller, Victoria H

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 100 years Drosophila has been developed into an outstanding model system for the study of evolutionary processes. A fascinating aspect of evolution is the differentiation of sex chromosomes. Organisms with highly differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the mammalian X and Y, must compensate for the imbalance in gene dosage that this creates. The need to adjust the expression of sex-linked genes is a potent force driving the rise of regulatory mechanisms that act on an entire chromosome. This review will contrast the process of dosage compensation in Drosophila with the divergent strategies adopted by other model organisms. While the machinery of sex chromosome compensation is different in each instance, all share the ability to direct chromatin modifications to an entire chromosome. This review will also explore the idea that chromosome-targeting systems are sometimes adapted for other purposes. This appears the likely source of a chromosome-wide targeting system displayed by the Drosophila fourth chromosome.

  11. X-chromosome workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, A D

    1998-01-01

    Researchers presented results of ongoing research to the X-chromosome workshop of the Fifth World Congress on Psychiatric Genetics, covering a wide range of disorders: X-linked infantile spasms; a complex phenotype associated with deletions of Xp11; male homosexuality; degree of handedness; bipolar affective disorder; schizophrenia; childhood onset psychosis; and autism. This report summarizes the presentations, as well as reviewing previous studies. The focus of this report is on linkage findings for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder from a number of groups. For schizophrenia, low positive lod scores were obtained for markers DXS991 and DXS993 from two studies, although the sharing of alleles was greatest from brother-brother pairs in one study, and sister-sister in the other. Data from the Irish schizophrenia study was also submitted, with no strong evidence for linkage on the X chromosome. For bipolar disease, following the report of a Finnish family linked to Xq24-q27, the Columbia group reported some positive results for this region from 57 families, however, another group found no evidence for linkage to this region. Of interest, is the clustering of low positive linkage results that point to regions for possible further study. PMID:9686435

  12. Crystal Structures of the Staphylococcal Toxin SSL5 in Complex With Sialyl-Lewis X Reveal a Conserved Binding Site That Shares Common Features With Viral And Bacterial Sialic Acid-Binding Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, H.M.; Basu, I.; Chung, M.C.; Caradoc-Davies, T.; Fraser, J.D.; Baker, E.N.

    2009-06-02

    Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen. Among its large repertoire of secreted toxins is a group of staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs). These are homologous to superantigens but do not have the same activity. SSL5 is shown here to bind to human granulocytes and to the cell surface receptors for human IgA (Fc alphaRI) and P-selectin [P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)] in a sialic acid (Sia)-dependent manner. Co-crystallization of SSL5 with the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)), a key determinant of PSGL-1 binding to P-selectin, led to crystal structures of the SSL5-sLe(X) complex at resolutions of 1.65 and 2.75 A for crystals at two pH values. In both structures, sLe(X) bound to a specific site on the surface of the C-terminal domain of SSL5 in a conformation identical with that bound by P-selectin. Conservation of the key carbohydrate binding residues indicates that this ability to bind human glycans is shared by a substantial subgroup of the SSLs, including SSL2, SSL3, SSL4, SSL5, SSL6, and SSL11. This indicates that the ability to target human glycans is an important property of this group of toxins. Structural comparisons also showed that the Sia binding site in SSL5 contains a substructure that is shared by other Sia binding proteins from bacteria as well as viruses and represents a common binding motif.

  13. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Further, methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. Still further, the invention provides for automated means to detect and analyse chromosomal abnormalities.

  14. Complex evolutionary trajectories of sex chromosomes across bird taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Jilin; Bachtrog, Doris;

    2014-01-01

    fully degenerated W chromosomes as that of chicken. We show that avian sex chromosomes harbor tremendous diversity among species in their composition of pseudoautosomal regions and degree of Z/W differentiation. Punctuated events of shared or lineage-specific recombination suppression have produced a...

  15. Common Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Common Foot Problems A A A Trauma, infection, skin disease, ... the sole of the front part of the foot and on the toes. Foot infections include warts; ...

  16. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  17. Undetected sex chromosome aneuploidy by chromosomal microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Bustani, Keren; Yaron, Yuval; Goldstein, Myriam; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay

    2012-11-01

    We report on a case of a female fetus found to be mosaic for Turner syndrome (45,X) and trisomy X (47,XXX). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) failed to detect the aneuploidy because of a normal average dosage of the X chromosome. This case represents an unusual instance in which CMA may not detect chromosomal aberrations. Such a possibility should be taken into consideration in similar cases where CMA is used in a clinical setting.

  18. Chromosome assortment in Saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, S M; Honeycutt, R J; Sobral, B W

    1994-12-01

    Recent work has revealed random chromosome pairing and assortment in Saccharum spontaneum L., the most widely distributed, and morphologically and cytologically variable of the species of Saccharum. This conclusion was based on the analysis of a segregating population from across between S. spontaneum 'SES 208' and a spontaneously-doubled haploid of itself, derived from anther culture. To determine whether polysomic inheritance is common in Saccharum and whether it is observed in a typical biparental cross, we studied chromosome pairing and assortment in 44 progeny of a cross between euploid, meiotically regular, 2n=80 forms of Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum ' Mol 5829'. Papuan 2n=80 forms of S. robustum have been suggested as the immediate progenitor species for cultivated sugarcane (S. officinarum). A total of 738 loci in LA Purple and 720 loci in Mol 5829 were amplified and typed in the progeny by arbitrarily primed PCR using 45 primers. Fifty and 33 single-dose polymorphisms were identified in the S. officinarum and S. robustum genomes, respectively (χ 2 at 98%). Linkage analysis of single-dose polymorphisms in both genomes revealed linkages in repulsion and coupling phases. In the S. officinarum genome, a map hypothesis gave 7 linkage groups with 17 linked and 33 unlinked markers. Four of 13 pairwise linkages were in repulsion phase and 9 were in coupling phase. In the S. robustum genome, a map hypothesis gave 5 linkage groups, defined by 12 markers, with 21 markers unlinked, and 2 of 9 pairwise linkages were in repulsion phase. Therefore, complete polysomic inheritance was not observed in either species, suggesting that chromosomal behavior is different from that observed by linkage analysis of over 500 markers in the S. spontaneum map. Implications of this finding for evolution and breeding are discussed.

  19. Reconstitution of ST2 (IL-1R4) specific for IL-33 activity; no suppression by IL-1Ra though a common chain IL-1R3 (IL-1RAcP) shared with IL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seunghyun; Kim, Eunsom; Kwak, Areum; Lee, Jungmin; Hong, Jaewoo; Lee, Jongho; Youn, Sulah; Bae, Suyoung; Kim, Busun; Ryoo, Soyoon; Kang, Tae-Bong; Her, Erk; Choi, Dong-Ki; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Youngmin; Jhun, Hyunjhung; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptors are composed of ST2 (also known as IL-1R4), a ligand binding chain, and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP, also known as IL-1R3), a signal transducing chain. IL-1R3 is a common receptor for IL-1α, and IL-1β, IL-33, and three IL-36 isoforms. A549 human lung epithelial cells are highly sensitive to IL-1α and IL-1β but not respond to IL-33. The lack of responsiveness to IL-33 is due to ST2 expression. ST2 was stably transfected into A549 cells to reconstitute its activity. RT-PCR and FACS analysis confirmed ST2 expression on the cell surface of A549/ST2 cells. Upon IL-33 stimulation, A549/ST2 cells induced IL-8 and IL-6 production in a dose dependent manner while A549/mock cells remained unresponsive. There was no difference in IL-1α and IL-1β activity in A549/ST2 cells compared to A549/mock cells despite the fact that IL-33 shares IL-1R3 with IL-1α/β. IL-33 activated inflammatory signaling molecules in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Anti-ST2 antibody and soluble recombinant ST2-Fc abolished IL-33-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in A549/ST2 cells but the IL-1 receptor antagonist failed to block IL-33-induced cytokines. This result demonstrates for the first time the reconstitution of ST2 in A549 human lung epithelial cell line and verified its function in IL-33-mediated cytokine production and signal transduction. PMID:27031441

  20. A worldwide phylogeography for the human X chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone S Santos-Lopes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We reasoned that by identifying genetic markers on human X chromosome regions where recombination is rare or absent, we should be able to construct X chromosome genealogies analogous to those based on Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms, with the advantage of providing information about both male and female components of the population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a 47 Kb interval containing an Alu insertion polymorphism (DXS225 and four microsatellites in complete linkage disequilibrium in a low recombination rate region of the long arm of the human X chromosome. This haplotype block was studied in 667 males from the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel. The haplotypic diversity was highest in Africa (0.992+/-0.0025 and lowest in the Americas (0.839+/-0.0378, where no insertion alleles of DXS225 were observed. Africa shared few haplotypes with other geographical areas, while those exhibited significant sharing among themselves. Median joining networks revealed that the African haplotypes were numerous, occupied the periphery of the graph and had low frequency, whereas those from the other continents were few, central and had high frequency. Altogether, our data support a single origin of modern man in Africa and migration to occupy the other continents by serial founder effects. Coalescent analysis permitted estimation of the time of the most recent common ancestor as 182,000 years (56,700-479,000 and the estimated time of the DXS225 Alu insertion of 94,400 years (24,300-310,000. These dates are fully compatible with the current widely accepted scenario of the origin of modern mankind in Africa within the last 195,000 years and migration out-of-Africa circa 55,000-65,000 years ago. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A haplotypic block combining an Alu insertion polymorphism and four microsatellite markers on the human X chromosome is a useful marker to evaluate genetic diversity of human populations and

  1. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J;

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  2. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOG Join Us Donate You are not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, ... Support For all those diagnosed with any rare chromosome disorder. Since 1992, CDO has supported the parents ...

  3. Model Sharing and Collaboration using HydroShare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Merwade, V.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a web-based system funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for sharing hydrologic data and models as resources. Resources in HydroShare can either be assigned a generic type, meaning the resource only has Dublin Core metadata properties, or one of a growing number of specific resource types with enhanced metadata profiles defined by the HydroShare development team. Examples of specific resource types in the current release of HydroShare (http://www.hydroshare.org) include time series, geographic raster, Multidimensional (NetCDF), model program, and model instance. Here we describe research and development efforts in HydroShare project for model-related resources types. This work has included efforts to define metadata profiles for common modeling resources, execute models directly through the HydroShare user interface using Docker containers, and interoperate with the 3rd party application SWATShare for model execution and visualization. These examples demonstrate the benefit of HydroShare to support model sharing and address collaborative problems involving modeling. The presentation will conclude with plans for future modeling-related development in HydroShare including supporting the publication of workflow resources, enhanced metadata for additional hydrologic models, and linking model resources with other resources in HydroShare to capture model provenance.

  4. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric C-b

  5. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  6. Libraries Sharing Technology for Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather; Stranack, Kevin; Mussell, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Recent resource sharing technology developments in the western Canadian consortia, BC Electronic Library Network and COPPUL are discussed. Highlights include the shelf status project of BC ELN, combining the functionality of a union catalogue with live lookup of circulation status via Z39.50, a tagging feature for the locally developed A to Z list CJDB (CUFTS Journal Database), a locally developed federated search tool, dbwiz, the Open Journal Systems software of the Public Knowledge Project,...

  7. Maximum-likelihood estimation of recent shared ancestry (ERSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Chad D.; Witherspoon, David J.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W Scott; Zhang, Yuhua; Tuohy, Therese M; Neklason, Deborah W.; Burt, Randall W.; Guthery, Stephen L; Woodward, Scott R.; Jorde, Lynn B

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimation of recent shared ancestry is important for genetics, evolution, medicine, conservation biology, and forensics. Established methods estimate kinship accurately for first-degree through third-degree relatives. We demonstrate that chromosomal segments shared by two individuals due to identity by descent (IBD) provide much additional information about shared ancestry. We developed a maximum-likelihood method for the estimation of recent shared ancestry (ERSA) from the number a...

  8. The Nominal Share Price Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Weld; Roni Michaely; RICHARD H. THALER; Shlomo Benartzi

    2009-01-01

    The average nominal share prices of common stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange have remained constant at approximately $35 per share since the Great Depression as a result of stock splits. It is surprising that U.S. firms actively maintained constant nominal prices for their shares while general prices in the economy went up more than tenfold. This is especially puzzling given that commissions paid by investors on trading ten $35 shares are about ten times those paid on a single $350...

  9. SharePoint 2010 Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Steven; Gazmuri, Pablo; Caravajal, Steve; Wheeler, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Hands-on solutions for common SharePoint 2010 challenges Aimed at the more than 100 million licensed SharePoint 2010 users, this indispensable field guide addresses an abundance of common SharePoint 2010 problems and offers proven solutions. A team of authors encourages you to customize SharePoint beyond the out-of-the-box functionality so that you can build more complex solutions to these challenges. You?ll discover intricate details and specific full-scale solutions that you can then implement to your own SharePoint 2010 solutions.Tackles a variety of SharePoint 2010 problems ranging from si

  10. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest

    2012-01-01

    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  11. Chimpanzee chromosome 12 is homologous to human chromosome 2q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, N. C.; Sun, C. R.Y.; Ho, T.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the 46 human chromosomes find their counterparts in the 48 chimpanzee chromosomes except for chromosome 2 which has been hypothesized to have been derived from a centric fusion of two chimpanzee acrocentric chromosomes. These two chromosomes correspond to the human chromosomes 2p and 2g. This conclusion is based primarily on chromosome banding techniques, and the somatic cell hybridization technique has also been used. (HLW)

  12. Transmission of Dasypyrum Villosum Chromosomes through F1 Gametes in the Triticum Durum-Dasypyrum Villosum Amphiploid×Common Wheat Hybrid Populations%簇毛麦染色体通过硬粒小麦-簇毛麦双二倍体与普通小麦杂种F1的雌雄配子传递的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅体华; 任正隆

    2001-01-01

    利用“单株植物C-带技术”,对6x小簇麦与普通小麦的杂种F2和回交BC1 世代的染色体结构进行观察,研究了簇毛麦染色体在杂种后代中的传递行为.结果表明,在大多数杂种组合中,簇毛麦染色体通过雌配子的传递行为是随机的,并显著高于通过雄配子的概率,但在含有小麦亲本‘J-11'的杂种组合中情况不同,簇毛麦染色体在这个杂种组合中通过雌、雄配子的传递率都是随机的.说明簇毛麦染色体的传递受杂种F1中小麦亲本的影响,推测在小麦亲本‘J-11'中可能存在一个影响簇毛麦染色体通过雄配子传递的基因.单个簇毛麦染色体的传递与6x小簇麦作为父本或母本有关.通过雌雄配子传递中,以4V 和7V染色体的传递频率最高,而3V的传递频率最低.本研究结果表明,在用6x小簇麦作为桥梁转移簇毛麦有利基因,创制杂种F1时,最好以普通小麦为父本,并且F3和BC1F2 是关键的选择世代.%Several F2 populations of Triticum durum-Dasypyrum villosum amphiploid×common wheat hybrids and BC1 generations to respective wheat and amphiploid parents were cytologically analyzed on plant-by-plant using Giemsa C-banding technique to examine the transmission patterns of Dasypyrum villosum chromosomes. The data indicate that transmission rates of the D.villosum chromosomes through the egg cells are random in all hybrid populations and significantly higher than those through pollens in most of combinations. In other words, when the F1 hybrid plants in which wheat line ‘J-11', a wheat landrace from Sichuan is used as one of parent, is pollinated to wheat or amphiploid eggs, the transmission rates of D.villosum chromosomes do not deviate from the random pattern as the same as its reciprocal cross, suggesting that the transmission rates of D.villosum chromosomes depend upon the wheat parent used in the F1 hybrids, and there might be a gene on certain chromosome of wheat line ‘J-11

  13. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  14. Shared Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question of restit......This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question...... of restitution universalised the memory of the Holocaust and made it present. The 2004 enlargement brought the memory of Soviet Communism into the Union and made it a central task to construct a community of memory that includes both the memory of the Holocaust and of Soviet Communism. The analysis also...... identifies what seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right; and it shows that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  15. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the t...

  16. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B;

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...... with the probe L1.26 confirmed the derivation from chromosome 13 and DNA polymorphism analysis showed maternal origin of the ring chromosome. Our results, together with a review of previous reports of cases with ring chromosome 13 with identified breakpoints, could neither support the theory of distinct clinical...

  17. Effects of hepatitis B virus infection on human sperm chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Huang; Tian-Hua Huang; Huan-Ying Qiu; Xiao-Wu Fang; Tian-Gang Zhuang; Hong-Xi Liu; Yong-Hua Wang; Li-Zhi Deng; Jie-Wen Qiu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the level of sperm chromosome aberrations in male patients with hepatitis B, and to directly detect whether there are HBV DNA integrations in sperm chromosomes of hepatitis B patients.METHODS: Sperm chromosomes of 14 tested subjects (5healthy controls, 9 patients with HBV infection, including 1with acute hepatitis B, 2 with chronic active hepatitis B, 4with chronic persistent hepatitis B, 2 chronic HBsAg carriers with no clinical symptoms) were prepared using interspecific in vitro fertilization between zona-free golden hamster ova and human spermatozoa, and the frequencies of aberration spermatozoa were compared between subjects of HBV infection and controls. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to sperm chromosome spreads was carried out with biotin-labeled full length HBV DNA probe to detect the specific HBV DNA sequences in the sperm chromosomes.RESULTS: The total frequency of sperm chromosome aberrations in HBV infection group (14.8%, 33/223) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.3%,5/116). Moreover, the sperm chromosomes in HBV infection patients commonly presented stickiness, clumping, failure to staining, etc, which would affect the analysis of sperm chromosomes. Specific fluorescent signal spots for HBV DNA were seen in sperm chromosomes of one patient with chronic persistent hepatitis. In 9 (9/42) sperm chromosome complements containing fluorescent signal spots, one presented 5 obvious FISH spots, others presented 2 to 4signals. There was significant difference of fluorescence intensity among the signal spots. The distribution of signal sites among chromosomes was random.CONCLUSION: HBV infection can bring about mutagenic effects on sperm chromosomes. Integrations of viral DNA into sperm chromosomes which are multisites and nonspecific, can further increase the instability of sperm chromosomes. This study suggested that HBV infection can create extensively hereditary effects by alteration genetic constituent and

  18. Smart cities and sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    GORI, Paula; Parcu, Pier Luigi; STASI, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of smart city and sharing economy are at the centre of a number of current debates, which touch upon, among others, issues like the current urbanisation trends, the particular economic situation we are facing in the last years, the spread of connectivity and of new technologies and the innovation process in general. This working paper looks at the different and common characteristics of both smart cities and sharing economy models, in order to explore their interaction and comple...

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  20. Risk taking under heterogenous risk sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Belhaj, Mohamed; Frédéric DEROÏAN

    2009-01-01

    We revisit the common view that risk sharing enhances risk taking in the context of heterogenous risk sharing in a small economy. Under low volumes of transfers, we express individual risk level in terms of Bonacich measure. We find that heterogeneity combined to strategic interaction imply that risk sharing enhances risk taking only in average. However, under high transfer volumes, risk sharing may reduce risk taking. We also provide conditions under which agents under or over invest with re...

  1. A common variant of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa in isolates from Copenhagen, Denmark, is not detected by the BD GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Boye, Kit; Rohde, Susanne Mie;

    2009-01-01

    -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates were included as negative controls. Forty-four MRSA isolates were undetectable; of these, 95% harbored SCCmec type IVa, and these included the most-common clone in Copenhagen, spa t024-sequence type 8-IVa. The false-negative MRSA isolates were tested with new primers (analyte...

  2. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli;

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two chromoso...

  3. Chromosome painting defines genomic rearrangements between red howler monkey subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consigliere, S; Stanyon, R; Koehler, U; Agoramoorthy, G; Wienberg, J

    1996-06-01

    We hybridized whole human chromosome-specific DNA libraries to chromosomes of two supposed subspecies of Alouatta seniculus: Alouatta seniculus sara and Alouatta seniculus arctoides. The number of hybridization signals per haploid set is 42 in A. s. sara and 43 in A. s. arctoidea; the two karyotypes differ by at least 16 chromosomal rearrangements, including numerous translocations. An unusual sex chromosome system is shared by both taxa. The sex chromosome system results from a Y translocation with a chromosome homologous to parts of human chromosome 3/15 and can be described as X1X2Y1Y2/X1X1X2X2 (male/female). Both red howlers also have microchromosomes, a highly unusual karyological trait not found in other higher primates. These microchromosomes are not hybridized by any human chromosome paint and therefore are probably composed of repetitive DNA. It is well known that New World monkeys have high karyological variability. It is probable that molecular cytogenetic analyses including chromosome painting will permit an accurate reconstruction of the phylogeny of these monkeys and help establish the ancestral karyotype for higher primates. PMID:8817065

  4. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  5. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  6. The X and Y chromosome in meiosis: how and why they keep silent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Godfried W van der Heijden; Maureen Eijpe; Willy M Baarends

    2011-01-01

    The XX/XY sex chromosomal system of mammals,including human,challenges the chromosome pairing mechanism during male meiosis.Pairing and subsequent separation of homologous chromosomes generates haploid cells from diploid cells during the meiotic divisions.One of the basic requirements for recognition between homologous chromosomes is DNA sequence identity.Since the X and Y chromosome share little homology,their quest for each other is difficult,and has special characteristics.During the lengthy meiotic prophase,all autosomal chromosomes synapse,by forming a special protein structure called the synaptonemal complex,which connects the chromosomal axes.In contrast,the X and Y chromosome synapse only in the short homologous pseudoautosomal regions,and form the so-called XY body.

  7. Evidence for different origin of sex chromosomes in snakes, birds, and mammals and step-wise differentiation of snake sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kazumi; Tarui, Hiroshi; Toriba, Michihisa; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Nishida-Umehara, Chizuko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2006-11-28

    All snake species exhibit genetic sex determination with the ZZ/ZW type of sex chromosomes. To investigate the origin and evolution of snake sex chromosomes, we constructed, by FISH, a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 109 cDNA clones. Eleven of the 109 clones were localized to the Z chromosome. All human and chicken homologues of the snake Z-linked genes were located on autosomes, suggesting that the sex chromosomes of snakes, mammals, and birds were all derived from different autosomal pairs of the common ancestor. We mapped the 11 Z-linked genes of E. quadrivirgata to chromosomes of two other species, the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) and the habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis), to investigate the process of W chromosome differentiation. All and 3 of the 11 clones were localized to both the Z and W chromosomes in P. molurus and E. quadrivirgata, respectively, whereas no cDNA clones were mapped to the W chromosome in T. flavoviridis. Comparative mapping revealed that the sex chromosomes are only slightly differentiated in P. molurus, whereas they are fully differentiated in T. flavoviridis, and E. quadrivirgata is at a transitional stage of sex-chromosome differentiation. The differentiation of sex chromosomes was probably initiated from the distal region on the short arm of the protosex chromosome of the common ancestor, and then deletion and heterochromatization progressed on the sex-specific chromosome from the phylogenetically primitive boids to the more advanced viperids.

  8. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  9. The chromosome 9q subtelomere deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, D.R.; Kleefstra, T.

    2007-01-01

    The chromosome 9q subtelomere deletion syndrome (9qSTDS) is among the first and most common clinically recognizable syndromes to arise from widespread testing by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of subtelomere deletions. There are about 50 reported cases worldwide. Affected individuals invar

  10. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  11. What Are Common Treatments for Turner Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are common treatments for Turner syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Although there is no cure for Turner syndrome, some treatments can help minimize its symptoms. These ...

  12. Chromosomal clustering of a human transcriptome reveals regulatory background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purmann Antje

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been much evidence recently for a link between transcriptional regulation and chromosomal gene order, but the relationship between genomic organization, regulation and gene function in higher eukaryotes remains to be precisely defined. Results Here, we present evidence for organization of a large proportion of a human transcriptome into gene clusters throughout the genome, which are partly regulated by the same transcription factors, share biological functions and are characterized by non-housekeeping genes. This analysis was based on the cardiac transcriptome identified by our genome-wide array analysis of 55 human heart samples. We found 37% of these genes to be arranged mainly in adjacent pairs or triplets. A significant number of pairs of adjacent genes are putatively regulated by common transcription factors (p = 0.02. Furthermore, these gene pairs share a significant number of GO functional classification terms. We show that the human cardiac transcriptome is organized into many small clusters across the whole genome, rather than being concentrated in a few larger clusters. Conclusion Our findings suggest that genes expressed in concert are organized in a linear arrangement for coordinated regulation. Determining the relationship between gene arrangement, regulation and nuclear organization as well as gene function will have broad biological implications.

  13. Aplastic Anemia in Two Patients with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Eric T; Schaefer, G Bradley; Sanger, Warren G; Coccia, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies range in incidence from rather common to exceedingly rare and have a variable phenotype. We report 2 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies who developed severe aplastic anemia requiring treatment. The first patient had tetrasomy X (48,XXXX) and presented at 9 years of age, and the second patient had trisomy X (47,XXX) and presented at 5 years of age. Although aplastic anemia has been associated with other chromosomal abnormalities, sex chromosome abnormalities have not been traditionally considered a risk factor for this condition. A review of the literature reveals that at least one other patient with a sex chromosome aneuploidy (45,X) has suffered from aplastic anemia and that other autosomal chromosomal anomalies have been described. Despite the uncommon nature of each condition, it is possible that the apparent association is coincidental. A better understanding of the genetic causes of aplastic anemia remains important.

  14. The fragile Y hypothesis: Y chromosome aneuploidy as a selective pressure in sex chromosome and meiotic mechanism evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Heath; Demuth, Jeffery P

    2015-09-01

    Loss of the Y-chromosome is a common feature of species with chromosomal sex determination. However, our understanding of why some lineages frequently lose Y-chromosomes while others do not is limited. The fragile Y hypothesis proposes that in species with chiasmatic meiosis the rate of Y-chromosome aneuploidy and the size of the recombining region have a negative correlation. The fragile Y hypothesis provides a number of novel insights not possible under traditional models. Specifically, increased rates of Y aneuploidy may impose positive selection for (i) gene movement off the Y; (ii) translocations and fusions which expand the recombining region; and (iii) alternative meiotic segregation mechanisms (achiasmatic or asynaptic). These insights as well as existing evidence for the frequency of Y-chromosome aneuploidy raise doubt about the prospects for long-term retention of the human Y-chromosome despite recent evidence for stable gene content in older non-recombining regions.

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  16. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs

  17. Chromosomal Abnormalties with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between specific chromosome abnormalties and various epilepsies was investigated by a study of 76 patients’ records obtained by questionnaires distributed to members of Kyoto Multi-institutional Study Group of Pediatric Neurology.

  18. Chimpanzee chromosome 13 is homologous to human chromosome 2p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, N. C.; Sun, C. R.Y.; Ho, T.

    1977-01-01

    Similarities between human and chimpanzee chromosomes are shown by chromosome banding techniques and somatic cell hybridization techniques. Cell hybrids were obtained from the chimpanzee lymphocyte LE-7, and the Chinese hamster mutant cell, Gal-2. Experiments showed that the ACPL, MDHs, and Gal-Act genes could be assigned to chimpanzee chromosome 13, and since these genes have been assigned to human chromosme 2p, it is suggested that chimpanzee chromosome 13 is homologous to human chromosome 2p. (HLW)

  19. Chromosomal instability in Afrotheria: fragile sites, evolutionary breakpoints and phylogenetic inference from genome sequence assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Herrera Aurora

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extant placental mammals are divided into four major clades (Laurasiatheria, Supraprimates, Xenarthra and Afrotheria. Given that Afrotheria is generally thought to root the eutherian tree in phylogenetic analysis of large nuclear gene data sets, the study of the organization of the genomes of afrotherian species provides new insights into the dynamics of mammalian chromosomal evolution. Here we test if there are chromosomal bands with a high tendency to break and reorganize in Afrotheria, and by analyzing the expression of aphidicolin-induced common fragile sites in three afrotherian species, whether these are coincidental with recognized evolutionary breakpoints. Results We described 29 fragile sites in the aardvark (OAF genome, 27 in the golden mole (CAS, and 35 in the elephant-shrew (EED genome. We show that fragile sites are conserved among afrotherian species and these are correlated with evolutionary breakpoints when compared to the human (HSA genome. Inddition, by computationally scanning the newly released opossum (Monodelphis domestica and chicken sequence assemblies for use as outgroups to Placentalia, we validate the HSA 3/21/5 chromosomal synteny as a rare genomic change that defines the monophyly of this ancient African clade of mammals. On the other hand, support for HSA 1/19p, which is also thought to underpin Afrotheria, is currently ambiguous. Conclusion We provide evidence that (i the evolutionary breakpoints that characterise human syntenies detected in the basal Afrotheria correspond at the chromosomal band level with fragile sites, (ii that HSA 3p/21 was in the amniote ancestor (i.e., common to turtles, lepidosaurs, crocodilians, birds and mammals and was subsequently disrupted in the lineage leading to marsupials. Its expansion to include HSA 5 in Afrotheria is unique and (iii that its fragmentation to HSA 3p/21 + HSA 5/21 in elephant and manatee was due to a fission within HSA 21 that is probably shared

  20. Occurrence and type of chromosomal abnormalities in consecutive malignant monoclonal gammopathies: correlation with survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Drivsholm, A; Christoffersen, P

    1988-01-01

    Chromosome studies were done on 73 patients with multiple myeloma and three patients with plasma cell leukemia. Eighteen of 76 patients (24%) had chromosomally abnormal clones, including all three patients with PCL. The most common anomalous chromosomes were #1, #14, and #12. In addition, i(17q...

  1. Chromosomal phenotypes and submicroscopic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devriendt Koen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The finding, during the last decade, that several common, clinically delineated syndromes are caused by submicroscopic deletions or, more rarely, by duplications, has provided a powerful tool in the annotation of the human genome. Since most microdeletion/microduplication syndromes are defined by a common deleted/duplicated region, abnormal dosage of genes located within these regions can explain the phenotypic similarities among individuals with a specific syndrome. As such, they provide a unique resource towards the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes such as congenital heart defects, mental and growth retardation and abnormal behaviour. In addition, the study of phenotypic differences in individuals with the same microdeletion syndrome may also become a treasury for the identification of modifying factors for complex phenotypes. The molecular analysis of these chromosomal anomalies has led to a growing understanding of their mechanisms of origin. Novel tools to uncover additional submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies at a higher resolution and higher speed, as well as the novel tools at hand for deciphering the modifying factors and epistatic interactors, are 'on the doorstep' and will, besides their obvious diagnostic role, play a pivotal role in the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes.

  2. Chromosome doubling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  3. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mark T; Grafham, Darren V; Coffey, Alison J; Scherer, Steven; McLay, Kirsten; Muzny, Donna; Platzer, Matthias; Howell, Gareth R; Burrows, Christine; Bird, Christine P; Frankish, Adam; Lovell, Frances L; Howe, Kevin L; Ashurst, Jennifer L; Fulton, Robert S; Sudbrak, Ralf; Wen, Gaiping; Jones, Matthew C; Hurles, Matthew E; Andrews, T Daniel; Scott, Carol E; Searle, Stephen; Ramser, Juliane; Whittaker, Adam; Deadman, Rebecca; Carter, Nigel P; Hunt, Sarah E; Chen, Rui; Cree, Andrew; Gunaratne, Preethi; Havlak, Paul; Hodgson, Anne; Metzker, Michael L; Richards, Stephen; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Sodergren, Erica; Wheeler, David A; Worley, Kim C; Ainscough, Rachael; Ambrose, Kerrie D; Ansari-Lari, M Ali; Aradhya, Swaroop; Ashwell, Robert I S; Babbage, Anne K; Bagguley, Claire L; Ballabio, Andrea; Banerjee, Ruby; Barker, Gary E; Barlow, Karen F; Barrett, Ian P; Bates, Karen N; Beare, David M; Beasley, Helen; Beasley, Oliver; Beck, Alfred; Bethel, Graeme; Blechschmidt, Karin; Brady, Nicola; Bray-Allen, Sarah; Bridgeman, Anne M; Brown, Andrew J; Brown, Mary J; Bonnin, David; Bruford, Elspeth A; Buhay, Christian; Burch, Paula; Burford, Deborah; Burgess, Joanne; Burrill, Wayne; Burton, John; Bye, Jackie M; Carder, Carol; Carrel, Laura; Chako, Joseph; Chapman, Joanne C; Chavez, Dean; Chen, Ellson; Chen, Guan; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Zhijian; Chinault, Craig; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Clark, Sue Y; Clarke, Graham; Clee, Chris M; Clegg, Sheila; Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin; Clifford, Karen; Cobley, Vicky; Cole, Charlotte G; Conquer, Jen S; Corby, Nicole; Connor, Richard E; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Davis, Clay; Davis, John; Delgado, Oliver; Deshazo, Denise; Dhami, Pawandeep; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen; Dodsworth, Steve; Draper, Heather; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Dunham, Andrew; Dunn, Matthew; Durbin, K James; Dutta, Ireena; Eades, Tamsin; Ellwood, Matthew; Emery-Cohen, Alexandra; Errington, Helen; Evans, Kathryn L; Faulkner, Louisa; Francis, Fiona; Frankland, John; Fraser, Audrey E; Galgoczy, Petra; Gilbert, James; Gill, Rachel; Glöckner, Gernot; Gregory, Simon G; Gribble, Susan; Griffiths, Coline; Grocock, Russell; Gu, Yanghong; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hamilton, Cerissa; Hart, Elizabeth A; Hawes, Alicia; Heath, Paul D; Heitmann, Katja; Hennig, Steffen; Hernandez, Judith; Hinzmann, Bernd; Ho, Sarah; Hoffs, Michael; Howden, Phillip J; Huckle, Elizabeth J; Hume, Jennifer; Hunt, Paul J; Hunt, Adrienne R; Isherwood, Judith; Jacob, Leni; Johnson, David; Jones, Sally; de Jong, Pieter J; Joseph, Shirin S; Keenan, Stephen; Kelly, Susan; Kershaw, Joanne K; Khan, Ziad; Kioschis, Petra; Klages, Sven; Knights, Andrew J; Kosiura, Anna; Kovar-Smith, Christie; Laird, Gavin K; Langford, Cordelia; Lawlor, Stephanie; Leversha, Margaret; Lewis, Lora; Liu, Wen; Lloyd, Christine; Lloyd, David M; Loulseged, Hermela; Loveland, Jane E; Lovell, Jamieson D; Lozado, Ryan; Lu, Jing; Lyne, Rachael; Ma, Jie; Maheshwari, Manjula; Matthews, Lucy H; McDowall, Jennifer; McLaren, Stuart; McMurray, Amanda; Meidl, Patrick; Meitinger, Thomas; Milne, Sarah; Miner, George; Mistry, Shailesh L; Morgan, Margaret; Morris, Sidney; Müller, Ines; Mullikin, James C; Nguyen, Ngoc; Nordsiek, Gabriele; Nyakatura, Gerald; O'Dell, Christopher N; Okwuonu, Geoffery; Palmer, Sophie; Pandian, Richard; Parker, David; Parrish, Julia; Pasternak, Shiran; Patel, Dina; Pearce, Alex V; Pearson, Danita M; Pelan, Sarah E; Perez, Lesette; Porter, Keith M; Ramsey, Yvonne; Reichwald, Kathrin; Rhodes, Susan; Ridler, Kerry A; Schlessinger, David; Schueler, Mary G; Sehra, Harminder K; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Shen, Hua; Sheridan, Elizabeth M; Shownkeen, Ratna; Skuce, Carl D; Smith, Michelle L; Sotheran, Elizabeth C; Steingruber, Helen E; Steward, Charles A; Storey, Roy; Swann, R Mark; Swarbreck, David; Tabor, Paul E; Taudien, Stefan; Taylor, Tineace; Teague, Brian; Thomas, Karen; Thorpe, Andrea; Timms, Kirsten; Tracey, Alan; Trevanion, Steve; Tromans, Anthony C; d'Urso, Michele; Verduzco, Daniel; Villasana, Donna; Waldron, Lenee; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Qiaoyan; Warren, James; Warry, Georgina L; Wei, Xuehong; West, Anthony; Whitehead, Siobhan L; Whiteley, Mathew N; Wilkinson, Jane E; Willey, David L; Williams, Gabrielle; Williams, Leanne; Williamson, Angela; Williamson, Helen; Wilming, Laurens; Woodmansey, Rebecca L; Wray, Paul W; Yen, Jennifer; Zhang, Jingkun; Zhou, Jianling; Zoghbi, Huda; Zorilla, Sara; Buck, David; Reinhardt, Richard; Poustka, Annemarie; Rosenthal, André; Lehrach, Hans; Meindl, Alfons; Minx, Patrick J; Hillier, Ladeana W; Willard, Huntington F; Wilson, Richard K; Waterston, Robert H; Rice, Catherine M; Vaudin, Mark; Coulson, Alan; Nelson, David L; Weinstock, George; Sulston, John E; Durbin, Richard; Hubbard, Tim; Gibbs, Richard A; Beck, Stephan; Rogers, Jane; Bentley, David R

    2005-03-17

    The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.

  4. Methods of biological dosimetry employing chromosome-specific staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Further, methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. Still further, the invention provides for automated means to detect and analyse chromosomal abnormalities.

  5. Conserved sex chromosomes across adaptively radiated Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Altmanová, Marie; Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-07-01

    Vertebrates possess diverse sex-determining systems, which differ in evolutionary stability among particular groups. It has been suggested that poikilotherms possess more frequent turnovers of sex chromosomes than homoiotherms, whose effective thermoregulation can prevent the emergence of the sex reversals induced by environmental temperature. Squamate reptiles used to be regarded as a group with an extensive variability in sex determination; however, we document how the rather old radiation of lizards from the genus Anolis, known for exceptional ecomorphological variability, was connected with stability in sex chromosomes. We found that 18 tested species, representing most of the phylogenetic diversity of the genus, share the gene content of their X chromosomes. Furthermore, we discovered homologous sex chromosomes in species of two genera (Sceloporus and Petrosaurus) from the family Phrynosomatidae, serving here as an outgroup to Anolis. We can conclude that the origin of sex chromosomes within iguanas largely predates the Anolis radiation and that the sex chromosomes of iguanas remained conserved for a significant part of their evolutionary history. Next to therian mammals and birds, Anolis lizards therefore represent another adaptively radiated amniote clade with conserved sex chromosomes. We argue that the evolutionary stability of sex-determining systems may reflect an advanced stage of differentiation of sex chromosomes rather than thermoregulation strategy. PMID:24433436

  6. Micromechanics of human mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eukaryote cells dramatically reorganize their long chromosomal DNAs to facilitate their physical segregation during mitosis. The internal organization of folded mitotic chromosomes remains a basic mystery of cell biology; its understanding would likely shed light on how chromosomes are separated from one another as well as into chromosome structure between cell divisions. We report biophysical experiments on single mitotic chromosomes from human cells, where we combine micromanipulation, nano-Newton-scale force measurement and biochemical treatments to study chromosome connectivity and topology. Results are in accord with previous experiments on amphibian chromosomes and support the 'chromatin network' model of mitotic chromosome structure. Prospects for studies of chromosome-organizing proteins using siRNA expression knockdowns, as well as for differential studies of chromosomes with and without mutations associated with genetic diseases, are also discussed

  7. Chromosomes and the origins of Apes and Australopithecines

    OpenAIRE

    Chaline, Jean; DURAND, Alain; Marchand, Didier; Dambricourt Malassé, Anne; Deshayes, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of molecular data suggests that the higher apes (Gorilla, Pan) and humankind (Homo) are closely related and that they diverged from the common ancestor through two speciation events situated very closely together in time. Examination of the chromosomal formulas of the living species reveals a paradox on the distribution of mutated chromosomes which can only be re-solved by a model of trichotomic diversification. This new model of divergence from the common ancestor is characterized...

  8. Chromosome analysis of five Brazilian species of poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paula Camargo Rodrigues; Odair Aguiar; Flávia Serpieri; Albertina Pimentel Lima; Masao Uetanebaro; Shirlei Maria Recco-Pimentel

    2011-04-01

    Dendrobatid frogs have undergone an extensive systematic reorganization based on recent molecular findings. The present work describes karyotypes of the Brazilian species Adelphobates castaneoticus, A. quinquevittatus, Ameerega picta, A. galactonotus and Dendrobates tinctorius which were compared to each other and with previously described related species. All karyotypes consisted of $2n = 18$ chromosomes, except for A. picta which had $2n = 24$. The karyotypes of the Adelphobates and D. tinctorius species were highly similar to each other and to the other $2n = 18$ previously studied species, revealing conserved karyotypic characteristics in both genera. In recent phylogenetic studies, all Adelphobates species were grouped in a clade separated from the Dendrobates species. Thus, we hypothesized that their common karyotypic traits may have a distinct origin by chromosome rearrangements and mutations. In A. picta, with $2n = 24$, chromosome features of pairs from 1 to 8 are shared with other previously karyotyped species within this genus. Hence, the A. picta data reinforced that the C-banding pattern and the NOR location are species-specific traits in the genus Ameerega. Moreover, the Ameerega monophyletism proposed by previous phylogenetic studies indicates that the karyotypic differences among species in this genus result from a long divergence time.

  9. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  10. Detection of the Molecular Marker and Chromosomal Segment linked to Un-reduced Gamete Gene in Common Wheat%小麦未减数配子基因的连锁标记及染色体区段检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇春兰; 赵来宾; 刘梦; 郝明; 甯顺腙; 袁中伟; 刘登才; 张连全

    2016-01-01

    六倍体普通小麦(Triticumaestivum L., AABBDD,2n =42)由四倍体小麦(T. turgidum, AABB,2n =28)与节节麦(Aegilops tauschiiCosson, DD,2n=14)天然杂交,然后通过染色体自动加倍形成。加倍过程主要受四倍体小麦未减数配子基因控制,且不同四倍体小麦存在不同的遗传效应。本研究利用位于3B 染色体上未减数配子基因QTug.sau-3B的连锁SSR标记Xgpw1146和高通量DArTseq分子标记,筛选出可能转入四倍体小麦未减数配子基因的人工合成小麦改良后代。在105份改良材料中检测出17份具有四倍体小麦的Xgpw1146等位位点,表明四倍体小麦的未减数配子基因可能转入了这17份材料。利用DArTseq高通量标记技术分析人工合成小麦SHW-L1的88份改良后代,发现含四倍体小麦Xgpw1146等位位点的材料均具有来自SHW-L1、且可能包含Xgpw1146的一个染色体区段,表明未减数配子基因临近区域以一个区段传递到改良后代。这些人工合成小麦改良材料在加倍单倍体育种中有重要的应用潜力。%Hexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivumL., AABBDD, 2n= 42) arose from spontaneous chromosome doubling of the hybrid betweenT. turgidumandAegilops tauschiiCosson. The process of chromosomes doubling is mainly determined by unreduced gametes (UG) genes inT. turgidum. The genetic effects on the UG production may vary amongT. turgidum lines. In this study, a SSR marker close to the UG geneQTug.sau-3B(Xgpw1146) and high throughput DArTseq genotyping technique were used to screen the UG gene in common wheat lines transferred fromT. turgidum via synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) as a bridge. Out of the analyzed 105 SHW-derived elite lines, 17 had theXgpw1146 allele fromT. turgidum, indicating that the UG gene was probably transferred into these wheat lines. According to the DArTseq genotyping data on 88 lines derived from the synthetic hexaploid wheat SHW-L1, all these lines with theT. turgidumXgpw1146 allele

  11. Characterization of a chromosome-specific chimpanzee alpha satellite subset: Evolutionary relationship to subsets on human chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, P.E.; Gosden, J.; Lawson, D. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Alpha satellite DNA is a tandemly repeated DNA family found at the centromeres of all primate chromosomes examined. The fundamental repeat units of alpha satellite DNA are diverged 169- to 172-bp monomers, often found to be organized in chromosome-specific higher-order repeat units. The chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens (HSA)), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes (PTR) and Pan paniscus), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) share a remarkable similarity and synteny. It is of interest to ask if alpha satellite arrays at centromeres of homologous chromosomes between these species are closely related (evolving in an orthologous manner) or if the evolutionary processes that homogenize and spread these arrays within and between chromosomes result in nonorthologous evolution of arrays. By using PCR primers specific for human chromosome 17-specific alpha satellite DNA, we have amplified, cloned, and characterized a chromosome-specific subset from the PTR chimpanzee genome. Hybridization both on Southern blots and in situ as well as sequence analysis show that this subset is most closely related, as expected, to sequences on HSA 17. However, in situ hybridization reveals that this subset is not found on the homologous chromosome in chimpanzee (PTR 19), but instead on PTR 12, which is homologous to HSA 2p. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Induction of site-specific chromosomal translocations in embryonic stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Jiang; Li Zhang; Xingliang Zhou; Xi Chen; Guanyi Huang; Fengsheng Li; Ruizhe Wang; Nancy Wu; Youzhen Yan; Chang Tong; Sankalp Srivastava; Yue Wang; Houqi Liu; Qi-Long Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation is the most common form of chromosomal abnormality and is often associated with congenital genetic disorders, infertility, and cancers. The lack of cellular and animal models for chromosomal translocations, however, has hampered our ability to understand the underlying disease mechanisms and to develop new therapies. Here, we show that site-specific chromosomal translocations can be generated in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) via CRISPR/Cas9. Mouse ESCs carrying ...

  13. Klinefelter syndrome and other sex chromosomal aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham John M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term Klinefelter syndrome (KS describes a group of chromosomal disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. XXY aneuploidy is the most common disorder of sex chromosomes in humans, with prevalence of one in 500 males. Other sex chromosomal aneuploidies have also been described, although they are much less frequent, with 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY being present in 1 per 17,000 to 1 per 50,000 male births. The incidence of 49,XXXXY is 1 per 85,000 to 100,000 male births. In addition, 46,XX males also exist and it is caused by translocation of Y material including sex determining region (SRY to the X chromosome during paternal meiosis. Formal cytogenetic analysis is necessary to make a definite diagnosis, and more obvious differences in physical features tend to be associated with increasing numbers of sex chromosomes. If the diagnosis is not made prenatally, 47,XXY males may present with a variety of subtle clinical signs that are age-related. In infancy, males with 47,XXY may have chromosomal evaluations done for hypospadias, small phallus or cryptorchidism, developmental delay. The school-aged child may present with language delay, learning disabilities, or behavioral problems. The older child or adolescent may be discovered during an endocrine evaluation for delayed or incomplete pubertal development with eunuchoid body habitus, gynecomastia, and small testes. Adults are often evaluated for infertility or breast malignancy. Androgen replacement therapy should begin at puberty, around age 12 years, in increasing dosage sufficient to maintain age appropriate serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH. The effects on physical and cognitive development increase with the number of extra Xs, and each extra X is associated with an intelligence quotient (IQ decrease of approximately 15–16 points, with language most affected

  14. Sequential sharing rules for river sharing problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ansink, Erik; Weikard, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the redistribution of a resource amongst agents who have claims to the resource and who are ordered linearly. A well known example of this particular situation is the river sharing problem. We exploit the linear order of agents to transform the river sharing problem to a sequence of two-agent river sharing problems. These reduced problems are mathematically equivalent to bankruptcy problems and can therefore be solved using any bankruptcy rule. Our proposed class of solutions, that...

  15. Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoulas Pilar L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described rare microdeletion syndrome that has been reported in 19 individuals. It is characterized by growth retardation, intellectual disability, and distinct facial features including long face with high anterior hairline, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, downslanting palpebral fissures, sparse and broad medial eyebrows, broad and/or depressed nasal bridge, small mouth, long smooth philtrum, and full lower lip. Other common findings include skeletal and digital abnormalities, genital abnormalities in males, hypotonia, behavior problems, recurrent infections, and eye problems. Other less frequent findings include hearing loss, growth hormone deficiency, hernias, and obesity. Congenital malformations, while rare, can be severe and include structural brain anomalies, cardiovascular malformations, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, intestinal atresia, imperforate anus, and myelomeningocele. Karyotypes are typically normal, and the deletions were detected in these individuals by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. The deletions range in size from 1.7-6.1 Mb and usually result from nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR between paralogous low-copy repeats (LCRs. The majority of 15q24 deletions have breakpoints that localize to one of five LCR clusters labeled LCR15q24A, -B, -C, -D, and -E. The smallest region of overlap (SRO spans a 1.2 Mb region between LCR15q24B to LCR15q24C. There are several candidate genes within the SRO, including CYP11A1, SEMA7A, CPLX3, ARID3B, STRA6, SIN3A and CSK, that may predispose to many of the clinical features observed in individuals with 15q24 deletion syndrome. The deletion occurred as a de novo event in all of the individuals when parents were available for testing. Parental aCGH and/or FISH studies are recommended to provide accurate genetic counseling and guidance regarding prognosis, recurrence risk, and reproductive options. Management

  16. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  17. 人类1号染色体可变剪接与普通剪接基因同义密码子的使用分析I.同义密码子偏爱使用分析%Synonymous Codon Usage of Both Alternatively and Commonly Spliced Genes in Human Chromosome 1 I:Synonymous Codon Usage Bias Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学平; 武耀廷; 郭家明; 张成; 马飞

    2004-01-01

    It is already clear that alternative splicing has an extremely important role in expanding the protein diversity. Comparative study of the codon usage patterns of alternatively and commonly spliced genes may thereby be necessary. In this paper, the patterns of codon usage bias of two kinds of human genes, alternatively spliced genes and commonly spliced genes, were formulated through analyzing 344 non-redundant protein coding sequences from alternatively spliced genes (188183 codons) and 386 from commonly spliced genes (223116 codons) in human chromosome 1. Overall codon usage data analysis indicated that the alternatively spliced genes showed a stronger codon usage bias than commonly spliced genes. Very extensive heterogeneity of G+C content in silent third codon position (GC3s) was evident among these genes, and GC3s content of alternatively spliced genes was higher than that of commonly spliced genes. G- or C-ending codons were more abundant in alternatively spliced genes than commonly spliced genes in human chromosome 1. The causation of differences created could be explained by pre-mRNA structural characteristics of alternatively spliced genes influencing their codon usage bias.%人类1号染色体可变剪接(选择性剪接)基因344非冗余蛋白质编码序列(188183密码子)和普通剪接(非可变剪接)基因的386蛋白质编码序列(223116密码子)被用于研究人类密码子使用偏爱模式.全部密码子使用数据分析表明,人类可变剪接基因密码子的偏爱水平显著高于普通剪接基因.在人类1号染色体基因中,密码子第三位置的G+C含量有很大的异质性(0.24~0.95),并且可变剪接基因密码子第三位置平均G+C含量(64.66%)大于普通剪接基因(59.97%).Nc值对GC3s图显示密码子偏爱使用除了受核苷酸组成制约外,其它的因子可能也影响密码子的使用变化.此外,可变剪接基因中以G 或C结尾的密码子比普通剪接基因出现的频率高.密码子使

  18. Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotias-de-Oliveira Ana Lúcia Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports chromosome numbers of 17 species of Bromeliaceae, belonging to the genera Encholirium, Bromelia, Orthophytum, Hohenbergia, Billbergia, Neoglaziovia, Aechmea, Cryptanthus and Ananas. Most species present 2n = 50, however, Bromelia laciniosa, Orthophytum burle-marxii and O. maracasense are polyploids with 2n = 150, 2n = 100 and 2n = 150, respectively, while for Cryptanthus bahianus, 2n = 34 + 1-4B. B chromosomes were observed in Bromelia plumieri and Hohenbergia aff. utriculosa. The chromosome number of all species was determined for the first time, except for Billbergia chlorosticta and Cryptanthus bahianus. Our data supports the hypothesis of a basic number of x = 25 for the Bromeliaceae family and decreasing aneuploidy in the genus Cryptanthus.

  19. Those amazing dinoflagellate chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER J RIZZO

    2003-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a very large and diverse group of eukaryotic algae that play a major role in aquatic food webs of both fresh water and marine habitats. Moreover, the toxic members of this group pose a health threat in the form of red tides. Finally, dinoflagellates are of great evolutionary importance,because of their taxonomic position, and their unusual chromosome structure and composition. While the cytoplasm of dinoflagellates is typically eukaryotic, the nucleus is unique when compared to the nucleus of other eukaryotes. More specifically, while the chromosomes of all other eukaryotes contain histones,dinoflagellate chromosomes lack histones completely. There are no known exceptions to this observation: all dinoflagellates lack histones, and all other eukaryotes contain histones. Nevertheless, dinoflagellates remain a relatively unstudied group of eukaryotes.

  20. Share Prices and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Andersen; Robert Subbaraman

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we examine two related propositions: the efficiency of pricing of Australian shares and the influences of share prices on business investment. In line with similar studies overseas, we find that the Australian share market may deviate from efficient pricing over short time horizons but that there is little evidence of inefficiency over longer time horizons. To investigate the influence of share prices on investment decisions we use a simple model of real share prices to identify...

  1. 普通小麦7B染色体两类低拷贝专化DNA序列的特性%Characterization of Two Groups of Low-copy and Specific DNA Sequences Isolated from Chromosome 7B of Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振兰; 董玉柱; 刘宝

    2002-01-01

    Recent work revealed that, in the genomes of polyploid wheat, there exists a class of low-copy and chromosome-specific sequences that are labile upon polyploid formation. This class of sequences was proposed to play a critical role in the stabilization and establishment of nascent plant polyploids as new species. To further study this issue, five wheat chromosome 7B-specific sequences, isolated from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by chromosome microdissection, were characterized. The sequences were studied by genomic Southern hybridizations on a collection of polyploid wheats and their diploid progenitors. Four sequences hybridized to all polyploid species, but at the diploid level to only species closely related to the B-genome of polyploid wheat. This indicates that these sequences originated with the divergence of the diploid species, and was then vertically transmitted to polyploids. One sequence hybridized to all species at both the diploid and polyploid levels, suggesting its elimination after the polyploid wheat formation. The hybridization of this sequence to two synthetic polyploid wheats indicated that sequence elimination is a rapid event and probably related to methylation status of the sequence. Based on the above results, we suggest that selective changes of low-copy sequences occur rapidly after polyploid formation, which may contribute to the differentiation of chromosomes in newly formed allopolyploid wheats.%研究表明, 多倍体小麦基因组中存在一类低拷贝、染色体专化的DNA序列, 其在多倍体形成时常表现出不稳定性.这类序列被认为在异源多倍体的建立和稳定中起着关键作用.为进一步研究这一问题, 对通过染色体显微切割从普通小麦( Triticum aestivum L.)中分离的5个7B染色体专化DNA序列的特性进行了研究.以这些序列为探针对大量的多倍体小麦和它们的二倍体祖先物种进行了Southern杂交分析.结果表明, 这些序列可

  2. Commonality based interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Christine L.; Hepp, Jared J.; Harrell, John

    2016-05-01

    What interoperability is and why the Army wants it between systems is easily understood. Enabling multiple systems to work together and share data across boundaries in a co-operative manner will benefit the warfighter by allowing for easy access to previously hard-to-reach capabilities. How to achieve interoperability is not as easy to understand due to the numerous different approaches that accomplish the goal. Commonality Based Interoperability (CBI) helps establish how to achieve the goal by extending the existing interoperability definition. CBI is not an implementation, nor is it an architecture; it is a definition of interoperability with a foundation of establishing commonality between systems.

  3. Job Sharing: Is It for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Linda

    1994-01-01

    A teacher of deaf children describes her experience with job sharing at both the intermediate grade and preschool levels. The important role played by the full-time teacher's aide in providing continuity as well as the importance of communication are emphasized. Guidelines and answers to common questions regarding job sharing are offered. (DB)

  4. How Suboptimal Are Linear Sharing Rules?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Jørgen Aase

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze criteria for portfolio choice when two investors are forced to invest in a common portfolio and share the proceeds by a linear sharing rule. A similar situation with many investors is typical for defined contribution pension schemes. The restriction impli...

  5. Black like Me: A Shared Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Janell N.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on a concept entitled shared ethnography. The researcher and youth participants share race in common. Critical Race Theory was used to analyze the reflective journal. An after school science program in a high poverty urban environment provided the context for this study. The findings of the study suggested that when researcher…

  6. Distribution of common chromosomal karyotypes in patients with Turner syndrome and correlation between the mean age and height standard deviation scores on diagnosis%Turner综合征患儿常见染色体核型的分布及其诊断年龄与身高标准差分值的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 金煜炜; 陈晓波; 曹延延; 白晋丽; 瞿宇晋; 宋昉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution of common chromosomal karyotypes of patients with Turner syndrome (TS), and to explore the correlation between the age and height standard deviation scores (HSDS) on diagnosis.Methods Retrospective investigation was performed for the data of age and HSDS on diagnosis in 273 TS girls(≤ 18.0 years old)diagnosed by chromosomal karyotypes.The main statistical methods were analyzed with t-test and Pearson correlation test by using the SPSS 18.0 statistical software.Results (1) There were 4 kinds of common chromosomal karyotypes in the TS :45, X (87/273 cases,31.9%),46, X, i (Xq) (43/273 cases, 15.7%) ,45, X/46, X, i (Xq) (36/273 cases, 13.2%) and 45, X/46, XX (23/273 cases, 8.4%), respectively, the adolescent TS all had delayed puberty.For the cases with 45, X karyotypes ,3 cases presented mental retardation and 2 cases with organs deformity.(2)The patients with 45 ,X/46,X,i(Xq) karyotypes or with 46,X,i(Xq) karyotypes had the maximum(12.56 age) or the minimum(9.70 age) mean age on diagnosis, respectively, there was a significant difference between 2 groups (t =3.019, P =0.004).The maximum deviation from normal height was found in the patients with karyotypes of 46, X,i (Xq) (HSDS =-4.04), and the minimum deviation was in the patients with karyotypes of 45,X/46, XX (HSDS =-3.16), and there was a significant difference between 2 groups (t =-2.95, P =0.004).(3) More than 75.7% of TS patients was diagnosed when their heights deviated above 3 SD,and their mean age on diagnosis was 12.10 age,which was 3 years later than those patients within 2 SD.(4) There was a significant negative correlation between the age and HSDS on diagnosis in the groups of common chromosomal karyotypes[45,X、46,X,i(Xq) and 45,X/46,XX] (r =-0.551,-0.560,-0.622,all P < 0.01), except for the group with the 45, X/46, X, i (Xq).Conclusions (1) In this study, the consti-tuent ratios of these 4 common chromosomal karyotypes were different from those in

  7. The Y Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

  8. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available

  9. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samouhos, E.

    1983-08-01

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available.

  10. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  11. Governing the global commons with local institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Bodnar; Marcel Salathé

    2012-01-01

    Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common - they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and water, political stability and peace, etc. underlies many of the most pressing human problems. Punishment of free...

  12. Simmelian Ties and Individual Innovation:The Mediating Role of Knowledge Sharing Willingness and Common Knowledge Base%Simmelian联系与个体创新:知识分享意愿和共同知识基础的中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍; 任浩

    2012-01-01

    Through the mediating effects of knowledge sharing willingness and common knowledge base, this paper explores the mechanism through which simmelian lies that cross enterprise boundaries embedded in the microstructure context promote individual innovation based on enterprise alliances. Collecting network data on 279 respondents from 18 IT companies through a socio-metric approach, this paper uses Stata to evaluate which modeling strategy are best to fit the distribution of the dependent variable. Empirical results indicated that simmelian ties were indeed associated with greater knowledge sharing willingness and common knowledge base, and knowledge sharing willingness and common knowledge base were positively associated with individual' s innovation performance. However, when considering the strength of ties in the context of simmelian ties, we found that the effects of weak simmelian ties on innovation performance, knowledge sharing willingness, and common knowledge base were not significant. On the contrary, strong simmelian ties promoted individual innovation, and the knowledge sharing willingness and common knowledge base fully mediated the relationship between strong simmelian ties and innovation performance. The study contributes to building the microstructure and environments for acquiring, assimilating and integrating heterogeneous knowledge from individual and corporate levels.%通过知识分享意愿和共同知识基础的中介效应,基于企业间联盟情境探索嵌入微观结构情境跨越企业边界的Simmelian联系促进个体创新的内在机理.以279名来自18家信息技术企业的研发个体为样本,基于社会计量方法收集数据,运用Stata统计软件对模型进行拟合运算.研究结果表明,Simmelian联系通过知识分享意愿和共同知识基础作用于个体的创新绩效;引入联系强度变量后发现,Simmelian弱联系对创新绩效、知识分享意愿和共同知识基础的影响效应均不显

  13. Microchimeric Cells, Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Deniz Taştemir; Demirhan, Osman; Abat, Deniz; Demirberk, Bülent; Tunç, Erdal; Kuleci, Sedat

    2015-09-01

    The phenomenon of feta-maternal microchimerisms inspires numerous questions. Many questions remain to be answered regarding this new avenue of genetics. The X and Y chromosomes have been associated with malignancy in different types of human tumors. We aimed to investigate the numerical aberrations of chromosomes X and Y in lung cancer (LC) and bladder cancer (BC) and review recent evidence for possible roles of microchimeric cells (McCs) in these cancers. We carried out cytogenetic analysis of the tumor and blood sampling in 52 cases of people with BC and LC, and also with 30 healthy people. A total of 48 (92.3 %) of the patients revealed sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs). A total SCAs was found in 9.8 % of 2282 cells that were analyzed as one or more cells in each case. The 68 and 95 SCAs were found in the 1952 (8.4 %) cells in peripheral blood, and 41 and 19 SCAs in the 330 (18.2 %) cells in the tumoral tissues respectively. There was a significant difference in the frequencies of SCAs between the patients and the control groups determined by the Fischer's Exact Test (p chromosome monosomies. Largely a Y chromosome loss was present in 77.8 % of the men, and the 47, XXY karyotype was found in 33.3 % of them. The second most common SCA was monosomy X, and was found in 71.4 % of the women. McCs were observed in 26.9 % of the 52 patients, and the frequencies of McCs were higher in the blood than in the tissues (p aneuploidies of X and Y chromosomes play a role in the pathogenesis of cancers.

  14. Chromosomal phylogeny and evolution of gibbons (Hylobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stefan; Hollatz, Melanie; Wienberg, Johannes

    2003-11-01

    Although human and gibbons are classified in the same primate superfamily (Hominoidae), their karyotypes differ by extensive chromosome reshuffling. To date, there is still limited understanding of the events that shaped extant gibbon karyotypes. Further, the phylogeny and evolution of the twelve or more extant gibbon species (lesser apes, Hylobatidae) is poorly understood, and conflicting phylogenies have been published. We present a comprehensive analysis of gibbon chromosome rearrangements and a phylogenetic reconstruction of the four recognized subgenera based on molecular cytogenetics data. We have used two different approaches to interpret our data: (1) a cladistic reconstruction based on the identification of ancestral versus derived chromosome forms observed in extant gibbon species; (2) an approach in which adjacent homologous segments that have been changed by translocations and intra-chromosomal rearrangements are treated as discrete characters in a parsimony analysis (PAUP). The orangutan serves as an "outgroup", since it has a karyotype that is supposed to be most similar to the ancestral form of all humans and apes. Both approaches place the subgenus Bunopithecus as the most basal group of the Hylobatidae, followed by Hylobates, with Symphalangus and Nomascus as the last to diverge. Since most chromosome rearrangements observed in gibbons are either ancestral to all four subgenera or specific for individual species and only a few common derived rearrangements at subsequent branching points have been recorded, all extant gibbons may have diverged within relatively short evolutionary time. In general, chromosomal rearrangements produce changes that should be considered as unique landmarks at the divergence nodes. Thus, molecular cytogenetics could be an important tool to elucidate phylogenies in other species in which speciation may have occurred over very short evolutionary time with not enough genetic (DNA sequence) and other biological divergence to

  15. Rapid screening for chromosomal aneuploidies using array-MLPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beuningen Rinie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome abnormalities, especially trisomy of chromosome 21, 13, or 18 as well as sex chromosome aneuploidy, are a well-established cause of pregnancy loss. Cultured cell karyotype analysis and FISH have been considered reliable detectors of fetal abnormality. However, results are usually not available for 3-4 days or more. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA has emerged as an alternative rapid technique for detection of chromosome aneuploidies. However, conventional MLPA does not allow for relative quantification of more than 50 different target sequences in one reaction and does not detect mosaic trisomy. A multiplexed MLPA with more sensitive detection would be useful for fetal genetic screening. Methods We developed a method of array-based MLPA to rapidly screen for common aneuploidies. We designed 116 universal tag-probes covering chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, and 8 control autosomal genes. We performed MLPA and hybridized the products on a 4-well flow-through microarray system. We determined chromosome copy numbers by analyzing the relative signals of the chromosome-specific probes. Results In a blind study of 161 peripheral blood and 12 amniotic fluid samples previously karyotyped, 169 of 173 (97.7% including all the amniotic fluid samples were correctly identified by array-MLPA. Furthermore, we detected two chromosome X monosomy mosaic cases in which the mosaism rates estimated by array-MLPA were basically consistent with the results from karyotyping. Additionally, we identified five Y chromosome abnormalities in which G-banding could not distinguish their origins for four of the five cases. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the successful application and strong potential of array-MLPA in clinical diagnosis and prenatal testing for rapid and sensitive chromosomal aneuploidy screening. Furthermore, we have developed a simple and rapid procedure for screening copy numbers on chromosomes 13, 18

  16. Job Sharing in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  17. Familial complex chromosomal rearrangement resulting in a recombinant chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Sue Ann; Bodamer, Olaf A F; Shapira, Stuart K; Shaffer, Lisa G; Bacino, Carlos A

    2002-05-15

    Familial complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare and tend to involve fewer breakpoints and fewer chromosomes than CCRs that are de novo in origin. We report on a CCR identified in a child with congenital heart disease and dysmorphic features. Initially, the child's karyotype was thought to involve a straightforward three-way translocation between chromosomes 3, 8, and 16. However, after analyzing the mother's chromosomes, the mother was found to have a more complex rearrangement that resulted in a recombinant chromosome in the child. The mother's karyotype included an inverted chromosome 2 and multiple translocations involving chromosomes 3, 5, 8, and 16. No evidence of deletion or duplication that could account for the clinical findings in the child was identified.

  18. Cognitive and neurological aspects of sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-03-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies are a common group of disorders that are characterised by an abnormal number of X or Y chromosomes. However, many individuals with these disorders are not diagnosed, despite established groups of core features that include aberrant brain development and function. Clinical presentations often include characteristic profiles of intellectual ability, motor impairments, and rates of neurological and psychiatric disorders that are higher than those of the general population. Advances in genetics and neuroimaging have substantially expanded knowledge of potential mechanisms that underlie these phenotypes, including a putative dose effect of sex chromosome genes on neuroanatomical structures and cognitive abilities. Continuing attention to emerging trends in research of sex chromosome aneuploidies is important for clinicians because it informs appropriate management of these common genetic disorders. Furthermore, improved understanding of underlying neurobiological processes has much potential to elucidate sex-related factors associated with neurological and psychiatric disease in general.

  19. Expectations and Share Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin J. Elton; Martin J. Gruber; Mustafa Gultekin

    1981-01-01

    It is generally believed that security prices are determined by expectations concerning firm and economic variables. Despite this belief there is very little research examining expectational data. In this paper we examine how expectations concerning earning per share effect share price. We first show that knowledge concerning analyst's forecasts of earnings per share cannot by itself lead to excess returns. Any information contained in the consensus estimate of earnings per share is already i...

  20. Myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma and pleomorphic liposarcoma share very similar genomic imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idbaih, Ahmed; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Derré, Josette; Mariani, Odette; Terrier, Philippe; Ranchère, Dominique; Mairal, Aline; Aurias, Alain

    2005-02-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma. Nevertheless, the validity of this heterogeneous pathological entity has been recurrently questioned by pathologists. Recently, analyses by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of a large series of MFHs suggested that MFHs consist of morphologic modulation of other poorly differentiated sarcomas like leiomyosarcomas (LMS) or dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DLPS). We report here an analysis by CGH of 22 myxoid MFHs (mMFH), one of the five histological subtypes of MFH, and of nine pleomorphic liposarcomas (pLPS), a rare poorly differentiated LPS. The chromosome imbalances encountered in the series of mMFH were very similar to those observed in the series of pLPS studied in the laboratory and in the series of 14 pLPS published in the literature. The most frequent gains involved chromosome subregions: pericentromeric regions of 1, 5p, 19p, 19q and 20q. Losses found in the chromosomal arms 1q, 2q, 3p, 4q, 10q, 11q and 13q were also recurrent. The use of a clustering software did not separate the two pathological groups (mMFH and pLPS) on the basis of genomic data. Moreover, pLPS-mMFH represented, according to the clustering software results, an entity clearly distinguished from other soft tissue sarcomas, LMS in particular, with which they share common genetic aberrations. Additional studies are needed to identify genes targeted by these genomic aberrations, and implicated in the oncogenesis of these tumor subtypes. The characterization of common gene alterations in both tumor groups would suggest a closer relationship between these two types of soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:15702084

  1. [Chromosomal organization of the genomes of small-chromosome plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravenko, O V; Zelenin, A V

    2009-11-01

    An effective approach to study the chromosome organization in genomes of plants with small chromosomes and/or with low-informative C-banding patterns was developed in the course of investigation of the karyotypes of cotton plant, camomile, flax, and pea. To increase the resolving power of chromosome analysis, methods were worked out for revealing early replication patterns on chromosomes and for artificial impairment of mitotic chromosome condensation with the use of a DNA intercalator, 9-aminoacridine (9-AMA). To estimate polymorphism of the patterns of C-banding of small chromosomes on preparations obtained with the use of 9-AMA, it is necessary to choose a length interval that must not exceed three average sizes of metaphase chromosomes without the intercalator. The use of 9-AMA increases the resolution of differential C- and OR-banding and the precision of physical chromosome mapping by the FISH method. Of particular importance in studying small chromosomes is optimization of the computer-aided methods used to obtain and process chromosome images. The complex approach developed for analysis of the chromosome organization in plant genomes was used to study the karyotypes of 24 species of the genus Linum L. It permitted their chromosomes to be identified for the first time, and, in addition, B chromosomes were discovered and studied in the karyotypes of the species of the section Syllinum. By similarity of the karyotypes, the studied flax species were distributed in eight groups in agreement with the clusterization of these species according to the results of RAPD analysis performed in parallel. Systematic positions and phylogenetic relationships of the studied flax species were verified. Out results can serve as an important argument in favour of the proposal to develop a special program for sequencing the genome of cultivated flax (L. usitatissimum L.), which is a major representative of small-chromosome species. PMID:20058798

  2. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  3. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  4. 多重定量荧光PCR在胎儿常见染色体非整倍体快速诊断中的应用%Application of multiple quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction approach for rapid prenatal diagnosis of common chromosome aneuploidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婷; 刘洪倩; 朱红梅; 王婧; 张海霞; 祝茜; 赖怡; 秦利; 王和

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨多重定量荧光PCR(quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction,QFPCR)技术在胎儿常见染色体非整倍体异常快速诊断中的应用.方法 用QF-PCR技术对我院4649名行羊膜腔穿刺术孕妇的4760份羊水样本21、18、13、X和Y染色体数目进行分析,并与染色体核型分析结果进行比较.结果 QF-PCR检测成功率为98.4%.QF-PCR检测出21、18、13、X及Y染色体非整倍体48例(2例核型为46,XY,rob(13∶21),+21;4例为双胎之一21三体),均与核型分析结果一致,5种常见染色体非整倍体异常分析敏感性和特异性均为100%;检出1例21三体嵌合体及4例性染色体异常的嵌合体(1例核型分析漏诊);QF-PCR漏诊4例性染色体嵌合体;染色体核型分析失败的64例样本,QF-PCR检测均得到结果.QF-PCR检测结果与核型分析符合率为98.3%.结论 QF-PCR技术可快速、准确的诊断21、18、13、X及Y染色体非整倍体,并能检出部分嵌合体,作为染色体核型分析的有效补充,在快速产前诊断中具有重要临床实用价值.%Objective To assess the value of multiple quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) approach for rapid prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal aneuploidies.Methods A total of 4760 amniotic samples from 4649 pregnant women were analyzed with QF-PCR for 21,18,13,X and Y aneuploidies,and the results were compared with those of karyotype analysis.Results The overall success rate for QF-PCR was 98.4%.All the 48 cases of 21,18,13,X and Y aneuploidies (including 2 case of 46,XY,rob(13 ∶ 21),+ 21; 4 trisomy 21 in 4 twins) were detected by QF-PCR,with the overall sensibility and specificity both reaching 100%.One mosaicism of trisomy 21 and 4 mosaicisms of sex chromosome (1 misdiagnosed by karyotype analysis) were also detected by QF-PCR.Four mosaicisms of sex chromosome were verified as missed diagnosis.All the 64 cases failed by karyotype analysis were successfully analyzed by the

  5. 多重荧光定量PCR方法的建立及其在快速产前诊断中的应用%Establishment of multiple quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay and its application in rapid prenatal diagnosis of common chromosome aneuploidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱群; 边旭明; 刘俊涛; 姚凤霞; 张为民; 郝娜; 周京

    2010-01-01

    术能成功用于常见非整倍体异常的快速产前诊断,检测结果准确,适合于规模较大的产前诊断中心进行大样本检测.%Objective To establish the multiple quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR)assay and evaluate its clinical application in prenatal diagnosis.Methods Totally 170 samples Were collected between May 2008 and July 2009 in prenatal center of Peking Union Medical College Hospital:123 of them were amniotic fluid,9 were chofionic villous samples,20 were fetal blood and 18 were villi from aborted fetuses.All samples were from women of Han nationality,with mean age of (34.1±4.6) years old,and with mean gestational age of(19.6±1.0)weeks.Cytogenetic cultures and karyotyping were made to every sample.Genomic DNA wag extracted from the samples.The sequences of twenty short tandem repeat (STR) markers were designed according to the GenBank and references,including 6 STR markers in chromosome 21.4 in chromosome 18.4 in chromosome 13,4 in chromosome X,1 in chromosome Y and 1 universal marker in both X and Y chromosome.Each sample was amplified by two sets of multiple QF-PCR,which included 4 STR markers in each of 21,18,13 and sex chromosomes. If the result was uninformative,the third set of anotherd 4 STR markers was added. Results ( 1 ) Karyotyping. Cytogenetic analysis were made for all the 170 samples, 151 (89%) of which were normal, and 19 (11% ) were abnormal (2)QF-PCR assay. 167(98% ) samples were detected by QF-PCR. The results were obtained within 2 -3 days after sampling. 134 samples were proved normal by QF-PCR, which was consistent with karyotyping. Among the 19 abnormal karyotype samples, 18 were detected as abnormal( eight were 21-trisomy, three were 18-trisomy)by QF-PCR. Among the 167 samples, 150(90% ) were detected using the first and second set of STR mixtures, and 3(2% ) were detected when the third set of STR was added. The remain 14(8% ) were uninformative. (3) The diagnostic efficiency of QF

  6. Pesticides, Chromosomal Aberrations, and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Brian C. -H.; Blair, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    An excessive incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) has been reported among farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. Some pesticides exhibit immunotoxic and genotoxic activities. Individuals exposed to pesticides have also been found to have an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities including the t(14;18)(q32;q21), one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL. Two recent epidemiologic studies reported that the association between pesticide exposu...

  7. The chromosomal location of mouse interferon alpha genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovett, M; Cox, D. R.; Yee, D; Boll, W; Weissmann, C; Epstein, C J; Epstein, L B

    1984-01-01

    The chromosomal location of mouse leukocyte-interferon (IFN-alpha) genes was determined by Southern blot analysis of DNA from a panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids using a mouse IFN-alpha cDNA as a hybridization probe. All resolvable mouse genes are located on mouse chromosome 4. In addition, two common restriction site polymorphisms within these genes were identified in several mouse strains.

  8. A novel selection system for chromosome translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Tennyson, Rachel B; Ebran, Nathalie; Herrera, Anissa E; Lindsley, Janet E.

    2002-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are common genetic abnormalities found in both leukemias and solid tumors. While much has been learned about the effects of specific translocations on cell proliferation, much less is known about what causes these chromosome rearrangements. This article describes the development and use of a system that genetically selects for rare translocation events using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A translocation YAC was created that contains the breakpoint cluster regi...

  9. Meiotic chromosome behaviour in Cenchrus ciliaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Visser

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A basic chromosome number of x = 9 has been confirmed for Cenchrus ciliaris L. Polyploidy is common and levels vary from tetraploid to hexaploid. Aneuploidv is reported for a single specimen, where two chromosomes of a single genome were lost. Various meiotic irregularities were observed. The highest incidence of meiotic abnormalities was observed in the pentaploid specimens. This was attributed to their uneven polyploid level All specimens varied from segmental alloploid to alloploid.

  10. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...... the Nordic countries can facilitate cooperation between their military education systems to produce more knowledgeable professional officers....

  11. When global virtual teams share knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    /equivocal knowledge sharing. This is an important omission because cultural and linguistic variations are known to have a great effect on knowledge sharing. We use ethnographic field-study methodology for an exploratory examination of the effects of culture, shared language commonality and media choice on knowledge...... for internal knowledge sharing is now more important than ever before. Extant studies have provided useful theories and empirical documentation on how to manage global virtual teams. However, no prior research has examined the interaction of media type with the relation between culture/language and canonical...... sharing in a large Danish MNC with particular focus on its Indian subsidiary. Results show that certain types of media are more useful for certain types of knowledge sharing depending on the cultural and linguistic variation between the communicating parties....

  12. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  13. Science commons

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  14. Assignment of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Linkage Groups to Specific Chromosomes: Conservation of Large Syntenic Blocks Corresponding to Whole Chromosome Arms in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Ruth; Keatley, Kimberly; Morasch, Matthew; Ventura, Abigail; Lubieniecki, Krzysztof; Koop, Ben; Danzmann, Roy; Davidson, William

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most teleost species, especially freshwater groups such as the Esocidae which are theclosest relatives of salmonids, have a karyotype comprising 25 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes and 48–52 chromosome arms. After the common ancestor of salmonids underwent a whole genome duplication,its karyotype would have 100 chromosome arms, and this is reflected in the modal range of 96–104 seenin extant salmonids (e.g., rainbow trout). The Atlantic salmon is an exception among the salmonids a...

  15. [Identification of gene functional modules shared by cancers based on biclustering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Lin, Ai-Hua; Lin, Mei-Hua; Ding, Yuan-Lin; Rao, Shao-Qi

    2013-03-01

    Pleiotropy is a common phenomenon in the genetics of cancers, which is rarely systematically evaluated. A novel idea for identifying shared gene functional modules using biclustering was proposed in this paper to explore the common molecular mechanisms among cancers and the relationships between different types of cancers. Gene expression datasets for 20 cancers were obtained. And genes differentially expressing in at least two types of cancers were selected using both moderated t-statistic and fold change to construct a 10417 × 20 matrix (gene-cancer matrix). 22 gene clusters shared by cancers were found by using the biclustering method. Further, Gene Ontology (GO)-based enrichment analysis identified 17 gene functional modules (Bonferroni corrected P < 0.05). The involved biological processes primarily included regulation of chromatids separation during mitosis, cell differentiation, immune and inflammatory response, and collagen fibril organization. These modules undertook molecular functions of ATP binding and microtubule motor activity, MHC class II receptor activity, endopeptidase inhibitor activity and so on. And their activity sites were mostly located in cytoskeleton, chromosome, MHC protein complex, intermediate filament, fibrillar collagen and so on. The network constructed based on these modules indicates that gastric cancer, ovarian adenocarcinoma, cervical cancer and mesothelioma were highly relevant to each other. However, the molecular mechanisms of two hematologic malignancies (acute myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma) seem very different from other cancers. It can be seen that gene functional modules shared by cancers are associated with many biological mechanisms, and similarities among cancers are probably attributed to cellular origin and shared carcinogenic mechanisms. The proposed method for analysis of pleiotropy in this paper will help understand the common molecular mechanisms for complex human diseases. PMID:23575539

  16. Construction of human chromosome 21-specific yeast artificial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M K; Shero, J H; Cheung, M C; Kan, Y W; Hieter, P A; Antonarakis, S E

    1989-12-01

    Chromosome 21-specific yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) have been constructed by a method that performs all steps in agarose, allowing size selection by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and the use of nanogram to microgram quantities of DNA. The DNA sources used were hybrid cell line WAV-17, containing chromosome 21 as the only human chromosome and flow-sorted chromosome 21. The transformation efficiency of ligation products was similar to that obtained in aqueous transformations and yielded YACs with sizes ranging from 100 kilobases (kb) to greater than 1 megabase when polyamines were included in the transformation procedure. Twenty-five YACs containing human DNA have been obtained from a mouse-human hybrid, ranging in size from 200 to greater than 1000 kb, with an average size of 410 kb. Ten of these YACs were localized to subregions of chromosome 21 by hybridization of RNA probes (corresponding to the YAC ends recovered in Escherichia coli) to a panel of somatic cell hybrid DNA. Twenty-one human YACs, ranging in size from 100 to 500 kb, with an average size of 150 kb, were obtained from approximately equal to 50 ng of flow-sorted chromosome 21 DNA. Three were localized to subregions of chromosome 21. YACs will aid the construction of a physical map of human chromosome 21 and the study of disorders associated with chromosome 21 such as Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome.

  17. Occurrence of differential meiotic associations and additional chromosomes in the embryo-sac mother cells of Allium roylei Stearn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geeta Sharma; Ravinder N. Gohil

    2011-04-01

    A small population of complex translocation heterozygote plants of Allium roylei from the Bani region of Jammu Province was studied for meiosis in the female track. This study resulted in identification of two variants, having embryo-sac mother cells (EMCs) with more than 16 chromosomes. EMCs of the remaining plants invariably had diploid $(2n = 16)$ chromosome complement. Female meiosis, in general, was found to be abnormal, with nearly 23% and 11% chromosomes associating as quadrivalents or trivalents at prophase I and at metaphase I, respectively. This was followed by irregular segregation of chromosomes at anaphase I. Amongst the variants; one had 38% EMCs with eight bivalents plus two small sized chromosomes. Their small size, dispensable nature and tendency to affect the pairing behaviour of normal complement are some of the features that latter chromosomes share with the B chromosomes. Seventeen to nineteen chromosomes were observed in 35% EMCs of other variant; the remaining cells had 16 chromosomes. Chromosomal behaviour in both kind of cells (euploid and aneuploid) was more or less similar. Unlike female meiocytes, male meiocytes analysed earlier of this strain always had 16 chromosomes which paired to form extremely complex associations involving 3–16 chromosomes. The most likely cause of this asynchrony with regards to number of chromosomes involved in multivalent formation seems to be interaction of genes controlling chiasma formation with the different physiological conditions of male and female meiocytes.

  18. Genome landscape and evolutionary plasticity of chromosomes in malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonrandom distribution of rearrangements is a common feature of eukaryotic chromosomes that is not well understood in terms of genome organization and evolution. In the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, polymorphic inversions are highly nonuniformly distributed among five chromosomal arms and are associated with epidemiologically important adaptations. However, it is not clear whether the genomic content of the chromosomal arms is associated with inversion polymorphism and fixation rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the evolutionary dynamics of chromosomal inversions, we created a physical map for an Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, and compared it with the genome of An. gambiae. We also developed and deployed novel Bayesian statistical models to analyze genome landscapes in individual chromosomal arms An. gambiae. Here, we demonstrate that, despite the paucity of inversion polymorphisms on the X chromosome, this chromosome has the fastest rate of inversion fixation and the highest density of transposable elements, simple DNA repeats, and GC content. The highly polymorphic and rapidly evolving autosomal 2R arm had overrepresentation of genes involved in cellular response to stress supporting the role of natural selection in maintaining adaptive polymorphic inversions. In addition, the 2R arm had the highest density of regions involved in segmental duplications that clustered in the breakpoint-rich zone of the arm. In contrast, the slower evolving 2L, 3R, and 3L, arms were enriched with matrix-attachment regions that potentially contribute to chromosome stability in the cell nucleus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight fundamental differences in evolutionary dynamics of the sex chromosome and autosomes and revealed the strong association between characteristics of the genome landscape and rates of chromosomal evolution. We conclude that a unique combination of various

  19. Delayed and accelerated aging share common longevity assurance mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Schumacher; I. van der Pluijm; M.J. Moorhouse; T. Kosteas; A.R. Robinson; Y. Suh; T.M. Breit; H. van Steeg; L.J. Niedernhofer; W. van IJcken; A. Bartke; S.R. Spindler; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers; G.T.J. van der Horst; G.A. Garinis

    2008-01-01

    Mutant dwarf and calorie-restricted mice benefit from healthy aging and unusually long lifespan. In contrast, mouse models for DNA repair-deficient progeroid syndromes age and die prematurely. To identify mechanisms that regulate mammalian longevity, we quantified the parallels between the genome-wi

  20. Dopamine neurons share common response function for reward prediction error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Neir; Tian, Ju; Bukwich, Michael; Uchida, Naoshige

    2016-03-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to signal reward prediction error, or the difference between actual and predicted reward. How dopamine neurons jointly encode this information, however, remains unclear. One possibility is that different neurons specialize in different aspects of prediction error; another is that each neuron calculates prediction error in the same way. We recorded from optogenetically identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area (VTA) while mice performed classical conditioning tasks. Our tasks allowed us to determine the full prediction error functions of dopamine neurons and compare them to each other. We found marked homogeneity among individual dopamine neurons: their responses to both unexpected and expected rewards followed the same function, just scaled up or down. As a result, we were able to describe both individual and population responses using just two parameters. Such uniformity ensures robust information coding, allowing each dopamine neuron to contribute fully to the prediction error signal.

  1. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  2. Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: differentiation, evolutionary strata, and lack of global dosage compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vicoso

    Full Text Available Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females. Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae, but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae. Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases. This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution, but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex

  3. Common Conduct

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, Francis; Minkin, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Performance at 'Who is the common intellectual,' Copy Press event, Conway Hall (other speakers included Mario Fusco, Jaki Irvine, Anne Tallentire, Sharon Morris). This performance comprised a reading with video (made in collaboration with Louisa Minkin). The piece utilises the visual language of internet memes (as encountered both in vernacular iconography - the vomiting panda - and in the practice of the body - the soldier dancing to 'Call Me Maybe') and use of poetic language along with...

  4. Evolution of chromosomal variation in cottontails, genus Sylvilagus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha): S. aquaticus, S. floridanus, and S. transitionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T J; Elder, F F; Chapman, J A

    1983-01-01

    The banding patterns of mitotic chromosome from three cottontail species, Sylvilagus aquaticus (2n = 38), S. floridanus (2n = 42), and S. transitionalis (2n = 46), are presented and compared with those of the proposed leporid ancestral karyotype, the latter being reflected in a species of hare, Lepus saxatilis (2n = 48). The differences in the diploid numbers of the cottontail species are primarily due to the fixation of Robertsonian fusions which have occurred during the evolution of their respective genomes. Of the eight fusion products identified, seven were species specific, while one, which is thought to reflect their more recent common ancestory, is shared by both S. aquaticus and S. floridanus. Other karyotypic differences include interspecific variation in the amount and distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, as well as the presence of two autosomal pairs in S. transitionalis which do not have apparent banding homologies either with the chromosomes of other cottontails or with those of the Lepus genome. The tendency for certain chromosomes in the ancestral karyotype to show a predisposition to undergo fusion events within the Leporidae is discussed. PMID:6861527

  5. The chromosome passenger complex is required for fidelity of chromosome transmission and cytokinesis in meiosis of mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Bedra; Na, Jie; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Laue, Ernest; Glover, David M; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2010-12-15

    The existence of two forms of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC) in the mammalian oocyte has meant that its role in female meiosis has remained unclear. Here we use loss- and gain-of function approaches to assess the meiotic functions of one of the shared components of these complexes, INCENP, and of the variable kinase subunits, Aurora B or Aurora C. We show that either the depletion of INCENP or the combined inhibition of Aurora kinases B and C activates the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) before chromosomes have properly congressed in meiosis I and also prevents cytokinesis and hence extrusion of the first polar body. Overexpression of Aurora C also advances APC/C activation and results in cytokinesis failure in a high proportion of oocytes, indicative of a dominant effect on CPC function. Together, this points to roles for the meiotic CPC in functions similar to the mitotic roles of the complex: correcting chromosome attachment to microtubules, facilitating the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) function and enabling cytokinesis. Surprisingly, overexpression of Aurora B leads to a failure of APC/C activation, stabilization of securin and consequently a failure of chiasmate chromosomes to resolve - a dominant phenotype that is completely suppressed by depletion of INCENP. Taken together with the differential distribution of Aurora proteins B and C on chiasmate chromosomes, this points to differential functions of the two forms of CPC in regulating the separation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I. PMID:21123620

  6. Cloning and comparative mapping of a human chromosome 4-specific alpha satellite DNA sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aiuto, L.; Marzella, R.; Archidiacono, N.; Rocchi, M. (Universita di Bari (Italy)); Antonacci, R. (Instituto Anatomia Umana Normale, Modena (Italy))

    1993-11-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized two human alphoid DNA clones: p4n1/4 and pZ4.1. Clone p4n1/4 identifies specifically the centromeric region of chromosome 4; pZ4.1 recognizes a subset of alphoid DNA shared by chromosomes 4 and 9. The specificity was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments on metaphase spreads and Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. The genomic organization of both subsets was also investigated. Comparative mapping on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes was performed. p4n1/4 hybridizes to chimpanzee chromosomes 11 and 13, homologs of human chromosomes 9 and 2q, respectively. On gorilla metaphase spreads, p4n1/4 hybridizes exclusively to the centromeric region of chromosome 19, partially homologous to human chromosome 17. No hybridization signal was detected on chromosome 3 of both chimpanzee and gorilla, in both species homolog of human chromosome 4. Identical comparative mapping results were obtained using pZ4.1 probe, although the latter recognizes an alphoid subset distinct from the one recognized by p4n1/4. The implications of these results in the evolution of centromeric regions of primate chromosomes are discussed. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Nuclear positioning, higher-order folding, and gene expression of Mmu15 sequences are refractory to chromosomal translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Snow, Kathy J.; Wright, Sarah M.; Woo, Yong; Titus, Laura C.; Mills, Kevin D.; Shopland, Lindsay S.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear localization influences the expression of certain genes. Chromosomal rearrangements can reposition genes in the nucleus and thus could impact the expression of genes far from chromosomal breakpoints. However, the extent to which chromosomal rearrangements influence nuclear organization and gene expression is poorly understood. We examined mouse progenitor B cell lymphomas with a common translocation, der(12)t(12;15), which fuses a gene-rich region of mouse chromosome12 (Mmu12) with a ...

  8. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  9. Chimpanzees Share Forbidden Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Hockings, Kimberley; Humle, Tatyana; Anderson, James; Biro, Dora; Sousa, Cláudia; Ohashi, Gaku; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a ‘social tool’ for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa) very rarely transferred wil...

  10. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  11. Efficiency in Shared Services

    OpenAIRE

    Prachýl, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes and analyzes shared services organizations as a management tool to achieve efficiency in the organizations' processes. Paper builds on established theoretical principles, enhance them with up-to-date insights on the current situation and development and create a valuable knowledge base on shared services organizations. Strong emphasis is put on concrete means on how exactly efficiency could be achieved. Major relevant topics such as reasons for shared services, people man...

  12. The illusion of common ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Harvey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    When people talk about “common ground”, they invoke shared experiences, convictions, and emotions. In the language sciences, however, ‘common ground’ also has a technical sense. Many taking a representational view of language and cognition seek to explain that everyday feeling in terms of how iso......, it makes premature appeal to reasoning and internally represented knowledge. We conclude that outside its vague everyday sense, the concept of common ground is a notion that the language sciences would be well advised to abandon.......When people talk about “common ground”, they invoke shared experiences, convictions, and emotions. In the language sciences, however, ‘common ground’ also has a technical sense. Many taking a representational view of language and cognition seek to explain that everyday feeling in terms of how...... isolated individuals “use” language to communicate. Autonomous cognitive agents are said to use words to communicate inner thoughts and experiences; in such a framework, ‘common ground’ describes a body of information that people allegedly share, hold common, and use to reason about how intentions have...

  13. Multiple forms of atypical rearrangements generating supernumerary derivative chromosome 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigman Marian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternally-derived duplications that include the imprinted region on the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 underlie a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by cognitive impairment, seizures and a substantial risk for autism spectrum disorders1. The duplications most often take the form of a supernumerary pseudodicentric derivative chromosome 15 [der(15] that has been called inverted duplication 15 or isodicentric 15 [idic(15], although interstitial rearrangements also occur. Similar to the deletions found in most cases of Angelman and Prader Willi syndrome, the duplications appear to be mediated by unequal homologous recombination involving low copy repeats (LCR that are found clustered in the region. Five recurrent breakpoints have been described in most cases of segmental aneuploidy of chromosome 15q11-q13 and previous studies have shown that most idic(15 chromosomes arise through BP3:BP3 or BP4:BP5 recombination events. Results Here we describe four duplication chromosomes that show evidence of atypical recombination events that involve regions outside the common breakpoints. Additionally, in one patient with a mosaic complex der(15, we examined homologous pairing of chromosome 15q11-q13 alleles by FISH in a region of frontal cortex, which identified mosaicism in this tissue and also demonstrated pairing of the signals from the der(15 and the normal homologues. Conclusion Involvement of atypical BP in the generation of idic(15 chromosomes can lead to considerable structural heterogeneity.

  14. Clinical Expression of an Inherited Unbalanced Translocation in Chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani Bandana Ganguly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements are not common; however, they have a significant clinical expression. The parental balanced translocation produces unbalanced chromosome, which is transmitted to next generation through fertilization of gametes carrying the derivative chromosome. The carriers of balanced rearrangements mostly do not have recognizable phenotypic expression. We report a family comprising of healthy and non-consanguineous young parents and their preemie newborn severely affected with congenital anomalies and systemic disorders. Conventional Gbanding analysis of somatic chromosomes identified a balanced translocation, t(6;10(p23;q24, in mother and an unbalanced rearrangement, der(6t(6:10(p23;q24mat, in the child. The child has inherited a derivative chromosome 6 with partial deletion of 6(p23-pter and partial trisomy 10(q24-qter, which has resulted in fusion of genes of two different chromosomes. The prominent phenotypic features of del(6p, including high forehead, flat nasal bridge, agenesis of left ear, atrial septal defect (ASD, craniosynostosis, and growth retardation, are overlapping with specific Axenfeld-Reiger-, Larsen-, and Ritscher-Sinzel/3-C syndromes, however, lacking in ocular anomalies, skeletal laxity, or cerebellar malformation. Therefore, this paper rules out the isolated effect of del(6p23 or trisomy 10(q24 on distinct previously reported syndromes and proposes the combined effect of unbalanced chromosomal alteration.

  15. Chromosomal mechanisms in murine radiation acute myeloid leukemogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Breckon, G.; Cox, R. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Chromosome 2 abnormalities, particularly interstitial deletions, characterize murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemias (AMLs). Here, G-band analyses in CBA/H mice of early (1-6 month) post 3 Gy X-radiation events in bone marrow cells in vivo and karyotype evolution in one unusual AML are presented. The early event analysis showed that all irradiated animals carry chromosome 2 abnormalities, that chromosome 2 abnormalities are more frequent than expected and that interstitial deletions are more common in chromosome 2 than in the remainder of the genome. On presentation AML case N122 carried a t(2; 11) terminal translocation which, with passaging, evolved into a del2(C3F3). Therefore two pathways in leukaemogenesis might exist, one deletion-driven, the other terminal tranlocation-driven involving interstitial genes and terminal genes respectively of chromosome 2. As all irradiated individuals carried chromosome 2 abnormalities, the formation of these aberrations does not determine individual leukaemogenic sensitivity as only 20-25% of animals would be expected to develop AML. Similar lines of argument suggest that chromosome 2 abnormalities are necessary but not sufficient for radiation leukaemogenesis in CBA/H nor are they rate limiting in leukaemogenesis. (Author).

  16. A syntenic region conserved from fish to Mammalian x chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guijun; Yi, Meisheng; Kobayashi, Tohru; Hong, Yunhan; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosomes bearing the sex-determining gene initiate development along the male or female pathway, no matter which sex is determined by XY male or ZW female heterogamety. Sex chromosomes originate from ancient autosomes but evolved rapidly after the acquisition of sex-determining factors which are highly divergent between species. In the heterogametic male system (XY system), the X chromosome is relatively evolutionary silent and maintains most of its ancestral genes, in contrast to its Y counterpart that has evolved rapidly and degenerated. Sex in a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is determined genetically via an XY system, in which an unpaired region is present in the largest chromosome pair. We defined the differences in DNA contents present in this chromosome with a two-color comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approach in XY males. We further identified a syntenic segment within this region that is well conserved in several teleosts. Through comparative genome analysis, this syntenic segment was also shown to be present in mammalian X chromosomes, suggesting a common ancestral origin of vertebrate sex chromosomes. PMID:25506037

  17. A Syntenic Region Conserved from Fish to Mammalian X Chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex chromosomes bearing the sex-determining gene initiate development along the male or female pathway, no matter which sex is determined by XY male or ZW female heterogamety. Sex chromosomes originate from ancient autosomes but evolved rapidly after the acquisition of sex-determining factors which are highly divergent between species. In the heterogametic male system (XY system, the X chromosome is relatively evolutionary silent and maintains most of its ancestral genes, in contrast to its Y counterpart that has evolved rapidly and degenerated. Sex in a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, is determined genetically via an XY system, in which an unpaired region is present in the largest chromosome pair. We defined the differences in DNA contents present in this chromosome with a two-color comparative genomic hybridization (CGH and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD approach in XY males. We further identified a syntenic segment within this region that is well conserved in several teleosts. Through comparative genome analysis, this syntenic segment was also shown to be present in mammalian X chromosomes, suggesting a common ancestral origin of vertebrate sex chromosomes.

  18. [Dicentric Y chromosomes. First part: cytogenetic and molecular aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayed Abdelmoula, N; Amouri, A

    2005-01-01

    Dicentric Y chromosomes have been reviewed twice in 1994 by Hsu et al. and in 1995 by Tuck-Muller et al. who showed that dic(Y) are the most common Y structural abnormalities and that their influence on gonadal and somatic development is extremely variable. The prediction of their phenotypic consequences is often difficult because of the variety of genomic sequences concerned by duplications and deletions, because of the variable degrees of mosaicism (cell line 45,X in particular) and at the end, because of identification and analysis technical difficulties of the structure of the rearranged Y chromosome. The clinical specter of this cytogenetic abnormality is rather wide going from almost-normal or infertile males, to females with or without stigmas of Turner syndrome. Middle phenotypes consist of various degrees of genital ambiguities. However, clinical expression seems to be related to the genomic capital of the Y chromosome, mainly the Y genes involved in the control of the process of the determination of gonads (Yp) and spermatogenesis (Yq) as well as control of the growth and the skeletal development (Yp). Here, we report a third comprehensive review of the literature concerning dicentric Y chromosomes reported since 1994. In the light of previous reviews as well as the recent data of the genetic cartography of the Y chromosome, we try, in this first part, to determine characteristics of reported dicentric Y chromosomes as well as their chromosomal mechanics, their mitotic stability and finally their cytogenetic and molecular investigations.

  19. A Data Sharing Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Crosas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the early days of modern science through this century of Big Data, data sharing has enabled some of the greatest advances in science. In the digital age, technology can facilitate more effective and efficient data sharing and preservation practices, and provide incentives for making data easily accessible among researchers. At the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University, we have developed an open-source software to share, cite, preserve, discover and analyze data, named the Dataverse Network. We share here the project’s motivation, its growth and successes, and likely evolution.

  20. Phenomenology of experiential sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, Felipe; Zahavi, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended to be overl......The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended...

  1. Computer aided analysis of additional chromosome aberrations in Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia using a simplified computer readable cytogenetic notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohr Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of complex cytogenetic databases of distinct leukaemia entities may help to detect rare recurring chromosome aberrations, minimal common regions of gains and losses, and also hot spots of genomic rearrangements. The patterns of the karyotype alterations may provide insights into the genetic pathways of disease progression. Results We developed a simplified computer readable cytogenetic notation (SCCN by which chromosome findings are normalised at a resolution of 400 bands. Lost or gained chromosomes or chromosome segments are specified in detail, and ranges of chromosome breakpoint assignments are recorded. Software modules were written to summarise the recorded chromosome changes with regard to the respective chromosome involvement. To assess the degree of karyotype alterations the ploidy levels and numbers of numerical and structural changes were recorded separately, and summarised in a complex karyotype aberration score (CKAS. The SCCN and CKAS were used to analyse the extend and the spectrum of additional chromosome aberrations in 94 patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and secondary chromosome anomalies. Dosage changes of chromosomal material represented 92.1% of all additional events. Recurring regions of chromosome losses were identified. Structural rearrangements affecting (pericentromeric chromosome regions were recorded in 24.6% of the cases. Conclusions SCCN and CKAS provide unifying elements between karyotypes and computer processable data formats. They proved to be useful in the investigation of additional chromosome aberrations in Ph-positive ALL, and may represent a step towards full automation of the analysis of large and complex karyotype databases.

  2. Intraspecific chromosome variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dubinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available (Editorial preface. The publication is presented in order to remind us of one of dramatic pages of the history of genetics. It re-opens for the contemporary reader a comprehensive work marking the priority change from plant cytogenetics to animal cytogenetics led by wide population studies which were conducted on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The year of the publication (1937 became the point of irretrievable branching between the directions of Old World and New World genetics connected with the problems of chromosome variability and its significance for the evolution of the species. The famous book of T. Dobzhansky (1937 was published by Columbia University in the US under the title “Genetics and the origin of species”, and in the shadow of this American ‘skybuilding’ all other works grew dim. It is remarkable that both Dobzhansky and Dubinin come to similar conclusions about the role of chromosomes in speciation. This is not surprising given that they both might be considered as representatives of the Russian genetic school, by their birth and education. Interestingly, Dobzhansky had never referred to the full paper of Dubinin et al. (1937, though a previous short communication in Nature (1936 was included together with all former papers on the related subject. In full, the volume of the original publication printed in the Biological Journal in Moscow comprised 47 pages, in that number 41 pages of the Russian text accompanied by 16 Figs, a table and reference list, and, above all, 6 pages of the English summary. This final part in English is now reproduced in the authors’ version with the only addition being the reference list in the originally printed form.

  3. Designing for Global Data Sharing, Designing for Educational Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robin S.; Radcliffe, David; Fosmire, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an example of a global data sharing project with an educational transformation agenda. This agenda shaped both the design of the shared dataset and the experience of sharing the common dataset to support multiple perspective inquiry and enable integrative and critically reflexive research-to-practice dialogue. The shared…

  4. Common but Differentiated Responsibilities:Burden Sharing Based on Alternative Emission of Global Harvested Wood Products Carbon Pool%共同但有区别责任:基于全球HWP碳库替代减排的责任分担

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红强; 张小标

    2015-01-01

    Common but Differentiated Responsibilities”is the main principal of emission reduction bur⁃den sharing among countries under the context of global response to climate change.Currently,developed coun⁃tries do not reflect upon their technological efficiency on advantages in harvested wood products( HWP ) carbon pool storage.Definite burden sharing is urgent in alternative emission of global HWP carbon pool.From the per⁃spective of“capacity to pay principal”,with 4 scenarios based on economic development and rate of technologi⁃cal efficiency promoting of 20 representative HWP producing countries in the world,this study analyzed chan⁃ges of global HWP carbon pool and respective burden shares between 2010—2030 with GFPM.Results show that:①Technological efficiency is an important factor that promotes global HWP carbon pool,and if developed countries promote their technological efficiency at a given faster rate compared with average rate of sample countries,the global HWP carbon pool will get an increment of 2.9×103 TgC.②The capacity of alternative e⁃mission of HWP carbon pool in developed countries are relatively stronger,and as a result,developed countries should undertake 76%-97% share of the responsibility.Developing countries'burden share is 11% to 31% of those of developed countries respectively.③United States,Sweden,Finland and Germany are major countries that should undertake the alternative emission responsibility of global HWP carbon pool.Meanwhile,China’ s alternative emission of HWP carbon pool is an important contribution and burden share in future response to climate change.%从“减排能力原则”的视角,依据全球20个代表性HWP生产国的经济发展水平和技术效率提升速率设置4个分析情景,使用GFPM模型模拟并评价2010—2030年全球HWP碳库变动和相应的责任分担。研究表明:①技术效率是提升全球HWP碳库水平的重要因素,发达国家若以既定于样本国

  5. Pervasive Sharing of Genetic Effects in Autoimmune Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotsapas, Chris; Voight, Benjamin F.; Rossin, Elizabeth; Lage, Kasper; Neale, Benjamin M.; Wallace, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Behrens, Timothy; Cho, Judy; De Jager, Philip L.; Elder, James T.; Graham, Robert R.; Gregersen, Peter; Klareskog, Lars; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Worthington, Jane; Todd, John A.; Hafler, David A.; Rich, Stephen S.; Daly, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified numerous, replicable, genetic associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of common autoimmune and inflammatory (immune-mediated) diseases, some of which are shared between two diseases. Along with epidemiological

  6. [Chromosome composition of wheat-rye lines and the influence of rye chromosomes on disease resistance and agronomic traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumanova, E V; Efremova, T T; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Rosseeva, L P

    2014-11-01

    Identification of the chromosomal composition of common wheat lines with rye chromosomes was carried out using genomic in situ hybridization and 1RS- and 5P-specific PCR markers. It was demonstrated that wheat chromosomes 5A or 5D were substituted by rye chromosome 5R in the wheat-rye lines. It was established that one of the lines with complex disease resistance contained rye chromosome 5R and T1RS.1BL, while another line was found to contain, in addition to T1RS.1BL, a new Robertsonian translocation, T5AS.5RL. Substitution of the wheat chromosome 5A with the dominant Vrn-A1 gene for the Onokhoiskaya rye chromosome 5R led to lengthening of the germination-heading period or to a change in the type of development. A negative influence of T1RS.1BL on SDS sedimentation volume and grain hardness was demonstrated, along with a positive effect of the combination of T1RS. BL and 5R(5D) substitution on grain protein content. Quantitative traits of the 5R(5A) and 5R(5D) substitution lines were at the level of recipient cultivars. A line with two translocations, T1RS.1BL + T5AS.5R1, appeared to be more productive as compared to the line carrying T1RS.1BL in combination with the 5R(5D) substitution.

  7. Banding studies of chromosomes in a patient with mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, S.; Rowley, J.D.; Variakojis, D.

    1978-11-01

    Chromosomes from a patient with mycosis fungoides were examined in detail with banding techniques. Hyperdiploid cells from a lymph node had common anomalies of certain chromosomes which formed three similar clones. The abnormalities involved chromosomes Nos. 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 14, and 18, in addition to an unknown small metacentric marker (M3). Although there were a number of mitotic cells in peripheral blood cultured both with and without PHA, none of the few cells with abnormal karyotypes was similar to the clonal cells of the lymph node. One of the abnormalities in the lymph node was a 14q rearrangement, which could be the result of a translocation of Nos. 8 and 14 involving a third chromosome, No. 2. An abnormality in the blood resulted from a translocation between the long arms of Nos. 1 and 14. These findings could be useful for studies in which mycosis fungoides is compared with the Sezary syndrome and other lymphoid malignancies.

  8. The roles of time, place, value and relationships in collocated photo sharing with camera phones

    OpenAIRE

    Stelmaszewska, Hanna; Fields, Bob; Blandford, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Photo sharing on camera phones is becoming a common way to maintain closeness and relationships with friends and family. How people share their photos in collocated settings using camera phones, with whom they share, and what factors influence their sharing experience were the themes explored in this study. Results showed that people exhibit different photo sharing behaviour depending on who they share photos with, where the sharing takes place and what value a picture represents to its owner...

  9. X chromosome inactivation: Activation of Silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H. Jonkers (Iris)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractX chromosome inactivation is a process that ensures equal expression of the X chromosomes between males, which have one X and one Y chromosome, and females, which have two X chromosomes, in mammals. Females initiate inactivation of one of their two X chromosomes early during embryogenesi

  10. Limitations to sharing entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jeong San; Sanders, Barry C

    2011-01-01

    We discuss limitations to sharing entanglement known as monogamy of entanglement. Our pedagogical approach commences with simple examples of limited entanglement sharing for pure three-qubit states and progresses to the more general case of mixed-state monogamy relations with multiple qudits.

  11. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  12. The constitutional t(11;22): implications for a novel mechanism responsible for gross chromosomal rearrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Kurahashi, H; Inagaki, H; Ohye, T; Kogo, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Kato, T.; Tong, M.; Emanuel, BS

    2010-01-01

    The constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11) is the most common recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans. The breakpoint sequences of both chromosomes are characterized by several hundred base pairs of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs). Similar PATRRs have also been identified at the breakpoints of other nonrecurrent translocations, suggesting that PATRR-mediated chromosomal translocation represents one of the universal pathways for gross chromosomal rearrangement in the human genome. We...

  13. Repetitive DNA Sequences and Evolution of ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosomes in Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Cardim Scacchetti

    Full Text Available Characidium constitutes an interesting model for cytogenetic studies, since a large degree of karyotype variation has been detected in this group, like the presence/absence of sex and supernumerary chromosomes and variable distribution of repetitive sequences in different species/populations. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis in 13 Characidium species collected at different South American river basins in order to investigate the karyotype diversification in this group. Chromosome analyses involved the karyotype characterization, cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences and cross-species chromosome painting using a W-specific probe obtained in a previous study from Characidium gomesi. Our results evidenced a conserved diploid chromosome number of 2n = 50, and almost all the species exhibited homeologous ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in different stages of differentiation, except C. cf. zebra, C. tenue, C. xavante and C. stigmosum. Notably, some ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes showed 5S and/or 18S rDNA clusters, while no U2 snDNA sites could be detected in the sex chromosomes, being restricted to a single chromosome pair in almost all the analyzed species. In addition, the species Characidium sp. aff. C. vidali showed B chromosomes with an inter-individual variation of 1 to 4 supernumerary chromosomes per cell. Notably, these B chromosomes share sequences with the W-specific probe, providing insights about their origin. Results presented here further confirm the extensive karyotype diversity within Characidium in contrast with a conserved diploid chromosome number. Such chromosome differences seem to constitute a significant reproductive barrier, since several sympatric Characidium species had been described during the last few years and no interespecific hybrids were found.

  14. Stretching the rules: monocentric chromosomes with multiple centromere domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Pavel; Navrátilová, Alice; Schroeder-Reiter, Elizabeth; Koblížková, Andrea; Steinbauerová, Veronika; Chocholová, Eva; Novák, Petr; Wanner, Gerhard; Macas, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The centromere is a functional chromosome domain that is essential for faithful chromosome segregation during cell division and that can be reliably identified by the presence of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CenH3. In monocentric chromosomes, the centromere is characterized by a single CenH3-containing region within a morphologically distinct primary constriction. This region usually spans up to a few Mbp composed mainly of centromere-specific satellite DNA common to all chromosomes of a given species. In holocentric chromosomes, there is no primary constriction; the centromere is composed of many CenH3 loci distributed along the entire length of a chromosome. Using correlative fluorescence light microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy, we show that pea (Pisum sativum) chromosomes exhibit remarkably long primary constrictions that contain 3-5 explicit CenH3-containing regions, a novelty in centromere organization. In addition, we estimate that the size of the chromosome segment delimited by two outermost domains varies between 69 Mbp and 107 Mbp, several factors larger than any known centromere length. These domains are almost entirely composed of repetitive DNA sequences belonging to 13 distinct families of satellite DNA and one family of centromeric retrotransposons, all of which are unevenly distributed among pea chromosomes. We present the centromeres of Pisum as novel "meta-polycentric" functional domains. Our results demonstrate that the organization and DNA composition of functional centromere domains can be far more complex than previously thought, do not require single repetitive elements, and do not require single centromere domains in order to segregate properly. Based on these findings, we propose Pisum as a useful model for investigation of centromere architecture and the still poorly understood role of repetitive DNA in centromere evolution, determination, and function. PMID:22737088

  15. Rapid chromosome evolution in recently formed polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Yoong Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyploidy, frequently termed "whole genome duplication", is a major force in the evolution of many eukaryotes. Indeed, most angiosperm species have undergone at least one round of polyploidy in their evolutionary history. Despite enormous progress in our understanding of many aspects of polyploidy, we essentially have no information about the role of chromosome divergence in the establishment of young polyploid populations. Here we investigate synthetic lines and natural populations of two recently and recurrently formed allotetraploids Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (formed within the past 80 years to assess the role of aberrant meiosis in generating chromosomal/genomic diversity. That diversity is likely important in the formation, establishment and survival of polyploid populations and species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Applications of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH to natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus suggest that chromosomal rearrangements and other chromosomal changes are common in both allotetraploids. We detected extensive chromosomal polymorphism between individuals and populations, including (i plants monosomic and trisomic for particular chromosomes (perhaps indicating compensatory trisomy, (ii intergenomic translocations and (iii variable sizes and expression patterns of individual ribosomal DNA (rDNA loci. We even observed karyotypic variation among sibling plants. Significantly, translocations, chromosome loss, and meiotic irregularities, including quadrivalent formation, were observed in synthetic (S(0 and S(1 generations polyploid lines. Our results not only provide a mechanism for chromosomal variation in natural populations, but also indicate that chromosomal changes occur rapidly following polyploidisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data shed new light on previous analyses of genome and transcriptome structures in de novo and establishing polyploid species. Crucially our

  16. SharePoint 2010 Enterprise Architect's Guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Brian; Baer, Bill; Kearn, Martin; Shah, Arpan; Adams, Jim; Bridport, Nigel; Esperanca, Huge; Gideon, Chris; Hassani, Sam; Hodgkinson, Neil; Juvonen, Vesa; Kleven, Scott; Morrish, Ian; Olenick, Paul; Ranlett, Matt; Voskresenskaya, Natalya; Walker, Simon; Whitehead, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Tips and techniques for becoming a successful SharePoint architect If you're eager to design and architect a successful deployment of SharePoint 2010, then this is the book for you. Packed with real-world experiences and solid processes, this guidebook provides you with everything you need to perform for designing and architecting enterprise portal services. Helpful examples examine the common design issues affecting SharePoint 2010 environments that can cause deployments to fail so you can learn what to avoid. Plus, key development and deployment issues are covered from an architecture perspe

  17. Knowledge sharing activities in project-oriented organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Eva; Eskerod, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    Findings from examining eleven knowledge sharing activities in five mature project-oriented organisations are presented. Based on in-depth case studies, we claim that mature project-oriented companies will prefer knowledge sharing activities that contribute to an intra-organisational common frame...... of reference. Further, activities that are internal to the companies are preferred to external activities, and non-project-/programme-specific knowledge sharing activities are preferred to project-/programme-specific knowledge sharing activities...

  18. Cell-autonomous correction of ring chromosomes in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershteyn, Marina; Hayashi, Yohei; Desachy, Guillaume; Hsiao, Edward C.; Sami, Salma; Tsang, Kathryn M.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.; Yamanaka, Shinya; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    Ring chromosomes are structural aberrations commonly associated with birth defects, mental disabilities and growth retardation. Rings form after fusion of the long and short arms of a chromosome, and are sometimes associated with large terminal deletions. Owing to the severity of these large aberrations that can affect multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have been proposed. During cell division, ring chromosomes can exhibit unstable behaviour leading to continuous production of aneuploid progeny with low viability and high cellular death rate. The overall consequences of this chromosomal instability have been largely unexplored in experimental model systems. Here we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts containing ring chromosomes with large deletions and found that reprogrammed cells lost the abnormal chromosome and duplicated the wild-type homologue through the compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD) mechanism. The karyotypically normal iPSCs with isodisomy for the corrected chromosome outgrew co-existing aneuploid populations, enabling rapid and efficient isolation of patient-derived iPSCs devoid of the original chromosomal aberration. Our results suggest a fundamentally different function for cellular reprogramming as a means of `chromosome therapy' to reverse combined loss-of-function across many genes in cells with large-scale aberrations involving ring structures. In addition, our work provides an experimentally tractable human cellular system for studying mechanisms of chromosomal number control, which is of critical relevance to human development and disease.

  19. Why it is crucial to analyze non clonal chromosome aberrations or NCCAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Henry H Q; Regan, Sarah M; Liu, Guo; Ye, Christine J

    2016-01-01

    Current cytogenetics has largely focused its efforts on the identification of recurrent karyotypic alterations, also known as clonal chromosomal aberrations (CCAs). The rationale of doing so seems simple: recurrent genetic changes are relevant for diseases or specific physiological conditions, while non clonal chromosome aberrations (NCCAs) are insignificant genetic background or noise. However, in reality, the vast majority of chromosomal alterations are NCCAs, and it is challenging to identify commonly shared CCAs in most solid tumors. Furthermore, the karyotype, rather than genes, represents the system inheritance, or blueprint, and each NCCA represents an altered genome system. These realizations underscore the importance of the re-evaluation of NCCAs in cytogenetic analyses. In this concept article, we briefly review the definition of NCCAs, some historical misconceptions about them, and why NCCAs are not insignificant "noise," but rather a highly significant feature of the cellular population for providing genome heterogeneity and complexity, representing one important form of fuzzy inheritance. The frequencies of NCCAs also represent an index to measure both internally- and environmentally-induced genome instability. Additionally, the NCCA/CCA cycle is associated with macro- and micro-cellular evolution. Lastly, elevated NCCAs are observed in many disease/illness conditions. Considering all of these factors, we call for the immediate action of studying and reporting NCCAs. Specifically, effort is needed to characterize and compare different types of NCCAs, to define their baseline in various tissues, to develop methods to access mitotic cells, to re-examine/interpret the NCCAs data, and to develop an NCCA database. PMID:26877768

  20. Composition and chromosomal localization of cetacean highly repetitive DNA with special reference to the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, U; Widegren, B

    1989-11-01

    Three highly repetitive DNA components--the common cetacean component, the heavy (GC-rich) satellite and the light (AT-rich) satellite--were were studied in the blue whale. Consensus sequences of the common component and the heavy satellite were determined on the basis of three repeats of the common component and eight repeats of the heavy satellite. The tandemly organized common cetacean component, which comprises a large portion of all cetacean--both odontocete (toothed whale) and mysticete (whalebone whale)--genomes has a repeat length of 1,760 bp and the three clones analysed showed a high degree of conformity. The repeat contains a 72 bp sequence with dyad symmetry and striking intrastrand complementarity. The rest of the repeat comprises a unique sequence. The repeat unit of the heavy satellite of the blue whale is 422 bp. Also this component is tandemly organized. About half the length of the repeat constitutes a unique sequence and the other half is made up of subrepeats with TTAGGG as a frequent motif. The light satellite has not been sequenced and its basic repeat unit has not yet been identified. The chromosomal localization of the three components was determined by in situ hybridization using 3H-labelled cloned fragments as probes. The common cetacean component was located in most interstitial and terminal C-bands. The heavy satellite occurred primarily in terminal C-bands. When the two components hybridized to the same terminal C-bands, the localization of the heavy satellite was distal to that of the common cetacean component. Neither component shared localization with the light satellite which is located in centromeric C-bands in just a few chromosome pairs. PMID:2612291

  1. Causes of oncogenic chromosomal translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Aplan, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Non-random chromosomal translocations are frequently associated with a variety of cancers, especially hematologic malignancies and childhood sarcomas In addition to their diagnostic utility, chromosomal translocations are increasingly being used in the clinic to guide therapeutic decisions. However, the mechanisms which cause these translocations remain poorly understood. Illegit...

  2. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, Christian H., E-mail: christian.haering@embl.de [Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.jessberger@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  3. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, Kimberley J; Humle, Tatyana; Anderson, James R; Biro, Dora; Sousa, Claudia; Ohashi, Gaku; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa) very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events). Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies. PMID:17849015

  4. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, Kimberley J; Humle, Tatyana; Anderson, James R; Biro, Dora; Sousa, Claudia; Ohashi, Gaku; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa) very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events). Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies.

  5. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J Hockings

    Full Text Available The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events. Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 20 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 links) Encyclopedia: Chromosome Encyclopedia: Epilepsy Health Topic: Epilepsy Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Ring chromosome 20 Additional NIH Resources (2 links) National Human Genome Research Institute: Chromosome Abnormalities National Institute of ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 14 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Encyclopedia: Chromosome Health Topic: Developmental Disabilities Health Topic: Epilepsy Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Ring chromosome 14 Additional NIH Resources (2 links) National Human Genome Research Institute: Chromosome Abnormalities National Institute of ...

  8. Bacterial chromosome organization and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B K; Laub, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    If fully stretched out, a typical bacterial chromosome would be nearly 1 mm long, approximately 1,000 times the length of a cell. Not only must cells massively compact their genetic material, but they must also organize their DNA in a manner that is compatible with a range of cellular processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, homologous recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. Recent work, driven in part by technological advances, has begun to reveal the general principles of chromosome organization in bacteria. Here, drawing on studies of many different organisms, we review the emerging picture of how bacterial chromosomes are structured at multiple length scales, highlighting the functions of various DNA-binding proteins and the impact of physical forces. Additionally, we discuss the spatial dynamics of chromosomes, particularly during their segregation to daughter cells. Although there has been tremendous progress, we also highlight gaps that remain in understanding chromosome organization and segregation. PMID:26566111

  9. Higher order structure of chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, T A; Comings, D E

    1979-04-01

    Isolated Chinese hamster metaphase chromosomes were resuspended in 4 M ammonium acetate and spread on a surface of distilled water or 0.15 to 0.5 M ammonium acetate. The DNA was released in the form of a regular series of rosettes connected by interrossette DNA. The mean length of the rosette DNA was 14 micron, similar to the mean length of 10 micron for chromomere DNA of Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The mean interrosette DNA was 4.2 micron. SDS gel electrophoresis of the chromosomal nonhistone proteins showed them to be very similar to nuclear nonhistone proteins except for the presence of more actin and tubulin. Nuclear matrix proteins were present in the chromosomes and may play a role in forming the rosettes. Evidence that the rosette pattern is artifactual versus the possibility that it represents a real organizational substructure of the chromosomes is reviewed.

  10. Cretaceous park of sex determination: sex chromosomes are conserved across iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-03-01

    Many poikilothermic vertebrate lineages, especially among amphibians and fishes, possess a rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, while in endotherms there is a notable stability of sex chromosomes. Reptiles in general exhibit variability in sex-determining systems; as typical poikilotherms, they might be expected to have a rapid turnover of sex chromosomes. However, molecular data which would enable the testing of the stability of sex chromosomes are lacking in most lineages. Here, we provide molecular evidence that sex chromosomes are highly conserved across iguanas, one of the most species-rich clade of reptiles. We demonstrate that members of the New World families Iguanidae, Tropiduridae, Leiocephalidae, Phrynosomatidae, Dactyloidae and Crotaphytidae, as well as of the family Opluridae which is restricted to Madagascar, all share homologous sex chromosomes. As our sampling represents the majority of the phylogenetic diversity of iguanas, the origin of iguana sex chromosomes can be traced back in history to the basal splitting of this group which occurred during the Cretaceous period. Iguanas thus show a stability of sex chromosomes comparable to mammals and birds and represent the group with the oldest sex chromosomes currently known among amniotic poikilothermic vertebrates. PMID:24598109

  11. pain2: A neuropathic pain QTL identified on rat chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Shpigler, Hagai; Pisanté, Anne; DelCanho, Sonia; Minert, Anne; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Devor, Marshall; Darvasi, Ariel

    2008-03-01

    We aimed to locate a chronic pain-associated QTL in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) based on previous findings of a QTL (pain1) on chromosome 15 of the mouse (Mus musculus). The work was based on rat selection lines HA (high autotomy) and LA (low autotomy) which show a contrasting pain phenotype in response to nerve injury in the neuroma model of neuropathic pain. An F(2) segregating population was generated from HA and LA animals. Phenotyped F(2) rats were genotyped on chromosome 7 and chromosome 2, regions that share a partial homology with mouse chromosome 15. Our interval mapping analysis revealed a LOD score value of 3.63 (corresponding to p=0.005 after correcting for multiple testing using permutations) on rat chromosome 2, which is suggestive of the presence of a QTL affecting the predisposition to neuropathic pain. This QTL was mapped to the 14-26cM interval of chromosome 2. Interestingly, this region is syntenic to mouse chromosome 13, rather than to the region of mouse chromosome 15 that contains pain1. This chromosomal position indicates that it is possibly a new QTL, and hence we name it pain2. Further work is needed to replicate and to uncover the underlying gene(s) in both species.

  12. Getting Behind B Shares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China Ocean Shipping(Group)Co.(COSCO) employs an experimental strategy of making acquisitions through the purchase of B shares COSCO Pacific Ltd.and its affili- ated companies held 4.5 million shares of China International Marine Containers(Grouo)Co.Ltd.(CIMC) as of March 6. Four months ago,the board of direc- tors of COSCO Container Industries Ltd. (COSCO Container)decided to buy more B shares of CIMC through the securities mar- ket.COSCO Container is a shell company registered in the British Virgin Islands with a

  13. Too Much Information Sharing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganuza, Juan José; Jansen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    By using general information structures and precision criteria based on the dispersion of conditional expectations, we study how oligopolists’ information acquisition decisions may change the effects of information sharing on the consumer surplus. Sharing information about individual cost...... parameters gives the following trade-off in Cournot oligopoly. On the one hand, it decreases the expected consumer surplus for a given information precision, as the literature shows. On the other hand, information sharing increases the firms’ incentives to acquire information, and the consumer surplus...... increases in the precision of the firms’ information. Interestingly, the latter effect may dominate the former effect....

  14. Chimpanzees Share Forbidden Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley J Hockings; Tatyana Humle; Anderson, James R.; Dora Biro; Claudia Sousa; Gaku Ohashi; Tetsuro Matsuzawa

    2007-01-01

    PLoS ONE - www.plosone.org, V.9, e886 The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a ‘social tool’ for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic o...

  15. Knowledge grows when shared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbæk, Mikael Karstensen

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the few commodities that don’t devalue when used. Actually knowledge grows when shared and the free online access to peer-reviewed scientific publications is a potent ingredient the process of sharing. The sharing of knowledge is facilitated by the Open Access Movement. However...... infrastructure for Open Access was launched in Ghent, Belgium. This project and initiative is facilitating the success of the Open Access Pilot in FP7 as presented earlier in this journal. In this brief article I will present some of the most interesting issues that were discussed during the first session...

  16. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  17. ADN et chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Hélène

    2000-01-01

    Chaque chromosome contient une seule molécule d’ADN. L’ADN déroulé d’un noyau de cellule humaine mesurerait environ 1,8 m : chaque molécule d’ADN est enroulée et compactée en plusieurs étapes, grâce à l’association de différentes protéines, et loge dans le noyau de 6 µm de diamètre. Le degré de condensation de l’ADN est variable selon les régions chromosomiques et les régions les moins condensées sont les plus riches en gènes. L’ADN est composé d’une variété de séquences codantes ou non et ré...

  18. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  19. Mammalian X homolog acts as sex chromosome in lacertid lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, M; Vukić, J; Kratochvíl, L

    2016-07-01

    Among amniotes, squamate reptiles are especially variable in their mechanisms of sex determination; however, based largely on cytogenetic data, some lineages possess highly evolutionary stable sex chromosomes. The still very limited knowledge of the genetic content of squamate sex chromosomes precludes a reliable reconstruction of the evolutionary history of sex determination in this group and consequently in all amniotes. Female heterogamety with a degenerated W chromosome typifies the lizards of the family Lacertidae, the widely distributed Old World clade including several hundreds of species. From the liver transcriptome of the lacertid Takydromus sexlineatus female, we selected candidates for Z-specific genes as the loci lacking single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We validated the candidate genes through the comparison of the copy numbers in the female and male genomes of T. sexlineatus and another lacertid species, Lacerta agilis, by quantitative PCR that also proved to be a reliable technique for the molecular sexing of the studied species. We suggest that this novel approach is effective for the detection of Z-specific and X-specific genes in lineages with degenerated W, respectively Y chromosomes. The analyzed gene content of the Z chromosome revealed that lacertid sex chromosomes are not homologous with those of other reptiles including birds, but instead the genes have orthologs in the X-conserved region shared by viviparous mammals. It is possible that this part of the vertebrate genome was independently co-opted for the function of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and lacertids because of its content of genes involved in gonad differentiation. PMID:26980341

  20. Nucleolar Organization, Ribosomal DNA Array Stability, and Acrocentric Chromosome Integrity Are Linked to Telomere Function

    OpenAIRE

    Stimpson, Kaitlin M.; Sullivan, Lori L; Kuo, Molly E.; Sullivan, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    The short arms of the ten acrocentric human chromosomes share several repetitive DNAs, including ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA). The rDNA arrays correspond to nucleolar organizing regions that coalesce each cell cycle to form the nucleolus. Telomere disruption by expressing a mutant version of telomere binding protein TRF2 (dnTRF2) causes non-random acrocentric fusions, as well as large-scale nucleolar defects. The mechanisms responsible for acrocentric chromosome sensitivity to dysfunctional tel...

  1. Mating patterns amongst Siberian reindeer herders: inferences from mtDNA and Y-chromosomal analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakendorf, Brigitte; Novgorodov, Innokentij N; Osakovskij, Vladimir L; Stoneking, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The Evenks and Evens, who speak closely related languages belonging to the Northern Tungusic branch of the Tungusic family, are nomadic reindeer herders and hunters. They are spread over an immense territory in northeastern Siberia, and consequently different subgroups are in contact with diverse peoples speaking Samoyedic, Turkic, Mongolic, Chukotka-Kamchatkan, and Yukaghir languages. Nevertheless, the languages and culture of the Evenks and Evens are similar enough for them to have been classified as a single ethnic group in the past. This linguistic and cultural similarity indicates that they may have spread over their current area of habitation relatively recently, and thus may be closely related genetically. On the other hand, the great distances that separate individual groups of Evens and Evenks from each other might have led to preferential mating with geographic neighbors rather than with linguistically related peoples. In this study, we assess the correlation between linguistic and genetic relationship in three different subgroups of Evenks and Evens, respectively, via mtDNA and Y-chromosomal analyses. The results show that there is some evidence of a common origin based on shared mtDNA lineages and relatively similar Y-haplogroup frequencies amongst most of the Evenk and Even subgroups. However, there is little sharing of Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes, indicating that males within Evenk and Even subgroups have remained relatively isolated. There is further evidence of some female admixture in different Even subgroups with their respective geographic neighbors. However, the Tungusic groups, and especially the Evenks, show signs of genetic drift, making inferences about their prehistory difficult. PMID:17492671

  2. Autism and chromosome abnormalities-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergbaum, Anne; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie

    2016-07-01

    The neuro-behavioral disorder of autism was first described in the 1940s and was predicted to have a biological basis. Since that time, with the growth of genetic investigations particularly in the area of pediatric development, an increasing number of children with autism and related disorders (autistic spectrum disorders, ASD) have been the subject of genetic studies both in the clinical setting and in the wider research environment. However, a full understanding of the biological basis of ASDs has yet to be achieved. Early observations of children with chromosomal abnormalities detected by G-banded chromosome analysis (karyotyping) and in situ hybridization revealed, in some cases, ASD associated with other features arising from such an abnormality. The introduction of higher resolution techniques for whole genome screening, such as array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), allowed smaller imbalances to be detected, some of which are now considered to represent autism susceptibility loci. In this review, we describe some of the work underpinning the conclusion that ASDs have a genetic basis; a brief history of the developments in genetic analysis tools over the last 50 years; and the most common chromosome abnormalities found in association with ASDs. Introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) into the clinical diagnostic setting is likely to provide further insights into this complex field but will not be covered in this review. Clin. Anat. 29:620-627, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012322

  3. Y chromosomal STR analysis using Pyrosequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Hanna; Allen, Marie

    2009-03-01

    Analysis of Y chromosome STR markers has proven to be useful in forensic cases where the samples contain a mixture of DNA from several individuals. STR markers are commonly genotyped based on length separation of PCR products. In this study we evaluated if Pyrosequencing can be used as an alternative method for determining Y-STR variants. In total 70 unrelated Swedish males were typed for the Y chromosomal markers (DYS19, DYS389 I-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and DYS438) using Pyrosequencing. Using the 8 markers, 57 unique haplotypes were observed with a discrimination capacity of 0.81. At four loci, the Pyrosequencing analysis revealed sequence variants. The sequence variants were found in the DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, and DYS393 loci in frequencies between 1.43% and 14.3%. Pyrosequencing has here been shown to be a useful tool for typing Y chromosomal STRs and the method can provide a complement to conventional forensic Y STR analyses. Moreover, the Pyrosequencing method can be used to rapidly evaluate novel markers. PMID:19215881

  4. Microsoft SharePoint 2010 development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Musters, Ed

    2011-01-01

    The plan of the book is to build a relationship with the Author as your personal guide through the most common "pattern" of SharePoint development. In cookbook style, you will be led carefully step by step through a comprehensive set of recipes. The practical example starts quickly and builds logically throughout the chapters to create a common theme. You will be developing coding techniques that you will be able to apply to the real world. In fact, this book will train you for the first SharePoint development project you will join. This book is written for the ASP.NET developer who wants to g

  5. RACE pulls for shared control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-02-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  6. Genomic Data Commons | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI’s Center for Cancer Genomics launches the Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data sharing platform for the cancer research community. The mission of the GDC is to enable data sharing across the entire cancer research community, to ultimately support precision medicine in oncology.

  7. Effects of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies on Brain Development: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in the number of sex chromosomes is a relatively common genetic condition, affecting as many as 1/400 individuals. The sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are associated with characteristic behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, although the degree to which specific individuals are affected can fall within a wide range. Understanding the…

  8. THE MEANING OF SHARE IN THE PROPERTY LAW AND COMMON POSSESSION OF PROPERTY RIGHTS: A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS Доля в имущественном праве и общее обладание имущественными правами: исторический анализ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermolaev S. N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have studied the history of formation and development of concepts of share in the point of property rights; we have also compared civil institutions of common property, plurality of persons in the obligations, joint authorship, and joint ownership of property rights. The author proves the need for a new legal institution of common possession of property rights

  9. Chromosome comparison of 17 species / sub-species of African Goliathini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, Anne-Marie; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The mitotic karyotypes of 17 species of African Goliathini (Cetoniinae) are described using various chromosome banding techniques. All but one are composed of 20 chromosomes, mostly metacentric, forming a karyotype assumed to be close to that of the Polyphaga ancestor. The most derived karyotypes are those of Goliathus goliatus Drury, 1770, with eight pairs of acrocentrics and Chlorocana africana Drury, 1773, with only14 chromosomes. In species of the genera Cyprolais Burmeister, 1842, Megalorhina Westwood, 1847, Stephanocrates Kolbe, 1894 and Stephanorrhina Burmeister, 1842, large additions of variable heterochromatin are observed on both some particular autosomes and the X chromosome. Species of the genera Eudicella White, 1839 and Dicronorrhina Burmeister, 1842 share the same sub-metacentric X. Although each species possesses its own karyotype, it remains impossible to propose robust phylogenetic relationships on the basis of chromosome data only. PMID:27551348

  10. Chromosome comparison of 17 species / sub-species of African Goliathini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, Anne-Marie; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mitotic karyotypes of 17 species of African Goliathini (Cetoniinae) are described using various chromosome banding techniques. All but one are composed of 20 chromosomes, mostly metacentric, forming a karyotype assumed to be close to that of the Polyphaga ancestor. The most derived karyotypes are those of Goliathus goliatus Drury, 1770, with eight pairs of acrocentrics and Chlorocana africana Drury, 1773, with only14 chromosomes. In species of the genera Cyprolais Burmeister, 1842, Megalorhina Westwood, 1847, Stephanocrates Kolbe, 1894 and Stephanorrhina Burmeister, 1842, large additions of variable heterochromatin are observed on both some particular autosomes and the X chromosome. Species of the genera Eudicella White, 1839 and Dicronorrhina Burmeister, 1842 share the same sub-metacentric X. Although each species possesses its own karyotype, it remains impossible to propose robust phylogenetic relationships on the basis of chromosome data only. PMID:27551348

  11. Co-Localization of Somatic and Meiotic Double Strand Breaks Near the Myc Oncogene on Mouse Chromosome 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siemon H.; Maas, Sarah A.; Petkov, Petko M.; Mills, Kevin D.; Paigen, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Both somatic and meiotic recombinations involve the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that occur at preferred locations in the genome. Improper repair of DSBs during either mitosis or meiosis can lead to mutations, chromosomal aberration such as translocations, cancer and/or cell death. Currently, no model exists that explains the locations of either spontaneous somatic DSBs or programmed meiotic DSBs or relates them to each other. One common class of tumorigenic translocations arising from DSBs is chromosomal rearrangements near the Myc oncogene. Myc translocations have been associated with Burkitt lymphoma in humans, plasmacytoma in mice and immunocytoma in rats. Comparing the locations of somatic and meiotic DSBs near the mouse Myc oncogene, we demonstrated that the placement of these DSBs is not random and that both events clustered in the same short discrete region of the genome. Our work shows that both somatic and meiotic DSBs tend to occur in proximity to each other within the Myc region, suggesting that they share common originating features. It is likely that some regions of the genome are more susceptible to both somatic and meiotic DSBs, and the locations of meiotic hotspots may be an indicator of genomic regions more susceptible to DNA damage. PMID:19603522

  12. Urban sharing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    2015-01-01

    In urban areas sharing cultures, services and economies are rising. People share, rent and recycle their homes, cars, bikes, rides, tools, cloths, working space, knowhow and so on. The sharing culture can be understood as mobilities (Kesselring and Vogl 2013) of goods, values and ideas reshaping...... our cities. The sharing economy has the power to democratise access the urban space, resources and raw materials (Steen Nielsen 2008; Harvey 2000); it holds the ability to change the current dominant understandings and structures of economy and growth (Steen Nielsen 2008); solve emerging environmental...... of the structures of the networked urban mobilities and holds the potentials to change the future mobilities. References Bauman, Zygmunt. 2000. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity. Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (Published in Association with Theory, Culture & Society). London: SAGE...

  13. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  14. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  15. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  16. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  17. Sharing big biomedical data

    OpenAIRE

    Toga, Arthur W.; Dinov, Ivo D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Findings Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent data...

  18. Sharing resources@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Photo 01: L. to r. Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, Corrado Pettenati, Head Librarian, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.

  19. Shared mediated workspaces

    OpenAIRE

    Greef, Tjerk de; Gullström, Charlie; Handberg, Leif; Nefs, H.T.; Parnes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Shared mediated spaces provide viable alternatives for meetings and interactions. The development of collaborative mediated workspaces and shared negotiation spaces will have a fundamental impact on all human practices. Previous design-led research, has identified spatial design concepts, such as mediated gaze, and spatial montage, which, if unaddressed, may be said to impose friction, and thus impact negatively on the experience of mediated presence. The current paper discusses a set of conc...

  20. The Tradable Shares Puzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A huge number of restricted shares were made tradable in March in the mainland stock market,testing the capability of the fragile capital market Ping An of China has been made the main scapegoat of this year s stock market plunge.A month after its refinancing plan announcement- equivalent to recreating a new Ping An- its 3.12 billion restricted shares were made tradable on March 3,accounting for almost

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities and environmental exposures in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomal abnormalities are present in bone marrow of approximately 50% of newly diagnostic acute nonlymphatic leukemia (ANLL) patients, but their etiologic significance, if any, is unclear. The frequency of environmental exposures, gathered by questionnaire from patients or relatives, was compared in 127 newly diagnosed ANLL patients with marrow abnormalities (AA) and 109 ANLL patients with cytogenetically normal marrow. These represented 73% of de novo patients treated at M. D. Anderson Hospital between 1976 and 1983. AA patients were more likely than NN patients to: report cytotoxic treatment for prior medical conditions, smoke cigarettes, drink alcoholic beverages, and work at occupations with possible exposure to mutagens. No statistically significant associations between aneuploidy and use of other tobacco, avocational exposure to chemicals or exposure to animals were present. Associations between specific abnormalities and prior cytotoxic therapy (deletion of chromosome 7), smoking (extra chromosome 8, inversion chromosome 16), and occupation at the time of diagnosis (translocation between chromosomes 8 and 21) were noted. No association between occupational exposure to benzene or ionizing radiation and the 6 most common chromosomal abnormalities in ANLL patients were noted, although these agents are known to be leukemogenic. Problems with interpreting the above associations, including the high nonresponse rate, a high proportion of surrogate respondents, and the large number of significance tests that were performed, are discussed. These results are consistent with those from previously reported series, and suggest that tumor-specific markers may be present for some exposures in this disease

  2. Mitotic spindle defects and chromosome mis-segregation induced by LDL/cholesterol-implications for Niemann-Pick C1, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoneta Granic

    Full Text Available Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor for both Alzheimer's disease (AD and Atherosclerosis (CVD, suggesting a common lipid-sensitive step in their pathogenesis. Previous results show that AD and CVD also share a cell cycle defect: chromosome instability and up to 30% aneuploidy-in neurons and other cells in AD and in smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques in CVD. Indeed, specific degeneration of aneuploid neurons accounts for 90% of neuronal loss in AD brain, indicating that aneuploidy underlies AD neurodegeneration. Cell/mouse models of AD develop similar aneuploidy through amyloid-beta (Aß inhibition of specific microtubule motors and consequent disruption of mitotic spindles. Here we tested the hypothesis that, like upregulated Aß, elevated LDL/cholesterol and altered intracellular cholesterol homeostasis also causes chromosomal instability. Specifically we found that: 1 high dietary cholesterol induces aneuploidy in mice, satisfying the hypothesis' first prediction, 2 Niemann-Pick C1 patients accumulate aneuploid fibroblasts, neurons, and glia, demonstrating a similar aneugenic effect of intracellular cholesterol accumulation in humans 3 oxidized LDL, LDL, and cholesterol, but not high-density lipoprotein (HDL, induce chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy in cultured cells, including neuronal precursors, indicating that LDL/cholesterol directly affects the cell cycle, 4 LDL-induced aneuploidy requires the LDL receptor, but not Aß, showing that LDL works differently than Aß, with the same end result, 5 cholesterol treatment disrupts the structure of the mitotic spindle, providing a cell biological mechanism for its aneugenic activity, and 6 ethanol or calcium chelation attenuates lipoprotein-induced chromosome mis-segregation, providing molecular insights into cholesterol's aneugenic mechanism, specifically through its rigidifying effect on the cell membrane, and potentially explaining why ethanol

  3. Questioning in Distributed Product Development Teams: Supporting Shared Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Distributed teams are an increasingly common feature of New Product Development (NPD). Key to the success of these teams is the development of both short and longerterm shared understanding. Lack of shared understanding has been recognized as a significant challenge, particularly in the context g...... distributed NPD teams can be more effectively supported, as well as how shared understanding development can be facilitated in the NPD process.......Distributed teams are an increasingly common feature of New Product Development (NPD). Key to the success of these teams is the development of both short and longerterm shared understanding. Lack of shared understanding has been recognized as a significant challenge, particularly in the context...... globally distributed NPD activities. Poor shared understanding can ultimately result in delays and rework. One major antecedent of shared understanding development is question asking. This work uses a quasiexperimental study to test the impact of questioning support on different types of distributed teams...

  4. Persistence of the common Hartnup disease D173N allele in populations of European origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmanov, Dimitar N; Rodgers, Helen; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Giguère, Robert; Bailey, Charles; Bröer, Stefan; Rasko, John E J; Cavanaugh, Juleen A

    2007-11-01

    Hartnup disorder is an aminoaciduria that results from mutations in the recently described gene SLC6A19 on chromosome 5p15.33. The disease is inherited in a simple recessive manner and ten different mutations have been described to date. One mutation, the D173N allele, is present in 42% of Hartnup chromosomes from apparently unrelated families from both Australia and North America. We report an investigation of the origins of the D173N allele using a unique combination of variants including SNPs, microsatellites, and a VNTR across 211 Kb spanning the SLC6A19 locus. All individuals who carry the mutant allele share an identical core haplotype suggesting a single common ancestor, indicating that the elevated frequency of the D173N allele is not a result of recurrent mutation. Analyses of these data indicate that the allele is more than 1000 years old. We compare the reasons for survival of this allele with other major alleles in some other common autosomal recessive diseases occurring in European Caucasians. We postulate that survival of this allele may be a consequence of failure of the allele to completely inactivate the transport of neutral amino acids. PMID:17555458

  5. Stable Chromosome Condensation Revealed by Chromosome Conformation Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagen, Kyle P; Hartl, Tom A; Kornberg, Roger D

    2015-11-01

    Chemical cross-linking and DNA sequencing have revealed regions of intra-chromosomal interaction, referred to as topologically associating domains (TADs), interspersed with regions of little or no interaction, in interphase nuclei. We find that TADs and the regions between them correspond with the bands and interbands of polytene chromosomes of Drosophila. We further establish the conservation of TADs between polytene and diploid cells of Drosophila. From direct measurements on light micrographs of polytene chromosomes, we then deduce the states of chromatin folding in the diploid cell nucleus. Two states of folding, fully extended fibers containing regulatory regions and promoters, and fibers condensed up to 10-fold containing coding regions of active genes, constitute the euchromatin of the nuclear interior. Chromatin fibers condensed up to 30-fold, containing coding regions of inactive genes, represent the heterochromatin of the nuclear periphery. A convergence of molecular analysis with direct observation thus reveals the architecture of interphase chromosomes. PMID:26544940

  6. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vicoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot, but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes. Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities in couples with repeated fetal loss: An Indian retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenny J Sheth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss is a common occurrence and a matter of concern for couples planning the pregnancy. Chromosomal abnormalities, mainly balanced rearrangements, are common in couples with repeated miscarriages. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contribution of chromosomal anomalies causing repeated spontaneous miscarriages and provide detailed characterization of a few structurally altered chromosomes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cytogenetic study was carried out on 4859 individuals having a history of recurrent miscarriages. The cases were analyzed using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization wherever necessary. Results: Chromosomal rearrangements were found in 170 individuals (3.5%. Translocations were seen in 72 (42.35% cases. Of these, reciprocal translocations constituted 42 (24.70% cases while Robertsonian translocations were detected in 30 (17.64% cases. 7 (4.11% cases were mosaic, 8 (4.70% had small supernumerary marker chromosomes and 1 (0.6% had an interstitial microdeletion. Nearly, 78 (1.61% cases with heteromorphic variants were seen of which inversion of Y chromosome (57.70% and chromosome 9 pericentromeric variants (32.05% were predominantly involved. Conclusions: Chromosomal analysis is an important etiological investigation in couples with repeated miscarriages. Characterization of variants/marker chromosome enable calculation of a more precise recurrent risk in a subsequent pregnancy thereby facilitating genetic counseling and deciding further reproductive options.

  8. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  9. Chromosomes and their meiotic behaviour in two species of Dieuches Dohrn, 1860 (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochromini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbhajan Kaur

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lygaeidae (Heteroptera are a large and diverse family in which the male diploid chromosomal complement ranges from 10 to 30. Diploid numbers of 14 and 16 are taken as two modal numbers of the family. The Rhyparochrominae, one of the largest subfamilies of the Lygaeidae, are known to be heterogeneous both cytologically and morphologically. Available data on the tribe Rhyparochromini reveal that all species are characterized by the presence of a pair of microchromosomes (m-chromosomes and have an XY/XX (♂/♀ sex chromosome determining system. Dieuches coloratus (Distant, 1909 and D. insignis (Distant, 1918 belonging to Rhyparochromini, have 2n=14=10A+2m+XY and 2n=12=8A+2m+XY respectively. Both the species are similar inone pair of distinctly large autosomes in their chromosome complements. The metaphase plate arrangement of autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes in D. coloratus is similar to the common condition observed in the tribe Rhyparochromini. In D. insignis, however, the arrangement is different. Here, metaphase I is usual in showing peripheral position of autosomes and central position of sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes. At metaphase II, however, autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes are peripherally placed, an arrangement, which is not reported earlier in the tribe Rhyparochromini.

  10. Direct ChromOSOme Analysis and FISH Detection of Primary Gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate chromosome aberrations and their role in the genesis and development of primary gastric cancer. Methods: An improved, direct chromosome preparation from solid tumors was adopted for G-banding analysis followed by FISH on decolored G-banding chromosomes so that chromosome aberrations could be confirmed at DNA level. Results: A total of 28 primary gastric cancer specimens were studies. Case 1 and case 2 had simple chromosome numerical changes: 49, XY, +2, +8, +9 and 48, +8, +20, respectively. All but case 1 and 2 had complicated chromosome abnormalities. Chromosome structural of frequent occurrence involved del(7q)(21/26), del(3p)(14/26), del(lp)(l1/26) and del(17p)(10/26). The chromosome abnormalities could be simple and complicated. In former, numerical changes involving 1 to 3 chromosome could be observed. Trisomies 8 and 9 might represent a cytogenetic subgroup of primary gastric cancer. In the later, the del(7q) was the most consistent aberration. 7q32-qter was the commonly lost segment. Conclusion: Numerical and structural alterations of chromosomes are present in primary gastric cancer. Del(7q) is one of the structural change characteristic of primary gastric cancer. In the 7q32-qter fragment, a tumor suppressor gene probably exists and it may have close relation to the genesis and progression of gastric cancer.

  11. Development of Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus translocation lines using gametocidal chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建华; 陈佩度; 刘大钧

    2003-01-01

    Specific chromosomes of certain Aegilops species introduced into wheat genome background may often facilitate chromosome breakage and refusion, and finally result in a variety of chromosome restructuring. Such a phenomenon is commonly called gametocidal effect of the chromosomes. The chromosome 2C of Ae. cylindrica is one of such chromosomes. In the present study, scab resistant wheat-L. racemosus addition lines involving chromosomes Lr.2 and Lr.7 were crossed to wheat-Ae. cylindrica disomic addition line Add2C. Then F1 hybrids were subsequently backcrossed with wheat cv "Chinese Spring". BC1 plants with chromosome structural aberration were identified by C-banding. In the self-pollinated progenies of these plants, three translocation lines were developed and characterized by mitotic and meiotic analysis combined with C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using biotin-labeled genomic DNA of L. racemosus as probe. Some other putative translocation lines to be further characterized were also found. The practicability and efficiency of the translocation between wheat and alien chromosomes induced by gametocidal chromosomes, as well as the potential use of the developed alien translocation lines were also discussed.

  12. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large...

  13. Familial transmission of a deletion of chromosome 21 derived from a translocation between chromosome 21 and an inverted chromosome 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviv, H; Lieber, C; Yenamandra, A; Desposito, F

    1997-06-27

    Chromosome analysis of a newborn boy with Down syndrome resulted in the identification of a family with an unusual derivative chromosome 22. The child has 46 chromosomes, including two chromosomes 21, one normal chromosome 22, and a derivative chromosome 22. Giemsa banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies show that the derivative chromosome is chromosome 22 with evidence of both paracentric and pericentric inversions, joined to the long arm of chromosome 21 from 21q21.2 to qter. The rearrangement results in partial trisomy 21 extending from 21q21.2 to 21q terminus in the patient. The child's mother, brother, maternal aunt, and maternal grandmother are all carriers of the derivative chromosome. All have 45 chromosomes, with one normal chromosome 21, one normal chromosome 22, and the derivative chromosome 22. The rearrangement results in the absence of the short arm, the centromere, and the proximal long arm of chromosome 21 (del 21pter-21q21.2) in carriers. Carriers of the derivative chromosome in this family have normal physical appearance, mild learning disabilities and poor social adjustment. PMID:9182781

  14. Meiosis and chromosome painting of sex chromosome systems in Ceboidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, M D; Rahn, I M; Solari, A J

    2001-06-01

    The identity of the chromosomes involved in the multiple sex system of Alouatta caraya (Aca) and the possible distribution of this system among other Ceboidea were investigated by chromosome painting of mitotic cells from five species and by analysis of meiosis at pachytene in two species. The identity of the autosome #7 (X2) involved in the multiple system of Aca and its breakage points were demonstrated by both meiosis and chromosome painting. These features are identical to those described by Consigliere et al. [1996] in Alouatta seniculus sara (Assa) and Alouatta seniculus arctoidea (Asar). This multiple system was absent in the other four Ceboidea species studied here. However, data from the literature strongly suggest the presence of this multiple in other members of this genus. The presence of this multiple system among several species and subspecies that show high levels of chromosome rearrangements may suggest a special selective value of this multiple. The meiotic features of the sex systems of Aca and Cebus apella paraguayanus (Cap) are strikingly different at pachytene, as the latter system is similar to the sex pair of man and other primates. The relatively large genetic distances between species presently showing this multiple system suggest that its origin is not recent. Other members of the same genus should be investigated at meiosis and by chromosome painting in order to know the extent and distribution of this complex sex-chromosome system. PMID:11376445

  15. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    agreements with clients and lack of cross-departmental interaction inhibited knowledge sharing outside departmental boundaries. Contrary to the common belief in the organization, we found that one single IT system could not satisfy the contextspecific knowledge-sharing needs of the different departments. We......This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international...... acclaims. Our analysis shows that there are strong disincentives in place for departments to share knowledge. We found that the nature of the businesses of the departments was very different and so were their knowledge requirements and their preferred ways to seek knowledge. Additionally, confidentiality...

  16. Privacy Risks from Genomic Data-Sharing Beacons

    OpenAIRE

    Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    The human genetics community needs robust protocols that enable secure sharing of genomic data from participants in genetic research. Beacons are web servers that answer allele-presence queries—such as “Do you have a genome that has a specific nucleotide (e.g., A) at a specific genomic position (e.g., position 11,272 on chromosome 1)?”—with either “yes” or “no.” Here, we show that individuals in a beacon are susceptible to re-identification even if the only data shared include presence or abs...

  17. Implementing Explicit and Finding Implicit Sharing in Embedded DSLs

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselyov, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Aliasing, or sharing, is prominent in many domains, denoting that two differently-named objects are in fact identical: a change in one object (memory cell, circuit terminal, disk block) is instantly reflected in the other. Languages for modelling such domains should let the programmer explicitly define the sharing among objects or expressions. A DSL compiler may find other identical expressions and share them, implicitly. Such common subexpression elimination is crucial to the efficient implementation of DSLs. Sharing is tricky in embedded DSL, since host aliasing may correspond to copying of the underlying objects rather than their sharing. This tutorial summarizes discussions of implementing sharing in Haskell DSLs for automotive embedded systems and hardware description languages. The technique has since been used in a Haskell SAT solver and the DSL for music synthesis. We demonstrate the embedding in pure Haskell of a simple DSL with a language form for explicit sharing. The DSL also has implicit sharing,...

  18. Shared care and boundaries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2008-01-01

    of responsibilities entailed in shared care projects. Rather than seeking to connect all actors in an unbounded space, shared care might instead suggest a space for patients and professionals to experiment with new roles and responsibilities. Practical implications – When designing coordination tools for health care......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary...

  19. 共同话题和梦想下的相互依存——对《人与鼠》中两人物对话的分析%The Mutual Dependence Based on Common Ground & Shared Dream——Analysis on the Conversations of the Two Characters in Of Mice and Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2006-01-01

    心理语言学家认为交谈者双方的诸多特性因素无疑会影响交谈过程的本质,这些特性包括交谈双方的年龄、性别、社会地位、种族背景、友谊的程度和关系的亲密程度.由美国著名作家约翰·斯坦贝克所著的《人与鼠》是一部极其感人并长期为读者喜爱的作品.该作品描写了两个劳动工人间真挚的友谊,相互依存以及共同的梦想.从《人与鼠》中,我们可以得知两人物之间的对话是有特性的,他们真势的友谊,相互依存以及共同的梦想是影响其交流方式最重要的特性.通过分析其背景,共同话题,共同梦想,我们可以总结出两人物的谈话方式是与心理语言学交谈的本质特性相符.%Some language psychologists hold that a great many attributes of participants would conceivably influence the nature of conversational processes. These include their age, gender, social status, ethnic background, and degree of friendship or intimacy. Of Mice and Men, written by the famous American writer John Steinbeck, is a touching and perennially popular tale of two migrants——George and Lennie. From Of Mice and Men, we can comprehend why the conversations between the two characters are unique and distinctive. Their sincere friendship, their mutual dependence and the dream they shared are the most vital attributes which influence the conversation style of the two characters. By analyzing the background, the common ground and the shared dream, we can conclude that their conversation style is in accord with the attributes of the nature of conversational processes in psychology of language.

  20. Chromosome Architecture and Genome Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Bernardi

    2015-01-01

    How the same DNA sequences can function in the three-dimensional architecture of interphase nucleus, fold in the very compact structure of metaphase chromosomes and go precisely back to the original interphase architecture in the following cell cycle remains an unresolved question to this day. The strategy used to address this issue was to analyze the correlations between chromosome architecture and the compositional patterns of DNA sequences spanning a size range from a few hundreds to a few...

  1. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  2. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previo...

  3. HydroShare: An online, collaborative environment for the sharing of hydrologic data and models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Valentine, D. W.; Maidment, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models. The goal of HydroShare is to enable scientists to easily discover and access data and models, retrieve them to their desktop or perform analyses in a distributed computing environment that may include grid, cloud or high performance computing model instances as necessary. Scientists may also publish outcomes (data, results or models) into HydroShare, using the system as a collaboration platform for sharing data, models and analyses. HydroShare is expanding the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated, creating new capability to share models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. One of the fundamental concepts in HydroShare is that of a Resource. All content is represented using a Resource Data Model that separates system and science metadata and has elements common to all resources as well as elements specific to the types of resources HydroShare will support. These will include different data types used in the hydrology community and models and workflows that require metadata on execution functionality. HydroShare will use the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) to manage federated data content and perform rule-based background actions on data and model resources, including parsing to generate metadata catalog information and the execution of models and workflows. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date, describe key elements of the Resource Data Model and outline the roadmap for future development.

  4. Development of T. aestivum L.-H. californicum alien chromosome lines and assignment of homoeologous groups of Hordeum californicum chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuhui; Yuan, Jingya; Wang, Zhangjun; Wang, Haiyan; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhixi; Zhang, Ruiqi; Qi, Zengjun; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Wang, Xiu-E

    2014-08-20

    Hordeum californicum (2n = 2x = 14, HH) is resistant to several wheat diseases and tolerant to lower nitrogen. In this study, a molecular karyotype of H. californicum chromosomes in the Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring (CS)-H. californicum amphidiploid (2n = 6x = 56, AABBDDHH) was established. By genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive DNA clones (pTa71, pTa794 and pSc119.2) as probes, the H. californicum chromosomes could be differentiated from each other and from the wheat chromosomes unequivocally. Based on molecular karyotype and marker analyses, 12 wheat-alien chromosome lines, including four disomic addition lines (DAH1, DAH3, DAH5 and DAH6), five telosomic addition lines (MtH7L, MtH1S, MtH1L, DtH6S and DtH6L), one multiple addition line involving H. californicum chromosome H2, one disomic substitution line (DSH4) and one translocation line (TH7S/1BL), were identified from the progenies derived from the crosses of CS-H. californicum amphidiploid with common wheat varieties. A total of 482 EST (expressed sequence tag) or SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers specific for individual H. californicum chromosomes were identified, and 47, 50, 45, 49, 21, 51 and 40 markers were assigned to chromosomes H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6 and H7, respectively. According to the chromosome allocation of these markers, chromosomes H2, H3, H4, H5, and H7 of H. californicum have relationship with wheat homoeologous groups 5, 2, 6, 3, and 1, and hence could be designated as 5H(c), 2H(c), 6H(c), 3H(c) and 1H(c), respectively. The chromosomes H1 and H6 were designated as 7H(c) and 4H(c), respectively, by referring to SSR markers located on rye chromosomes.

  5. Binary and microsatellite polymorphisms of the Y-chromosome in the Mbenzele pygmies from the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Caglià, Alessandra; Arredi, Barbara; Donati, Francesco; Santos, Fabrício R; Pandya, Arpita; Taglioli, Luca; Paoli, Giorgio; Pascali, Vincenzo; Spedini, Gabriella; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzes the variation of six binary polymorphisms and six microsatellites in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. Five different haplogroups (B2b, E(xE3a), E3a, P and BR(xB2b,DE,P)) were observed, with frequencies ranging from 0.022 (haplogroup P) to 0.609 (haplogroup E3a). A comparison of haplogroup frequencies indicates a close genetic affinity between the Mbenzele and the Biaka Pygmies, a finding consistent with the common origin and the geographical proximity of the two populations. The haplogroups P, BR(xB2b,DE,P) and E(xE3a), which are rare in sub-Saharan Africa but common in western Eurasia, were observed with frequencies ranging from 0.022 (haplogroup P) to 0.087 (haplogroup E(xE3a)). Thirty different microsatellite haplotypes were detected, with frequencies ranging from 0.022 to 0.152. The Mbenzele share the highest percent of microsatellite haplotypes with the Biaka Pygmies. Five out seven haplotypes which are shared by the Mbenzele and Biaka Pygmies belong to haplogroup E3a, which suggests that they are of Bantu origin. The plot based on F(st) genetic distances calculated using microsatellite data provides a picture of population relationships which is in part congruent and in part complementary to that obtained using haplogroup frequencies. Finally, the Mbenzele and Biaka Pygmies were found to be markedly more genetically similar using Y-chromosomal than autosomal microsatellites. We suggest that this could be due to the higher phylogenetic stability of Y-chromosome and to the effect of the male-biased gene flow during the Bantu expansion.

  6. Shared values and normality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-hua; PANG Xue-cheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the normality and the shared values for a meromorphic function on the unit disc △.Based on Marty's normality criterion and through a detailed analysis of the meromorphic functions,it is shown that if for every f∈F,f and f(k) share a and b on △ and the zeros of f(z)-a are of multiplicity k≥3,then F is normal on △,where F is a family of meromorphic functions on the unit disc △,and a and b are distinct values.

  7. Androgenetic development of X- and Y-chromosome bearing haploid rainbow trout embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Oliwia; Kowalski, Radosław K; Judycka, Sylwia; Rożyński, Rafał; Dobosz, Stefan; Ocalewicz, Konrad

    2016-09-01

    Haploid fish embryos are important in studies regarding role of the recessive traits during early ontogeny. In fish species with the male heterogamety, androgenetic haploid embryos might be also useful tool in studies concerning role of the sex chromosomes during an embryonic development. Morphologically differentiated X and Y chromosomes have been found in a limited number of fish species including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum 1792). To evaluate role of the sex chromosomes during rainbow trout embryonic development, survival of the androgenetic haploids in the presence of X or Y sex chromosomes has been examined. Androgenetic haploid rainbow trout were produced by fertilization of X-irradiated eggs with spermatozoa derived from the normal males (XY) and neomales, that is, sex-reversed females (XX) to produce X- and Y-bearing haploids, and all X-bearing haploids, respectively. Survival rates of the androgenetic progenies of normal males and neomales examined during embryogenesis and at hatching did not differ significantly. However, all haploids died within next few days after hatching. Cytogenetic analysis of the androgenetic embryos confirmed their haploid status. Moreover, apart from the intact paternal chromosomes, residues of the irradiated maternal chromosomes observed as chromosome fragments were identified in some of the haploids. Provided results suggested that rainbow trout X and Y chromosomes despite morphological and genetic differences are at the early stage of differentiation and still share genetic information responsible for the proper embryonic development. PMID:27125692

  8. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Is Share Price Related to Marketability? Evidence from Mutual Fund Share Splits

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Chitru S.; Srinivasan Krishnamurthy; Paul A. Spindt

    1999-01-01

    We examine the "marketability hypothesis," which states that stock splits enhance the attractiveness of shares to investors by restoring prices to a preferred trading range. We examine splits of mutual fund shares because they provide a clean testing ground for the marketability hypothesis, since the conventional rationales for common stock splits do not apply. We find that splitting funds experience significant increases (relative to non-splitting matched funds) in net assets and shareholder...

  10. Chromosome size-correlated and chromosome size-uncorrelated homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences in New World quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Tsuruta, Yuri; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nishida, Chizuko; Griffin, Darren K; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Ono, Tamao; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-04-01

    Many families of centromeric repetitive DNA sequences isolated from Struthioniformes, Galliformes, Falconiformes, and Passeriformes are localized primarily to microchromosomes. However, it is unclear whether chromosome size-correlated homogenization is a common characteristic of centromeric repetitive sequences in Aves. New World and Old World quails have the typical avian karyotype comprising chromosomes of two distinct sizes, and C-positive heterochromatin is distributed in centromeric regions of most autosomes and the whole W chromosome. We isolated six types of centromeric repetitive sequences from three New World quail species (Colinus virginianus, CVI; Callipepla californica, CCA; and Callipepla squamata, CSQ; Odontophoridae) and one Old World quail species (Alectoris chukar, ACH; Phasianidae), and characterized the sequences by nucleotide sequencing, chromosome in situ hybridization, and filter hybridization. The 385-bp CVI-MspI, 591-bp CCA-BamHI, 582-bp CSQ-BamHI, and 366-bp ACH-Sau3AI fragments exhibited tandem arrays of the monomer unit, and the 224-bp CVI-HaeIII and 135-bp CCA-HaeIII fragments were composed of minisatellite-like and microsatellite-like repeats, respectively. ACH-Sau3AI was a homolog of the chicken nuclear membrane repeat sequence, whose homologs are common in Phasianidae. CVI-MspI, CCA-BamHI, and CSQ-BamHI showed high homology and were specific to the Odontophoridae. CVI-MspI was localized to microchromosomes, whereas CVI-HaeIII, CCA-BamHI, and CSQ-BamHI were mapped to almost all chromosomes. CCA-HaeIII was localized to five pairs of macrochromosomes and most microchromosomes. ACH-Sau3AI was distributed in three pairs of macrochromosomes and all microchromosomes. Centromeric repetitive sequences may be homogenized in chromosome size-correlated and -uncorrelated manners in New World quails, although there may be a mechanism that causes homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences primarily between microchromosomes, which is commonly

  11. The Chromosome Microdissection and Microcloning Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xin; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Hu, Zan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome microdissection followed by microcloning is an efficient tool combining cytogenetics and molecular genetics that can be used for the construction of the high density molecular marker linkage map and fine physical map, the generation of probes for chromosome painting, and the localization and cloning of important genes. Here, we describe a modified technique to microdissect a single chromosome, paint individual chromosomes, and construct single-chromosome DNA libraries. PMID:27511173

  12. Evolution of Sex Chromosomes in Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Vera B; Bachtrog, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. Y (or W) chromosomes lack genetic recombination, are male- (female-) limited, and show an abundance of genetically inert heterochromatic DNA but contain few functional genes. X (or Z) chromosomes also show sex-biased transmission (i.e., X chromosomes show female-biased and Z-chromosomes show male-biased inheritance) and are hemizygous in the heterogametic sex. Their unusual ploidy level and pattern of inheritance imply that sex...

  13. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Shared decision making is when health care providers and patients work together to decide ... There many test and treatment options for most health conditions. So your condition may be ... decision making helps you and your provider choose a treatment ...

  14. Quantum Shared Broadcasting

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannetti, V.; Holevo, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    A generalization of quantum broadcasting protocol is presented. Here the goal is to copy an unknown input state into two subsystems which partially overlap. We show that the possibility of implementing these protocols strongly depends upon the overlap among the subsystems. Conditions for approximated shared broadcasting are analyzed.

  15. Share the Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Procter & Gamble Co,extends its employee stock ownership plan to benefit its Chinese employees The Procter & Gamble Co.(P&G) launched its Chinese employee stock ownership plan(ESOP)on April 1 after five years of preparation.The plan entitles its more than 7,000 employees in China to buy P&G stocks and share its growth benefits.

  16. Promoting teachers’ knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, P.R.; Sanders, K.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers’ professional development is nowadays seen as key in efforts to improve education. Knowledge sharing is a learning activity with which teachers not only professionalize themselves, but contribute to the professional development of their colleagues as well. This paper presents two studies, a

  17. 'Smart Power' for' Sharing'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ As an attitude of life The Interstoff Asia Essential Spring will be held from March 17th to 19th,2010,in Hong Kong Convention & Exhibition Centre.During this exhibition,the Interstoff Asia Directions trend committee will present its apparel fabric trend forecast for next season's wardrobes,unfolding a story of'Smart Power' of 'Sharing'.

  18. Share your Sweets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-01-01

    study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of two different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that, the large majority of food transfers in both species came about...

  19. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    In 'Joint Action and Development', Stephen Butterfill argues that if several agents' actions are driven by what he calls a "shared goal" -- a certain pattern of goal-relations and expectations -- then these actions constitute a joint action. This kind of joint action is sufficiently cognitively...

  20. Beyond processor sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalto, S.; Ayesta, U.; Borst, S.C.; Misra, V.; Núñez Queija, R.

    2007-01-01

    While the (Egalitarian) Processor-Sharing (PS) discipline offers crucial insights in the performance of fair resource allocation mechanisms, it is inherently limited in analyzing and designing differentiated scheduling algorithms such as Weighted Fair Queueing and Weighted Round-Robin. The Discrimin

  1. Shared Care in Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Keld

    2006-01-01

    The Danish National Board of Health has recently released a report that is intended to mark the start of a new project to establish it support for shared care in diabetes. In this paper I raise a number of concerns where lack of attention towards participation from prospective users constitute...... potential, yet very real, risks for the system not to meet its intended goals....

  2. Shared Oral Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Børge; Elmelund Poulsen,, Johan; Christophersen, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    Shared Oral Care - Forebyggelse af orale sygdomme på plejecentre Introduktion og formål: Mangelfuld mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre er et alment og veldokumenteret sundhedsproblem, der kan føre til massiv udvikling af tandsygdomme, og som yderligere kan være medvirkende årsag til alvorlige...

  3. Promoting teachers’ knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, P.R.; Sanders, K.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers’ professional development is nowadays seen as key in efforts to improve education. Knowledge sharing is a learning activity with which teachers not only professionalize themselves, but contribute to the professional development of their colleagues as well. This paper presents two studies, a

  4. Sharing data increases citations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Thea Marie; Ellegaard, Ole; Larsen, Asger Væring;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...

  5. Information Sharing of the Virtual Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Tsai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing is a natural and common behavior, which happens when a person passes on information he/she finds to others and/or exchanges information with others. Information sharing can occur when receiving information that is expected or unexpected. The Internet has helped the development of virtual communities, which increases greatly the opportunities for information sharing. When reviewing related literature in the field of Library and Information Science, the authors found that research studies on information behavior are developing steadily, yet with more emphasis on different client groups and contexts, few are focused on information sharing. This paper aims to review and synthesize literature with an interdisciplinary nature to increase the understanding of information sharing in the virtual community. Based on the analysis of the literature, virtual communities can be categorized into various types; common interests and goals is the most important factor for members to stay in and contribute to the community. Also, vibrant interaction among the virtual community is critical to the development of the virtual community.

  6. Real-time imaging of meiotic chromosomes in S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszul, Romain; Weiner, Beth M.

    2016-01-01

    Important information on cellular physiology can be obtained by directly observing living cells. The nucleus and the chromatin within are of particular interest to many researchers. Monitoring the behavior of specific DNA loci in the living cell is now commonly achieved through the insertion of binding sites for fluorescently tagged proteins at the sequence of interest (e.g. reference 1). However, visualizing the behavior of full length chromosomes can only be achieved when they constitute discrete, relatively well individualized units. During meiotic mid-prophase, chromosomes of budding yeast are well-organized structures that present such characteristics, making them remarkably suited for visualization. Here we describe the optimized protocols and techniques that allow monitoring of chromosome behavior during meiotic prophase in budding yeast. PMID:19685320

  7. Chromosomal Aberrations in Humans Induced by Urban Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Norppa, Hannu; Gamborg, Michael O.;

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes...... that long-term exposure to urban air pollution (with traffic as the main contributor) induces chromosome damage in human somatic cells. Low DNA repair capacity and GSTM1 and NAT2 variants associated with reduced detoxification ability increase susceptibility to such damage. The effect of the GSTM1 genotype......, which was observed only in the bus drivers, appears to be associated with air pollution, whereas the NAT2 genotype effect, which affected all subjects, may influence the individual response to some other common exposure or the baseline level of chromosomal aberrations....

  8. The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Fernando L; Poznik, G David; Castellano, Sergi; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2016-04-01

    Sequencing the genomes of extinct hominids has reshaped our understanding of modern human origins. Here, we analyze ∼120 kb of exome-captured Y-chromosome DNA from a Neandertal individual from El Sidrón, Spain. We investigate its divergence from orthologous chimpanzee and modern human sequences and find strong support for a model that places the Neandertal lineage as an outgroup to modern human Y chromosomes-including A00, the highly divergent basal haplogroup. We estimate that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes is ∼588 thousand years ago (kya) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 447-806 kya). This is ∼2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.9) times longer than the TMRCA of A00 and other extant modern human Y-chromosome lineages. This estimate suggests that the Y-chromosome divergence mirrors the population divergence of Neandertals and modern human ancestors, and it refutes alternative scenarios of a relatively recent or super-archaic origin of Neandertal Y chromosomes. The fact that the Neandertal Y we describe has never been observed in modern humans suggests that the lineage is most likely extinct. We identify protein-coding differences between Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes, including potentially damaging changes to PCDH11Y, TMSB4Y, USP9Y, and KDM5D. Three of these changes are missense mutations in genes that produce male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens. Antigens derived from KDM5D, for example, are thought to elicit a maternal immune response during gestation. It is possible that incompatibilities at one or more of these genes played a role in the reproductive isolation of the two groups.

  9. The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Fernando L; Poznik, G David; Castellano, Sergi; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2016-04-01

    Sequencing the genomes of extinct hominids has reshaped our understanding of modern human origins. Here, we analyze ∼120 kb of exome-captured Y-chromosome DNA from a Neandertal individual from El Sidrón, Spain. We investigate its divergence from orthologous chimpanzee and modern human sequences and find strong support for a model that places the Neandertal lineage as an outgroup to modern human Y chromosomes-including A00, the highly divergent basal haplogroup. We estimate that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes is ∼588 thousand years ago (kya) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 447-806 kya). This is ∼2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.9) times longer than the TMRCA of A00 and other extant modern human Y-chromosome lineages. This estimate suggests that the Y-chromosome divergence mirrors the population divergence of Neandertals and modern human ancestors, and it refutes alternative scenarios of a relatively recent or super-archaic origin of Neandertal Y chromosomes. The fact that the Neandertal Y we describe has never been observed in modern humans suggests that the lineage is most likely extinct. We identify protein-coding differences between Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes, including potentially damaging changes to PCDH11Y, TMSB4Y, USP9Y, and KDM5D. Three of these changes are missense mutations in genes that produce male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens. Antigens derived from KDM5D, for example, are thought to elicit a maternal immune response during gestation. It is possible that incompatibilities at one or more of these genes played a role in the reproductive isolation of the two groups. PMID:27058445

  10. Inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities at prenatal chromosome analysis are rarely ascertained through recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M. T. M.; Korevaar, J. C.; Tjoa, W. M.; Leschot, N. J.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Knegt, A. C.; Suykerbuyk, R. F.; Hochstenbach, R.; van der Veen, F.; Goddijn, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the mode of ascertainment of inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal chromosome analysis. Methods From the databases of three centres for clinical genetics in the Netherlands, all cases of inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnorma

  11. On the edge of Bantu expansions: mtDNA, Y chromosome and lactase persistence genetic variation in southwestern Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleza Sandra

    2009-04-01

    and the Khoe-San likely involved cattle herders from the two groups sharing common aspects of their social organization. The presence of the -14010C mutation in southwestern Angola provides a link between the East and Southwest African pastoral scenes that might have been established indirectly, through migrations of Khoe herders across southern Africa. Differences in patterns of mtDNA and Y-chromosome intrapopulation diversity and interpopulation differentiation may be explained by contrasting demographic histories underlying the current female and male genetic variation.

  12. Knowledge Sharing and National Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailova, Snejina; Hutchings, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Much of the knowledge management literature tends to assume a rather universalistunderstanding of knowledge sharing. Yet, attitudes to knowledge sharing as well as actualknowledge-sharing behaviour depend on conditions that vary across institutional and culturalenvironments. This paper contribute...... on knowledge sharing in organisations in thesetwo countries. Research and management implications are also outlined.Keywords: China, knowledge sharing, national culture, Russia...... to the knowledge-sharing literature by specificallydiscussing the interplay between knowledge-sharing and national cultural factors in the context oftransition countries. The paper engages in a comparative examination of two major transitionsocieties, China and Russia, and contributes to understanding...

  13. Comparative genetic mapping points to different sex chromosomes in sibling species of wild strawberry (Fragaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Margot T; Spigler, Rachel B; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2010-12-01

    Separate sexes have evolved repeatedly from hermaphroditic ancestors in flowering plants, and thus select taxa can provide unparalleled insight into the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes that are thought to be shared by plants and animals alike. Here we ask whether two octoploid sibling species of wild strawberry--one almost exclusively dioecious (males and females), Fragaria chiloensis, and one subdioecious (males, females, and hermaphrodites), F. virginiana--share the same sex-determining chromosome. We created a genetic map of the sex chromosome and its homeologs in F. chiloensis and assessed macrosynteny between it and published maps of the proto-sex chromosome of F. virginiana and the homeologous autosome of hermaphroditic diploid species. Segregation of male and female function in our F. chiloensis mapping population confirmed that linkage and dominance relations are similar to those in F. virginiana. However, identification of the molecular markers most tightly linked to the sex-determining locus in the two octoploid species shows that, in both, this region maps to homeologues of chromosome 6 in diploid congeners, but is located at opposite ends of their respective chromosomes.

  14. Engineering targeted chromosomal amplifications in human breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Simeon; Yi, Kyung H; Park, Jeenah; Rajpurohit, Anandita; Price, Amanda J; Lauring, Josh

    2015-07-01

    Chromosomal amplifications are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. However, experimental systems to study the processes that lead to specific, recurrent amplification events in human cancers are lacking. Moreover, some common amplifications, such as that at 8p11-12 in breast cancer, harbor multiple driver oncogenes, which are poorly modeled by conventional overexpression approaches. We sought to develop an experimental system to model recurrent chromosomal amplification events in human cell lines. Our strategy is to use homologous-recombination-mediated gene targeting to deliver a dominantly selectable, amplifiable marker to a specified chromosomal location. We used adeno-associated virus vectors to target human MCF-7 breast cancer cells at the ZNF703 locus, in the recurrent 8p11-12 amplicon, using the E. coli inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme as a marker. We applied selective pressure using IMPDH inhibitors. Surviving clones were found to have increased copy number of ZNF703 (average 2.5-fold increase) by droplet digital PCR and FISH. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed that amplifications had occurred on the short arm of chromosome 8, without changes on 8q or other chromosomes. Patterns of amplification were variable and similar to those seen in primary human breast cancers, including "sawtooth" patterns, distal copy number loss, and large continuous regions of copy number gain. This system will allow study of the cis- and trans-acting factors that are permissive for chromosomal amplification and provide a model to analyze oncogene cooperativity in amplifications harboring multiple candidate driver genes.

  15. Chironomus group classification according to the mapping of polytene chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Syafinaz; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    Chironomus is one of the important genera in Chironomidae family since they are widely diverse and abundance in aquatic ecosystem. Since Chironomus is very diverse, taxonomic work on this genus is very difficult and incomplete. Objective of this study is to form group classification of Chironomus according to the polytene chromosome mapping. The specific characteristics of polytene chromosomes in the salivary gland appeared to be particularly promising for taxonomic diagnosis of chironomid species. Chironomid larvae were collected from pristine sites at Sg. Langat and cultured in laboratory to reach fourth instar stage. The salivary glands were removed from larvae and chromosomes were stained with aceto orcein. Results showed that polytene chromosomes of Chironomus comprise of three long metacentric or submetacentric arms (BF, CD and AE arms) and one short acrocentric (G arm). In regards to nucleolar organizing region (NOR), Balbiani ring (BR), puffings and chromosome rearrangement, a number of four groups of different banding patterns were found. Two groups called as G group A and B have common NOR on arm BF and BR on arm G. However, group A has rearrangement pattern on arm CD and not in group B. This makes group B separated from group A. Another two groups called as groups C and D do not have common NOR on arm BF and also BR on arm G. Groups C and D were separated using arms G and arm AE. At arm G, only group C rearrangement pattern at unit 23c whereas group D was found to have large NOR at arm G and as well as arm AE, only group D has rearrangement pattern at unit 12c. This study indicates that chromosome arrangement could aid in revealing Chironomus diversity.

  16. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility. PMID:27536043

  17. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.

  18. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies. PMID:26758200

  19. Partial trisomy 11q involving chromosome 1 detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCorquodale, M.; Bereziouk, O.; McCorquodale, D.J. [Univ. of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Partial trisomy 11q was detected in an infant delivered 3-4 weeks prematurely. The phenotype included slanted palpebral fissures, high arched palate, developmental delay, microcephaly, and cardiac defects, all of which occur in the majority of cases with this syndrome. Other features included a column-shaped skull, preauricular pit, single palmar crease, short, broad great toes, flat occiput, unilateral kidney agenesis, and strabismus. Chromosomes obtained from peripheral blood cells revealed the presence of extra material on the long arm of chromosome 1. The G-banding pattern of this extra material indicated that it might be derived from chromosome 1 or 11. Chromosomal {open_quotes}paints{close_quotes} showed that it was not chromosome 1 material, but was chromosome 11 material extending from band q21 to qter. Partial trisomy 11q arising from translocation of the 11q material to chromosome 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 17, 21, 22, and X has been reported previously, whereas translocation to chromosome 1 has not. The chromosome to which the 11q material is translocated does not alter the most frequent features of the partial trisomy 11q syndrome, but may influence other less common features.

  20. Hidden Y Chromosome Mosaicism in 48 Egyptian Patients with Turner's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eshmawy, Mervat M; Yahia, Sohier; El-Dahtory, Faeza A; Hamed, Sahar; El Hadidy, El Hadidy M; Ragab, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background. The presence of Y chromosome material in Turner's syndrome (TS) patients is a risk factor for the development of gonadoblastoma. Although conventional cytogenetic analysis is the definitive diagnosis of TS, low level Y chromosome mosaicism may be missed. Molecular analysis has demonstrated a higher proportion of mosaicism, but there is controversy regarding the prevalence of Y chromosome-derived material in those patients. Aim and Methods. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hidden Y chromosome mosaicism in 48 TS Egyptian patients using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for molecular DNA analysis of SRY gene and compare our results with those in the literature. Results. None of TS patients had a cytogenetically obvious Y chromosome; Y chromosome material was detected only at molecular analysis. SRY gene was found in 9 TS patients (18.75%) with the classical 45,X karyotype, whereas all other patients were SRY negative. Conclusion. Cytogenetically undetected Y chromosome mosaicism is common in TS patients; these data reinforce the need for adequate diagnosis of Y chromosome material in those patients. Molecular screening for Y chromosome-derived DNA should be routinely carried out in all TS patients. PMID:23984076

  1. Pro SharePoint 2010 Solution Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hild, E

    2010-01-01

    This book takes a practical problem-solution approach to common business challenges. You'll not only encounter interesting code samples, but also see how to combine these examples with the Microsoft collaboration platform's services. The book's solutions focus on using Visual Studio 2008 and its built-in Office development tools to construct the user interface layer. And solutions can interact with SharePoint as a service provider, taking advantage of SharePoint's many collaboration features like document repositories, collaboration sites, and search functions. This book is unique because it s

  2. New Advances in Chromosome Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the "architecture" of chromosomes has grown enormously in the past decade. This new insight has been enabled largely through advances in interdisciplinary research methods at the cutting-edge interface of the life and physical sciences. Importantly this has involved several state-of-the-art biophysical tools used in conjunction with molecular biology approaches which enable investigation of chromosome structure and function in living cells. Also, there are new and emerging interfacial science tools which enable significant improvements to the spatial and temporal resolution of quantitative measurements, such as in vivo super-resolution and powerful new single-molecule biophysics methods, which facilitate probing of dynamic chromosome processes hitherto impossible. And there are also important advances in the methods of theoretical biophysics which have enabled advances in predictive modeling of this high quality experimental data from molecular and physical biology to generate new understanding of the modes of operation of chromosomes, both in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Here, I discuss these advances, and take stock on the current state of our knowledge of chromosome architecture and speculate where future advances may lead. PMID:27283297

  3. Dean flow fractionation of chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockin, Matt; Sant, Himanshu J.; Capecchi, Mario; Gale, Bruce K.

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to transfer intact mammalian chromosomes between cells have been attempted for more than 50 years with the consistent result being transfer of sub unit length pieces regardless of method. Inertial microfluidics is a new field that has shown much promise in addressing the fractionation of particles in the 2-20 μm size range (with unknown limits) and separations are based upon particles being carried by curving confined flows (within a spiral shaped, often rectangular flow chamber) and migrating to stable "equilibrium" positions of varying distance from a chamber wall depending on the balance of dean and lift forces. We fabricated spiral channels for inertial microfluidic separations using a standard soft lithography process. The concentration of chromosomes, small contaminant DNA and large cell debris in each outlets were evaluated using microscope (60X) and a flow cytometer. Using Dean Flow Fractionation, we were able to focus 4.5 times more chromosomes in outlet 2 compared to outlet 4 where most of the large debris is found. We recover 16% of the chromosomes in outlet #1- 50% in 2, 23% in 3 and 11% in 4. It should be noted that these estimates of recovery do not capture one piece of information- it actually may be that the chromosomes at each outlet are physically different and work needs to be done to verify this potential.

  4. Chromosome segregation in plant meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eZamariola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is essential for ploidy stability over sexual life cycles. In plants, defective chromosome segregation caused by gene mutations or other factors leads to the formation of unbalanced or unreduced gametes creating aneuploid or polyploid progeny, respectively. Accurate segregation requires the coordinated execution of conserved processes occurring throughout the two meiotic cell divisions. Synapsis and recombination ensure the establishment of chiasmata that hold homologous chromosomes together allowing their correct segregation in the first meiotic division, which is also tightly regulated by cell-cycle dependent release of cohesin and monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules. In meiosis II, bi-orientation of sister kinetochores and proper spindle orientation correctly segregate chromosomes in four haploid cells. Checkpoint mechanisms acting at kinetochores control the accuracy of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, thus ensuring the completion of segregation. Here we review the current knowledge on the processes taking place during chromosome segregation in plant meiosis, focusing on the characterization of the molecular factors involved.

  5. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S. [GSI, Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/{mu}m) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  6. The Reduction of Chromosome Number in Meiosis Is Determined by Properties Built into the Chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Paliulis, Leocadia V.; Nicklas, R. Bruce

    2000-01-01

    In meiosis I, two chromatids move to each spindle pole. Then, in meiosis II, the two are distributed, one to each future gamete. This requires that meiosis I chromosomes attach to the spindle differently than meiosis II chromosomes and that they regulate chromosome cohesion differently. We investigated whether the information that dictates the division type of the chromosome comes from the whole cell, the spindle, or the chromosome itself. Also, we determined when chromosomes can switch from ...

  7. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    in the context of universities. Although the economic aspects of value are important and cannot be ignored, we argue for a much richer interpretation of value that captures the many and varied results from universities. A shared mission is a prerequisite for university management and leadership. It makes...... of the universities. The sad result is that the dialog about university development, resources, leadership, governance etc. too often ends up in rather fruitless discussions and sometimes even mutual suspicion. This paper argues for having a dialog involving both internal and external stakeholders agreeing...... on a shared mission aiming at value creation (in the broadest interpretation). One important aspect of choosing value as the cornerstone of the mission of universities is to stress that the outcome is measured by external stakeholders and by their standards. Most of the paper is devoted to discussing value...

  8. 'An Arena for Sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite an increasing focus on cancer rehabilitation programs, there is limited knowledge about the experiences of residential rehabilitation focusing on both the patients and their relatives. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the experienced benefits of the joint...... involvement of patients and their relatives in a 5-day residential cancer rehabilitation course, provided as part of a larger intervention study in Denmark. Methods: Ethnographic fieldwork, consisting of participant observations and informal conversations, was conducted with 20 individuals (10 patients and 10...... relatives). In-depth interviews were conducted in the participants' homes 1 month after the rehabilitation course. Data were analyzed by a constant comparative method. Results: Residential rehabilitation course was identified to serve as an "arena for sharing," underpinned by 3 dimensions of sharing...

  9. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    In 'Joint Action and Development', Stephen Butterfill argues that if several agents' actions are driven by what he calls a "shared goal" -- a certain pattern of goal-relations and expectations -- then these actions constitute a joint action. This kind of joint action is sufficiently cognitively...... undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...... a counterexample, I show that the pattern of goal-relations and expectations specified by Butterfill cannot play this role. I then provide an appropriately conceptually and cognitively undemanding amendment with which the account can be saved....

  10. Welding Qualification Sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASME Section IX, 'Welding Qualifications', requires that each organization qualify its own welders and welding procedures. Qualification responsibility cannot be subcontracted, and qualifications administered by one organization cannot be transferred to another organization. This requirement has become the subject of close scrutiny as the demand for efficiency, particularly among nuclear plant owners, has increased. Two recent Code Cases change procedure and performance qualification requirements for the better. The first, N-573, enables nuclear plant owners to share welding procedure qualifications. The second, N-600, enables nuclear plant owners to share welder performance qualifications. Several owners have reduced costs using N-573. N-600, because it is relatively new, has not yet been implemented. Its potential for cost savings, though, is equivalent to that afforded by N-573. This paper discusses ASME Section IX's procedure and performance qualification philosophy, assesses that philosophy in light of today's welding environment, and discusses implementation of Code Cases N-573 and N-600. (authors)

  11. FtsK-dependent dimer resolution on multiple chromosomes in the pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Val

    Full Text Available Unlike most bacteria, Vibrio cholerae harbors two distinct, nonhomologous circular chromosomes (chromosome I and II. Many features of chromosome II are plasmid-like, which raised questions concerning its chromosomal nature. Plasmid replication and segregation are generally not coordinated with the bacterial cell cycle, further calling into question the mechanisms ensuring the synchronous management of chromosome I and II. Maintenance of circular replicons requires the resolution of dimers created by homologous recombination events. In Escherichia coli, chromosome dimers are resolved by the addition of a crossover at a specific site, dif, by two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD. The process is coordinated with cell division through the activity of a DNA translocase, FtsK. Many E. coli plasmids also use XerCD for dimer resolution. However, the process is FtsK-independent. The two chromosomes of the V. cholerae N16961 strain carry divergent dimer resolution sites, dif1 and dif2. Here, we show that V. cholerae FtsK controls the addition of a crossover at dif1 and dif2 by a common pair of Xer recombinases. In addition, we show that specific DNA motifs dictate its orientation of translocation, the distribution of these motifs on chromosome I and chromosome II supporting the idea that FtsK translocation serves to bring together the resolution sites carried by a dimer at the time of cell division. Taken together, these results suggest that the same FtsK-dependent mechanism coordinates dimer resolution with cell division for each of the two V. cholerae chromosomes. Chromosome II dimer resolution thus stands as a bona fide chromosomal process.

  12. Shared Emotions in Music

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I show that groups can share token emotional states by performing music together. First I argue that emotions are perceptions, representing the self's dynamic relation with the world. This representation is achieved by patterns of bodily changes, functioning independently of conscious feeling. Moreover, emotional expressions should be included in this analysis because they contribute to the pattern of bodily changes. This entails that we can 'think through' our emotions by mani...

  13. Sharing data increases citations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Thea Marie; Ellegaard, Ole; Larsen, Asger Væring;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...... by bibliographical links, and consists of papers receiving on average significantly more citations per paper per year, than do papers not associated with links to data....

  14. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  15. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  16. Perspectives of risk sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Knut K.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the standard risk sharing model of insurance. We discuss and characterize a competitive equilibrium, Pareto optimality, and representative agent pricing, including its implications for insurance premiums. We only touch upon the existence problem of a competitive equilibrium, primarily by presenting several examples. Risk tolerance and aggregation is the subject of one section. Risk adjustment of the probability measure is one topic, as well as the insur...

  17. Does Knowledge Sharing Pay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben; Venzin, Markus

    This empirical paper explores knowledge outflow from MNC subsidiaries and its impact on the MNC performance. We develop and test hypotheses derived from literature on MNC knowledge flows integrated with the perspective of knowledge-creating, self-interested MNC subsidiaries. The hypotheses...... between knowledge outflows and subsidiary performance. Our findings suggest that knowledge outflows increase a subsidiary's performance only up to a certain point and that too much knowledge sharing may be detrimental to the contributing subsidiary's performance....

  18. Sharing Sensor Network Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gong Chen; Nathan Yau; Mark Hansen; Deborah Estrin

    2007-01-01

    Sensor networks generate a variety of data streams in different temporal and spatial resolutions. The data come as numbers text, images, and audio and are dynamically produced periodically and sporadically. How can we organize hundreds of thousands of such data streams? How can we make it easy for scientists and engineers to publish and share such data streams? In this paper, we present our solution, SensorBase.org. It is a web application that not only provides the user with the functionalit...

  19. Chromosome Pairing Analysis in the PMCs of F1 Hybrids between Triticum Durum Dasypyrum Villosum Amphiploid and Common Wheats%硬粒小麦-簇毛麦双二倍体与普通小麦杂种F1的花粉母细胞减数分裂行为的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅体华; 任正隆

    2000-01-01

    The Meiotic behavior of T. durum-D. villosum amphiploid with three bread wheat varieties (lines) was employed by acetocarmine and C- banding staining of PMCs at first metaphase to reveal homoeologous pair ing between wheat and D. villosum chromosomes. The results indicated that the chromosome pairings more than expected in hybrid cell were homoeologous pairings either of wheat-D. villosum chromosomes or of wheat wheat chromosomes. On the other hand, the pairings less than expected in a hybrid cell should be considered as homologous pairings of A- A or B- B chromosomes according to traditional Feulgen stained method, in fact, a few bivalents between wheat and D. villosum chromosomes in those cell with bivalents less than 14 were also observed, which reflected that estimation of homoeologous pairing between wheat and alien species genome chro mosomes by standard Feulgen staining technique in AABBDV hybrid was non-accurate. The difficulties to obtain wheat lines which carried desirable genes from D. villosum through homoeologous pairing and recombination were also discussed.%用普通小麦与硬粒小麦-簇毛麦双二倍体杂交,对其杂种F1的花粉母细胞中期的染色体配对进行了洋红染色和Giemsa-C带染色观察。结果表明虽然簇毛麦染色体在中期主要以单价体存在,但也有少量的小麦簇毛染色体配对(平均每细胞为1.1%左右),可以通过遗传重组转移簇毛麦的有利基因。这些小麦簇毛麦染色体配对,既分布在超过理论配对数的细胞中,也存在于少于理论配对数的细胞中;相反,超过理论配对数的染色体对不一定就是小麦簇毛麦染色体之间的配对,在少于理论配对数的细胞中,也不一定仅是小麦同源染色体的配对,同样包含有少量的小麦-簇毛麦染色体配对。因而,用传统的染色法对外源物种与小麦染色体之间的配对数的估计,既有夸大一部分信息,又有掩盖一些有

  20. Chromosome catastrophes involve replication mechanisms generating complex genomic rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Erez, Ayelet; Nagamani, Sandesh C Sreenath; Dhar, Shweta U; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna E; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Cooper, M Lance; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A; Bacino, Carlos A; Campos-Acevedo, Luis Daniel; Delgado, Mauricio R; Freedenberg, Debra; Garnica, Adolfo; Grebe, Theresa A; Hernández-Almaguer, Dolores; Immken, LaDonna; Lalani, Seema R; McLean, Scott D; Northrup, Hope; Scaglia, Fernando; Strathearn, Lane; Trapane, Pamela; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Hastings, P J; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R; Bi, Weimin

    2011-09-16

    Complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) consisting of two or more breakpoint junctions have been observed in genomic disorders. Recently, a chromosome catastrophe phenomenon termed chromothripsis, in which numerous genomic rearrangements are apparently acquired in one single catastrophic event, was described in multiple cancers. Here, we show that constitutionally acquired CGRs share similarities with cancer chromothripsis. In the 17 CGR cases investigated, we observed localization and multiple copy number changes including deletions, duplications, and/or triplications, as well as extensive translocations and inversions. Genomic rearrangements involved varied in size and complexities; in one case, array comparative genomic hybridization revealed 18 copy number changes. Breakpoint sequencing identified characteristic features, including small templated insertions at breakpoints and microhomology at breakpoint junctions, which have been attributed to replicative processes. The resemblance between CGR and chromothripsis suggests similar mechanistic underpinnings. Such chromosome catastrophic events appear to reflect basic DNA metabolism operative throughout an organism's life cycle.

  1. Bonobos share with strangers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhi Tan

    Full Text Available Humans are thought to possess a unique proclivity to share with others--including strangers. This puzzling phenomenon has led many to suggest that sharing with strangers originates from human-unique language, social norms, warfare and/or cooperative breeding. However, bonobos, our closest living relative, are highly tolerant and, in the wild, are capable of having affiliative interactions with strangers. In four experiments, we therefore examined whether bonobos will voluntarily donate food to strangers. We show that bonobos will forego their own food for the benefit of interacting with a stranger. Their prosociality is in part driven by unselfish motivation, because bonobos will even help strangers acquire out-of-reach food when no desirable social interaction is possible. However, this prosociality has its limitations because bonobos will not donate food in their possession when a social interaction is not possible. These results indicate that other-regarding preferences toward strangers are not uniquely human. Moreover, language, social norms, warfare and cooperative breeding are unnecessary for the evolution of xenophilic sharing. Instead, we propose that prosociality toward strangers initially evolves due to selection for social tolerance, allowing the expansion of individual social networks. Human social norms and language may subsequently extend this ape-like social preference to the most costly contexts.

  2. Sharing resources@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Until now many people were unaware that copies of the same book (or standard, or journal) are often held not only by the library but by different divisions. (Here Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.) The idea behind the library's new sharing resources@CERN' initiative is not at all to collect the books in individual collections at the CERN library, but simply to register them in the Library database. Those not belonging to the library will in principle be unavailable for loan, but should be able to be consulted by anybody at CERN who is interested. "When you need a book urgently and it is not available in the library,' said PS Division engineer Eduardo Aldaz Carroll, it is a sham...

  3. MUS81 promotes common fragile site expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ying, Songmin; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Chan, Kok Lung;

    2013-01-01

    Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair the fait......Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair...... the faithful disjunction of sister chromatids in mitosis. However, the mechanisms by which CFSs express their fragility, and the cellular factors required to suppress CFS instability, remain largely undefined. Here, we report that the DNA structure-specific nuclease MUS81-EME1 localizes to CFS loci in early...

  4. Development of a novel HAC-based "gain of signal" quantitative assay for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hee Sheung; Lee, Nicholas C.O.; Goncharov, Nikolay V.; Kumeiko, Vadim; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Earnshaw, William C.; Kouprina, Natalay; Larionov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data indicates that chromosome instability (CIN) common to cancer cells can be used as a target for cancer therapy. At present the rate of chromosome mis-segregation is quantified by laborious techniques such as coupling clonal cell analysis with karyotyping or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Recently, a novel assay was developed based on the loss of a non-essential human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a constitutively expressed EGFP transgene ("loss of signal" a...

  5. The landscape of chromosomal aberrations in breast cancer mouse models reveals driver-specific routes to tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-David, Uri; Ha, Gavin; Khadka, Prasidda; Jin, Xin; Wong, Bang; Franke, Lude; Golub, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploidy and copy-number alterations (CNAs) are a hallmark of human cancer. Although genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are commonly used to model human cancer, their chromosomal landscapes remain underexplored. Here we use gene expression profiles to infer CNAs in 3,108 samples from 45 mouse models, providing the first comprehensive catalogue of chromosomal aberrations in cancer GEMMs. Mining this resource, we find that most chromosomal aberrations accumulate late during breast tu...

  6. The Evolution of the Shared Services Business Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Leland

    2000-01-01

    Explains shared services, where common business practices are applied by a staff unit focused entirely on delivering needed services at the highest value and lowest cost to internal customers. Highlights include accountability; examples of pioneering shared services organizations; customer focus transition; relationship management; expertise…

  7. A rapid molecular approach for chromosomal phasing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Regan

    Full Text Available Determining the chromosomal phase of pairs of sequence variants - the arrangement of specific alleles as haplotypes - is a routine challenge in molecular genetics. Here we describe Drop-Phase, a molecular method for quickly ascertaining the phase of pairs of DNA sequence variants (separated by 1-200 kb without cloning or manual single-molecule dilution. In each Drop-Phase reaction, genomic DNA segments are isolated in tens of thousands of nanoliter-sized droplets together with allele-specific fluorescence probes, in a single reaction well. Physically linked alleles partition into the same droplets, revealing their chromosomal phase in the co-distribution of fluorophores across droplets. We demonstrated the accuracy of this method by phasing members of trios (revealing 100% concordance with inheritance information, and demonstrate a common clinical application by phasing CFTR alleles at genomic distances of 11-116 kb in the genomes of cystic fibrosis patients. Drop-Phase is rapid (requiring less than 4 hours, scalable (to hundreds of samples, and effective at long genomic distances (200 kb.

  8. Frequency of primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find out the frequency of primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration and the different options available for management. Subjects and Methods: All patients with primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberrations were included in study. Patient's detailed history, general physical examination, presence or absence of secondary sexual characteristics, abdominal and pelvic examination finding were noted. Targeted investigations, including ultrasound, hormonal assay, buccal smear and karyotyping results were recorded. The management options were individually tailored with focus n psychological management. Results: Eighteen patients out of 30,000 patients were diagnosed as having primary amenorrhea. Six had primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberrations with the frequency of 0.02%. The age at presentation was 20 years and above in 50%. The most common cause was Turner's syndrome seen in 4 out of 6. The presenting symptoms were delay in onset of menstruation in 05 patients and primary infertility in 01 patient. Conclusion: Primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration is an uncommon condition requiring an early and accurate diagnosis. Turner's syndrome is a relatively common cause of this condition. Management should be multi-disciplinary and individualized according to the patient's age and symptom at presentation. Psychological management is very important and counselling throughout treatment is recommended. (author)

  9. Comparative cytogenetics of six Indo-Pacific moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) by chromosomal banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, E; Deidda, F; Cannas, R; Lobina, C; Cuccu, D; Deiana, A M; Salvadori, S

    2015-09-01

    A comparative cytogenetic analysis, using both conventional staining techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization, of six Indo-Pacific moray eels from three different genera (Gymnothorax fimbriatus, Gymnothorax flavimarginatus, Gymnothorax javanicus, Gymnothorax undulatus, Echidna nebulosa and Gymnomuraena zebra), was carried out to investigate the chromosomal differentiation in the family Muraenidae. Four species displayed a diploid chromosome number 2n = 42, which is common among the Muraenidae. Two other species, G. javanicus and G. flavimarginatus, were characterized by different chromosome numbers (2n = 40 and 2n = 36). For most species, a large amount of constitutive heterochromatin was detected in the chromosomes, with species-specific C-banding patterns that enabled pairing of the homologous chromosomes. In all species, the major ribosomal genes were localized in the guanine-cytosine-rich region of one chromosome pair, but in different chromosomal locations. The (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequences were mapped onto chromosomal ends in all muraenid species studied. The comparison of the results derived from this study with those available in the literature confirms a substantial conservation of the diploid chromosome number in the Muraenidae and supports the hypothesis that rearrangements have occurred that have diversified their karyotypes. Furthermore, the finding of two species with different diploid chromosome numbers suggests that additional chromosomal rearrangements, such as Robertsonian fusions, have occurred in the karyotype evolution of the Muraenidae.

  10. Knowledge sharing and affective commitment: the mediating role of psychological ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jian; Yuan, Ling; Ning, Lutao;

    2015-01-01

    and key knowledge sharing, while KPO exerted a negative impact on both; common knowledge sharing was positively related to key knowledge sharing; the relationship between affective commitment and key knowledge sharing was multi-mediated by OPO and common knowledge sharing. Originality/value – OPO and KPO...... play an essential role in transferring the effect of employees’ affective commitment to common knowledge sharing and key knowledge sharing, which unravels the blackbox of how effective commitment affects knowledge sharing.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the meditating role of psychological ownership which includes both organisation-based psychological ownership (OPO) and knowledge-based psychological ownership (KPO) on the relationship between affective commitment and knowledge sharing. Design...

  11. Sharing medicine: the candidacy of medicines and other household items for sharing, Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Dohn

    Full Text Available People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people's motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items.This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable, we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared.People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People's differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior.

  12. Globally Divergent but Locally Convergent X- and Y-Chromosome Influences on Cortical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznahan, Armin; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Greenstein, Deanna; Wallace, Gregory L; Blumenthal, Jonathan D; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their unique evolutionary history, modern mammalian X- and Y-chromosomes have highly divergent gene contents counterbalanced by regulatory features, which preferentially restrict expression of X- and Y-specific genes. These 2 characteristics make opposing predictions regarding the expected dissimilarity of X- vs. Y-chromosome influences on biological structure and function. Here, we quantify this dissimilarity using in vivo neuroimaging within a rare cohort of humans with diverse sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs). We show that X- and Y-chromosomes have opposing effects on overall brain size but exert highly convergent influences on local brain anatomy, which manifest across biologically distinct dimensions of the cerebral cortex. Large-scale online meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data indicates that convergent sex chromosome dosage effects preferentially impact centers for social perception, communication, and decision-making. Thus, despite an almost complete lack of sequence homology, and opposing effects on overall brain size, X- and Y-chromosomes exert congruent effects on the proportional size of cortical systems involved in adaptive social functioning. These convergent X-Y effects (i) track the dosage of those few genes that are still shared by X- and Y-chromosomes, and (ii) may provide a biological substrate for the link between SCA and increased rates of psychopathology.

  13. Modeling and experimental methods to probe the link between global transcription and spatial organization of chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Venkatesan Iyer

    Full Text Available Genomes are spatially assembled into chromosome territories (CT within the nucleus of living cells. Recent evidences have suggested associations between three-dimensional organization of CTs and the active gene clusters within neighboring CTs. These gene clusters are part of signaling networks sharing similar transcription factor or other downstream transcription machineries. Hence, presence of such gene clusters of active signaling networks in a cell type may regulate the spatial organization of chromosomes in the nucleus. However, given the probabilistic nature of chromosome positions and complex transcription factor networks (TFNs, quantitative methods to establish their correlation is lacking. In this paper, we use chromosome positions and gene expression profiles in interphase fibroblasts and describe methods to capture the correspondence between their spatial position and expression. In addition, numerical simulations designed to incorporate the interacting TFNs, reveal that the chromosome positions are also optimized for the activity of these networks. These methods were validated for specific chromosome pairs mapped in two distinct transcriptional states of T-Cells (naïve and activated. Taken together, our methods highlight the functional coupling between topology of chromosomes and their respective gene expression patterns.

  14. ADAPTIVE VIDEO DATA STREAMING AND SHARING IN CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    P.N.Lokeswari; Chandrasekhar, K.; Mr.Sathiyaraj

    2014-01-01

    As we know that cloud is a drastic data center for outsourced data. Cloud is a familiar tool because of its useful architectural tools. Data sharing is another common habituated property to the common people. These data sharing include video data in social networks, this was done regularly through mobile devices like smart phones, tablets, laptops etc. we focused on demands on video traffic over mobile networks. Mobile network consist limited bandwidth and long buffering time. To ...

  15. Characterization of chromosome structures of Falconinae (Falconidae, Falconiformes, Aves) by chromosome painting and delineation of chromosome rearrangements during their differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Chizuko; Ishijima, Junko; KOSAKA, Ayumi; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Habermann, Felix A.; Griffin, Darren K.; MATSHUDA, Yoichi; 秀之, 田辺

    2008-01-01

    Karyotypes of most bird species are characterized by around 2n = 80 chromosomes, comprising 7–10 pairs of large- and medium-sized macrochromosomes including sex chromosomes and numerous morphologically indistinguishable microchromosomes. The Falconinae of the Falconiformes has a different karyotype from the typical avian karyotype in low chromosome numbers, little size difference between macrochromosomes and a smaller number of microchromosomes. To characterize chromosome structures of Falcon...

  16. Characterization of chromosome structures of Falconinae (Falconidae, Falconiformes, Aves) by chromosome painting and delineation of chromosome rearrangements during their differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Chizuko; Ishijima, Junko; KOSAKA, Ayumi; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Habermann, Felix A.; Griffin, Darren K.; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    Karyotypes of most bird species are characterized by around 2n = 80 chromosomes, comprising 7Y10 pairs of large- and medium-sized macrochromosomes including sex chromosomes and numerous morphologically indistinguishable microchromosomes. The Falconinae of the Falconiformes has a different karyotype from the typical avian karyotype in low chromosome numbers, little size difference between macrochromosomes and a smaller number of microchromosomes. To characterize chromosome structures of Falcon...

  17. Somatic Chromosomes of the Bornean Sambar Deer and Rusa Deer Interspecific Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hybridization has potential benefits to the Malaysian farmed deer industries in terms of increased growth rate and increased proportion of muscle and an improved alignment of feed supply and annual energy requirement. Species or subspecies of different chromosome constitution could mate to produce healthy hybrid offspring in a normal ratio of males and females. If any of the hybrid offspring were sterile, the sterile offspring would be the heterogametic offspring. The study investigated the use of chromosome banding method to detect chromosomal variation and to define the chromosome homology and the possibility of the Bornean Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei and Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis hybrids to reproduce. Approach: Samples were collected from the Livestock Breeding Station, Sabrang, Keningau, Sabah, East Malaysia. The animals studied consisted of two deer subspecies namely the Bornean Sambar deer, Rusa deer and their hybrids. The karyotypes of the Bornean Sambar deer, Rusa deer and their F1 hybrids have been investigated by solid giemsa staining, G-banding and Ag-NOR banding techniques. Results: Rusa and Bornean Sambar have different chromosome number; 60 and 62 respectively, but share the same fundamental number of chromosome arm, 70. The hybrids have 2n = 61, consisting of 9 metacentric to submetacentric autosomes and 24 pairs of acrocentric autosomes with two acrocentrics and one submetacentric chromosome being unpaired. The morphology of the sex chromosomes in the F1 hybrids was similar to that of the parental species. The Ag-NOR pattern and the conventional Giemsa staining of chromosomes were effective as markers in the characterization of the karyotypes of the parental lines and hybrids because of the presence of active NORs on different chromosomes of different species. G-band, in contrast, showed complete homology in the presence of euchromatic bands and heterochromatin blocks respectively on each chromosome

  18. Sharing Some Thoughts on Weitzman's The Share Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Russell Cooper

    1985-01-01

    This paper explores the positive and normative aspects of share contracts. In particular, the paper explores the properties of a share system as advanced by Martin Weitzman in The Share Economy.The model employed highlights a "macroeconomic externality" created in a multi-sector economy with imperfect competition. The introduction of share contracts is shown to influence the comparative static properties of the model economy and in some cases to lead to Pareto superior outcomes.

  19. Share the spare : modelling consumer behaviour in the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Østbye, Thea Sørvig

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy allows consumers to share spare goods and resources through online platforms, using technology to reduce the transaction costs and efficiently match supply with demand on a global scale. Reflecting a change in consumption patterns, the sharing economy is disrupting existing industries, steadily replacing ownership with access. To explain observed consumer behaviour in the sharing economy, we develop an economic model that describes consumers’ choice of providing and rec...

  20. Common Space as Threshold Space: Urban Commoning in Struggles to Re-appropriate Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore contemporary practices of urban commoning while attempting to construct a theoretical argument on the inherently emancipating potentialities of common space. Urban commoning will be considered as a set of spatial practices through which space is created both as a good to be shared and as a medium that can give form to institutions of sharing. In order for commoning to remain an open process that continuously expands without being contained in any form of enclosure, it has to invite newcomers. Shared spaces, open to newcomers, are spaces defined neither by a prevailing authority that supervises their use, nor by a closed community that controls them by excluding all ‘outsiders’. Common spaces are thus dependent upon their power to communicate and connect rather than separate. Common spaces are threshold spaces, connecting and comparing adjacent areas at the same time. In practices of common space creation, commoners create areas of encounter and collective self-management. Rules of use are also of a threshold character, constantly in the making. Likewise, subjects of use are threshold subjects: for commoning to remain open and ever expanding, commoners have to consider themselves open to transformative negotiations with newcomers.This paper will thus attempt to understand urban commoning as a multifaceted process which produces spaces, subjects of use (inhabitants and rules of use (institutions that share the same qualitative characteristics. In such a prospect, urban commoning can prefigure forms of social relations based on sharing, cooperation and solidarity. In this way, space becomes not simply a common product but also the means through which egalitarian social relations can potentially be shaped. 

  1. Chromosome numbers and meiotic analysis in the pre-breeding of Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gléia Cristina Laverde Ricci; Alice Maria De Souza-Kaneshima; Mariana Ferrari Felismino; Andrea Beatriz Mendes-Bonato; Maria Suely Pagliarini; Cacilda Borges Do Valle

    2011-08-01

    A total of 44 accessions of Brachiaria decumbens were analysed for chromosome count and meiotic behaviour in order to identify potential progenitors for crosses. Among them, 15 accessions presented $2n = 18$; 27 accessions, $2n = 36$; and 2 accessions, $2n = 45$ chromosomes. Among the diploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities was low, ranging from 0.82% to 7.93%. In the 27 tetraploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities ranged from 18.41% to 65.83%. The most common meiotic abnormalities were related to irregular chromosome segregation, but chromosome stickiness and abnormal cytokinesis were observed in low frequency. All abnormalities can compromise pollen viability by generating unbalanced gametes. Based on the chromosome number and meiotic stability, the present study indicates the apomictic tetraploid accessions that can act as male genitor to produce interspecific hybrids with B. ruziziensis or intraspecific hybrids with recently artificially tetraploidized accessions.

  2. The tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism locus maps to chromosome 15q11. 2-q12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, M.; Colman, M.A.; Stevens, G.; Zwane, E.; Kromberg, J.; Jenkins, T. (South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Garral, M.

    1992-10-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA), an autosomal recessive disorder of the melanin biosynthetic pathway, is the most common type of albinism occurring worldwide. In southern African Bantu-speaking negroids it has an overall prevalence of about 1/3,900. Since the basic biochemical defect is unknown, a linkage study with candidate loci, candidate chromosomal regions, and random loci was undertaken. The ty-pos OCA locus was found to be linked to two arbitrary loci, D15S10 and D15S13, in the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosomal region on chromosome 15q11.2-q12. The pink-eyed dilute locus, p, on mouse chromosome 7, maps close to a region of homology on human chromosome 15q, and we postulate that the ty-pos OCA and p loci are homologous. 43 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Accuracy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of single gene and chromosomal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlinsky, Y.; Strom, C.; Rechitsky, S. [Reproductive Genetics Institute, Chicage, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We have developed a polar body inferred approach for preconception diagnosis of single gene and chromosomal disorders. Preconception PCR or FISH analysis was performed in a total of 310 first polar bodies for the following genetic conditions: cystic fibrosis, hemophilia A, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, Tay Sachs disease, retinitis pigmentosa and common chromosomal trisomies. An important advantage of this approach is the avoidance of sperm (DNA) contamination, which is the major problem of PGD. We are currently applying FISH analysis of biopsied blastomeres, in combination with PCR or separately, and have demonstrated a significant improvement of the accuracy of PGD of X-linked disorders at this stage. Our data have also demonstrated feasibility of the application of FISH technique for PGD of chromosomal disorders. It was possible to detect chromosomal non-disjunctions and chromatid malsegregations in the first meiotic division, as well as to evaluate chromosomal mutations originating from the second meiotic nondisjunction.

  4. Chromosomal evolution in the Drosophila cardini group (Diptera: Drosophilidae): photomaps and inversion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Juliana; De Toni, Daniela Cristina; da Silva, Gisele de Souza; Valente, Vera Lucia da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Detailed chromosome photomaps are the first step to develop further chromosomal analysis to study the evolution of the genetic architecture in any set of species, considering that chromosomal rearrangements, such as inversions, are common features of genome evolution. In this report, we analyzed inversion polymorphisms in 25 different populations belonging to six neotropical species in the cardini group: Drosophila cardini, D. cardinoides, D. neocardini, D. neomorpha, D. parthenogenetica and D. polymorpha. Furthermore, we present the first reference photomaps for the Neotropical D. cardini and D. parthenogenetica and improved photomaps for D. cardinoides, D. neocardini and D. polymorpha. We found 19 new inversions for these species. An exhaustive pairwise comparison of the polytene chromosomes was conducted for the six species in order to understand evolutionary patterns of their chromosomes.

  5. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  6. Shared clinical decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHaqwi, Ali I.; AlDrees, Turki M.; AlRumayyan, Ahmad; AlFarhan, Ali I.; Alotaibi, Sultan S.; AlKhashan, Hesham I.; Badri, Motasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine preferences of patients regarding their involvement in the clinical decision making process and the related factors in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a major family practice center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2012. Multivariate multinomial regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with patients preferences. Results: The study included 236 participants. The most preferred decision-making style was shared decision-making (57%), followed by paternalistic (28%), and informed consumerism (14%). The preference for shared clinical decision making was significantly higher among male patients and those with higher level of education, whereas paternalism was significantly higher among older patients and those with chronic health conditions, and consumerism was significantly higher in younger age groups. In multivariate multinomial regression analysis, compared with the shared group, the consumerism group were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.27, p=0.008] and non-dyslipidemic (AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.03-8.09, p=0.04), and the paternalism group were more likely to be older (AOR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p=0.04), and female (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.32-4.06, p=0.008). Conclusion: Preferences of patients for involvement in the clinical decision-making varied considerably. In our setting, underlying factors that influence these preferences identified in this study should be considered and tailored individually to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. PMID:26620990

  7. Sharing Keynote Slideshows

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Slideshows have come a long way since overhead projectors were your only option. You can show share your ideas with the world via email, DVD, PDF, YouTube, iPhone, or kiosk. Once your show is polished to perfection, this thorough, accessible guide shows you how to export and deliver it all possible ways-even as a PowerPoint file, QuickTime movie, or web site. As a bonus, you'll find advice on setting up your equipment and delivering an effective presentation.

  8. Anti-Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstein, Roland; Cooter, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a mechanism that may implement first-best effort in simultaneous teams. Within the framework of this mechanism, each team members is obliged to make a fixed, non-contingent payment, and chooses his individual effort. After the output is produced, each team member receives a gross payment that equals the actual team output. We demonstrate that a Nash equilibrium exists in which each team member chooses first-best effort. We call this mechanism ?Anti-Sharing? since it solves ...

  9. Collaborative Sharing of Multidimensional Space-time Data Using HydroShare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Dash, P. K.; Idaszak, R.; Yi, H.; Blanton, B.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a collaborative environment being developed for sharing hydrological data and models. It includes capability to upload data in many formats as resources that can be shared. The HydroShare data model for resources uses a specific format for the representation of each type of data and specifies metadata common to all resource types as well as metadata unique to specific resource types. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) was chosen as the format for multidimensional space-time data in HydroShare. NetCDF is widely used in hydrological and other geoscience modeling because it contains self-describing metadata and supports the creation of array-oriented datasets that may include three spatial dimensions, a time dimension and other user defined dimensions. For example, NetCDF may be used to represent precipitation or surface air temperature fields that have two dimensions in space and one dimension in time. This presentation will illustrate how NetCDF files are used in HydroShare. When a NetCDF file is loaded into HydroShare, header information is extracted using the "ncdump" utility. Python functions developed for the Django web framework on which HydroShare is based, extract science metadata present in the NetCDF file, saving the user from having to enter it. Where the file follows Climate Forecast (CF) convention and Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD) standards, metadata is thus automatically populated. Users also have the ability to add metadata to the resource that may not have been present in the original NetCDF file. HydroShare's metadata editing functionality then writes this science metadata back into the NetCDF file to maintain consistency between the science metadata in HydroShare and the metadata in the NetCDF file. This further helps researchers easily add metadata information following the CF and ACDD conventions. Additional data inspection and subsetting functions were developed, taking advantage of Python and command line

  10. Organization of some repetitive DNAs and B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Leptysminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Allison; Loreto, Vilma; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes occur in approximately 15% of eukaryotes and are usually heterochromatic and rich in repetitive DNAs. Here we describe characteristics of a B chromosome in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) through classical cytogenetic methods and mapping of some repetitive DNAs, including multigene families, telomeric repeats and a DNA fraction enriched with repetitive DNAs obtained from DOP-PCR. Eumastusia koebelei koebelei presented 2n=23, X0 and, in one individual, two copies of the same variant of a B chromosome were noticed, which are associated during meiosis. The C-positive blocks were located in the pericentromeric regions of the standard complement and along the entire length of the B chromosomes. Some G+C-rich heterochromatic blocks were noticed, including conspicuous blocks in the B chromosomes. The mapping of 18S rDNA and U2 snDNA revealed only autosomal clusters, and the telomeric probe hybridized in terminal regions. Finally, the DOP-PCR probe obtained from an individual without a B chromosome revealed signals in the heterochromatic regions, including the entire length of the B chromosome. The possible intraspecific origin of the B chromosomes, due to the shared pool of repetitive DNAs between the A and B chromosomes and the possible consequences of their association are discussed. PMID:27551344

  11. Organization of some repetitive DNAs and B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Leptysminae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Allison; Loreto, Vilma; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes occur in approximately 15% of eukaryotes and are usually heterochromatic and rich in repetitive DNAs. Here we describe characteristics of a B chromosome in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) through classical cytogenetic methods and mapping of some repetitive DNAs, including multigene families, telomeric repeats and a DNA fraction enriched with repetitive DNAs obtained from DOP-PCR. Eumastusia koebelei koebelei presented 2n=23, X0 and, in one individual, two copies of the same variant of a B chromosome were noticed, which are associated during meiosis. The C-positive blocks were located in the pericentromeric regions of the standard complement and along the entire length of the B chromosomes. Some G+C-rich heterochromatic blocks were noticed, including conspicuous blocks in the B chromosomes. The mapping of 18S rDNA and U2 snDNA revealed only autosomal clusters, and the telomeric probe hybridized in terminal regions. Finally, the DOP-PCR probe obtained from an individual without a B chromosome revealed signals in the heterochromatic regions, including the entire length of the B chromosome. The possible intraspecific origin of the B chromosomes, due to the shared pool of repetitive DNAs between the A and B chromosomes and the possible consequences of their association are discussed. PMID:27551344

  12. Comparative molecular phylogeny and evolution of sex chromosome DNA sequences in the family Canidae (Mammalia: Carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Ayako; Fukui, Daisuke; Ueda, Miya; Tada, Kazumi; Toyoshima, Shouji; Takami, Kazutoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Uraguchi, Kohji; Raichev, Evgeniy; Kaneko, Yayoi; Tsunoda, Hiroshi; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the family Canidae, nucleotide sequences of the zinc-finger-protein gene on the Y chromosome (ZFY, 924-1146 bp) and its homologous gene on the X chromosome (ZFX, 834-839 bp) for twelve canid species were determined. The phylogenetic relationships among species reconstructed by the paternal ZFY sequences closely agreed with those by mtDNA and autosomal DNA trees in previous reports, and strongly supported the phylogenetic affinity between the wolf-like canids clade and the South American canids clade. However, the branching order of some species differed between phylogenies of ZFY and ZFX genes: Cuon alpinus and Canis mesomelas were included in the wolf-like canid clades in the ZFY tree, whereas both species were clustered in a group of Chrysocyon brachyurus and Speothos venaticus in the ZFX tree. The topology difference between ZFY and ZFX trees may have resulted from the two-times higher substitution rate of the former than the latter, which was clarified in the present study. In addition, two types of transposable element sequence (SINE-I and SINE-II) were found to occur in the ZFY final intron of the twelve canid species examined. Because the SINE-I sequences were shared by all the species, they may have been inserted into the ZFY of the common ancestor before species radiation in Canidae. By contract, SINE-II found in only Canis aureus could have been inserted into ZFY independently after the speciation. The molecular diversity of SINE sequences of Canidae reflects evolutionary history of the species radiation. PMID:22379982

  13. A database system for constructing, integrating, and displaying physical maps of chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, T.; Wagner, M.; Yeh, Mimi; Ashworth, L.; Nelson, D.; Ow, D.; Branscomb, E.; Carrano, A.

    1994-06-01

    Efforts are underway at numerous sites around the world to construct physical maps of all human chromosomes. These maps will enable researchers to locate, characterize, and eventually understand the genes that control human structure and function. Accomplishing this goal will require a staggering amount of innovation and advancement of biological technology. The volume and complexity of the data already generated requires a sophisticated array of computational support to collect, store, analyze, integrate, and display it in biologically meaningful ways. The Human Genome Center at Livermore has spent the last 6 years constructing a database system to support its physical mapping efforts on human chromosome 19. Our computational support team is composed of experienced computer professionals who share a common pragmatic primary goal of rapidly supplying tools that meet the ever-changing needs of the biologists. Most papers describing computational support of genome research concentrate on mathematical details of key algorithms. However, in this paper we would like to concentrate on the design issues, tradeoffs, and consequences from the point of view of building a complex database system to support leading-edge genomic research. We introduce the topic of physical mapping, discuss the key design issues involved in our databases, and discuss the use of this data by our major tools (DNA fingerprint analysis and overlap computation, contig assembly, map integration, and database browsing.) Given the advantage of hindsight, we discuss what worked, what didn`t, and how we will evolve from here. As early pioneers in this field we hope that our experience may prove useful to others who are now beginning to design and construct similar systems.

  14. Chromosome Territory Modeller and Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idziak-Helmcke, Dominika; Robaszkiewicz, Ewa; Hasterok, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ChroTeMo, a tool for chromosome territory modelling, accompanied by ChroTeVi–a chromosome territory visualisation software that uses the data obtained by ChroTeMo. These tools have been developed in order to complement the molecular cytogenetic research of interphase nucleus structure in a model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Although the modelling tool has been initially created for one particular species, it has universal application. The proposed version of ChroTeMo allows for generating a model of chromosome territory distribution in any given plant or animal species after setting the initial, species-specific parameters. ChroTeMo has been developed as a fully probabilistic modeller. Due to this feature, the comparison between the experimental data on the structure of a nucleus and the results obtained from ChroTeMo can indicate whether the distribution of chromosomes inside a nucleus is also fully probabilistic or is subjected to certain non-random patterns. The presented tools have been written in Python, so they are multiplatform, portable and easy to read. Moreover, if necessary they can be further developed by users writing their portions of code. The source code, documentation, and wiki, as well as the issue tracker and the list of related articles that use ChroTeMo and ChroTeVi, are accessible in a public repository at Github under GPL 3.0 license. PMID:27505434

  15. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...

  16. CHROMOSOMAL MULTIPLICITY IN BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have used CHEF gel electrophoresis to screen preparations of large DNA from different Burkholderia cepacia isolates for the presence of DNA species corresponding to the linearized forms of the three chromosomes of 3.4,2.5, and 0.9 Mb identified in B. cepacia strain 17616. DNA ...

  17. Chromosome Territory Modeller and Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Magdalena A; Chromiński, Kornel; Idziak-Helmcke, Dominika; Robaszkiewicz, Ewa; Hasterok, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ChroTeMo, a tool for chromosome territory modelling, accompanied by ChroTeVi-a chromosome territory visualisation software that uses the data obtained by ChroTeMo. These tools have been developed in order to complement the molecular cytogenetic research of interphase nucleus structure in a model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Although the modelling tool has been initially created for one particular species, it has universal application. The proposed version of ChroTeMo allows for generating a model of chromosome territory distribution in any given plant or animal species after setting the initial, species-specific parameters. ChroTeMo has been developed as a fully probabilistic modeller. Due to this feature, the comparison between the experimental data on the structure of a nucleus and the results obtained from ChroTeMo can indicate whether the distribution of chromosomes inside a nucleus is also fully probabilistic or is subjected to certain non-random patterns. The presented tools have been written in Python, so they are multiplatform, portable and easy to read. Moreover, if necessary they can be further developed by users writing their portions of code. The source code, documentation, and wiki, as well as the issue tracker and the list of related articles that use ChroTeMo and ChroTeVi, are accessible in a public repository at Github under GPL 3.0 license. PMID:27505434

  18. First description of B chromosomes in the Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes, Characidae genus: a hypothesis for the extra element of Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovani Piscor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hyphessobrycon are allocated in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family, one of the genera with more species of the group. The chromosomes of some species of Hyphessobrycon are known, and the diploid number most common for genus is 2n = 50 chromosomes. The aims of this study were to examine the karyotype macrostructure in the Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882, and show a new origin hypothesis for B chromosomes. The diploid number observed for H. eques was 2n = 52 chromosomes, and a karyotype formulae of 12m + 18sm + 8st + 14a, with FN (fundamental number = 90 for both sexes. Only two females showed one B chromosome. The heterochromatin was observed mainly on centromeric regions, and in the long arm of the B chromosome. In this paper, the relationship of the B chromosome of H. eques with an occasional chromosome rearrangement was discussed.

  19. The political economy of fixed regional investment shares with an illustration for Belgian railway investments

    OpenAIRE

    Proost, Stef; ZAPOROZHETS, VERA

    2010-01-01

    Many local public goods are allocated by federal governments using fixed regional shares: every region is entitled a fixed share of the total budget for a particular type of public good. This paper compares this fixed regional sharing rule with two alternative allocation rules: first best and common pool allocation. We find that the fixed regional sharing rule performs relatively well if the regional shares are reasonable. Legislative bargaining theory is used to study the determination of th...

  20. Multicolor spectral karyotyping of human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, E; du Manoir, S; Veldman, T; Schoell, B; Wienberg, J; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Ning, Y; Ledbetter, D H; Bar-Am, I; Soenksen, D; Garini, Y; Ried, T

    1996-07-26

    The simultaneous and unequivocal discernment of all human chromosomes in different colors would be of significant clinical and biologic importance. Whole-genome scanning by spectral karyotyping allowed instantaneous visualization of defined emission spectra for each human chromosome after fluorescence in situ hybridization. By means of computer separation (classification) of spectra, spectrally overlapping chromosome-specific DNA probes could be resolved, and all human chromosomes were simultaneously identified. PMID:8662537

  1. Shared consultant physician posts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    Our aim was to assess the acceptability and cost-efficiency of shared consultancy posts. Two consultant physicians worked alternate fortnights for a period of twelve months. Questionnaires were distributed to general practitioners, nurses, consultants and junior doctors affected by the arrangement. Patients or their next of kin were contacted by telephone. 1\\/17 of consultants described the experience as negative. 14\\/19 junior doctors reported a positive experience. 11 felt that training had been improved while 2 felt that it had been adversely affected. 17\\/17 GPs were satisfied with the arrangement. 1\\/86 nurses surveyed reported a negative experience. 1\\/48 patients were unhappy with the arrangement. An extra 2.2 (p<0.001) patients were seen per clinic. Length of stay was shortened by 2.49 days (p<0.001). A saving of 69,212 was made due to decreased locum requirements. We present data suggesting structured shared consultancy posts can be broadly acceptable and cost efficient in Ireland.

  2. Phenotypic Spectrum of 20 Novel Patients With Molecularly Defined Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes 15 and a Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Tjitske; de Leeuw, Nicole; Wolf, Roy; Nillesen, Willy M.; Schobers, Gaby; Mieloo, Hanneke; Willemsen, Marjolein; Perrotta, Concetta Simona; Poddighe, Pino J.; Feenstra, Ilse; Draaisma, Jos; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMC) originating from chromosome 15 are the most common SMCs. They encompass clinically irrelevant SMC(15)s containing only heterochromatin and 15p material, and clinically relevant SMC(15)s that consist of both eu- and heterochromatic 15q material. On the basis of

  3. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  4. BOREL'S DIRECTIONS AND SHARED VALUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingcai ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In this article,we study the problems of Borel's directions of meromorphic functions concerning shared values and prove that if two meromorphic functions of infinite order share three distinct values,their Borel's directions are same.

  5. The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Fernando L.; Poznik, G. David; Castellano, Sergi; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of extinct hominids has reshaped our understanding of modern human origins. Here, we analyze ∼120 kb of exome-captured Y-chromosome DNA from a Neandertal individual from El Sidrón, Spain. We investigate its divergence from orthologous chimpanzee and modern human sequences and find strong support for a model that places the Neandertal lineage as an outgroup to modern human Y chromosomes—including A00, the highly divergent basal haplogroup. We estimate that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes is ∼588 thousand years ago (kya) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 447–806 kya). This is ∼2.1 (95% CI: 1.7–2.9) times longer than the TMRCA of A00 and other extant modern human Y-chromosome lineages. This estimate suggests that the Y-chromosome divergence mirrors the population divergence of Neandertals and modern human ancestors, and it refutes alternative scenarios of a relatively recent or super-archaic origin of Neandertal Y chromosomes. The fact that the Neandertal Y we describe has never been observed in modern humans suggests that the lineage is most likely extinct. We identify protein-coding differences between Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes, including potentially damaging changes to PCDH11Y, TMSB4Y, USP9Y, and KDM5D. Three of these changes are missense mutations in genes that produce male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens. Antigens derived from KDM5D, for example, are thought to elicit a maternal immune response during gestation. It is possible that incompatibilities at one or more of these genes played a role in the reproductive isolation of the two groups. PMID:27058445

  6. Topoisomerase IIα in chromosome instability and personalized cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T; Sun, Y; Ji, P; Kopetz, S; Zhang, W

    2015-07-30

    Genome instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. Chromosome instability (CIN), which is often mutually exclusive from hypermutation genotypes, represents a distinct subtype of genome instability. Hypermutations in cancer cells are due to defects in DNA repair genes, but the cause of CIN is still elusive. However, because of the extensive chromosomal abnormalities associated with CIN, its cause is likely a defect in a network of genes that regulate mitotic checkpoints and chromosomal organization and segregation. Emerging evidence has shown that the chromosomal decatenation checkpoint, which is critical for chromatin untangling and packing during genetic material duplication, is defective in cancer cells with CIN. The decatenation checkpoint is known to be regulated by a family of enzymes called topoisomerases. Among them, the gene encoding topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) is commonly altered at both gene copy number and gene expression level in cancer cells. Thus, abnormal alterations of TOP2A, its interacting proteins, and its modifications may have a critical role in CIN in human cancers. Clinically, a large arsenal of topoisomerase inhibitors has been used to suppress DNA replication in cancer. However, they often lead to the secondary development of leukemia because of their effect on the chromosomal decatenation checkpoint. Therefore, topoisomerase drugs must be used judiciously and administered on an individual basis. In this review, we highlight the biological function of TOP2A in chromosome segregation and the mechanisms that regulate this enzyme's expression and activity. We also review the roles of TOP2A and related proteins in human cancers, and raise a perspective for how to target TOP2A in personalized cancer therapy. PMID:25328138

  7. Competition in the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Demary, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Sharing goods, services or knowledge is at the center of the so-called Sharing Economy. Businesses are usually based on online platforms that match demand and supply which is in many cases, but not always provided by individuals. Sharing Economy companies typically compete with traditional companies in many different markets. The main challenge of this type of competition currently is the application of the existing regulation. While incumbent firms adhere to this, Sharing Economy companies o...

  8. Forecasting Dynamic Market Share Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Terui, Nobuhiko

    1997-01-01

    In market share analysis, it is well recognized that we have often inadmissible predicted marketshare, which means that some of predictors take the values outside the range [0, 1] and the totalsum of predicted shares is not always one, so called "logical inconsistency". In this article, basedon Bayesian VAR model, I propose a dynamic market share model with logical consistency. Theproposed method makes it possible to forecast not only the values of market share by themselves,but also various ...

  9. Shared Services Management: Critical Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Shouhong Wang; Hai Wang

    2015-01-01

    The cloud computing technology has accelerated shared services in the government and private sectors. This paper proposes a research framework of critical success factors of shared services in the aspects of strategy identification, collaborative partnership networking, optimal shared services process re-designing, and new policies and regulations. A survey has been employed to test the hypotheses. The test results indicate that clear vision of strategies of shared services, long term busines...

  10. Familial transmission of a ring chromosome 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael

    1987-01-01

    A ring chromosome 21 was found in a phenotypically normal mother and her son. The clinical findings in the son were bilateral retention of the testes and a slightly delayed puberty onset. Consequences of a ring formation of a chromosome 21 in phenotypically normal patients are presented...... and discussed, and the previously reported cases of familially transmitted G-group ring chromosomes are reviewed....

  11. Preventing terrorism using information sharing networks

    OpenAIRE

    France, Paul

    2006-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Many states currently do not have an intelligence fusion center, and therefore, their ability to prevent and deter a terrorist attack is limited by the lack of information sharing. Wisconsin in addition to many states lacks a central hub for information exchange and currently has no system in place that allows the variety of technologies to gain access to a common database to gather and/or exchange information. The vast majority of public safety agencies currently operate ...

  12. Job-Sharing the Principalship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shelley; Feltham, Wendy

    1997-01-01

    The coprincipals of a California elementary school share their ideas for building a successful job-sharing partnership. They suggest it is important to find the right partner, develop and present a job-sharing proposal, establish systems of communication with each other, evaluate one's progress, focus on the principalship, and provide leadership…

  13. Large-scale polymorphism near the ends of several human chromosomes analyzed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Giorgi, D. [CNRS, Montpelier (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We have discovered a large DNA segment that is polymorphically present at the ends of several human chromosomes. The segment, f7501, was originally derived form a human chromosome 19-specific cosmid library. FISH was used to determine the cosmid`s chromosomal distribution on 44 unrelated humans and several closely related primates. The human subjects represent a diversity of reproductively isolated ethnic populations. FISH analysis revealed that sequences highly homologous to the cosmid`s insert are present on both homologs at 3q, 15q,. and 19p in almost all individuals (88, 85, and 87 of 88 homologs, respectively). Other chromosomes sites were labeled much more rarely in the sampled individuals. For example, 56 of the 88 analyzed chromosomes 11 were labeled (18+/+, 6-/-, and 20+/- individuals). In contrast, 2q was labeled on only 1/88 sampled chromosomes. The termini of 2q, 5q, 6p, 6q, 7p, 8p, 9p, 9q, 11p, 12q, 16p, 19q, and 20q and an interstitial site at 2q13-14 were labeled in at least one individual of the set. EcoR1-fragments derived from the cosmid showed the same hybridization pattern as the entire cosmid, indicating that at least 40 kbp is shared by these chromosome ends. Ethnic differences in the allele frequency of these polymorphic variants was observed. For example, signals were observed on 8/10 and 7/10 of the chromosomes 7p and 16q, respectively, derived form Biakan Pygmies, but these sites were infrequently labeled in non-Pygmy human populations (2/68, respectively). This region has undergone significant changes in chromosome location during human evolution. Strong signal was seen on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosome 3, which is homologous to human chromosome 4, a chromosome unlabeled in any of the humans we have analyzed.

  14. The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaz, Tariq; Quinn, Alexander E; Miura, Ikuo; Sarre, Stephen D; Georges, Arthur; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2005-01-01

    The bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae: Reptilia) is an agamid lizard endemic to Australia. Like crocodilians and many turtles, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common in agamid lizards, although many species have genotypic sex determination (GSD). P. vitticeps is reported to have GSD, but no detectable sex chromosomes. Here we used molecular cytogenetic and differential banding techniques to reveal sex chromosomes in this species. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), GTG- and C-banding identified a highly heterochromatic microchromosome specific to females, demonstrating female heterogamety (ZZ/ZW) in this species. We isolated the P. vitticeps W chromosome by microdissection, re-amplified the DNA and used it to paint the W. No unpaired bivalents were detected in male synaptonemal complexes at meiotic pachytene, confirming male homogamety. We conclude that P. vitticeps has differentiated previously unidentifable W and Z micro-sex chromosomes, the first to be demonstrated in an agamid lizard. Our finding implies that heterochromatinization of the heterogametic chromosome occurred during sex chromosome differentiation in this species, as is the case in some lizards and many snakes, as well as in birds and mammals. Many GSD reptiles with cryptic sex chromosomes may also prove to have micro-sex chromosomes. Reptile microchromosomes, long dismissed as non-functional minutiae and often omitted from karyotypes, therefore deserve closer scrutiny with new and more sensitive techniques. PMID:16331408

  15. Alternative lengthening of telomeres: recurrent cytogenetic aberrations and chromosome stability under extreme telomere dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

    2013-11-01

    Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth. PMID:24339742

  16. Identification of embryonic chromosomal abnormality using FISH-based preimplantaion genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 徐晨明; 金帆; 钱羽力

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Embryonic chromosomal abnormality is one of the main reasons for in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. This study aimed at evaluating the value of Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (FISH)-based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in screening for embryonic chromosomal abnormality to increase the successful rate of IVF. Method: Ten couples, four with high risk of chromosomal abnormality and six infertile couples, underwent FISH-based PGD during IVF procedure. At day 3, one or two blastomeres were aspirated from each embryo. Biopsied blastomeres were examined using FISH analysis to screen out embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. At day 4, embryos without detectable chromosomal abnormality were transferred to the mother bodies as in regular IVF. Results: Among 54 embryos screened using FISH-based PGD, 30 embryos were detected to have chromosomal abnormalities. The 24 healthy embryos were implanted, resulting in four clinical pregnancies, two of which led to successful normal birth of two healthy babies; one to ongoing pregnancy during the writing of this article; and one to ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: FISH-based PGD is an effective method for detecting embryonic chromosomal abnormality, which is one of the common causes of spontaneous miscarriages and chromosomally unbalanced offsprings.

  17. Loss of pRB causes centromere dysfunction and chromosomal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Amity L; Longworth, Michelle S; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2010-07-01

    Chromosome instability (CIN) is a common feature of tumor cells. By monitoring chromosome segregation, we show that depletion of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) causes rates of missegregation comparable with those seen in CIN tumor cells. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor is frequently inactivated in human cancers and is best known for its regulation of the G1/S-phase transition. Recent studies have shown that pRB inactivation also slows mitotic progression and promotes aneuploidy, but reasons for these phenotypes are not well understood. Here we describe the underlying mitotic defects of pRB-deficient cells that cause chromosome missegregation. Analysis of mitotic cells reveals that pRB depletion compromises centromeric localization of CAP-D3/condensin II and chromosome cohesion, leading to an increase in intercentromeric distance and deformation of centromeric structure. These defects promote merotelic attachment, resulting in failure of chromosome congression and an increased propensity for lagging chromosomes following mitotic delay. While complete loss of centromere function or chromosome cohesion would have catastrophic consequences, these more moderate defects allow pRB-deficient cells to proliferate but undermine the fidelity of mitosis, leading to whole-chromosome gains and losses. These observations explain an important consequence of RB1 inactivation, and suggest that subtle defects in centromere function are a frequent source of merotely and CIN in cancer.

  18. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Sakellariou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines.We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted.We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth.

  19. Identification of embryonic chromosomal abnormality using FISH-based preimplantaion genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 徐晨明; 金帆; 钱羽力

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Embryonic chromosomal abnormality is one of the main reasons for in vitro fertilization (IVF)failure. This study aimed at evaluating the value of Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (FISH)-based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in screening for embryonic chromosomal abnormality to increase the successful rate of IVF. Method:Ten couples, four with high risk of chromosomal abnormality and six infertile couples, underwent FISH-based PGD during IVF procedure. At day 3, one or two blastomeres were aspirated from each embryo. Biopsied blastomeres were examined using FISH analysis to screen out embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. At day 4, embryos without detectable chromosomal abnormality were transferred to the mother bodies as in regular IVF. Results: Among 54 embryos screened using FISH-based PGD, 30 embryos were detected to have chromosomal abnormalities. The 24 healthy embryos were implanted,resulting in four clinical pregnancies, two of which led to successful normal birth of two healthy babies; one to ongoing pregnancy during the writing of this article; and one to ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: FISH-based PGD is an effective method for detecting embryonic chromosomal abnormality, which is one of the common causes of spontaneous miscarriages and chromosomally unbalanced offsprings.

  20. Genomic sharing surrounding alleles identical by descent : Effects of genetic drift and population growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Van der Meulen, M A

    1997-01-01

    The number of identical deleterious mutations present in a population may become very large, depending on the combined effect of genetic drift, population growth and limited negative selection. The distribution of the length of the shared area between two random chromosomes carrying the mutations ha

  1. Comparative Chromosome Map and Heterochromatin Features of the Gray Whale Karyotype (Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Lemskaya, Natalia A; Perelman, Polina L; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Cetacean karyotypes possess exceptionally stable diploid numbers and highly conserved chromosomes. To date, only toothed whales (Odontoceti) have been analyzed by comparative chromosome painting. Here, we studied the karyotype of a representative of baleen whales, the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus, Mysticeti), by Zoo-FISH with dromedary camel and human chromosome-specific probes. We confirmed a high degree of karyotype conservation and found an identical order of syntenic segments in both branches of cetaceans. Yet, whale chromosomes harbor variable heterochromatic regions constituting up to a third of the genome due to the presence of several types of repeats. To investigate the cause of this variability, several classes of repeated DNA sequences were mapped onto chromosomes of whale species from both Mysticeti and Odontoceti. We uncovered extensive intrapopulation variability in the size of heterochromatic blocks present in homologous chromosomes among 3 individuals of the gray whale by 2-step differential chromosome staining. We show that some of the heteromorphisms observed in the gray whale karyotype are due to distinct amplification of a complex of common cetacean repeat and heavy satellite repeat on homologous autosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate localization of the telomeric repeat in the heterochromatin of both gray and pilot whale (Globicephala melas, Odontoceti). Heterochromatic blocks in the pilot whale represent a composite of telomeric and common repeats, while heavy satellite repeat is lacking in the toothed whale consistent with previous studies.

  2. Comparative Chromosome Map and Heterochromatin Features of the Gray Whale Karyotype (Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Lemskaya, Natalia A; Perelman, Polina L; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Cetacean karyotypes possess exceptionally stable diploid numbers and highly conserved chromosomes. To date, only toothed whales (Odontoceti) have been analyzed by comparative chromosome painting. Here, we studied the karyotype of a representative of baleen whales, the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus, Mysticeti), by Zoo-FISH with dromedary camel and human chromosome-specific probes. We confirmed a high degree of karyotype conservation and found an identical order of syntenic segments in both branches of cetaceans. Yet, whale chromosomes harbor variable heterochromatic regions constituting up to a third of the genome due to the presence of several types of repeats. To investigate the cause of this variability, several classes of repeated DNA sequences were mapped onto chromosomes of whale species from both Mysticeti and Odontoceti. We uncovered extensive intrapopulation variability in the size of heterochromatic blocks present in homologous chromosomes among 3 individuals of the gray whale by 2-step differential chromosome staining. We show that some of the heteromorphisms observed in the gray whale karyotype are due to distinct amplification of a complex of common cetacean repeat and heavy satellite repeat on homologous autosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate localization of the telomeric repeat in the heterochromatin of both gray and pilot whale (Globicephala melas, Odontoceti). Heterochromatic blocks in the pilot whale represent a composite of telomeric and common repeats, while heavy satellite repeat is lacking in the toothed whale consistent with previous studies. PMID:27088853

  3. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae ( Teleostei , Characidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko,Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of...

  4. Chromosomal instability in Streptomyces avermitilis: major deletion in the central region and stable circularized chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ying

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chromosome of Streptomyces has been shown to be unstable, frequently undergoing gross chromosomal rearrangements. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, with previous studies focused on two chromosomal ends as targets for rearrangements. Here we investigated chromosomal instability of Streptomyces avermitilis, an important producer of avermectins, and characterized four gross chromosomal rearrangement events, including a major deletion in the central region. The present findings provide a valuable contribution to the mechanistic study of genetic instability in Streptomyces. Results Thirty randomly-selected "bald" mutants derived from the wild-type strain all contained gross chromosomal rearrangements of various types. One of the bald mutants, SA1-8, had the same linear chromosomal structure as the high avermectin-producing mutant 76-9. Chromosomes of both strains displayed at least three independent chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosomal arm replacement to form new 88-kb terminal inverted repeats (TIRs, and two major deletions. One of the deletions eliminated the 36-kb central region of the chromosome, but surprisingly did not affect viability of the cells. The other deletion (74-kb was internal to the right chromosomal arm. The chromosome of another bald mutant, SA1-6, was circularized with deletions at both ends. No obvious homology was found in all fusion sequences. Generational stability analysis showed that the chromosomal structure of SA1-8 and SA1-6 was stable. Conclusions Various chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosomal arm replacement, interstitial deletions and chromosomal circularization, occurred in S. avermitilis by non-homologous recombination. The finding of an inner deletion involving in the central region of S. avermitilis chromosome suggests that the entire Streptomyces chromosome may be the target for rearrangements, which are not limited, as previously

  5. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  6. Genetic variation of goat Y chromosome in the Sardinian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Carta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sardinian goat population is commonly considered a crossbred of autochthonous animals with improved Mediterranean breeds, mainly the Maltese. It has been demonstrated by using autosomal microsatellites that the Sardinian goats can be divided into three subpopulations: Sardinian, crossbred with Maltese, and Maltese. The aim of this study was to evaluate sequence variation at Y chromosome in Sardinian bucks and to integrate autosomal microsatellites data. Blood from 190 bucks from 68 farms spread in the main Sardinian goat farming areas was sampled. Three ECONOGENE project primer pairs plus an additional one corresponding to a total of 7 SNPs were used. For all common SNPs, the most frequent allele corresponded to the ECONOGENE one. The additional analysed SNP showed allelic frequencies similar to the other markers. The comparison with haplotypes based on the 6 common SNPs showed that the Sardinian most frequent haplotype corresponded to the predominant one in Central Europe. Results of this study showed that the Sardinian goat population has 8 haplotypes resulting in a large diversity of paternal lineages. The next step will be linking autosomal information to Y chromosome data. In fact, up to date, it seems unfeasible to detect recent upgrading breeds by using Y chromosome variation only.

  7. Y-chromosome polymorphism: Possible largest Y chromosome in man?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, D.S.K.; Al-Awadi, S.A.; Bastaki, L. [Kuwait Medical Genetics Centre, Sulaibikat (Kuwait)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The role of variations (inversions/deletion or duplication) in the heterochromatin in gonadal development and function, reproductive fitness, and malignant disease has been extensively studied. However, the causal-relationship of large Y (Yqh+) and repeated fetal loss has not been established unequivocally. An Arab couple (?Bedouin origin) with a history of repeated abortions were investigated. Karyotype analysis of the husband showed a very large Y chromosome, confirmed by GTG-, QFQ- and CBG-banding techniques. C-banding showed discontinuous distribution of the heterochromatin blocks separated by pale bands. The origin of the large heterochromatin segment could be due to tandem duplication of the Yq region or translocation (Yq:Yq). No other relatives (males) of the propositus have been available for investigation. Polymorphism of the Y chromosome could be attributed to evolutionary changes from an ancestral type, either by deletion or duplication of the heterochromatin segment. More detailed studies on isolated, aboriginal/tribal human populations will enable us to better understand the significance of the Y chromosome polymorphism.

  8. Novel insights into mitotic chromosome condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskadlo, Ewa; Oliveira, Raquel A.

    2016-01-01

    The fidelity of mitosis is essential for life, and successful completion of this process relies on drastic changes in chromosome organization at the onset of nuclear division. The mechanisms that govern chromosome compaction at every cell division cycle are still far from full comprehension, yet recent studies provide novel insights into this problem, challenging classical views on mitotic chromosome assembly. Here, we briefly introduce various models for chromosome assembly and known factors involved in the condensation process (e.g. condensin complexes and topoisomerase II). We will then focus on a few selected studies that have recently brought novel insights into the mysterious way chromosomes are condensed during nuclear division.

  9. Polymer models of chromosome (re)organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirny, Leonid

    Chromosome Conformation Capture technique (Hi-C) provides comprehensive information about frequencies of spatial interactions between genomic loci. Inferring 3D organization of chromosomes from these data is a challenging biophysical problem. We develop a top-down approach to biophysical modeling of chromosomes. Starting with a minimal set of biologically motivated interactions we build ensembles of polymer conformations that can reproduce major features observed in Hi-C experiments. I will present our work on modeling organization of human metaphase and interphase chromosomes. Our works suggests that active processes of loop extrusion can be a universal mechanism responsible for formation of domains in interphase and chromosome compaction in metaphase.

  10. Chromosome painting of Z and W sex chromosomes in Characidium (Characiformes, Crenuchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazian, Marlon F; Shimabukuro-Dias, Cristiane Kioko; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2013-03-01

    Some species of the genus Characidium have heteromorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes with a totally heterochromatic W chromosome. Methods for chromosome microdissection associated with chromosome painting have become important tools for cytogenetic studies in Neotropical fish. In Characidium cf. fasciatum, the Z chromosome contains a pericentromeric heterochromatin block, whereas the W chromosome is completely heterochromatic. Therefore, a probe was produced from the W chromosome through microdissection and degenerate oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction amplification. FISH was performed using the W probe on the chromosomes of specimens of this species. This revealed expressive marks in the pericentromeric region of the Z chromosome as well as a completely painted W chromosome. When applying the same probe on chromosome preparations of C. cf. gomesi and Characidium sp., a pattern similar to C. cf. fasciatum was found, while C. cf. zebra, C. cf. lagosantense and Crenuchus spilurus species showed no hybridization signals. Structural changes in the chromosomes of an ancestral sexual system in the group that includes the species C. cf. gomesi, C. cf. fasciatum and Characidium sp., could have contributed to the process of speciation and could represent a causal mechanism of chromosomal diversification in this group. The heterochromatinization process possibly began in homomorphic and homologous chromosomes of an ancestral form, and this process could have given rise to the current patterns found in the species with sex chromosome heteromorphism.

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities and hormonal disorders of primary amenorrhea patients in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Faeza El-Dahtory

    2012-01-01

    Background: Primary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation and secondary sexual characteristics in phenotypic women aged 14 years or older. Hormonal disorders are main causes of primary amenorrhea. Common hormonal cause of primary amenorrhea includes pituitary dysfunction and absent ovarian function. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and types of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with primary amenorrhea in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Chromosomal analys...

  12. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. I: Banding Pattern Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Twenty barley (Hordeum vulgare) lines studied had a common basic chromosome banding pattern. Most bands ranged from medium to very small in size. The most conspicuous banding occurred at or near the centromeres, in the proximal, intercalary parts of most chromosome arms and beside the secondary c...... 7. Seventeen differently banded karyotypes were found. Some banding pattern polymorphisms can be used in cytological and cytogenetic studies....

  13. Correlation between missed abortion and insertional translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 7

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Husseiny; Neveen Ashaat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Missed abortion (Silent miscarriage) is defined as intrauterine fetal death before twenty weeks gestation. One of the most common causes of early missed abortions (before 10 weeks gestation) is cytogenetic abnormalities. Objective: To asses if there is a correlation between chromosomal aberrations (especially in chromosome 7) and missed abortion among at least two generations. Materials and Methods: After exclusion of direct causes of missed abortion, this study included 60 women ...

  14. Flow cytometric detection of aberrant chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Yu, L.C.; Langlois, R.

    1983-05-11

    This report describes the quantification of chromosomal aberrations by flow cytometry. Both homogeneously and heterogeneously occurring chromosome aberrations were studied. Homogeneously occurring aberrations were noted in chromosomes isolated from human colon carcinoma (LoVo) cells, stained with Hoechst 33258 and chromomycin A3 and analyzed using dual beam flow cytometry. The resulting bivariate flow karyotype showed a homogeneously occurring marker chromosome of intermediate size. Heterogeneously occurring aberrations were quantified by slit-scan flow cytometry in chromosomes isolated from control and irradiated Chinese hamster cells and stained with propidium iodide. Heterogeneously occurring dicentric chromosomes were detected by their shapes (two centrometers). The frequencies of such chromosomes estimated by slit-scan flow cytometry correlated well with the frequencies determined by visual microscopy.

  15. Dynamics of chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1960’es the conformation and segregation of the chromosome in Escherichia coli has been a subject of interest for many scientists. However, after 40 years of research, we still know incredibly little about how the chromosome is organized inside the cell, how it manages to duplicate...... method enabled us to start the analysis on the distribution of various chromosomal loci inside slowly growing cells. With the actual counting and measuring no longer being any problem we could easily analyze 14 loci distributed on the E.coli chromosome. More than 15.000 cells were analyzed in total...... the new system, which is based on the pMT1 par system from Yersenia pestis, we labeled loci on opposite sides of the E.coli chromosome simultaneously and were able to show that the E.coli chromosome is organized with one chromosomal arm in each cell half. This astounding result is described in Paper III...

  16. Mitosis. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisic, Marin; Silva e Sousa, Ricardo; Tripathy, Suvranta K; Magiera, Maria M; Zaytsev, Anatoly V; Pereira, Ana L; Janke, Carsten; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L; Maiato, Helder

    2015-05-15

    Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells, they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. Centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E)/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle point to the cell cortex, it remains unknown how CENP-E guides pole-proximal chromosomes specifically toward the equator. We found that congression of pole-proximal chromosomes depended on specific posttranslational detyrosination of spindle microtubules that point to the equator. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that CENP-E-dependent transport was strongly enhanced on detyrosinated microtubules. Blocking tubulin tyrosination in cells caused ubiquitous detyrosination of spindle microtubules, and CENP-E transported chromosomes away from spindle poles in random directions. Thus, CENP-E-driven chromosome congression is guided by microtubule detyrosination. PMID:25908662

  17. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  18. Clinical and laboratory features of human herpesvirus 6 chromosomal integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D A

    2016-04-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) comprises two separate viruses, HHV-6A and HHV-6B, although this distinction is not commonly made. HHV-6B is ubiquitous in the population with primary infection usually occurring in early childhood, and often resulting in febrile illness. HHV-6B is also recognized as a pathogen in the immunocompromised host, particularly in transplant recipients. HHV-6A is less well characterized and may have a more restricted prevalence. Both viruses are unique among the human herpesviruses in that the entire viral genome can be found integrated into the telomeric regions of host cell chromosomes. Approximately 1% of persons have inherited integrated viral sequences through the germline, and these individuals characteristically have very high viral loads in blood and other sample types. Emerging evidence suggests that HHV-6A and HHV-6B chromosomal integration may not just be an uncommon biological observation, but more likely a characteristic of the replication properties of these viruses. The integrated viral genome appears capable of excision from the chromosomal site and potentially allows viral replication. The clinical consequences of inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 have yet to be fully appreciated. PMID:26802216

  19. Chromosomal instability determines taxane response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanton, C.; Nicke, B.; Schuett, M.;

    2009-01-01

    -positive breast cancer and occurs frequently in basal-like and Her2-positive cases. In diploid cells, but not in chromosomally unstable cells, paclitaxel causes repression of CIN-survival genes, followed by cell death. In the OV01 ovarian cancer clinical trial, a high level of CIN was associated with taxane...... chromosomal instability (CIN). Silencing 22/50 of these genes, many of which are involved in DNA repair, caused cancer cell death, suggesting that these genes are involved in the survival of aneuploid cells. Overexpression of these "CIN-survival'' genes is associated with poor outcome in estrogen receptor...... resistance but carboplatin sensitivity, indicating that CIN may determine MTS response in vivo. Thus, pretherapeutic assessment of CIN may optimize treatment stratification and clinical trial design using these agents....

  20. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. However, plant chromosome painting is relatively underdeveloped. In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and chromosomes of...