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Sample records for chromosome 22q11 duplication

  1. Search for copy number variants in chromosomes 15q11-q13 and 22q11.2 in obsessive compulsive disorder

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    Grabe Hans

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous syndrome. The high frequency of obsessive-compulsive symptoms reported in subjects with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome or Prader-Willi syndrome (15q11-13 deletion of the paternally derived chromosome, suggests that gene dosage effects in these chromosomal regions could increase risk for OCD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to search for microrearrangements in these two regions in OCD patients. Methods We screened the 15q11-13 and 22q11.2 chromosomal regions for genomic imbalances in 236 patients with OCD using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. Results No deletions or duplications involving 15q11-13 or 22q11.2 were identified in our patients. Conclusions Our results suggest that deletions/duplications of chromosomes 15q11-13 and 22q11.2 are rare in OCD. Despite the negative findings in these two regions, the search for copy number variants in OCD using genome-wide array-based methods is a highly promising approach to identify genes of etiologic importance in the development of OCD.

  2. Nested Inversion Polymorphisms Predispose Chromosome 22q11.2 to Meiotic Rearrangements.

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    Demaerel, Wolfram; Hestand, Matthew S; Vergaelen, Elfi; Swillen, Ann; López-Sánchez, Marcos; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S; Morrow, Bernice E; Breckpot, Jeroen; Devriendt, Koenraad; Vermeesch, Joris R

    2017-10-05

    Inversion polymorphisms between low-copy repeats (LCRs) might predispose chromosomes to meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events and thus lead to genomic disorders. However, for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common genomic disorder, no such inversions have been uncovered as of yet. Using fiber-FISH, we demonstrate that parents transmitting the de novo 3 Mb LCR22A-D 22q11.2 deletion, the reciprocal duplication, and the smaller 1.5 Mb LCR22A-B 22q11.2 deletion carry inversions of LCR22B-D or LCR22C-D. Hence, the inversions predispose chromosome 22q11.2 to meiotic rearrangements and increase the individual risk for transmitting rearrangements. Interestingly, the inversions are nested or flanking rather than coinciding with the deletion or duplication sizes. This finding raises the possibility that inversions are a prerequisite not only for 22q11.2 rearrangements but also for all NAHR-mediated genomic disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A patient with de-novo partial deletion of Xp (p11.4-pter) and partial duplication of 22q (q11.2-qter).

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    Armour, Christine M; McGowan-Jordan, Jean; Lawrence, Sarah E; Bouchard, Amélie; Basik, Mark; Allanson, Judith E

    2008-01-01

    We report on a girl with partial deletion of Xp and partial duplication of 22q. Family studies demonstrate that both the patient's mother and her nonidentical twin sister carry the corresponding balanced translocation; 46,X,t(X;22)(p11.4;q11.2). This girl has developmental delay, microcephaly, mild dysmorphisms and hearing loss but otherwise shows few of the features described in individuals with duplications of the long arm of chromosome 22. She does manifest characteristics, such as short stature and biochemical evidence of ovarian failure, which are seen in partial or complete Xp deletions and Turner's syndrome.

  4. Characterization of the past and current duplication activities in the human 22q11.2 region

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    Morrow Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmental duplications (SDs on 22q11.2 (LCR22, serve as substrates for meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR events resulting in several clinically significant genomic disorders. Results To understand the duplication activity leading to the complicated SD structure of this region, we have applied the A-Bruijn graph algorithm to decompose the 22q11.2 SDs to 523 fundamental duplication sequences, termed subunits. Cross-species syntenic analysis of primate genomes demonstrates that many of these LCR22 subunits emerged very recently, especially those implicated in human genomic disorders. Some subunits have expanded more actively than others, and young Alu SINEs, are associated much more frequently with duplicated sequences that have undergone active expansion, confirming their role in mediating recombination events. Many copy number variations (CNVs exist on 22q11.2, some flanked by SDs. Interestingly, two chromosome breakpoints for 13 CNVs (mean length 65 kb are located in paralogous subunits, providing direct evidence that SD subunits could contribute to CNV formation. Sequence analysis of PACs or BACs identified extra CNVs, specifically, 10 insertions and 18 deletions within 22q11.2; four were more than 10 kb in size and most contained young AluYs at their breakpoints. Conclusions Our study indicates that AluYs are implicated in the past and current duplication events, and moreover suggests that DNA rearrangements in 22q11.2 genomic disorders perhaps do not occur randomly but involve both actively expanded duplication subunits and Alu elements.

  5. Constitutional chromosomal events at 22q11 and 15q26 in a child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord.

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    Mascelli, Samantha; Severino, Mariasavina; Raso, Alessandro; Nozza, Paolo; Tassano, Elisa; Morana, Giovanni; De Marco, Patrizia; Merello, Elisa; Milanaccio, Claudia; Pavanello, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Cama, Armando; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Capra, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    We report on a 9-years-old patient with mild intellectual disability, facial dimorphisms, bilateral semicircular canal dysplasia, periventricular nodular heterotopias, bilateral hippocampal malrotation and abnormal cerebellar foliation, who developed mild motor impairment and gait disorder due to a pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord. Array-CGH analysis revealed two paternal inherited chromosomal events: a 484.3 Kb duplication on chromosome 15q26.3 and a 247 Kb deletion on 22q11.23. Further, a second de novo 1.5 Mb deletion on 22q11.21 occurred. Chromosome 22 at q11.2 and chromosome 15 at q24q26 are considered unstable regions subjected to copy number variations, i.e. structural alterations of genome, mediated by low copy repeat sequences or segmental duplications. The link between some structural CNVs, which compromise fundamental processes controlling DNA stability, and genomic disorders suggest a plausible scenario for cancer predisposition. Evaluation of the genes at the breakpoints cannot account simultaneously for the phenotype and tumour development in this patient. The two paternal inherited CNVs arguably are not pathogenic and do not contribute to the clinical manifestations. Similarly, although the de novo large deletion at 22q11.21 overlaps with the Di George (DGS) critical region and results in haploinsufficiency of genes compromising critical processes for DNA stability, this case lacks several hallmarks of DGS.

  6. A Rare Interstitial Duplication of 8q22.1–8q24.3 Associated with Syndromic Bilateral Cleft Lip/Palate

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    Regina Ferreira Rezek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of 8q interstitial duplication derived from maternal balanced translocations in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate in syndromic form associated with other congenital malformations. G-banding cytogenetic analysis revealed a chromosomal abnormality in the form of the karyotype 46,XX der(22t(8;22(q22.1;p11.1mat. Chromosome microarray analysis evidenced a 49 Mb duplicated segment of chromosome 8q with no pathogenic imbalances on chromosome 22. Two siblings also carry the balanced translocation. We have compared this case with other “pure” trisomies of 8q patients reported in the literature and with genome wide association studies recently published. This work highlights the involvement of chromosome 8q in orofacial clefts.

  7. Reciprocal duplication of the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion on chromosome 7q11.23 is associated with schizophrenia.

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    Mulle, Jennifer Gladys; Pulver, Ann E; McGrath, John A; Wolyniec, Paula S; Dodd, Anne F; Cutler, David J; Sebat, Jonathan; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Nestadt, Gerald; Conrad, Donald F; Hurles, Matthew; Barnes, Chris P; Ikeda, Masashi; Iwata, Nakao; Levinson, Douglas F; Gejman, Pablo V; Sanders, Alan R; Duan, Jubao; Mitchell, Adele A; Peter, Inga; Sklar, Pamela; O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Grozeva, Detelina; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Hultman, Christina M; Kähler, Anna K; Sullivan, Patrick F; Kirov, George; Warren, Stephen T

    2014-03-01

    Several copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated as susceptibility factors for schizophrenia (SZ). Some of these same CNVs also increase risk for autism spectrum disorders, suggesting an etiologic overlap between these conditions. Recently, de novo duplications of a region on chromosome 7q11.23 were associated with autism spectrum disorders. The reciprocal deletion of this region causes Williams-Beuren syndrome. We assayed an Ashkenazi Jewish cohort of 554 SZ cases and 1014 controls for genome-wide CNV. An excess of large rare and de novo CNVs were observed, including a 1.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 7q11.23 identified in two unrelated patients. To test whether this 7q11.23 duplication is also associated with SZ, we obtained data for 14,387 SZ cases and 28,139 controls from seven additional studies with high-resolution genome-wide CNV detection. We performed a meta-analysis, correcting for study population of origin, to assess whether the duplication is associated with SZ. We found duplications at 7q11.23 in 11 of 14,387 SZ cases with only 1 in 28,139 control subjects (unadjusted odds ratio 21.52, 95% confidence interval: 3.13-922.6, p value 5.5 × 10(-5); adjusted odds ratio 10.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-79.62, p value .007). Of three SZ duplication carriers with detailed retrospective data, all showed social anxiety and language delay premorbid to SZ onset, consistent with both human studies and animal models of the 7q11.23 duplication. We have identified a new CNV associated with SZ. Reciprocal duplication of the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion at chromosome 7q11.23 confers an approximately tenfold increase in risk for SZ. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Delineation of a new chromosome 20q11.2 duplication syndrome including the ASXL1 gene

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    Avila, Magali; Kirchhoff, Eva Maria; Marle, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    We report on three males with de novo overlapping 7.5, 9.8, and 10 Mb duplication of chromosome 20q11.2. Together with another patient previously published in the literature with overlapping 20q11 microduplication, we show that such patients display common clinical features including metopic ridg...

  9. A 1.37-Mb 12p11.22–p11.21 deletion coincident with a 367-kb 22q11.2 duplication detected by array comparative genomic hybridization in an adolescent girl with autism and difficulty in self-care of menstruation

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    Chih-Ping Chen

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: An apparently balanced translocation may be in fact affected by concurrent deletion and duplication in two different chromosomal regions. Our presentation provides information on diagnostic phenotype of 12p11.22–p11.21 microdeletion and 22q11.2 microduplication.

  10. Mapping 22q11.2 Gene Dosage Effects on Brain Morphometry.

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    Lin, Amy; Ching, Christopher R K; Vajdi, Ariana; Sun, Daqiang; Jonas, Rachel K; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Kushan-Wells, Leila; Pacheco Hansen, Laura; Krikorian, Emma; Gutman, Boris; Dokoru, Deepika; Helleman, Gerhard; Thompson, Paul M; Bearden, Carrie E

    2017-06-28

    Reciprocal chromosomal rearrangements at the 22q11.2 locus are associated with elevated risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. The 22q11.2 deletion confers the highest known genetic risk for schizophrenia, but a duplication in the same region is strongly associated with autism and is less common in schizophrenia cases than in the general population. Here we conducted the first study of 22q11.2 gene dosage effects on brain structure in a sample of 143 human subjects: 66 with 22q11.2 deletions (22q-del; 32 males), 21 with 22q11.2 duplications (22q-dup; 14 males), and 56 age- and sex-matched controls (31 males). 22q11.2 gene dosage varied positively with intracranial volume, gray and white matter volume, and cortical surface area (deletion control > duplication). Widespread differences were observed for cortical surface area with more localized effects on cortical thickness. These diametric patterns extended into subcortical regions: 22q-dup carriers had a significantly larger right hippocampus, on average, but lower right caudate and corpus callosum volume, relative to 22q-del carriers. Novel subcortical shape analysis revealed greater radial distance (thickness) of the right amygdala and left thalamus, and localized increases and decreases in subregions of the caudate, putamen, and hippocampus in 22q-dup relative to 22q-del carriers. This study provides the first evidence that 22q11.2 is a genomic region associated with gene-dose-dependent brain phenotypes. Pervasive effects on cortical surface area imply that this copy number variant affects brain structure early in the course of development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Probing naturally occurring reciprocal copy number variation in the genome may help us understand mechanisms underlying deviations from typical brain and cognitive development. The 22q11.2 genomic region is particularly susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements and contains many genes crucial for neuronal development and migration. Not surprisingly

  11. Molecular Mechanisms and Diagnosis of Chromosome 22q11.2 Rearrangements

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    Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2008-01-01

    Several recurrent, constitutional genomic disorders are present on chromosome 22q. These include the translocations and deletions associated with DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndrome and the translocations that give rise to the recurrent t(11;22) supernumerary der(22) syndrome (Emanuel syndrome). The rearrangement breakpoints on 22q cluster…

  12. Cryptorchidism due to chromosome 5q inversion duplication.

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    Dutta, M K; Gundgurthi, A; Garg, M K; Pakhetr, R

    2013-12-01

    We present a 15 year old boy who was born out of a non consanguineous marriage, and presented with bilateral cryptorchidism, mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism with failure of anatomical and biochemical localisation of testes. Karyotype analysis showed 46 XY with inverted duplication on chromosome 5q22-31.

  13. Duplication of C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C in an obese female with a t(7;22)(q32.1;q11.2) chromosomal translocation and clinical features resembling Coffin-Siris Syndrome.

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    Zhu, Jun; Qiu, Jun; Magrane, Gregg; Abedalthagafi, Malak; Zanko, Andrea; Golabi, Mahin; Chehab, Farid F

    2012-01-01

    We characterized the t(7;22)(q32;q11.2) chromosomal translocation in an obese female with coarse features, short stature, developmental delay and a hypoplastic fifth digit. While these clinical features suggest Coffin-Siris Syndrome (CSS), we excluded a CSS diagnosis by exome sequencing based on the absence of deleterious mutations in six chromatin-remodeling genes recently shown to cause CSS. Thus, molecular characterization of her translocation could delineate genes that underlie other syndromes resembling CSS. Comparative genomic hybridization microarrays revealed on chromosome 7 the duplication of a 434,682 bp region that included the tail end of an uncharacterized gene termed C7orf58 (also called CPED1) and spanned the entire WNT16 and FAM3C genes. Because the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 22 did not disrupt any apparent gene, her disorder was deemed to result from the rearrangement on chromosome 7. Mapping of yeast and bacterial artificial chromosome clones by fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosome spreads from this patient showed that the duplicated region and all three genes within it were located on both derivative chromosomes 7 and 22. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of exons and splice junctional regions from C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C revealed the presence of potential splice site and promoter mutations, thereby augmenting the detrimental effect of the duplicated genes. Hence, dysregulation and/or disruptions of C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C underlie the phenotype of this patient, serve as candidate genes for other individuals with similar clinical features and could provide insights into the physiological role of the novel gene C7orf58.

  14. Duplication of C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C in an obese female with a t(7;22(q32.1;q11.2 chromosomal translocation and clinical features resembling Coffin-Siris Syndrome.

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    Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available We characterized the t(7;22(q32;q11.2 chromosomal translocation in an obese female with coarse features, short stature, developmental delay and a hypoplastic fifth digit. While these clinical features suggest Coffin-Siris Syndrome (CSS, we excluded a CSS diagnosis by exome sequencing based on the absence of deleterious mutations in six chromatin-remodeling genes recently shown to cause CSS. Thus, molecular characterization of her translocation could delineate genes that underlie other syndromes resembling CSS. Comparative genomic hybridization microarrays revealed on chromosome 7 the duplication of a 434,682 bp region that included the tail end of an uncharacterized gene termed C7orf58 (also called CPED1 and spanned the entire WNT16 and FAM3C genes. Because the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 22 did not disrupt any apparent gene, her disorder was deemed to result from the rearrangement on chromosome 7. Mapping of yeast and bacterial artificial chromosome clones by fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosome spreads from this patient showed that the duplicated region and all three genes within it were located on both derivative chromosomes 7 and 22. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of exons and splice junctional regions from C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C revealed the presence of potential splice site and promoter mutations, thereby augmenting the detrimental effect of the duplicated genes. Hence, dysregulation and/or disruptions of C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C underlie the phenotype of this patient, serve as candidate genes for other individuals with similar clinical features and could provide insights into the physiological role of the novel gene C7orf58.

  15. Nested Inversion Polymorphisms Predispose Chromosome 22q11.2 to Meiotic Rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demaerel, Wolfram; Hestand, Matthew S.; Vergaelen, Elfi; Swillen, Ann; López-Sánchez, Marcos; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; McDonald-Mcginn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Breckpot, Jeroen; Devriendt, Koenraad; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Arango, Celso; Armando, Marco; Bassett, Anne S.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Boot, Erik; Bravo-Sanchez, Marta; Breetvelt, Elemi; Busa, Tiffany; Butcher, Nancy J.; Campbell, Linda E.; Carmel, Miri; Chow, Eva W C; Crowley, T. Blaine; Cubells, Joseph; Cutler, David; Demaerel, Wolfram; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Duijff, Sasja; Eliez, Stephan; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Epstein, Michael P.; Evers, Rens; Fernandez Garcia-Moya, Luis; Fiksinski, Ania; Fraguas, David; Fremont, Wanda; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Golden, Aaron; Gothelf, Doron; Guo, Tingwei; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.; Heine-Suner, Damian; Hestand, Matthew; Hooper, Stephen R.; Kates, Wendy R.; Kushan, Leila; Laorden-Nieto, Alejandra; Maeder, Johanna; Marino, Bruno; Marshall, Christian R.; McCabe, Kathryn; McDonald-Mcginn, Donna M.; Michaelovosky, Elena; Morrow, Bernice E.; Moss, Edward; Mulle, Jennifer; Murphy, Declan; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Niarchou, Maria; Ornstein, Claudia; Owen, Michael J; Philip, Nicole; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Schneider, Maude; Shashi, Vandana; Simon, Tony J.; Swillen, Ann; Tassone, Flora; Unolt, Marta; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; van den Bree, Marianne B M; Van Duin, Esther; Vergaelen, Elfi; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Vicari, Stefano; Vingerhoets, Claudia; Vorstman, Jacob; Warren, Steve; Weinberger, Ronnie; Weisman, Omri; Weizman, Abraham; Zackai, Elaine; Zhang, Zhengdong; Zwick, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Inversion polymorphisms between low-copy repeats (LCRs) might predispose chromosomes to meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events and thus lead to genomic disorders. However, for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common genomic disorder, no such inversions have

  16. Early onset intellectual disability in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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    Cascella, Marco; Muzio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, or DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome, is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. This syndrome is commonly caused by a microdelection from chromosome 22 at band q11.2. Although this genetic disorder may reflect several clinical abnormalities and different degrees of organ commitment, the clinical features that have driven the greatest amount of attention are behavioral and developmental features, because individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have a 30-fold risk of developing schizophrenia. There are differing opinions about the cognitive development, and commonly a cognitive decline rather than an early onset intellectual disability has been observed. We report a case of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with both early assessment of mild intellectual disabilities and tetralogy of Fallot as the only physic manifestation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. No significant effect of monosomy for distal 21q22. 3 on the Down syndrom phenotype in mirror' duplications of chromosome 21

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    Pangalos, C.; Prieur, M.; Rethore, M.O.; Lejeune, J. (Institut de Progenese, Paris (France)); Theophile, D.; Sinet, P.M.; Chettouh, Z.; Delabar, J.M. (Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris (France)); Marks, A. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Stamboulieh-Abazis, D. (Diagnostic Genetic Center, Athens (Greece)); Verellen, C. (Centre de Genetique Humaine, Brussels (Belgium))

    1992-12-01

    Three Down syndrome patients for whom karyotypic analysis showed a mirror' (reverse tandem) duplication of chromosome 21 were studied by phenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular methods. On high-resolution R-banding analysis performed in two cases, the size of the fusion 21q22.3 band was apparently less than twice the size of the normal 21q22.3, suggesting a partial deletion of distal 21q. The evaluation of eight chromosome 21 single-copy sequences of the 21q22 region - namely, SOD1, D21S15, D21S42, CRYA1, PFKL, CD18, COL6A1, and S100B - by a slot blot method showed in all three cases a partial deletion of 21q22.3 and partial monosomy. The translocation breakpoints were different in each patient, and in two cases the rearranged chromosome was found to be asymmetrical. The molecular definition of the monosomy 21 in each patient was, respectively, COL6A1-S100B, CD18-S100B, and PFKL-S100B. DNA polymorphism analysis indicated in all cases a homozygosity of the duplicated material. The duplicated region was maternal in two patients and paternal in one patient. These data suggest that the reverse tandem chromosomes did not result from a telomeric fusion between chromosomes 21 but from a translocation between sister chromatids. The phenotypes of these patients did not differ significantly from that of individuals with full trisomy 21, except in one case with large ears with an unfolded helix. The fact that monosomy of distal 21q22.3 in these patients resulted in a phenotype very similar to Down syndrome suggests that the duplication of the genes located in this part of chromosome 21 is not necessary for the pathogenesis of the Down syndrome features observed in these patients, including most of the facial and hand features, muscular hypotonia, cardiopathy of the Fallot tetralogy type, and part of the mental retardation. 54 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A new case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with an 11p15 duplication of paternal origin [46,XY,-21,+der(21), t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)pat].

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    Krajewska-Walasek, M; Gutkowska, A; Mospinek-Krasnopolska, M; Chrzanowska, K

    1996-01-01

    We present a new case of 11p15 duplication (trisomy 11p15) in a boy (46,XY,-21,+der(21), t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)] suffering from Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), whose phenotypically normal father carries a balanced translocation between chromosomes 11 and 21[46,XY, t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)]. The paternal grandmother has the same balanced translocation and is also clinically normal. BWS was suspected when the boy was 6 months old because of gigantism, macroglossia, visceromegaly, ear lobe creases and abdominal distention. Apart from the characteristic BWS phenotype, the boy has other features which are almost exclusively observed in 11p trisomy (high forehead with frontal upsweep of hair, wide central nose bridge, slightly beaked nose, chubby cheeks and severe mental retardation). So far, at least eight cases of 11p15 duplication have been described as patients with BWS. In six of these, the duplication was due to inheritance of a translocated or rearranged paternal chromosome. This was also the case in our patient. In the two other previously published cases, the 11p15 duplications were de novo, but in one of these, DNA analysis has subsequently shown that the duplication was of paternal origin. We discuss our observations in relation to the above-mentioned previous cases of 11p15 duplication and the possible role of genomic imprinting in the etiology of BWS.

  19. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders Among Individuals With the 22q11.2 Deletion or Duplication

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    Hoeffding, Louise K; Trabjerg, Betina B; Olsen, Line

    2017-01-01

    ) age at diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder was 12.5 (8.3) years for individuals with deletions and 6.1 (0.9) years for duplication carriers. A parental diagnosis of schizophrenia-but not of other psychiatric diagnoses-was associated with a 22q11.2 deletion, and parental psychiatric diagnoses other.......2 deletion or duplicationwas performed. A total of 3 768 943 individuals born in Denmark from 1955 to 2012 were followed up during the study period (total follow-up, 57.1 million person-years). Indicators of 22q11.2 deletion or duplication and cumulative incidenceswere estimated using a nested case...

  20. Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory

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    Wong, Ling M.; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with…

  1. Restriction of the Patau syndrome to duplication of 13q22{yields}q.32 and possible role of interphase nuclear structure

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    Helali, A.N.; Jafolla, A.K.; Oumsiych, M.B. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A 10-year-old white male presented with mild microcephaly, slight growth and psychomotor retardation, soft fleshy ears, and normal facial features except for thin lips. No other significant anomalies were reported except for tethered cord discovered at age 8 years. The karyotype was found to be 46,XY,der(18)t(13;18)(q32;p11.32)pat. The mild phenotype appears to be primarily due to the duplication of 13q32{yields}qter. None of the cardinal features of trisomy 13 are found in cases of duplication of bands 13q22 to qter. This case shows that Patau syndrome phenotype does not originate by duplication of 13q32{yields}qter and may thus be restricted to 13q22 to 13q32. The variability in phenotypes points to an alternative explanation to the classical one of additive and interactive gene effects. This model involves effects of changes in chromosome position in the interphase nucleus on gene expression.

  2. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion in fetuses with congenital heart defects.

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    Lv, Wei; Wang, Shuyu

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion are implicated in congenital heart defects (CHDs). This study was designed to detect these abnormalities in fetuses and determine the effect of genetic factors on CHD etiology. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 113 fetuses with CHD treated at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were investigated, using chromosome karyotyping of either amniotic fluid cell or umbilical cord blood cell samples. Fetuses with a normal result were then investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of the 113 patients, 12 (10.6%) exhibited chromosomal abnormalities, while 6 (5.3%) of the remaining 101 cases presented with a 22q11 microdeletion. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly higher in the group of fetuses presenting with extracardiac malformations in addition to CHD (Pheart defects should also be considered for 22q11 microdeletion detection to evaluate fetal prognosis, particularly prior to surgery.

  3. Chromosome 22q11 in a Xhosa schizophrenia population | Koen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosome 22q11 aberrations substantially increase the risk for developing schizophrenia. Although micro-deletions in this region have been extensively investigated in different populations across the world, little is known of their prevalence in African subjects with schizophrenia. We screened 110 African ...

  4. A rare balanced nonrobertsonian translocation involving acrocentric chromosomes: Chromosome abnormality of t(13;15(p11.2;q22.1

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    Dalvi Rupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Balanced non-robertsonian translocation (RT, involving acrocentric chromosomes, is a rare event and only a few cases are reported. Most of the RTs are balanced involving acrocentric chromosomes with the breakpoints (q10;q10. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chromosome analysis was performed as per standard procedure – Giemsa-trypsin banding with 500 band resolution was analyzed for chromosome identification. RESULTS: In the present study, we report a rare balanced non-RTs involving chromosomes 13 and 15 with cytogenetic finding of 46, XX, t(13;15(p11.2;q22.1. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report of an unusual non-RT of t(13:15 with (p11.2;q22.1 break points.

  5. Anterior pituitary failure (panhypopituitarism) with balanced chromosome translocation 46,XY,t(11;22)(q24;q13).

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    Yang, C Y; Chou, C W; Chen, S Y; Cheng, H M

    2001-04-01

    Hypopituitarism is the clinical syndrome that results from failure of the anterior pituitary gland to produce its hormones. Hypopituitarism can result from: (1) intrinsic or primary pituitary disease; (2) intrinsic hypothalamic or secondary pituitary disease; or (3) extrinsic extrasellar or parasellar disease. The etiologies of primary hypopituitarism are miscellaneous. The dominant clinical picture of hypopituitarism in the adult is that of hypogonadism. Reports have associated hypopituitarism with anti-pituitary-antibodies, hereditary syndrome and chromosome defects, but hypopituitarism has rarely been associated with balanced chromosome translocation (11;22)(q24;q13). Here, we describe a case of anterior pituitary failure with balanced chromosome translocation. A 19-year-old Chinese teenager presented with failure of pubertal development and sexual infantilism. On examination, the patient had the classic appearance of hypogonadism. Endocrine studies and three combined pituitary function tests revealed panhypopituitarism. A chromosomal study revealed 46,XY,t(11;22)(q24;q13), a balanced translocation between 11q24 and 22q13. Chest films showed delayed fusion of bilateral humeral head epiphyses and bilateral acromions. Scrotal sonography revealed testes were small bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sella revealed pituitary dwarfism. The patient received 19 months replacement therapy, including steroids (prednisolone 5 mg each day), L-thyroxine (Eltroxin 100 ug each day), and testosterone enanthate 250 mg every two weeks. His height increased 4 cm with secondary sexual characteristics developed, and muscle power increased.

  6. Constitutional 11q14-q22 chromosome deletion syndrome in a child with neuroblastoma MYCN single copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passariello, Annalisa; De Brasi, Daniele; Defferrari, Raffaella; Genesio, Rita; Tufano, Maria; Mazzocco, Katia; Capasso, Maria; Migliorati, Roberta; Martinsson, Tommy; Siani, Paolo; Nitsch, Lucio; Tonini, Gian Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Constitutional 11q deletion is a chromosome imbalance possibly found in MCA/MR patients analyzed for chromosomal anomalies. Its role in determining the phenotype depends on extension and position of deleted region. Loss of heterozygosity of 11q (region 11q23) is also associated with neuroblastoma, the most frequent extra cranial cancer in children. It represents one of the most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities observed in the tumor of patients with high-risk disease even if germline deletion of 11q in neuroblastoma is rare. Hereby, we describe a 18 months old girl presenting with trigonocephaly and dysmorphic facial features, including hypotelorism, broad depressed nasal bridge, micrognathia, synophrys, epicanthal folds, and with a stage 4 neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification, carrying a germline 11q deletion (11q14.1-q22.3), outside from Jacobsen syndrome and from neuroblastoma 11q critical regions. The role of 11q deletion in determining the clinical phenotype and its association with neuroblastoma development in the patient are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Tetralogy of Fallot associated with deletion in the DiGeorge region of chromosome 22 (22q11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Angelo, J.A.; Pillers, D.M.; Jett, P.L. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ. Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Cardiac conotruncal defects, such as Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), are associated with DiGeorge syndrome which has been mapped to the q11 region of chromosome 22 and includes abnormalities of neural crest and branchial arch development. Patients with conotruncal defects and velo-cardio-facial syndrome may have defects in the 22q11 region but not show the complete DiGeorge phenotype consisting of cardiac, thymus, and parathyroid abnormalities. We report two neonates with TOF and small deletions in the DiGeorge region of chromosome 22 (46,XX,del(22)(q11.21q11.23) and 46,XY,del(22)(q11.2q11.2)) using both high-resolution cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The first patient is a female with TOF and a family history of congenital heart disease. The mother has pulmonic stenosis and a right-sided aortic arch, one brother has TOF, and a second brother has a large VSD. The patient had intrauterine growth retardation and had thrombocytopenia due to maternal IgG platelet-directed autoantibody. Lymphocyte populations, both T and B cells, were reduced in number but responded normally to stimulation. The findings were not attributed to a DiGeorge phenotype. Although she had transient neonatal hypocalcemia, her parathyroid hormone level was normal. The patient was not dysmorphic in the newborn period but her mother had features consistent with velo-cardio-facial syndrome. The second patient was a male with TOF who was not dysmorphic and had no other significant clinical findings and no family history of heart disease. Lymphocyte testing did not reveal a specific immunodeficiency. No significant postnatal hypocalcemia was noted. These cases illustrate that there is a wide spectrum of clinical features associated with defects of the 22q11 region. We recommend karyotype analysis, including FISH probes specific to the DiGeorge region, in any patient with conotruncal cardiac defects.

  8. Parental Origin of Interstitial Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 in Schizophrenia and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Isles

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 overlapping the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS region have been associated with developmental delay (DD, autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ. Due to presence of imprinted genes within the region, the parental origin of these duplications may be key to the pathogenicity. Duplications of maternal origin are associated with disease, whereas the pathogenicity of paternal ones is unclear. To clarify the role of maternal and paternal duplications, we conducted the largest and most detailed study to date of parental origin of 15q11.2-q13.3 interstitial duplications in DD, ASD and SZ cohorts. We show, for the first time, that paternal duplications lead to an increased risk of developing DD/ASD/multiple congenital anomalies (MCA, but do not appear to increase risk for SZ. The importance of the epigenetic status of 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications was further underlined by analysis of a number of families, in which the duplication was paternally derived in the mother, who was unaffected, whereas her offspring, who inherited a maternally derived duplication, suffered from psychotic illness. Interestingly, the most consistent clinical characteristics of SZ patients with 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications were learning or developmental problems, found in 76% of carriers. Despite their lower pathogenicity, paternal duplications are less frequent in the general population with a general population prevalence of 0.0033% compared to 0.0069% for maternal duplications. This may be due to lower fecundity of male carriers and differential survival of embryos, something echoed in the findings that both types of duplications are de novo in just over 50% of cases. Isodicentric chromosome 15 (idic15 or interstitial triplications were not observed in SZ patients or in controls. Overall, this study refines the distinct roles of maternal and paternal interstitial duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3, underlining the critical importance of

  9. Parental Origin of Interstitial Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 in Schizophrenia and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isles, Anthony R.; Ingason, Andrés; Lowther, Chelsea; Gawlick, Micha; Stöber, Gerald; Potter, Harry; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Pizzo, Lucilla; Ozaki, Norio; Kushima, Itaru; Ikeda, Masashi; Iwata, Nakao; Levinson, Douglas F.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Sanders, Alan R.; Duan, Jubao; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Costain, Gregory; Degenhardt, Franziska; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan; Hreidarsson, Stefan J.; Saemundsen, Evald; Ahn, Joo Wook; Ogilvie, Caroline; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Owen, Michael J.; Bassett, Anne; Kirov, George

    2016-01-01

    Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 overlapping the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region have been associated with developmental delay (DD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Due to presence of imprinted genes within the region, the parental origin of these duplications may be key to the pathogenicity. Duplications of maternal origin are associated with disease, whereas the pathogenicity of paternal ones is unclear. To clarify the role of maternal and paternal duplications, we conducted the largest and most detailed study to date of parental origin of 15q11.2-q13.3 interstitial duplications in DD, ASD and SZ cohorts. We show, for the first time, that paternal duplications lead to an increased risk of developing DD/ASD/multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), but do not appear to increase risk for SZ. The importance of the epigenetic status of 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications was further underlined by analysis of a number of families, in which the duplication was paternally derived in the mother, who was unaffected, whereas her offspring, who inherited a maternally derived duplication, suffered from psychotic illness. Interestingly, the most consistent clinical characteristics of SZ patients with 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications were learning or developmental problems, found in 76% of carriers. Despite their lower pathogenicity, paternal duplications are less frequent in the general population with a general population prevalence of 0.0033% compared to 0.0069% for maternal duplications. This may be due to lower fecundity of male carriers and differential survival of embryos, something echoed in the findings that both types of duplications are de novo in just over 50% of cases. Isodicentric chromosome 15 (idic15) or interstitial triplications were not observed in SZ patients or in controls. Overall, this study refines the distinct roles of maternal and paternal interstitial duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3, underlining the critical importance of maternally

  10. A 1.37-Mb 12p11.22-p11.21 deletion coincident with a 367-kb 22q11.2 duplication detected by array comparative genomic hybridization in an adolescent girl with autism and difficulty in self-care of menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Lee, Chen-Chi; Wang, Wayseen

    2014-03-01

    To present an array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) characterization of a 12p11.22-p11.21 microdeletion and 22q11.2 microduplication in an adolescent girl with autism, mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, behavior problems, and an apparently balanced reciprocal translocation of t(8;12)(q24.3;p11.2). A 13-year-old girl was referred to the hospital because of autism, mental retardation, and difficulty in the self-care of her menstruation. Cytogenetic analysis revealed an apparently balanced reciprocal translocation and a karyotype of 46,XX,t(8;12) (q24.3;p11.2)dn. The girl manifested microcephaly, hypertelorism, flat facial profile, prominent forehead, thick scalp hair, upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal bridge, bulbous nose, right simian crease, bilateral clinodactyly of the fifth fingers, bilateral pes cavus, learning difficulties, mental retardation, emotional instability, cognitive impairment, behavior problems, jumping-like gaits, and autistic spectrum disorder. aCGH was performed to evaluate genomic imbalance in this patient. aCGH analysis revealed a 1.37-Mb 12p11.22-p11.21 microdeletion or arr [hg 19] 12p11.22-p11.21 (30,645,008-32,014,774)×1 and a 367-kb 22q11.21 microduplication or arr [hg 19] 22q11.21 (18,657,470-19,024,306)×3. The 1.37-Mb 12p11.22-p11.21 microdeletion encompassed 26 genes including IPO8, CAPRIN2, and DDX11, and the 367-kb 22q11.21 microduplication encompassed 20 genes including USP18, DGCR6, PRODH, and DGCR2. An apparently balanced translocation may be in fact affected by concurrent deletion and duplication in two different chromosomal regions. Our presentation provides information on diagnostic phenotype of 12p11.22-p11.21 microdeletion and 22q11.2 microduplication. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. 22q11.2q13 duplication including SOX10 causes sex-reversal and peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Nadia; Posey, Jennifer E; Thorson, Willa; Benke, Paul; Tekin, Mustafa; Tarshish, Brocha; Lupski, James R; Harel, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of genetic syndromes may be difficult when specific components of a disorder manifest at a later age. We present a follow up of a previous report [Seeherunvong et al., (2004); AJMGA 127: 149-151], of an individual with 22q duplication and sex-reversal syndrome. The subject's phenotype evolved to include peripheral and central demyelination, Waardenburg syndrome type IV, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH; MIM 609136). DNA microarray analysis defined the duplication at 22q11.2q13, including SOX10. Sequencing of the coding region of SOX10 did not reveal any mutations. Our data suggest that SOX10 duplication can cause disorders of sex development and PCWH, supporting the hypothesis that SOX10 toxic gain of function rather than dominant negative activity underlies PCWH. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Working Memory Impairments in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: The Roles of Anxiety and Stress Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ashley F.; Hobbs, Diana A.; Stephenson, David D.; Laird, Robert D.; Beaton, Elliott A.

    2017-01-01

    Stress and anxiety have a negative impact on working memory systems by competing for executive resources and attention. Broad memory deficits, anxiety, and elevated stress have been reported in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). We investigated anxiety and physiological stress reactivity in relation to visuospatial…

  13. The Development of Cognitive Control in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Shapiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS is caused by the most common human microdeletion, and it is associated with cognitive impairments across many domains. While impairments in cognitive control have been described in children with 22q11.2DS, the nature and development of these impairments are not clear. Children with 22q11.2DS and typically developing children (TD were tested on four well-validated tasks aimed at measuring specific foundational components of cognitive control: response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Molecular assays were also conducted in order to examine genotype of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, a gene located within the deleted region in 22q11.2DS and hypothesized to play a role in cognitive control. Mixed model regression analyses were used to examine group differences, as well as age-related effects on cognitive control component processes in a cross-sectional analysis. Regression models with COMT genotype were also conducted in order to examine potential effects of the different variants of the gene. Response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were impaired in children with 22q11.2DS relative to TD children, even after accounting for global intellectual functioning (as measured by full-scale IQ. When compared with TD individuals, children with 22q11.2DS demonstrated atypical age-related patterns of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Both groups demonstrated typical age-related associations with working memory. The results of this cross-sectional analysis suggest a specific aberration in the development of systems mediating response inhibition in a sub-set of children with 22q11.2DS. It will be important to follow up with longitudinal analyses to directly examine these developmental trajectories, and correlate neurocognitive variables with clinical and adaptive outcome measures.

  14. Hominoid chromosomal rearrangements on 17q map to complex regions of segmental duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Maria Francesca; Jiang, Zhaoshi; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Rocchi, Mariano; Eichler, Evan E; Ventura, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements, such as translocations and inversions, are recurrent phenomena during evolution, and both of them are involved in reproductive isolation and speciation. To better understand the molecular basis of chromosome rearrangements and their part in karyotype evolution, we have investigated the history of human chromosome 17 by comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and sequence analysis. Human bacterial artificial chromosome/p1 artificial chromosome probes spanning the length of chromosome 17 were used in FISH experiments on great apes, Old World monkeys and New World monkeys to study the evolutionary history of this chromosome. We observed that the macaque marker order represents the ancestral organization. Human, chimpanzee and gorilla homologous chromosomes differ by a paracentric inversion that occurred specifically in the Homo sapiens/Pan troglodytes/Gorilla gorilla ancestor. Detailed analyses of the paracentric inversion revealed that the breakpoints mapped to two regions syntenic to human 17q12/21 and 17q23, both rich in segmental duplications. Sequence analyses of the human and macaque organization suggest that the duplication events occurred in the catarrhine ancestor with the duplication blocks continuing to duplicate or undergo gene conversion during evolution of the hominoid lineage. We propose that the presence of these duplicons has mediated the inversion in the H. sapiens/P. troglodytes/G. gorilla ancestor. Recently, the same duplication blocks have been shown to be polymorphic in the human population and to be involved in triggering microdeletion and duplication in human. These results further support a model where genomic architecture has a direct role in both rearrangement involved in karyotype evolution and genomic instability in human.

  15. Partial duplication of the APBA2 gene in chromosome 15q13 corresponds to duplicon structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesterson Robert A

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal abnormalities affecting human chromosome 15q11-q13 underlie multiple genomic disorders caused by deletion, duplication and triplication of intervals in this region. These events are mediated by highly homologous segments of DNA, or duplicons, that facilitate mispairing and unequal cross-over in meiosis. The gene encoding an amyloid precursor protein-binding protein (APBA2 was previously mapped to the distal portion of the interval commonly deleted in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and duplicated in cases of autism. Results We show that this gene actually maps to a more telomeric location and is partially duplicated within the broader region. Two highly homologous copies of an interval containing a large 5' exon and downstream sequence are located ~5 Mb distal to the intact locus. The duplicated copies, containing the first coding exon of APBA2, can be distinguished by single nucleotide sequence differences and are transcriptionally inactive. Adjacent to APBA2 maps a gene termed KIAA0574. The protein encoded by this gene is weakly homologous to a protein termed X123 that in turn maps adjacent to APBA1 on 9q21.12; APBA1 is highly homologous to APBA2 in the C-terminal region and is distinguished from APBA2 by the N-terminal region encoded by this duplicated exon. Conclusion The duplication of APBA2 sequences in this region adds to a complex picture of different low copy repeats present across this region and elsewhere on the chromosome.

  16. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Marino, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Swillen, Ann; Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Scambler, Peter J.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common chromosomal microdeletion disorder, estimated to result mainly from de novo non-homologous meiotic recombination events occurring in approximately 1 in every 1,000 fetuses. The first description in the English language of the constellation of findings now known to be due to this chromosomal difference was made in the 1960s in children with DiGeorge syndrome, who presented with the clinical triad of immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism and congenital heart disease. The syndrome is now known to have a heterogeneous presentation that includes multiple additional congenital anomalies and later-onset conditions, such as palatal, gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities, autoimmune disease, variable cognitive delays, behavioural phenotypes and psychiatric illness — all far extending the original description of DiGeorge syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach involving paediatrics, general medicine, surgery, psychiatry, psychology, interventional therapies (physical, occupational, speech, language and behavioural) and genetic counselling. Although common, lack of recognition of the condition and/or lack of familiarity with genetic testing methods, together with the wide variability of clinical presentation, delays diagnosis. Early diagnosis, preferably prenatally or neonatally, could improve outcomes, thus stressing the importance of universal screening. Equally important, 22q11.2DS has become a model for understanding rare and frequent congenital anomalies, medical conditions, psychiatric and developmental disorders, and may provide a platform to better understand these disorders while affording opportunities for translational strategies across the lifespan for both patients with 22q11.2DS and those with these associated features in the general population. PMID:27189754

  17. De novo 12q22.q23.3 duplication associated with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Maria Stella; Traverso, Monica; Bellini, Tommaso; Madia, Francesca; Pinto, Francesca; Minetti, Carlo; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2017-08-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy and may be associated with acquired central nervous system lesions or could be genetic. Various susceptibility genes and environmental factors are believed to be involved in the aetiology of TLE, which is considered to be a heterogeneous, polygenic, and complex disorder. Rare point mutations in LGI1, DEPDC5, and RELN as well as some copy number variations (CNVs) have been reported in families with TLE patients. We perform a genetic analysis by Array-CGH in a patient with dysmorphic features and temporal lobe epilepsy. We report a de novo duplication of the long arm of chromosome 12. We confirm that 12q22-q23.3 is a candidate locus for familial temporal lobe epilepsy with febrile seizures and highlight the role of chromosomal rearrangements in patients with epilepsy and intellectual disability. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. C1-2 vertebral anomalies in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Osnat; Armstrong, Derek; Padfield, Nancy; Blaser, Susan [Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Clarke, Howard [Hospital for Sick Children, Plastic Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Weksberg, Rosanna [Hospital for Sick Children, Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Toronto (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, characteristic facies, high prevalence of skeletal anomalies and learning disability. To evaluate the prevalence of craniovertebral junction anomalies in children with 22q11DS and compare these findings to those in nonsyndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Sequential CT scans performed for presurgical carotid assessment in 76 children (45 children positive for chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and 31 negative for the deletion) with VPI were retrospectively evaluated for assessment of C1-2 anomalies. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, specifically midline C1 defects, uptilted or upswept posterior elements of C2 and fusions of C2-3, were nearly universal in our cohort of 22q11DS patients with VPI. They were strikingly absent in the majority of non-22q11DS patients with VPI. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, particularly those listed above, are important radiographic markers for 22q11DS. (orig.)

  19. C1-2 vertebral anomalies in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konen, Osnat; Armstrong, Derek; Padfield, Nancy; Blaser, Susan; Clarke, Howard; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, characteristic facies, high prevalence of skeletal anomalies and learning disability. To evaluate the prevalence of craniovertebral junction anomalies in children with 22q11DS and compare these findings to those in nonsyndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Sequential CT scans performed for presurgical carotid assessment in 76 children (45 children positive for chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and 31 negative for the deletion) with VPI were retrospectively evaluated for assessment of C1-2 anomalies. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, specifically midline C1 defects, uptilted or upswept posterior elements of C2 and fusions of C2-3, were nearly universal in our cohort of 22q11DS patients with VPI. They were strikingly absent in the majority of non-22q11DS patients with VPI. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, particularly those listed above, are important radiographic markers for 22q11DS. (orig.)

  20. Williams Syndrome and 15q Duplication: Coincidence versus Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Aditi; Agarwal, Swashti; Perez-Colon, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a multisystem disorder caused by contiguous gene deletion in 7q11.23, commonly associated with distinctive facial features, supravalvular aortic stenosis, short stature, idiopathic hypercalcemia, developmental delay, joint laxity, and a friendly personality. The clinical features of 15q11q13 duplication syndrome include autism, mental retardation, ataxia, seizures, developmental delay, and behavioral problems. We report a rare case of a girl with genetically confirmed Williams syndrome and coexisting 15q duplication syndrome. The patient underwent treatment for central precocious puberty and later presented with primary amenorrhea. The karyotype revealed 47,XX,+mar. FISH analysis for the marker chromosome showed partial trisomy/tetrasomy for proximal chromosome 15q (15p13q13). FISH using an ELN -specific probe demonstrated a deletion in the Williams syndrome critical region in 7q11.23. To our knowledge, a coexistence of Williams syndrome and 15q duplication syndrome has not been reported in the literature. Our patient had early pubertal development, which has been described in some patients with Williams syndrome. However, years later after discontinuing gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment, she developed primary amenorrhea.

  1. Paracentric inversion of chromosome 2 associated with cryptic duplication of 2q14 and deletion of 2q37 in a patient with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillard, Françoise; Guinchat, Vincent; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Gruchy, Nicolas; Guillem, Pascale; Nguyen Morel, Marie-Ange; Leporrier, Nathalie; Leboyer, Marion; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Lespinasse, James; Betancur, Catalina

    2010-09-01

    We describe a patient with autism and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 2q14.2q37.3, with a concurrent duplication of the proximal breakpoint at 2q14.1q14.2 and a deletion of the distal breakpoint at 2q37.3. The abnormality was derived from his mother with a balanced paracentric inversion. The inversion in the child appeared to be cytogenetically balanced but subtelomere FISH revealed a cryptic deletion at the 2q37.3 breakpoint. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array confirmed the presence of a 3.5 Mb deletion that extended to the telomere, and showed a 4.2 Mb duplication at 2q14.1q14.2. FISH studies using a 2q14.2 probe showed that the duplicated segment was located at the telomeric end of chromosome 2q. This recombinant probably resulted from breakage of a dicentric chromosome. The child had autism, mental retardation, speech and language delay, hyperactivity, growth retardation with growth hormone deficiency, insulin-dependent diabetes, and mild facial dysmorphism. Most of these features have been previously described in individuals with simple terminal deletion of 2q37. Pure duplications of the proximal chromosome 2q are rare and no specific syndrome has been defined yet, so the contribution of the 2q14.1q14.2 duplication to the phenotype of the patient is unknown. These findings underscore the need to explore apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements inherited from a phenotypically normal parent in subjects with autism and/or developmental delay. In addition, they provide further evidence indicating that chromosome 2q terminal deletions are among the most frequently reported cytogenetic abnormalities in individuals with autism.

  2. Characteristic face: a key indicator for direct diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletions in Chinese velocardiofacial syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dandan; Chen, Yang; Xu, Chen; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zheng, Fengyun; Ma, Duan; Wang, Guomin

    2013-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a disease in human with an expansive phenotypic spectrum and diverse genetic mechanisms mainly associated with copy number variations (CNVs) on 22q11.2 or other chromosomes. However, the correlations between CNVs and phenotypes remain ambiguous. This study aims to analyze the types and sizes of CNVs in VCFS patients, to define whether correlations exist between CNVs and clinical manifestations in Chinese VCFS patients. In total, 55 clinically suspected Chinese VCFS patients and 100 normal controls were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The data from MLPA and all the detailed clinical features of the objects were documented and analyzed. A total of 44 patients (80.0%) were diagnosed with CNVs on 22q11.2. Among them, 43 (78.2%) presented with 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions, of whom 40 (93.0%) had typical 3-Mb deletion, and 3 (7.0%) exhibited proximal 1.5-Mb deletion; no patient was found with atypical deletion on 22q11.2. One patient (1.8%) presented with a 3-Mb duplication mapping to the typical 3-Mb region on 22q11.2, while none of the chromosomal abnormalities in the MLPA kit were found in the other 11 patients and 100 normal controls. All the 43 patients with 22q11.2 deletions displayed characteristic face and palatal anomalies; 37 of them (86.0%) had cognitive or behavioral disorders, and 23 (53.5%) suffered from immune deficiencies; 10 patients (23.3%) manifested congenital heart diseases. Interestingly, all patients with the characteristic face had 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions, but no difference in phenotypic spectrum was observed between 3-Mb and 1.5-Mb deletions. Our data suggest that the characteristic face can be used as a key indicator for direct diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletions in Chinese VCFS patients.

  3. Deletions at chromosome regions 7q11.23 and 7q36 in a patient with Williams syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, C. H.; Meijers-Heijboer, H. J.; Eussen, B. J.; van der Heide, A. A.; van Luijk, R. B.; van Drunen, E.; Beverloo, B. B.; Visscher, F.; van Hemel, J. O.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a patient with Williams syndrome and a complex de novo chromosome rearrangement, including microdeletions at 7q11.23 and 7q36 and additional chromosomal material at 7q36. The nature of this additional material was elucidated by spectral karyotyping and first assigned to chromosome 22.

  4. Fine mapping of a de novo interstitial 10q22-q23 duplication in a patient with congenital heart disease and microcephaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, F; Belloso, J M; Gabau, E

    2008-01-01

    deletions or duplications elsewhere in the genome. The main clinical features of the patient are microcephaly and congenital heart disease, which are likely to be caused by dosage effect of one or several genes in the duplicated region. Similar phenotypes have been found in other patients with 10q11-q22...

  5. Neural correlates of reward processing in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duin, Esther D. A.; Goossens, Liesbet; Hernaus, Dennis; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Schmitz, Nicole; Schruers, Koen; van Amelsvoort, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11.2 and associated with an increased risk to develop psychosis. The gene coding for catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) is located at the deleted region, resulting in disrupted dopaminergic

  6. Overlapping Numerical Cognition Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion or Turner Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, T. J.; Takarae, Y.; DeBoer, T.; McDonald-McGinn, D. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Ross, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor…

  7. A case of de novo duplication of 15q24-q26.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Ran Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Distal duplication, or trisomy 15q, is an extremely rare chromosomal disorder characterized by prenatal and postnatal overgrowth, mental retardation, and craniofacial malformations. Additional abnormalities typically include an unusually short neck, malformations of the fingers and toes, scoliosis and skeletal malformations, genital abnormalities, particularly in affected males, and, in some cases, cardiac defects. The range and severity of symptoms and physical findings may vary from case to case, depending upon the length and location of the duplicated portion of chromosome 15q. Most reported cases of duplication of the long arm of chromosome 15 frequently have more than one segmental imbalance resulting from unbalanced translocations involving chromosome 15 and deletions in another chromosome, as well as other structural chromosomal abnormalities. We report a female newborn with a de novo duplication, 15q24- q26.3, showing intrauterine overgrowth, a narrow asymmetric face with down-slanting palpebral fissures, a large, prominent nose, and micrognathia, arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, congenital heart disease, hydronephrosis, and hydroureter. Chromosomal analysis showed a 46,XX,inv(9(p12q13,dup(15(q24q26.3. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed a gain of 42 clones on 15q24-q26.3. This case represents the only reported patient with a de novo 15q24-q26.3 duplication that did not result from an unbalanced translocation and did not have a concomitant monosomic component in Korea.

  8. Vitamin D deficiency, behavioral atypicality, anxiety and depression in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, L; Sanders, A F P; Beaton, E A

    2016-12-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a complex developmental disorder with serious medical, cognitive and emotional symptoms across the lifespan. This genetic deletion also imparts a lifetime risk for developing schizophrenia that is 25-30 times that of the general population. The origin of this risk is multifactorial and may include dysregulation of the stress response and immunological systems in relation to brain development. Vitamin D is involved in brain development and neuroprotection, gene transcription, immunological regulation and influences neuronal signal transduction. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with schizophrenia, depression and anxiety in the general population. Yet, little is known about how vitamin D levels in children with 22q11.2DS could mediate risk of psychosis in adulthood. Blood plasma levels of vitamin D were measured in children aged 7-16 years with (n=11) and without (n=16) 22q11.2DS in relation to parent reports of children's anxiety and atypicality. Anxiety and atypicality in childhood are risk indicators for the development of schizophrenia in those with 22q11.2DS and the general population. Children with 22q11.2DS had lower vitamin D levels, as well as elevated anxiety and atypicality compared with typical peers. Higher levels of anxiety, depression and internalizing problems but not atypicality were associated with lower levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D insufficiency may relate to higher levels of anxiety and depression, in turn contributing to the elevated risk of psychosis in this population. Further study is required to determine casual linkages between anxiety, stress, mood and vitamin D in children with 22q11.2DS.

  9. The Danish 22q11 research initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmock, Henriette; Vangkilde, Anders; Larsen, Kit Melissa

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms may come from studies of subjects with homogenous etiologies. Breakthroughs in psychiatric genetics have shown that several genetic anomalies predispose for neurodevelopmental brain disorders. We have established a Danish research initiative to study the common microdeletion at chromosome 22q11...

  10. Enhanced Maternal Origin of the 22q11.2 Deletion in Velocardiofacial and DiGeorge Syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delio, Maria; Guo, Tingwei; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M

    2013-01-01

    Velocardiofacial and DiGeorge syndromes, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), are congenital-anomaly disorders caused by a de novo hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion mediated by meiotic nonallelic homologous recombination events between low-copy repeats, also known as segmental duplication...

  11. Clinical, Cytogenetic, and Biochemical Analyses of a Family with a t(3;13(q26.2;p11.2: Further Delineation of 3q Duplication Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abreu-González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities that result in genomic imbalances are a major cause of congenital and developmental anomalies. Partial duplication of chromosome 3q syndrome is a well-described condition, and the phenotypic manifestations include a characteristic facies, microcephaly, hirsutism, synophrys, broad nasal bridge, congenital heart disease, genitourinary disorders, and mental retardation. Approximately 60%–75% of cases are derived from a balanced translocation. We describe a family with a pure typical partial trisomy 3q syndrome derived from a maternal balanced translocation t(3;13(q26.2;p11.2. As the chromosomal rearrangement involves the short arm of an acrocentric chromosome, the phenotype corresponds to a pure trisomy 3q26.2-qter syndrome. There are 4 affected individuals and several carriers among three generations. The report of this family is relevant because there are few cases of pure duplication 3q syndrome reported, and the cases described here contribute to define the phenotype associated with the syndrome. Furthermore, we confirmed that the survival until adulthood is possible. This report also identified the presence of glycosaminoglycans in urine in this family, not related to the chromosomal abnormality or the phenotype.

  12. Social cognitive training in adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: feasibility and preliminary effects of the intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashi, V; Harrell, W; Eack, S; Sanders, C; McConkie-Rosell, A; Keshavan, M S; Bonner, M J; Schoch, K; Hooper, S R

    2015-10-01

    Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have deficits in social cognition and social skills that contribute to poor adaptive functioning. These deficits may be of relevance to the later occurrence of serious psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. Yet, there are no evidence-based interventions to improve social cognitive functioning in children with 22q11DS. Using a customised social cognitive curriculum, we conducted a pilot small-group-based social cognitive training (SCT) programme in 13 adolescents with 22q11DS, relative to a control group of nine age- and gender-matched adolescents with 22q11DS. We found the SCT programme to be feasible, with high rates of compliance and satisfaction on the part of the participants and their families. Our preliminary analyses indicated that the intervention group showed significant improvements in an overall social cognitive composite index. SCT in a small-group format for adolescents with 22q11DS is feasible and results in gains in social cognition. A larger randomised controlled trial would permit assessment of efficacy of this promising novel intervention. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A cross-sectional analysis of the development of response inhibition in children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Shapiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with cognitive impairments and significantly elevated risk for developing schizophrenia. While impairments in response inhibition are central to executive dysfunction in schizophrenia, the nature and development of such impairments in children with 22q11.2DS, a group at high risk for the disorder, are not clear. Here we used a classic Go/No-Go paradigm to quantify proactive (anticipatory stopping and reactive (actual stopping response inhibition in 47 children with 22q11.2DS and 36 typically developing (TD children, all ages 7-14. A cross-sectional design was used to examine age-related associations with response inhibition. When compared with TD individuals, children with 22q11.2DS demonstrated typical proactive response inhibition at all ages. By contrast, reactive response inhibition was impaired in children with 22q11.2DS relative to TD children. While older age predicted better reactive response inhibition in TD children, there was no age-related association with reactive response inhibition in children with 22q11.2DS. Closer examination of individual performance data revealed a wide range of performance abilities in older children with 22q11.2DS; some typical and others highly impaired. The results of this cross-sectional analysis suggest an impaired developmental trajectory of reactive response inhibition in some children with 22q11.2DS that might be related to atypical development of neuroanatomical systems underlying this cognitive process. As part of a larger study, this investigation might help identify risk factors for conversion to schizophrenia and lead to early diagnosis and preventive intervention.

  14. A 15 Mb large paracentric chromosome 21 inversion identified in Czech population through a pair of flanking duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabova, Jana; Trkova, Marie; Hancarova, Miroslava; Novotna, Drahuse; Hejtmankova, Michaela; Havlovicova, Marketa; Sedlacek, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Inversions are balanced structural chromosome rearrangements, which can influence gene expression and the risk of unbalanced chromosome constitution in offspring. Many examples of inversion polymorphisms exist in human, affecting both heterochromatic regions and euchromatin. We describe a novel, 15 Mb long paracentric inversion, inv(21)(q21.1q22.11), affecting more than a third of human 21q. Despite of its length, the inversion cannot be detected using karyotyping due to similar band patterns on the normal and inverted chromosomes, and is therefore likely to escape attention. Its identification was aided by the repeated observation of the same pair of 150 kb long duplications present in cis on chromosome 21 in three Czech families subjected to microarray analysis. The finding prompted us to hypothesise that this co-occurrence of two remote duplications could be associated with an inversion of the intervening segment, and this speculation turned out to be right. The inversion was confirmed in a series of FISH experiments which also showed that the second copy of each of the duplications was always located at the opposite end of the inversion. The presence of the same pair of duplications in additional individuals reported in public databases indicates that the inversion may also be present in other populations. Three out of the total of about 4000 chromosomes 21 examined in our sample carried the duplications and were inverted, corresponding to carrier frequency of about 1/660. Although the breakpoints affect protein-coding genes, the occurrence of the inversion in normal parents and siblings of our patients and the occurrence of the duplications in unaffected controls in databases indicate that this rare variant is rather non-pathogenic. The inverted segment carried an identical shared haplotype in the three families studied. The haplotypes, however, diverged very rapidly in the flanking regions, possibly pointing to an ancient founder event at the origin of the

  15. Ocular Findings in Children With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokturk, Bahar; Topcu-Yilmaz, Pinar; Bozkurt, Banu; Yildirim, Mahmut Selman; Guner, Sukru Nail; Sayar, Esra Hazar; Reisli, Ismail

    2016-07-01

    To identify the ocular features of children diagnosed as having 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a Turkish population, which is the most common microdeletion syndrome with a wide range of facial and ocular abnormalities. Sixteen children aged between 4 months and 18 years with a microdeletion in chromosome 22q11.2 underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination including uncorrected and best corrected visual acuity testing, stereoscopic vision examination, biomicroscopic and indirect fundus examination, and ocular motility testing. All patients had at least one ocular abnormality. The major abnormalities were eyelid abnormalities (eye hooding, narrow palpebral fissure, telecanthus, hypertelorism, sparse and thin eyebrows and eyelashes, blepharitis, and distichiasis), posterior embryotoxon, and tortuous retinal vessels in at least half of the patients. Other ophthalmological disorders were refractive errors, iris remnants, and strabismus. The chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is associated with a wide range of ocular disorders, which necessitates a comprehensive eye examination for appropriate treatment and follow-up. Ocular findings sometimes can provide a clue to the diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53(4):218-222]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. A chromosome 10 variant with a 12 Mb inversion [inv(10)(q11.22q21.1)] identical by descent and frequent in the Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entesarian, Miriam; Carlsson, Birgit; Mansouri, Mahmoud Reza; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Holmberg, Eva; Golovleva, Irina; Stefansson, Hreinn; Klar, Joakim; Dahl, Niklas

    2009-03-01

    We identified a paracentric inversion of chromosome 10 [inv(10)(q11.22q21.1)] in 0.20% of Swedish individuals (15/7,439) referred for cytogenetic analysis. A retrospective analysis of 8,896 karyotypes from amniocenteses in Sweden revealed a carrier frequency of 0.079% (7/8,896) for the inversion. Cloning and detailed analysis of the inversion breakpoint regions show enrichment for interspersed repeat elements and AT-stretches. The centromeric breakpoint coincides with that of a predicted inversion from HapMap data, which suggests that this region is involved in several chromosome 10 variants. No known gene or predicted transcript are disrupted by the inversion which spans approximately 12 Mb. Carriers from four non-related Swedish families have identical inversion breakpoints and haplotype analysis confirmed that the rearrangement is identical by descent. Diagnosis was retrieved in 6 out of the 15 carriers referred for cytogenetic analysis. No consistent phenotype was found to be associated with the inversion. Our study demonstrates that the inv(10)(q11.22q21.1) is a rare and inherited chromosome variant with a broad geographical distribution in Sweden. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Rare Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation and Expression of Schizophrenia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Anne S; Lowther, Chelsea; Merico, Daniele; Costain, Gregory; Chow, Eva W C; van Amelsvoort, Therese; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Gur, Raquel E; Swillen, Ann; Van den Bree, Marianne; Murphy, Kieran; Gothelf, Doron; Bearden, Carrie E; Eliez, Stephan; Kates, Wendy; Philip, Nicole; Sashi, Vandana; Campbell, Linda; Vorstman, Jacob; Cubells, Joseph; Repetto, Gabriela M; Simon, Tony; Boot, Erik; Heung, Tracy; Evers, Rens; Vingerhoets, Claudia; van Duin, Esther; Zackai, Elaine; Vergaelen, Elfi; Devriendt, Koen; Vermeesch, Joris R; Owen, Michael; Murphy, Clodagh; Michaelovosky, Elena; Kushan, Leila; Schneider, Maude; Fremont, Wanda; Busa, Tiffany; Hooper, Stephen; McCabe, Kathryn; Duijff, Sasja; Isaev, Karin; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Wei, John; Gazzellone, Matthew J; Scherer, Stephen W; Emanuel, Beverly S; Guo, Tingwei; Morrow, Bernice E; Marshall, Christian R

    2017-11-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with a more than 20-fold increased risk for developing schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify additional genetic factors (i.e., "second hits") that may contribute to schizophrenia expression. Through an international consortium, the authors obtained DNA samples from 329 psychiatrically phenotyped subjects with 22q11.2DS. Using a high-resolution microarray platform and established methods to assess copy number variation (CNV), the authors compared the genome-wide burden of rare autosomal CNV, outside of the 22q11.2 deletion region, between two groups: a schizophrenia group and those with no psychotic disorder at age ≥25 years. The authors assessed whether genes overlapped by rare CNVs were overrepresented in functional pathways relevant to schizophrenia. Rare CNVs overlapping one or more protein-coding genes revealed significant between-group differences. For rare exonic duplications, six of 19 gene sets tested were enriched in the schizophrenia group; genes associated with abnormal nervous system phenotypes remained significant in a stepwise logistic regression model and showed significant interactions with 22q11.2 deletion region genes in a connectivity analysis. For rare exonic deletions, the schizophrenia group had, on average, more genes overlapped. The additional rare CNVs implicated known (e.g., GRM7, 15q13.3, 16p12.2) and novel schizophrenia risk genes and loci. The results suggest that additional rare CNVs overlapping genes outside of the 22q11.2 deletion region contribute to schizophrenia risk in 22q11.2DS, supporting a multigenic hypothesis for schizophrenia. The findings have implications for understanding expression of psychotic illness and herald the importance of whole-genome sequencing to appreciate the overall genomic architecture of schizophrenia.

  18. Noonan's and DiGeorge syndromes with monosomy 22q11.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, D I; Britton, S B; McKeown, C; Kelly, D; Cross, I E; Strobel, S; Scambler, P J

    1993-01-01

    A boy with the dysmorphic features of Noonan's syndrome and pulmonary valve stenosis who had evidence of hypoparathyroidism and abnormal T lymphocyte numbers in the neonatal period is reported. He had a normal karyotype but molecular analysis revealed a submicroscopic deletion within chromosome 22q11, the region deleted in DiGeorge syndrome. Thus this child has both Noonan's syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome; 22q11 is a candidate region for a gene defective in Noonan's syndrome.

  19. A 54 Mb 11qter duplication and 0.9 Mb 1q44 deletion in a child with laryngomalacia and agenesis of corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lall Meena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial Trisomy 11q syndrome (or Duplication 11q has defined clinical features and is documented as a rare syndrome by National Organization of Rare Disorders (NORD. Deletion 1q44 (or Monosomy 1q44 is a well-defined syndrome, but there is controversy about the genes lying in 1q44 region, responsible for agenesis of the corpus callosum. We report a female child with the rare Partial Trisomy 11q syndrome and Deletion 1q44 syndrome. The genomic imbalance in the proband was used for molecular characterization of the critical genes in 1q44 region for agenesis of corpus callosum. Some genes in 11q14q25 may be responsible for laryngomalacia. Results We report a female child with dysmorphic features, microcephaly, growth retardation, seizures, acyanotic heart disease, and hand and foot deformities. She had agenesis of corpus callosum, laryngomalacia, anterior ectopic anus, esophageal reflux and respiratory distress. Chromosome analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 1. Her karyotype was 46,XX,der(1t(1;11(q44;q14pat. The mother had a normal karyotype and the karyotype of the father was 46,XY,t(1;11(q44;q14. SNP array analysis showed that the proband had a 54 Mb duplication of 11q14q25 and a 0.9 Mb deletion of the submicroscopic subtelomeric 1q44 region. Fluorescence Insitu Hybridisation confirmed the duplication of 11qter and deletion of 1qter. Conclusion Laryngomalacia or obstruction of the upper airway is the outcome of increased dosage of some genes due to Partial Trisomy 11q Syndrome. In association with other phenotypic features, agenesis of corpus callosum appears to be a landmark phenotype for Deletion 1q44 syndrome, the critical genes lying proximal to SMYD3 in 1q44 region.

  20. Mechanisms of ring chromosome formation in 11 cases of human ring chromosome 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinniss, M J; Kazazian, H H; Stetten, G

    1992-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of ring chromosome 21 (r(21)) formation in 13 patients (11 unique r(21)s), consisting of 7 from five families with familial r(21) and 6 with de novo r(21). The copy number of chromosome 21 sequences in the rings of these patients was determined by quantitative dosage......), resulting in deletion of varying amounts of 21q22.1 to 21qter. The data from one individual who had a Down syndrome phenotype were consistent with asymmetric breakage and reunion of 21q sequences from an intermediate isochromosome or Robertsonian translocation chromosome as reported by Wong et al. Another......). The phenotype of patients correlated well with the extent of deletion or duplication of chromosome 21 sequences. These data demonstrate three mechanisms of r(21) formation and show that the phenotype of r(21) patients varies with the extent of chromosome 21 monosomy or trisomy....

  1. Mosaicism for r(X and der(Xdel(X(p11.23dup(X(p11.21p11.22 provides insight into the possible mechanism of rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ping

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a patient with a unique and complex cytogenetic abnormality involving mosaicism for a small ring X and deleted Xp derivative chromosome with tandem duplication at the break point. The patient presented with failure to thrive, muscular hypotonia, and minor facial anatomic anomalies, all concerning for Turner syndrome. Brain MRI revealed mild thinning of the corpus callosum, an apparent decrease in ventricular white matter volume, and an asymmetric myelination pattern. Array comparative genome hybridization analysis revealed mosaicism for the X chromosome, deletion of the short arm of an X chromosome, and a duplication of chromosome region Xp11.21-p11.22. G-banded chromosome and FISH analyses revealed three abnormal cell lines: 46,X,der(Xdel(X(p11.23dup(X(p11.21p11.22/46,X,r(X(q11.1q13.1/45,X. The small ring X chromosome was estimated to be 5.2 Mb in size and encompassed the centromere and Xq pericentromeric region. X chromosome inactivation (XCI studies demonstrated a skewed pattern suggesting that the ring X remained active, likely contributing to the observed clinical features of brain dysmyelination. We hypothesize that a prezygotic asymmetric crossing over within a loop formed during meiosis in an X chromosome with a paracentric inversion resulted in an intermediate dicentric chromosome. An uneven breakage of the dicentric chromosome in the early postzygotic period might have resulted in the formation of one cell line with the X chromosome carrying a terminal deletion and pericentromeric duplication of the short arm and the second cell line with the X chromosome carrying a complete deletion of Xp. The cell line carrying the deletion of Xp could have then stabilized through self-circularization and formation of the ring X chromosome.

  2. Exclusion of 22q11 deletion in Noonan syndrome with Tetralogy of Fallot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digilio, M.C.; Marino, B.; Giannotti, A. [Bambino Gesu Hospital, Rome (Italy); Dallapiccola, B. [Univ. of Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)]|[Casa Sollievo Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy)

    1996-04-24

    We read with interest the report of Robin et al. [1995] published in recent issue of the Journal. The authors described 6 patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) who underwent molecular evaluation for submicroscopic deletion of chromosome band 22q11. None of those patients presented with conotruncal heart defects. Evidence for 22q11 hemizygosity was demonstrated in only one patient. This patient had NS-like manifestations without clinical manifestations of DiGeorge (DG) or velo-cardio-facial (VCF) syndromes. The molecular results obtained in the other 5 patients led the authors to conclude that classical NS is not due to del(22)(q11), even if some patients with del(22)(q11) may present NS-like manifestations. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Recurrent duplications of 17q12 associated with variable phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Elyse; Douglas, Andrew; Kjaegaard, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The ability to identify the clinical nature of the recurrent duplication of chromosome 17q12 has been limited by its rarity and the diverse range of phenotypes associated with this genomic change. In order to further define the clinical features of affected patients, detailed clinical information......, potentially contributory copy number changes in a subset of patients, including one patient each with 16p11.2 deletion and 15q13.3 deletion. Our data further define and expand the clinical spectrum associated with duplications of 17q12 and provide support for the role of genomic modifiers contributing...... to phenotypic variability....

  4. Mathematical Learning Disabilities in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Bert; Swillen, Ann; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) occur frequently in children with specific genetic disorders, like Turner syndrome, fragile X syndrome and neurofibromatosis. This review focuses on MLD in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). This syndrome is the most common known microdeletion syndrome with a prevalence of at…

  5. [22q11.2DS Syndrome as a Genetic Subtype of Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Rodríguez, Cindy Katherin; Payán-Gómez, César; Forero-Castro, Ruth Maribel

    2015-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with the microdeletion of this chromosomal region, and represents the second most common genetic syndrome after Down's syndrome. In patients with schizophrenia, 22q11.2DS has a prevalence of 2%, and in selected groups can be increased to between 32-53%. To describe the generalities of 22q11.2DS syndrome as a genetic subtype of schizophrenia, its clinical characteristics, molecular genetic aspects, and frequency in different populations. A review was performed from 1967 to 2013 in scientific databases, compiling articles about 22q11.2DS syndrome and its association with schizophrenia. The 22q11.2 DS syndrome has a variable phenotype associated with other genetic syndromes, birth defects in many tissues and organs, and a high rate of psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Likewise, it has been identified in clinical populations with schizophrenia selected by the presence of common syndromic characteristics. FISH, qPCR and MLPA techniques, and recently, aCGH and NGS technologies, are being used to diagnose this microdeletion. It is important in clinical practice to remember that people suffering the 22q11.2DS have a high genetic risk for developing schizophrenia, and it is considered that the simultaneous presence of this disease and 22q11.2DS represents a genetic subtype of schizophrenia. There are clear phenotypic criteria, molecular and cytogenetic methods to diagnose this group of patients, and to optimize a multidisciplinary approach in their monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental Origin of Interstitial Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 in Schizophrenia and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isles, Anthony R; Ingason, Andrés; Lowther, Chelsea

    2016-01-01

    Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 overlapping the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region have been associated with developmental delay (DD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Due to presence of imprinted genes within the region, the parental origin of these duplications m...

  7. Does Differential Visual Exploration Contribute to Visual Memory Impairments in 22Q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, M.; Glaser, B.; Zaharia, A.; Eliez, S.; Schneider, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic syndrome characterised by a unique cognitive profile. Individuals with the syndrome present several non-verbal deficits, including visual memory impairments and atypical exploration of visual information. In this study, we seek to understand how visual attention may…

  8. MicroRNA Dysregulation, Gene Networks, and Risk for Schizophrenia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Merico, Daniele; Costain, Gregory; Butcher, Nancy J.; Warnica, William; Ogura, Lucas; Alfred, Simon E.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the etiology of schizophrenia is increasingly recognized. Microdeletions at chromosome 22q11.2 are recurrent structural variants that impart a high risk for schizophrenia and are found in up to 1% of all patients with schizophrenia. The 22q11.2 deletion region overlaps gene DGCR8, encoding a subunit of the miRNA microprocessor complex. We identified miRNAs overlapped by the 22q11.2 microdeletion and for the first time investigated their predicted target genes...

  9. Brain and behaviour in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a volumetric and voxel-based morphometry MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, Linda E.; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Stevens, Angela; Azuma, Rayna; Catani, Marco; Ng, Virginia; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Chitnis, Xavier; Cutter, William; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2006-01-01

    In people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome [or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)], a single interstitial deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 causes a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits ranging from global learning difficulties to specific cognitive deficits. People with 22qDS are also at high risk of

  10. Chromosome 10q tetrasomy: First reported case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackston, R.D.; May, K.M.; Jones, F.D. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    While there are several reports of trisomy 10q (at least 35), we are not aware of previous cases of 10q tetrasomy. We present what we believe to be the initial report of such a case. R.J. is a 6 1/2 year old white male who presented with multiple dysmorphic features, marked articulation problems, hyperactivity, and developmental delays. He is the product of a term uncomplicated pregnancy. There was a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery with a birth weight of 6 lbs. 4oz. and length was 19 1/2 inch. Dysmorphic features include small size, an asymmetrically small head, low set ears with overfolded helixes, bilateral ptosis, downslanting eyes, right eye esotropia, prominent nose, asymmetric facies, high palate, mild pectus excavatum deformity of chest, and hyperextensible elbow joints. The patient is in special needs classes for mildly mentally handicapped students. Chromosome analysis at a resolution of 800 bands revealed a complex rearrangement of chromosomes 10 and 11. The segment 10q25.3 to q16.3 appears to be inverted and duplicated within the long arm of chromosome 10 at band q25.3 and the same segment of chromosome 10 is present on the terminal end of the short arm of chromosome 11. There is no visible loss of material from chromosome 11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed with a chromosome 10 specific {open_quotes}paint{close_quotes} to confirm that all of the material on the abnormal 10 and the material on the terminal short arm of 11 was from chromosome 10. Thus, it appears that the segment 10q25.3 to q26.3 is present in four copies. Parental chromosome studies are normal. We compared findings which differ in that the case of 10q tetrasomy did not have prenatal growth deficiency, microphthalmia, cleft palate, digital anomalies, heart, or renal defects. Whereas most cases of 10q trisomy are said to have severe mental deficiency, our case of 10q tetrasomy was only mildly delayed. We report this first apparent cited case of 10q tetrasomy.

  11. Neural correlates of reward processing in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duin, Esther D A; Goossens, Liesbet; Hernaus, Dennis; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Schmitz, Nicole; Schruers, Koen; van Amelsvoort, Therese

    2016-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11.2 and associated with an increased risk to develop psychosis. The gene coding for catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) is located at the deleted region, resulting in disrupted dopaminergic neurotransmission in 22q11DS, which may contribute to the increased vulnerability for psychosis. A dysfunctional motivational reward system is considered one of the salient features in psychosis and thought to be related to abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission. The functional anatomy of the brain reward circuitry has not yet been investigated in 22q11DS. This study aims to investigate neural activity during anticipation of reward and loss in adult patients with 22q11DS. We measured blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity in 16 patients with 22q11DS and 12 healthy controls during a monetary incentive delay task using a 3T Philips Intera MRI system. Data were analysed using SPM8. During anticipation of reward, the 22q11DS group alone displayed significant activation in bilateral middle frontal and temporal brain regions. Compared to healthy controls, significantly less activation in bilateral cingulate gyrus extending to premotor, primary motor and somatosensory areas was found. During anticipation of loss, the 22q11DS group displayed activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex, and relative to controls, they showed reduced brain activation in bilateral (pre)cuneus and left posterior cingulate. Within the 22q11DS group, COMT Val hemizygotes displayed more activation compared to Met hemizygotes in right posterior cingulate and bilateral parietal regions during anticipation of reward. During anticipation of loss, COMT Met hemizygotes compared to Val hemizygotes showed more activation in bilateral insula, striatum and left anterior cingulate. This is the first study to investigate reward processing in 22q11DS. Our preliminary results suggest that people with 22q11DS

  12. Rare genome-wide copy number variation and expression of schizophrenia in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassett, Anne S.; Lowther, Chelsea; Merico, Daniele; Costain, Gregory; Chow, Eva W C; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; McDonald-Mcginn, Donna M.; Gur, Raquel E.; Swillen, Ann; van den Bree, Marianne B M; Murphy, Kieran C.; Gothelf, Doron; Bearden, Carrie E.; Eliez, Stephan; Kates, Wendy R.; Philip, Nicole; Sashi, Vandana; Campbell, Linda E.; Vorstman, Jacob; Cubells, Joseph; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Simon, Tony J.; Boot, Erik; Heung, Tracy; Evers, Rens; Vingerhoets, Claudia; Van Duin, Esther; Zackai, Elaine; Vergaelen, Elfi; Devriendt, Koen; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Owen, Michael J; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Michaelovosky, Elena; Kushan, Leila; Schneider, Maude; Fremont, Wanda; Busa, Tiffany; Hooper, Stephen R.; McCabe, Kathryn; Duijff, Sasja; Isaev, Karin; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Wei, John; Gazzellone, Matthew J.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Guo, Tingwei; Morrow, Bernice E.; Marshall, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with a more than 20-fold increased risk for developing schizophrenia. The aim of this studywas to identify additional genetic factors (i.e., "second hits") that may contribute to schizophrenia expression. Method: Through an

  13. New Complex Chromosomal Translocation in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11

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    Abdeljabar El Andaloussi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML case with a new complex t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11 of a 29-year-old man is being reported. For the first time, this translocation has been characterized by karyotype complemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. In CML, the complex and standard translocations have the same prognosis. The patient was treated with standard initial therapy based on hydroxyurea before he died due to heart failure four months later. Our finding indicates the importance of combined cytogenetic analysis for diagnosis and guidance of treatment in clinical diagnosis of CML.

  14. Chronic myeloid leukemia with variation of translocation at (Ph) [ins (22;9) (q11;q21q34)]: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiong; Zen, Wen; Meng, Fankai; Xin, Xing; Luo, Li; Sun, Hanying; Zhou, Jianfeng; Huang, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is most frequently observed in middle-aged individuals. In most patients, normal marrow cells are replaced by cells with an abnormal G-group chromosome, the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. The Ph chromosome that is characterized by the translocation (9;22) (q34;q11) is noted in 90-95% of patients diagnosed with CML. Studies have also shown that CML can be associated with various other cytogenetic abnormalities, with 5-10% of these cases showing complex translocation involving another chromosome in addition to the Ph chromosome. Here, we report the case of a Ph(+) CML patient with an inserted karyotype who presented clinically in the chronic phase but with atypical features. This case highlights the significance of cytogenetic abnormalities on the prognosis in CML.

  15. NEUROD2 and NEUROD3 genes map to human chromosomes 17q12 and 5q23-q31 and mouse chromosomes 11 and 13, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamimi, R.M.; Montgomery-Dyer, K.; Tapscott, S.J. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    NEUROD2 and NEUROD3 are transcription factors involved in neurogenesis that are related to the basic helix-loop-helix protein NEUROD. NEUROD2 maps to human chromosome 17q12 and mouse chromosome 11. NEUROD3 maps to human chromosome 5q23-q31 and mouse chromosome 13. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  16. 6q16.3q23.3 duplication associated with Prader-Willi-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Laurent; Marle, Nathalie; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Faivre, Laurence; Eliade, Marie; Payet, Muriel; Ragon, Clemence; Thevenon, Julien; Aral, Bernard; Ragot, Sylviane; Ardalan, Azarnouche; Dhouibi, Nabila; Bensignor, Candace; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; El Chehadeh, Salima; Callier, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by hypotonia, delayed neuropsychomotor development, overeating, obesity and mental deficiency. This phenotype is encountered in other conditions, defining Prader-Willi-like syndrome (PWLS). We report a 14-year-old boy with a complex small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) associated with PWLS. The propositus presents clinical features commonly found in patients with PWLS, including growth hormone deficit. Banding karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed a marker derived from chromosome 6 and a neocentromere as suspected, but array-CGH enabled us to characterize this marker as a der(10)t(6;10)(6qter → 6q23.3::10p11.1 → 10p11.21)dn. As far as we know, this is the first diagnosed case of PWLS associated with a complex sSMC, involving a 30.9 Mb gain in the 6q16.3q23.3 region and a 3.5 Mb gain in the 10p11.21p11.1 region. Several genes have been mapped to the 6q region including the TCBA1 gene, which is associated with developmental delay and recurrent infections, the ENPP1 gene, associated with insulin resistance and susceptibility to obesity and the BMIQ3 gene, associated with body mass index (BMI). No OMIM gene was found in the smallest 10p11.21p11.1 region. We suggest that the duplicated chromosome segment 6q16.3q23.3 may be responsible for the phenotype of our case and may also be a candidate locus of PWLS.

  17. Chromosomal amplifications, 3q gain and deletions of 2q33-q37 are the frequent genetic changes in cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Pulivarthi H; Murty, Vundavalli VVS; Arias-Pulido, Hugo; Lu, Xin-Yan; Harris, Charles P; Vargas, Hernan; Zhang, Fang F; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Schneider, Achim; Terry, Mary Beth

    2004-01-01

    Carcinoma of uterine cervix is the second most common cancers among women worldwide. Combined radiation and chemotherapy is the choice of treatment for advanced stages of the disease. The prognosis is poor, with a five-year survival rate ranging from about 20–65%, depending on stage of the disease. Therefore, genetic characterization is essential for understanding the biology and clinical heterogeneity in cervical cancer (CC). We used a genome-wide screening method – comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to identify DNA copy number changes in 77 patients with cervical cancer. We applied categorical and survival analyses to analyze whether chromosomal changes were related to clinico-pathologic characteristics and patients survival. The CGH analysis revealed a loss of 2q33-q37 (57.1%), gain of 3q (54.5%) and chromosomal amplifications (20.77%) as frequent genetic changes. A total of 15 amplified chromosomal sites were detected in 16 cases that include 1p31, 2q32, 7q22, 8q21.2-q24, 9p22, 10q21, 10q24, 11q13, 11q21, 12q15, 14q12, 17p11.2, 17q22, 18p11.2, and 19q13.1. Recurrent amplified sites were noted at 11q13, 11q21, and 19q13.1. The genomic alterations were further evaluated for prognostic significance in CC patients, and we did not find any correlation with a number of clinical or histological parameters. The tumors harboring HPV18 exhibited higher genomic instability compared to tumors with HPV 16. This study demonstrated that 2q33-q37 deletions, 3q gains and chromosomal amplifications as characteristic changes in invasive CC. These genetic alterations will aid in the identification of novel tumor suppressor gene(s) at 2q33-q37 and oncogenes at amplified chromosomal sites. Molecular characterization of these chromosomal changes utilizing the current genomic technologies will provide new insights into the biology and clinical behavior of CC

  18. Failure to thrive as presentation in a patient with 22q11.2 microdeletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Grazia; Gertosio, Chiara; Meazza, Cristina; Farello, Giovanni; Bozzola, Mauro

    2016-02-11

    Abnormalities of chromosome 22q11, including deletions and translocations, have been described in association with different birth defects and malformations occurring in many combinations and degrees of severity. We describe the case of an 8 month-old infant with no dysmorphic signs who showed progressive postnatal growth failure and no chronic systemic diseases. We found a 22q11.2 microdeletion, inherited from the mother, suggesting the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome. The patient had an isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency and a significant increase in linear growth during the first and the second year of GH therapy, and a recovery of weight was shown. Sometimes, in infants with growth failure a genetic analysis is strongly suggested, since chromosomal abnormalities may be present.

  19. Decreased DGCR8 expression and miRNA dysregulation in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Sellier

    Full Text Available Deletion of the 1.5-3 Mb region of chromosome 22 at locus 11.2 gives rise to the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS, also known as DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial Syndromes. It is the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans and one of the most common multiple malformation syndromes. The syndrome is characterized by a broad phenotype, whose characterization has expanded considerably within the last decade and includes many associated findings such as craniofacial anomalies (40%, conotruncal defects of the heart (CHD; 70-80%, hypocalcemia (20-60%, and a range of neurocognitive anomalies with high risk of schizophrenia, all with a broad phenotypic variability. These phenotypic features are believed to be the result of a change in the copy number or dosage of the genes located in the deleted region. Despite this relatively clear genetic etiology, very little is known about which genes modulate phenotypic variations in humans or if they are due to combinatorial effects of reduced dosage of multiple genes acting in concert. Here, we report on decreased expression levels of genes within the deletion region of chromosome 22, including DGCR8, in peripheral leukocytes derived from individuals with 22q11DS compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found dysregulated miRNA expression in individuals with 22q11DS, including miR-150, miR-194 and miR-185. We postulate this to be related to DGCR8 haploinsufficiency as DGCR8 regulates miRNA biogenesis. Importantly we demonstrate that the level of some miRNAs correlates with brain measures, CHD and thyroid abnormalities, suggesting that the dysregulated miRNAs may contribute to these phenotypes and/or represent relevant blood biomarkers of the disease in individuals with 22q11DS.

  20. Tetrasomy 15q11-q13 Diagnosed by FISH in a Patient with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Ouldim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a Moroccan boy with mental retardation, hyperactivity, epilepsy, developmental problems and behavioural disorders. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome. Molecular cytogenetics allowed us to determine the marker as an inverted duplication of chromosome 15. It is the first case of a Moroccan patient with tetrasomy 15q in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH enabled us to specify the diagnosis. Interestingly, this patient has an infantile autism with cytogenetic abnormalities on chromosomal region 15q11-q13 as reported in patients with Autistic Disorder.

  1. Construction of a DNA library representing 15q11-13 by subtraction of two flow sorted marker chromosome-specific libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, E.; Werelius, B.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Constitutional extra {open_quotes}marker chromosomes{close_quotes} are found in {approx}0.5/1000 of newborns. Of these, 50% are inverted duplications of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 15, including two variants; (1) inv dup(15)(pter{yields}q11:q11{yields}pter) and (2) inv dup(15) (pter{yields}q12-13::q12-13{yields}pter). Variant (1) is found in phenotypically normal individuals, whereas variant (2) will produce a typical clinical picture including mental retardation, autism, hyperactivity and discrete dysmorphic features. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using single copy probes from the Prader-Willi region confirms these observations as well as chromosome painting using a flow-sorted marker chromosome-specific library from a variant (1) marker, hybridized to the chromosomes of a patient with a variant (2) marker chromosome. Followingly, a flow-sorted biotinylated variant (1) library was subtracted from a non-labeled variant (2) library using magnetic beads and subsequent amplification by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). The successful result was demonstrated by using the amplified material for chromosome painting on chromosome slides from variant (1) and variant (2) patients. We have constructed a library from 15q11-13. This region contains genes producing a specific abnormal phenotype when found in a tri- or tetrasomic state. The region also contains the genes responsible for the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes when the paternal/maternal copy is missing, respectively. It is therefore a region where parental imprinting plays an important role. The isolated library may be used to isolate single copy clones which will allow further investigations of this region.

  2. Two sequence-ready contigs spanning the two copies of a 200-kb duplication on human 21q: partial sequence and polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potier, M; Dutriaux, A; Orti, R; Groet, J; Gibelin, N; Karadima, G; Lutfalla, G; Lynn, A; Van Broeckhoven, C; Chakravarti, A; Petersen, M; Nizetic, D; Delabar, J; Rossier, J

    1998-08-01

    Physical mapping across a duplication can be a tour de force if the region is larger than the size of a bacterial clone. This was the case of the 170- to 275-kb duplication present on the long arm of chromosome 21 in normal human at 21q11.1 (proximal region) and at 21q22.1 (distal region), which we described previously. We have constructed sequence-ready contigs of the two copies of the duplication of which all the clones are genuine representatives of one copy or the other. This required the identification of four duplicon polymorphisms that are copy-specific and nonallelic variations in the sequence of the STSs. Thirteen STSs were mapped inside the duplicated region and 5 outside but close to the boundaries. Among these STSs 10 were end clones from YACs, PACs, or cosmids, and the average interval between two markers in the duplicated region was 16 kb. Eight PACs and cosmids showing minimal overlaps were selected in both copies of the duplication. Comparative sequence analysis along the duplication showed three single-basepair changes between the two copies over 659 bp sequenced (4 STSs), suggesting that the duplication is recent (less than 4 mya). Two CpG islands were located in the duplication, but no genes were identified after a 36-kb cosmid from the proximal copy of the duplication was sequenced. The homology of this chromosome 21 duplicated region with the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes 13, 2, and 18 suggests that the mechanism involved is probably similar to pericentromeric-directed mechanisms described in interchromosomal duplications. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  3. Social Impairments in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS): Autism Spectrum Disorder or a Different Endophenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Deprey, Lesley; Brahmbhatt, Khyati; Harris, Susan; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    High prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported in 22q11.2DS, although this has been based solely on parent report measures. This study describes the presence of ASD using a procedure more similar to that used in clinical practice by incorporating history (Social Communication Questionnaire) AND a standardized observation…

  4. Simultaneous occurrence of t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) and t(16;16)(p13;q22) in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia in blastic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámecníkova, Adriana; Al Bahar, Soad; Ramesh, Pandita

    2008-06-01

    Coexistence of two specific chromosomal translocations in the same clone is an infrequent phenomenon and has only rarely been reported in hematological malignancies. We report a combination of t(16;16)(p13;q22), the Philadelphia translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), and deletion of the long arm of chromosome 7 in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia in blast phase. Monotherapy treatment with imatinib mesylate resulted in the disappearance of the Ph-positive clone, but with persistence of t(16;16) and del(7) in all of the metaphases examined. The case illustrates that, although imatinib mesylate can be an effective treatment in eradication of the BCR-ABL fusion gene cells, the occurrence of additional specific abnormalities in Philadelphia-positive leukemias may pose a significant therapeutic challenge. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Seizures as the first manifestation of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a 40-year old man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonelli Adriano R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is the most common human deletion syndrome. It typically presents early in life and is rarely considered in adult patients. As part of the manifestations of this condition, patients can have parathyroid glandular involvement ranging from hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism to normocalcemia with normal parathryroid hormone levels. The first manifestation of the syndrome might be seizures due to profound hypocalcemia. Case presentation A 40-year-old man without significant past medical history presented with a new-onset generalized tonic-clonic seizure. He had no personal history of hypocalcemia or seizures. Physical examination was remarkable for short stature, hypertelorism, prominent forehead and nasal voice. His initial laboratory examination showed hypocalcemia (Calcium 5.2 mg/dl and Calcium ionized 0.69 mmol/l with hypoparathyroidism (Parathyroid hormone intact Conclusion Microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is among the most clinically variable syndromes, with more than 180 features associated with the deletion. It has a variable phenotypical expression, requiring a high level of awareness for its early diagnosis. Seizures, related to marked hypocalcemia due to idiopathic hypoparathyroidism, might be the presenting feature in an adult patient with this syndrome.

  6. Inactivation of the P16INK4/MTS1 gene by a chromosome translocation t(9;14)(p21-22;q11) in an acute lymphoblastic leukemia of B-cell type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, D; Bernard, O; Della Valle, V; Leblanc, T; Berger, R; Larsen, C J

    1996-02-15

    We have reported previously a preliminary study of a t(9;14)(p21-22; q11) in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This translocation had rearranged the TCRA/D locus on chromosome band 14q11 and the locus encoding the tumor suppressor gene P16INK4/MTS1 (P16) on band 9p21 (D. Duro et al., Oncogene, 11: 21-29, 1995). In the present report, the breakpoints were precisely localized on each chromosome partner. On the 14q- derivative, the sequence derived from chromosome 9 was interrupted at 1.0 kb upstream of the first exon of P16, close to a consensus recombination heptamer, CACTGTG. In addition, the chromosome 14 breakpoint was localized at the end of the TCRD2 (delta 2) segment, and 22 residues with unknown origin were present at the translocation junction. On the 9p+ derivative, chromosome 9 sequences were in continuity with those displaced onto chromosome 14, and the 14q11 breakpoint was located within TCRJA29 segment. These features are consistent with aberrant activity of the TCR gene recombinase complex. Although all three coding exons of P16 were displaced onto the chromosome 14q-derivative, no P16 transcript was detected in the leukemic cells. Because the region spanning the P16 exon 1 was not inactivated by methylation and because the other P16 allele was deleted, the implication is that the chromosome breakpoint was likely to disrupt regulatory elements involved in the normal expression of the gene. As a whole, then, our results show that translocations affecting band 9p21 can participate to the inactivation of P16, thus justifying a systematic survey of translocations of the 9p21 band in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  7. A familial pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 associated with a microdeletion of 163 kb and microduplication of 288 kb at 11p13 and 11q22.3 without aniridia or eye anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balay, Lara; Totten, Ellen; Okada, Luna; Zell, Sidney; Ticho, Benjamin; Israel, Jeannette; Kogan, Jillene

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of 11p13 involving MPPED2, DCDC5, DCDC1, DNAJC24, IMMP1L, and ELP4 are previously reported to have downstream transcriptional effects on the expression of PAX6, due to a downstream regulatory region (DRR). Currently, no clear genotype-phenotype correlations have been established allowing for conclusive information regarding the exact location of the PAX6 DRR, though its location has been approximated in mouse models to be within the Elp4 gene. Of the clinical reports currently published examining patients with intact PAX6 genes but harboring deletions identified in genes downstream of PAX6, 100% indicate phenotypes which include aniridia, whereas approximately half report additional eye deformities, autism, or intellectual disability. In this clinical report, we present a 12-year-old male patient, his brother, and mother with pericentric inversions of chromosome 11 associated with submicroscopic interstitial deletions of 11p13 and duplications of 11q22.3. The inversions were identified by standard cytogenetic analysis; microarray and FISH detected the chromosomal imbalance. The patient's phenotype includes intellectual disability, speech abnormalities, and autistic behaviors, but interestingly neither the patient, his brother, nor mother have aniridia or other eye anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, these findings in three family members represent the only reported cases with 11p13 deletions downstream of PAX6 not demonstrating phenotypic characteristics of aniridia or abnormal eye development. Although none of the deleted genes are obvious candidates for the patient's phenotype, the absence of aniridia in the presence of this deletion in all three family members further delineates the location of the DRR for PAX6. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Heterogeneity of chromosome 22 breakpoint in Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, J.; Griffin, C.A.; Ar-Rushdi, A.

    1986-01-01

    In chronic myelogenous leukemias (CML) with the t(9;22)(q34;q11) chromosome translocation the breakpoints on chromosome 22 occur within a 5.8-kilobase segment of DNA referred to as breakpoint cluster region (bcr). The same cytogenetically indinstinguishable translocation occurs in approximately 10% of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemias (ALL). In this study the authors have investigated the chromosome breakpoints in several cases of ALL carrying the t(9;22) translocation. In three of five cases of ALL they found that the bcr region was not involved in the chromosome rearrangement and that the 22q11 chromosome breakpoints were proximal (5') to the bcr region at band 22q11. In addition, they observed normal size bcr and c-alb transcripts in an ALL cell line carrying the t(9;22) translocation. They conclude, therefore, that if c-alb is inappropriately expressed in ALL cells without bcr rearrangements, the genetic mechanism of activation must be different from that reported for CML

  9. Mapping Breakpoints of Complex Chromosome Rearrangements Involving a Partial Trisomy 15q23.1-q26.2 Revealed by Next Generation Sequencing and Conventional Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Pan

    Full Text Available Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs, which are rather rare in the whole population, may be associated with aberrant phenotypes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS and conventional techniques, could be used to reveal specific CCRs for better genetic counseling. We report the CCRs of a girl and her mother, which were identified using a combination of NGS and conventional techniques including G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and PCR. The girl demonstrated CCRs involving chromosomes 3 and 8, while the CCRs of her mother involved chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 11 and 15. HumanCytoSNP-12 Chip analysis identified a 35.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 15q21.3-q26.2 in the proband and a 1.6 Mb microdeletion at chromosome 15q21.3 in her mother. The proband inherited the rearranged chromosomes 3 and 8 from her mother, and the duplicated region on chromosome 15 of the proband was inherited from the mother. Approximately one hundred genes were identified in the 15q21.3-q26.2 duplicated region of the proband. In particular, TPM1, SMAD6, SMAD3, and HCN4 may be associated with her heart defects, and HEXA, KIF7, and IDH2 are responsible for her developmental and mental retardation. In addition, we suggest that a microdeletion on the 15q21.3 region of the mother, which involved TCF2, TCF12, ADMA10 and AQP9, might be associated with mental retardation. We delineate the precise structures of the derivative chromosomes, chromosome duplication origin and possible molecular mechanisms for aberrant phenotypes by combining NGS data with conventional techniques.

  10. Brief Report: Visual-Spatial Deficit in a 16-Year-Old Girl with Maternally Derived Duplication of Proximal 15q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Martel, Claire; Wilson, Anna; Dechambre, Nicole; Amy, Celine; Duverger, Ludovic; Guile, Jean-Marc; Pipiras, Eva; Benzacken, Brigitte; Cave, Helene; Cohen, Laurent; Heron, Delphine; Plaza, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Duplications of chromosome 15 may be one of the most common single genetic causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), aside from fragile X. Most of the cases are associated with maternally derived interstitial duplication involving 15q11-13. This case report describes a female proband with a maternally derived interstitial duplication of proximal…

  11. Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome and DiGeorge sequence with meningomyelocele and deletions of the 22q11 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, R.E.; Pillers, D.M.; Merkens, M.; Magenis, R.E.; Zonana, J. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Driscoll, D.A.; Emanuel, B.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Approximately 5% of children with neural tube defects (NTDs) have a congenital heart defect and/or cleft lip and palate. The cause of isolated meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, or cleft lip and palate has been largely thought to be multifactorial. However, chromosomal, teratogenic, and single gene causes of combinations of NTDs with congenital heart defects and/or cleft lip and palate have been reported. We report on 3 patients with meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, and 22q11 deletions. Two of the children had the clinical diagnosis of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS); both have bifid uvula. The third child had DiGeorge sequence (DGS). The association of NTDs with 22q11 deletion has not been reported previously. An accurate diagnosis of the 22q11 deletion is critical as this micro-deletion and its associated clinical problems is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait due to the inheritance of the deletion-bearing chromosome. We recommend that all children with NTDs and congenital heart defects, with or without cleft palate, have cytogenetic and molecular studies performed to detect 22q11 deletions. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Confirmation that the conotruncal anomaly face syndrome is associated with a deletion within 22q11.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Rumiko; Takao, Atsuyoshi; Kimura, Misa; Kondo, Chisato; Ando, Masahiko; Momma, Kazuo; Imamura, Shin-ichiro [Heart Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Joh-o, Kunitaka [Welfare Pension Hospital, Kyushu (Japan); Ikeda, Kazuo [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan); Nishibatake, Makoto [Kagoshima Seikyo Hospital (Japan)

    1994-11-15

    The so-called {open_quotes}conotruncal anomaly face syndrome{close_quotes} (CTAFS) is characterized by a peculiar facial appearance associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), especially cardiac outflow tract defects such as tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), double outlet ring ventricle (DORV), and truncus arteriosus (TAC). CTAFS and the DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) have many similar phenotypic characteristics, suggesting that they share a common cause. In many cases DGA is known to be associated with monosomy for a region of chromosome 22q11.2. Fifty CTAFS patients and 10 DGA patients, 11 parents couples and 10 mothers of CTAFS patients, and 3 parents couples and 2 mothers of DGA patients were examined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the N25 (D22S75) DGCR probe (Oncor). Monosomy for a region of 22q11.2 was found in 42 CTAFS, 9 DGA, 4 mothers, and 1 father who had CTAF without CHD. The remaining 8 CTAFS patients, 1 DGA patient and 1 mother who had questionable CTAF without CHD, showed no such chromosome abnormality. For the control, 60 patients who had CHD without CTAF or other know malformation syndromes were examined and had no deletion of 22q11.2. Therefore, we conclude that CTAFS is a part of the CATCH 22 syndrome; cardiac defects, abnormal faces, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia (CATCH) resulting from 22q11.2 deletions. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A Quantitative Electrophysiological Biomarker of Duplication 15q11.2-q13.1 Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Frohlich

    Full Text Available Duplications of 15q11.2-q13.1 (Dup15q syndrome are highly penetrant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD. A distinct electrophysiological (EEG pattern characterized by excessive activity in the beta band has been noted in clinical reports. We asked whether EEG power in the beta band, as well as in other frequency bands, distinguished children with Dup15q syndrome from those with non-syndromic ASD and then examined the clinical correlates of this electrophysiological biomarker in Dup15q syndrome.In the first study, we recorded spontaneous EEG from children with Dup15q syndrome (n = 11, age-and-IQ-matched children with ASD (n = 10 and age-matched typically developing (TD children (n = 9 and computed relative power in 6 frequency bands for 9 regions of interest (ROIs. Group comparisons were made using a repeated measures analysis of variance. In the second study, we recorded spontaneous EEG from a larger cohort of individuals with Dup15q syndrome (n = 27 across two sites and examined age, epilepsy, and duplication type as predictors of beta power using simple linear regressions.In the first study, spontaneous beta1 (12-20 Hz and beta2 (20-30 Hz power were significantly higher in Dup15q syndrome compared with both comparison groups, while delta (1-4 Hz was significantly lower than both comparison groups. Effect sizes in all three frequency bands were large (|d| > 1. In the second study, we found that beta2 power was significantly related to epilepsy diagnosis in Dup15q syndrome.Here, we have identified an electrophysiological biomarker of Dup15q syndrome that may facilitate clinical stratification, treatment monitoring, and measurement of target engagement for future clinical trials. Future work will investigate the genetic and neural underpinnings of this electrophysiological signature as well as the functional consequences of excessive beta oscillations in Dup15q syndrome.

  14. Hearing loss in a mouse model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Fuchs

    Full Text Available 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear, including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM.

  15. MicroRNA Dysregulation, Gene Networks, and Risk for Schizophrenia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merico, Daniele; Costain, Gregory; Butcher, Nancy J.; Warnica, William; Ogura, Lucas; Alfred, Simon E.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the etiology of schizophrenia is increasingly recognized. Microdeletions at chromosome 22q11.2 are recurrent structural variants that impart a high risk for schizophrenia and are found in up to 1% of all patients with schizophrenia. The 22q11.2 deletion region overlaps gene DGCR8, encoding a subunit of the miRNA microprocessor complex. We identified miRNAs overlapped by the 22q11.2 microdeletion and for the first time investigated their predicted target genes, and those implicated by DGCR8, to identify targets that may be involved in the risk for schizophrenia. The 22q11.2 region encompasses seven validated or putative miRNA genes. Employing two standard prediction tools, we generated sets of predicted target genes. Functional enrichment profiles of the 22q11.2 region miRNA target genes suggested a role in neuronal processes and broader developmental pathways. We then constructed a protein interaction network of schizophrenia candidate genes and interaction partners relevant to brain function, independent of the 22q11.2 region miRNA mechanisms. We found that the predicted gene targets of the 22q11.2 deletion miRNAs, and targets of the genome-wide miRNAs predicted to be dysregulated by DGCR8 hemizygosity, were significantly represented in this schizophrenia network. The findings provide new insights into the pathway from 22q11.2 deletion to expression of schizophrenia, and suggest that hemizygosity of the 22q11.2 region may have downstream effects implicating genes elsewhere in the genome that are relevant to the general schizophrenia population. These data also provide further support for the notion that robust genetic findings in schizophrenia may converge on a reasonable number of final pathways. PMID:25484875

  16. Seizures as the first manifestation of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a 40-year old man: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Adriano R; Kosuri, Kalyan; Wei, Sainan; Chick, Davoren

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is the most common human deletion syndrome. It typically presents early in life and is rarely considered in adult patients. As part of the manifestations of this condition, patients can have parathyroid glandular involvement ranging from hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism to normocalcemia with normal parathryroid hormone levels. The first manifestation of the syndrome might be seizures due to profound hypocalcemia. Case presentation A 4...

  17. Mapping of four distinct BCR-related loci to chromosome region 22q11: order of BCR loci relative to chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia breakpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croce, C.M.; Huebner, K.; Isobe, M.; Fainstain, E.; Lifshitz, B.; Shtivelman, E.; Canaani, E.

    1987-01-01

    A probe derived from the 3' region of the BCR gene (breakpoint cluster region gene) detects four distinct loci in the human genome. One of the loci corresponds to the complete BCR gene, whereas the other contain a 3' segment of the gene. After HindIII cleavage of human DNA, these four loci are detected as 23-, 19-, 13-, and 9-kikobase-pair fragments, designated BCR4, BCR3, BCR2, and BCR1, respectively, with BCR1 deriving from the original complete BCR gene. All four BCR loci segregate 100% concordantly with human chromosome 22 in a rodent-human somatic cell hybrid panel and are located at chromosome region 22q11.2 by chromosomal in situ hybridization. The BCR2 and BCR4 loci are amplified in leukemia cell line K562 cells, indicating that they fall within the amplification unit that includes immunoglobulin λ light chain locus (IGL) and ABL locus on the K562 Philadelphia chromosome (Ph 1 ). Similarly, in mouse-human hybrids retaining a Ph 1 chromosome derived from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia-in the absence of the 9q + and 22, only BCR2 and BCR4 loci are retained. Thus, the order of loci on chromosome 22 is centromere → BCR2, BCR4, and IGL → BCR1 → BCR3 → SIS, possibly eliminating BCR2 and BCR4 loci as candidate targets for juxtaposition to the ABL gene in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia Ph 1 chromosome

  18. Identifying patterns of anxiety and depression in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: comorbidity predicts behavioral difficulties and impaired functional communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David D; Beaton, Elliott A; Weems, Carl F; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a complex genetic disorder with a variable clinical presentation that can include cardiac, neural, immunological, and psychological issues. Previous studies have measured elevated anxiety and depression in children with 22q11.2DS. Comorbity of anxiety and depression is well established in the pediatric literature but the nature of comorbidity patterns has not been empirically established in children with 22q11.2DS. Comorbidity of anxiety and depression has important implications for treatment and prognosis, and may be a marker of risk in this population of children at high-risk for developing schizophrenia. Participants were 131 boys and girls ages 8-14 with (n=76) and without (n=55) 22q11.2DS and their mothers. Children and mothers independently completed self- and parent-report measures of anxiety and depression. Mothers also completed measures of behavioral functioning including the Behavioral Assessment for Children, 2nd ed. (BASC-2). Cluster analyses were conducted to test if theoretically based groupings of anxiety and depression could be identified. We hypothesized four psychological profiles based on child- and mother-reports: low/no anxiety and low/no depression, higher depression and low/no anxiety, higher anxiety and no/low depression, and a comorbid profile of higher anxiety and higher depression. BASC-2 subscale scores were then compared across subgroups of children to determine if a comorbid profile would predict greater behavioral difficulties. In the full sample of children both with and without 22q11.2DS, cluster analyses of self and maternal reported anxiety and depression revealed the expected subgroups: (1) a group of children with higher anxiety/lower depression (anxious); (2) a group with primary depression (lower anxiety/higher depression (depressed)); (3) a comorbid group with higher anxiety/higher depression (comorbid); and, (4) a lowest anxiety/lowest depression group (NP). Mothers

  19. Mirror-symmetric duplicated chromosome 21q with minor proximal deletion, and with neocentromere in a child without the classical Down syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbi, G; Kennerknecht, I; Wöhr, G; Avramopoulos, D; Karadima, G; Petersen, M B

    2000-03-13

    We report on a mentally retarded child with multiple minor anomalies and an unusually rearranged chromosome 21. This der(21) chromosome has a deletion of 21p and of proximal 21q, whereas the main portion of 21q is duplicated leading to a mirror-symmetric appearance with the mirror axis at the breakpoint. The centromere is only characterized by a secondary constriction (with a centromeric index of a G chromosome) at an unexpected distal position, but fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with either chromosome specific or with all human centromeres alpha satellite DNA shows no cross hybridization. Thus, the marker chromosome represents a further example of an "analphoid marker with neocentromere." Molecular analysis using polymorphic markers on chromosome 21 verified a very small monosomic segment of the proximal long arm of chromosome 21, and additionally trisomy of the remaining distal segment. Although trisomic for almost the entire 21q arm, our patient shows no classical Down syndrome phenotype, but only a few minor anomalies found in trisomy 21 and in monosomy of proximal 21q, respectively. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The hippocampi of children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have localized anterior alterations that predict severity of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Julia A; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi; Kalish, Kristopher; Lee, Aaron; Hunsaker, Michael R; Schumann, Cynthia M; Carmichael, Owen T; Simon, Tony J

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have an elevated risk for schizophrenia, which increases with history of childhood anxiety. Altered hippocampal morphology is a common neuroanatomical feature of 22q11.2DS and idiopathic schizophrenia. Relating hippocampal structure in children with 22q11.2DS to anxiety and impaired cognitive ability could lead to hippocampus-based characterization of psychosis-proneness in this at-risk population. We measured hippocampal volume using a semiautomated approach on MRIs collected from typically developing children and children with 22q11.2DS. We then analyzed hippocampal morphology with Localized Components Analysis. We tested the modulating roles of diagnostic group, hippocampal volume, sex and age on local hippocampal shape components. Lastly, volume and shape components were tested as covariates of IQ and anxiety. We included 48 typically developing children and 69 children with 22q11.2DS in our study. Hippocampal volume was reduced bilaterally in children with 22q11.2DS, and these children showed greater variation in the shape of the anterior hippocampus than typically developing children. Children with 22q11.2DS had greater inward deformation of the anterior hippocampus than typically developing children. Greater inward deformation of the anterior hippocampus was associated with greater severity of anxiety, specifically fear of physical injury, within the 22q11.2DS group. Shape alterations are not specific to hippocampal subfields. Alterations in the structure of the anterior hippocampus likely affect function and may impact limbic circuitry. We suggest these alterations potentially contribute to anxiety symptoms in individuals with 22q11.2DS through modulatory pathways. Altered hippocampal morphology may be uniquely linked to anxiety risk factors for schizophrenia, which could be a powerful neuroanatomical marker of schizophrenia risk and hence protection.

  1. 11p15 duplication and 13q34 deletion with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Dorota; Kugaudo, Monika; Tańska, Anna; Wawrzkiewicz-Witkowska, Angelika; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Marzena; Cieślikowska, Agata; Ciara, Elżbieta; Krajewska-Walasek, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Here we report a patient with 11p15.4p15.5 duplication and 13q34 deletion presenting with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and moderate deficiency of factor VII (FVII). The duplication was initially diagnosed on methylation-sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Array comparative genome hybridization confirmed its presence and indicated a 13q34 distal deletion. The patient's clinical symptoms, including developmental delay and facial dysmorphism, were typical of BWS with paternal 11p15 trisomy. Partial 13q monosomy in this patient is associated with moderate deficiency of FVII and may also overlap with a few symptoms of paternal 11p15 trisomy such as developmental delay and some facial features. To our knowledge this is the first report of 11p15.4p15.5 duplication associated with deletion of 13q34 and FVII deficiency. Moreover, this report emphasizes the importance of detailed clinical as well as molecular examinations in patients with BWS features and developmental delay. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Analysis of autism susceptibility gene loci on chromosomes 1p, 4p, 6q, 7q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17q, 19q and 22q in Finnish multiplex families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auranen, M; Nieminen, T; Majuri, S; Vanhala, R; Peltonen, L; Järvelä, I

    2000-05-01

    The role of genetic factors in the etiology of the autistic spectrum of disorders has clearly been demonstrated. Ten chromosomal regions, on chromosomes 1p, 4p, 6q, 7q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17q, 19q and 22q have potentially been linked to autism.1-8 We have analyzed these chromosomal regions in a total of 17 multiplex families with autism originating from the isolated Finnish population by pairwise linkage analysis and sib-pair analysis. Mild evidence for putative contribution was found only with the 1p chromosomal region in the susceptibility to autism. Our data suggest that additional gene loci exist for autism which will be detectable in and even restricted to the isolated Finnish population.

  3. Constitutional Tandem Duplication of 9q34 that Truncates EHMT1 in a Child with Ganglioglioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hannah C.; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Kadapakkam, Meena; Legay, Hélène; Su, Jack; Lupski, James R.; Plon, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Point mutations of EHMT1 or deletions and duplications of chromosome 9q34.3 are found in patients with variable neurologic and developmental disorders. Here, we present a child with congenital cataract, developmental and speech delay who developed a metastatic ganglioglioma with progression to anaplastic astrocytoma. Molecular analysis identified a novel constitutional tandem duplication in 9q34.3 with breakpoints in intron 1 of TRAF2 and intron 16 of EHMT1 generating a fusion transcript predicted to encode a truncated form of EHMT1. The ganglioglioma showed complex chromosomal aberrations with further duplication of the dup9q34. Thus, this unique tandem 9q34.3 duplication may impact brain tumor formation. PMID:21681934

  4. Hematological abnormalities and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is a common genetic disease characterized by broad phenotypic variability. Despite the small number of studies describing hematological alterations in individuals with 22q11DS, it appears that these abnormalities are more frequent than previously imagined. Thus, the objective of our study was to report on a patient with 22q11DS presenting thrombocytopenia and large platelets and to review the literature. The patient, a 13-year-old boy, was originally evaluated due to craniofacial dysmorphia and speech delay. He also had a history of behavioral changes, neuropsychomotor delay and recurrent otitis/sinusitis. The identification of a 22q11.2 microdeletion by fluorescent in situ hybridization diagnosed the syndrome. Despite his hematological alterations, he only had a history of epistaxis and bruising of the upper and lower limbs. Assessments of the prothrombin time, thrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time, fibrinogen levels and platelet aggregation (including the ristocetin induced platelet aggregation test were all normal. Hematological alterations observed in 22q11DS are directly related to the genetic disorder itself (especially in respect to deletion of the GPIb gene and secondary to some clinical findings, such as immunodeficiency. Macrothrombocytopenia is increasingly being considered a feature of the broad spectrum of 22q11DS and may potentially be a clinical marker for the syndrome.

  5. An affected core drives network integration deficits of the structural connectome in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Váša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is a genetic disease known to lead to cerebral structural alterations, which we study using the framework of the macroscopic white-matter connectome. We create weighted connectomes of 44 patients with 22q11DS and 44 healthy controls using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and perform a weighted graph theoretical analysis. After confirming global network integration deficits in 22q11DS (previously identified using binary connectomes, we identify the spatial distribution of regions responsible for global deficits. Next, we further characterize the dysconnectivity of the deficient regions in terms of sub-network properties, and investigate their relevance with respect to clinical profiles. We define the subset of regions with decreased nodal integration (evaluated using the closeness centrality measure as the affected core (A-core of the 22q11DS structural connectome. A-core regions are broadly bilaterally symmetric and consist of numerous network hubs — chiefly parietal and frontal cortical, as well as subcortical regions. Using a simulated lesion approach, we demonstrate that these core regions and their connections are particularly important to efficient network communication. Moreover, these regions are generally densely connected, but less so in 22q11DS. These specific disturbances are associated to a rerouting of shortest network paths that circumvent the A-core in 22q11DS, “de-centralizing” the network. Finally, the efficiency and mean connectivity strength of an orbito-frontal/cingulate circuit, included in the affected regions, correlate negatively with the extent of negative symptoms in 22q11DS patients, revealing the clinical relevance of present findings. The identified A-core overlaps numerous regions previously identified as affected in 22q11DS as well as in schizophrenia, which approximately 30–40% of 22q11DS patients develop.

  6. 19q12q13.2 duplication syndrome: neuropsychiatric long-term follow-up of a new case and literature update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacinovich R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Renata Nacinovich,1,2 Nicoletta Villa,3 Fiorenza Broggi,1,2 Cristina Tavaniello,1 Monica Bomba,1 Donatella Conconi,2 Serena Redaelli,2 Elena Sala,3 Marialuisa Lavitrano,2 Francesca Neri1,2 1Childhood and Adolescence Neuropsychiatric Unit, San Gerardo Hospital, 2School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano Bicocca, 3Medical Genetics Laboratory, Clinical Pathology Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Abstract: Genetic syndromes are well characterized by the phenotypic point of view, but little is known about their progression and patients’ quality of life. We report a 10-year neuropsychiatric follow-up of a boy with duplication of chromosome 19. Cytogenetic investigation was requested at the age of 5 years for psychomotor and speech delay. The genomic study identified an 8.17 Mb duplication on chromosome 19q12q13.2. We propose that the long-term follow-up of our patient would help to delineate the neuropsychiatric phenotype associated with 19q duplication. This study could be a model for further long-term research in the neuropsychiatric follow-up of patients with 19q duplication syndrome. Keywords: 19q duplication, neuropsychiatric follow-up, array-CGH

  7. Extra skeletal Soft Tissue Ewing?s Sarcoma with Variant Translocation of Chromosome t (4; 22) (q35; q12)-A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraj, Prashanth; H, Srinivas C; Rao, Raghavendra; Manohar, Sandesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ewing’s sarcomas is a rare primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) which has an annual incidence of 2.9 /million population in USA 1Jeffery Toretsky et al (2008) They are very uncommon in African and Asian population .lt is commonly associated with reciprocal translocation between chromosome 11 and 12 t (11:12) or less frequently the t(21 ;22)(q22;ql 2) translocation. It is highly aggressive tumor which is PAS- and CD99 (MIC2)-positive relatively few variant translocations have ...

  8. Angelman syndrome associated with an inversion of chromosome 15q11.2q24.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, V.; Knoll, J.H.M.; Wagstaff, J.; Lalande, M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) most frequently results from large ({ge}5 Mb) de novo deletions of chromosome 15q11-q13. The deletions are exclusively of maternal origin, and a few cases of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 have been reported. The latter finding indicates that AS is caused by the absence of a maternal contribution to the imprinted 15q11-q13 region. Failure to inherit a paternal 15q11-q13 contribution results in the clinically distinct disorder of Prader-Willi syndrome. Cases of AS resulting from translocations or pericentric inversions have been observed to be associated with deletions, and there have been no confirmed reports of balanced rearrangements in AS. We report the first such case involving a paracentric inversion with a breakpoint located {approximately}25 kb proximal to the reference marker D15S10. This inversion has been inherited from a phenotypically normal mother. No deletion is evident by molecular analysis in this case, by use of cloned fragments mapped to within {approximately}1 kb of the inversion breakpoint. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain the relationship between the inversion and the AS phenotype. 47 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Analysis of 22q11.2 deletions by FISH in a series of velocardiofacial syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravnan, J.B.; Golabi, M.; Lebo, R.V. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Deletions in chromosome 22 band q11.2 have been associated with velocardiofacial (VCF or Shprintzen) syndrome and the DiGeorge anomaly. A study of VCF patients evaluated at the UCSF Medical Center was undertaken to correlate disease phenotype with presence or absence of a deletion. Patients referred for this study had at least two of the following: dysmorphic facial features, frequent ear infections or hearing loss, palate abnormalities, thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcemia, congenital heart defect, hypotonia, and growth or language delay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the DiGeorge critical region probe N25 was used to classify patients according to the presence or absence of a deletion in 22q11.2, and the results were compared to clinical characteristics. We have completed studies on 58 patients with features of VCF. Twenty-one patients (36%) were found to have a deletion in 22q11.2 by FISH. A retrospective study of archived slides from 14 patients originally studied only by prometaphase GTG banding found six patients had a deletion detected by FISH; of these, only two had a microscopically visible chromosome deletion. Our study of 11 sets of parents of children with the deletion found two clinically affected mothers with the deletion, including one with three of three children clinically affected. A few patients who did not fit the classical VCF description had a 22q11.2 deletion detected by FISH. These included one patient with both cleft lip and palate, and another with developmental delay and typical facial features but no cardiac or palate abnormalities. Both patients with the DiGeorge anomaly as part of VCF had the deletion. On the other hand, a number of patients diagnosed clinically with classical VCF did not have a detectable deletion. This raises the question whether they represent a subset of patients with a defect of 22q11.2 not detected by the N25 probe, or whether they represent a phenocopy of VCF.

  10. Genomic Anatomy of a Premier Major Histocompatibility Complex Paralogous Region on Chromosome 1q21–q22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Takashi; Ando, Asako; Suto, Yumiko; Kasai, Fumio; Shigenari, Atsuko; Takishima, Nobusada; Kikkawa, Eri; Iwata, Kyoko; Kuwano, Yuko; Kitamura, Yuka; Matsuzawa, Yumiko; Sano, Kazumi; Nogami, Masahiro; Kawata, Hisako; Li, Suyun; Fukuzumi, Yasuhito; Yamazaki, Masaaki; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Tamiya, Gen; Kohda, Atsushi; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Ikemura, Toshimichi; Soeda, Eiichi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Minoru; Bahram, Seiamak; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2001-01-01

    Human chromosomes 1q21–q25, 6p21.3–22.2, 9q33–q34, and 19p13.1–p13.4 carry clusters of paralogous loci, to date best defined by the flagship 6p MHC region. They have presumably been created by two rounds of large-scale genomic duplications around the time of vertebrate emergence. Phylogenetically, the 1q21–25 region seems most closely related to the 6p21.3 MHC region, as it is only the MHC paralogous region that includes bona fide MHC class I genes, the CD1 and MR1 loci. Here, to clarify the genomic structure of this model MHC paralogous region as well as to gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the entire quadriplication process, a detailed analysis of a critical 1.7 megabase (Mb) region was performed. To this end, a composite, deep, YAC, BAC, and PAC contig encompassing all five CD1 genes and linking the centromeric +P5 locus to the telomeric KRTC7 locus was constructed. Within this contig a 1.1-Mb BAC and PAC core segment joining CD1D to FCER1A was fully sequenced and thoroughly analyzed. This led to the mapping of a total of 41 genes (12 expressed genes, 12 possibly expressed genes, and 17 pseudogenes), among which 31 were novel. The latter include 20 olfactory receptor (OR) genes, 9 of which are potentially expressed. Importantly, CD1, SPTA1, OR, and FCERIA belong to multigene families, which have paralogues in the other three regions. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that 12 of the 13 expressed genes in the 1q21–q22 region around the CD1 loci are immunologically relevant. In addition to CD1A-E, these include SPTA1, MNDA, IFI-16, AIM2, BL1A, FY and FCERIA. This functional convergence of structurally unrelated genes is reminiscent of the 6p MHC region, and perhaps represents the emergence of yet another antigen presentation gene cluster, in this case dedicated to lipid/glycolipid antigens rather than antigen-derived peptides. [The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to the DDBJ, EMBL, and GenBank databases under

  11. Detecting 22q11.2 deletions by use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on DNA from neonatal dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina M; Agergaard, Peter; Olesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11 deletion syndrome, which is caused by a 1.5- to 3.0-megabase hemizygous deletion in chromosome 22q11.2, has a prevalence of 1/2000 to 1/4000. However, the syndrome presents with highly variable phenotypes and thus may be underestimated among Danish newborns. To establish a true incidenc...

  12. An Fgf8 Mouse Mutant Phenocopies Human 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Deborah U.; Fotheringham, Lori K.; Brewer, Judson A.; Muglia, Louis J.; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Capecchi, Mario R.; Moon, Anne M.

    2002-01-01

    Deletion of chromosome 22q11, the most common microdeletion detected in humans, is associated with a life-threatening array of birth defects. Although 90% of affected individuals share the same three megabase deletion, their phenotype is highly variable and includes craniofacial and cardiovascular anomalies, hypoplasia or aplasia of the thymus with associated deficiency of T cells, hypocalcemia with hypoplasia or aplasia of the parathyroids, and a variety of central nervous system abnormaliti...

  13. Síndrome de deleção 22q11 e cardiopatias congênitas complexas 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and complex congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a frequência da síndrome de deleção 22q11 (SD22q11 entre pacientes portadores de cardiopatia congênita do tipo complexa. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por uma coorte prospectiva e consecutiva de pacientes com cardiopatia complexa em sua primeira hospitalização em uma unidade de tratamento intensivo cardiológica de um hospital pediátrico. Para cada paciente foi preenchida uma ficha de avaliação, com coleta de dados clínicos, e realizado o cariótipo de alta resolução e técnica de hibridização in situ fluorescente (FISH com pesquisa de microdeleção 22q11. Os defeitos cardíacos foram classificados por um cardiologista participante do estudo. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 66 pacientes. Quanto à análise cariotípica, alterações foram observadas em cinco pacientes (7,6%; contudo, nenhum deles apresentava deleção 22q11. A avaliação pela técnica de FISH pôde ser realizada com sucesso em 65 pacientes, sendo que a microdeleção 22q11 foi identificada em dois (3,1%. Dos 66 pacientes com defeitos complexos, 52 eram portadores de malformações do tipo conotruncal, sendo que em 51 a pesquisa para microdeleção 22q11 foi realizada. Os dois pacientes portadores da microdeleção 22q11 fizeram parte deste grupo, representando uma frequência de 3,9%. Eles apresentavam tetralogia de Fallot. CONCLUSÃO: A SD22q11 é uma anormalidade frequente entre pacientes com cardiopatias congênitas complexas e conotruncais. Variações da frequência da SD22q11 entre os estudos parecem estar associadas, principalmente, com a forma adotada para a seleção da amostra e às características da população em análise.OBJECTIVE: Investigate the frequency of 22q11 deletion syndrome among patients with complex congenital heart disease. METHODS: A prospective and consecutive cohort of patients with complex heart defects was evaluated in their first hospitalization at a cardiac intensive care unit of a pediatric

  14. Inversion of chromosome 7q22 and q36 as a sole abnormality presenting in myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hiroto; Shimura, Kazuho; Kuwahara, Saeko; Ohshiro, Muneo; Tsutsumi, Yasuhiko; Iwai, Toshiki; Horiike, Shigeo; Yokota, Shouhei; Ohkawara, Yasuo; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2014-08-05

    Deletions of chromosome 7 are often detected in myelodysplastic syndrome. The most commonly deleted segments are clustered at band 7q22. A critical gene is therefore suggested to be located in this region. We report a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome whose marrow cells carried an inversion of 7q22 and q36 as a sole karyotypic abnormality. How this extremely rare chromosomal aberration contributes to the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome should be clarified by accumulating clinical data of such cases. A 74-year-old Japanese man presented with pancytopenia incidentally detected by routine medical check-up. His complete blood cell counts revealed that his white blood cells had decreased to 2100/mm3, neutrophils 940/mm3, red blood cells 320×104/mm3, hemoglobin 11.1g/dL, hematocrit 33.1%, and platelets 12.6×104/mm3. Bone marrow examination showed normal cellularity with nucleated cells of 9.4×104/mm3. The proportion of blasts was 4%. A morphological examination showed only basophilic stippling of erythroblasts which was seen as dysplasia. According to World Health Organization classification, the diagnosis was myelodysplastic syndrome-u. Karyotypic analysis showed 46,XY,inv(7)(q22q36) in all of 20 metaphases examined. Additional analysis revealed the karyotype of his lymphocytes was 46,XY. He is asymptomatic and cytopenia has slowly progressed. To the best of our knowledge, this karyotype from a clinical sample of de novo malignancies has never been documented although the identical karyotype from secondary myelodysplastic syndrome was reported. Despite the extremely low frequency, inversion of 7q22 appears to play a crucial role for myelodysplastic syndrome in this patient.

  15. Comprehensive review of the duplication 3q syndrome and report of a patient with Currarino syndrome and de novo duplication 3q26.32-q27.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworschak, G C; Crétolle, C; Hilger, A; Engels, H; Korsch, E; Reutter, H; Ludwig, M

    2017-05-01

    Partial duplications of the long arm of chromosome 3, dup(3q), are a rare but well-described condition, sharing features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Around two thirds of cases are derived from unbalanced translocations, whereas pure dup(3q) have rarely been reported. Here, we provide an extensive review of the literature on dup(3q). This search revealed several patients with caudal malformations and anomalies, suggesting that caudal malformations or anomalies represent an inherent phenotypic feature of dup(3q). In this context, we report a patient with a pure de novo duplication 3q26.32-q27.2. The patient had the clinical diagnosis of Currarino syndrome (CS) (characterized by the triad of sacral anomalies, anorectal malformations and a presacral mass) and additional features, frequently detected in patients with a dup(3q). Mutations within the MNX1 gene were found to be causative in CS but no MNX1 mutation could be detected in our patient. Our comprehensive search for candidate genes located in the critical region of the duplication 3q syndrome, 3q26.3-q27, revealed a so far neglected phenotypic overlap of dup(3q) and the Pierpont syndrome, associated with a mutation of the TBL1XR1 gene on 3q26.32. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Deleção 22q11.2 em pacientes com defeito cardíaco conotruncal e fenótipo da síndrome da deleção 22q11.2 Deleción 22q11.2 en pacientes con defecto cardiaco conotruncal y fenotipo del síndrome de la deleción 22q11.2 22q11.2 deletion in patients with conotruncal heart defect and del22q syndrome phenotype

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    Sintia Iole Nogueira Belangero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A síndrome da deleção 22q11.2 é a mais freqüente síndrome de microdeleção humana. O fenótipo é altamente variável e caracterizado por defeito cardíaco conotruncal, dismorfias faciais, insuficiência velofaríngea, dificuldade de aprendizagem e retardo mental. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a freqüência da deleção 22q11.2 em uma amostra brasileira de indivíduos portadores de cardiopatia conontrucal isolada e do fenótipo da síndrome da deleção 22q11.2. MÉTODOS: Vinte e nove pacientes foram estudados por meio de citogenética clássica, por hibridação in situ fluorescente (FISH e por técnicas moleculares. RESULTADOS: A análise citogenética por meio de bandamento G revelou cariótipo normal em todos os pacientes, com exceção de um que apresentou cariótipo 47,XX,+idic(22(q11.2. Com o uso de técnicas moleculares, a deleção foi observada em 25% dos pacientes, todos portadores do fenótipo da síndrome da deleção 22q11.2. Em nenhum dos casos, a deleção foi herdada dos pais. A freqüência da deleção 22q11.2 foi maior no grupo de pacientes portadores do espectro clínico da síndrome da deleção 22q11.2 do que no grupo de pacientes com cardiopatia conotruncal isolada. CONCLUSÃO: A investigação da presença da deleção e sua correlação com os dados clínicos dos pacientes podem auxiliar os pacientes e suas famílias a terem um melhor aconselhamento genético e um seguimento clínico mais adequado.FUNDAMENTO: El síndrome de la deleción 22q11.2 es el más frecuente síndrome de microdeleción humana. El fenotipo, altamente variable, se caracteriza por defecto cardiaco conotruncal, dismorfias faciales, insuficiencia velofaríngea, dificultad de aprendizaje y retardo mental. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la frecuencia tanto de la deleción 22q11.2 en una muestra brasileña de individuos portadores de cardiopatía conotrucal aislada, como del fenotipo del s

  17. PWS/AS MS-MLPA Confirms Maternal Origin of 15q11.2 Microduplication

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    Angelika J. Dawson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal region of the long arm of chromosome 15q11.2-q13 is associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including Prader-Willi (PWS and Angelman (AS syndromes, autism, and other developmental abnormalities resulting from deletions and duplications. In addition, this region encompasses imprinted genes that cause PWS or AS, depending on the parent-of-origin. This imprinting allows for diagnosis of PWS or AS based on methylation status using methylation sensitive (MS multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA. Maternally derived microduplications at 15q11.2-q13 have been associated with autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Multiple methods have been used to determine the parent-of-origin for 15q11.2-q13 microdeletions and microduplications. In the present study, a four-year-old nondysmorphic female patient with developmental delay was found to have a de novo ~5 Mb duplication within 15q11.2 by oligonucleotide genomic array. In order to determine the significance of this microduplication to the clinical phenotype, the parent-of-origin needed to be identified. The PWS/AS MS-MLPA assay is generally used to distinguish between deletion and uniparental disomy (UPD of 15q11.2-q13, resulting in either PWS or AS. However, our study shows that PWS/AS MS-MLPA can also efficiently distinguish the parental origin of duplications of 15q11.2-q13.

  18. Renal cell carcinoma and a constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11.2): case report and review of the potential link between the constitutional t(11;22) and cancer.

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    Doyen, Jérôme; Carpentier, Xavier; Haudebourg, Juliette; Hoch, Benjamin; Karmous-Benailly, Houda; Ambrosetti, Damien; Fabas, Thibault; Amiel, Jean; Lambert, Jean-Claude; Pedeutour, Florence

    2012-11-01

    We observed a t(11;22)(q23-24;q11.2-12) and monosomy 3 in renal tumor cells from a 72-year-old man. The hypothesis of a primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (PPNET) located in the kidney was promptly excluded: Histologically, the tumor was a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and we did not observe an EWSR1 gene rearrangement. The constitutional origin of this alteration was established. We report on the second case of RCC in a patient with a constitutional t(11;22). The t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) is the main recurrent germline translocation in humans. Unbalanced translocation can be transmitted to the progeny and can cause Emanuel syndrome. Our observation alerts cancer cytogeneticists to the fortuitous discovery of the constitutional t(11;22) in tumor cells. This translocation appears grossly similar to the t(11;22)(q24;q12) of PPNET and should be evoked if present in all cells of a tumor other than PPNET. This is important when providing appropriate genetic counseling. Moreover, the potential oncogenic role of the t(11;22) and its predisposing risk of cancer are under debate. The family history of the patient revealed a disabled brother who died at an early age from colon cancer and a sister with breast cancer. This observation reopens the issue of a link between the constitutional t(11;22) and cancer, and the utility of cancer prevention workups for t(11;22) carriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chromosome 15q overgrowth syndrome: Prenatal diagnosis, molecular cytogenetic characterization, and perinatal findings in a fetus with dup(15(q26.2q26.3

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    Chih-Ping Chen

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: The present case provides evidence for prenatal overgrowth, craniosynostosis, and characteristic facial dysmorphism in association with a duplication of 15q26.2→q26.3 and a duplication of the IGF1R gene. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal overgrowth should include a differential diagnosis of the chromosome 15q overgrowth syndrome.

  20. Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11 deletion syndrome

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    Beverly A. Karpinski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS, a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia – debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward – within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V, glossopharyngeal (IX or vagus (X cranial nerves (CNs that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS.

  1. A de novo 11p12-p15.4 duplication in a patient with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, mental retardation, and dysmorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonietta; Striano, Pasquale; Gimelli, Stefania; Ciampa, Clotilde; Santulli, Lia; Caranci, Ferdinando; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Gimelli, Giorgio; Striano, Salvatore; Zara, Federico

    2010-03-01

    We report a 22-year-old male patient with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, mental retardation and dysmorphisms. Standard cytogenetic analysis revealed a de novo interstitial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p). High density array-CGH analysis showed that the rearrangement spans about 35Mb on chromosome 11p12-p15.4. Duplications of 11p are rare and usually involve the distal part of the chromosome arm (11p15), being not associated with epilepsy, whereas our patient showed a unique epileptic phenotype associated with mental retardation and dysmorphic features. The role of some rearranged genes in epilepsy pathogenesis in this patient is also discussed.

  2. Childhood cognitive development in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawner, Samuel J R A; Doherty, Joanne L; Moss, Hayley; Niarchou, Maria; Walters, James T R; Owen, Michael J; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2017-10-01

    Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with a high risk of childhood as well as adult psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia. Childhood cognitive deterioration in 22q11.2DS has previously been reported, but only in studies lacking a control sample. Aims To compare cognitive trajectories in children with 22q11.2DS and unaffected control siblings. Method A longitudinal study of neurocognitive functioning (IQ, executive function, processing speed and attention) was conducted in children with 22q11.2DS ( n = 75, mean age time 1 ( T 1 ) 9.9, time 2 ( T 2 ) 12.5) and control siblings ( n = 33, mean age T 1 10.6, T 2 13.4). Results Children with 22q11.2DS exhibited deficits in all cognitive domains. However, mean scores did not indicate deterioration. When individual trajectories were examined, some participants showed significant decline over time, but the prevalence was similar for 22q11.2DS and control siblings. Findings are more likely to reflect normal developmental fluctuation than a 22q11.2DS-specific abnormality. Conclusions Childhood cognitive deterioration is not associated with 22q11.2DS. Contrary to previous suggestions, we believe it is premature to recommend repeated monitoring of cognitive function for identifying individual children with 22q11.2DS at high risk of developing schizophrenia. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  3. Complex Variant t(9;22 Chromosome Translocations in Five Cases of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

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    Ana Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph1 chromosome arising from the reciprocal t(9;22 translocation is found in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and results in the formation of the chimeric fusion gene BCR-ABL. However, a small proportion of patients with CML have simple or complex variants of this translocation, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11. We report five CML cases carrying variant Ph translocations involving both chromosomes 9 and 22 as well as chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 8, or 10. G-banding showed a reciprocal three-way translocation involving 3q21, 5q31, 7q32, 8q24, and 10q22 bands. BCR-ABL fusion signal on der(22 was found in all of the cases by FISH.

  4. Use of a human chromosome 11 radiation hybrid panel to map markers at 11q13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, D.; Richard, C. III; Meeker, T.C.; Maurer, S.; Evans, G.; Myers, R.M.; Cox, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    A human/hamster hybrid cell line containing human chromosome 11 was X-irradiated and 102-independent derivative lines were recovered. These 'radiation hybrids' contain random fragments of human chromosome 11. This radiation hybrid panel was used to score the retention of markers at band 11q13. Statistical analysis of marker co-retention patterns in the radiation hybrid panel permits a preliminary ordering and mapping of the markers used. The best order for six scored markers is: proximal - CD5 - CD20 - PGA - HST - BCL1 - SEA - distal. Additional markers are currently being scored. The six 11q13 markers above are spread over approximately 10-12 mB of DNA. The mapping data has implications for the identification of the bcl-1 gene. bcl-1 is the site of chromosome breakage in translocations associated with B lymphocytic malignancy. bcl-1 markers map at least 4 Mb away from any of four genes previously hypothesized to be activated by such translocations, thereby making them unlikely candidates for activation

  5. Psychopathology and cognition in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Maria; Zammit, Stanley; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Thapar, Anita; Tierling, Hayley M.; Owen, Michael J.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been reported to have high rates of cognitive and psychiatric problems. Aims To establish the nature and prevalence of psychiatric disorder and neurocognitive impairment in children with 22q11.2DS and test whether risk of psychopathology is mediated by the children’s intellectual impairment. Method Neurocognition and psychopathology were assessed in 80 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age 10.2 years, s.d. = 2.1) and 39 sibling controls (mean age 10.9 years, s.d. = 2.0). Results More than half (54%) of children with 22q11.2DS met diagnostic criteria for one or more DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorder. These children had lower IQ (mean 76.8, s.d. = 13.0) than controls (mean 108.6, s.d. = 15.2) (Ppsychopathology was not mediated by intellectual impairment. Conclusions 22q11.2DS is not related to a specific psychiatric phenotype in children. Moreover, the deletion has largely independent effects on IQ and risk of psychopathology, indicating that psychopathology in 22q11.2DS is not a non-specific consequence of generalised cognitive impairment. PMID:24115343

  6. Siblings with opposite chromosome constitutions, dup(2q)/del(7q) and del(2q)/dup(7q).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung Han; Shim, Jae Sun; Min, Kyunghoon; Lee, Hee Song; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Sang Hee; Hwang, Euna; Kim, Minyoung

    2014-01-15

    Chromosome 7q36 microdeletion syndrome is a rare genomic disorder characterized by underdevelopment of the brain, microcephaly, anomalies of the sex organs, and language problems. Developmental delay, intellectual disability, autistic spectrum disorders, BDMR syndrome, and unusual facial morphology are the key features of the chromosome 2q37 microdeletion syndrome. A genetic screening for two brothers with global developmental delay using high-resolution chromosomal analysis and subtelomeric multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification revealed subtelomeric rearrangements on the same sites of 2q37.2 and 7q35, with reversed deletion and duplication. Both of them showed dysmorphic facial features, severe disability of physical and intellectual development, and abnormal genitalia with differential abnormalities in their phenotypes. The family did not have abnormal genetic phenotypes. According to the genetic analysis of their parents, adjacent-1 segregation from their mother's was suggested as a mechanism of their gene mutation. By comparing the phenotypes of our patients with previous reports on similar patients, we tried to obtain the information of related genes and their chromosomal locations. © 2013.

  7. The dimensional structure of psychopathology in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Maria; Moore, Tyler M; Tang, Sunny X; Calkins, Monica E; McDonald-McGuinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E

    2017-09-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the strongest known genetic risk factors for developing schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11.2DS have high rates of neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood, while in adulthood ∼25% develop schizophrenia. Similar to the general population, high rates of comorbidity are common in 22q11.2DS. Employing a dimensional approach where psychopathology is examined at the symptom-level as complementary to diagnostic categories in a population at such high genetic risk for schizophrenia can help gain a better understanding of how psychopathology is structured as well as its genetic underpinnings. This is the first study to examine the dimensional structure of a wide spectrum of psychopathology in the context of a homogeneous genetic etiology like 22q11.2DS. We evaluated 331 individuals with 22q11.2DS, mean age (SD) = 16.9(8.7); 51% males, who underwent prospective comprehensive phenotyping. We sought to replicate previous findings by examining a bi-factor model that derives a general factor of psychopathology in addition to more specific dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing, externalizing and thought disorder). Psychopathology in 22q11.2DS was divided into one 'general psychopathology' factor and four specific dimensions (i.e., 'anxiety', 'mood', 'ADHD' and 'psychosis'). The 'psychosis' symptoms loaded strongly on the 'general psychopathology' factor. The similarity of the symptom structure of psychopathology between 22q11.2DS and community and clinical populations without the deletion indicate that 22q11.2DS can provide a model to explore alternative approaches to our current nosology. Our findings add to a growing literature indicating the need to reorganize current diagnostic classification systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurocognitive profile in psychotic versus nonpsychotic individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Ronnie; Yi, James; Calkins, Monica; Guri, Yael; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Zackai, Elaine H; Ruparel, Kosha; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Gothelf, Doron

    2016-10-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with increased rates of psychotic disorders and cognitive deficits, but large scale studies are needed to elucidate their interaction. The objective of this two-center study was to identify the neurocognitive phenotype of individuals with 22q11DS and psychotic disorders. We hypothesized that psychotic 22q11DS individuals compared to nonpsychotic deleted individuals would have more severe neurocognitive deficits, especially in executive function and social cognition. These deficits would be present when compared to IQ- matched individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS). Three groups were ascertained from the Tel Aviv and Philadelphia centers: 22q11DS individuals with a psychotic disorder (n=31), nonpsychotic 22q11DS (n=86) and typically-developing controls (TD, n=828). In Tel Aviv a group of individuals with WS (n=18) matched in IQ to the 22q11DS psychotic group was also included. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) was used to assess a wide-range of cognitive functions and all patients underwent structured psychiatric evaluations. 22q11DS individuals performed poorly on all CNB domains compared to TD. Participants with 22q11DS and psychosis, compared to nonpsychotic 22q11DS, had more severe deficits in global neurocognitive performance (GNP), executive function, social cognition and episodic memory domains. The primary deficits were also significant when comparing the Tel Aviv 22q11DS psychotic group to IQ-matched individuals with WS. In conclusion, 22q11DS individuals with a psychotic disorder have specific neurocognitive deficits that are reliably identified cross nationality using the CNB. These cognitive dysfunctions should be further studied as potential endophenotypes of psychosis in 22q11DS and as targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromosomal localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene to human chromosome 4q13. 1-q21. 1 and mouse chromosome 5

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    Kaiser, U.B.; Dushkin, H.; Beier, D.R.; Chin, W.W. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Altherr, M.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1994-04-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GRHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor on the cell surface of pituitary gonadotropes, where it serves to transduce signals from the extracellular ligand, the hypothalamic factor gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and to modulate the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The authors have localized the GRHR gene to the q13.1-q21.1 region of the human chromosome 4 using mapping panels of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids containing different human chromosomes or different regions of human chromosome 4. Furthermore, using linkage analysis of single-strand conformational polymorphisms, the murine GRHR gene was localized to mouse chromosome 5, linked to the endogenous retroviral marker Pmv-11. This is consistent with the evolutionary conservation of homology between these two regions, as has been previously suggested from comparative mapping of several other loci. The localization of the GRHR gene may be useful in the study of disorders of reproduction. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Allelic variations at the haploid TBX1 locus do not influence the cardiac phenotype in cases of 22q11 microdeletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelckel, Marie-Antoinette; Girardot, Lydie; Giusiano, Bernard; Levy, Nicolas; Philip, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Microdeletion at the 22q11 locus is characterised by a high clinical variability. Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most life-threatening manifestations of the syndrome and affect approximately 50% of patients carrying the deleted chromosome 22. The causes of this phenotype variability remain unknown although several hypotheses have been raised. It has been suggested that allelic variations at the haploid locus could modify the phenotypic expression. Regarding this hypothesis, TBX1 was thought to be a major candidate to the cardiac phenotype or its severity in patients carrying the 22q11 microdeletion. A mutational screening was performed in this gene, in a series of 39 deleted patients, with and without CHD. The results indicate that mutations in TBX1 are not likely to be involved in the cardiac phenotype observed in del22q11 patients.

  11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH screening for the 22q11.2 deletion in patients with clinical features of velocardiofacial syndrome but without cardiac anomalies

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    Paula Sandrin-Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, a condition associated with 22q11.2 deletions, is characterized by a typical facies, palatal anomalies, learning disabilities, behavioral disturbances and cardiac defects. We investigated the frequency of these chromosomal deletions in 16 individuals with VCFS features who presented no cardiac anomalies, one of the main characteristics of VCFS. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with the N25 (D22S75; 22q11.2 probe revealed deletions in ten individuals (62%. Therefore, even in the absence of cardiac anomalies testing for the 22q11.2 microdeletions in individuals showing other clinical features of this syndrome is recommended.

  12. A molecularly defined duplication set for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster

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    Venken, Koen J. T.; Popodi, Ellen; Holtzman, Stacy L.; Schulze, Karen L.; Park, Soo; Carlson, Joseph W.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Kaufman, Thomas C.

    2010-07-22

    We describe a molecularly defined duplication kit for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of 408 overlapping P[acman] BAC clones was used to create small duplications (average length 88 kb) covering the 22-Mb sequenced portion of the chromosome. The BAC clones were inserted into an attP docking site on chromosome 3L using C31 integrase, allowing direct comparison of different transgenes. The insertions complement 92% of the essential and viable mutations and deletions tested, demonstrating that almost all Drosophila genes are compact and that the current annotations of the genome are reasonably accurate. Moreover, almost all genes are tolerated at twice the normal dosage. Finally, we more precisely mapped two regions at which duplications cause diplo-lethality in males. This collection comprises the first molecularly defined duplication set to cover a whole chromosome in a multicellular organism. The work presented removes a long-standing barrier to genetic analysis of the Drosophila X chromosome, will greatly facilitate functional assays of X-linked genes in vivo, and provides a model for functional analyses of entire chromosomes in other species.

  13. 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome as a multidisciplinary problem

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    Marta Skoczyńska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome, known also under the name of DiGeorge syndrome, is the most frequent deletion in the human chromosome. Its prevalence is estimated at about 1:9,700 newborns, but this is probably an underestimation. In over 90% of cases, the disease is caused by de novo microdeletion in the long arm of chromosome 22, and more rarely by microdeletion of the short arm of this chromosome or by a gene TBX1 point mutation. The consequences of these genotypic disorders are developmental anomalies of the third and fourth pharyngeal arches during the foetal life, which leads to abnormal development of the thymus, parathyroid glands and major cardiac vessels. The characteristic triad of symptoms includes a cardiac defect, hypocalcaemic tetany (hypoparathyroidism and immunodeficiency. The syndrome may also manifest as facial dysmorphia, palate defects, gastrointestinal abnormalities, urogenital malformations, autoimmune diseases and psychiatric disorders. Standard tests to diagnose this syndrome are molecular studies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, array comparative genomic hybridization and a type of polymerase chain reaction: multiplex ligationdependent probe amplification. The therapy of DiGeorge syndrome may include: calcium supplementation, surgical correction of cardiac and palate defects, treatment of immunodeficiency by injections of immunoglobulins, stem cell transplantation or, in rare cases, thymus transplantation. The management of DiGeorge syndrome requires a multidisciplinary approach. Early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve patient’s chances for normal functioning in adult life.

  14. [Recombinant chromosome 4 with partial 4p deletion and 4q duplication inherited from paternal pericentric inversion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Se Jin; Cho, Eun Hae; Chey, Myoung-Jae; Shim, Gyu-Hong; Shin, Bo-Moon; Lee, Rae-Kyung; Ko, Ji-Kyung; Yoo, Soo Jin

    2010-02-01

    Pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 can give rise to 2 alternate recombinant (rec) chromosomesby duplication or deletion of 4p. The deletion of distal 4p manifests as Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). Here, we report the molecular cytogenetic findings and clinical manifestations observed in an infant with 46,XX,rec(4)dup(4q)inv(4)(p16q31.3)pat. The infant was delivered by Cesarean section at the 33rd week of gestation because pleural effusion and polyhydramnios were detected on ultrasonography. At birth, the infant showed no malformation or dysfunction, except for a preauricular skin tag. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of neonatal peripheral blood samples showed a gain of 38 Mb on 4q31.3-qter and a loss of 3 Mb on 4p16.3, and these results were consistent with WHS. At the last follow-up at 8 months of age (corrected age, 6 months), the infant had not achieved complete head control.

  15. A case of schizophrenia comorbid for tetralogy of Fallot treated with clozapine: further considerations on a role for 22q.11.2 in the proneness for seizures

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    Kashiwagi H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Kashiwagi,1 Satoru Ikezawa,2 Tomiki Sumiyoshi,3 Atsuko Kadono,4 Kazuhiko Segawa,5 Kazuyoshi Takeda,1 Mayu Omori,1 Hisako Taguchi,1 Naotsugu Hirabayashi1 1Department of Forensic Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Translational Medical Center, National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, 4Saitama Psychiatric Medical Center, Kitaadatigun, Saitama, 5Department of General Medicine, National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: We present a case of schizophrenia comorbid for tetralogy of Fallot, without chromosome 22q.11.2 deletion or duplication, treated successfully with a combination of clozapine and antiepileptic drugs. Although clozapine by itself initially triggered convulsive seizures, we continued it with co-administration of valproate and topiramate. This combined treatment did not affect cardiac function of the patient, who experienced a favorable clinical course in terms of symptomatology and functional outcomes. To our knowledge, we provide the first report on a patient with tetralogy of Fallot, in whom 22q.11.2 was not deleted and clozapine-induced seizures were observed. Keywords: schizophrenia, clozapine, tetralogy of Fallot, seizure, copy number variants

  16. The cognitive development of children with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijff, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder associated with palatal abnormalities, cardiac defects and characteristic facial features. On a behavioural/ psychiatric level, children with 22q11DS are at an increased risk for various psychiatric problems, including Autism

  17. Referential communication abilities in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, Ellen; ReuterskiöLd, Christina; Solot, Cynthia; Manders, Eric; Swillen, Ann; Zink, Inge

    2017-10-01

    This study describes the performance on a perspective- and role-taking task in 27 children, ages 6-13 years, with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). A cross-cultural design comparing Dutch- and English-speaking children with 22q11.2DS explored the possibility of cultural differences. Chronologically age-matched and younger typically developing (TD) children matched for receptive vocabulary served as control groups to identify challenges in referential communication. The utterances of children with 22q11.2DS were characterised as short and simple in lexical and grammatical terms. However, from a language use perspective, their utterances were verbose, ambiguous and irrelevant given the pictured scenes. They tended to elaborate on visual details and conveyed off-topic, extraneous information when participating in a barrier-game procedure. Both types of aberrant utterances forced a listener to consistently infer the intended message. Moreover, children with 22q11.2DS demonstrated difficulty selecting correct speech acts in accordance with contextual cues during a role-taking task. Both English- and Dutch-speaking children with 22q11.2DS showed impoverished information transfer and an increased number of elaborations, suggesting a cross-cultural syndrome-specific feature.

  18. Characterization of human chromosome 22 : Cloning of breakpoints of the constitutional translocation t(11;22)(q23;q11) and detection of small constitutional delections by microarray CGH

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia Paez, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, composing approximately 1.5% of the genome. The short arm of this acrocentric chromosome harbors ribosomal genes and the long arm contains the protein coding genes. This chromosome is gene-rich in comparison to the majority of other chromosomes, containing approximately 600 so far characterized genes. Many of these are involved in the etiology of a wide spectrum of diseases such as congenital and psychiatric disorders as...

  19. A molecularly defined duplication set for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J T; Popodi, Ellen; Holtzman, Stacy L; Schulze, Karen L; Park, Soo; Carlson, Joseph W; Hoskins, Roger A; Bellen, Hugo J; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    We describe a molecularly defined duplication kit for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of 408 overlapping P[acman] BAC clones was used to create small duplications (average length 88 kb) covering the 22-Mb sequenced portion of the chromosome. The BAC clones were inserted into an attP docking site on chromosome 3L using ΦC31 integrase, allowing direct comparison of different transgenes. The insertions complement 92% of the essential and viable mutations and deletions tested, demonstrating that almost all Drosophila genes are compact and that the current annotations of the genome are reasonably accurate. Moreover, almost all genes are tolerated at twice the normal dosage. Finally, we more precisely mapped two regions at which duplications cause diplo-lethality in males. This collection comprises the first molecularly defined duplication set to cover a whole chromosome in a multicellular organism. The work presented removes a long-standing barrier to genetic analysis of the Drosophila X chromosome, will greatly facilitate functional assays of X-linked genes in vivo, and provides a model for functional analyses of entire chromosomes in other species.

  20. Heart defects and other features of the 22q11 distal deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerberg, Christina Ringmann; Graakjaer, Jesper; Heinl, Ulrike D

    2013-01-01

    patients with 22q11 distal deletions, of whom two have complex congenital heart malformation, thus broadening the phenotypic spectrum. We compare cardiac malformations reported in 22q11 distal deletion to those reported in the common 22q11 deletion syndrome. We also review the literature for patients...... with 22q11 distal deletions, and discuss the possible roles of haploinsufficiency of the MAPK1 gene. We find the most frequent features in 22q11 distal deletion to be developmental delay or learning disability, short stature, microcephalus, premature birth with low birth weight, and congenital heart...... malformation ranging from minor anomalies to complex malformations. Behavioral problems are also seen in a substantial portion of patients. The following dysmorphic features are relatively common: smooth philtrum, abnormally structured ears, cleft palate/bifid uvula, micro-/retrognathia, upslanting palpebral...

  1. [Grave's disease in children with 22q11 deletion. Report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, J; Lebon-Labich, B; Lucron, H; Marçon, F; Leheup, B

    2004-12-01

    Hypothyroidism is a well recognized complication of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Auto-immune hyperthyroidism is less common. We report three patients with a 22q11.2 deletion and Graves' disease diagnosed at age 17, 14 and 11 years, respectively. The clinical and biological presentation was typical for auto-immune hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease should be periodically sought during the follow-up program of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

  2. Temporal lobe pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and acquired BRAF mutation in an adolescent with the constitutional 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jeffrey C; Donahue, David J; Malik, Saleem I; Dzurik, Yvette B; Braly, Emily Z; Dougherty, Margaret J; Eaton, Katherine W; Biegel, Jaclyn A

    2011-05-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS), is a rare and usually sporadic congenital genetic disorder resulting from a constitutional microdeletion at chromosome 22q11.2. While rare cases of malignancy have been described, likely due to underlying immunodeficiency, central nervous system tumors have not yet been reported. We describe an adolescent boy with DGS/VCFS who developed a temporal lobe pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array studies of the tumor confirmed a constitutional 22q11.21 deletion, and revealed acquired gains, losses and copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity of several chromosomal regions, including a homozygous deletion of the CDKN2A/B locus. The tumor also demonstrated a common V600E mutation in the BRAF oncogene. This is the first reported case of a patient with DiGeorge syndrome developing a CNS tumor of any histology and expands our knowledge about low-grade CNS tumor molecular genetics.

  3. Targeted tandem duplication of a large chromosomal segment in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Sato, Atsushi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hanya, Yoshiki; Oguma, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    We describe here the first successful construction of a targeted tandem duplication of a large chromosomal segment in Aspergillus oryzae. The targeted tandem chromosomal duplication was achieved by using strains that had a 5'-deleted pyrG upstream of the region targeted for tandem chromosomal duplication and a 3'-deleted pyrG downstream of the target region. Consequently,strains bearing a 210-kb targeted tandem chromosomal duplication near the centromeric region of chromosome 8 and strains bearing a targeted tandem chromosomal duplication of a 700-kb region of chromosome 2 were successfully constructed. The strains bearing the tandem chromosomal duplication were efficiently obtained from the regenerated protoplast of the parental strains. However, the generation of the chromosomal duplication did not depend on the introduction of double-stranded breaks(DSBs) by I-SceI. The chromosomal duplications of these strains were stably maintained after five generations of culture under nonselective conditions. The strains bearing the tandem chromosomal duplication in the 700-kb region of chromosome 2 showed highly increased protease activity in solid-state culture, indicating that the duplication of large chromosomal segments could be a useful new breeding technology and gene analysis method.

  4. Altered auditory processing and effective connectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kit Melissa; Mørup, Morten; Birknow, Michelle Rosgaard; Fischer, Elvira; Hulme, Oliver; Vangkilde, Anders; Schmock, Henriette; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Didriksen, Michael; Olsen, Line; Werge, Thomas; Siebner, Hartwig R; Garrido, Marta I

    2018-01-30

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most common copy number variants and confers a markedly increased risk for schizophrenia. As such, 22q11.2DS is a homogeneous genetic liability model which enables studies to delineate functional abnormalities that may precede disease onset. Mismatch negativity (MMN), a brain marker of change detection, is reduced in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Using dynamic causal modelling (DCM), previous studies showed that top-down effective connectivity linking the frontal and temporal cortex is reduced in schizophrenia relative to healthy controls in MMN tasks. In the search for early risk-markers for schizophrenia we investigated the neural basis of change detection in a group with 22q11.2DS. We recorded high-density EEG from 19 young non-psychotic 22q11.2 deletion carriers, as well as from 27 healthy non-carriers with comparable age distribution and sex ratio, while they listened to a sequence of sounds arranged in a roving oddball paradigm. Despite finding no significant reduction in the MMN responses, whole-scalp spatiotemporal analysis of responses to the tones revealed a greater fronto-temporal N1 component in the 22q11.2 deletion carriers. DCM showed reduced intrinsic connection within right primary auditory cortex as well as in the top-down, connection from the right inferior frontal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus for 22q11.2 deletion carriers although not surviving correction for multiple comparison. We discuss these findings in terms of reduced adaptation and a general increased sensitivity to tones in 22q11.2DS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Behavioral phenotype in children with 22q11Ds : Agreement between parents and teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Petra W J; Duijff, Sasja N.; Sinnema, Gerben; Beemer, Frits A.; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriëtte F N; Vorstman, Jacob A S

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at an increased risk of developing schizophrenia. Besides the effects of genetic variation, environmental factors could also be important in modifying the risk of schizophrenia in 22q11DS patients. In particular, previous studies have shown the

  6. Multisite Semiautomated Clinical Data Repository for Duplication 15q Syndrome: Study Protocol and Early Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oluwaseun Jessica; Smith, Ebony Jeannae; Viangteeravat, Teeradache; Huang, Eunice Y; Nagisetty, Naga Satya V Rao; Urraca, Nora; Lusk, Laina; Finucane, Brenda; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Young, Jennifer; Jeste, Shafali; Thibert, Ronald; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2017-10-18

    Chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1 duplication syndrome (Dup15q syndrome) is a rare disorder caused by duplications of chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1, resulting in a wide range of developmental disabilities in affected individuals. The Dup15q Alliance is an organization that provides family support and promotes research to improve the quality of life of patients living with Dup15q syndrome. Because of the low prevalence of this condition, the establishment of a single research repository would have been difficult and more time consuming without collaboration across multiple institutions. The goal of this project is to establish a national deidentified database with clinical and survey information on individuals diagnosed with Dup15q syndrome. The development of a multiclinic site repository for clinical and survey data on individuals with Dup15q syndrome was initiated and supported by the Dup15q Alliance. Using collaborative workflows, communication protocols, and stakeholder engagement tools, a comprehensive database of patient-centered information was built. We successfully established a self-report populating, centralized repository for Dup15q syndrome research. This repository also resulted in the development of standardized instruments that can be used for other studies relating to developmental disorders. By standardizing the data collection instruments, it allows us integrate our data with other national databases, such as the National Database for Autism Research. A substantial portion of the data collected from the questionnaires was facilitated through direct engagement of participants and their families. This allowed for a more complete set of information to be collected with a minimal turnaround time. We developed a repository that can efficiently be mined for shared clinical phenotypes observed at multiple clinic sites and used as a springboard for future clinical and basic research studies. ©Oluwaseun Jessica Ajayi, Ebony Jeannae Smith, Teeradache Viangteeravat

  7. Chromosome 22 microdeletion in children with syndromic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytogenetic study and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed in the patients. The study revealed that 2 patients were with chromosomal aberrations [one with 46,XY, add (13)(p13) & the other with 47,XX,+13]. In addition, FISH revealed 4 patients (20%) with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. The congenital ...

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Psychosis in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Maria; Calkins, Monica E; Moore, Tyler M; Tang, Sunny X; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E

    2017-10-10

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia in adulthood while Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent diagnosis in childhood. Inattention symptoms are pronounced in 22q11.2DS and given that attentional impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, inattention symptoms may reflect underlying ADHD, psychosis, or both. We investigate whether inattention is associated with psychosis in 22q11.2DS and in other groups at risk for psychosis but without the deletion (ND) (idiopathic clinical risk and first degree family members of individuals with schizophrenia). One hundred thirty-seven individuals with 22q11.2DS (mean age: 14.0), 84 ND individuals with subthreshold psychosis (mean age: 16.9) and 31 ND individuals with family history of psychosis (mean age: 17.0) were included in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using research diagnostic assessments. ADHD total symptoms were associated with overall levels of subthreshold psychosis symptoms in 22q11.2DS (β = .8, P = .04). Inattention symptoms were specifically associated with positive (β = .5, P = .004), negative (β = .5, P = .03), and disorganized (β = .5, P hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms were associated with disorganized symptoms (β = .5, P = .01). The prevalence of ADHD inattention symptoms was higher in 22q11.2DS with subthreshold psychosis compared to ND individuals with subthreshold psychosis (P < .001), even when adjusting for cognitive impairment and overall psychopathology. The pattern was similar when comparing individuals with 22q11.2DS and ND individuals with family history of psychosis. This is the first study to examine the associations between ADHD symptoms and psychosis in 22q11.2DS. Our findings support a potentially important role of ADHD inattention symptoms in psychosis in 22q11.2DS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights

  9. Haploinsufficiency of the 22q11.2 microdeletion gene Mrpl40 disrupts short-term synaptic plasticity and working memory through dysregulation of mitochondrial calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, P; Yu, J; Eddins, D; Mellado-Lagarde, M M; Earls, L R; Westmoreland, J J; Quarato, G; Green, D R; Zakharenko, S S

    2017-09-01

    Hemizygous deletion of a 1.5- to 3-megabase region on chromosome 22 causes 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), which constitutes one of the strongest genetic risks for schizophrenia. Mouse models of 22q11DS have abnormal short-term synaptic plasticity that contributes to working-memory deficiencies similar to those in schizophrenia. We screened mutant mice carrying hemizygous deletions of 22q11DS genes and identified haploinsufficiency of Mrpl40 (mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit protein 40) as a contributor to abnormal short-term potentiation (STP), a major form of short-term synaptic plasticity. Two-photon imaging of the genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP6, expressed in presynaptic cytosol or mitochondria, showed that Mrpl40 haploinsufficiency deregulates STP via impaired calcium extrusion from the mitochondrial matrix through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This led to abnormally high cytosolic calcium transients in presynaptic terminals and deficient working memory but did not affect long-term spatial memory. Thus, we propose that mitochondrial calcium deregulation is a novel pathogenic mechanism of cognitive deficiencies in schizophrenia.

  10. Identification of susceptibility genes for bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia on chromosome 22q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob Eg

    2006-01-01

    Linkage analyses suggest that chromosome 22q12-13 may harbor one or more shared susceptibility loci for bipolar affective disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SZ). In a study of distantly related cases and control individuals from the Faeroe Islands our group has previously reported that chromosome 22...... samples (total of 1,751 individuals), and by bioinformatic and expression analyses of a subset of disease associated genes and gene variants. In total 67 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 18 positional candidate genes, and 4 microsattelite markers were investigated, using a Scottish case...

  11. Neuropeptide Y receptor genes on human chromosome 4q31-q32 map to conserved linkage groups on mouse chromosomes 3 and 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, C.M.; Frankel, W.N. [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States); Richards, J.E. [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    Npy1r and Npy2r, the genes encoding mouse type 1 and type 2 neuropeptide Y receptors, have been mapped by interspecific backcross analysis. Previous studies have localized the human genes encoding these receptors to chromosome 4q31-q32. We have now assigned Npy1r and Npy2r to conserved linkage groups on mouse Chr 8 and Chr 3, respectively, which correspond to the distal region of human chromosome 4q. Using yeast artificial chromosomes, we have estimated the distance between the human genes to be approximately 6 cM. Although ancient tandem duplication events may account for some closely spaced G-protein-coupled receptor genes, the large genetic distance between the human type 1 and type 2 neuropeptide Y receptor genes raises questions about whether this mechanism accounts for their proximity. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Examining the Overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Opal; Evans, A Nichole; Fernandez-Carriba, Samuel; Smearman, Erica L; Rockers, Kimberly; Morrier, Michael J; Evans, David W; Coleman, Karlene; Cubells, Joseph

    2017-05-18

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genomic disorder reported to associate with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in 15-50% of cases; however, others suggest that individuals with 22q11.2DS present psychiatric or behavioral features associated with ASDs, but do not meet full criteria for ASD diagnoses. Such wide variability in findings may arise in part due to methodological differences across studies. Our study sought to determine whether individuals with 22q11.2DS meet strict ASD diagnostic criteria using research-based guidelines from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism (CPEA), which required a gathering of information from three sources: the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule (ADOS), and a clinician's best-estimate diagnosis. Our study examined a cohort of children, adolescents, and young adults ( n = 56) with 22q11.2DS, who were ascertained irrespective of parents' behavioral or developmental concerns, and found that 17.9% ( n = 10) of the participants met CPEA criteria for an ASD diagnosis, and that a majority showed some level of social-communication impairment or the presence of repetitive behaviors. We conclude that strictly defined ASDs occur in a substantial proportion of individuals with 22q11.2DS, and recommend that all individuals with 22q11.2DS be screened for ASDs during early childhood.

  13. Frontonasal malformation with tetralogy of Fallot associated with a submicroscopic deletion of 22q11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, R.F. [South Texas Genetics Center, San Antonio, TX (United States); Payne, R.M. [Central Texas Genetics Center, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-03-31

    We report on a 14-month-old girl with bifid nasal tip and tetralogy of Fallot. Several similar patients have been described with CNS or eye abnormalities. Chromosome analysis with FISH, using Oncor DiGeorge probes, confirmed a submicroscopic deletion of 22q11. Many patients with Shprintzen (velo-cardio-facial) syndrome have a similar deletion with conotruncal cardiac defects and an abnormal nasal shape, suggesting that a gene in this area, possibly affecting neural crest cells, influences facial and other midline development. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Visual processing deficits in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Biria

    2018-01-01

    The reduced activity of ventral and dorsal visual areas during early stages points to an impairment in visual processing seen both in schizophrenia and 22q11.2DS. During intervals related to perceptual closure, the inverse correlation of high amplitudes with positive symptoms suggests that participants with 22q11.2DS who show an increased brain response to illusory contours during the relevant window for contour processing have less psychotic symptoms and might thus be at a reduced prodromal risk for schizophrenia.

  15. Cumulative Impact of Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Large Chromosomal Duplications on DNA Methylation, Chromatin, and Expression of Autism Candidate Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, Keith W; Islam, M Saharul; Coulson, Rochelle L; Lopez, S Jesse; Vogel Ciernia, Annie; Chu, Roy G; Yasui, Dag H; Pessah, Isaac N; Lott, Paul; Mordaunt, Charles; Meguro-Horike, Makiko; Horike, Shin-Ichi; Korf, Ian; LaSalle, Janine M

    2016-12-13

    Rare variants enriched for functions in chromatin regulation and neuronal synapses have been linked to autism. How chromatin and DNA methylation interact with environmental exposures at synaptic genes in autism etiologies is currently unclear. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in brain tissue and a neuronal cell culture model carrying a 15q11.2-q13.3 maternal duplication, we find that significant global DNA hypomethylation is enriched over autism candidate genes and affects gene expression. The cumulative effect of multiple chromosomal duplications and exposure to the pervasive persistent organic pollutant PCB 95 altered methylation of more than 1,000 genes. Hypomethylated genes were enriched for H2A.Z, increased maternal UBE3A in Dup15q corresponded to reduced levels of RING1B, and bivalently modified H2A.Z was altered by PCB 95 and duplication. These results demonstrate the compounding effects of genetic and environmental insults on the neuronal methylome that converge upon dysregulation of chromatin and synaptic genes. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining the Overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opal Ousley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS is a genomic disorder reported to associate with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs in 15–50% of cases; however, others suggest that individuals with 22q11.2DS present psychiatric or behavioral features associated with ASDs, but do not meet full criteria for ASD diagnoses. Such wide variability in findings may arise in part due to methodological differences across studies. Our study sought to determine whether individuals with 22q11.2DS meet strict ASD diagnostic criteria using research-based guidelines from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism (CPEA, which required a gathering of information from three sources: the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R, the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule (ADOS, and a clinician’s best-estimate diagnosis. Our study examined a cohort of children, adolescents, and young adults (n = 56 with 22q11.2DS, who were ascertained irrespective of parents’ behavioral or developmental concerns, and found that 17.9% (n = 10 of the participants met CPEA criteria for an ASD diagnosis, and that a majority showed some level of social-communication impairment or the presence of repetitive behaviors. We conclude that strictly defined ASDs occur in a substantial proportion of individuals with 22q11.2DS, and recommend that all individuals with 22q11.2DS be screened for ASDs during early childhood.

  17. Search for common haplotypes on chromosome 22q in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T H; Børglum, A D; Mors, O

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome 22q may harbor risk genes for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder from the Faroe...... Islands were typed for 35 evenly distributed polymorphic markers on 22q in a search for shared risk genes in the two disorders. No single marker was strongly associated with either disease, but five two-marker segments that cluster within two regions on the chromosome have haplotypes occurring...

  18. Familial partial duplication (1)(p21p31)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoechstetter, L.; Soukup, S.; Schorry, E.K. [Children`s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-11-20

    A partial duplication (1)(p21p31), resulting from a maternal direct insertion (13,1) (q22p21p31), was found in a 30-year-old woman with mental retardation, cleft palate, and multiple minor anomalies. Two other affected and deceased relatives were presumed to have the same chromosome imbalance. Duplication 1p cases are reviewed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A case with concurrent duplication, triplication, and uniparental isodisomy at 1q42.12-qter supporting microhomology-mediated break-induced replication model for replicative rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Nana; Naruto, Takuya; Murata, Chie; Ouchi, Yuya; Fujita, Naoko; Inagaki, Hidehito; Satomura, Shigeko; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Saito, Masako; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) consisting of interstitial triplications in conjunction with uniparental isodisomy (isoUPD) have rarely been reported in patients with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA)/intellectual disability (ID). One-ended DNA break repair coupled with microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) has been recently proposed as a possible mechanism giving rise to interstitial copy number gains and distal isoUPD, although only a few cases providing supportive evidence in human congenital diseases with MCA have been documented. Here, we report on the chromosomal microarray (CMA)-based identification of the first known case with concurrent interstitial duplication at 1q42.12-q42.2 and triplication at 1q42.2-q43 followed by isoUPD for the remainder of chromosome 1q (at 1q43-qter). In distal 1q duplication/triplication overlapping with 1q42.12-q43, variable clinical features have been reported, and our 25-year-old patient with MCA/ID presented with some of these frequently described features. Further analyses including the precise mapping of breakpoint junctions within the CGR in a sequence level suggested that the CGR found in association with isoUPD in our case is a triplication with flanking duplications, characterized as a triplication with a particularly long duplication-inverted triplication-duplication (DUP-TRP/INV-DUP) structure. Because microhomology was observed in both junctions between the triplicated region and the flanking duplicated regions, our case provides supportive evidence for recently proposed replication-based mechanisms, such as MMBIR, underlying the formation of CGRs + isoUPD implicated in chromosomal disorders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of CGRs + isoUPD observed in 1q and having DUP-TRP/INV-DUP structure with a long proximal duplication, which supports MMBIR-based model for genomic rearrangements. Molecular cytogenetic analyses using CMA containing single

  20. Prevalence of rearrangements in the 22q11.2 region and population-based risk of neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Sparsø, Thomas; Weinsheimer, Shantel M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the pathogenic nature of copy number variants (CNVs) on chromosome 22q11.2 has been recognised for decades, unbiased estimates of their population prevalence, mortality, disease risks, and diagnostic trajectories are absent. We aimed to provide the true population prevalence ...

  1. Familial DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2: Report of five families with a review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leana-Cox, J.; Pangkanon, Suthipong; Eanet, K.R. [Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-11

    The DiGeorge (DG), velocardiofacial (VCF), and conotruncal anomaly-face (CTAF) syndromes were originally described as distinct disorders, although overlapping phenotypes have been recognized. It is now clear that all three syndromes result from apparently similar or identical 22q11.2 deletions, suggesting that they represent phenotypic variability of a single genetic syndrome. We report on 12 individuals in five families with del(22)(q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and define the frequency of phenotypic abnormalities in those cases and in 70 individuals from 27 del(22)(q11.2) families from the literature. Common manifestations include mental impairment (97%), abnormal face (93%), cardiac malformations (681%), thymic (64%) and parathyroid (63%) abnormalities, and cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (48%). Familial DG, VCF, and CTAF syndromes due to del(22)(q11.2) show significant inter- and intrafamilial clinical variability consistent with the hypothesis that a single gene or group of tightly linked genes is the common cause of these syndromes. Up to 25% of 22q deletions are inherited, indicating that parents of affected children warrant molecular cytogenetic evaluation. We propose use of the compound term {open_quotes}DiGeorge/velocardiofacial (DGNCF) syndrome{close_quotes} in referring to this condition, as it calls attention to the phenotypic spectrum using historically familiar names. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Periventricular nodular heterotopia and bilateral intraventricular xanthogranulomas in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moogeh Baharnoori

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is the most common pathogenic copy number variant in humans. Neuropsychiatric phenotypes, including schizophrenia, are prominent. Imaging studies of individuals with this syndrome show a variety of abnormalities that may indicate abnormal neuronal migration. Here we present the neuroimaging and neuropathologic features of a 22q11DS patient with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopias (PNH and intraventricular xanthogranulomas that were identified by post-mortem examination.

  3. Movement Disorders and Other Motor Abnormalities in Adults With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse AMJ; Lang, Anthony E; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. PMID:25684639

  4. An interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis in an adult patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yasutaka Tastuzawa; Kanako Sekinaka; Tetsufumi Suda; Hiroshi Matsumoto; Hiroyuki Otabe; Shigeaki Nonoyama; Aihide Yoshino

    2015-01-01

    In addition to causing polymalformative syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion can lead to various neuropsychiatric disorders including mental retardation, psychosis, and epilepsy. However, few reports regarding epilepsy-related psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) exist. We describe the clinical characteristics and course of 22q11.2DS in a Japanese patient with comorbid mild mental retardation, childhood-onset localization-related epilepsy, and adult-onset, interictal schizophrenia-like ps...

  5. Multitasking Abilities in Adolescents With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From an Experimental Ecological Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan; Birr, Julie; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with cognitive and functional impairments and increased risk for schizophrenia. We characterized multitasking abilities of adolescents with 22q11.2DS using an experimental naturalistic setting and examined whether multitasking impairments were associated with real-world functioning and negative symptoms. Thirty-nine adolescents (19 with 22q11.2DS and 20 controls) underwent the Multitasking Evaluation for Adolescents. Real-world functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed in participants with 22q11.2DS. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS performed poorly in the multitasking evaluation. Our data also suggest that multitasking abilities are related to adaptive functioning in the practical domain and negative symptoms. This study shows that adolescents with 22q11.2DS are characterized by multitasking impairments, which may be relevant for several aspects of the clinical phenotype.

  6. Partial deletion 11q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Tommerup, N; Sørensen, F B

    1995-01-01

    We describe the cytogenetic findings and the dysmorphic features in a stillborn girl with a large de novo terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. The karyotype was 46,XX,del(11)(q21qter). By reviewing previous reports of deletion 11q, we found that cleft lip and palate are most...

  7. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome lowers seizure threshold in adult patients without epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wither, Robert G; Borlot, Felippe; MacDonald, Alex; Butcher, Nancy J; Chow, Eva W C; Bassett, Anne S; Andrade, Danielle M

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies examining seizures in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have focused primarily on children and adolescents. In this study we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of seizures and epilepsy in an adult 22q11.2DS population. The medical records of 202 adult patients with 22q11.2DS were retrospectively reviewed for documentation of seizures, electroencephalography (EEG) reports, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Epilepsy status was assigned in accordance with 2010 International League Against Epilepsy Classification. Of 202 patients, 32 (15.8%) had a documented history of seizure. Of these 32, 23 (71.8%) had acute symptomatic seizures, usually associated with hypocalcemia and/or antipsychotic or antidepressant use. Nine patients (9/32, 28%; 9/202, 4%) met diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. Two patients had genetic generalized epilepsy; two patients had focal seizures of unknown etiology; two had epilepsy due to malformations of cortical development; in two the epilepsy was due to acquired structural changes; and in one patient the epilepsy could not be further classified. Similarly to children, the prevalence of epilepsy and acute symptomatic seizures in adults with 22q11.2DS is higher than in the general population. Hypocalcemia continues to be a risk factor for adults, but differently from kids, the main cause of seizures in adults with 22q11.2DS is exposure to antipsychotics and antidepressants. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate how 22q11.2 microdeletion leads to an overall decreased seizure threshold. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Development of a 22q11DS psycho-educational programme: exploration of the views, concerns and educational needs of parents caring for children or adolescents with 22q11DS in relation to mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alugo, T; Malone, H; Sheehan, A; Coyne, I; Lawlor, A; McNicholas, F

    2017-07-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a multisystem genetic condition with a broad phenotype. It is associated with a high prevalence of depression and anxiety during childhood and increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. Despite this, studies report that families may receive inadequate information of mental health (MH) risks at diagnosis. Therefore, this study investigated parents' experiences of caring for a child with 22q11DS, investigated their knowledge regarding the risk of MH problems and assessed the need for a psycho-educational programme. A qualitative design and purposeful sampling was utilized. Parents registered with the '22q11 Ireland' support group, and parents listed on the cleft palate database in a children's hospital in Ireland were invited to participate. Focus groups were held with 22 parents. Data were thematically analysed using Burnard's method of analysis. Most parents had some knowledge of the relationship between 22q11DS and an increased risk of MH issues. Parents reported that MH information relating to 22q11DS was mainly obtained from 22q11DS conferences, the '22q11 Ireland' support group and the Internet. Parents expressed a need for information to prevent or cope with their child's MH issues. Parents suggested that the following topics would be quite useful in a psycho-educational programme. These included information on the early warning signs of MH issues and guidance on when and how to tell the child about the condition and how to manage the child or young person's anxiety, obsessive behaviour or hearing voices. The findings indicated parental support for a psycho-educational programme that would provide relevant, accurate and timely information on how to effectively care for a child with 22q11DS MH needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 22q11.2 deletion carriers and schizophrenia-associated novel variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, S; Iwayama, Y; Toyota, T; Toyoshima, M; Maekawa, M; Yoshikawa, T

    2014-01-01

    The penetrance of schizophrenia risk in carriers of the 22q11.2 deletion is high but incomplete, suggesting the possibility of additional genetic defects. We performed whole exome sequencing on two individuals with 22q11.2 deletion, one with schizophrenia and the other who was psychosis-free. The results revealed novel genetic variants related to neuronal function exclusively in the person with schizophrenia (frameshift: KAT8, APOH and SNX31; nonsense: EFCAB11 and CLVS2). This study paves the way towards a more complete understanding of variant dose and genetic architecture in schizophrenia.

  10. Differentiated psychopharmacological treatment in three genetic subtypes of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Egger, J.I.M.; Leeuw, N. de

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), mostly caused by the common deletion including the TBX- and COMT-genes (LCR22A-D), is highly associated with somatic anomalies. The distal deletion (distal of LCR22D) comprises the MAPK1-gene and is associated with specific heart defects. The

  11. Cognitive decline preceding the onset of psychosis in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstman, Jacob A S; Breetvelt, Elemi J.; Duijff, Sasja N.; Eliez, Stephan; Schneider, Maude; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Shashi, Vandana; Hooper, Stephen R.; Chow, Eva W C; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Butcher, Nancy J.; Young, Donald A.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Vogels, Annick; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; Gothelf, Doron; Weinberger, Ronnie; Weizman, Abraham; Klaassen, Petra W J; Koops, Sanne; Kates, Wendy R.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Simon, Tony J.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Swillen, Ann; Gur, Raquel E.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Kahn, René S.; Bassett, Anne S.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Kushan, Leila; Fremont, Wanda; Schoch, Kelly; Stoddard, Joel; Cubells, Joseph; Fu, Fiona; Campbell, Linda E.; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Vergaelen, Elfi; Neeleman, Marjolein; Boot, Erik; Debbané, Martin; Philip, Nicole; Green, Tamar; Van DenBree, Marianne B M; Murphy, Declan; Canyelles, Jaume Morey; Arango, Celso; Murphy, Kieran C.; Pontillo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Importance: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have an elevated (25%) risk of developing schizophrenia. Recent reports have suggested that a subgroup of children with 22q11DS display a substantial decline in cognitive abilities starting at a young age.Objective: To determine whether

  12. Prevalence of 22q11.2 deletions in 311 Dutch patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Jalali, Gholam R; Selten, Jean-Paul; Sinke, Richard J; Emanuel, Beverly S; Kahn, René S

    UNLABELLED: The objectives of this study were 1) to examine whether the prevalence of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) in schizophrenia patients with the Deficit syndrome is higher than the reported approximately 2% for the population of schizophrenia patients as a whole, and 2) to estimate the

  13. Frontal dysconnectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an atlas-based functional connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiaccio, Leah M; Coman, Ioana L; Thompson, Carlie A; Fremont, Wanda P; Antshel, Kevin M; Kates, Wendy R

    2018-01-20

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Previous studies of functional connectivity (FC) in 22q11DS report aberrant connectivity patterns in large-scale networks that are associated with the development of psychotic symptoms. In this study, we performed a functional connectivity analysis using the CONN toolbox to test for differential connectivity patterns between 54 individuals with 22q11DS and 30 healthy controls, between the ages of 17-25 years old. We mapped resting-state fMRI data onto 68 atlas-based regions of interest (ROIs) generated by the Desikan-Killany atlas in FreeSurfer, resulting in 2278 ROI-to-ROI connections for which we determined total linear temporal associations between each. Within the group with 22q11DS only, we further tested the association between prodromal symptoms of psychosis and FC. We observed that relative to controls, individuals with 22q11DS displayed increased FC in lobar networks involving the frontal-frontal, frontal-parietal, and frontal-occipital ROIs. In contrast, FC between ROIs in the parietal-temporal and occipital lobes was reduced in the 22q11DS group relative to healthy controls. Moreover, positive psychotic symptoms were positively associated with increased functional connections between the left precuneus and right superior frontal gyrus, as well as reduced functional connectivity between the bilateral pericalcarine. Positive symptoms were negatively associated with increased functional connectivity between the right pericalcarine and right postcentral gyrus. Our results suggest that functional organization may be altered in 22q11DS, leading to disruption in connectivity between frontal and other lobar substructures, and potentially increasing risk for prodromal psychosis.

  14. Association study of candidate genes for susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder on chromosome 22Q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob; Binderup, Helle; Mors, Ole

    Chromosome 22q is suspected to harbor risk genes for schizophrenia as well as bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. In a recent study of distantly related patients from...... the Faroe Islands we have obtained evidence suggesting two regions on chromosome 22q13 to potentially harbor susceptibility genes for both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We have selected a number of candidate genes from these two regions for further analysis, including the neuro-gene WKL1...... and unrelated controls, and in a Scottish case-control sample comprising 200 schizophrenics, 200 bipolar patients and 200 controls. None of the investigated SNPs have so far showed strong evidence of association to either bipolar disorder or schizophrenia....

  15. Graves disease and IgA deficiency as manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome:

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, João Miguel de Almeida; Silva, Cecília Pereira; Melo, Flavio Fernando Nogueira de; Silva, Luis Alberto A.; Utagawa, Claudia Yamada

    2010-01-01

    A síndrome de deleção 22q11.2 (SD22q11.2) está associada à alta variabilidade fenotípica, abrangendo o espectro velocardiofacial/síndrome de DiGeorge. Manifestações autoimunes, endocrinológicas e de imunodeficiência vêm sendo relatadas associadas à síndrome. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de SD22q11.2 associado à deficiência de IgA e à doença de Graves e rever a literatura visando verificar a frequência dessas alterações na SD22q11.2. Os distúrbios autoimunes, cada vez mais relac...

  16. Syntenic homology of human unique DNA sequences within chromossome regions 5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 in the great apes

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    Rhea U. Vallente-Samonte

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologies between chromosome banding patterns and DNA sequences in the great apes and humans suggest an apparent common origin for these two lineages. The availability of DNA probes for specific regions of human chromosomes (5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 led us to cross-hybridize these to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, PTR, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, GGO and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, PPY chromosomes in a search for equivalent regions in the great apes. Positive hybridization signals to the chromosome 5q31-specific DNA probe were observed at HSA 5q31, PTR 4q31, GGO 4q31 and PPY 4q31, while fluorescent signals using the chromosome 10q22-specific DNA probe were noted at HSA 10q22, PTR 8q22, GGO 8q22 and PPY 7q22. The chromosome arms showing hybridization signals to the Quint-EssentialTM 13-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 13q32-33, PTR 14q32-33, GGO 14q32-33 and PPY 14q32-33, while those presenting hybridization signals to the chromosome 19q13.1-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 19q13.1, PTR 20q13, GGO 20q13 and PPY 20q13. All four probes presumably hybridized to homologous chromosomal locations in the apes, which suggests a homology of certain unique DNA sequences among hominoid species.Homologias entre os padrões de bandamento de cromossomos e seqüências de DNA em grandes macacos e humanos sugerem uma aparente origem comum para estas duas linhagens. A disponibilidade de sondas de DNA para regiões específicas de cromossomos humanos (5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 e 19q13.1 nos levou a realizar hibridação cruzada com cromossomos de chimpanzé (Pan troglodytes, PTR, gorila (Gorilla gorilla, GGO e orangotango (Pongo pygmaeus, PPY em um pesquisa de regiões equivalentes em grandes macacos. Sinais positivos de hibridação para a sonda de DNA específica para o cromossomo 5q31 foram observados em HSA 5q31, PTR 4q31, GGO 4q31 e PPY 4q31, enquanto que sinais fluorescentes usando a sonda de DNA específica para o cromossomo 10q22 foram

  17. An interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis in an adult patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

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    Yasutaka Tastuzawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to causing polymalformative syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion can lead to various neuropsychiatric disorders including mental retardation, psychosis, and epilepsy. However, few reports regarding epilepsy-related psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS exist. We describe the clinical characteristics and course of 22q11.2DS in a Japanese patient with comorbid mild mental retardation, childhood-onset localization-related epilepsy, and adult-onset, interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis. From a diagnostic viewpoint, early detection of impaired intellectual functioning and hyperprolinemia in patients with epilepsy with 22q11.2DS may be helpful in predicting the developmental timing of interictal psychosis. From a therapeutic viewpoint, special attention needs to be paid to phenytoin-induced hypocalcemia in this syndrome.

  18. Subthreshold social cognitive deficits may be a key to distinguish 22q11.2DS from schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Rigard, Caroline; Saucourt, Guillaume; Poisson, Alice; Plasse, Julien; Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

    2018-03-25

    Social cognitive impairments are core features in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Indeed, adults with 22q.11.2 DS often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of social cognitive skills (emotion recognition and theory of mind, ToM) compared with typically developing people. However, studies comparing specific social cognitive components in 22q11.2DS and SCZ have not yet been widely conducted. In this study we compared performances of 22q11.2DS and SCZ on both facial emotion recognition and ToM. Patients with 22q11.2DS (n = 18) and matched SCZ patients were recruited. After neuropsychological testing, the facial emotion recognition test assessed the patients' ability to recognize six basic, universal emotions (joy, anger, sadness, fear, disgust, and contempt). The Versailles-situational intentional reading evaluated ToM with six scenes from movies showing characters in complex interactions (involving hints, lies, and indirect speech). We show that 22q11.2DS exhibited significantly lower performance in emotion recognition than SCZ patients did, especially for disgust, contempt, and fear. This impairment seems to be a core cognitive phenotype in 22q11.2DS, regardless of the presence of SCZ symptoms. Concerning ToM, our results may highlight the same impairment level in 22q11.2DS and SCZ but require to be replicated in a larger cohort. Our results document the existence of threshold social cognitive deficits distinguishing 22q11.2DS from SCZ. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Speech and language abilities of children with the familial form of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

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    Rakonjac Marijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS, which encompasses Shprintzen syndrome, DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndrome, is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans with an estimated incidence of approximately 1/4000 per live births. After Down syndrome, it is the second most common genetic syndrome associated with congenital heart malformations. The mode of inheritance of the 22q11.2DS is autosomal dominant. In approximately 72 - 94% of the cases the deletion has occurred de novo, while in 6 to 28% of patients deletion was inherited from a parent. As a part of a multidisciplinary study we examined the speech and language abilities of members of two families with inherited form of 22q11.2DS. The presence of 22q11.2 microdeletion was revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. In one family we detected 1.5 Mb 22q11.2 microdeletion, while in the other family we found 3Mb microdeletion. Patients from both families showed delays in cognitive, socio-emotional, speech and language development. Furthermore, we found considerable variability in the phenotypic characteristics of 22q11.2DS and the degree of speech-language pathology not only between different families with 22q11.2 deletion, but also among members of the same family. In addition, we detected no correlation between the phenotype and the size of 22q11.2 microdeletion.

  20. The presence of two rare genomic syndromes, 1q21 deletion and Xq28 duplication, segregating independently in a family with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyungsoo; Shen, Yiping; Graves, Tyler; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Goo

    2016-01-01

    1q21 microdeletion syndrome is a rare contiguous gene deletion disorder with de novo or autosomal dominant inheritance patterns and its phenotypic features include intellectual disability, distinctive facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, cardiac abnormalities, and cataracts. MECP2 duplication syndrome is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, global developmental delay, and other neurological complications including late-onset seizures. Previously, these two different genetic syndromes have not been reported segregating independently in a same family. Here we describe two siblings carrying either a chromosome 1q21 microdeletion or a chromosome Xq28 duplication. Using a comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array, we identified a 1.24 Mb heterozygous deletion at 1q21 resulting in the loss of 9 genes in a girl with learning disability, hypothyroidism, short stature, sensory integration disorder, and soft dysmorphic features including cupped ears and a unilateral ear pit. We also characterized a 508 kb Xq28 duplication encompassing MECP2 in her younger brother with hypotonia, poor speech, cognitive and motor impairment. The parental CGH and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that the 1q21 deletion in the elder sister is de novo , but the Xq28 duplication in the younger brother was originally inherited from the maternal grandmother through the mother, both of whom are asymptomatic carriers. RT-qPCR assays revealed that the affected brother has almost double the amount of MECP2 mRNA expression compared to other family members of both genders including maternal grandmother and mother who have the same Xq28 duplication with no phenotype. This suggests the X chromosome with an Xq28 duplication in the carrier females is preferentially silenced. From our understanding, this would be the first report showing the independent segregation of two genetically unrelated syndromes, 1q21 microdeletion and Xq28 duplication

  1. Eye Gaze During Face Processing in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Zesiger, Pascal; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Eliez, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic syndrome with high risk for the development of psychiatric disorder. There is interest in identifying reliable markers for measuring and monitoring socio-emotional impairments in 22q11DS during development. The current study investigated eye gaze as a potential marker during a…

  2. Deletion 22q13.3 syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelan Mary C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deletion 22q13.3 syndrome (deletion 22q13 syndrome or Phelan-McDermid syndrome is a chromosome microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, normal to accelerated growth, absent to severely delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. The deletion occurs with equal frequency in males and females and has been reported in mosaic and non-mosaic forms. Due to lack of clinical recognition and often insufficient laboratory testing, the syndrome is under-diagnosed and its true incidence remains unknown. Common physical traits include long eye lashes, large or unusual ears, relatively large hands, dysplastic toenails, full brow, dolicocephaly, full cheeks, bulbous nose, and pointed chin. Behavior is autistic-like with decreased perception of pain and habitual chewing or mouthing. The loss of 22q13.3 can result from simple deletion, translocation, ring chromosome formation and less common structural changes affecting the long arm of chromosome 22, specifically the region containing the SHANK3 gene. The diagnosis of deletion 22q13 syndrome should be considered in all cases of hypotonia of unknown etiology and in individuals with absent speech. Although the deletion can sometimes be detected by high resolution chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH or array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH is recommended for confirmation. Differential diagnosis includes syndromes associated with hypotonia, developmental delay, speech delay and/or autistic-like affect (Prader-Willi, Angelman, Williams, Smith-Magenis, Fragile X, Sotos, FG, trichorhinophalangeal and velocardiofacial syndromes, autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy. Genetic counseling is recommended and parental laboratory studies should be considered to identify cryptic rearrangements and detect parental mosaicism. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered for future pregnancies in those families with inherited rearrangements

  3. Alterations of social interaction through genetic and environmental manipulation of the 22q11.2 gene Sept5 in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kathryn M; Hiramoto, Takeshi; Tanigaki, Kenji; Kang, Gina; Suzuki, Go; Trimble, William; Hiroi, Noboru

    2012-08-01

    Social behavior dysfunction is a symptomatic element of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although altered activities in numerous brain regions are associated with defective social cognition and perception, the causative relationship between these altered activities and social cognition and perception-and their genetic underpinnings-are not known in humans. To address these issues, we took advantage of the link between hemizygous deletion of human chromosome 22q11.2 and high rates of social behavior dysfunction, schizophrenia and ASD. We genetically manipulated Sept5, a 22q11.2 gene, and evaluated its role in social interaction in mice. Sept5 deficiency, against a high degree of homogeneity in a congenic genetic background, selectively impaired active affiliative social interaction in mice. Conversely, virally guided overexpression of Sept5 in the hippocampus or, to a lesser extent, the amygdala elevated levels of active affiliative social interaction in C57BL/6J mice. Congenic knockout mice and mice overexpressing Sept5 in the hippocampus or amygdala were indistinguishable from control mice in novelty and olfactory responses, anxiety or motor activity. Moreover, post-weaning individual housing, an environmental condition designed to reduce stress in male mice, selectively raised levels of Sept5 protein in the amygdala and increased active affiliative social interaction in C57BL/6J mice. These findings identify this 22q11.2 gene in the hippocampus and amygdala as a determinant of social interaction and suggest that defective social interaction seen in 22q11.2-associated schizophrenia and ASD can be genetically and environmentally modified by altering this 22q11.2 gene.

  4. Evaluation of 22q11.2 deletion in Cleft Palate patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabodha, L. B. Lahiru; Dias, Dayanath Kumara; Nanayakkara, B. Ganananda; de Silva, Deepthi C.; Chandrasekharan, N. Vishvanath; Ileyperuma, Isurani

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cleft palate is the commonest multifactorial epigenetic disorder with a prevalence of 0.43-2.45 per 1000. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical features and identify the 22q11.2 deletion in patients with cleft palate in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: Cleft patients attending a Teaching Hospital in Sri Lanka were recruited for this study. The relevant data were obtained from review of case notes, interviews, and examination of patients according to a standard evaluation sheet. Quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to identify the 22q11.2 deletion. A gel documentation system (Bio-Doc) was used to quantify the PCR product following electrophoresis on 0.8% agarose gel. Results and Conclusion: There were 162 cleft palate patients of whom 59% were females. A total of 92 cleft palate subjects (56.2%) had other associated clinical features. Dysmorphic features (25.27%) and developmental delays (25.27%) were the commonest medical problems encountered. The cleft was limited to the soft palate in 125 patients, while in 25 patients it involved both the hard and the soft palate. There were seven subjects with bifid uvula and five subjects with submucous cleft palate. None of the patients had 22q11.2 deletion in this study population. A multicentered large population-based study is needed to confirm the results of this study and to develop guidelines on the appropriate use of 22q11.2 deletion testing, which are valid for cleft palate patients in Sri Lanka. PMID:23483617

  5. Brief Report: Functional MRI of a Patient with 7q11.23 Duplication Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prontera, Paolo; Serino, Domenico; Caldini, Bernardo; Scarponi, Laura; Merla, Giuseppe; Testa, Giuseppe; Muti, Marco; Napolioni, Valerio; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Piccirilli, Massimo; Donti, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The duplication of the Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) region (7q11.23) is a copy number variant associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One of the most intriguing aspects is that the reciprocal microdeletion causes WBS, characterized by hypersociability, marked empathy, and a relative capacity in verbal short-term memory and language.…

  6. Clinical spectrum associated with recurrent genomic rearrangements in chromosome 17q12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamani, Sandesh Chakravarthy Sreenath; Erez, Ayelet; Shen, Joseph; Li, Chumei; Roeder, Elizabeth; Cox, Sarah; Karaviti, Lefkothea; Pearson, Margret; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Sahoo, Trilochan; Lalani, Seema R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Sutton, V Reid; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2010-03-01

    Deletions in chromosome 17q12 encompassing the HNF1 beta gene cause cystic renal disease and maturity onset diabetes of the young, and have been recently described as the first recurrent genomic deletion leading to diabetes. Earlier reports of patients with this microdeletion syndrome have suggested an absence of cognitive impairment, differentiating it from most other contiguous gene deletion syndromes. The reciprocal duplication of 17q12 is rare and has been hypothesized to be associated with an increased risk of epilepsy and mental retardation. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of four patients with a deletion and five patients with a reciprocal duplication of this region. Our patients with deletion of 17q12 presented with cognitive impairment, cystic renal disease, seizures, and structural abnormalities of the brain. Patients with reciprocal duplications manifest with cognitive impairment and behavioral abnormalities, but not with seizures. Our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with rearrangements of 17q12 and show that cognitive impairment is a part of the phenotype of individuals with deletions of 17q12.

  7. Prevalence and Nature of Hearing Loss in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eynde, Charlotte; Swillen, Ann; Lambeens, Elien; Verhaert, Nicolas; Desloovere, Christian; Luts, Heleen; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Devriendt, Koenraad; Hens, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence, type, severity, and age-dependency of hearing loss in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Method: Extensive audiological measurements were conducted in 40 persons with proven 22q11.2 deletion (aged 6-36 years). Besides air and bone conduction thresholds in the frequency range between 0.125…

  8. Abordaje inmunológico del síndrome por deleción 22q11

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    Estefanía Vásquez-Echeverri

    Full Text Available El síndrome por deleción 22q11 (SD22q11 es el síndrome por deleción cromosómica más frecuente en humanos y se caracteriza por la tríada clínica que incluye cardiopatía congénita, hipocalcemia e inmunodeficiencia primaria. El 85-90% de los pacientes tienen microdeleciones en el cromosoma 22q11.2. Tomando como punto cardinal la cardiopatía congénita, se diseñó una estrategia para tamización y diagnóstico de SD22q11 con énfasis en la evaluación inmune. Es imprescindible realizar una historia clínica detallada y, posteriormente, un análisis cuantitativo y funcional de las subpoblaciones de linfocitos en sangre periférica para clasificarlo en SD22q11 completo (<1% o parcial (95-99% e instaurar las pautas de tratamiento en aspectos como: aislamiento del paciente, vacunación, profilaxis contra microorganismos oportunistas, uso de productos sanguíneos irradiados y reconstitución inmunológica. Sin embargo, el abordaje del paciente debe ser multidisciplinario para detectar y prevenir complicaciones a largo plazo que pueden ser graves, especialmente en los pacientes con SD22q11 completo.

  9. Severe intellectual disability, omphalocele, hypospadia and high blood pressure associated to a deletion at 2q22.1q22.3: case report

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    Mulatinho Milene

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH platforms have significantly improved the resolution of chromosomal analysis allowing the identification of genomic copy number gains and losses smaller than 5 Mb. Here we report on a young man with unexplained severe mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, congenital malformations comprising hypospadia and omphalocele, and episodes of high blood pressure. An ~ 6 Mb interstitial deletion that includes the causative genes is identified by oligonucleotide-based aCGH. Results Our index case exhibited a de novo chromosomal abnormality at 2q22 [del(2(q22.1q22.3dn] which was not visible at the 550 haploid band level. The deleted region includes eight genes: HNMT, SPOPL, NXPH2, LOC64702, LRP1B, KYNU, ARHGAP15 and GTDC1. Discussion aCGH revealed an ~ 6 Mb deletion in 2q22.1 to 2q22.3 in an as-yet unique clinical case associated with intellectual disability, congenital malformations and autism spectrum disorder. Interestingly, the deletion is co-localized with a fragile site (FRA2K, which could be involved in the formation of this chromosomal aberration. Further studies are needed to determine if deletions of 2q22.1 to 2q22.3 define a new microdeletion syndrome.

  10. Fluency aspects of oral narrative task in del22q11.2 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Amanda Oliveira; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Tandel, Maria da Conceição Faria Freitas; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the fluency aspects of the oral narrative task in individuals with del22q11.2 syndrome and compare them with those of individuals with typical language development. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with del22q11.2 syndrome, both genders, aged 7-17 years participated in this study. They were compared with 15 individuals with typical language development, with similar gender and chronological age profiles. The oral narrative was elicited using the book "Frog, Where Are You?", and the fluency aspects were analyzed according to speech rate and type and frequency of disfluency (typical and stuttering). The number and duration of pauses were also investigated. The data were statistically analyzed. The group with del22q11.2 syndrome showed a higher average when compared with the group without the syndrome for the percentage of typical disfluencies, mainly hesitation and revision. The group presenting the syndrome also showed a higher average for stuttering disfluencies, with pause as the most frequent disfluency. With respect to speech rate, the group with the syndrome presented a lower average for the number of words and syllables per minute. Individuals with del22q11.2 syndrome showed greater difficulties of narration than their peers. The fluency aspects of the oral narrative task in subjects with del22q11.2 syndrome were similar to those of individuals with typical language development regarding the presence of hesitation, revision, and pause, but they were different with respect to frequency of disfluency, which was higher in individuals with the syndrome.

  11. Biparental inheritance of chromosomal abnormalities in male twins with non-syndromic mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Gilling; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Mang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    In a monozygotic twin couple with mental retardation (MR), we identified a maternally inherited inversion and a paternally inherited translocation: 46,XY,inv(10)(p11.2q21.2)mat,t(9;18)(p22;q21.1)pat. The maternally inherited inv(10) was a benign variant without any apparent phenotypical...... implications. The translocation breakpoint at 9p was within a cluster of interferon a genes and the 18q21 breakpoint truncated ZBTB7C (zinc finger and BTB containing 7C gene). In addition, analyses with array-CGH revealed a 931 kb maternally inherited deletion on chromosome 8q22 as well as an 875 kb maternally...... inherited duplication on 5p14. The deletion encompasses the RIM2 (Rab3A-interacting molecule 2), FZD6 (Frizzled homolog 6) and BAALC (Brain and Acute Leukemia Gene, Cytoplasmic) genes and the duplication includes the 5' end of the CDH9 (cadherin 9) gene. Exome sequencing did not reveal any additional...

  12. Cortical Development Requires Mesodermal Expression of Tbx1, a Gene Haploinsufficient in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, Gemma; Cioffi, Sara; Bilio, Marchesa; Illingworth, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    In mammals, proper temporal control of neurogenesis and neural migration during embryonic development ensures correct formation of the cerebral cortex. Changes in the distribution of cortical projection neurons and interneurons are associated with behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and autism, suggesting that disrupted cortical connectivity contributes to the brain pathology. TBX1 is the major candidate gene for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), a chromosomal deletion disorder characterized by a greatly increased risk for schizophrenia. We have previously shown that Tbx1 heterozygous mice have reduced prepulse inhibition, a behavioral abnormality that is associated with 22q11.2DS and nonsyndromic schizophrenia. Here, we show that loss of Tbx1 disrupts corticogenesis in mice by promoting premature neuronal differentiation in the medio-lateral embryonic cortex, which gives rise to the somatosensory cortex (S1). In addition, we found altered polarity in both radially migrating excitatory neurons and tangentially migrating inhibitory interneurons. Together, these abnormalities lead to altered lamination in the S1 at the terminal stages of corticogenesis in Tbx1 null mice and similar anomalies in Tbx1 heterozygous adult mice. Finally, we show that mesoderm-specific inactivation of Tbx1 is sufficient to recapitulate the brain phenotype indicating that Tbx1 exerts a cell nonautonomous role in cortical development from the mesoderm. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Tetrasomy 15q11-q13 identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a patient with autistic disorder Identificação de tetrassomia 15q11-q13 por hibridação in situ fluorescente em uma paciente com distúrbio autístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabete Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a female child with tetrasomy of the 15q11-q13 chromosomal region, and autistic disorder associated with mental retardation, developmental problems and behavioral disorders. Combining classical and molecular cytogenetic approaches by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique, the karyotype was demonstrated as 47,XX,+mar.ish der(15(D15Z1++,D15S11++,GABRB3++,PML-. Duplication of the 15q proximal segment represents the most consistent chromosomal abnormality reported in association with autism. The contribution of the GABA receptor subunit genes, and other genes mapped to this region, to the clinical symptoms of the disease is discussed.Relatamos uma criança do sexo feminino com tetrassomia da região cromossômica 15q11-q13 e distúrbio autístico associado com retardo mental, problemas de desenvolvimento e distúrbios comportamentais. A combinação de metodologias da citogenética clássica e molecular pela técnica de hibridação in situ fluorescente, demonstrou o cariótipo como 47,XX,+mar.ish der(15 (D15Z1++,D15S11++,GABRB3++,PML. Duplicação do segmento 15q proximal representa a mais consistente anomalia cromossômica relatada em associação com autismo. A contribuição dos genes das subunidades do recepetor GABA, assim como outros genes mapeados nessa região, para os sintomas clínicos da doença é discutida.

  14. Subtypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Associated with Behaviour and Neurofacial Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinderberry, Brooke; Brown, Scott; Hammond, Peter; Stevens, Angela F.; Schall, Ulrich; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Campbell, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) has a complex phenotype with more than 180 characteristics, including cardiac anomalies, cleft palate, intellectual disabilities, a typical facial morphology, and mental health problems. However, the variable phenotype makes it difficult to predict clinical outcome, such as the high prevalence of psychosis among…

  15. Search for common haplotypes on chromosome 22q in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, A.D; Mors, O

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome 22q may harbor risk genes for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder from the Faroe...... was found at a segment of at least 1.1 cM including markers D22S1161 and D22S922 (P=0.0081 in the test for association). Our results also support the a priori evidence of a susceptibility gene to schizophrenia at a segment of at least 0.45 cM including markers D22S279 and D22S276 (P=0.0075). Patients were...... tested for the presence of a missense mutation in the WKL1 gene encoding a putative cation channel close to segment D22S1161-D22S922, which has been associated with schizophrenia. We did not find this mutation in schizophrenic or bipolar patients or the controls from the Faroe Islands. © 2002 Wiley...

  16. Altered white matter microstructure is associated with social cognition and psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eJalbrzikowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 22q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome (22q11DS is a highly penetrant genetic mutation associated with a significantly increased risk for psychosis. Aberrant neurodevelopment may lead to inappropriate neural circuit formation and cerebral dysconnectivity in 22q11DS, which may contribute to symptom development. Here we examined: 1 differences between 22q11DS participants and typically developing controls in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures within white matter tracts; 2 whether there is an altered age-related trajectory of white matter pathways in 22q11DS; and 3 relationships between DTI measures, social cognition task performance and positive symptoms of psychosis in 22q11DS and typically developing controls. Sixty-four direction diffusion weighted imaging data were acquired on 65 participants (36 22q11DS, 29 controls. We examined differences between 22q11DS vs. controls in measures of fractional anisotropy (FA, axial (AD and radial diffusivity (RD, using both a voxel-based and region of interest approach. Social cognition domains assessed were: Theory of Mind and emotion recognition. Positive symptoms were assessed using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. Compared to typically developing controls, 22q11DS participants showed significantly lower AD and RD in multiple white matter tracts, with effects of greatest magnitude for AD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Additionally, 22q11DS participants failed to show typical age-associated changes in FA and RD in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Higher AD in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and left uncinate fasciculus was associated with better social cognition in 22q11DS and controls. In contrast, greater severity of positive symptoms was associated with lower AD in bilateral regions of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in 22q11DS. White matter microstructure in tracts relevant to social cognition is disrupted in 22q11DS, and may contribute to

  17. A rare duplication on chromosome 16p11.2 is identified in patients with psychosis in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Xiaojing Zheng

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest that schizophrenia and autism may share genetic links. Besides common single nucleotide polymorphisms, recent data suggest that some rare copy number variants (CNVs are risk factors for both disorders. Because we have previously found that schizophrenia and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD+P share some genetic risk, we investigated whether CNVs reported in schizophrenia and autism are also linked to AD+P. We searched for CNVs associated with AD+P in 7 recurrent CNV regions that have been previously identified across autism and schizophrenia, using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad BeadChip. A chromosome 16p11.2 duplication CNV (chr16: 29,554,843-30,105,652 was identified in 2 of 440 AD+P subjects, but not in 136 AD subjects without psychosis, or in 593 AD subjects with intermediate psychosis status, or in 855 non-AD individuals. The frequency of this duplication CNV in AD+P (0.46% was similar to that reported previously in schizophrenia (0.46%. This duplication CNV was further validated using the NanoString nCounter CNV Custom CodeSets. The 16p11.2 duplication has been associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, autism, schizophrenia (SCZ, and bipolar disorder. These two AD+P patients had no personal of, nor any identified family history of, SCZ, bipolar disorder and autism. To the best of our knowledge, our case report is the first suggestion that 16p11.2 duplication is also linked to AD+P. Although rare, this CNV may have an important role in the development of psychosis.

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy in 22q11.2 microdeletion with psychotic symptoms: What do we learn from schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demily, Caroline; Franck, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes, with a widely underestimated prevalence between 1 per 2000 and 1 per 6000. Since childhood, patients with 22q11.2DS are described as having difficulties to initiate and maintain peer relationships. This lack of social skills has been linked to attention deficits/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression. A high incidence of psychosis and positive symptoms is observed in patients with 22q11.2DS and remains correlated with poor social functioning, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Because 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia share several major clinical features, 22q11.2DS is sometimes considered as a genetic model for schizophrenia. Surprisingly, almost no study suggests the use of cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) in this indication. We reviewed what should be learned from schizophrenia to develop specific intervention for 22q11.2DS. In our opinion, the first step of CBT approach in 22q11.2DS with psychotic symptoms is to identify precisely which tools can be used among the already available ones. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targets integrated disorders, i.e. reasoning biases and behavior disorders. In 22q11.2DS, CBT-targeted behavior disorders may take the form of social avoidance and withdrawal or, in the contrary, a more unusual disinhibition and aggressiveness. In our experience, other negative symptoms observed in 22q11.2DS, such as motivation deficit or anhedonia, may also be reduced by CBT. Controlled trials have been studying the benefits of CBT in schizophrenia and several meta-analyses proved its effectiveness. Therefore, it is legitimate to propose this tool in 22q11.2DS, considering symptoms similarities. Overall, CBT is the most effective psychosocial intervention on psychotic symptoms and remains a relevant complement to pharmacological treatments such as antipsychotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Inversion duplication deletions involving the long arm of chromosome 13: phenotypic description of additional three fetuses and genotype-phenotype correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelin, Chloe; Spaggiari, Emmanuel; Khung-Savatovsky, Suonavy; Dupont, Celine; Pasquier, Laurent; Loeuillet, Laurence; Jaillard, Sylvie; Lucas, Josette; Marcorelles, Pascale; Journel, Hubert; Pluquailec-Bilavarn, Khantaby; Bazin, Anne; Verloes, Alain; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Aboura, Azzedine; Guimiot, Fabien

    2014-10-01

    Inversion duplication and terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13 (inv dup del 13q) is a rare chromosomal rearrangement: only five patients have been reported, mostly involving a ring chromosome 13. We report on additional three fetuses with pure inv dup del 13q: Patient 1 had macrosomia, enlarged kidneys, hypersegmented lungs, unilateral moderate ventriculomegaly, and a mild form of hand and feet preaxial polydactyly; Patient 2 had intrauterine growth retardation, widely spaced eyes, left microphthalmia, right anophthalmia, short nose, bilateral absent thumbs, cutaneous syndactyly of toes 4 and 5, bifid third metacarpal, a small left kidney, hyposegmented lungs, and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum; Patient 3 had widely spaced eyes, long and smooth philtrum, low-set ears, median notch in the upper alveolar ridge, bifid tongue, cutaneous syndactyly of toes 2 and 3, enlarged kidneys and pancreas, arhinencephaly, and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. We compared the phenotypes of these patients to those previously reported for ring chromosome 13, pure 13q deletions and duplications. We narrowed some critical regions previously reported for lung, kidney and fetal growth, and for thumb, cerebral, and eye anomalies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Microarray Analysis of Copy Number Variants on the Human Y Chromosome Reveals Novel and Frequent Duplications Overrepresented in Specific Haplogroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Johansson

    Full Text Available The human Y chromosome is almost always excluded from genome-wide investigations of copy number variants (CNVs due to its highly repetitive structure. This chromosome should not be forgotten, not only for its well-known relevance in male fertility, but also for its involvement in clinical phenotypes such as cancers, heart failure and sex specific effects on brain and behaviour.We analysed Y chromosome data from Affymetrix 6.0 SNP arrays and found that the signal intensities for most of 8179 SNP/CN probes in the male specific region (MSY discriminated between a male, background signals in a female and an isodicentric male containing a large deletion of the q-arm and a duplication of the p-arm of the Y chromosome. Therefore, this SNP/CN platform is suitable for identification of gain and loss of Y chromosome sequences. In a set of 1718 males, we found 25 different CNV patterns, many of which are novel. We confirmed some of these variants by PCR or qPCR. The total frequency of individuals with CNVs was 14.7%, including 9.5% with duplications, 4.5% with deletions and 0.7% exhibiting both. Hence, a novel observation is that the frequency of duplications was more than twice the frequency of deletions. Another striking result was that 10 of the 25 detected variants were significantly overrepresented in one or more haplogroups, demonstrating the importance to control for haplogroups in genome-wide investigations to avoid stratification. NO-M214(xM175 individuals presented the highest percentage (95% of CNVs. If they were not counted, 12.4% of the rest included CNVs, and the difference between duplications (8.9% and deletions (2.8% was even larger.Our results demonstrate that currently available genome-wide SNP platforms can be used to identify duplications and deletions in the human Y chromosome. Future association studies of the full spectrum of Y chromosome variants will demonstrate the potential involvement of gain or loss of Y chromosome sequence in

  1. Neonatal hypocalcemia, neonatal seizures, and intellectual disability in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Evelyn Ning Man; George, Susan R.; Andrade, Danielle M.; Chow, Eva W. C.; Silversides, Candice K.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hypocalcemia is a common endocrinological condition in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Neonatal hypocalcemia may affect neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that neonatal hypocalcemia would be associated with rare, more severe forms of intellectual disability in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Methods We used a logistic regression model to investigate potential predictors of intellectual disability severity, including neonatal hypocalcemia, neonatal seizures, and complex congenital heart disease, e.g., interrupted aortic arch, in 149 adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Ten subjects had moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Results The model was highly significant (P < 0.0001), showing neonatal seizures (P = 0.0018) and neonatal hypocalcemia (P = 0.047) to be significant predictors of a more severe level of intellectual disability. Neonatal seizures were significantly associated with neonatal hypocalcemia in the entire sample (P < 0.0001), regardless of intellectual level. There was no evidence for the association of moderate- to-severe intellectual disability with other factors such as major structural brain malformations in this sample. Conclusion The results suggest that neonatal seizures may increase the risk for more severe intellectual deficits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, likely mediated by neonatal hypocalcemia. Neonatal hypocalcemia often remains unrecognized until the postseizure period, when damage to neurons may already have occurred. These findings support the importance of early recognition and treatment of neonatal hypocalcemia and potentially neonatal screening for 22q11.2 deletions. PMID:23765047

  2. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Is Associated With Impaired Auditory Steady-State Gamma Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kit Melissa; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Birknow, Michelle Rosgaard

    2017-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome confers a markedly increased risk for schizophrenia. 22q11.2 deletion carriers without manifest psychotic disorder offer the possibility to identify functional abnormalities that precede clinical onset. Since schizophrenia is associated with a reduced cortical gamma...

  3. A novel 5p15.33-14.1 deletion and 4q34.24-35.2 duplication in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Both are normal in phenotype and intelligence. His mother ... Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone RP11-159A22. (4q35.1) was ... However, we can not exclude the impacts ... researchers of State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 8 or r(8(::p12→q13.1:: associated with phenotypic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Mosaic sSMC(8 derived from r(8(::p12→q13.1:: can present phenotypic abnormalities. Chromosome 8q12 duplication syndrome should be included in differential diagnosis when an sSMC(8 contains 8q12.2 and CHD7.

  5. Children with 7q11.23 Duplication Syndrome: Psychological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Huffman, Myra J.; Velleman, Shelley L.; Pitts, C. Holley; Henderson, Danielle R.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet; Morris, Colleen A.; Osborne, Lucy R.

    2015-01-01

    To begin to delineate the psychological characteristics associated with classic 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (duplication of the classic Williams syndrome region; hereafter classic Dup7), we tested 63 children with classic Dup7 aged 4–17 years. Sixteen toddlers aged 18–45 months with classic Dup7 and 12 adults identified by cascade testing also were assessed. For the child group, median General Conceptual Ability (similar to IQ) on the Differential Ability Scales-II was 85.0 (low average), with a range from severe disability to high average ability. Median reading and mathematics achievement standard scores were at the low average to average level, with a range from severe impairment to high average or superior ability. Adaptive behavior was considerably more limited; median Scales of Independent Behavior—Revised Broad Independence standard score was 62.0 (mild impairment), with a range from severe adaptive impairment to average adaptive ability. Anxiety disorders were common, with 50.0% of children diagnosed with Social Phobia, 29.0% with Selective Mutism, 12.9% with Separation Anxiety Disorder, and 53.2% with Specific Phobia. In addition, 35.5% were diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and 24.2% with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Disruptive Behavior Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. 33.3% of the children screened positive for a possible Autism Spectrum Disorder and 82.3% were diagnosed with Speech Sound Disorder. We compare these findings to previously reported results for children with Williams syndrome and argue that genotype/phenotype studies involving the Williams syndrome region offer important opportunities to understand the contribution of genes in this region to common disorders affecting the general population. PMID:25900101

  6. Children with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome: psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Huffman, Myra J; Velleman, Shelley L; Pitts, C Holley; Henderson, Danielle R; Woodruff-Borden, Janet; Morris, Colleen A; Osborne, Lucy R

    2015-07-01

    To begin to delineate the psychological characteristics associated with classic 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (duplication of the classic Williams syndrome region; hereafter classic Dup7), we tested 63 children with classic Dup7 aged 4-17 years. Sixteen toddlers aged 18-45 months with classic Dup7 and 12 adults identified by cascade testing also were assessed. For the child group, median General Conceptual Ability (similar to IQ) on the Differential Ability Scales-II was 85.0 (low average), with a range from severe disability to high average ability. Median reading and mathematics achievement standard scores were at the low average to average level, with a range from severe impairment to high average or superior ability. Adaptive behavior was considerably more limited; median Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised Broad Independence standard score was 62.0 (mild impairment), with a range from severe adaptive impairment to average adaptive ability. Anxiety disorders were common, with 50.0% of children diagnosed with Social Phobia, 29.0% with Selective Mutism, 12.9% with Separation Anxiety Disorder, and 53.2% with Specific Phobia. In addition, 35.5% were diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and 24.2% with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Disruptive Behavior Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. 33.3% of the children screened positive for a possible Autism Spectrum Disorder and 82.3% were diagnosed with Speech Sound Disorder. We compare these findings to previously reported results for children with Williams syndrome and argue that genotype/phenotype studies involving the Williams syndrome region offer important opportunities to understand the contribution of genes in this region to common disorders affecting the general population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Maternally Derived Microduplications at 15q11-q13: Implication of Imprinted Genes in Psychotic Illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingason, Andrés; Kirov, George; Giegling, Ina

    2011-01-01

    or schizoaffective disorder and 41,370 comparison subjects without known psychiatric illness for copy number variants at 15q11-q13 and determined the parental origin of duplications using methylation-sensitive Southern hybridization analysis. Results: Duplications were found in four case patients and five comparison...

  8. A Novel 2.3 Mb Microduplication of 9q34.3 Inserted into 19q13.4 in a Patient with Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertional translocations in which a duplicated region of one chromosome is inserted into another chromosome are very rare. We report a 16.5-year-old girl with a terminal duplication at 9q34.3 of paternal origin inserted into 19q13.4. Chromosomal analysis revealed the karyotype 46,XX,der(19ins(19;9(q13.4;q34.3q34.3pat. Cytogenetic microarray analysis (CMA identified a ~2.3Mb duplication of 9q, which was confirmed by Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH. The duplication at 9q34.3 is the smallest among the cases reported so far. The proband exhibits similar clinical features to those previously reported cases with larger duplication events.

  9. Malformation/dysplasia syndrome (neural tube defect, hypospadias neuroblastoma) associated with an extra dicentric marker chromosome 15 ({open_quotes}inversion duplication 15{close_quotes})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitnauer, P.J.; Rao, K.W.; Tepperberg, J.H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Extra dicentric 15 marker chromosomes are associated with variable degrees of mental retardation but not major structural birth defects. We have studied a unique patient, a male infant who was prenatally diagnosed with lumbar meningomyelocele and an extra pseudodicentric marker chromosome: 47,XY,+psu dic(15)t(15;15)(?q12,?q12)mat. Hairy ears and a coronal hypospadias were noted at birth. At three months of age, a stage I thoracic neuroblastoma was primarily resected. Tumor cells, skin fibroblasts and peripheral blood lymphocytes contained the dicentric 15. The mother is mosaic for the marker chromosome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies using a classic 15 satellite probe (D15Z1 [Oncor]) confirmed the presence of 2 number 15 centromeres in the marker. The marker is felt to be the result of a translocation rather than an inverted duplication because the G-band morphology of the short arm/satellite complexes differ from one another, implying that the arms originate from 2 different number 15s. FISH analysis using cosmid probes for the Prader-Willi/Angelman critical region (D15S11 and GABRB3 [Oncor]) revealed 2 copies of this region, indicating that these loci are duplicated in the marker. Although some features of the patient`s phenotype such as developmental delay and hypotonia have been associated with dicentric chromosome 15 markers, this is the first malformation/dysplasia syndrome or neuroblastoma reported to our knowledge. The association of neuroblastoma with chromosome 15 aberrations in this case provides speculation as to the role of chromosome 15 loci in cell division control.

  10. Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoulas Pilar L

    2012-01-01

    involves a multi-disciplinary approach to care with the primary care physician and clinical geneticist playing a crucial role in providing appropriate screening, surveillance, and care for individuals with this syndrome. At the time of diagnosis, individuals should receive baseline echocardiograms, audiologic, ophthalmologic, and developmental assessments. Growth and feeding should be closely monitored. Other specialists that may be involved in the care of individuals with 15q24 deletion syndrome include immunology, endocrine, orthopedics, neurology, and urology. Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome should be differentiated from other genetic syndromes, particularly velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Noonan syndrome. These conditions share some phenotypic similarity to 15q24 deletion syndrome yet have characteristic features specific to each of them that allows the clinician to distinguish between them. Molecular genetic testing and/or aCGH will be able to diagnose these conditions in the majority of individuals. Disease name and synonyms Chromosome 15q24 deletion syndrome 15q24 deletion syndrome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome

  11. TBX1 mutation identified by exome sequencing in a Japanese family with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome-like craniofacial features and hypocalcemia.

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    Tsutomu Ogata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although TBX1 mutations have been identified in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS-like phenotypes including characteristic craniofacial features, cardiovascular anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, and thymic hypoplasia, the frequency of TBX1 mutations remains rare in deletion-negative patients. Thus, it would be reasonable to perform a comprehensive genetic analysis in deletion-negative patients with 22q11.2DS-like phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied three subjects with craniofacial features and hypocalcemia (group 1, two subjects with craniofacial features alone (group 2, and three subjects with normal phenotype within a single Japanese family. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis excluded chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, and genomewide array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed no copy number change specific to group 1 or groups 1+2. However, exome sequencing identified a heterozygous TBX1 frameshift mutation (c.1253delA, p.Y418fsX459 specific to groups 1+2, as well as six missense variants and two in-frame microdeletions specific to groups 1+2 and two missense variants specific to group 1. The TBX1 mutation resided at exon 9C and was predicted to produce a non-functional truncated protein missing the nuclear localization signal and most of the transactivation domain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical features in groups 1+2 are well explained by the TBX1 mutation, while the clinical effects of the remaining variants are largely unknown. Thus, the results exemplify the usefulness of exome sequencing in the identification of disease-causing mutations in familial disorders. Furthermore, the results, in conjunction with the previous data, imply that TBX1 isoform C is the biologically essential variant and that TBX1 mutations are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum, including most of 22q11.2DS phenotypes.

  12. Localization of the MEN1 gene to a small region within chromosome 11q13 by deletion mapping in tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroem, C.; Larsson, C.; Blomberg, C.; Nordenskjoeld, M.; Sandelin, K.; Falkmer, U.; Werner, S.; Skogseid, B.; Oeberg, K.

    1990-01-01

    The gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), and inherited predisposition to neuroendocrine neoplasm of the parathyroid glands, the pancreatic islet parenchyma, and the anterior pituitary gland, was recently mapped to chromosome 11q13 based on genetic linkage in families. The authors now show that the pathogenesis of MEN1-associated parathyroid lesions involves unmasking of a recessive mutation at the disease locus and that sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism shares the same mechanisms. By examination of allele losses in MEN1-associated lesions, they could define deletions of chromosome 11 and map the MEN1 locus to a small region within chromosome band 11q13, telomeric to the PYGM locus. In contrast, a low incidence of deletions involving the MEN1 gene was found in sporadic pituitary adenomas

  13. Translocation t(11;14 (q13;q32 and genomic imbalances in multi-ethnic multiple myeloma patients: a Malaysian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivyna Bong Pau Ni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 50% of myeloma cases have normal karyotypes under conventional cytogenetic analysis due to low mitotic activity and content of plasma cells in the bone marrow. We used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based translocation detection assay to detect BCL1/JH t(11;14 (q13;q32 in 105 myeloma patients, and randomly selected 8 translocation positive samples for array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH analysis. Our findings revealed 14.3% of myeloma samples were positive for BCL1/JH t(11;14 (q13;q32 translocation (n=15 of 105. We found no significant correlation between this translocation with age (P=0.420, gender (P=0.317, ethnicity (P=0.066 or new/relapsed status of multiple myeloma (P=0.412 at 95% confidence interval level by x2 test. In addition, aCGH results showed genomic imbalances in all samples analyzed. Frequent chromosomal gains were identified at regions 1q, 2q, 3p, 3q, 4p, 4q, 5q, 7q, 9q, 11q, 13q, 15q, 21q, 22q and Xq, while chromosomal losses were detected at 4q and 14q. Copy number variations at genetic loci that contain NAMPT, IVNS1ABP and STK17B genes are new findings that have not previously been reported in myeloma patients. Besides fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR is another rapid, sensitive and simple technique that can be used for detecting BCL1/JH t(11;14(q13;q32 translocation in multiple myeloma patients. Genes located in the chromosomal aberration regions in our study, such as NAMPT, IVNS1ABP, IRF2BP2, PICALM, STAT1, STK17B, FBXL5, ACSL1, LAMP2, SAMSN1 and ATP8B4 might be potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in the treatment and management of multiple myeloma patients positive for BCL1/JH t(11;14 (q13;q32 translocation.

  14. The clinical presentation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Maria; Martin, Joanna; Thapar, Anita; Owen, Michael J; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2015-12-01

    Although attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children with 22q11.2DS, it remains unclear whether its clinical presentation is similar to that in children with idiopathic ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the ADHD phenotype in children with and without 22q11.2DS by examining ADHD symptom scores, patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, IQ and gender distribution. Forty-four children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD (mean age = 9.6), 600 clinic children (mean age = 10.8) and 77 children with ADHD from a population cohort (mean age = 10.8) participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using parent-report research diagnostic instruments. There was a higher proportion of females in the 22q11.2DS ADHD sample in relation to the clinical sample (χ(2)  = 18.2, P ADHD inattentive subtype (χ(2)  = 114.76, P hyperactive-impulsive symptoms compared to the clinical group (z = 8.43, P ADHD group parents reported fewer oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms (z = 6.33, P disorder (χ(2)  = 4.56, P = 0.03) in relation to the clinical group. Two percent of the 22q11.2 DS ADHD sample had received ADHD treatment. The results were similar when the 22q11.2 ADHD group was compared to the population cohort ADHD group. The clinical presentation of ADHD and patterns of co-morbidity in 22q11.2DS is different from that in idiopathic ADHD. This could lead to clinical under-recognition of ADHD in this group. Examining psychopathology in 22q11.2DS can provide insights into the genetic origins of psychiatric problems with implications beyond the 22q11.2DS population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Verbal short-term memory in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion: Specific deficit in serial order retention capacities?

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial; Braissand, V.; Eliez, S.

    2007-01-01

    Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet been systematically investigated. We explored verbal short-term memory abilities in a group of 11 children and adults presenting with VCFS and two control groups, matched on either CA or vocabulary knowledge, by distinguishing short-term memory for serial order and item information. The VCFS...

  16. De novo interstitial deletions of 9q22.1-22.3 in two unrelated cases with different phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A.N.; Bawle, E.; Conard, J. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Deletions involving the long arm of chromosome 9 are rare. A recent review, particularly with deletions of 9q22-32 region, failed to recognize a distinct pattern of dysmorphies and malformations. Herein, we described two phenotypically abnormal unrelated cases with interstitial deletion of chromosome 9 at band q22.1-q22.3. Parents of both cases exhibited normal karyotypes, indicating that the deletions were de novo events. Therefore, the clinical features present in these two cases can be attributed to partial monosomy for the deleted band 9q22. The first case was a 2-day-old baby with ambiguous genitalia, hydrocephalus, cleft palate and lip, polycystic kidney, absence of uterus on ultrasound and one gonad in the labiosacral region. Chromosome analysis showed a male karyotype, 46,XY,del(9)(q22.1q22.3). The absence of monosomy X cell line and the normal histology of testicular tissue were against the diagnosis of mixed gonadal dysgenesis or XY gonadal dysgenesis. The second 3-day-old newborn baby girl presented with right side hypoplastic heart and pulmonary atresia. In addition, the patient showed multiple dysmorphic features including epicanthal fold, low-set ears, depressed nasal bridge, hypertelorism, and micrognathia. The uvula is absent with slight cleft palate. Bilateral clinodactyly of 5th fingers and severe club feet were also present. The external genitalia was of a normal female phenotype. Chromosome study also indicated interstatial deletion of band 9q22. Although both cases appeared to have the same chromosomal anomalies, neither a discrete facial appearance nor a common pattern of malformations was noted.

  17. Isolation of anonymous, polymorphic DNA fragments from human chromosome 22q12-qter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Dumanski (Jan); A.H.M. Geurts van Kessel (Ad); M. Ruttledge (Martin); A. Wladis (Andreas); N. Sugawa (Noriaki); V.P. Collins (Peter); M. Nordenskjöld

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA series of 195 random chromosome 22-specific probes, equivalent to approximately 1% of the size of this chromosome, have been isolated from a chromosome 22-specific bacteriophage lambda genomic library. These probes were mapped to four different regions of chromosome 22 on a panel of

  18. Chromosome break points in T-lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1982-01-01

    In 22 healthy A-bomb survivors who passed more than 30 years since receiving radiation, distribution of 592 chromosome break points found in T-lymphocytes of the peripheral blood was not proportional to the length, the arm length of chromosomes, nor the length of regions, but it was non-random on the chromosomes. High distribution of chromosome break points occurred in 11 regions: 22q1, 14q3, 5q3, 21q2, 6q2, 18p1, 13q3. The regions, 22q1, 14q3, 21q2, and 6q2, contained the chromosome break points which were frequently found in leukemic chromosomes. Some of the changes in nuclear-type observed in leukemic cells of A-bomb survivors were similar to those found in leukemic cells of non-exposed leukemic patients. In abnormal chromosomes of T-lymphocytes of healthy A-bomb survivors, no cells with abnormal nuclear types such as t(4;11), t(8;21), t(9;22), and t(15;17) which are seen in various types of leukemia were not found. However, cells with chromosome aberrations, 22q-, 14q+, and 6q-, were found to be 0.99%, 0.55%, and 0.25% respectively. On the basis of these results, implication of chromosome aberrations in developing cancer was discussed. (Ueda, J.)

  19. Platybasia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Is Not Correlated with Speech Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Spruijt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background An abnormally obtuse cranial base angle, also known as platybasia, is a common finding in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS. Platybasia increases the depth of the velopharynx and is therefore postulated to contribute to velopharyngeal dysfunction. Our objective was to determine the clinical significance of platybasia in 22q11DS by exploring the relationship between cranial base angles and speech resonance. Methods In this retrospective chart review at a tertiary hospital, 24 children (age, 4.0-13.1 years with 22q11.2DS underwent speech assessments and lateral cephalograms, which allowed for the measurement of the cranial base angles. Results One patient (4% had hyponasal resonance, 8 (33% had normal resonance, 10 (42% had hypernasal resonance on vowels only, and 5 (21% had hypernasal resonance on both vowels and consonants. The mean cranial base angle was 136.5° (standard deviation, 5.3°; range, 122.3-144.8°. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant relationship between the resonance ratings and cranial base angles (P=0.242. Cranial base angles and speech ratings were not correlated (Spearman correlation=0.321, P=0.126. The group with hypernasal resonance had a significantly more obtuse mean cranial base angle (138° vs. 134°, P=0.049 but did not have a greater prevalence of platybasia (73% vs. 56%, P=0.412. Conclusions In this retrospective chart review of patients with 22q11DS, cranial base angles were not correlated with speech resonance. The clinical significance of platybasia remains unknown.

  20. Clinical spectrum associated with recurrent genomic rearrangements in chromosome 17q12

    OpenAIRE

    Nagamani, Sandesh Chakravarthy Sreenath; Erez, Ayelet; Shen, Joseph; Li, Chumei; Roeder, Elizabeth; Cox, Sarah; Karaviti, Lefkothea; Pearson, Margret; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Sahoo, Trilochan; Lalani, Seema R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Sutton, V Reid; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2009-01-01

    Deletions in chromosome 17q12 encompassing the HNF1β gene cause cystic renal disease and maturity onset diabetes of the young, and have been recently described as the first recurrent genomic deletion leading to diabetes. Earlier reports of patients with this microdeletion syndrome have suggested an absence of cognitive impairment, differentiating it from most other contiguous gene deletion syndromes. The reciprocal duplication of 17q12 is rare and has been hypothesized to be associated with a...

  1. Construction of radiation-reduced hybrids and their use in mapping of microclones from chromosome 10p11.2-q11.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shoichi; Shin, Eisei; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Mori, Takesada; Takai, Shin-ichiro; Nishisho, Isamu; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Kiyoji.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-reduced hybrids for mapping of DNA markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10 were developed. A Chinese hamster/human somatic cell hybrid (762-8A) carrying chromosomes 10 and Y as the only human material were exposed to 40,000 rads of irradiation and then rescued by fusion with non-irradiated recipient Chinese hamster cells (GM459). Southern hybridization analyses revealed that 10 of 128 HAT-resistant clones contained human chromosomal fragments corresponding to at least one marker locus between FNRB (10p11.2) and RBP3 (10q11.2). These hybrids were then used to map microdissection clones previously isolated and roughly mapped to this chromosomal region by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two of the six microclones studies could be mapped to the proximity of the D10S102 locus. These radiation hybrids are useful for the construction of refined genetic maps of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10. (author) 50 refs

  2. Development of Structural Covariance From Childhood to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study in 22q11.2DS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Sandini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is currently considered a neurodevelopmental disorder of connectivity. Still few studies have investigated how brain networks develop in children and adolescents who are at risk for developing psychosis. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS offers a unique opportunity to investigate the pathogenesis of schizophrenia from a neurodevelopmental perspective. Structural covariance (SC is a powerful approach to explore morphometric relations between brain regions that can furthermore detect biomarkers of psychosis, both in 22q11DS and in the general population.Methods: Here we implement a state-of-the-art sliding-window approach to characterize maturation of SC network architecture in a large longitudinal cohort of patients with 22q11DS (110 with 221 visits and healthy controls (117 with 211 visits. We furthermore propose a new clustering-based approach to group regions according to trajectories of structural connectivity maturation. We correlate measures of SC with development of working memory, a core executive function that is highly affected in both idiopathic psychosis and 22q11DS. Finally, in 22q11DS we explore correlations between SC dysconnectivity and severity of internalizing psychopathology.Results: In HCs network architecture underwent a quadratic developmental trajectory maturing up to mid-adolescence. Late-childhood maturation was particularly evident for fronto-parietal cortices, while Default-Mode-Network-related regions showed a more protracted linear development. Working memory performance was positively correlated with network segregation and fronto-parietal connectivity. In 22q11DS, we demonstrate aberrant maturation of SC with disturbed architecture selectively emerging during adolescence and correlating more severe internalizing psychopathology. Patients also presented a lack of typical network development during late-childhood, that was particularly prominent for frontal connectivity.Conclusions: Our

  3. Autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia with axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy maps to chromosome 21q 22.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddareddygari, Leema Reddy; Hanna, Philip A; Igo, Robert P; Luo, Yuqun A; Won, Sungho; Hirano, Michio; Grewal, Raji P

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. At present, 19 autosomal dominant loci for HSP have been mapped. We ascertained an American family of European descent segregating an autosomal dominant HSP associated with peripheral neuropathy. A genome wide scan was performed with 410 microsatellite repeat marker (Weber lab screening set 16) and following linkage and haplotype analysis, fine mapping was performed. Established genes or loci for HSP were excluded by direct sequencing or haplotype analysis. All established loci for HSP were excluded. Fine mapping suggested a locus on chromosome 21q22.3 flanked by markers D21S1411 and D21S1446 with a maximum logarithm of odds score of 2.05 and was supported by haplotype analysis. A number of candidate genes in this region were analyzed and no disease-producing mutations were detected. We present the clinical and genetic analysis of an American family with autosomal dominant HSP with axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy mapping to a novel locus on chromosome 21q22.3 designated SPG56.

  4. Loss of 11q and 16q in Wilms tumors is associated with anaplasia, tumor recurrence, and poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Stefanie; Zirn, Birgit; Alkassar, Muhannad; Ambros, Peter; Graf, Norbert; Gessler, Manfred

    2007-02-01

    Allele loss of chromosome arms 11q and 16q in Wilms tumors has been associated with different clinical parameters in prior studies. To substantiate these findings in a large collection of tumors treated according to the GPOH/SIOP protocol and to narrow down critical regions, we performed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses of chromosome arms 11q and 16q on 225 Wilms tumors. On chromosome arm 11q an overall rate of allele loss of 19.6% (44 of 225 tumors) was found using eleven markers that were almost evenly distributed along the long arm. Chromosome arm 16q was analyzed with six markers selected from gene-rich regions that identified an LOH rate of 18.4% (41/223). Evaluation of LOH with respect to clinical data revealed significant associations of LOH 11q with histology: LOH 11q was 3-4 times more frequent in mixed type and diffuse anaplastic tumors. In contrast, epithelial as well as stromal type tumors never exhibited allele loss on 11q. Furthermore, a significant correlation with tumor recurrence and death was detected, but only for tumors that lost the entire long arm of chromosome 11. Similarly, LOH 16q was correlated with higher risks of later relapse, especially in tumors with complete loss of the long arm. Hence, analyses of LOH on 11q and 16q appear to be helpful to identify tumors with a higher risk of relapse and adverse outcome, which need adjusted therapeutic approaches. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Negative subthreshold psychotic symptoms distinguish 22q11.2 deletion syndrome from other neurodevelopmental disorders: A two-site study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekori-Domachevsky, Ehud; Guri, Yael; Yi, James; Weisman, Omri; Calkins, Monica E; Tang, Sunny X; Gross, Raz; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Zackai, Elaine H; Zalsman, Gil; Weizman, Abraham; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Gothelf, Doron

    2017-10-01

    About one third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) develop schizophrenia. Notably, a full-blown psychotic disorder is usually preceded by subthreshold symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify early signs of psychosis in this population, a task that is complicated by the intellectual disabilities typically seen in 22q11.2DS. We aimed to identify subthreshold psychotic symptoms that distinguish 22q11.2DS from other neurodevelopmental disorders. The study included two independent cohorts from Tel Aviv and Philadelphia. 22q11.2DS (N=171) and typically developing (TD; N=832) individuals were enrolled at both sites and further compared to two groups with intellectual disabilities: Williams syndrome (WS; N=21) in the Tel Aviv cohort and idiopathic developmental disabilities (IDD; N=129) in the Philadelphia cohort. Participants and their primary caregivers were interviewed with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and psychopathologies were assessed using standardized tools; general cognitive abilities were assessed with the Computerized Neurocognitive Battery. Negative/disorganized subthreshold syndrome was significantly more common in the 22q11.2DS group than in the WS (OR=3.90, 95% CI=1.34-11.34) or IDD (OR=5.05, 95% CI=3.01-10.08) groups. The 22q11.2DS group had higher scores than the two intellectual disabilities groups on several SIPS negative items, including avolition and decreased expression of emotion. Overall, there were few significant correlations between level of cognitive deficits and severity of negative symptoms in 22q11.2DS and only in the Tel Aviv cohort. Our findings suggest that 22q11.2DS individuals at the age of risk for developing psychosis should be closely monitored for negative symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Children with 7q11.23 Duplication Syndrome: Speech, Language, Cognitive, and Behavioral Characteristics and their Implications for Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Velleman, Shelley L.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2011-01-01

    7q11.23 duplication syndrome is a recently-documented genetic disorder associated with severe speech delay, language delay, a characteristic facies, hypotonia, developmental delay, and social anxiety. Developmentally appropriate nonverbal pragmatic abilities are demonstrated in socially comfortable situations. Motor speech disorder (Childhood Apraxia of Speech and/or dysarthria), oral apraxia, and/or phonological disorder or symptoms of these disorders are common as are characteristics consis...

  7. Recurrent proximal 18p monosomy and 18q trisomy in a family due to a pericentric inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Ayse Gul; Acar, Aynur; Durakbasi-Dursun, Gul; Yildirim, M Selman; Ceylaner, Serdar; Tuncez, Ebru

    2014-05-01

    Here, we report on a family with pericentric inversion of chromosome 18 [inv(18)(p11.2q21)] and two recombinants with a duplication of q21 → qter and a deletion of p11.2 → pter regions in a four-generation family. This chromosomal abnormality was inherited in our first patient from the father, while it was transmitted to the second patient from the mother. Array-CGH analysis were used to better characterize duplicated and deleted chromosomal regions and showed no genomic copy number variation (CNV) differences between these two relatives. We discussed genotype-phenotype correlations including previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Subthreshold Psychosis in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Multisite Naturalistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Omri; Guri, Yael; Gur, Raquel E; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Calkins, Monica E; Tang, Sunny X; Emanuel, Beverly; Zackai, Elaine H; Eliez, Stephan; Schneider, Maude; Schaer, Marie; Kates, Wendy R; Antshel, Kevin M; Fremont, Wanda; Shashi, Vandana; Hooper, Stephen R; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Pontillo, Maria; Kushan, Leila; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Bearden, Carrie E; Cubells, Joseph F; Ousley, Opal Y; Walker, Elaine F; Simon, Tony J; Stoddard, Joel; Niendam, Tara A; van den Bree, Marianne B M; Gothelf, Doron

    2017-09-01

    Nearly one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) develop a psychotic disorder during life, most of them by early adulthood. Importantly, a full-blown psychotic episode is usually preceded by subthreshold symptoms. In the current study, 760 participants (aged 6-55 years) with a confirmed hemizygous 22q11.2 microdeletion have been recruited through 10 medical sites worldwide, as part of an international research consortium. Of them, 692 were nonpsychotic and with complete measurement data. Subthreshold psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). Nearly one-third of participants met criteria for positive subthreshold psychotic symptoms (32.8%), less than 1% qualified for acute positive subthreshold symptoms, and almost a quarter met criteria for negative/disorganized subthreshold symptoms (21.7%). Adolescents and young adults (13-25 years) showed the highest rates of subthreshold psychotic symptoms. Additionally, higher rates of anxiety disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were found among the study participants with subthreshold psychotic symptoms compared to those without. Full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, and global functioning (GAF) scores were negatively associated with participants' subthreshold psychotic symptoms. This study represents the most comprehensive analysis reported to date on subthreshold psychosis in 22q11.2DS. Novel findings include age-related changes in subthreshold psychotic symptoms and evidence that cognitive deficits are associated with subthreshold psychosis in this population. Future studies should longitudinally follow these symptoms to detect whether and how early identification and treatment of these manifestations can improve long-term outcomes in those that eventually develop a psychotic disorder. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For

  9. Autism, ADHD, Mental Retardation and Behavior Problems in 100 Individuals with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Lena; Rasmussen, Peder; Oskarsdottir, Solveig; Gillberg, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and type of associated neuropsychiatric problems in children and adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome. One-hundred consecutively referred individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome were given in-depth neuropsychiatric assessments and questionnaires screens. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or attention…

  10. The clinical presentation of attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Thapar, Anita; Owen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children with 22q11.2DS, it remains unclear whether its clinical presentation is similar to that in children with idiopathic ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the ADHD phenotype in children with and without 22q11.2DS by examining ADHD symptom scores, patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, IQ and gender distribution. Methods: Forty‐four children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD (mean age = 9.6), 600 clinic children (mean age = 10.8) and 77 children with ADHD from a population cohort (mean age = 10.8) participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using parent‐report research diagnostic instruments. Results: There was a higher proportion of females in the 22q11.2DS ADHD sample in relation to the clinical sample (χ2 = 18.2, P ADHD inattentive subtype (χ2 = 114.76, P ADHD group parents reported fewer oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms (z = 6.33, P ADHD sample had received ADHD treatment. The results were similar when the 22q11.2 ADHD group was compared to the population cohort ADHD group. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of ADHD and patterns of co‐morbidity in 22q11.2DS is different from that in idiopathic ADHD. This could lead to clinical under‐recognition of ADHD in this group. Examining psychopathology in 22q11.2DS can provide insights into the genetic origins of psychiatric problems with implications beyond the 22q11.2DS population. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26400629

  11. Association between prematurity and the evolution of psychotic disorders in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midbari Kufert, Yael; Nachmani, Ariela; Nativ, Einat; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we report the developmental, physical and psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) in a large Israeli cohort, and search for a possible association between preterm birth and the risk for psychotic disorders. The study population consisted of 128 individuals with 22q11.2DS (77 male, 51 female), aged 1-55 years (mean ± SD 12.9 ± 11.0). All subjects underwent a comprehensive medical evaluation. All subjects older than 5 years (n = 104) were also evaluated psychiatrically. Overall, we found rates of physical manifestations similar to those previously reported in the literature. Psychiatric disorders were very common among our study population, with psychotic disorders occurring in 16.3 % of the psychiatrically evaluated population. We found an association between the presence of psychotic disorders and preterm birth. Our results replicate and extend the findings of a previous work and suggest that the evolution of psychosis in 22q11.2DS is a neurodevelopmental process with early obstetric and medical precursors.

  12. Chromosome duplication in Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chromosome duplication of diploid genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (2n=2x=14 is worthy to breeding, and aims to increase the expression of traits with agronomic interest. The purpose of this study was to obtain polyploid plants of L. multiflorum from local diploid populations in order to exploit adaptation and future verification of the effects of polyploidy in agronomic traits. Seedlings were immersed in different colchicine solutions for an exposure time of 3h and 24h. Ploidy determination was made by the DNA content and certified by chromosomes counts. The plants confirmed as tetraploids were placed in a greenhouse, and, at flowering, pollen viability was evaluated, and seeds were harvested to assess the stability of the progenies. The percentage of polyploids obtained was 20%. Pollen viability of the tetraploids generated ranged from 58% to 69%. The tetraploid plants obtained in the experiment generated 164 progenies, of which 109 presented DNA content compatible with the tetraploid level, showing stability of chromosome duplication in the filial generation.

  13. Congenital Heart Disease as a Warning Sign for the Diagnosis of the 22q11.2 Deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcília S. Grassi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To alert for the diagnosis of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD. Objective: To describe the main CHDs, as well as phenotypic, metabolic and immunological findings in a series of 60 patients diagnosed with 22q11.2DS. Methods: The study included 60 patients with 22q11.2DS evaluated between 2007 and 2013 (M:F=1.3, age range 14 days to 20 years and 3 months at a pediatric reference center for primary immunodeficiencies. The diagnosis was established by detection of the 22q11.2 microdeletion using FISH (n = 18 and/or MLPA (n = 42, in association with clinical and laboratory information. Associated CHDs, progression of phenotypic facial features, hypocalcemia and immunological changes were analyzed. Results: CHDs were detected in 77% of the patients and the most frequent type was tetralogy of Fallot (38.3%. Surgical correction of CHD was performed in 34 patients. Craniofacial dysmorphisms were detected in 41 patients: elongated face (60% and/or elongated nose (53.3%, narrow palpebral fissure (50%, dysplastic, overfolded ears (48.3%, thin lips (41.6%, elongated fingers (38.3% and short stature (36.6%. Hypocalcemia was detected in 64.2% and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH level in 25.9%. Decrease in total lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 counts were present in 40%, 53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Hypogammaglobulinemia was detected in one patient and decreased concentrations of immunoglobulin M (IgM in two other patients. Conclusion: Suspicion for 22q11.2DS should be raised in all patients with CHD associated with hypocalcemia and/or facial dysmorphisms, considering that many of these changes may evolve with age. The 22q11.2 microdeletion should be confirmed by molecular testing in all patients.

  14. Congenital Heart Disease as a Warning Sign for the Diagnosis of the 22q11.2 Deletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Marcília S.; Jacob, Cristina M. A.; Kulikowski, Leslie D.; Pastorino, Antonio C.; Dutra, Roberta L.; Miura, Nana; Jatene, Marcelo B.; Pegler, Stephanie P.; Kim, Chong A.; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2014-01-01

    To alert for the diagnosis of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). To describe the main CHDs, as well as phenotypic, metabolic and immunological findings in a series of 60 patients diagnosed with 22q11.2DS. The study included 60 patients with 22q11.2DS evaluated between 2007 and 2013 (M:F=1.3, age range 14 days to 20 years and 3 months) at a pediatric reference center for primary immunodeficiencies. The diagnosis was established by detection of the 22q11.2 microdeletion using FISH (n = 18) and/or MLPA (n = 42), in association with clinical and laboratory information. Associated CHDs, progression of phenotypic facial features, hypocalcemia and immunological changes were analyzed. CHDs were detected in 77% of the patients and the most frequent type was tetralogy of Fallot (38.3%). Surgical correction of CHD was performed in 34 patients. Craniofacial dysmorphisms were detected in 41 patients: elongated face (60%) and/or elongated nose (53.3%), narrow palpebral fissure (50%), dysplastic, overfolded ears (48.3%), thin lips (41.6%), elongated fingers (38.3%) and short stature (36.6%). Hypocalcemia was detected in 64.2% and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in 25.9%. Decrease in total lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 counts were present in 40%, 53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Hypogammaglobulinemia was detected in one patient and decreased concentrations of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in two other patients. Suspicion for 22q11.2DS should be raised in all patients with CHD associated with hypocalcemia and/or facial dysmorphisms, considering that many of these changes may evolve with age. The 22q11.2 microdeletion should be confirmed by molecular testing in all patients

  15. Congenital Heart Disease as a Warning Sign for the Diagnosis of the 22q11.2 Deletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Marcília S., E-mail: marcilia.grassi@hc.fm.usp.br; Jacob, Cristina M. A. [Instituto da Criança - HC-FMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kulikowski, Leslie D. [Departamento de Patologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pastorino, Antonio C. [Instituto da Criança - HC-FMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dutra, Roberta L. [Departamento de Patologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miura, Nana; Jatene, Marcelo B. [Instituto do Coração - HC-FMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pegler, Stephanie P.; Kim, Chong A.; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda [Instituto da Criança - HC-FMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    To alert for the diagnosis of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). To describe the main CHDs, as well as phenotypic, metabolic and immunological findings in a series of 60 patients diagnosed with 22q11.2DS. The study included 60 patients with 22q11.2DS evaluated between 2007 and 2013 (M:F=1.3, age range 14 days to 20 years and 3 months) at a pediatric reference center for primary immunodeficiencies. The diagnosis was established by detection of the 22q11.2 microdeletion using FISH (n = 18) and/or MLPA (n = 42), in association with clinical and laboratory information. Associated CHDs, progression of phenotypic facial features, hypocalcemia and immunological changes were analyzed. CHDs were detected in 77% of the patients and the most frequent type was tetralogy of Fallot (38.3%). Surgical correction of CHD was performed in 34 patients. Craniofacial dysmorphisms were detected in 41 patients: elongated face (60%) and/or elongated nose (53.3%), narrow palpebral fissure (50%), dysplastic, overfolded ears (48.3%), thin lips (41.6%), elongated fingers (38.3%) and short stature (36.6%). Hypocalcemia was detected in 64.2% and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in 25.9%. Decrease in total lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 counts were present in 40%, 53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Hypogammaglobulinemia was detected in one patient and decreased concentrations of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in two other patients. Suspicion for 22q11.2DS should be raised in all patients with CHD associated with hypocalcemia and/or facial dysmorphisms, considering that many of these changes may evolve with age. The 22q11.2 microdeletion should be confirmed by molecular testing in all patients.

  16. Multivariate analysis of anxiety disorders yields further evidence of linkage to chromosomes 4q21 and 7p in panic disorder families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Mark W; Bauver, Sarah R; Knowles, James A; Gameroff, Marc J; Weissman, Myrna M; Crowe, Raymond R; Fyer, Abby J; Hamilton, Steven P

    2012-04-01

    Replication has been difficult to achieve in linkage studies of psychiatric disease. Linkage studies of panic disorder have indicated regions of interest on chromosomes 1q, 2p, 2q, 3, 7, 9, 11, 12q13, 12q23, and 15. Few regions have been implicated in more than one study. We examine two samples, the Iowa (IA) and the Columba panic disorder families. We use the fuzzy-clustering method presented by Kaabi et al. [Kaabi et al. (2006); Am J Hum Genet 78: 543-553] to summarize liability to panic disorder, agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia. Kaabi et al. applied this method to the Yale panic disorder linkage families and found evidence of linkage to chromosomes 4q21, 4q32, 7p, and 8. When we apply the same method to the IA families, we obtain overlapping evidence of linkage to chromosomes 4q21 and 7p. Additionally, we find evidence of linkage on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 16, and 22. The Columbia (CO) data does not indicate linkage to any of the Kaabi et al. peaks, instead implicating chromosomes 2 and 22q11 (2 Mb from COMT). There is some evidence of overlapping linkage between the IA and CO datasets on chromosomes 1 and 14. While use of fuzzy clustering has not produced complete concordance across datasets, it has produced more than previously seen in analyses of panic disorder proper. We conclude that chromosomes 4q21 and 7p should be considered strong candidate regions for panic and fear-associated anxiety disorder loci. More generally, this suggests that analyses including multiple aspects of psychopathology may lead to greater consistency across datasets. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Partial Duplication of Chromosome 8p

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rme

    The partial chromosome 8p duplication is a rare syndrome and is ... abnormality of maternal origin that ... second trimester by vaginal bleeding and ... echocardiography, brain CT scan and. MRI. Fig. 1:Conventional karyotype of case 3 showing.

  18. Developmental course of conversational behaviour of children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Botting, N.; Boudewijns, I.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated three conversational subskills in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS, n = 8, ages 7–13) and Williams syndrome (WS, n = 8, ages 6–12). We re-evaluated these subskills after 18 to 24 months and compared them to those of peers with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID) and IID and comorbid autism spectrum disorders (IID+ASD). Children with 22q11.2DS became less actively involved over time. Lower assertiveness than in children with IID was demonstrated. ...

  19. Hematological malignancies with t(9;11)(p21-22;q23)--a laboratory and clinical study of 125 cases. European 11q23 Workshop participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swansbury, G J; Slater, R; Bain, B J; Moorman, A V; Secker-Walker, L M

    1998-05-01

    This paper reports clinical and cytogenetic data from 125 cases with t(9;11)(p21-22;q32) which were accepted for a European Union Concerted Action Workshop on 11q23. This chromosome abnormality is known to occur predominantly in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) FAB type M5a and less often in AML M4; in this series it was also found to occur, uncommonly, in other AML FAB types, in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (nine cases), in relatively young patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (five cases), acute biphenotypic leukemia (two cases), and acute undifferentiated leukemia (one case). All age groups were represented but 50% of the patients were aged less than 15 years. The t(9;11) was the sole abnormality in 57 cases with AML; trisomy 8 was the most common additional abnormality (23 cases, including seven with further abnormalities), and 28 cases had other additional abnormalities. Among the t(9;11)+ve patients with AML, the white cell count (WBC) and age group were significant predictors of event-free survival; central nervous system (CNS) involvement or karyotype class (sole, with trisomy 8, or with other), also contributed to prognosis although our data could not show these to be independent factors. The best outcome was for patients aged 1-9 years, with low WBC, and with absence of CNS disease or presence of trisomy 8. For patients aged less than 15 years, the event-free survival for ALL patients was not significantly worse than that of AML patients.

  20. 22q11 deletion syndrome: Parents' and children's experiences of educational and healthcare provision in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wendy; McCartney, Elspeth; Crampin, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic syndrome, prevalence around 1:4000-1:6000 live births, with a complex array of associated features, impacting on healthcare and educational support. This study reports the perceptions of families and individuals with 22q11DS in relation to these needs. Individuals and families of those with 22q11DS were approached though two national charities - the Max Appeal and 22Crew. An initial observational survey design was used to gather views via questions probing access to healthcare and educational experiences. Thirty-four responses were received and the data subjected to descriptive analysis. Over half of the respondents were diagnosed before the age of 1. Ninety-one percent reported ongoing difficulties with learning at school, compounded by school attendance being compromised as a result of medical interventions. Individuals reported engaging heavily with educational support and a high number of health professions (mean 9.5; mode 10). Age of diagnosis of 22q11DS ranged from birth to nine years. Families had ongoing concerns about aspects of education and healthcare services, and lack of knowledge and awareness of the difficulties faced by individuals with 22q11DS was raised. Healthcare and education providers should be aware of the range of services individuals required on a regular basis so as to provide a more holistic approach to care.

  1. Chromosomal deletion unmasking a recessive disease: 22q13 deletion syndrome and metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, A-M; Kirchhoff, M; Nielsen, J E

    2008-01-01

    A deletion on one chromosome and a mutant allele on the other may cause an autosomal recessive disease. We report on two patients with mental retardation, dysmorphic features and low catalytic activity of arylsulfatase A. One patient had a pathogenic mutation in the arylsulfatase A gene (ARSA......) and succumbed to metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). The other patient had a pseudoallele, which does not lead to MLD. The presenting clinical features and low arylsulfatase A activity were explained, in each patients, by a deletion of 22q13 and, thereby, of one allele of ARSA....

  2. The interaction between neurocognitive functioning, subthreshold psychotic symptoms and pharmacotherapy in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A longitudinal comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, R; Weisman, O; Guri, Y; Harel, T; Weizman, A; Gothelf, D

    2018-02-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common genetic syndrome associated with schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to evaluate longitudinally the interaction between neurocognitive functioning, the presence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms (SPS) and conversion to psychosis in individuals with 22q11DS. In addition, we attempted to identify the specific neurocognitive domains that predict the longitudinal evolution of positive and negative SPS, as well as the effect of psychiatric medications on 22q11DS psychiatric and cognitive developmental trajectories. Forty-four participants with 22q11DS, 19 with Williams syndrome (WS) and 30 typically developing (TD) controls, age range 12-35years, were assessed at two time points (15.2±2.1months apart). Evaluation included the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), structured psychiatric evaluation and the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). 22q11DS individuals with SPS had a yearly conversion rate to psychotic disorders of 8.8%, compared to none in both WS and TD controls. Baseline levels of negative SPS were associated with global neurocognitive performance (GNP), executive function and social cognition deficits, in individuals with 22q11DS, but not in WS. Deficits in GNP predicted negative SPS in 22q11DS and the emergence or persistence of negative SPS. 22q11DS individuals treated with psychiatric medications showed significant improvement in GNP score between baseline and follow-up assessments, an improvement that was not seen in untreated 22q11DS. Our results highlight the time-dependent interplay among positive and negative SPS symptoms, neurocognition and pharmacotherapy in the prediction of the evolution of psychosis in 22q11DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Fine mapping of genetic polymorphisms of pulmonary tuberculosis within chromosome 18q11.2 in the Chinese population: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yaoyao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, one genome-wide association study identified a susceptibility locus of rs4331426 on chromosome 18q11.2 for tuberculosis in the African population. To validate the significance of this susceptibility locus in other areas, we conducted a case-control study in the Chinese population. Methods The present study consisted of 578 cases and 756 controls. The SNP rs4331426 and other six tag SNPs in the 100 Kbp up and down stream of rs4331426 on chromosome 18q11.2 were genotyped by using the Taqman-based allelic discrimination system. Results As compared with the findings from the African population, genetic variation of the SNP rs4331426 was rare among the Chinese. No significant differences were observed in genotypes or allele frequencies of the tag SNPs between cases and controls either before or after adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, and drinking history. However, we observed strong linkage disequilibrium of SNPs. Constructed haplotypes within this block were linked the altered risks of tuberculosis. For example, in comparison with the common haplotype AA(rs8087945-rs12456774, haplotypes AG(rs8087945-rs12456774 and GA(rs8087945-rs12456774 were associated with a decreased risk of tuberculosis, with the adjusted odds ratio(95% confidence interval of 0.34(0.27-0.42 and 0.22(0.16-0.29, respectively. Conclusions Susceptibility locus of rs4331426 discovered in the African population could not be validated in the Chinese population. None of genetic polymorphisms we genotyped were related to tuberculosis in the single-point analysis. However, haplotypes on chromosome 18q11.2 might contribute to an individual's susceptibility. More work is necessary to identify the true causative variants of tuberculosis.

  4. A 11.7-Mb Paracentric Inversion in Chromosome 1q Detected in Prenatal Diagnosis Associated with Familial Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigola, Maria A; Baena, Neus; Català, Vicenç; Lozano, Iris; Gabau, Elisabet; Guitart, Miriam; Fuster, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Most apparent balanced chromosomal inversions are usually clinically asymptomatic; however, infertility, miscarriages, and mental retardation have been reported in inversion carriers. We present a small family with a paracentric inversion 1q42.13q43 detected in routine prenatal diagnosis. Molecular cytogenetic methods defined the size of the inversion as 11.7 Mb and excluded other unbalanced chromosomal alterations in the patients. Our findings suggest that intellectual disability is caused by dysfunction, disruption, or position effects of genes located at or near the breakpoints involved in this inversion. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. 10p Duplication characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiktor, A.; Feldman, G.L.; Van Dyke, D.L.; Kratkoczki, P.; Ditmars, D.M. Jr. [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We describe a patient with severe failure to thrive, mild-moderate developmental delay, cleft lip and palate, and other anomalies. Routine cytogenetic analysis documented a de novo chromosome rearrangement involving chromosome 4, but the origin of the derived material was unknown. Using chromosome specific painting probes, the karyotype was defined as 46,XY,der(4)t(4;10)(q35;p11.23). Characterization of the dup(10p) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis provides another example of the usefulness of this technology in identifying small deletions, duplications, or supernumerary marker chromosomes. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Deviant dynamics of EEG resting state pattern in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome adolescents: A vulnerability marker of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu, Miralena I; Rihs, Tonia A; Becker, Robert; Britz, Juliane; Custo, Anna; Grouiller, Frédéric; Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan; Michel, Christoph M

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly found altered temporal characteristics of EEG microstates in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adolescents affected by the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), known to have a 30 fold increased risk to develop schizophrenia, already show deviant EEG microstates. If this is the case, temporal alterations of EEG microstates in 22q11DS individuals could be considered as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia. We used high-density (204 channel) EEG to explore between-group microstate differences in 30 adolescents with 22q11DS and 28 age-matched controls. We found an increased presence of one microstate class (class C) in the 22q11DS adolescents with respect to controls that was associated with positive prodromal symptoms (hallucinations). A previous across-age study showed that the class C microstate was more present during adolescence and a combined EEG-fMRI study associated the class C microstate with the salience resting state network, a network known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Therefore, the increased class C microstates could be indexing the increased risk of 22q11DS individuals to develop schizophrenia if confirmed by our ongoing longitudinal study comparing both the adult 22q11DS individuals with and without schizophrenia, as well as schizophrenic individuals with and without 22q11DS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome is associated with perioperative outcome in tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Pinto, Nelangi; Yang, Wei; Tanel, Ronn; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    We sought to investigate the impact of 22q11.2 deletion on perioperative outcome in tetralogy of Fallot. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with tetralogy of Fallot who underwent complete surgical reconstruction at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between 1995 and 2006. Inclusion criteria included diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot and known genotype. Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests were used for categoric and continuous variables, respectively. Regression analysis was used to determine whether deletion status predicts outcome. We studied 208 subjects with tetralogy of Fallot, 164 (79%) without and 44 (20%) with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. There were no differences in sex, race, gestational age, age at diagnosis, admission weight, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Presenting anatomy, survival, complications and reoperations were also comparable between patients with and without 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Those with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had more aortopulmonary shunts preceding complete surgical repair (21% vs 7%, P = .02). This association was present after adjustment for presenting anatomy (stenosis, atresia, or absence of pulmonary valve and common atrioventricular canal) and surgical era. In addition, those with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (84 vs 72 minutes, P = .02) and duration of intensive care (6 vs 4 days, P = .007). Genotype affects early operative outcomes in tetralogy of Fallot resulting, in particular, in longer duration of intensive care. Future studies are required to determine factors contributing to such differences in this susceptible population. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Axis I psychiatric diagnoses in adolescents and young adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, O.Y.; Smearman, E.; Fernandez-Carriba, S.; Rockers, K.A.; Coleman, K.; Walker, E.F.; Cubells, J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) associates with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and other psychiatric disorders, but co-occurrence of diagnoses are not well described. Methods We evaluated the co-occurrence of SSDs, ASDs and other axis I psychiatric diagnoses in 31 adolescents and adults with 22q11DS, assessing ASDs using either stringent Collaborative Program for Excellence in Autism (ASD-CPEA) criteria, or less stringent DSM-IV criteria alone (ASD-DSM-IV). Results Ten (32%) individuals met criteria for an SSD, five (16%) for ASD-CPEA, and five others (16%) for ASD-DSM-IV. Of those with ASD-CPEA, one (20%) met SSD criteria. Of those with ASD-DSM-IV, four (80%) met SSD criteria. Depressive disorders (8 individuals; 26%) and anxiety disorders (7; 23%) sometimes co-occurred with SSDs and ASDs. SSDs, ASDs, and anxiety occurred predominantly among males and depression predominantly among females. Conclusions Individuals with 22q11DS can manifest SSDs in the presence or absence of ASDs and other axis I diagnoses. The results suggest that standard clinical care should include childhood screening for ASDs, and later periodic screening for all axis I diagnoses. PMID:23916466

  9. Close linkage of the locus for X chromosome-linked severe combined immunodeficiency to polymorphic DNA markers in Xq11-q13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saint Basile, G.; Arveiler, B.; Oberle, I.

    1987-01-01

    The gene for X chromosome-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a disease characterized by a block in early T-cell differentiation, has been mapped to the region Xq11-q13 by linkage analysis with restriction fragment length polymorphisms. High logarithm of odds (lod) scores were obtained with the marker 19.2 (DXS3) and with the marker cpX73 (DXS159) that showed complete cosegregation with the disease locus in the informative families analyzed. Other significant linkages were obtained with several markers from Xq11 to q22. With the help of a recently developed genetic map of the region, it was possible to perform multipoint linkage analysis, and the most likely genetic order is DXS1-(SCID, DXS159)-DXYS1-DXYS12-DXS3, with a maximum multipoint logarithm of odds score of 11.0. The results demonstrate that the SCID locus (gene symbol IMD4) is not closely linked to the locus of Bruton's agammaglobulinemia (a defect in B-cell maturation). They also provide a way for a better estimation of risk for carrier and antenatal diagnosis

  10. Reciprocal deletion and duplication at 2q23.1 indicates a role for MBD5 in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Orellana, Carmen; van Bon, Bregje W M; Halbach, Sara; Repnikova, Elena A; Brick, Lauren; Li, Chumei; Dupuis, Lucie; Rosello, Monica; Aradhya, Swaroop; Stavropoulos, D James; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C; Talkowski, Michael E; Gusella, James F; Keller, Kory; Zonana, Jonathan; Schwartz, Stuart; Pyatt, Robert E; Waggoner, Darrel J; Shaffer, Lisa G; Lin, Angela E; de Vries, Bert B A; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Elsea, Sarah H

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations associated with abnormal gene dosage have an important role in the genetic etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability (ID) and autism. We hypothesize that the chromosome 2q23.1 region encompassing MBD5 is a dosage-dependent region, wherein deletion or duplication results in altered gene dosage. We previously established the 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome and report herein 23 individuals with 2q23.1 duplications, thus establishing a complementary duplication syndrome. The observed phenotype includes ID, language impairments, infantile hypotonia and gross motor delay, behavioral problems, autistic features, dysmorphic facial features (pinnae anomalies, arched eyebrows, prominent nose, small chin, thin upper lip), and minor digital anomalies (fifth finger clinodactyly and large broad first toe). The microduplication size varies among all cases and ranges from 68 kb to 53.7 Mb, encompassing a region that includes MBD5, an important factor in methylation patterning and epigenetic regulation. We previously reported that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 is the primary causal factor in 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome and that mutations in MBD5 are associated with autism. In this study, we demonstrate that MBD5 is the only gene in common among all duplication cases and that overexpression of MBD5 is likely responsible for the core clinical features present in 2q23.1 microduplication syndrome. Phenotypic analyses suggest that 2q23.1 duplication results in a slightly less severe phenotype than the reciprocal deletion. The features associated with a deletion, mutation or duplication of MBD5 and the gene expression changes observed support MBD5 as a dosage-sensitive gene critical for normal development.

  11. Chromosome break points of T-lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1980-01-01

    Chromosome break points of T-lymphocytes were investigated for 9 atomic bomb survivors estimated to be irradiated with 100 - 630 red. Chromosome aberration was found in 199 cells out of 678 cells investigated, with non-random distribution. The types of the chromosome aberration were, transfer: 56%, deficit: 38%, additional abnormality 3%, and reverse: 2%. High and low incidence of chromosome aberrations were observed at the chromosome numbers of 22, 21, and 13, and 11, 12, and 4, respectively. The aberration numbers per arm were high in 22q, 21q, and 18p and low in 11q, 5p, and 12q. For the distribution of aberration number within a chromosome, 50.7% was observed at the terminal portion and 73% was at the pale band appeared by Q-partial-stain method, suggesting the non-random distribution. The incidence of aberration number in 22q was statistically significant (P 1 chromosome in chronic myelocytic leukemia. The non-random distribution of chromosome break points seemed to reflect the selection effect since irradiation. (Nakanishi, T.)

  12. Transformation of an Unclassified Myeloproliferative Neoplasm with a Rare BCR-JAK2 Fusion Transcript Resulting from the Translocation (9;22)(p24;q11)

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Chamseddine; P. Etancelin; D. Penther; F. Parmentier; C. Kuadjovi; V. Camus; N. Contentin; P. Lenain; C. Bastard; H. Tilly; F. Jardin

    2015-01-01

    BCR-ABL1 negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are known to contain alterations of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 (located on 9p24) that result in constitutive activation of the encoded protein. JAK2 fusions are reported in acute and chronic leukemias of myeloid and lymphoid phenotypes. Here, we report an unclassified case of MPN (MPN-U) showing a t(9;22)(p24;q11), which generates a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene by fusing the BCR at intron 13 to JAK2 at intron 17 on the derivative chromosome 22. Most...

  13. Adrenal GIPR expression and chromosome 19q13 microduplications in GIP-dependent Cushing’s syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Viengchareun, Say; Chaligné, Ronan; Tosca, Lucie; Hage, Mirella; Berthon, Annabel; Faucz, Fabio R.; Hanna, Patrick; Boyer, Hadrien-Gaël; Servant, Nicolas; Salenave, Sylvie; Tachdjian, Gérard; Adam, Clovis; Benhamo, Vanessa; Clauser, Eric; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Young, Jacques; Lombès, Marc; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Maiter, Dominique; Tabarin, Antoine; Bertherat, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Hervé; Louiset, Estelle; Lacroix, André; Bouligand, Jérôme; Kamenický, Peter

    2017-01-01

    GIP-dependent Cushing’s syndrome is caused by ectopic expression of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) in cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas or in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasias. Molecular mechanisms leading to ectopic GIPR expression in adrenal tissue are not known. Here we performed molecular analyses on adrenocortical adenomas and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasias obtained from 14 patients with GIP-dependent adrenal Cushing’s syndrome and one patient with GIP-dependent aldosteronism. GIPR expression in all adenoma and hyperplasia samples occurred through transcriptional activation of a single allele of the GIPR gene. While no abnormality was detected in proximal GIPR promoter methylation, we identified somatic duplications in chromosome region 19q13.32 containing the GIPR locus in the adrenocortical lesions derived from 3 patients. In 2 adenoma samples, the duplicated 19q13.32 region was rearranged with other chromosome regions, whereas a single tissue sample with hyperplasia had a 19q duplication only. We demonstrated that juxtaposition with cis-acting regulatory sequences such as glucocorticoid response elements in the newly identified genomic environment drives abnormal expression of the translocated GIPR allele in adenoma cells. Altogether, our results provide insight into the molecular pathogenesis of GIP-dependent Cushing’s syndrome, occurring through monoallelic transcriptional activation of GIPR driven in some adrenal lesions by structural variations. PMID:28931750

  14. Isodicentric chromosome 21: a novel aberration in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, M; Tanaka, K; Arif, M; Shintani, T; Kumaravel, T S; Kyo, T; Dohy, H; Kamada, N

    1998-11-01

    We present here a 78-year-old female patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), French-American-British classification M2, exhibiting isodicentric chromosome 21, idic(21)(q22), at the time of diagnosis. The patient had three idic(21)(q22), besides the del(5)(q13q32), add(21)(q22), dic(21;22) (q22;q13), and +22. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies with whole-chromosome painting and centromere-specific probes for chromosome 21 verified the diagnosis of idic(21)(q22). There were no distinct clinicohematological characteristics of AML with isodicentric 21. The patient was treated with remission-induction therapy followed by consolidation therapy. Two years later, the patient showed the disappearance of isodicentric 21 but retained del(5)(q13q32) and gained other chromosomal abnormalities, +add(17)(p11) and -16. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AML with acquired idic(21)(q22).

  15. Differential DNA methylation at birth associated with mental disorder in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, A; Hansen, C S; Sparsø, T

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of comorbid mental disorders including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, as well as intellectual disability. Although most 22q11.2 deletion carriers have the long 3-Mb form of the hemizygous...... deletion, there remains a large variation in the development and progression of psychiatric disorders, which suggests that alternative factors contribute to the pathogenesis. In this study we investigated whether neonatal DNA methylation signatures in individuals with the 22q11.2 deletion associate...

  16. 22q11.2 deletion status and disease burden in children and adolescents with tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Paridon, Stephen M; Fogel, Mark A; Rychik, Jack; Tanel, Ronn E; Zhao, Huaqing; Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Wei; Shults, Justine; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot experience variable outcomes for reasons that are incompletely understood. We hypothesize that genetic variants contribute to this variability. We sought to investigate the association of 22q11.2 deletion status with clinical outcome in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. We performed a cross-sectional study of tetralogy of Fallot subjects who were tested for 22q11.2 deletion, and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance, exercise stress test, and review of medical history. We studied 165 subjects (12.3±3.1 years), of which 30 (18%) had 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Overall, by cardiac magnetic resonance the right ventricular ejection fraction was 60±8%, pulmonary regurgitant fraction was 34±17%, and right ventricular end-diastolic volume was 114±39 cc/m(2). On exercise stress test, maximum oxygen consumption was 76±16% predicted. Despite comparable right ventricular function and pulmonary regurgitant fraction, on exercise stress test the 22q11.2DS had significantly lower percent predicted: forced vital capacity (61.5±16 versus 80.5±14; Ptetralogy of Fallot. These findings may provide avenues for intervention to improve outcomes, and should be re-evaluated longitudinally because these associations may become more pronounced with time. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. USH1K, a novel locus for type I Usher syndrome, maps to chromosome 10p11.21-q21.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworek, Thomas J; Bhatti, Rashid; Latief, Noreen; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Saima; Ahmed, Zubair M

    2012-10-01

    We ascertained two large Pakistani consanguineous families (PKDF231 and PKDF608) segregating profound hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa; the defining features of Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1). To date, seven USH1 loci have been reported. Here, we map a novel locus, USH1K, on chromosome 10p11.21-q21.1. In family PKDF231, we performed a genome-wide linkage screen and found a region of homozygosity shared among the affected individuals at chromosome 10p11.21-q21.1. Meiotic recombination events in family PKDF231 define a critical interval of 11.74 cM (20.20 Mb) bounded by markers D10S1780 (63.83 cM) and D10S546 (75.57 cM). Affected individuals of family PKDF608 were also homozygous for chromosome 10p11.21-q21.1-linked STR markers. Of the 85 genes within the linkage interval, PCDH15, GJD4, FZD4, RET and LRRC18 were sequenced in both families, but no potential pathogenic mutation was identified. The USH1K locus overlaps the non-syndromic deafness locus DFNB33 raising the possibility that the two disorders may be caused by allelic mutations.

  18. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: behaviour problems of children and adolescents and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, W; Schneider, M; Schwab, K Otfried

    2008-11-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome can be associated with a variety of somatic symptoms, developmental delays and psychiatric disorders. At present, there is little information on behaviour problems, parental stress and possible relations between these factors. Therefore, this study investigates behaviour problems of children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS, and their primary caregivers' stress. Parents of 4-17 year old subjects known to the German 22q11.2 deletion syndrome foundation were anonymously asked to fill out several questionnaires, e.g. the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18 (CBCL/4-18). The primary caregivers of 77/126 children [43 males, 34 females, mean age: 8;0 (4;0-16;11) years] sent back filled-out questionnaires. Forty-six of 76 subjects were rated as clinical on at least one of the CBCL-scales. Males had significantly higher scores on the total problems scale and the internalizing problems scale than females. The patients' age correlated with several CBCL-scales. Eleven of 49 subjects were suspicious of an autism spectrum disorder. Compared with the general population, but not with other parents of mentally and/or physically handicapped children, the primary caregivers experienced higher levels of stress, but showed normal life satisfaction. In spite of high rates of clinical behaviour problems among children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS and despite increased parental stress, most primary caregivers seem to have effective coping strategies, e.g. partnership support, to sustain normal levels of life satisfaction.

  19. Detection of Chromosome X;18 Breakpoints and Translocation of the Xq22.3;18q23 Regions Resulting in Variable Fertility Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szvetko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a familial pattern of gonosomal-autosomal translocation between the X and 18 chromosomes, balanced and unbalanced forms, in male and female siblings. The proposita was consulted for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Karyotype analysis revealed a balanced 46, X, t(X;18(q22.3;q23 genotype. The sister of the proband presented with oligomenorrhea with irregular menses and possesses an unbalanced form of the translocation 46, X, der(X, t(X;18(q22.3;q23. The brother of the proband was investigated and was found to possess the balanced form of the same translocation, resulting in disrupted spermatogenesis. Maternal investigation revealed the progenitor karyotype 46, X, t(X;18(q22.3;q23. Maternal inheritance and various genomic events contributed to the resultant genotypes. Primary infertility was initially diagnosed in all progeny; however, the male individual recently fathered twins. We briefly review the mechanisms associated with X;18 translocations and describe a pattern of inheritance, where breakpoints and translocation of the Xq22.3;18q23 regions have resulted in variable fertility.

  20. Multimodal MRI reveals structural connectivity differences in 22q11 deletion syndrome related to impaired spatial working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Hanlon, Erik; Howley, Sarah; Prasad, Sarah; McGrath, Jane; Leemans, Alexander; McDonald, Colm; Garavan, Hugh; Murphy, Kieran C

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Impaired spatial working memory is a core cognitive deficit observed in people with 22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and has been suggested as a candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia. However, to date, the neuroanatomical mechanisms describing its structural and functional

  1. Duplication of 17(p11.2p11.2) in a male child with autism and severe language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamine, Alisa; Ouchanov, Leonid; Jiménez, Patricia; Manghi, Elina R; Esquivel, Marcela; Monge, Silvia; Fallas, Marietha; Burton, Barbara K; Szomju, Barbara; Elsea, Sarah H; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; McInnes, L Alison

    2008-03-01

    Duplications of 17(p11.2p11.2) have been associated with various behavioral manifestations including attention deficits, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, autistic traits, and language delay. We are conducting a genetic study of autism and are screening all cases for submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to standard karyotyping, and fragile X testing. Using array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis of data from the Affymetrix GeneChip(R) Human Mapping Array set, we detected a duplication of approximately 3.3 Mb on chromosome 17p11.2 in a male child with autism and severe expressive language delay. The duplication was confirmed by measuring the copy number of genomic DNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression analyses revealed increased expression of three candidate genes for the Smith-Magenis neurobehavioral phenotype, RAI1, DRG2, and RASD1, in transformed lymphocytes from Case 81A, suggesting gene dosage effects. Our results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that duplications of 17(p11.2p11.2) result in language delay as well as autism and related phenotypes. As Smith-Magenis syndrome is also associated with language delay, a gene involved in acquisition of language may lie within this interval. Whether a parent of origin effect, gender of the case, the presence of allelic variation, or changes in expression of genes outside the breakpoints influence the resultant phenotype remains to be determined. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Evaluación citogenética y de pérdida de la heterocigosidad de la región 22q11.2 en pacientes con el Síndrome de DiGeorge = Cytogenetic evaluation and loss of heterozigocity of chromosome 22q11.2 in patients with the DiGeorge syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego García, Germán Andreo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de la PCR para marcadores microsatélites (PCR-STR en la región 22q11.2 en el ADN genómico, para identificar microdeleciones en pacientes con síndrome de DiGeorge (SDG. Materiales y Métodos: se hizo un análisis de las historias clínicas de tres niñas con SDG y se investigaron deleciones en el cromosoma 22q11.2 mediante FISH y PCR-STR. Resultados: la FISH logró detectar deleciones en 22q11.2 en dos de las tres pacientes. Por su parte, por medio de la PCR-STR, se logró establecer que la paciente n.º 1 presentaba una deleción de 1,5 Mb proximal al centrómero, la segunda de mayor frecuencia en los pacientes con SDG. La deleción fue de origen paterno. Para caracterizar el defecto molecular en las otras pacientes, sería necesario acoplar estudios de cromatografía a este método, que permitan determinar el tamaño molecular de cada uno de los alelos parentales, o bien, ampliar este análisis con más microsatélites informativos ubicados en la región 22q11.2 para así definir más precisamente el tamaño de la deleción. Conclusiones: la PCR-STR en el ADN genómico es una alternativa para identificar deleciones que afectan microsatélites en la región 22q11.2 a un menor costo que la FISH y con resultados más rápidos; al mismo tiempo permite definir el origen parental y el tamaño de la microdeleción. Esta información es valiosa para identificar los genes asociados con las características clínicas del síndrome.

  3. Chromosomal organization of adrenergic receptor genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang-Feng, T.L.; Xue, Feiyu; Zhong, Wuwei; Cotecchia, S.; Frielle, T.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Francke, U.

    1990-01-01

    The adrenergic receptors (ARs) (subtypes α 1 , α 2 , β 1 , and β 2 ) are a prototypic family of guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein-coupled receptors that mediate the physiological effects of the hormone epinephrine and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. The authors have previously assigned the genes for β 2 -and α 2 -AR to human chromosomes 5 and 10, respectively. By Southern analysis of somatic cell hybrids and in situ chromosomal hybridization, they have now mapped the α 1 -AR gene to chromosome 5q32→q34, the same position as β 2 -AR, and the β 1 -AR gene to chromosome 10q24→q26, the region where α 2 -AR, is located. In mouse, both α 2 -and β 1 -AR genes were assigned to chromosome 19, and the α 1 -AR locus was localized to chromosome 11. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis has shown that the α 1 -and β 2 -AR genes in humans are within 300 kilobases (kb) and the distance between the α 2 - and β 1 -AR genes is <225 kb. The proximity of these two pairs of AR genes and the sequence similarity that exists among all the ARs strongly suggest that they are evolutionarily related. Moreover, they likely arose from a common ancestral receptor gene and subsequently diverged through gene duplication and chromosomal duplication to perform their distinctive roles in mediation the physiological effects of catecholamines. The AR genes thus provide a paradigm for understanding the evolution of such structurally conserved yet functionally divergent families off receptor molecules

  4. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with heart disease and del22q11 syndrome: a review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, P; Gossett, J M; Rycus, P T; Gupta, P

    2015-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate outcomes among children with del22q11 (DiGeorge) syndrome supported on ECMO for heart disease. The ELSO registry database was queried to include all children syndrome and with no del22q11 syndrome. Eighty-eight ECMO runs occurred in children with del22q11 syndrome while 2694 ECMO runs occurred in children without del22q11 syndrome. For patients with heart defects receiving ECMO, del22q11 syndrome did not confer a significant mortality risk or an increased risk of infectious complications before or while on ECMO support. Neither the duration of ECMO nor mechanical ventilation prior to ECMO deployment were prolonged in patients with del22q11 syndrome compared to the controls. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Developmental Course of Conversational Behaviour of Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, Ellen; Botting, Nicola; Boudewijns, Inge; Manders, Eric; Swillen, Ann; Zink, Inge

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated three conversational subskills in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS, n = 8, ages 7-13) and Williams syndrome (WS, n = 8, ages 6-12). The researchers re-evaluated these subskills after 18 to 24 months and compared them to those of peers with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID) and IID and comorbid…

  6. Evaluation of 6 candidate genes on chromosome 11q23 for coeliac disease susceptibility: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Close Eimear

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent whole genome analysis and follow-up studies have identified many new risk variants for coeliac disease (CD, gluten intolerance. The majority of newly associated regions encode candidate genes with a clear functional role in T-cell regulation. Furthermore, the newly discovered risk loci, together with the well established HLA locus, account for less than 50% of the heritability of CD, suggesting that numerous additional loci remain undiscovered. Linkage studies have identified some well-replicated risk regions, most notably chromosome 5q31 and 11q23. Methods We have evaluated six candidate genes in one of these regions (11q23, namely CD3E, CD3D, CD3G, IL10RA, THY1 and IL18, as risk factors for CD using a 2-phase candidate gene approach directed at chromosome 11q. 377 CD cases and 349 ethnically matched controls were used in the initial screening, followed by an extended sample of 171 additional coeliac cases and 536 additional controls. Results Promotor SNPs (-607, -137 in the IL18 gene, which has shown association with several autoimmune diseases, initially suggested association with CD (P IL18-137/-607 also supported this effect, primarily due to one relatively rare haplotype IL18-607C/-137C (P Conclusion Haplotypes of the IL18 promotor region may contribute to CD risk, consistent with this cytokine's role in maintaining inflammation in active CD.

  7. Complex distal 10q rearrangement in a girl with mild intellectual disability: follow up of the patient and review of the literature of non-acrocentric satellited chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarri, Catherine; Douzgou, Sofia; Gyftodimou, Yolanda; Tümer, Zeynep; Ravn, Kirstine; Pasparaki, Angela; Sarafidou, Theologia; Kontos, Harry; Kokotas, Haris; Karadima, Georgia; Grigoriadou, Maria; Pandelia, Effie; Theodorou, Virginia; Moschonas, Nicholas K; Petersen, Michael B

    2011-11-01

    We report on an intellectually disabled girl with a de novo satellited chromosome 10 (10qs) and performed a review of the literature of the non-acrocentric satellited chromosomes (NASC). Satellites and stalks normally occur on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes; however, the literature cites several reports of satellited non-acrocentric chromosomes, which presumably result from a translocation with an acrocentric chromosome. This is, to our knowledge, the third report of a 10qs chromosome. The phenotype observed in the proband prompted a search for a structural rearrangement of chromosome 10q. By microsatellite analysis we observed a 4 Mb deletion on the long arm of chromosome 10, approximately 145 kb from the telomere. FISH and array CGH analyses revealed a complex rearrangement involving in range from the centromere to the telomere: A 9.64 Mb 10q26.11-q26.2 duplication, a 1.3 Mb region with no copy number change, followed by a 5.62 Mb 10q26.2-q26.3 deletion and a translocation of satellite material. The homology between the repeat sequences at 10q subtelomere region and the sequences on the acrocentric short arms may explain the origin of the rearrangement and it is likely that the submicroscopic microdeletion and microduplication are responsible for the abnormal phenotype in our patient. The patient presented here, with a 15-year follow-up, manifests a distinct phenotype different from the 10q26 pure distal monosomy and trisomy syndromes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. USH1H, a novel locus for type I Usher syndrome, maps to chromosome 15q22-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Z M; Riazuddin, S; Khan, S N; Friedman, P L; Riazuddin, S; Friedman, T B

    2009-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a hereditary disorder associated with sensorineural hearing impairment, progressive loss of vision attributable to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and variable vestibular function. Three clinical types have been described with type I (USH1) being the most severe. To date, six USH1 loci have been reported. We ascertained two large Pakistani consanguineous families segregating profound hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and RP, the defining features of USH1. In these families, we excluded linkage of USH to the 11 known USH loci and subsequently performed a genome-wide linkage screen. We found a novel USH1 locus designated USH1H that mapped to chromosome 15q22-23 in a 4.92-cM interval. This locus overlaps the non-syndromic deafness locus DFNB48 raising the possibility that the two disorders may be caused by allelic mutations.

  9. Cortical morphology development in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome at ultra-high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Maria Carmela; Schaer, Marie; Armando, Marco; Sandini, Corrado; Zöller, Daniela; Scariati, Elisa; Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan

    2018-01-17

    Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) present a high risk of developing psychosis. While clinical and cognitive predictors for the conversion towards a full-blown psychotic disorder are well defined and largely used in practice, neural biomarkers do not yet exist. However, a number of investigations indicated an association between abnormalities in cortical morphology and higher symptoms severities in patients with 22q11DS. Nevertheless, few studies included homogeneous groups of patients differing in their psychotic symptoms profile. In this study, we included 22 patients meeting the criteria for an ultra-high-risk (UHR) psychotic state and 22 age-, gender- and IQ-matched non-UHR patients. Measures of cortical morphology, including cortical thickness, volume, surface area and gyrification, were compared between the two groups using mass-univariate and multivariate comparisons. Furthermore, the development of these measures was tested in the two groups using a mixed-model approach. Our results showed differences in cortical volume and surface area in UHR patients compared with non-UHR. In particular, we found a positive association between surface area and the rate of change of global functioning, suggesting that higher surface area is predictive of improved functioning with age. We also observed accelerated cortical thinning during adolescence in UHR patients with 22q11DS. These results, although preliminary, suggest that alterations in cortical volume and surface area as well as altered development of cortical thickness may be associated to a greater probability to develop psychosis in 22q11DS.

  10. The role of COMT and plasma proline in the variable penetrance of autistic spectrum symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, E.; Swaab, H.; de Sonneville, L. M J; van Engeland, H.; Vorstman, J. A S

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how COMT158 genotypes and plasma proline levels are associated with variable penetrance of social behavioural and social cognitive problems in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Severity of autistic spectrum symptoms of 45 participants with 22q11DS was assessed using the Autism

  11. A genome-wide scan for autoimmune thyroiditis in the Old Order Amish: replication of genetic linkage on chromosome 5q11.2-q14.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elsie M; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Sabra, Mona M; Pollin, Toni I; Ladenson, Paul W; Silver, Kristi D; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R

    2003-03-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis (AITD) is a common disorder characterized by circulating antibodies to epitopes of thyroid tissue and hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis or AITD-hypothyroidism), although many subjects with AITD are euthyroid. Current evidence suggests that AITD is familial and polygenic. We studied AITD in a homogeneous founder Caucasian population, the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. We found autoimmune thyroiditis, defined by the presence of circulating antimicrosomal antibodies, to be relatively common in the Amish, with a prevalence of 22.7%. The prevalence of AITD-hypothyroidism was 9.2%. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis with 373 short tandem repeat markers in 445 subjects from 29 families. We observed suggestive evidence of linkage of AITD to a locus on chromosome 5q11.2-q14.3 (LOD, 2.30; P = 0.0006 at 94 cM; closest marker, D5S428), a region that was previously reported to be linked to AITD-hypothyroidism in a Japanese study. AITD-hypothyroidism showed a more modest linkage peak to the same region (LOD, 1.46; P = 0.005). Possible linkage (nominal P Amish.

  12. Comparing the Broad Socio-Cognitive Profile of Youth with Williams Syndrome and 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, O.; Feldman, R.; Burg-Malki, M.; Keren, M.; Geva, R.; Diesendruck, G.; Gothelf, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have assessed the socio-cognitive profile in Williams syndrome (WS) and, independently, in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Yet, a cross-syndrome comparison of these abilities between individuals with these two syndromes with known social deficits has not been conducted. Methods: Eighty-two children participated…

  13. A case report of two male siblings with autism and duplication of Xq13-q21, a region including three genes predisposing for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Elisabet; Vujic, Mihailo; Kärrstedt, Ewa-Lotta; Erlandsson, Anna; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder, severe behaviour problems and duplication of the Xq12 to Xq13 region have recently been described in three male relatives. To describe the psychiatric comorbidity and dysmorphic features, including craniosynostosis, of two male siblings with autism and duplication of the Xq13 to Xq21 region, and attempt to narrow down the number of duplicated genes proposed to be leading to global developmental delay and autism. We performed DNA sequencing of certain exons of the TWIST1 gene, the FGFR2 gene and the FGFR3 gene. We also performed microarray analysis of the DNA. In addition to autism, the two male siblings exhibited severe learning disability, self-injurious behaviour, temper tantrums and hyperactivity, and had no communicative language. Chromosomal analyses were normal. Neither of the two siblings showed mutations of the sequenced exons known to produce craniosynostosis. The microarray analysis detected an extra copy of a region on the long arm of chromosome X, chromosome band Xq13.1-q21.1. Comparison of our two cases with previously described patients allowed us to identify three genes predisposing for autism in the duplicated chromosomal region. Sagittal craniosynostosis is also a new finding linked to the duplication.

  14. Mother-Child Interaction as a Window to a Unique Social Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Omri; Feldman, Ruth; Burg-Malki, Merav; Keren, Miri; Geva, Ronny; Diesendruck, Gil; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Mother-child interactions in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) were coded for maternal sensitivity/intrusiveness, child's expression of affect, levels of engagement, and dyadic reciprocity. WS children were found to express more positive emotions towards their mothers compared to 22q11.2DS children and those with…

  15. Hirschsprung disease, microcephaly, mental retardation, and characteristic facial features: delineation of a new syndrome and identification of a locus at chromosome 2q22-q23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, D R; Croaker, G D; Cass, D T; Kerr, B A; Chaitow, J; Adès, L C; Chia, N L; Wilson, M J

    1998-01-01

    We have identified six children with a distinctive facial phenotype in association with mental retardation (MR), microcephaly, and short stature, four of whom presented with Hirschsprung (HSCR) disease in the neonatal period. HSCR was diagnosed in a further child at the age of 3 years after investigation for severe chronic constipation and another child, identified as sharing the same facial phenotype, had chronic constipation, but did not have HSCR. One of our patients has an interstitial deletion of chromosome 2, del(2)(q21q23). These children strongly resemble the patient reported by Lurie et al with HSCR and dysmorphic features associated with del(2)(q22q23). All patients have been isolated cases, suggesting a contiguous gene syndrome or a dominant single gene disorder involving a locus for HSCR located at 2q22-q23. Review of published reports suggests that there is significant phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity within the group of patients with HSCR, MR, and microcephaly. In particular, our patients appear to have a separate disorder from Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome, for which autosomal recessive inheritance has been proposed because of sib recurrence and consanguinity in some families. Images PMID:9719364

  16. Recombinant chromosome 7 in a mosaic 45,X/47,XXX patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Carlos A; Gotway, Garrett; Torgbe, Emmanuel; Iyer, Santha; Dallaire, Stephanie; Appleberry, Taylor; Suterwala, Mohamed; Garcia, Rolando; Valdez, Federico; Patel, Sangeeta; Koduru, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with pericentric inversions are at risk for producing offspring with chromosomal gains and losses, while those carrying paracentric inversions usually produce unviable gametes [Madan, 1995]. In this current study, we present a newborn with dysmorphic features and malformations, whose karyotype showed an abnormal copy of chromomosome 7 described at first as add(7)(q32) as well as mos 45,X/47,XXX. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed an interstitial deletion in the long arm of chromosome 7 involving bands q35 to q36.3 but retaining the 7q subtelomere. The patient's deletion is believed to be due to meiotic recombination in the inversion loop in the phenotypically normal father who seems to carry two paracentric inversions in the long arm of chromosome 7, which was described as rec(7)(7pter- > q35::q36.3- > 7qter)pat. The abnormal copy of chromosome 7 in the father has been described as: der(7)(7pter- > q22.1::q36.3- > q35::q22.1- > q35::q36.3- > 7qter). This is a unique karyotype that to our knowledge has not been previously reported in the literature and predisposes to meiotic recombination that can result in deletions or duplications of 7q35-36. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The idic(X)(q13) in myeloid malignancies: breakpoint clustering in segmental duplications and association with TET2 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsson, Kajsa; Haferlach, Claudia; Fonatsch, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia with an isodicentric X chromosome [idic(X)(q13)] occur in elderly women and frequently display ringed sideroblasts. Because of the rarity of idic(X)(q13), little is known about its formation, whether a fusion gene is generated, and patterns...... of additional aberrations. We here present an SNP array study of 14 idic(X)-positive myeloid malignancies, collected through an international collaborative effort. The breakpoints clustered in two regions of segmental duplications and were not in a gene, making dosage effects from the concurrent gain of Xpter......-q13 and loss of Xq13-qter, rather than a fusion gene, the most likely pathogenetic outcome. Methylation analysis revealed involvement of the inactive X chromosomes in five cases and of the active in two. The ABCB7 gene, mutated in X-linked sideroblastic anemia and spinocerebellar ataxia...

  18. Sorting by Cuts, Joins, and Whole Chromosome Duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeira, Ron; Shamir, Ron

    2017-02-01

    Genome rearrangement problems have been extensively studied due to their importance in biology. Most studied models assumed a single copy per gene. However, in reality, duplicated genes are common, most notably in cancer. In this study, we make a step toward handling duplicated genes by considering a model that allows the atomic operations of cut, join, and whole chromosome duplication. Given two linear genomes, [Formula: see text] with one copy per gene and [Formula: see text] with two copies per gene, we give a linear time algorithm for computing a shortest sequence of operations transforming [Formula: see text] into [Formula: see text] such that all intermediate genomes are linear. We also show that computing an optimal sequence with fewest duplications is NP-hard.

  19. Association of COMT and PRODH gene variants with intelligence quotient (IQ) and executive functions in 22q11.2DS subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Miri; Zarchi, Omer; Michaelovsky, Elena; Frisch, Amos; Patya, Miriam; Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) carries the highest genetic risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. We investigated the association of genetic variants in two schizophrenia candidate genes with executive function (EF) and IQ in 22q11.2DS individuals. Ninety two individuals with 22q11.2 deletion were studied for the genetic association between COMT and PRODH variants and EF and IQ. Subjects were divided into children (under 12 years old), adolescents (between 12 and 18 years old) and adults (older than 18 years), and genotyped for the COMT Val158Met (rs4680) and PRODH Arg185Trp (rs4819756) polymorphisms. The participants underwent psychiatric evaluation and EF assessment. Our main finding is a significant influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on both IQ and EF performance. Specifically, 22q11.2DS subjects with Met allele displayed higher IQ scores in all age groups compared to Val carriers, reaching significance in both adolescents and adults. The Met allele carriers performed better than Val carriers in EF tasks, being statistically significant in the adult group. PRODH Arg185Trp variant did not affect IQ or EF in our 22q11.2DS cohort. In conclusion, functional COMT variant, but not PRODH, affects IQ and EF in 22q11.2DS subjects during neurodevelopment with a maximal effect at adulthood. Future studies should monitor the cognitive performance of the same individuals from childhood to old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral health and 22q11 deletion syndrome: thoughts and experiences from the parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Gunilla; Hallberg, Ulrika; Oskarsdóttir, Sólveig

    2010-07-01

    22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes, and many dentists are likely to meet patients with the syndrome. Odontological research has focused on describing and analysing conditions/concepts based on the current state of knowledge within the dental profession. Yet, these research topics are not necessarily the most important issues for the patients. To explore and describe, by use of Grounded theory, parents' experiences of oral health issues and needs for dental care in their children with 22q11DS. Twelve parents from different regions in Sweden were interviewed. Analyses were carried out according to Grounded theory. Parents recognised good oral health as important for the wellbeing of their children. Oral health was a concern and the parents described the fight for this as struggling in vain for good oral health in their child. Parents not only described their children's oral health as important but also hard to gain. Thus, it is important that all patients with disabilities, regardless of whether there is a defined medical diagnosis or not, are identified and well taken care of in the dental care system.

  1. Chromosomal duplication strains of Aspergillus nidulans and their instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.L. de; Almeida Okino, L.M. de

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Aspergillus nidulans with chromosomal duplication were obtained after gamma irradiation followed by crossing of the translocated strains with normal strains. From 20 analysed colonies, 12 have shown translocations induced by irradiation. Segregants from four of these translocation strains crossed to normal strains have shown to be unstable although presenting normal morphology. Two segregants were genetically analysed. The first one has shown a duplication of part of linkage groups VIII and the second one presented a duplication of a segment of linkage group V. These new duplication strains in A. nidulans open new perspectives of a more detailed study of the instability phenomenon in this fungus. (Author) [pt

  2. Verification and characterization of chromosome duplication in haploid maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Couto, E G; Resende Von Pinho, E V; Von Pinho, R G; Veiga, A D; de Carvalho, M R; de Oliveira Bustamante, F; Nascimento, M S

    2015-06-26

    Doubled haploid technology has been used by various private companies. However, information regarding chromosome duplication methodologies, particularly those concerning techniques used to identify duplication in cells, is limited. Thus, we analyzed and characterized artificially doubled haploids using microsatellites molecular markers, pollen viability, and flow cytometry techniques. Evaluated material was obtained using two different chromosome duplication protocols in maize seeds considered haploids, resulting from the cross between the haploid inducer line KEMS and 4 hybrids (GNS 3225, GNS 3032, GNS 3264, and DKB 393). Fourteen days after duplication, plant samples were collected and assessed by flow cytometry. Further, the plants were transplanted to a field, and samples were collected for DNA analyses using microsatellite markers. The tassels were collected during anthesis for pollen viability analyses. Haploid, diploid, and mixoploid individuals were detected using flow cytometry, demonstrating that this technique was efficient for identifying doubled haploids. The microsatellites markers were also efficient for confirming the ploidies preselected by flow cytometry and for identifying homozygous individuals. Pollen viability showed a significant difference between the evaluated ploidies when the Alexander and propionic-carmin stains were used. The viability rates between the plodies analyzed show potential for fertilization.

  3. Relationship between reaction time, fine motor control, and visual-spatial perception on vigilance and visual-motor tasks in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Howley, Sarah A

    2012-10-15

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability and specific neurocognitive deficits, particularly in visual-motor and attentional abilities. Currently there is evidence that the visual-motor profile of 22q11DS is not entirely mediated by intellectual disability and that these individuals have specific deficits in visual-motor integration. However, the extent to which attentional deficits, such as vigilance, influence impairments on visual motor tasks in 22q11DS is unclear. This study examines visual-motor abilities and reaction time using a range of standardised tests in 35 children with 22q11DS, 26 age-matched typically developing (TD) sibling controls and 17 low-IQ community controls. Statistically significant deficits were observed in the 22q11DS group compared to both low-IQ and TD control groups on a timed fine motor control and accuracy task. The 22q11DS group performed significantly better than the low-IQ control group on an untimed drawing task and were equivalent to the TD control group on point accuracy and simple reaction time tests. Results suggest that visual motor deficits in 22q11DS are primarily attributable to deficits in psychomotor speed which becomes apparent when tasks are timed versus untimed. Moreover, the integration of visual and motor information may be intact and, indeed, represent a relative strength in 22q11DS when there are no time constraints imposed. While this may have significant implications for cognitive remediation strategies for children with 22q11DS, the relationship between reaction time, visual reasoning, cognitive complexity, fine motor speed and accuracy, and graphomotor ability on visual-motor tasks is still unclear.

  4. Benign chronic neutropenia with abnormalities involving 16q22, affecting mother and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Lewis; Meloni-Ehrig, Aurelia; Joseph, Plakyil; Mendiola, Jennifer

    2006-04-01

    We report a case of familial, chronic, benign neutropenia in a 17-year-old female showing (1) the spontaneous expression of a heritable rare fragile site at 16q22 and (2) a deletion at the same region. The del(16)(q22), which most likely originated from the fragile site, was the main clonal abnormality detected in the patient's bone marrow cells, whereas a few cells with either del(16)(q22) or fra(16)(q22) were seen in the patient's peripheral blood. Interestingly, the del(16q) was also detected in the patient's uncultured cells, as demonstrated by FISH, excluding an in vitro origin of the del(16q) during culture. The bone marrow was hypocellular with decreased neutrophils and their precursors. Absolute neutrophil counts ranged from (0.62 to 1.24) x 10(9)/L with a median value of 1.02 x 10(9)/L. The patient had a more severe neutropenia than her mother, which correlated with the presence of more cells with del(16q) in the marrow. The patient's mother, who was also diagnosed with neutropenia, revealed only a few cells with the rare fra(16)(q22) in her peripheral blood cells, whereas her bone marrow showed cells with both fra(16)(q22) and del(16)(q22), although the del(16q) was present in only 2/20 cells. Some possible candidate genes contributing to the pathogenesis of the neutropenia are discussed. Chromosome abnormalities involving the 16q22 breakpoint have been observed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this patient, the del(16)(q22) risk factor is unknown for subsequent development of MDS or AML. Another point to consider is the need to determine the origin of a chromosome abnormality, particularly when the clinical picture does not fit the chromosome findings. Although, the observation of a constitutional structural abnormality in a mosaic form is an extremely rare event, it is somewhat different in the case of a fragile site expression, which can, as in this case, be present in some cells and not in others. Copyright 2006

  5. Physical and transcription map of a 25 Mb region on human chromosome 7 (region q21-q22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, S. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)]|[Hosptial for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Little, S.; Vandenberg, A. [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We are interested in the q21-q22 region of chromosome 7 because of its implication in a number of diseases. This region of about 25 Mb appears to be involved in ectrodactyly/ectodermal dysplasia/cleft plate (EEC) and split hand/split foot deformity (SHFD1), as well as myelodysplastic syndrome and acute non-lymphocyte leukemia. In order to identify the genes responsible for these and other diseases, we have constructed a physical map of this region. The proximal and distal boundaries of the region were operationally defined by the microsatellite markers D7S660 and D7S692, which are about 35 cM apart. This region between these two markers could be divided into 13 intervals on the basis of chromosome breakpoints contained in somatic cell hybrids. The map positions for 43 additional microsatellite markers and 25 cloned genes were determined with respect to these intervals. A physical map based on contigs of over 250 YACs has also been assembled. While the contigs encompass all of the known genetic markers mapped to the region and almost cover the entire 25-Mb region, there are 3 gaps on the map. One of these gaps spans a set of DNA markers for which no corresponding YAC clones could be identified. To connect the two adjacent contigs we have initiated cosmid walking with a chromosome 7-specific library (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory). A tiling path of 60 contiguous YAC clones has been assembled and used for direct cDNA selection. Over 300 cDNA clones have been isolated and characterized. They are being grouped into transcription units by Northern blot analysis and screening of full-length cDNA libraries. Further, exon amplification and direct cDNA library screening with evolutionarily conserved sequences are being performed for a 1-Mb region spanning the SHFD1 locus to ensure detection of all transcribed sequences.

  6. Verbal short-term memory in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion: specific deficit in serial order retention capacities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial; Braissand, Vérane; Eliez, Stephan

    2007-03-01

    Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet been systematically investigated. We explored verbal short-term memory abilities in a group of 11 children and adults presenting with VCFS and two control groups, matched on either CA or vocabulary knowledge, by distinguishing short-term memory for serial order and item information. The VCFS group showed impaired performance on the serial order short-term memory tasks compared to both control groups. Relative to the vocabulary-matched control group, item short-term memory was preserved. The implication of serial order short-term memory deficits on other aspects of cognitive development in VCFS (e.g., language development, numerical cognition) is discussed.

  7. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  8. X-linked congenital ptosis and associated intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, cleft palate, digital and genital abnormalities define novel Xq25q26 duplication syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, R S; Jensen, L R; Maas, S M

    2014-01-01

    , hypogonadism and feeding difficulties. Female carriers are often phenotypically normal or show a similar but milder phenotype, as in most cases the X-chromosome harbouring the duplication is subject to inactivation. Xq28, which includes MECP2 is the major locus for submicroscopic X-chromosome duplications......, whereas duplications in Xq25 and Xq26 have been reported in only a few cases. Using genome-wide array platforms we identified overlapping interstitial Xq25q26 duplications ranging from 0.2 to 4.76 Mb in eight unrelated families with in total five affected males and seven affected females. All affected...... males shared a common phenotype with intrauterine- and postnatal growth retardation and feeding difficulties in childhood. Three had microcephaly and two out of five suffered from epilepsy. In addition, three males had a distinct facial appearance with congenital bilateral ptosis and large protruding...

  9. An estimation of the prevalence of genomic disorders using chromosomal microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillentine, Madelyn A; Lupo, Philip J; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Schaaf, Christian P

    2018-04-24

    Multiple genomic disorders result from recurrent deletions or duplications between low copy repeat (LCR) clusters, mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination. These copy number variants (CNVs) often exhibit variable expressivity and/or incomplete penetrance. However, the population prevalence of many genomic disorders has not been estimated accurately. A subset of genomic disorders similarly characterized by CNVs between LCRs have been studied epidemiologically, including Williams-Beuren syndrome (7q11.23), Smith-Magenis syndrome (17p11.2), velocardiofacial syndrome (22q11.21), Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes (15q11.2q12), 17q12 deletion syndrome, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1/hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (PMP22, 17q11.2). We have generated a method to estimate prevalence of highly penetrant genomic disorders by (1) leveraging epidemiological data for genomic disorders with previously reported prevalence estimates, (2) obtaining chromosomal microarray data on genomic disorders from a large medical genetics clinic; and (3) utilizing these in a linear regression model to determine the prevalence of this syndromic copy number change among the general population. Using our algorithm, the prevalence for five clinically relevant recurrent genomic disorders: 1q21.1 microdeletion (1/6882 live births) and microduplication syndromes (1/6309), 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (1/5525), and 16p11.2 microdeletion (1/3021) and microduplication syndromes (1/4216), were determined. These findings will inform epidemiological strategies for evaluating those conditions, and our method may be useful to evaluate the prevalence of other highly penetrant genomic disorders.

  10. Transcriptome Profiling of Peripheral Blood in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Reveals Functional Pathways Related to Psychosis and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jalbrzikowski

    Full Text Available 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS represents one of the greatest known genetic risk factors for the development of psychotic illness, and is also associated with high rates of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD in childhood. We performed integrated genomic analyses of 22q11DS to identify genes and pathways related to specific phenotypes.We used a high-resolution aCGH array to precisely characterize deletion breakpoints. Using peripheral blood, we examined differential expression (DE and networks of co-expressed genes related to phenotypic variation within 22q11DS patients. Whole-genome transcriptional profiling was performed using Illumina Human HT-12 microarrays. Data mining techniques were used to validate our results against independent samples of both peripheral blood and brain tissue from idiopathic psychosis and ASD cases.Eighty-five percent of 22q11DS individuals (N = 39 carried the typical 3 Mb deletion, with significant variability in deletion characteristics in the remainder of the sample (N = 7. DE analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA identified expression changes related to psychotic symptoms in patients, including a module of co-expressed genes which was associated with psychosis in 22q11DS and involved in pathways associated with transcriptional regulation. This module was enriched for brain-expressed genes, was not related to antipsychotic medication use, and significantly overlapped with transcriptional changes in idiopathic schizophrenia. In 22q11DS-ASD, both DE and WGCNA analyses implicated dysregulation of immune response pathways. The ASD-associated module showed significant overlap with genes previously associated with idiopathic ASD.These findings further support the use of peripheral tissue in the study of major mutational models of diseases affecting the brain, and point towards specific pathways dysregulated in 22q11DS carriers with psychosis and ASD.

  11. A Rare Chromosome 3 Imbalance and Its Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sims

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The duplication of chromosome 3q is a rare disorder with varying chromosomal breakpoints and consequently symptoms. Even rarer is the unbalanced outcome from a parental inv(3 resulting in duplicated 3q and a deletion of 3p. Molecular karyotyping should aid in precisely determining the length and breakpoints of the 3q+/3p− so as to better understand a child’s future development and needs. We report a case of an infant male with a 57.5 Mb duplication from 3q23-qter. This patient also has an accompanying 1.7 Mb deletion of 3p26.3. The duplicated segment in this patient encompasses the known critical region of 3q26.3-q27, which is implicated in the previously reported 3q dup syndrome; however, the accompanying 3p26.3 deletion is smaller than the previously reported cases. The clinical phenotype of this patient relates to previously reported cases of 3q+ that may suggest that the accompanying 1.7 Mb heterozygous deletion is not clinically relevant. Taken together, our data has refined the location and extent of the chromosome 3 imbalance, which will aid in better understanding the molecular underpinning of the 3q syndrome.

  12. LARG at chromosome 11q23 has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Danny C.T.; Rudduck, Christina; Chin, Koei; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lie, Daniel K.H.; Chua, Constance L.M.; Wong, Chow Yin; Hong, Ga Sze; Gray, Joe; Lee, Ann S.G.

    2008-05-06

    Deletion of 11q23-q24 is frequent in a diverse variety of malignancies, including breast and colorectal carcinoma, implicating the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at that chromosomal region. We show here that LARG, from 11q23, has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor. We examined a 6-Mb region on 11q23 by high-resolution deletion mapping, utilizing both loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis and microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). LARG (also called ARHGEF12), identified from the analyzed region, was underexpressed in 34% of primary breast carcinomas and 80% of breast cancer cell lines including the MCF-7 line. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on 30 primary breast cancers and six breast cancer cell lines showed that LARG had the highest frequency of deletion compared to the BCSC-1 and TSLC1 genes, two known candidate tumor suppressor genes from 11q. In vitro analysis of breast cancer cell lines that underexpress LARG showed that LARG could be reactivated by trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, but not by 5-Aza-2{prime}-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative high-throughput analysis of DNA methylation confirmed the lack of CpG island methylation in LARG in breast cancer. Restoration of LARG expression in MCF-7 cells by stable transfection resulted in reduced proliferation and colony formation, suggesting that LARG has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor gene.

  13. Associations between neurodevelopmental genes, neuroanatomy, and ultra high risk symptoms of psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carlie A; Karelis, Jason; Middleton, Frank A; Gentile, Karen; Coman, Ioana L; Radoeva, Petya D; Mehta, Rashi; Fremont, Wanda P; Antshel, Kevin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Kates, Wendy R

    2017-04-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder resulting in the deletion of over 40 genes. Up to 40% of individuals with 22q11.2DS develop schizophrenia, though little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that allelic variation in functional polymorphisms in seven genes unique to the deleted region would affect lobar brain volumes, which would predict risk for psychosis in youth with 22q11.2DS. Participants included 56 individuals (30 males) with 22q11.2DS. Anatomic MR images were collected and processed using Freesurfer. Participants were genotyped for 10 SNPs in the COMT, DGCR8, GNB1L, PIK4CA, PRODH, RTN4R, and ZDHHC8 genes. All subjects were assessed for ultra high risk symptoms of psychosis. Allelic variation of the rs701428 SNP of RTN4R was significantly associated with volumetric differences in gray matter of the lingual gyrus and cuneus of the occipital lobe. Moreover, occipital gray matter volumes were robustly associated with ultra high risk symptoms of psychosis in the presence of the G allele of rs701428. Our results suggest that RTN4R, a relatively under-studied gene at the 22q11 locus, constitutes a susceptibility gene for psychosis in individuals with this syndrome through its alteration of the architecture of the brain. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Are Impaired at Explicit, but Not Implicit, Discrimination of Local Forms Embedded in Global Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, Anne; Glaser, Bronwyn; Pasca, Catherine; Chabloz, Mélanie; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are impaired at exploring visual information in space; however, not much is known about visual form discrimination in the syndrome. Thirty-five individuals with 22q11.2DS and 41 controls completed a form discrimination task with global forms made up of local elements. Affected individuals…

  15. Fine mapping of the human renal oncocytoma-associated translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) breakpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, RJ; Dijkhuizen, T; Janssen, B; Weghuis, DO; Merkx, G; vandenBerg, E; Schuuring, E; Meloni, AM; deJong, B; vanKessel, AG

    1997-01-01

    Recent cytogenetic analysis of a series of human renal oncocytomas revealed the presence of a recurring chromosomal translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) as sole anomaly in a subset of the tumors. The molecular characterization of this translocation was initiated using two primary t(5;11)-positive renal

  16. Linkage analysis in a large Swedish family supports the presence of a susceptibility locus for adenoma and colorectal cancer on chromosome 9q22.32-31.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund, J; Djureinovic, T; Zhou, X-L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The best known hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), constitute about 2% of all colorectal cancers, and there are at least as many non-FAP, non-HNPCC cases where the family history suggests...... a dominantly inherited colorectal cancer risk. Recently, a locus on chromosome 9q22.2-31.2 was identified by linkage analysis in sib pairs with colorectal cancer or adenoma. METHODS: Linkage analysis for the suggested locus on chromosome 9 was carried out in an extended Swedish family. This family had...... previously been investigated but following the identification of adenomas in several previously unaffected family members, these subjects were now considered to be gene carriers. RESULTS: In the present study, we found linkage of adenoma and colorectal cancer to chromosome 9q22.32-31.1 with a multipoint LOD...

  17. Nonmosaic tetrasomy 15q25.2 → qter identified with SNP microarray in a patient with characteristic facial appearance and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huihui; Xiao, Bing; Ji, Xing; Hu, Qin; Chen, Yingwei; Qiu, Wenjuan

    2014-07-01

    Tetrasomy for the distal chromosome 15q is rare, and only 22 patients (including 6 cases without detailed information) have been described to date in the literature. Here we report on another patient with nonmosaic tetrasomy 15q25.2-qter resulted from an inverted duplication of distal chromosome 15. This patient presents with features of development delay, arachnodactyly, joint contractures and typical facial dysmorphism including frontal bossing, short palpebral fissures, long philtrum, low-set ears, high-arched palate and retrognathia. Unlike most of the related patients, abdominal ultrasound test and brain MRI showed normal. Karyotyping analysis revealed a supernumerary marker chromosome presented in all metaphase cells examined. Parental karyotyping analysis was normal, indicating a de novo chromosome aberration of the patient. SNP microarray analysis found a two copy gain of 17.7 Mb from the distal long arm of chromosome 15 (15q25.2-qter). Further FISH analysis using SureFISH 15q26.3 IGF1R probe proved an inverted duplication of distal long arm of chromosome 15. The segmental duplications which lie in the hotspots of 15q24-26 might increase the susceptibility of chromosome rearrangement. Compared with the George-Abraham' study [2012], ADAMTSL3 might be more related to the cardiac disorders in tetrasomy 15q patients. Considering all patients reported in the literature, different mosaic degrees and segmental sizes don't correlate to the severity of phenotypes. A clear delineation on tetrasomy for distal chromosome 15q could still be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing the broad socio-cognitive profile of youth with Williams syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, O; Feldman, R; Burg-Malki, M; Keren, M; Geva, R; Diesendruck, G; Gothelf, D

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies have assessed the socio-cognitive profile in Williams syndrome (WS) and, independently, in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Yet, a cross-syndrome comparison of these abilities between individuals with these two syndromes with known social deficits has not been conducted. Eighty-two children participated in four study groups: WS (n = 18), 22q112.DS (n = 24), age-matched individuals with idiopathic developmental disability (IDD; n = 20) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 20). Participants completed four socio-cognitive tests: facial emotion recognition, mental state attribution, differentiating real from apparent emotions and trait inference based on motives and actions-outcomes. The current findings demonstrate that children with WS were better in labelling happy faces compared with children with 22q11.2DS, partially reflecting their exaggerated social drive. In the false belief task, however, the WS and IDD groups performed poorly compared with the 22q11.2DS group, possibly due to their difficulty to interpret subtle social cues. When asked to identify the gap between real-negative vs. apparent-positive emotions, the 22q11.2DS group performed similarly to TD children but better than the WS group, possibly due to their anxious personality and their innate bias towards negatively valence cues. Finally, individuals with WS were more willing to become friends with a story character even when the character's motives were negative, reflecting their difficulty to avoid potentially harmful real-life situations. Overall, our multi-facet socio-cognitive battery uncovered strengths and weaknesses in social cognition that are syndrome-specific, shared among the genetic syndromes, or common to the three clinical groups compared with healthy controls. Our findings underscore the need to devise age-specific and condition-specific assessment tools and intervention programs towards improving these children's socio-cognitive deficits. © 2017

  19. X-linked recessive panhypopituitarism associated with a regional duplication in Xq25-q26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerström-Fermér, M; Sundvall, M; Johnsen, E; Warne, G L; Forrest, S M; Zajac, J D; Rickards, A; Ravine, D; Landegren, U; Pettersson, U

    1997-01-01

    We present a linkage analysis and a clinical update on a previously reported family with X-linked recessive panhypopituitarism, now in its fourth generation. Affected members exhibit variable degrees of hypopituitarism and mental retardation. The markers DXS737 and DXS1187 in the q25-q26 region of the X chromosome showed evidence for linkage with a peak LOD score (Zmax) of 4.12 at zero recombination fraction (theta(max) = 0). An apparent extra copy of the marker DXS102, observed in the region of the disease gene in affected males and heterozygous carrier females, suggests that a segment including this marker is duplicated. The gene causing this disorder appears to code for a dosage-sensitive protein central to development of the pituitary. Images Figure 2 PMID:9106538

  20. Performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test and Its Relation to Psychopathology in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, K.; Ousley, O.; Sutton, T.; Schoenberg, E.; Coleman, K.; Walker, E.; Cubells, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common genetic disorder highly associated with intellectual disabilities, may develop schizophrenia, likely preceded by a mild to moderate cognitive decline. Methods: We examined adolescents and young adults with 22q11DS for the presence of executive…

  1. Two siblings with alternate unbalanced recombinants derived from a large cryptic maternal pericentric inversion of chromosome 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descipio, Cheryl; Morrissette, Jennifer D; Conlin, Laura K; Clark, Dinah; Kaur, Maninder; Coplan, James; Riethman, Harold; Spinner, Nancy B; Krantz, Ian D

    2010-02-01

    Two brothers, with dissimilar clinical features, were each found to have different abnormalities of chromosome 20 by subtelomere fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The proband had deletion of 20p subtelomere and duplication of 20q subtelomere, while his brother was found to have a duplication of 20p subtelomere and deletion of 20q subtelomere. Parental cytogenetic studies were initially thought to be normal, both by G-banding and by subtelomere FISH analysis. Since chromosome 20 is a metacentric chromosome and an inversion was suspected, we used anchored FISH to assist in identifying a possible inversion. This approach employed concomitant hybridization of a FISH probe to the short (p) arm of chromosome 20 with the 20q subtelomere probe. We identified a cytogenetically non-visible, mosaic pericentric inversion of one of the maternal chromosome 20 homologs, providing a mechanistic explanation for the chromosomal abnormalities present in these brothers. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) with both a custom-made BAC and cosmid-based subtelomere specific array (TEL array) and a commercially available SNP-based array confirmed and further characterized these rearrangements, identifying this as the largest pericentric inversion of chromosome 20 described to date. TEL array data indicate that the 20p breakpoint is defined by BAC RP11-978M13, approximately 900 kb from the pter; SNP array data reveal this breakpoint to occur within BAC RP11-978M13. The 20q breakpoint is defined by BAC RP11-93B14, approximately 1.7 Mb from the qter, by TEL array; SNP array data refine this breakpoint to within a gap between BACs on the TEL array (i.e., between RP11-93B14 and proximal BAC RP11-765G16). Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Mapping Cortical Morphology in Youth with Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Wendy R.; Bansal, Ravi; Fremont, Wanda; Antshel, Kevin M.; Hao, Xuejun; Higgins, Anne Marie; Liu, Jun; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) represents one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Insofar as up to 30% of individuals with this genetic disorder develop schizophrenia, VCFS constitutes a unique, etiologically homogeneous model for understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Method:…

  3. A method for accurate detection of genomic microdeletions using real-time quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassett Anne S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR is a well-established method for quantifying levels of gene expression, but has not been routinely applied to the detection of constitutional copy number alterations of human genomic DNA. Microdeletions or microduplications of the human genome are associated with a variety of genetic disorders. Although, clinical laboratories routinely use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to identify such cryptic genomic alterations, there remains a significant number of individuals in which constitutional genomic imbalance is suspected, based on clinical parameters, but cannot be readily detected using current cytogenetic techniques. Results In this study, a novel application for real-time qPCR is presented that can be used to reproducibly detect chromosomal microdeletions and microduplications. This approach was applied to DNA from a series of patient samples and controls to validate genomic copy number alteration at cytoband 22q11. The study group comprised 12 patients with clinical symptoms of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS, 1 patient trisomic for 22q11 and 4 normal controls. 6 of the patients (group 1 had known hemizygous deletions, as detected by standard diagnostic FISH, whilst the remaining 6 patients (group 2 were classified as 22q11DS negative using the clinical FISH assay. Screening of the patients and controls with a set of 10 real time qPCR primers, spanning the 22q11.2-deleted region and flanking sequence, confirmed the FISH assay results for all patients with 100% concordance. Moreover, this qPCR enabled a refinement of the region of deletion at 22q11. Analysis of DNA from chromosome 22 trisomic sample demonstrated genomic duplication within 22q11. Conclusion In this paper we present a qPCR approach for the detection of chromosomal microdeletions and microduplications. The strategic use of in silico modelling for qPCR primer design to avoid regions of repetitive

  4. Evaluation of 6 candidate genes on chromosome 11q23 for coeliac disease susceptibility: a case control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brophy, Karen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent whole genome analysis and follow-up studies have identified many new risk variants for coeliac disease (CD, gluten intolerance). The majority of newly associated regions encode candidate genes with a clear functional role in T-cell regulation. Furthermore, the newly discovered risk loci, together with the well established HLA locus, account for less than 50% of the heritability of CD, suggesting that numerous additional loci remain undiscovered. Linkage studies have identified some well-replicated risk regions, most notably chromosome 5q31 and 11q23. METHODS: We have evaluated six candidate genes in one of these regions (11q23), namely CD3E, CD3D, CD3G, IL10RA, THY1 and IL18, as risk factors for CD using a 2-phase candidate gene approach directed at chromosome 11q. 377 CD cases and 349 ethnically matched controls were used in the initial screening, followed by an extended sample of 171 additional coeliac cases and 536 additional controls. RESULTS: Promotor SNPs (-607, -137) in the IL18 gene, which has shown association with several autoimmune diseases, initially suggested association with CD (P < 0.05). Follow-up analyses of an extended sample supported the same, moderate effect (P < 0.05) for one of these. Haplotype analysis of IL18-137\\/-607 also supported this effect, primarily due to one relatively rare haplotype IL18-607C\\/-137C (P < 0.0001), which was independently associated in two case-control comparisons. This same haplotype has been noted in rheumatoid arthritis. CONCLUSION: Haplotypes of the IL18 promotor region may contribute to CD risk, consistent with this cytokine\\'s role in maintaining inflammation in active CD.

  5. Evaluation of 6 candidate genes on chromosome 11q23 for coeliac disease susceptibility: a case control study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brophy, Karen

    2010-05-17

    Abstract Background Recent whole genome analysis and follow-up studies have identified many new risk variants for coeliac disease (CD, gluten intolerance). The majority of newly associated regions encode candidate genes with a clear functional role in T-cell regulation. Furthermore, the newly discovered risk loci, together with the well established HLA locus, account for less than 50% of the heritability of CD, suggesting that numerous additional loci remain undiscovered. Linkage studies have identified some well-replicated risk regions, most notably chromosome 5q31 and 11q23. Methods We have evaluated six candidate genes in one of these regions (11q23), namely CD3E, CD3D, CD3G, IL10RA, THY1 and IL18, as risk factors for CD using a 2-phase candidate gene approach directed at chromosome 11q. 377 CD cases and 349 ethnically matched controls were used in the initial screening, followed by an extended sample of 171 additional coeliac cases and 536 additional controls. Results Promotor SNPs (-607, -137) in the IL18 gene, which has shown association with several autoimmune diseases, initially suggested association with CD (P < 0.05). Follow-up analyses of an extended sample supported the same, moderate effect (P < 0.05) for one of these. Haplotype analysis of IL18-137\\/-607 also supported this effect, primarily due to one relatively rare haplotype IL18-607C\\/-137C (P < 0.0001), which was independently associated in two case-control comparisons. This same haplotype has been noted in rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusion Haplotypes of the IL18 promotor region may contribute to CD risk, consistent with this cytokine\\'s role in maintaining inflammation in active CD.

  6. Differential DNA methylation at birth associated with mental disorder in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, A; Hansen, C S; Sparsø, T

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of comorbid mental disorders including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, as well as intellectual disability. Although most 22q11.2 deletion carriers have the long 3-Mb form of the hemizygous...... with mental disorder later in life. DNA methylation was measured genome-wide from neonatal dried blood spots in a cohort of 164 individuals with 22q11.2DS, including 48 individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Among several CpG sites with P-value...-98), in NOSIP (P-value=5.12 × 10-8) with disorders of psychological development (F80-89) and in SEMA4B (P-value=4.02 × 10-7) with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-29). In conclusion, our study suggests an association of DNA methylation differences at birth with development of mental disorder later in life...

  7. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding human DNA topoisomerase II and localization of the gene to chromosome region 17q21-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai-Pflugfelder, M.; Liu, L.F.; Liu, A.A.; Tewey, K.M.; Whang-Peng, J.; Knutsen, T.; Huebner, K.; Croce, C.M.; Wang, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Two overlapping cDNA clones encoding human DNA topoisomerase II were identified by two independent methods. In one, a human cDNA library in phage λ was screened by hybridization with a mixed oligonucleotide probe encoding a stretch of seven amino acids found in yeast and Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II; in the other, a different human cDNA library in a λgt11 expression vector was screened for the expression of antigenic determinants that are recognized by rabbit antibodies specific to human DNA topoisomerase II. The entire coding sequences of the human DNA topoisomerase II gene were determined from these and several additional clones, identified through the use of the cloned human TOP2 gene sequences as probes. Hybridization between the cloned sequences and mRNA and genomic DNA indicates that the human enzyme is encoded by a single-copy gene. The location of the gene was mapped to chromosome 17q21-22 by in situ hybridization of a cloned fragment to metaphase chromosomes and by hybridization analysis with a panel of mouse-human hybrid cell lines, each retaining a subset of human chromosomes

  8. Decreased exploratory activity in a mouse model of 15q duplication syndrome; implications for disturbance of serotonin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Tamada

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have garnered significant attention as an important grouping of developmental brain disorders. Recent genomic studies have revealed that inherited or de novo copy number variations (CNVs are significantly involved in the pathophysiology of ASDs. In a previous report from our laboratory, we generated mice with CNVs as a model of ASDs, with a duplicated mouse chromosome 7C that is orthologous to human chromosome 15q11-13. Behavioral analyses revealed paternally duplicated (patDp/+ mice displayed abnormal behaviors resembling the symptoms of ASDs. In the present study, we extended these findings by performing various behavioral tests with C57BL/6J patDp/+ mice, and comprehensively measuring brain monoamine levels with ex vivo high performance liquid chromatography. Compared with wild-type controls, patDp/+ mice exhibited decreased locomotor and exploratory activities in the open field test, Y-maze test, and fear-conditioning test. Furthermore, their decreased activity levels overcame increased appetite induced by 24 hours of food deprivation in the novelty suppressed feeding test. Serotonin levels in several brain regions of adult patDp/+ mice were lower than those of wild-type control, with no concurrent changes in brain levels of dopamine or norepinephrine. Moreover, analysis of monoamines in postnatal developmental stages demonstrated reduced brain levels of serotonin in young patDp/+ mice. These findings suggest that a disrupted brain serotonergic system, especially during postnatal development, may generate the phenotypes of patDp/+ mice.

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene is located at region q21.3-q22 of chromosome 7 and genetically linked with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, K.W.; Winqvist, R.; Riccio, A.

    1987-01-01

    The regional chromosomal location of the human gene for plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1) was determined by three independent methods of gene mapping. PAI1 was localized first to 7cen-q32 and then to 7q21.3-q22 by Southern blot hybridization analysis of a panel of human and mouse somatic cell hybrids with a PAI1 cDNA probe and in situ hybridization, respectively. The authors frequent HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the PAI1 gene with an information content of 0.369. In family studies using this polymorphism, genetic linkage was found between PAI1 and the loci for erythropoietin (EPO), paraoxonase (PON), the met protooncogene (MET), and cystic fibrosis (CF), all previously assigned to the middle part of the long arm of chromosome 7. The linkage with EPO was closest with an estimated genetic distance of 3 centimorgans, whereas that to CF was 20 centimorgans. A three-point genetic linkage analysis and data from previous studies showed that the most likely order of these loci is EPO, PAI1, PON, (MET, CF), with PAI1 being located centromeric to CF. The PAI1 RFLP may prove to be valuable in ordering genetic markers in the CF-linkage group and may also be valuable in genetic analysis of plasminogen activation-related diseases, such as certain thromboembolic disorders and cancer

  10. BCR translocation to derivative chromosome 2, a new case of chronic myeloid leukemia with complex variant translocation and Philadelphia chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Achkar, W.; Wafa, A.; Al-Medani, S.

    2011-01-01

    The well-known typical fusion gene BCR/ABL can be observed in connection with a complex translocation event in only 5-8% of cases with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Herein we report an exceptional CML case with complex chromosomal aberrations not observed before, translocated BCR to the derivative chromosome 2 [der(2)], additional to involving a four chromosomes translocation implying chromosomal regions such as 1p32 and 2q21 besides 9q34 and 22q11.2. Which were characterized by molecular cytogenetics. (author)

  11. Insertional translocation leading to a 4q13 duplication including the EPHA5 gene in two siblings with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoso, Eunice; Melo, Joana B; Ferreira, Susana I; Jardim, Ana; Castelo, Teresa M; Weise, Anja; Carreira, Isabel M

    2013-08-01

    An insertional translocation (IT) can result in pure segmental aneusomy for the inserted genomic segment allowing to define a more accurate clinical phenotype. Here, we report on two siblings sharing an unbalanced IT inherited from the mother with a history of learning difficulty. An 8-year-old girl with developmental delay, speech disability, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), showed by GTG banding analysis a subtle interstitial alteration in 21q21. Oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis showed a 4q13.1-q13.3 duplication spanning 8.6 Mb. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones confirmed the rearrangement, a der(21)ins(21;4)(q21;q13.1q13.3). The duplication described involves 50 RefSeq genes including the EPHA5 gene that encodes for the EphA5 receptor involved in embryonic development of the brain and also in synaptic remodeling and plasticity thought to underlie learning and memory. The same rearrangement was observed in a younger brother with behavioral problems and also exhibiting ADHD. ADHD is among the most heritable of neuropsychiatric disorders. There are few reports of patients with duplications involving the proximal region of 4q and a mild phenotype. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a duplication restricted to band 4q13. This abnormality could be easily missed in children who have nonspecific cognitive impairment. The presence of this behavioral disorder in the two siblings reinforces the hypothesis that the region involved could include genes involved in ADHD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Reproductive history of a healthy woman with mosaic duplication of chromosome 4p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Laura; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Ceccarini, Caterina; Novelli, Antonio; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2005-04-01

    Mosaic autosomal duplications are rare and often result in mental retardation and congenital anomalies. Phenotype is not predictable depending on the chromosomal imbalance involved and the percentage and tissues distribution of unbalanced cells. We report on a young woman carrying a mosaic duplication of chromosome 4p, evaluated because of three abortions due to IUGR and fetal malformation. Mosaic dup(4p) was detected by standard and molecular cytogenetics. Unbalanced cells accounted for about 20 to 30% of nuclei in four examined tissues and did not cause any obvious phenotypic effect. It is likely that mosaic duplications are underascertained because they are not associated with obvious clinical effects in some individuals. Prenatal diagnosis is the method of choice to predict the karyotype in the offspring of subjects carrying mosaic chromosome imbalances.

  13. Whole genome duplication of intra- and inter-chromosomes in the tomato genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chi; Guo, Juan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Ying

    2012-07-20

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) events have been proven to occur in the evolutionary history of most angiosperms. Tomato is considered a model species of the Solanaceae family. In this study, we describe the details of the evolutionary process of the tomato genome by detecting collinearity blocks and dating the WGD events on the tree of life by combining two different methods: synonymous substitution rates (Ks) and phylogenetic trees. In total, 593 collinearity blocks were discovered out of 12 pseudo-chromosomes constructed. It was evident that chromosome 2 had experienced an intra-chromosomal duplication event. Major inter-chromosomal duplication occurred among all the pseudo-chromosome. We calculated the Ks value of these collinearity blocks. Two peaks of Ks distribution were found, corresponding to two WGD events occurring approximately 36-82 million years ago (MYA) and 148-205 MYA. Additionally, the results of phylogenetic trees suggested that the more recent WGD event may have occurred after the divergence of the rosid-asterid clade, but before the major diversification in Solanaceae. The older WGD event was shown to have occurred before the divergence of the rosid-asterid clade and after the divergence of rice-Arabidopsis (monocot-dicot). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A gene prenature ovarian failure associated with eyelid malformation maps to chromosomes 3q22-q23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Premature ovarian failure and XX gonadal dysgenesis leading to female infertility have been reported in association with an autosomal dominantly inherited malformation of the eyelids: blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES; MIM 110100). This association distinguishes BPES type I from BPES type II, in which affected females are fertile and the transmission occurs through both sexes. Recently, a gene responsible for BPES type II has been mapped to chromosome 3q22-q23, and the critical region for the gene location has been reduced to the interval between loci D3S1615 and D3S1316. Hitherto, however, no information regarding the localization of the gene for BPES type I, in which female ovarian failure is associated with eyelid malformation, has been available. We have studied two independent families affected with BPES type I, including a total of 12 affected individuals (6 infertile women) and 6 healthy relatives. The diagnostic criteria for the ophthalmological anomaly included (1) reduced horizontal diameter of palpebral fissures, (2) drooping of the upper eyelids, and (3) an abnormal skinfold running from the lower lids. Telecanthus and a flat nasal bridge were present in most cases. In both families the disease was transmitted only by the male, and no affected woman of childbearing age was fertile. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The Sequence and Analysis of Duplication Rich Human Chromosome 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joel; Han, Cliff; Gordon, Laurie A.; Terry, Astrid; Prabhakar, Shyam; She, Xinwei; Xie, Gary; Hellsten, Uffe; Man Chan, Yee; Altherr, Michael; Couronne, Olivier; Aerts, Andrea; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Blumer, Heather; Branscomb, Elbert; Brown, Nancy C.; Bruno, William J.; Buckingham, Judith M.; Callen, David F.; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Campbell, Evelyn W.; Caoile, Chenier; Challacombe, Jean F.; Chasteen, Leslie A.; Chertkov, Olga; Chi, Han C.; Christensen, Mari; Clark, Lynn M.; Cohn, Judith D.; Denys, Mirian; Detter, John C.; Dickson, Mark; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, Mira; Escobar, Julio; Fawcett, Joseph J.; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eidelyn; Goodstein, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Grady, Deborah L.; Grigoriev, Igor; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Hildebrand, Carl E.; Huang, Wayne; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Jewett, Phillip E.; Kadner, Kristen; Kimball, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Krawczyk, Marie-Claude; Leyba, Tina; Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Lowry, Steve; Ludeman, Thom; Mark, Graham A.; Mcmurray, Kimberly L.; Meincke, Linda J.; Morgan, Jenna; Moyzis, Robert K.; Mundt, Mark O.; Munk, A. Christine; Nandkeshwar, Richard D.; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Predki, Paul; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Ricke, Darryl O.; Robinson, Donna L.; Rodriguez, Alex; Salamov, Asaf; Saunders, Elizabeth H.; Scott, Duncan; Shough, Timothy; Stallings, Raymond L.; Stalvey, Malinda; Sutherland, Robert D.; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Torney, David C.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Tsai, Ming; Ulanovsky, Levy E.; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; White, P. Scott; Williams, Albert L.; Wills, Patricia L.; Wu, Jung-Rung; Wu, Kevin; Yang, Joan; DeJong, Pieter; Bruce, David; Doggett, Norman; Deaven, Larry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Richardson, Paul; et al.

    2004-01-01

    We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished human chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9 percent of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein coding genes confirmed by 1,637 aligned transcripts, 19 tRNA genes, 341 pseudogenes and 3 RNA pseudogenes. These genes include metallothionein, cadherin and iroquois gene families, as well as the disease genes for polycystic kidney disease and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Several large-scale structural polymorphisms spanning hundreds of kilobasepairs were identified and result in gene content differences across humans. One of the unique features of chromosome 16 is its high level of segmental duplication, ranked among the highest of the human autosomes. While the segmental duplications are enriched in the relatively gene poor pericentromere of the p-arm, some are involved in recent gene duplication and conversion events which are likely to have had an impact on the evolution of primates and human disease susceptibility.

  16. The sequence and analysis of duplication rich human chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Joel; Han, Cliff; Gordon, Laurie A.; Terry, Astrid; Prabhakar, Shyam; She, Xinwei; Xie, Gary; Hellsten, Uffe; Man Chan, Yee; Altherr, Michael; Couronne, Olivier; Aerts, Andrea; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Blumer, Heather; Branscomb, Elbert; Brown, Nancy C.; Bruno, William J.; Buckingham, Judith M.; Callen, David F.; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Campbell, Evelyn W.; Caoile, Chenier; Challacombe, Jean F.; Chasteen, Leslie A.; Chertkov, Olga; Chi, Han C.; Christensen, Mari; Clark, Lynn M.; Cohn, Judith D.; Denys, Mirian; Detter, John C.; Dickson, Mark; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, Mira; Escobar, Julio; Fawcett, Joseph J.; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eidelyn; Goodstein, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Grady, Deborah L.; Grigoriev, Igor; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Hildebrand, Carl E.; Huang, Wayne; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Jewett, Phillip E.; Kadner, Kristen; Kimball, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Krawczyk, Marie-Claude; Leyba, Tina; Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Lowry, Steve; Ludeman, Thom; Mark, Graham A.; Mcmurray, Kimberly L.; Meincke, Linda J.; Morgan, Jenna; Moyzis, Robert K.; Mundt, Mark O.; Munk, A. Christine; Nandkeshwar, Richard D.; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Predki, Paul; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Ricke, Darryl O.; Robinson, Donna L.; Rodriguez, Alex; Salamov, Asaf; Saunders, Elizabeth H.; Scott, Duncan; Shough, Timothy; Stallings, Raymond L.; Stalvey, Malinda; Sutherland, Robert D.; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Torney, David C.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Tsai, Ming; Ulanovsky, Levy E.; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; White, P. Scott; Williams, Albert L.; Wills, Patricia L.; Wu, Jung-Rung; Wu, Kevin; Yang, Joan; DeJong, Pieter; Bruce, David; Doggett, Norman; Deaven, Larry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Richardson, Paul; et al.

    2004-08-01

    We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished human chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9 percent of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein coding genes confirmed by 1,637 aligned transcripts, 19 tRNA genes, 341 pseudogenes and 3 RNA pseudogenes. These genes include metallothionein, cadherin and iroquois gene families, as well as the disease genes for polycystic kidney disease and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Several large-scale structural polymorphisms spanning hundreds of kilobasepairs were identified and result in gene content differences across humans. One of the unique features of chromosome 16 is its high level of segmental duplication, ranked among the highest of the human autosomes. While the segmental duplications are enriched in the relatively gene poor pericentromere of the p-arm, some are involved in recent gene duplication and conversion events which are likely to have had an impact on the evolution of primates and human disease susceptibility.

  17. The role of COMT and plasma proline in the variable penetrance of autistic spectrum symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, E; Swaab, H; de Sonneville, L M J; van Engeland, H; Vorstman, J A S

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines how COMT 158 genotypes and plasma proline levels are associated with variable penetrance of social behavioural and social cognitive problems in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Severity of autistic spectrum symptoms of 45 participants with 22q11DS was assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised. Face and facial emotion recognition was evaluated using standardized computer-based test-paradigms. Associations with COMT 158 genotypes and proline levels were examined. High proline levels and poor face recognition in individuals with the COMT MET allele, and poor facial emotion recognition, explained almost 50% of the variance in severity of autism symptomatology in individuals with 22q11DS. High proline levels and a decreased capacity to break down dopamine as a result of the COMT MET variant are both relevant in the expression of the social phenotype in patients. This epistatic interaction effect between the COMT 158 genotype and proline on the expression of social deficits in 22q11DS shows how factors other than the direct effects of the deletion itself can modulate the penetrance of associated cognitive and behavioural outcomes. These findings are not only relevant to our insight into 22q11DS, but also provide a model to better understand the phenomenon of variable penetrance in other pathogenic genetic variants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Formula: see text]Executive functioning and its relation to ASD and ADHD symptomatology in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sonneville, Leo M J; Hidding, Elske; van Engeland, Herman; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Sijmens-Morcus, Monique E J; Swaab, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial-syndrome) are at risk for the developmental disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, the relation between executive functioning (EF) and the severity of ADHD and ASD symptoms is examined, since EF is known to be important in relation to emotional and behavioral problems. The participants consist of 58 children (38 females) with a mean age of 13.5 years (SD 2.6). Standardized assessment was used to evaluate the severity of ASD and ADHD symptomatology. The major aspects of EF, i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition, sustained attention, distractibility, working memory and reaction speed, were evaluated. The profile of EF in 22q11DS was found to be characterized by weaker performance compared to the norms on all subdomains of EF. Poor cognitive flexibility and inhibition, as well as high distractibility, were found to be related to more severe ASD symptoms, while poor quality of sustained attention and high distractibility were found to be related to more severe ADHD symptoms. It is concluded that children with 22q11DS experience impairments in EF, and that the degree of impairment on specific EF subdomains is related to the severity of ASD and/or ADHD symptomatology. These results may help in defining the mediating role of neurocognitive dysfunctions in the development of social and behavioral problems in 22q11DS.

  19. Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Sydney

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the many gene families that expanded in early vertebrate evolution is the neuropeptide (NPY receptor family of G-protein coupled receptors. Earlier work by our lab suggested that several of the NPY receptor genes found in extant vertebrates resulted from two genome duplications before the origin of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes and one additional genome duplication in the actinopterygian lineage, based on their location on chromosomes sharing several gene families. In this study we have investigated, in five vertebrate genomes, 45 gene families with members close to the NPY receptor genes in the compact genomes of the teleost fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and Takifugu rubripes. These correspond to Homo sapiens chromosomes 4, 5, 8 and 10. Results Chromosome regions with conserved synteny were identified and confirmed by phylogenetic analyses in H. sapiens, M. musculus, D. rerio, T. rubripes and T. nigroviridis. 26 gene families, including the NPY receptor genes, (plus 3 described recently by other labs showed a tree topology consistent with duplications in early vertebrate evolution and in the actinopterygian lineage, thereby supporting expansion through block duplications. Eight gene families had complications that precluded analysis (such as short sequence length or variable number of repeated domains and another eight families did not support block duplications (because the paralogs in these families seem to have originated in another time window than the proposed genome duplication events. RT-PCR carried out with several tissues in T. rubripes revealed that all five NPY receptors were expressed in the brain and subtypes Y2, Y4 and Y8 were also expressed in peripheral organs. Conclusion We conclude that the phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal locations of these gene families support duplications of large blocks of genes or even entire chromosomes. Thus, these results are consistent with two early vertebrate

  20. White matter microstructure in 22q11 deletion syndrome: a pilot diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Frederick; Campbell, Linda E; Azuma, Rayna; Daly, Eileen; Bloemen, Oswald J N; Barker, Gareth J; Chitnis, Xavier; Jones, Derek K; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2010-06-01

    Young people with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) are at substantial risk for developing psychosis and have significant differences in white matter (WM) volume. However, there are few in vivo studies of both WM microstructural integrity (as measured using Diffusion Tensor (DT)-MRI) and WM volume in the same individual. We used DT-MRI and structural MRI (sMRI) with voxel based morphometry (VBM) to compare, respectively, the fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM volume of 11 children and adolescents with 22q11DS and 12 controls. Also, within 22q11DS we related differences in WM to severity of schizotypy, and polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. People with 22q11DS had significantly lower FA in inter-hemispheric and brainstem and frontal, parietal and temporal lobe regions after covarying for IQ. Significant WM volumetric increases were found in the internal capsule, anterior brainstem and frontal and occipital lobes. There was a significant negative correlation between increased schizotypy scores and reduced WM FA in the right posterior limb of internal capsule and the right body and left splenium of corpus callosum. Finally, the Val allele of COMT was associated with a significant reduction in both FA and volume of WM in the frontal lobes, cingulum and corpus callosum. Young people with 22q11DS have significant differences in both WM microstructure and volume. Also, there is preliminary evidence that within 22q11DS, some regional differences in FA are associated with allelic variation in COMT and may perhaps also be associated with schizotypy.

  1. Monogenic and chromosomal causes of isolated speech and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, C P; van Bon, B W M

    2015-11-01

    The importance of a precise molecular diagnosis for children with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy has become widely accepted and genetic testing is an integral part of the diagnostic evaluation of these children. In contrast, children with an isolated speech or language disorder are not often genetically evaluated, despite recent evidence supporting a role for genetic factors in the aetiology of these disorders. Several chromosomal copy number variants and single gene disorders associated with abnormalities of speech and language have been identified. Individuals without a precise genetic diagnosis will not receive optimal management including interventions such as early testosterone replacement in Klinefelter syndrome, otorhinolaryngological and audiometric evaluation in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, cardiovascular surveillance in 7q11.23 duplications and early dietary management to prevent obesity in proximal 16p11.2 deletions. This review summarises the clinical features, aetiology and management options of known chromosomal and single gene disorders that are associated with speech and language pathology in the setting of normal or only mildly impaired cognitive function. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Duplications of the neuropeptide receptor gene VIPR2 confer significant risk for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vacic, Vladimir

    2011-03-24

    Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have a prominent role in the aetiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (>500-kilobase) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 (ref. 2), 3q29 (ref. 3), 15q13.3 (ref. 2) and 22q11.2 (ref. 4) and microduplication at 16p11.2 (ref. 5). However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant genes and neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we performed a large two-stage genome-wide scan of rare CNVs and report the significant association of copy number gains at chromosome 7q36.3 with schizophrenia. Microduplications with variable breakpoints occurred within a 362-kilobase region and were detected in 29 of 8,290 (0.35%) patients versus 2 of 7,431 (0.03%) controls in the combined sample. All duplications overlapped or were located within 89 kilobases upstream of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene VIPR2. VIPR2 transcription and cyclic-AMP signalling were significantly increased in cultured lymphocytes from patients with microduplications of 7q36.3. These findings implicate altered vasoactive intestinal peptide signalling in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and indicate the VPAC2 receptor as a potential target for the development of new antipsychotic drugs.

  3. Partial trisomy 5q resulting from chromosome 7 insertion: An expansion of the phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, M.H.; Reilly, P.A.; Williams, T.C. [Keesler Medical Center, MS (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Partial trisomy 5q has been categorized into three separate phenotypes; however, a distinctive phenotype has not been described for duplications spanning 5q23-q35. We report a case of partial trisomy 5q for this region as a result of a ins(7,5)(q31.3;q23.2q35.1)mat. The liveborn male infant was delivered by emergency cesarean section at 37 weeks after a pregnancy notable for oligohydramnios, with birth weight 1792 g (<3%). Postnatal course was marked by psychomotor delay, failure to thrive, and biopsy demonstrated neonatal giant cell hepatitis with a paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts. His appearance was remarkable for lack of subcutaneous fat, midline displaced hair whorl, bitemporal narrowing with frontal bossing, wide anterior fontanel, widow`s peak, protuberant eyes with periorbital and lid edema, short flat nasal bridge with broad flattened nasal tip, long smooth philtrum, wide mouth with thin lips, wide gingival ridges, micrognathia, posteriorly rotated low-set ears, hepatomegaly, flexion contractions of elbows, and generalized hypertonicity. Urine organic acids, oligosaccharide/mucopolysaccharide screen, and plasma amino acids were negative. GTG-banding on prometaphase chromosomes showed an unbalanced translocation involving chr. 7. This was identified as an insertion of chr. 5 (q23.2q35.1) into distal 7q after FISH using chr. 5 and chr. 7 painting probes. The infant`s mother carries the balanced insertional rearrangement: 46,XX,dir ins(7,5)(q31.3;q23.2q35.1). This phenotype overlaps that of previously described duplications with the addition of giant cell hepatitis, coarsened facial features, gingival thickening, and flexion contractures, suggestive of a yet undiagnosed storage disorder.

  4. Performance on a computerized neurocognitive battery in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A comparison between US and Israeli cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, James J; Weinberger, Ronnie; Moore, Tyler M; Calkins, Monica E; Guri, Yael; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Raquel E; Gothelf, Doron; Gur, Ruben C

    2016-07-01

    Increasingly, the effects of copy number variation (CNV) in the genome on brain function and behaviors are recognized as means to elucidate pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Such studies require large samples and we characterized the neurocognitive profile of two cohorts of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most common CNV associated with schizophrenia, in an effort to harmonize phenotyping in multi-site global collaborations. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PCNB) was administered to individuals with 22q11DS in Philadelphia (PHL; n=155, aged 12-40) and Tel Aviv (TLV; n=59, aged 12-36). We examined effect sizes of performance differences between the cohorts and confirmed the factor structure of PCNB performance efficiency in the combined sample based on data from a large comparison community sample. The cohorts performed comparably with notable deficits in executive function, episodic memory and social cognition domains that were previously associated with abnormal neuroimaging findings in 22q11DS. In mixed model analysis, while there was a main effect for site for accuracy (number of correct response) and speed (time to correct response) independently, there were no main site effects for standardized efficiency (average of accuracy and speed). The fit of a structural model was excellent indicating that PCNB tests were related to the targeted cognitive domains. Thus, our results provide preliminary support for the use of the PCNB as an efficient tool for neurocognitive assessment in international 22q11DS collaborations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heterogeneous breakpoints in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the dic(9;20)(p11-13;q11) show recurrent involvement of genes at 20q11.21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qian; Wright, Sarah L; Moorman, Anthony V; Parker, Helen; Griffiths, Mike; Ross, Fiona M; Davies, Teresa; Harrison, Christine J; Strefford, Jon C

    2009-08-01

    The dic(9;20)(p11-13;q11) is a recurrent chromosomal abnormality in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although it results in loss of material from 9p and 20q, the molecular targets on both chromosomes have not been fully elucidated. From an initial cohort of 58 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with this translocation, breakpoint mapping with fluorescence in situ hybridization on 26 of them revealed breakpoint heterogeneity of both chromosomes. PAX5 has been proposed to be the target gene on 9p, while for 20q, FISH analysis implicated the involvement of the ASXL1 gene, either by a breakpoint within (n=4) or centromeric (deletion, n=12) of the gene. Molecular copy-number counting, long-distance inverse PCR and direct sequence analysis identified six dic(9;20) breakpoint sequences. In addition to the three previously reported: PAX5-ASXL1, PAX5-C20ORF112 and PAX5-KIF3B; we identified three new ones in this study: sequences 3' of PAX5 disrupting ASXL1, and ZCCHC7 disrupted by sequences 3' of FRG1B and LOC1499503. This study provides insight into the breakpoint complexity underlying dicentric chromosomal formation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and highlights putative target gene loci.

  6. Chromosomes in the genesis and progression of ependymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogatto, S R; Casartelli, C; Rainho, C A

    1993-01-01

    chromosomes in three cases. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 2 were a finding for all cases and involved loss of material at 2q32-34. Other structural chromosome abnormalities detected involved chromosomes 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, and X. We also reviewed data on 22 cases previously reported....

  7. A map of nuclear matrix attachment regions within the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaposhnikov, Sergey A.; Akopov, Sergey B.; Chernov, Igor P.

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that represent basic structural and functional units of chromatin packaging. To explore the DNA domain organization of the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1, we have...... in the region are regulated and of how the structural architecture and functional organization of the DNA are related....... identified a significant portion of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) within this region. Forty independent putative S/MAR elements were assigned within the 16q22.1 locus. More than 90% of these S/MARs are AT rich, with GC contents as low as 27% in 2 cases. Thirty-nine (98%) of the S...

  8. Trisomy 2q11.2-->q21.1 resulting from an unbalanced insertion in two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, I A; Stormer, P; Oei, P T; Hacking, E; Cotter, P D

    1998-01-01

    In this communication, we describe two cases of proximal 2q trisomy (2q11.2--> q21.1) resulting from an interchromosomal insertion. The chromosomal origin of the insertion was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. An unbalanced karyotype, 46,XX,der(8) ,ins(8;2) (p21.3; q21.1q11.2), was found in the proband and her mother, who both have mild mental retardation, short stature, dysmorphic features, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and a psychotic illness. This family is a rare example of direct transmission of a partial autosomal trisomy. Images PMID:9598728

  9. Memory in Intellectually Matched Groups of Young Participants with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Those with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravariti, Eugenia; Jacobson, Clare; Morris, Robin; Frangou, Sophia; Murray, Robin M.; Tsakanikos, Elias; Habel, Alex; Shearer, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia have genetic and neuropsychological similarities, but are likely to differ in memory profile. Confirming differences in memory function between the two disorders, and identifying their genetic determinants, can help to define genetic subtypes in both syndromes, identify genetic risk factors…

  10. Blepharophimosis and mental retardation (BMR) phenotypes caused by chromosomal rearrangements: description in a boy with partial trisomy 10q and monosomy 4q and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdi, Deborah; Toelle, Sandra P; Steiner, Bernhard; Boltshauser, Eugen; Schinzel, Albert; Riegel, Mariluce

    2008-01-01

    Blepharophimosis is a rare congenital anomaly of the palpebral fissure which is often associated with mental retardation and additional malformations. We report on a boy with blepharophimosis, ptosis and severe mental retardation carrying an unbalanced 4;10 translocation with terminal duplication of 10q [dup(10)(q25.1-->qter)] and monosomy of a small terminal segment of chromosome 4q [del(4)(34.3-->qter)]. Detailed clinical examination and review of the literature showed that the phenotype of the patient was mainly determined by the dup(10q). This paper reviews the chromosomal aberrations associated with BMR (blepharophimosis mental retardation) phenotypes. Searching different databases and reviewing the literature revealed 14 microscopically visible aberrations (among them UPD(14)pat) and two submicroscopic rearrangements causing blepharophimosis and mental retardation (BMR) syndrome. Some of these rearrangements-like the terminal dup(10q) identified in our patient or interstitial del(2q)-are associated with clearly defined phenotypes and can be well distinguished from each other on basis of clinical examination. This paper should assist clinicians and cytogeneticists when evaluating patients with BMR syndrome.

  11. Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in a Danish 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Cohort Compared to the Total Danish Population-A Nationwide Register Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Anders; Olsen, Line; Hoeffding, Louise K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We, therefore, conducted the first large-scale population based study on the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia...... in persons identified with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. METHODS: Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all Danish citizens born during 1955-2004 and the cohort was followed from January 1, 1994 until December 31, 2013. Data were analyzed using survival analyses...... and adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, and parental mental health history. RESULTS: A total of 156 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome were identified, out of which 6 individuals were diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders following identification with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Identified...

  12. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on a recombinant human X chromosome: implications for the spreading of X chromosome inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandas, T.; Geller, R.L.; Yen, P.H.; Rosendorff, J.; Bernstein, R.; Yoshida, A.; Shapiro, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    A pericentric inversion of human X chromosome and a recombinant X chromosome [rec(X)] derived from crossing-over within the inversion was identified in a family. The rec(X) had a duplication of the segment Xq26.3 → Xqter and a deletion of Xp22.3 → Xpter and was interpreted to be Xqter → Xq26.3::Xp22.3 → Xqter. To characterize the rec(X) chromosome, dosage blots were done on genomic DNA from carriers of this rearranged X chromosome using a number of X chromosome probes. Results showed that anonymous sequences from the distal end of the long arm to which probes 4D8, Hx120A, DX13, and St14 bind as well as the locus for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) wee duplicated on the rec(X). Mouse-human cell hybrids were constructed that retained the rec(X) in the active or inactive state. Analyses of these hybrid clones for markers from the distal short arm of the X chromosome showed that the rec(X) retained the loci for steroid sulfatase (STS) and the cell surface antigen 12E7 (MIC2); but not the pseudoautosomal sequence 113D. These molecular studies confirm that the rec(X) is a duplication-deficiency chromosome as expected. In the inactive state in cell hybrids, STS and MIC2 (which usually escape X chromosome inactivation) were expressed from the rec(X), whereas G6PD was not. Therefore, in the rec(X) X chromosome inactivation has spread through STS and MIC2 leaving these loci unaffected and has inactivated G6PD in the absence of an inactivation center in the q26.3 → qter region of the human X chromosome. The mechanism of spreading of inactivation appears to operate in a sequence-specific fashion. Alternatively, STS and MIC2 may have undergone inactivation initially but could not be maintained in an inactive state

  13. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 9q22.3 in microdissected basal cell carcinomas around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kenji; Takamura, Noboru; Nakashima, Masahiro; Alipov, Gabit; Mine, Mariko; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Yoshiura, Koichiro; Prouglo, Yuriy; Sekine, Ichiro; Katayama, Ichiro; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2004-04-01

    A high incidence of skin cancers has been noted around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Recently, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) susceptibility genes, human homolog of the Drosophila pathed gene (PTCH), and the xeroderma pigmentosa group A-complementing gene (XPA), have been cloned and localized on chromosome 9q22.3. To clarify the effect of low-dose irradiation on the occurrence of BCC, we used microdissection and polymerase chain reaction to identify loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 9q22.3 using BCC samples obtained from this region. Ten Japanese samples were analyzed as controls. LOH with at least 1 marker was identified in 5 of 14 cases from around SNTS, whereas only 1 case with 1 marker was identified among the 10 Nagasaki cases. The total number of LOH alleles from SNTS (8 of 45) was significantly higher than the number from Nagasaki (1 of 26) (P = 0.03). The higher incidence of LOH on 9q22.3 in BCC from around SNTS suggests involvement of chronic low-dose irradiation by fallout from the test site as a factor in the cancers.

  14. Four small supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosomes 6, 8, 11 and 12 in a patient with minimal clinical abnormalities: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ahmed B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Small supernumerary marker chromosomes are still a problem in cytogenetic diagnostic and genetic counseling. This holds especially true for the rare cases with multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes. Most such cases are reported to be clinically severely affected due to the chromosomal imbalances induced by the presence of small supernumerary marker chromosomes. Here we report the first case of a patient having four different small supernumerary marker chromosomes which, apart from slight developmental retardation in youth and non-malignant hyperpigmentation, presented no other clinical signs. Case presentation Our patient was a 30-year-old Caucasian man, delivered by caesarean section because of macrosomy. At birth he presented with bilateral cryptorchidism but no other birth defects. At age of around two years he showed psychomotor delay and a bilateral convergent strabismus. Later he had slight learning difficulties, with normal social behavior and now lives an independent life as an adult. Apart from hypogenitalism, he has multiple hyperpigmented nevi all over his body, short feet with pes cavus and claw toes. At age of 30 years, cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 50,XY,+min(6(:p11.1-> q11.1:,+min(8(:p11.1->q11.1:,+min(11(:p11.11->q11:,+min(12(:p11.2~12->q10:, leading overall to a small partial trisomy in 12p11.1~12.1. Conclusions Including this case, four single case reports are available in the literature with a karyotype 50,XN,+4mar. For prenatally detected multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes in particular we learn from this case that such a cytogenetic condition may be correlated with a positive clinical outcome.

  15. Molecular evolution of a Y chromosome to autosome gene duplication in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kelly A; White, Brooke E; Bray, Michael J; Piqué, Daniel G; Betancourt, Andrea J

    2011-03-01

    In contrast to the rest of the genome, the Y chromosome is restricted to males and lacks recombination. As a result, Y chromosomes are unable to respond efficiently to selection, and newly formed Y chromosomes degenerate until few genes remain. The rapid loss of genes from newly formed Y chromosomes has been well studied, but gene loss from highly degenerate Y chromosomes has only recently received attention. Here, we identify and characterize a Y to autosome duplication of the male fertility gene kl-5 that occurred during the evolution of the testacea group species of Drosophila. The duplication was likely DNA based, as other Y-linked genes remain on the Y chromosome, the locations of introns are conserved, and expression analyses suggest that regulatory elements remain linked. Genetic mapping reveals that the autosomal copy of kl-5 resides on the dot chromosome, a tiny autosome with strongly suppressed recombination. Molecular evolutionary analyses show that autosomal copies of kl-5 have reduced polymorphism and little recombination. Importantly, the rate of protein evolution of kl-5 has increased significantly in lineages where it is on the dot versus Y linked. Further analyses suggest this pattern is a consequence of relaxed purifying selection, rather than adaptive evolution. Thus, although the initial fixation of the kl-5 duplication may have been advantageous, slightly deleterious mutations have accumulated in the dot-linked copies of kl-5 faster than in the Y-linked copies. Because the dot chromosome contains seven times more genes than the Y and is exposed to selection in both males and females, these results suggest that the dot suffers the deleterious effects of genetic linkage to more selective targets compared with the Y chromosome. Thus, a highly degenerate Y chromosome may not be the worst environment in the genome, as is generally thought, but may in fact be protected from the accumulation of deleterious mutations relative to other nonrecombining

  16. Duplications of the Neuropeptide Receptor VIPR2 Confer Significant Risk for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacic, Vladimir; McCarthy, Shane; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Murray, Fiona; Chou, Hsun-Hua; Peoples, Aine; Makarov, Vladimir; Yoon, Seungtai; Bhandari, Abhishek; Corominas, Roser; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Krastoshevsky, Olga; Krause, Verena; Larach-Walters, Verónica; Welsh, David K.; Craig, David; Kelsoe, John R.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Aquila, Marie Dell; Morris, Derek W.; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Insel, Paul A.; McClellan, Jon; King, Mary-Claire; Karayiorgou, Maria; Levy, Deborah L.; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Sebat, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Rare copy number variants (CNVs) play a prominent role in the etiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders1. Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (>500 kb) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 2, 3q29 3, 15q13.3 2 and 22q11.2 4 and microduplication at 16p11.2 5. However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant genes and neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we performed a large two-stage genome-wide scan of rare CNVs and report the significant association of copy number gains at chromosome 7q36.3 with schizophrenia (P= 4.0×10-5, OR = 16.14 [3.06, ∞]). Microduplications with variable breakpoints occurred within a 362 kb region and were detected in 29 of 8,290 (0.35%) patients versus two of 7,431 (0.03%) controls in the combined sample (p-value= 5.7×10-7, odds ratio (OR) = 14.1 [3.5, 123.9]). All duplications overlapped or were located within 89 kb upstream of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor VIPR2. VIPR2 transcription and cyclic-AMP signaling were significantly increased in cultured lymphocytes from patients with microduplications of 7q36.3. These findings implicate altered VIP signaling in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and suggest VIPR2 as a potential target for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21346763

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities in human glioblastomas: gain in chromosome 7p correlating with loss in chromosome 10q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, María del Mar; Fan, Xing; Muñoz, Jorge; Perot, Christine; Fauvet, Didier; Danglot, Giselle; Palacio, Ana; Madero, Pilar; Zazpe, Idoya; Portillo, Eduardo; Tuñón, Teresa; Martínez-Peñuela, José María; Alfaro, Jorge; Eiras, José; Bernheim, Alain; Castresana, Javier S

    2003-01-01

    Various genomic alterations have been detected in glioblastoma. Chromosome 7p, with the epidermal growth factor receptor locus, together with chromosome 10q, with the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted in chromosome 10 and deleted in malignant brain tumors-1 loci, and chromosome 9p, with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A locus, are among the most frequently damaged chromosomal regions in glioblastoma. In this study, we evaluated the genetic status of 32 glioblastomas by comparative genomic hybridization; the sensitivity of comparative genomic hybridization versus differential polymerase chain reaction to detect deletions at the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted in chromosome 10, deleted in malignant brain tumors-1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A loci and amplifications at the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 locus; the frequency of genetic lesions (gain or loss) at 16 different selected loci (including oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, and proliferation markers) mapping on 13 different chromosomes; and the possible existence of a statistical association between any pair of molecular markers studied, to subdivide the glioblastoma entity molecularly. Comparative genomic hybridization showed that the most frequent region of gain was chromosome 7p, whereas the most frequent losses occurred on chromosomes 10q and 13q. The only statistically significant association was found for 7p gain and 10q loss. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Relatives with opposite chromosome constitutions, rec(10)dup(10p)inv(10)(p15.1q26.12) and rec(10)dup(10q)inv(10)(p15.1q26.12), due to a familial pericentric inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuladaite, Zivile; Preiksaitiene, Egle; Utkus, Algirdas; Kučinskas, Vaidutis

    2014-01-01

    Large pericentric inversions in chromosome 10 are rare chromosomal aberrations with only few cases of familial inheritance. Such chromosomal rearrangements may lead to production of unbalanced gametes. As a result of a recombination event in the inversion loop, 2 recombinants with duplicated and deficient chromosome segments, including the regions distal to the inversion, may be produced. We report on 2 relatives in a family with opposite terminal chromosomal rearrangements of chromosome 10, i.e. rec(10)dup(10p)inv(10) and rec(10)dup(10q)inv(10), due to familial pericentric inversion inv(10)(p15.1q26.12). Based on array-CGH results, we characterized the exact genomic regions involved and compared the clinical features of both patients with previous reports on similar pericentric inversions and regional differences within 10p and 10q. The fact that both products of recombination are viable indicates a potentially high recurrence risk of unbalanced offspring. This report of unbalanced rearrangements in chromosome 10 in 2 generations confirms the importance of screening for terminal imbalances in patients with idiopathic intellectual disability by molecular cytogenetic techniques such as FISH, MLPA or microarrays. It also underlines the necessity for FISH to define structural characteristics of such cryptic intrachromosomal rearrangements and the underlying cytogenetic mechanisms. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. MURCS Association with Partial Duplication of the Distal Long Chromosome 5 and Unilateral Ovarian Agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dabkowska-Huc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of the congenital abnormalities, Müllerian duct aplasia, renal aplasia, and cervicothoracic somite dysplasia, is defined as the MURCS association. Various genetic defects have been described in the MURCS association so far, yet the unambiguous molecular basis of these disorders has not been established. We report the case of an 18-year-old woman who presented with primary amenorrhea, right kidney, Arnold-Chiari malformation, and Klippel-Feil syndrome. In addition, the patient showed the following unusual features: right ovarian and Skenes gland agenesis, cubitus valgus with hyperextension and decreased range of motion at elbows, and facial changes. Moreover, the performed DNA analysis showed interstitial duplication in chromosome 5 (5q35.1. In the duplicated region, there are genes whose function is not well known. It is thought that they have an influence on the early stages of development and their joining in the later period can lead to neoplastic disorders, especially leukemias.

  20. Altered auditory processing and effective connectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kit Melissa; Mørup, Morten; Birknow, Michelle Rosgaard

    2018-01-01

    . Mismatch negativity (MMN), a brain marker of change detection, is reduced in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Using dynamic causal modelling (DCM), previous studies showed that top-down effective connectivity linking the frontal and temporal cortex is reduced in schizophrenia......11.2 deletion carriers. DCM showed reduced intrinsic connection within right primary auditory cortex as well as in the top-down, connection from the right inferior frontal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus for 22q11.2 deletion carriers although not surviving correction for multiple comparison...

  1. Chromosome 15 structural abnormalities: effect on IGF1R gene expression and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cannarella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R, mapping on the 15q26.3 chromosome, is required for normal embryonic and postnatal growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the IGF1R gene expression and function in three unrelated patients with chromosome 15 structural abnormalities. We report two male patients with the smallest 15q26.3 chromosome duplication described so far, and a female patient with ring chromosome 15 syndrome. Patient one, with a 568 kb pure duplication, had overgrowth, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation, obesity, cryptorchidism, borderline low testis volume, severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and gynecomastia. We found a 1.8-fold increase in the IGF1R mRNA and a 1.3-fold increase in the IGF1R protein expression (P < 0.05. Patient two, with a 650 kb impure duplication, showed overgrowth, developmental delay, mild mental retardation, precocious puberty, low testicular volume and severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. The IGF1R mRNA and protein expression was similar to that of the control. Patient three, with a 46,XX r(15 (p10q26.2 karyotype, displayed intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation. We found a <0.5-fold decrease in the IGF1R mRNA expression and an undetectable IGF1R activity. After reviewing the previously 96 published cases of chromosome 15q duplication, we found that neurological disorders, congenital cardiac defects, typical facial traits and gonadal abnormalities are the prominent features in patients with chromosome 15q duplication. Interestingly, patients with 15q deletion syndrome display similar features. We speculate that both the increased and decreased IGF1R gene expression may play a role in the etiology of neurological and gonadal disorders.

  2. Dopamine in high-risk populations: A comparison of subjects with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and subjects at ultra high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Claudia; Bloemen, Oswald J N; Boot, Erik; Bakker, Geor; de Koning, Mariken B; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Booij, Jan; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse A M J

    2018-02-28

    Striatal dopamine (DA) dysfunction has been consistently reported in psychotic disorders. Differences and similarities in the pathogenesis between populations at clinical and genetic risk for developing psychosis are yet to be established. Here we explored markers of dopamine (DA) function in subjects meeting clinically ultra-high risk criteria for psychosis (UHR) and in subjects with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a genetic condition associated with significant risk for developing psychotic disorders. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 123 I-labelled iodobenzamide ([ 123 I]IBZM) was used to measure striatal DA D 2/3 receptor binding potential (D 2 R BP ND ). Also, peripheral DAergic markers were assessed in serum and urine (plasma prolactin (pPRL), plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and urine DA(uDA)). No significant difference in striatal D 2 R BP ND was found between UHR and 22q11DS subjects. Compared to UHR subjects, pPRL and pHVA were lower and uDA levels were higher in the 22q11DS subjects. However, after correcting for age and gender, only pPRL as significantly lower in the 22q11DS patients. These results may suggest that there are differences in DAergic markers between subjects with UHR and with 22q11DS that may reflect differences in the pathways to psychosis. However, bigger samples are needed to replicate these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel ZEB2-BCL11B Fusion Gene Identified by RNA-Sequencing in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(2;14(q22;q32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synne Torkildsen

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing of a case of acute myeloid leukemia with the bone marrow karyotype 46,XY,t(2;14(q22;q32[5]/47,XY,idem,+?4,del(6(q13q21[cp6]/46,XY[4] showed that the t(2;14 generated a ZEB2-BCL11B chimera in which exon 2 of ZEB2 (nucleotide 595 in the sequence with accession number NM_014795.3 was fused to exon 2 of BCL11B (nucleotide 554 in the sequence with accession number NM_022898.2. RT-PCR together with Sanger sequencing verified the presence of the above-mentioned fusion transcript. All functional domains of BCL11B are retained in the chimeric protein. Abnormal expression of BCL11B coding regions subjected to control by the ZEB2 promoter seems to be the leukemogenic mechanism behind the translocation.

  4. Use of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization for the Diagnosis of DiGeorge Syndrome in Saudi Arabian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamat, Abeer A; Assidi, Mourad; Lary, Sahira A; Almughamsi, Muna M; Peer Zada, Abdul A; Chaudhary, Adeel; Abuzenadah, Adel; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a genetic disorder known as a clinically variable syndrome with over 180 associated phenotypic features. It is caused by a common human deletion in the 22q11.2 chromosomal region and currently is affecting approximately 1 in 4,000 individuals. Despite the prevalence of inherited diseases mainly due to consanguineous marriages, the current diagnosis of DGS in Saudi Arabia is mainly based on conventional high-resolution chromosome banding (karyotyping) and FISH techniques. However, advanced genome-wide studies for detecting microdeletions or duplications across the whole genome are needed. The aim of this study is to implement and use aCGH technology in clinical diagnosis of the 22q11.2 deletion in Saudi Arabian DGS patients and to confirm its effectiveness compared to conventional FISH and chromosome banding techniques. Thirty suspected DGS patients were assessed for chromosome 22q11.2 deletion using high-resolution G-banding, FISH, and aCGH. The aCGH results were compared with those obtained by the other 2 cytogenetic techniques. G-banding detected the 22q11.2 deletion in only 1 patient in the cohort. Moreover, it detected additional chromosomal aberrations in 3 other patients. Using FISH, allowed for detection of the 22q11.2 deletion in 2 out of 30 patients. Interestingly, the use of aCGH technique showed deletions in the chromosome 22q11.2 region in 8 patients, indicating a 4-fold increase in diagnostic detection capacity compared to FISH. Our results show the effectiveness of aCGH to overcome the limitations of FISH and G-banding in terms of diagnostic yield and allow whole genome screening and detection of a larger number of deletions and/or duplications in Saudi Arabian DGS patients. Except for balanced translocations and inversions, our data demonstrate the suitability of aCGH in the diagnostics of submicroscopic deletion syndromes such as DGS and most chromosomal aberrations or complex abnormalities scattered throughout the human

  5. ATM function and its relationship with ATM gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with the recurrent deletion (11q22.3-23.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Chen, H-C; Su, X; Thompson, P A; Liu, X; Do, K-A; Wierda, W; Keating, M J; Plunkett, W

    2016-09-02

    Approximately 10-20% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients exhibit del(11q22-23) before treatment, this cohort increases to over 40% upon progression following chemoimmunotherapy. The coding sequence of the DNA damage response gene, ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), is contained in this deletion. The residual ATM allele is frequently mutated, suggesting a relationship between gene function and clinical response. To investigate this possibility, we sought to develop and validate an assay for the function of ATM protein in these patients. SMC1 (structural maintenance of chromosomes 1) and KAP1 (KRAB-associated protein 1) were found to be unique substrates of ATM kinase by immunoblot detection following ionizing radiation. Using a pool of eight fluorescence in situ hybridization-negative CLL samples as a standard, the phosphorylation of SMC1 and KAP1 from 46 del (11q22-23) samples was analyzed using normal mixture model-based clustering. This identified 13 samples (28%) that were deficient in ATM function. Targeted sequencing of the ATM gene of these samples, with reference to genomic DNA, revealed 12 somatic mutations and 15 germline mutations in these samples. No strong correlation was observed between ATM mutation and function. Therefore, mutation status may not be taken as an indicator of ATM function. Rather, a direct assay of the kinase activity should be used in the development of therapies.

  6. Genotype-phenotype analysis of recombinant chromosome 4 syndrome: an array-CGH study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Morteza; Hemmat, Omid; Anguiano, Arturo; Boyar, Fatih Z; El Naggar, Mohammed; Wang, Jia-Chi; Wang, Borris T; Sahoo, Trilochan; Owen, Renius; Haddadin, Mary

    2013-05-02

    Recombinant chromosome 4, a rare constitutional rearrangement arising from pericentric inversion, comprises a duplicated segment of 4p13~p15→4pter and a deleted segment of 4q35→4qter. To date, 10 cases of recombinant chromosome 4 have been reported. We describe the second case in which array-CGH was used to characterize recombinant chromosome 4 syndrome. The patient was a one-year old boy with consistent clinical features. Conventional cytogenetics and FISH documented a recombinant chromosome 4, derived from a paternal pericentric inversion, leading to partial trisomy 4p and partial monosomy of 4q. Array-CGH, performed to further characterize the rearranged chromosome 4 and delineate the breakpoints, documented a small (4.36 Mb) 4q35.1 terminal deletion and a large (23.81 Mb) 4p15.1 terminal duplication. Genotype-phenotype analysis of 10 previously reported cases and the present case indicated relatively consistent clinical features and breakpoints. This consistency was more evident in our case and another characterized by array-CGH, where both showed the common breakpoints of p15.1 and q35.1. A genotype-phenotype correlation study between rec(4), dup(4p), and del(4q) syndromes revealed that urogenital and cardiac defects are probably due to the deletion of 4q whereas the other clinical features are likely due to 4p duplication. Our findings support that the clinical features of patients with rec(4) are relatively consistent and specific to the regions of duplication or deletion. Recombinant chromosome 4 syndrome thus appears to be a discrete entity that can be suspected on the basis of clinical features or specific deleted and duplicated chromosomal regions.

  7. A Family with Mental Retardation, Epilepsy and Cerebellar Hypoplasia Showing Linkage to Chromosome 20p11.21-q11.23

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    Fatih Bayrakli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebellar hypoplasia (CH is a rare malformation caused by various etiologies, usually manifesting clinically as nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia with or without mental retardation. The molecular pathogenesis of the autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias has a wide range of mechanisms. Differential diagnosis and categorization of the recessive cerebellar ataxias, however, need more specific, biochemical and genetic investigation. Methods: This study applied whole-genome linkage analysis to study a family with nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia and additional mental retardation, epilepsy, and facial dysmorphic features. Genotyping and linkage analysis was done using the GeneChip Mapping 250K NspI Array (Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, Calif., USA for genome-wide linkage analysis of the genotyping data from the affected children and their parents. Results: Allegro software version 1.2 was used for multipoint linkage analysis. We assumed an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern and assigned a penetrance of 0.999. Single-nucleotide polymorphism allele frequencies were estimated from the Affymetrix data of the Caucasian family studied. Using these parameters, a theoretical maximum logarithm of the odds score of 2.69 was identified at chromosome 20p11.21-q11.23. Conclusions: This chromosomal locus is unprecedented in autosomal recessive and nonprogressive ataxia disorder. Further investigation might reveal a new causative gene generating the CH phenotype.

  8. Two girls with a de novo Xq rearrangement of paternal origin: t(X;9(q24;q12 or rea(Xdup q

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    Ana I. Vásquez-Velásquez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We report on two rare Xq rearrangements, namely a t(X;9(q24;q12 found in a mildly-affected girl (Patient 1 and a rea(Xdup q concomitant with a rob(14;21mat in a Down syndrome girl (Patient 2. Case report: Both rearrangements were characterized by banding techniques [Giemsa (G, constitutive heterochromatin (C, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU pulse], fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assays, human androgen receptor (HUMAR assays, and microarray analyses. Patient 1 had a t(X;9(q24;q12dn. Patient 2 had a de novo rea(X(qter→q23 or q24::p11.2→qter concomitant with an unbalanced rob(14;21mat. X-Inactivation studies in metaphases and DNA revealed a fully skewed inactivation: the normal homolog was silenced in Patient 1 and the rea(X in Patient 2. Both rearranged X chromosomes were of paternal descent. Microarray analyses revealed no imbalances in Patient 1 whereas loss of Xp (∼52 Mb and duplication of Xq (∼44 Mb and 21q were confirmed in Patient 2. Conclusion: Our observations further document the cytogenetic heterogeneity and predominant paternal origin of certain de novo X-chromosome rearrangements.

  9. "You don't know until you get there": The positive and negative "lived" experience of parenting an adult child with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Jane; McCormack, Lynne; Campbell, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a complex genetic syndrome associated with more than 180 features, presents complex challenges for parents including gaining a diagnosis. This phenomenological study sought the "lived" interpretations of parents supporting an adult child with 22q11DS, a poorly researched area. Interpretative phenomenological analysis informed a detailed and open exploration of parenting a child through to adult life with 22q11DS. Using in-depth semistructured interviews, 8 parents (2 male, 6 female) of adult children with 22q11DS were individually interviewed; providing the data set for transcription and thematic analysis. Losing "I" Finding "self," overarched 6 subordinate themes that emerged from participants' articulated descriptions of psychological distress and psychological growth. Distress in parenting a child with 22q11DS was experienced through stigma, loss, grief, and guilt. Progressively, stigma undermined independence, friendships, and instinctual judgement. Ill-informed hierarchical structures experienced as layers of obstruction and lack of awareness of the syndrome triggered angry advocacy for their child. Diagnosis brought opposing relief and grief. In time, they came to value their unique "accomplishments," collected on their journey with 22q11DS, and in turn, consciously valued authentic "self" expressed through empathy, humility, gratitude, and pride. Parental distress through societal, educational, and health care invalidation persisted for decades for all participants. Conversely, distress facilitated psychological growth for redefining "self" and role as parents over time. Building on this phenomenological cameo, future research can educate against the plight of 22q11DS families. It can enlighten health care professionals in buffering against associated stigma, blame, and self-doubt, and in fostering psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. White matter microstructure in 22q11 deletion syndrome: a pilot diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study of children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundram, Frederick; Campbell, Linda E.; Azuma, Rayna; Daly, Eileen; Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; Barker, Gareth J.; Chitnis, Xavier; Jones, Derek K.; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Young people with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) are at substantial risk for developing psychosis and have significant differences in white matter (WM) volume. However, there are few in vivo studies of both WM microstructural integrity (as measured using Diffusion Tensor (DT)-MRI) and WM volume

  11. Cortical Dysconnectivity Measured by Structural Covariance Is Associated With the Presence of Psychotic Symptoms in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandini, Corrado; Scariati, Elisa; Padula, Maria Carmela; Schneider, Maude; Schaer, Marie; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Eliez, Stephan

    2018-05-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the third-largest known genetic risk factor for the development of psychosis. Dysconnectivity has consistently been implicated in the physiopathology of psychosis. Structural covariance of cortical morphology is a method of exploring connectivity among brain regions that to date has not been employed in 22q11DS. In the present study we employed structural covariance of cortical thickness to explore connectivity alterations in a group of 108 patients with 22q11DS compared with 96 control subjects. We subsequently divided patients into two subgroups of 31 subjects each according to the presence of attenuated psychotic symptoms. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain the mean cortical thickness in 148 brain regions from T1-weighted 3T images. For each population we reconstructed a brain graph using Pearson correlation between the average thickness of each couple of brain regions, which we characterized in terms of mean correlation strength and in terms of network architecture using graph theory. Patients with 22q11DS presented increased mean correlation strength, but there was no difference in global architecture compared with control subjects. However, symptomatic patients presented increased mean correlation strength coupled with increased segregation and decreased integration compared with both control subjects and nonsymptomatic patients. They also presented increased centrality for a cluster of anterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal regions. These results confirm the importance of cortical dysconnectivity in the physiopathology of psychosis. Moreover they support the significance of aberrant anterior cingulate connectivity. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Localization of the homolog of a mouse craniofacial mutant to human chromosome 18q11 and evaluation of linkage to human CLP and CPO

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    Griffith, A.J.; Burgess, D.L.; Kohrman, D.C.; Yu, J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-15

    The transgene-induced mutation 9257 and the spontaneous mutation twirler cause craniofacial and inner ear malformations and are located on mouse chromosome 18 near the ataxia locus ax. To map the human homolog of 9257, a probe from the transgene insertion site was used to screen a human genomic library. Analysis of a cross-hybridizing human clone identified a 3-kb conserved sequence block that does not appear to contain protein coding sequence. Analysis of somatic cell hybrid panels assigned the human locus to 18q11. The polymorphic microsatellite markers D18S1001 and D18S1002 were isolated from the human locus and mapped by linkage analysis using the CEPH pedigrees. The 9257 locus maps close to the centromeres of human chromosome 18q and mouse chromosome 18 at the proximal end of a conserved linkage group. To evaluate the role of this locus in human craniofacial disorders, linkage to D18S1002 was tested in 11 families with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate and 3 families with autosomal dominant cleft palate only. Obligatory recombinants were observed in 8 of the families, and negative lod scores from the other families indicated that these disorders are not linked to the chromosome 18 loci. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Histology of the pharyngeal constrictor muscle in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and non-syndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency.

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    Josine C C Widdershoven

    Full Text Available Plastic surgeons aim to correct velopharyngeal insufficiency manifest by hypernasal speech with a velopharyngoplasty. The functional outcome has been reported to be worse in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome than in patients without the syndrome. A possible explanation is the hypotonia that is often present as part of the syndrome. To confirm a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, specimens of the pharyngeal constrictor muscle were taken from children with and without the syndrome. Histologic properties were compared between the groups. Specimens from the two groups did not differ regarding the presence of increased perimysial or endomysial space, fiber grouping by size or type, internalized nuclei, the percentage type I fibers, or the diameters of type I and type II fibers. In conclusion, a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome could not be confirmed.

  14. Histology of the pharyngeal constrictor muscle in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and non-syndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdershoven, Josine C C; Spruijt, Nicole E; Spliet, Wim G M; Breugem, Corstiaan C; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2011-01-01

    Plastic surgeons aim to correct velopharyngeal insufficiency manifest by hypernasal speech with a velopharyngoplasty. The functional outcome has been reported to be worse in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome than in patients without the syndrome. A possible explanation is the hypotonia that is often present as part of the syndrome. To confirm a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, specimens of the pharyngeal constrictor muscle were taken from children with and without the syndrome. Histologic properties were compared between the groups. Specimens from the two groups did not differ regarding the presence of increased perimysial or endomysial space, fiber grouping by size or type, internalized nuclei, the percentage type I fibers, or the diameters of type I and type II fibers. In conclusion, a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome could not be confirmed.

  15. Characterization of a de novo duplication of 11p14----p13, using fluorescent in situ hybridization and southern hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speleman, F.; Mannens, M.; Redeker, B.; Vercruyssen, M.; van Oostveldt, P.; Leroy, J.; Slater, R.

    1991-01-01

    A de novo 11p+ chromosome was found in a child with mild mental retardation but no other remarkable dysmorphic characteristics. Banding studies suggested a duplication of regions 11p13 and 11p14 or regions 11p14 and 11p15. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization and digital imaging microscopy, we

  16. Comparing the neural bases of self-referential processing in typically developing and 22q11.2 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Lagioia, Annalaura; Salomon, Roy; d'Argembeau, Arnaud; Eliez, Stephan

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of self-reflective processing during adolescence is relevant, as this period is characterized by deep reorganization of the self-concept. It may be the case that an atypical development of brain regions underlying self-reflective processing increases the risk for psychological disorders and impaired social functioning. In this study, we investigated the neural bases of self- and other-related processing in typically developing adolescents and youths with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a rare neurogenetic condition associated with difficulties in social interactions and increased risk for schizophrenia. The fMRI paradigm consisted in judging if a series of adjectives applied to the participant himself/herself (self), to his/her best friend or to a fictional character (Harry Potter). In control adolescents, we observed that self- and other-related processing elicited strong activation in cortical midline structures (CMS) when contrasted with a semantic baseline condition. 22q11DS exhibited hypoactivation in the CMS and the striatum during the processing of self-related information when compared to the control group. Finally, the hypoactivation in the anterior cingulate cortex was associated with the severity of prodromal positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The findings are discussed in a developmental framework and in light of their implication for the development of schizophrenia in this at-risk population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. De novo 12q22.q23.3 duplication associated with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella Vari, Maria; Traverso, Monica; Bellini, Tommaso; Madia, Francesca; Pinto, Francesca; Striano, Pasquale; Minetti, Carlo; Zara, Federico

    2018-04-01

    The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published in Seizure 50 (2017) 80-82, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2017.06.011. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal. Copyright © 2018 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

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    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  19.  Hypertelorism in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A from the common PMP22 duplication: A Case Report

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    Josef Finsterer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  The 1.4Mb tandem-duplication in the PMP22 gene at 17p11.2 usually manifests as hereditary sensorimotor polyneuropathy with foot deformity, sensorineural hearing-loss, moderate developmental delay, and gait disturbance. Hypertelorism and marked phenotypic variability within a single family has not been reported. In a single family, the PMP22 tandem-duplication manifested as short stature, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, tremor, ataxia, sensorineural hearing-loss, and hypothyroidism in the 27 years-old index case, as mild facial dysmorphism, muscle cramps, tinnitus, intention tremor, bradydiadochokinesia, and sensorimotor polyneuropathy in the 31 year-old half-brother of the index-patient, and as sensorimotor polyneuropathy and foot deformityin the father of the two. The half-brother additionally presented with hypertelorism, not previously reported in PMP22tandem-duplication carriers. The presented cases show that the tandem-duplication 17p11.2 may present with marked intra-familialphenotype variability and that mild facial dysmorphism with stuck-out ears and hypertelorism may be a rare phenotypic feature of this mutation. The causal relation between facial dysmorphism and the PMP22 tandem-duplication, however, remains speculative.

  20. Genetic heterogeneity in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy; exclusion of the EVR1 locus on chromosome 11q in a large autosomal dominant pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamashmus, M A; Downey, L M; Inglehearn, C F; Gupta, S R; Mansfield, D C

    2000-04-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is associated with mutations in the Norrie disease gene in X linked pedigrees and with linkage to the EVR1 locus at 11q13 in autosomal dominant cases. A large autosomal dominant FEVR family was studied, both clinically and by linkage analysis, to determine whether it differed from the known forms of FEVR. Affected members and obligate gene carriers from this family were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and in some cases fluorescein angiography. Patient DNAs were genotyped for markers at the EVR1 locus on chromosome 11q13. The clinical evaluation in this family is consistent with previous descriptions of FEVR pedigrees, but linkage analysis proves that it has a form of FEVR genetically distinct from the EVR1 locus on 11q. This proves that there are at least three different loci associated with comparable FEVR phenotypes, a situation similar to that existing for many forms of retinal degeneration.

  1. A 380-kb Duplication in 7p22.3 Encompassing the LFNG Gene in a Boy with Asperger Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulto-van Silfhout, A.T.; de Brouwer, A.F.; de Leeuw, N.; Obihara, C.C.; Brunner, H.G.; Vries, L.B.A. de

    2012-01-01

    De novo genomic aberrations are considered an important cause of autism spectrum disorders. We describe a de novo 380-kb gain in band p22.3 of chromosome 7 in a patient with Asperger syndrome. This duplicated region contains 9 genes including the LNFG gene that is an important regulator of NOTCH

  2. [22q11.2 deletion: handicap-related problems and coping strategies of primary caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Wolfgang; Schneider, Marco; Schwab, K Otfried

    2009-11-01

    To investigate handicap-related problems of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and their primary caregivers' coping strategies. Primary caregivers of 153 subjects aged 2-16 years were anonymously asked to fill out questionnaires, e.g., the Handicap Related Problems for Parents Inventory. Primary caregivers of 96 subjects (53 males, 43 females; mean age: 7;0 [2;1-16;11] years) sent back questionnaires. Patient's behaviour and discipline were the most important handicap-related problems. Significant correlations could be found between the patient's age and his/her relationship with the primary caregiver (rho=0.228; p=.029) and other family members (rho=0.293; p=.004). Compared to other parents of physically handicapped children or those with multiple handicaps, these parents did not experience increased stress. The more the coping strategies "self-fulfillment" and "intensification of partnership" were used, the lower parental stress was (p=.012, p=.025, respectively). "Focusing on the handicapped child" was positively correlated with high parental stress (p=.000). With regard to parental stress and coping strategies, primary caregivers of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion do not significantly differ from other parents of physically handicapped children. As handicap-related family problems increase with the patient's age, a growing need for counseling, especially for aspects of parenting and discipline, and for treatment can be presumed.

  3. Social Cognition Dysfunction in Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome): Relationship with Executive Functioning and Social Competence/Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L. E.; McCabe, K. L.; Melville, J. L.; Strutt, P. A.; Schall, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social difficulties are often noted among people with intellectual disabilities. Children and adults with 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of executive and social-cognitive skills compared with typically developing young people. However, the relationship…

  4. Genetics Home Reference: 7q11.23 duplication syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duplication Syndrome. 2015 Nov 25. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Wallace SE, Amemiya A, Bean LJH, Bird TD, Ledbetter N, Mefford HC, Smith RJH, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): ...

  5. A case report of Chinese brothers with inherited MECP2-containing duplication: autism and intellectual disability, but not seizures or respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu; Xu, Qiong; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodi; Cheng, Tianlin; Wu, Bingbing; Ding, Yanhua; Lu, Ping; Zheng, Jingjing; Zhang, Min; Qiu, Zilong; Yu, Xiang

    2012-08-21

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a family of neurodevelopmental disorders with strong genetic components. Recent studies have shown that copy number variations in dosage sensitive genes can contribute significantly to these disorders. One such gene is the transcription factor MECP2, whose loss of function in females results in Rett syndrome, while its duplication in males results in developmental delay and autism. Here, we identified a Chinese family with two brothers both inheriting a 2.2 Mb MECP2-containing duplication (151,369,305 - 153,589,577) from their mother. In addition, both brothers also had a 213.7 kb duplication on Chromosome 2, inherited from their father. The older brother also carried a 48.4 kb duplication on Chromosome 2 inherited from the mother, and a 8.2 kb deletion at 11q13.5 inherited from the father. Based on the published literature, MECP2 is the most autism-associated gene among the identified CNVs. Consistently, the boys displayed clinical features in common with other patients carrying MECP2 duplications, including intellectual disability, autism, lack of speech, slight hypotonia and unsteadiness of movement. They also had slight dysmorphic features including a depressed nose bridge, large ears and midface hypoplasia. Interestingly, they did not exhibit other clinical features commonly observed in American-European patients with MECP2 duplication, including recurrent respiratory infections and epilepsy. To our knowledge, this is the first identification and characterization of Chinese Han patients with MECP2-containing duplications. Further cases are required to determine if the above described clinical differences are due to individual variations or related to the genetic background of the patients.

  6. De novo deletion of chromosome 11q12.3 in monozygotic twins affected by Poland Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Carlotta Maria; Romanini, Maria Victoria; Musante, Ilaria; Tassano, Elisa; Gimelli, Stefania; Divizia, Maria Teresa; Torre, Michele; Morovic, Carmen Gloria; Lerone, Margherita; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Puliti, Aldamaria

    2014-05-30

    Poland Syndrome (PS) is a rare disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, variably associated with thoracic and upper limb anomalies. Familial recurrence has been reported indicating that PS could have a genetic basis, though the genetic mechanisms underlying PS development are still unknown. Here we describe a couple of monozygotic (MZ) twin girls, both presenting with Poland Syndrome. They carry a de novo heterozygous 126 Kbp deletion at chromosome 11q12.3 involving 5 genes, four of which, namely HRASLS5, RARRES3, HRASLS2, and PLA2G16, encode proteins that regulate cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, mainly through Ras-mediated signaling pathways. Phenotype concordance between the monozygotic twin probands provides evidence supporting the genetic control of PS. As genes controlling cell growth and differentiation may be related to morphological defects originating during development, we postulate that the observed chromosome deletion could be causative of the phenotype observed in the twin girls and the deleted genes could play a role in PS development.

  7. Oncogenic activation of FOXR1 by 11q23 intrachromosomal deletion-fusions in neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santo, E. E.; Ebus, M. E.; Koster, J.; Schulte, J. H.; Lakeman, A.; van Sluis, P.; Vermeulen, J.; Gisselsson, D.; Øra, I.; Lindner, S.; Buckley, P. G.; Stallings, R. L.; Vandesompele, J.; Eggert, A.; Caron, H. N.; Versteeg, R.; Molenaar, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma tumors frequently show loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 11q with a shortest region of overlap in the 11q23 region. These deletions are thought to cause inactivation of tumor suppressor genes leading to haploinsufficiency. Alternatively, micro-deletions could lead to gene fusion

  8. Colorectal cancer linkage on chromosomes 4q21, 8q13, 12q24, and 15q22.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine S Cicek

    Full Text Available A substantial proportion of familial colorectal cancer (CRC is not a consequence of known susceptibility loci, such as mismatch repair (MMR genes, supporting the existence of additional loci. To identify novel CRC loci, we conducted a genome-wide linkage scan in 356 white families with no evidence of defective MMR (i.e., no loss of tumor expression of MMR proteins, no microsatellite instability (MSI-high tumors, or no evidence of linkage to MMR genes. Families were ascertained via the Colon Cancer Family Registry multi-site NCI-supported consortium (Colon CFR, the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Memorial University of Newfoundland. A total of 1,612 individuals (average 5.0 per family including 2.2 affected were genotyped using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism linkage arrays; parametric and non-parametric linkage analysis used MERLIN in a priori-defined family groups. Five lod scores greater than 3.0 were observed assuming heterogeneity. The greatest were among families with mean age of diagnosis less than 50 years at 4q21.1 (dominant HLOD = 4.51, α = 0.84, 145.40 cM, rs10518142 and among all families at 12q24.32 (dominant HLOD = 3.60, α = 0.48, 285.15 cM, rs952093. Among families with four or more affected individuals and among clinic-based families, a common peak was observed at 15q22.31 (101.40 cM, rs1477798; dominant HLOD = 3.07, α = 0.29; dominant HLOD = 3.03, α = 0.32, respectively. Analysis of families with only two affected individuals yielded a peak at 8q13.2 (recessive HLOD = 3.02, α = 0.51, 132.52 cM, rs1319036. These previously unreported linkage peaks demonstrate the continued utility of family-based data in complex traits and suggest that new CRC risk alleles remain to be elucidated.

  9. Chromosomal Changes in relation to Clinical Outcome in Larynx and Pharynx Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Hermsen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive head and neck squamous carcinomas are among the cytogenetically most complex tumors. Perhaps for this reason, there is little consensus on the prognostic value of specific chromosomal aberrations. Here we present Results of CGH analysis of 56 clinically well-characterized set of head and neck cancers, consisting of larynx and pharynx only. The aim was to find possible associations with clinical outcome. The major chromosome arms showing gains were (in decreasing order: 3q, 7q, 8q, 5p, 11q13, 17q and 18p, and losses occurred at 3p, 11qter, 4p, 18q, and 5q. The segments most frequently amplified were 3q26-qter, 11q13, 11q22, 3q12–13, 18p11.3, 18q11.2 and 8q24.3. Tumors with stages III and IV, and lymph node positive tumors had a worse clinical outcome. Surprisingly, no specific chromosomal abnormality correlated with disease-free survival. The only aberration that correlated to one of the clinico-pathological parameters was amplification 11q13, that occurred solely in lymph node positive, stage IV tumors. However 11q13 amplification did not correlate with disease-free survival. These Results seem to indicate that genetic alterations at the level of chromosomes have limited prognostic value in patients with invasive larynx and pharynx squamous cell carcinomas.

  10. Velocardiofacial syndrome in father and daughter: What is the mechanism for the deletion 22(q11.2q11.2) in only the daughter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magenis, R.E.; Gunter, K.; Toth-Fejel, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    E.G. had marked feeding difficulty noted at birth; the cause was determined to be a paralyzed palate. In 1992 chromosome studies were performed because of the provisional diagnosis of velocardiofacial syndrome, and a small interstitial deletion of chromosome 22 was found. Recently the family was seen in our Genetics Clinic. The father had unusual facial features shared by his daughter, a paralyzed upper lip and a history of repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. His chromosomes appeared normal. FISH studies were performed on the child`s peripheral blood using the ONCOR DiGeorge region probe (D22S75) and the deletion verified. However, the father`s chromosomes were not deleted for the ONCOR probe (D22S75) and probe DO832 sent to us by Peter Scambler. Skin cells were then obtained and no deletion was detected in a total of 66 cells examined using both probes. Several questions arise from these data: does the father have velocardiofacial syndrome? Does he have occult mosaicism? Does he have a molecular deletion not detected by the probes used? And was this deletion somehow {open_quotes}amplified{close_quotes} in his daughter?

  11. Association of HLA Class I and Class II genes with bcr-abl transcripts in leukemia patients with t(9;22 (q34;q11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Pedro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the site of breakpoint in t(9;22 (q34;q11, bcr-abl fusion in leukemia patients is associated with different types of transcript proteins. In this study we have seen the association of HLA genes with different types of bcr-abl transcripts. The association could predict the bcr-abl peptide presentation by particular HLA molecules. Methods The study included a total of 189 patients of mixed ethnicity with chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia who were being considered for bone marrow transplantation. Typing of bcr-abl transcripts was done by reverse transcriptase PCR method. HLA typing was performed by molecular methods. The bcr-abl and HLA association was studied by calculating the relative risks and chi-square test. Results Significant negative associations (p Conclusions The negative associations of a particular bcr-abl transcript with specific HLA alleles suggests that these alleles play a critical role in presenting peptides derived from the chimeric proteins and eliciting a successful T-cell cytotoxic response. Knowledge of differential associations between HLA phenotypes and bcr-abl fusion transcript types would help in developing better strategies for immunization with the bcr-abl peptides against t(9;22 (q34;q11-positive leukemia.

  12. Constitutional t(5;7)(q11;p15) rearranged to acquire monosomy 7q and trisomy 1q in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome transforming to acute myelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganly, Peter; McDonald, Margaret; Spearing, Ruth; Morris, Christine M

    2004-03-01

    We report the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and a t(5;7)(q11.2;p15) in her bone marrow cells. Subsequent analysis of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts showed that the translocation was constitutional. Disruption of chromosome bands 5q11.2 and 7p15 has been described recurrently in MDS and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and, although the age of onset was not earlier than usual, it is nonetheless possible that genes interrupted by this translocation may been a predisposing factor for her condition. With progression to AML, a further rearrangement of the constitutional der(7)t(5;7) occurred, involving chromosome arm 1q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome paints showed that the result of the second rearrangement, a t(1;7)(q32.1;q32), was observed, leading to trisomy of the segment 1q32.1 approximately qter and monosomy of the segment 7q32.1 approximately qter. The acquired imbalances, particularly loss of 7q, are commonly associated with MDS/AML and a poor prognosis; however, this patient remained in remission after treatment for more than two years before AML relapse, perhaps because the affected regions fall outside of the critical regions of imbalance.

  13. MicroRNA Profiling of Neurons Generated Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Patients with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder, and 22q11.2 Del.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejian Zhao

    Full Text Available We are using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology to study neuropsychiatric disorders associated with 22q11.2 microdeletions (del, the most common known schizophrenia (SZ-associated genetic factor. Several genes in the region have been implicated; a promising candidate is DGCR8, which codes for a protein involved in microRNA (miRNA biogenesis. We carried out miRNA expression profiling (miRNA-seq on neurons generated from iPSCs derived from controls and SZ patients with 22q11.2 del. Using thresholds of p<0.01 for nominal significance and 1.5-fold differences in expression, 45 differentially expressed miRNAs were detected (13 lower in SZ and 32 higher. Of these, 6 were significantly down-regulated in patients after correcting for genome wide significance (FDR<0.05, including 4 miRNAs that map to the 22q11.2 del region. In addition, a nominally significant increase in the expression of several miRNAs was found in the 22q11.2 neurons that were previously found to be differentially expressed in autopsy samples and peripheral blood in SZ and autism spectrum disorders (e.g., miR-34, miR-4449, miR-146b-3p, and miR-23a-5p. Pathway and function analysis of predicted mRNA targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs showed enrichment for genes involved in neurological disease and psychological disorders for both up and down regulated miRNAs. Our findings suggest that: i. neurons with 22q11.2 del recapitulate the miRNA expression patterns expected of 22q11.2 haploinsufficiency, ii. differentially expressed miRNAs previously identified using autopsy samples and peripheral cells, both of which have significant methodological problems, are indeed disrupted in neuropsychiatric disorders and likely have an underlying genetic basis.

  14. A de novo 1q22q23.1 Interstitial Microdeletion in a Girl with Intellectual Disability and Multiple Congenital Anomalies Including Congenital Heart Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksiūnienė, Beata; Preiksaitiene, Egle; Morkūnienė, Aušra; Ambrozaitytė, Laima; Utkus, Algirdas

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have shown that molecular karyotyping is an effective diagnostic tool in individuals with developmental delay/intellectual disability. We report on a de novo interstitial 1q22q23.1 microdeletion, 1.6 Mb in size, detected in a patient with short stature, microcephaly, hypoplastic corpus callosum, cleft palate, minor facial anomalies, congenital heart defect, camptodactyly of the 4-5th fingers, and intellectual disability. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a 1.6-Mb deletion in the 1q22q23.1 region, arr[GRCh37] 1q22q23.1(155630752_157193893)×1. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed its de novo origin. The deleted region encompasses 50 protein-coding genes, including the morbid genes APOA1BP, ARHGEF2, LAMTOR2, LMNA, NTRK1, PRCC, RIT1, SEMA4A, and YY1AP1. Although the unique phenotype observed in our patient can arise from the haploinsufficiency of the dosage-sensitive LMNA gene, the dosage imbalance of other genes implicated in the rearrangement could also contribute to the phenotype. Further studies are required for the delineation of the phenotype associated with this rare chromosomal alteration and elucidation of the critical genes for manifestation of the specific clinical features. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Novel recurrent chromosomal aberrations detected in clonal plasma cells of light chain amyloidosis patients show potential adverse prognostic effect: first results from a genome-wide copy number array analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, Martin; Hegenbart, Ute; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Hose, Dirk; Seckinger, Anja; Bochtler, Tilmann; Hemminki, Kari; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Schönland, Stefan O; Jauch, Anna

    2017-07-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the deposition of abnormal amyloid fibrils in multiple organs, thus impairing their function. In the largest cohort studied up to now of 118 CD138-purified plasma cell samples from previously untreated immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis patients, we assessed in parallel copy number alterations using high-density copy number arrays and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). We used fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for the IgH translocations t(11;14), t(4;14), and t(14;16) or any other IgH rearrangement as well as numerical aberrations of the chromosome loci 1q21, 8p21, 5p15/5q35, 11q22.3 or 11q23, 13q14, 15q22, 17p13, and 19q13. Recurrent gains included chromosomes 1q (36%), 9 (24%), 11q (24%), as well as 19 (15%). Recurrent losses affected chromosome 13 (29% monosomy) and partial losses of 14q (19%), 16q (14%) and 13q (12%), respectively. In 88% of patients with translocation t(11;14), the hallmark chromosomal aberration in AL amyloidosis, a concomitant gain of 11q22.3/11q23 detected by iFISH was part of the unbalanced translocation der(14)t(11;14)(q13;q32) with the breakpoint in the CCND1/MYEOV gene region. Partial loss of chromosome regions 14q and 16q were significantly associated to gain 1q. Gain 1q21 detected by iFISH almost always resulted from a gain of the long arm of chromosome 1 and not from trisomy 1, whereas deletions on chromosome 1p were rarely found. Overall and event-free survival analysis found a potential adverse prognostic effect of concomitant gain 1q and deletion 14q as well as of deletion 1p. In conclusion, in the first whole genome report of clonal plasma cells in AL amyloidosis, novel aberrations and hitherto unknown potential adverse prognostic effects were uncovered. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  16. Breast cancer risk and 6q22.33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341) was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication...... analysis of rs2180341 using data from 31,428 invasive breast cancer cases and 34,700 controls collected from 25 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). In addition, we evaluated whether rs2180341 modifies breast cancer risk in 3,361 BRCA1 and 2,020 BRCA2 carriers from 11 centers...... in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Based on the BCAC data from women of European ancestry, we found evidence for a weak association with breast cancer risk for rs2180341 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, p = 0.023). There was evidence for heterogeneity in the ORs...

  17. Estudio de la psicopatología en una población de pacientes con microdeleción 22q11.2

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Sánchez, Fuensanta

    2016-01-01

    El síndrome de deleción 22q11.2 (22q11.2 DS; OMIM # 188400) es un trastorno genético que puede presentar diversas malformaciones físicas, déficit cognitivo y trastornos psicopatológicos. Los objetivos del estudio han consistido en evaluar el nivel de inteligencia y los trastornos psiquiátricos de los pacientes con este síndrome en la etapa infanto-juvenil y determinar los factores genéticos, clínicos y sociodemográficos asociados. Hemos estudiado el perfil cognitivo y los trastornos psi...

  18. Quantitative measurement of duplicated DNA as a diagnostic test for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensels, G. W.; Janssen, E. A.; Hoogendijk, J. E.; Valentijn, L. J.; Baas, F.; Bolhuis, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1) is a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. The autosomal dominant subtype is often linked with a large duplication on chromosome 17p11.2. The gene encoding the peripheral myelin protein PMP 22 (the critical gene in this subtype of CMT1) is located within

  19. A case report of Chinese brothers with inherited MECP2-containing duplication: autism and intellectual disability, but not seizures or respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs are a family of neurodevelopmental disorders with strong genetic components. Recent studies have shown that copy number variations in dosage sensitive genes can contribute significantly to these disorders. One such gene is the transcription factor MECP2, whose loss of function in females results in Rett syndrome, while its duplication in males results in developmental delay and autism. Case presentation Here, we identified a Chinese family with two brothers both inheriting a 2.2 Mb MECP2-containing duplication (151,369,305 – 153,589,577 from their mother. In addition, both brothers also had a 213.7 kb duplication on Chromosome 2, inherited from their father. The older brother also carried a 48.4 kb duplication on Chromosome 2 inherited from the mother, and a 8.2 kb deletion at 11q13.5 inherited from the father. Based on the published literature, MECP2 is the most autism-associated gene among the identified CNVs. Consistently, the boys displayed clinical features in common with other patients carrying MECP2 duplications, including intellectual disability, autism, lack of speech, slight hypotonia and unsteadiness of movement. They also had slight dysmorphic features including a depressed nose bridge, large ears and midface hypoplasia. Interestingly, they did not exhibit other clinical features commonly observed in American-European patients with MECP2 duplication, including recurrent respiratory infections and epilepsy. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first identification and characterization of Chinese Han patients with MECP2-containing duplications. Further cases are required to determine if the above described clinical differences are due to individual variations or related to the genetic background of the patients.

  20. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A: morphological phenotype of the 17p duplication versus PMP22 point mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabreëls-Festen, A. A.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Hoogendijk, J. E.; Valentijn, L. J.; Eshuis, E. J.; Gabreëls, F. J.

    1995-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Ia (HMSN type Ia) is an autosomal dominant demyelinating polyneuropathy, which may result from duplications as large as 1.5 Mb on chromosome 17p 11.2-p12 encompassing the gene for the peripheral myelin

  1. Evaluation of a patient with classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to a 9q34 duplication affecting COL5A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Ohashi, Ikuko; Naruto, Takuya; Ida, Kazumi; Enomoto, Yumi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Jun-Ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2018-03-09

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, atrophic scarring, and joint hypermobility. The condition typically results from mutations in COL5A1 or COL5A2 leading to the functional haploinsufficiency. Here, we report of a 24-year-old male with mild intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, and a phenotype consistent with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type. A copy number variant-calling algorithm from panel sequencing data identified the deletions exons 2-11 and duplications of exons 12-67 within COL5A1. Array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed a 94 kb deletion at 9q34.3 involving exons 2-11 of COL5A1, and a 3.4 Mb duplication at 9q34.3 involving exons 12-67 of COL5A1. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  2. CNV analysis in 169 patients with bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowtzow, C. von; Hofmann, A.; Zhang, R.; Marsch, F.; Ebert, A.K.; Rosch, W.; Stein, R.; Boemers, T.M.; Hirsch, K.; Marcelis, C.L.M.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Brusco, A.; Migone, N.; Grazia, M. Di; Moebus, S.; Nothen, M.M.; Reutter, H.; Ludwig, M.; Draaken, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) represents the severe end of the congenital uro-rectal malformation spectrum. Initial studies have implicated rare copy number variations (CNVs), including recurrent duplications of chromosomal region 22q11.21, in BEEC etiology. METHODS: To

  3. Evidence for an asthma risk locus on chromosome Xp: a replication linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasch-Andersen, C; Møller, M U; Haagerup, A

    2008-01-01

    replication sample as used in the present study. The aim of the study was to replicate linkage to candidate regions for asthma in an independent Danish sample. METHODS: We performed a replication study investigating linkage to candidate regions for asthma on chromosomes 1p36.31-p36.21, 5q15-q23.2, 6p24.3-p22...... studies have been carried out the results are still conflicting and call for replication experiments. A Danish genome-wide scan has prior reported evidence for candidate regions for asthma susceptibility genes on chromosomes 1p, 5q, 6p, 12q and Xp. Linkage to chromosome 12q was later confirmed in the same.......3, and Xp22.31-p11.4 using additional markers in an independent set of 136 Danish asthmatic sib pair families. RESULTS: Nonparametric multipoint linkage analyses yielded suggestive evidence for linkage to asthma to chromosome Xp21.2 (MLS 2.92) but failed to replicate linkage to chromosomes 1p36.31-p36.21, 5...

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL FOLLOW-UP OF A FEMALE INFANT WITH RECOMBINANT DOWN SYNDROME UP TO THREE AND A HALF YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Strah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recombinant Down Syndrome with partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 21 represents a rare form of partial trisomy 21. The cause is mostly chromosome rearrangement- pericentric inversion of maternal or paternal homologous chromosome 21 and duplication of Down syndrome critical region p11.1q22.1, resulting in a child with phenotypical signs of classical Down syndrome with psychomotorical developmental delay. Methods: We describe a Down sydrome female infant with partial trisomy of chromosome 21. Ultra- sound screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester of pregnancy determined high risk for chromosomal abnormality. Amniocentesis showed normal prenatal karyotype. After birth a female infant started to show symptoms and signs, typical for classical Down syndrome. Postnatal karyotype revealed pericentric inversion and duplication of one chro- mosome 21 of maternal origin in the p11.1q22.1 region. The follow up of female infant up to three and a half years shows signs of psychomotorical delay with no structural defects. Therefore her developmental amelioration is less expressed compared to classical Down syndrome. Conclusions: Developmental follow up of a girl with partial trisomy 21 reveals a lot of similarities with the development of children with classical trisomy 21, but less expressed: facial gestalt, short statue, hypotonia and intellectual disabilities. Global developmental delay in spite of developmental treatment grows more and more evidently.

  5. Chromosome 11q13.5 variant associated with childhood eczema: an effect supplementary to filaggrin mutations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Grainne M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema is a common inflammatory skin disease with multifactorial etiology. The genetic basis is incompletely understood; however, loss of function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are the most significant and widely replicated genetic risk factor reported to date. The first genome-wide association study in atopic eczema recently identified 2 novel genetic variants in association with eczema susceptibility: a single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 11q13.5 (rs7927894) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs877776) within the gene encoding hornerin on chromosome 1q21. OBJECTIVE: To test the association of these 2 novel variants with pediatric eczema and to investigate their interaction with FLG null mutations. METHODS: Case-control study to investigate the association of rs7927894, rs877776 and the 4 most prevalent FLG null mutations with moderate-severe eczema in 511 Irish pediatric cases and 1000 Irish controls. Comprehensive testing for interaction between each of the loci was also performed. RESULTS: The association between rs7927894 and atopic eczema was replicated in this population (P = .0025, chi(2) test; odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-1.49). The 4 most common FLG null variants were strongly associated with atopic eczema (P = 1.26 x 10(-50); combined odds ratio, 5.81; 95% CI, 4.51-7.49). Interestingly, the rs7927894 association was independent of the well-established FLG risk alleles and may be multiplicative in its effect. There was no significant association between rs877776 and pediatric eczema in this study. CONCLUSION: Single nucleotide polymorphism rs7927894 appears to mark a genuine eczema susceptibility locus that will require further elucidation through fine mapping and functional analysis.

  6. DFNB79: reincarnation of a nonsyndromic deafness locus on chromosome 9q34.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahid Yar; Riazuddin, Saima; Shahzad, Mohsin; Ahmed, Nazir; Zafar, Ahmad Usman; Rehman, Atteeq Ur; Morell, Robert J; Griffith, Andrew J; Ahmed, Zubair M; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Friedman, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analysis of an inbred Pakistani family PKDF280, segregating prelingual severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss, provided evidence for a DFNB locus on human chromosome 9q34.3. Co-segregation of the deafness trait with marker D9SH159 was determined by a two-point linkage analysis (LOD score 9.43 at theta=0). Two additional large families, PKDF517 and PKDF741, co-segregate recessive deafness with markers linked to the same interval. Haplotype analyses of these three families refined the interval to 3.84 Mb defined by D9S1818 (centromeric) and D9SH6 (telomeric). This interval overlaps with the previously reported DFNB33 locus whose chromosomal map position has been recently revised and assigned to a new position on chromosome 10p11.23-q21.1. The nonsyndromic deafness locus on chromosome 9q segregating in family PKDF280 was designated DFNB79. We are currently screening the 113 candidate DFNB79 genes for mutations and have excluded CACNA1B, EDF1, PTGDS, EHMT1, QSOX2, NOTCH1, MIR126 and MIR602.

  7. Common variation at 3q26.2, 6p21.33, 17p11.2 and 22q13.1 influences multiple myeloma risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Peter; Chen, Bowang; Johnson, David C; Försti, Asta; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Migliorini, Gabriele; Dobbins, Sara E; Holroyd, Amy; Hose, Dirk; Walker, Brian A; Davies, Faith E; Gregory, Walter A; Jackson, Graham H; Irving, Julie A; Pratt, Guy; Fegan, Chris; Fenton, James AL; Neben, Kai; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Eisele, Lewin; Ross, Fiona M; Straka, Christian; Einsele, Hermann; Langer, Christian; Dörner, Elisabeth; Allan, James M; Jauch, Anna; Morgan, Gareth J; Hemminki, Kari; Houlston, Richard S; Goldschmidt, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    To identify variants for multiple myeloma risk, we conducted a genome-wide association study with validation in additional series totaling 4,692 cases and 10,990 controls. We identified four risk loci at 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P=8.70x10-14), 6p21.33 (rs2285803, PSORS1C2; P= 9.67x10-11), 17p11.2 (rs4273077, TNFRSF13B; P=7.67x10-9) and 22q13.1 (rs877529, CBX7; P=7.63x10-16). These data provide further evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B-cell hematological malignancy and insight into the biological basis of predisposition. PMID:23955597

  8. Clinical and molecular description of a 17q21.33 microduplication in a girl with severe kyphoscoliosis and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Stéphan; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Eymard-Pierre, Eléonore; Gay-Bellile, Mathilde; Gouas, Laetitia; Goumy, Carole; Tchirkov, Andreï; Francannet, Christine; Vago, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    High proportion of disease-associated copy number variant maps to chromosome 17. Genomic studies have provided an insight into its complex genomic structure such as relative abundance of segmental duplication and intercepted repetitive elements. 17q21.31, 17q11.2 and 17q12 loci are well known on this chromosome and are associated with microdeletion and microduplication syndrome. No syndrome associated with 17q21.33 locus have been described. We report clinical, cytogenetic and molecular investigations of a 13 years-old girl admitted for evaluation of microcephaly, scoliosis, skeletal defects and learning difficulties. We carried out detailed analysis of the clinical phenotype of this patient and investigated the genetic basis using Agilent 180K Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. We identified a ∼0.9 Mb de novo microduplication on chromosome 17q21.33. Four genes, COL1A1, SGCA, PPP1R9B and CHAD located within the duplicated region are possible candidates for clinical features present in our patients. Gene expression studies by real-time RT-PCR assay only showed an overexpression of SGCA (P < 0.01), a component of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. Defect of SGCA was previously shown to lead to severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy (LGMD2D) which result in progressive muscle weakness and can also be associated with hyperlordosis or scoliosis. Further cases with similar duplications are expected to be diagnosed. This will contribute to the delineation of this potential new microduplication syndrome and to improve genetic counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 69. Taber's Medical Dictionary Online. Chromosome. www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/753321/all/chromosome?q=Chromosome&ti=0 . Accessed June 11, 2017.

  10. 18q- and 18q+ mosaicism in a mentally retarded boy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausems, M. G.; Bhola, S. L.; Post-Blok, C. A.; Hennekam, R. C.; de France, H. F.

    1994-01-01

    A mentally retarded boy was found to have an unusual chromosomal mosaicism [46,XY, del(18) (q22)/46,XY,iso psu dic(18)(q23)]. The clinical manifestations are compatible with the 18q- syndrome. The chromosome alteration was defined by high resolution banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization

  11. Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 17 [updated 2013 Nov 21]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Wallace SE, Amemiya A, Bean LJH, Bird TD, Ledbetter N, Mefford HC, Smith RJH, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): ...

  12. Structural genomic abnormalities in autism and schizophrenia. With a focus on the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstman, J.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is centered around one question: What can we learn from the study of psychiatric phenotypes related to structural genomic abnormalities? In this thesis this subject is examined, with most studies focused on the clinical and genetic aspects of the 22q11.2

  13. Quantitative trait loci at the 11q23.3 chromosomal region related to dyslipidemia in the population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranavchand, Rayabarapu; Reddy, Battini Mohan

    2017-06-13

    Given the characteristic atherogenic dyslipidemia of south Indian population and crucial role of APOA1, APOC3, APOA4 and APOA5 genes clustered in 11q23.3 chromosomal region in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis, a large number of recently identified variants are to be explored for their role in regulating the serum lipid parameters among south Indians. Using fluidigm SNP genotyping platform, a prioritized set of 96 SNPs of the 11q23.3 chromosomal region were genotyped on 516 individuals from Hyderabad, India, and its vicinity and aged >45 years. The linear regression analysis of the individual lipid traits viz., TC, LDLC, HDLC, VLDL and TG with each of the 78 SNPs that confirm to HWE and with minor allele frequency > 1%, suggests 23 of those to be significantly associated (p ≤ 0.05) with at least one of these quantitative traits. Most importantly, the variant rs632153 is involved in elevating TC, LDLC, TG and VLDLs and probably playing a crucial role in the manifestation of dyslipidemia. Additionally, another three SNPs rs633389, rs2187126 and rs1263163 are found risk conferring to dyslipidemia by elevating LDLC and TC levels in the present population. Further, the ROC (receiver operating curve) analysis for the risk scores and dyslipidemia status yielded a significant area under curve (AUC) = 0.675, suggesting high discriminative power of the risk variants towards the condition. The interaction analysis suggests rs10488699-rs2187126 pair of the BUD13 gene to confer significant risk (Interaction odds ratio = 14.38, P = 7.17 × 10 5 ) towards dyslipidemia by elevating the TC levels (β = 37.13, p = 6.614 × 10 5 ). On the other hand, the interaction between variants of APOA1 gene and BUD13 and/or ZPR1 regulatory genes at this region are associated with elevated TG and VLDL. The variants at 11q23.3 chromosomal region seem to determine the quantitative lipid traits and in turn dyslipidemia in the population of Hyderabad

  14. A new resource for characterizing X-linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster: systematic coverage and subdivision of the X chromosome with nested, Y-linked duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R Kimberley; Deal, Megan E; Deal, Jennifer A; Garton, Russell D; Brown, C Adam; Ward, Megan E; Andrade, Rachel S; Spana, Eric P; Kaufman, Thomas C; Cook, Kevin R

    2010-12-01

    Interchromosomal duplications are especially important for the study of X-linked genes. Males inheriting a mutation in a vital X-linked gene cannot survive unless there is a wild-type copy of the gene duplicated elsewhere in the genome. Rescuing the lethality of an X-linked mutation with a duplication allows the mutation to be used experimentally in complementation tests and other genetic crosses and it maps the mutated gene to a defined chromosomal region. Duplications can also be used to screen for dosage-dependent enhancers and suppressors of mutant phenotypes as a way to identify genes involved in the same biological process. We describe an ongoing project in Drosophila melanogaster to generate comprehensive coverage and extensive breakpoint subdivision of the X chromosome with megabase-scale X segments borne on Y chromosomes. The in vivo method involves the creation of X inversions on attached-XY chromosomes by FLP-FRT site-specific recombination technology followed by irradiation to induce large internal X deletions. The resulting chromosomes consist of the X tip, a medial X segment placed near the tip by an inversion, and a full Y. A nested set of medial duplicated segments is derived from each inversion precursor. We have constructed a set of inversions on attached-XY chromosomes that enable us to isolate nested duplicated segments from all X regions. To date, our screens have provided a minimum of 78% X coverage with duplication breakpoints spaced a median of nine genes apart. These duplication chromosomes will be valuable resources for rescuing and mapping X-linked mutations and identifying dosage-dependent modifiers of mutant phenotypes.

  15. The inv dup (15 or idic (15 syndrome (Tetrasomy 15q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battaglia Agatino

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inv dup(15 or idic(15 syndrome displays distinctive clinical findings represented by early central hypotonia, developmental delay and intellectual disability, epilepsy, and autistic behaviour. Incidence at birth is estimated at 1 in 30,000 with a sex ratio of almost 1:1. Developmental delay and intellectual disability affect all individuals with inv dup(15 and are usually moderate to profound. Expressive language is absent or very poor and often echolalic. Comprehension is very limited and contextual. Intention to communicate is absent or very limited. The distinct behavioral disorder shown by children and adolescents has been widely described as autistic or autistic-like. Epilepsy with a wide variety of seizure types can occur in these individuals, with onset between 6 months and 9 years. Various EEG abnormalities have been described. Muscle hypotonia is observed in almost all individuals, associated, in most of them, with joint hyperextensibility and drooling. Facial dysmorphic features are absent or subtle, and major malformations are rare. Feeding difficulties are reported in the newborn period. Chromosome region 15q11q13, known for its instability, is highly susceptible to clinically relevant genomic rearrangements, such as supernumerary marker chromosomes formed by the inverted duplication of proximal chromosome 15. Inv dup(15 results in tetrasomy 15p and partial tetrasomy 15q. The large rearrangements, containing the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region (PWS/ASCR, are responsible for the inv dup(15 or idic(15 syndrome. Diagnosis is achieved by standard cytogenetics and FISH analysis, using probes both from proximal chromosome 15 and from the PWS/ASCR. Microsatellite analysis on parental DNA or methylation analysis on the proband DNA, are also needed to detect the parent-of-origin of the inv dup(15 chromosome. Array CGH has been shown to provide a powerful approach for identifying and detecting the extent of the

  16. Over-representation of specific regions of chromosome 22 in cells from human glioma correlate with resistance to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hank, Nicole C; Shapiro, Joan Rankin; Scheck, Adrienne C

    2006-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant form of brain tumor. Despite treatment including surgical resection, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation, these tumors typically recur. The recurrent tumor is often resistant to further therapy with the same agent, suggesting that the surviving cells that repopulate the tumor mass have an intrinsic genetic advantage. We previously demonstrated that cells selected for resistance to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) are near-diploid, with over-representation of part or all of chromosomes 7 and 22. While cells from untreated gliomas often have over-representation of chromosome 7, chromosome 22 is typically under-represented. We have analyzed cells from primary and recurrent tumors from the same patient before and after in vitro selection for resistance to clinically relevant doses of BCNU. Karyotypic analyses were done to demonstrate the genetic makeup of these cells, and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses have defined the region(s) of chromosome 22 retained in these BCNU-resistant cells. Karyotypic analyses demonstrated that cells selected for BCNU resistance were near-diploid with over-representation of chromosomes 7 and 22. In cells where whole copies of chromosome 22 were not identified, numerous fragments of this chromosome were retained and inserted into several marker and derivative chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses using whole chromosome paints confirmed this finding. Additional FISH analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome probes spanning the length of chromosome 22 have allowed us to map the over-represented region to 22q12.3–13.32. Cells selected for BCNU resistance either in vivo or in vitro retain sequences mapped to chromosome 22. The specific over-representation of sequences mapped to 22q12.3–13.32 suggest the presence of a DNA sequence important to BCNU survival and/or resistance located in this region of chromosome 22

  17. Regional assignment of seven loci to 12p 13. 2-pter by PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids containing the der(12) or the der(X) chromosome from a mesothelioma showing t(X; 12)(q22; p13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerssens, J.; Chaffanet, M.; Baens, M.; Matthijs, G.; Van Den Berche, H.; Cassiman, J.J.; Marynen, P. (Arthritis and Metabolic Bone Disease Research Unit, Leuven (Belgium))

    1994-03-01

    Two somatic cell hybrids containing the der(12) or the der(X) from a mesothelioma with a translocation t(X;12) (q22;p13) as the only chromosomal change were generated to characterize the region of 12p12 containing the translocation breakpoint. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed the breakpoint on chromosome 12 to occur between VWF and D12S158. On the linkage map developed by J. Weissenbach et al., the breakpoints were located between DXS1106 and DCS1001 on chromosome X. PCR analysis based on genomic sequences, with DNA from both somatic cell hybrids, enabled mapping of CACNL1A1, FGF6, D12S370, D12S38OE, D12S381E, and D12S382E distally to the 12p13 breakpoint and to VWF. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Genomic imbalances in syndromic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molck, Miriam Coelho; Simioni, Milena; Paiva Vieira, Társis; Sgardioli, Ilária Cristina; Paoli Monteiro, Fabíola; Souza, Josiane; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina; Félix, Têmis Maria; Lopes Monlléo, Isabella; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera Lúcia

    To identify pathogenic genomic imbalances in patients presenting congenital heart disease (CHD) with extra cardiac anomalies and exclusion of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS). 78 patients negative for the 22q11.2 deletion, previously screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA) were tested by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). Clinically significant copy number variations (CNVs ≥300kb) were identified in 10% (8/78) of cases. In addition, potentially relevant CNVs were detected in two cases (993kb duplication in 15q21.1 and 706kb duplication in 2p22.3). Genes inside the CNV regions found in this study, such as IRX4, BMPR1A, SORBS2, ID2, ROCK2, E2F6, GATA4, SOX7, SEMAD6D, FBN1, and LTPB1 are known to participate in cardiac development and could be candidate genes for CHD. These data showed that patients presenting CHD with extra cardiac anomalies and exclusion of 22q11.2 DS should be investigated by CMA. The present study emphasizes the possible role of CNVs in CHD. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. A de novo 1.38 Mb duplication of 1q31.1 in a boy with hemifacial microsomia, anophthalmia, anotia, macrostomia, and cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-shuang; Zhu, Bao; Jiang, Hai-ou; Wu, Su-fan; Zhang, Zai-qi; Xiao, Lin; Yi, Li-lan; Zhang, Jian-xiang

    2013-04-01

    We reported a 2-year-old boy with developmental delay, mild mental retardation, and severe craniofacial malformation, including facial asymmetry with hypoplasia of the left zygoma, maxilla, and mandible, and left anophthalmia and anotia. A genome-wide screen revealed a 1.38 Mb duplication on chromosome 1q31.1, which was absent in his parents and 27 healthy controls. The duplication region contains two Refseq genes, PLA2G4A and C1orf99, which have not been reported to be implicated in craniofacial malformation. Functional studies of these genes and additional clinical analysis are necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of craniofacial malformation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Complex chromosome rearrangement in a child with microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features and mosaicism for a terminal deletion del(18(q21.32-qter investigated by FISH and array-CGH: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokotas Haris

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a 7 years and 4 months old Greek boy with mild microcephaly and dysmorphic facial features. He was a sociable child with maxillary hypoplasia, epicanthal folds, upslanting palpebral fissures with long eyelashes, and hypertelorism. His ears were prominent and dysmorphic, he had a long philtrum and a high arched palate. His weight was 17 kg (25th percentile and his height 120 cm (50th percentile. High resolution chromosome analysis identified in 50% of the cells a normal male karyotype, and in 50% of the cells one chromosome 18 showed a terminal deletion from 18q21.32. Molecular cytogenetic investigation confirmed a del(18(q21.32-qter in the one chromosome 18, but furthermore revealed the presence of a duplication in q21.2 in the other chromosome 18. The case is discussed concerning comparable previously reported cases and the possible mechanisms of formation.

  1. Molecular breakpoint cloning and gene expression studies of a novel translocation t(4;15(q27;q11.2 associated with Prader-Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slater Howard R

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prader-Willi syndrome (MIM #176270; PWS is caused by lack of the paternally-derived copies, or their expression, of multiple genes in a 4 Mb region on chromosome 15q11.2. Known mechanisms include large deletions, maternal uniparental disomy or mutations involving the imprinting center. De novo balanced reciprocal translocations in 5 reported individuals had breakpoints clustering in SNRPN intron 2 or exon 20/intron 20. To further dissect the PWS phenotype and define the minimal critical region for PWS features, we have studied a 22 year old male with a milder PWS phenotype and a de novo translocation t(4;15(q27;q11.2. Methods We used metaphase FISH to narrow the breakpoint region and molecular analyses to map the breakpoints on both chromosomes at the nucleotide level. The expression of genes on chromosome 15 on both sides of the breakpoint was determined by RT-PCR analyses. Results Pertinent clinical features include neonatal hypotonia with feeding difficulties, hypogonadism, short stature, late-onset obesity, learning difficulties, abnormal social behavior and marked tolerance to pain, as well as sticky saliva and narcolepsy. Relative macrocephaly and facial features are not typical for PWS. The translocation breakpoints were identified within SNRPN intron 17 and intron 10 of a spliced non-coding transcript in band 4q27. LINE and SINE sequences at the exchange points may have contributed to the translocation event. By RT-PCR of lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, we find that upstream SNURF/SNRPN exons and snoRNAs HBII-437 and HBII-13 are expressed, but the downstream snoRNAs PWCR1/HBII-85 and HBII-438A/B snoRNAs are not. Conclusion As part of the PWCR1/HBII-85 snoRNA cluster is highly conserved between human and mice, while no copy of HBII-438 has been found in mouse, we conclude that PWCR1/HBII-85 snoRNAs is likely to play a major role in the PWS- phenotype.

  2. Recombinant Chromosome 4 from a Familial Pericentric Inversion: Prenatal and Adulthood Wolf-Hirschhorn Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Malvestiti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 can give rise to recombinant chromosomes by duplication or deletion of 4p. We report on a familial case of Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome characterized by GTG-banding karyotypes, FISH, and array CGH analysis, caused by a recombinant chromosome 4 with terminal 4p16.3 deletion and terminal 4q35.2 duplication. This is an aneusomy due to a recombination which occurred during the meiosis of heterozygote carrier of cryptic pericentric inversion. We also describe the adulthood and prenatal phenotypes associated with the recombinant chromosome 4.

  3. An unbalanced 5;22 translocation in a patient with features of VCFS: Confirmation by FISH of loss of the DGS/VCFS critical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.J.; McGlothlin, J.C. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Lindsay, E.A. [Georgia Neurological Institute, Savannah, GA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A 14-month-old male with a history of ventricular septal defect (VSD) and cleft lip and palate (CL/P) was referred for evaluation because of growth retardation, developmental delay and hypotonia. The initial cytogenetic analysis was 45,XY,-5,-22,+der(5)t(5q:22q). Determination of breakpoints 5q35.3 and 22q11.2 were made on G-banded chromosomes with band lengths of over 550. However, with both regions being light G bands, it was difficult to tell if the break in 22 was proximal to or distal to the DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS) critical region. Since the patient had a VSD and CL/P, velocardiofacial syndrome and a deletion of the DGS/VCFS critical region was suspected. FISH analysis of the derivative chromosome was performed with a cocktail containing two probes (ONCOR), D22S75, which maps to the DGS/VCFS region in 22q11.2 and D22S39, which maps to 22q13.3 and is used as a control for the presence of chromosome 22. Three fluorescent signals were observed, two on the normal 22 and the third on the terminal end of the derivative 5 chromosome verifying the translocation of 22q to 5q. No signal was observed for D22S75 on the proximal part of the translocated segment, verifying a deletion of the DGS/VCFS region in a patient whose clinical evaluation is consistent with velocardiofacial syndrome. Experiments with additional probes are underway to determine the deletion boundaries.

  4. 'At the end of the day, it is more important that he stays happy': an interpretative phenomenological analysis of people who have a sibling with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J; Alam, S; Campbell, L E

    2017-09-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome. However, there is little research examining the effect of this multisystem disorder on the family, particularly siblings. The current study was a phenomenological exploration of sense-making in siblings of a person with 22q11.2DS. Interpretative phenomenological analysis informed a detailed and open examination of being a sibling of a person with 22q11.2DS. Using in-depth semistructured interviews, five typically developing siblings (two men, three women) of people with 22q11.2DS were individually interviewed, providing the data set for transcription and thematic analysis. The theme 'They are the priority' overarched two subordinate themes that emerged from participants' descriptions of the struggle with acceptance and finding positive meaning. Participants oscillated between conflicting feelings about their sibling with 22q11.2DS always taking centre stage. For example, they felt anger, guilt and resentment; yet, they also embraced patience, empathy and gratitude. This phenomenological study provides a foundation for future research relating to 22q11.2DS and fostering family wellbeing, particularly around acceptance and psychological growth. The siblings in this study actively withdrew from their family to allow prioritisation of their affected sibling. However, this does not mean that their needs should be overlooked. There are easily accessible resources to support siblings of individuals with disabilities, and it is important for health professionals and parents to consider these options. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The analysis of a large Danish family supports the presence of a susceptibility locus for adenoma and colorectal cancer on chromosome 11q24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Eiberg, Hans; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary colorectal cancer accounts for approximately 30 % of all colorectal cancers, but currently only 5 % of these families can be explained by highly penetrant, inherited mutations. In the remaining 25 % it is not possible to perform a gene test to identify the family members who would...... benefit from prophylactic screening. Consequently, all family members are asked to follow a screening program. The purpose of this study was to localize a new gene which causes colorectal cancer. We performed a linkage analysis using data from a SNP6.0 chip in one large family with 12 affected family...... areas on chromosome 2 and chromosome 11 with the highest possible LOD scores of 2.6. Two other studies have identified 11q24 as a candidate area for colorectal cancer susceptibility and this area is supported by our results....

  6. Identification of chromosome 7 inversion breakpoints in an autistic family narrows candidate region for autism susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Holly N; Skaar, David A; Rayner-Evans, Melissa Y; Konidari, Ioanna; Whitehead, Patrice L; Jaworski, James M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Gilbert, John R

    2009-10-01

    Chromosomal breaks and rearrangements have been observed in conjunction with autism and autistic spectrum disorders. A chromosomal inversion has been previously reported in autistic siblings, spanning the region from approximately 7q22.1 to 7q31. This family is distinguished by having multiple individuals with autism and associated disabilities. The region containing the inversion has been strongly implicated in autism by multiple linkage studies, and has been particularly associated with language defects in autism as well as in other disorders with language components. Mapping of the inversion breakpoints by FISH has localized the inversion to the region spanning approximately 99-108.75 Mb of chromosome 7. The proximal breakpoint has the potential to disrupt either the coding sequence or regulatory regions of a number of cytochrome P450 genes while the distal region falls in a relative gene desert. Copy number variant analysis of the breakpoint regions detected no duplication or deletion that could clearly be associated with disease status. Association analysis in our autism data set using single nucleotide polymorphisms located near the breakpoints showed no significant association with proximal breakpoint markers, but has identified markers near the distal breakpoint ( approximately 108-110 Mb) with significant associations to autism. The chromosomal abnormality in this family strengthens the case for an autism susceptibility gene in the chromosome 7q22-31 region and targets a candidate region for further investigation.

  7. Familial isolated clubfoot is associated with recurrent chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 microduplications containing TBX4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, David M; Aferol, Hyuliya; McCall, Kevin; Huang, Jason B; Techy, Matthew; Buchan, Jillian; Cady, Janet; Gonzales, Patrick R; Dobbs, Matthew B; Gurnett, Christina A

    2010-07-09

    Clubfoot is a common musculoskeletal birth defect for which few causative genes have been identified. To identify the genes responsible for isolated clubfoot, we screened for genomic copy-number variants with the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0. A recurrent chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 microduplication was identified in 3 of 66 probands with familial isolated clubfoot. The chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 microduplication segregated with autosomal-dominant clubfoot in all three families but with reduced penetrance. Mild short stature was common and one female had developmental hip dysplasia. Subtle skeletal abnormalities consisted of broad and shortened metatarsals and calcanei, small distal tibial epiphyses, and thickened ischia. Several skeletal features were opposite to those described in the reciprocal chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 microdeletion syndrome associated with developmental delay and cardiac and limb abnormalities. Of note, during our study, we also identified a microdeletion at the locus in a sibling pair with isolated clubfoot. The chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 region contains the T-box transcription factor TBX4, a likely target of the bicoid-related transcription factor PITX1 previously implicated in clubfoot etiology. Our result suggests that this chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 microduplication is a relatively common cause of familial isolated clubfoot and provides strong evidence linking clubfoot etiology to abnormal early limb development. Copyright 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Duplication of 7q36.3 encompassing the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) gene is associated with congenital muscular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lone Krøldrup; Kjaergaard, S; Kirchhoff, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    with muscular hypertrophy and mildly retarded psychomotor development. Array-CGH identified a small duplication of 7q36.3 including the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) gene in both the aborted foetus and the live born male sib. Neither of the parents carried the 7q36.3 duplication. The consequences of overexpression...

  9. Schizophrenia patients and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome adolescents at risk express the same deviant patterns of resting state EEG microstates: A candidate endophenotype of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralena I. Tomescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder and many of the factors contributing to its pathogenesis are poorly understood. In addition, identifying reliable neurophysiological markers would improve diagnosis and early identification of this disease. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is one major risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we show further evidence that deviant temporal dynamics of EEG microstates are a potential neurophysiological marker by showing that the resting state patterns of 22q11DS are similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. The EEG microstates are recurrent topographic distributions of the ongoing scalp potential fields with temporal stability of around 80 ms that are mapping the fast reconfiguration of resting state networks. Five minutes of high-density EEG recordings was analysed from 27 adult chronic schizophrenia patients, 27 adult controls, 30 adolescents with 22q11DS, and 28 adolescent controls. In both patient groups we found increased class C, but decreased class D presence and high transition probabilities towards the class C microstates. Moreover, these aberrant temporal dynamics in the two patient groups were also expressed by perturbations of the long-range dependency of the EEG microstates. These findings point to a deficient function of the salience and attention resting state networks in schizophrenia and 22q11DS as class C and class D microstates were previously associated with these networks, respectively. These findings elucidate similarities between individuals at risk and schizophrenia patients and support the notion that abnormal temporal patterns of EEG microstates might constitute a marker for developing schizophrenia.

  10. Wagner vitreoretinal degeneration with genetic linkage refinement on chromosome 5q13-q14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, J C; Morlé, L; Vincent, P; Alloisio, N; Bozon, M; Gonnet, C; Milazzo, S; Grange, J D; Trepsat, C; Godet, J; Plauchu, H

    1999-05-01

    It has been previously described that Wagner disease is linked to chromosome 5q13-q14. This study was carried out to describe the ophthalmological aspects and report the results of genetic linkage analysis in a large pedigree affected by Wagner disease. Fourty members of one same family agreed to be examined. Twenty patients presented vitreoretinal degeneration in both eyes without any extra-ocular abnormalities. In young patients, visual acuity was usually normal after correction of frequent mild myopia. Presenile cataracts progressed by the third decade and required removal for visual rehabilitation. The primary disorder involved an abnormal vitreous. A few avascular vitreous bands were usually the only optical feature in the mostly empty vitreous cavity. A circumferential vitreous condensation formed in contact with the retina on many spots. Less common retinal findings included retinal detachment, abnormal retinal pigmentation, progressive atrophy of the RPE simulating choroideremia and lattice degeneration. Genetic analysis revealed a highly significant linkage (lod score >5.0) between the disease and 10 markers of the chromosome 5q13-q14 region. Two recombination events allowed us to refine the linked interval to 20 cM between the D5S650 and D5S618 markers. Ophthalmological aspects of Wagner's disease appear to progress with age. Regular ophthalmological examination is important for detecting retinal abnormalities. The gene involved in Wagner's disease lies in a 20 cM interval on chromosome 5q13-q14.

  11. Replication the association of 2q32.2-q32.3 and 14q32.11 with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Mingquan; Zhang, Zhen; Tang, Huayang; Zuo, Xianbo; Meng, Xiangling; Xiong, Maoming; Zhou, Fusheng; Liang, Bo; Dai, Fen; Fang, Jun; Gao, Jinping; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Yong; Wan, Hong; Wang, Miaofeng; Chan, Shixin; Sun, Liangdan

    2015-04-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor. The morbidity and mortality of HCC tend to ascend and become a serious threat to the population health. Genetic studies of HCC have identified several susceptibility loci of HCC. In this study, we aim to replicate the association of these loci in our samples from Chinese population and further investigate the genetic interaction. We selected 16 SNPs within 1p36.22, 2q32.2-q32.3, 3p21.33, 8p12, 14q32.11 and 21q21.3 and genotyped in 507 HCC patients and 3014 controls by using Sequenom MassARRAY system. Association analyses were performed by using PLINK 1.07. We observed that the STAT4 (2q32.2-q32.3) at rs7574865 (P=1.17×10(-3), OR=0.79) and EFCAB11 (14q32.11) at rs8013403 (P=1.54×10(-3), OR=0.80) were significantly associated with HCC in this study. In 3p21.33, genetic variant rs6795737 within GLB1 was also observed with suggestive evidence (P=9.98×10(-3), OR=0.84). In the interaction analysis, the pair of associated SNPs (rs7574865 within STAT4, rs8013403 within EFCAB11) generated evidence for interaction (P=4.10×10(-3)). In summary, our work first reported the association of 14q32.11 (EFCAB11) with HCC in Chinese Han population and revealed the genetic interaction between STAT4 (2q32.2-q32.3) and EFCAB11 (14q32.11) in HCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The t(10;14)(q24;q11) of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia juxtaposes the δT-cell receptor with TCL3, a conserved and activated locus at 10q24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zutter, M.; Hockett, R.D.; Roberts, C.W.M.; McGuire, E.A.; Bloomstone, J.; Korsmeyer, S.J.; Morton, C.C.; Deaven, L.L.; Crist, W.M.; Carroll, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors cloned the t(10;14) recurrent translocation from CD3-negative T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. The breakpoint at 14q11 involved an intermediate rearrangement of the δ T-cell receptor locus, suggesting that the translocation arose at the time of antigen receptor assemblage. Translocation introduced chromosome segment 10q24 as proven by hybridization of a breakpoint-derived probe to flow-sorted chromosomes and metaphase chromosomes. Two t(10;14) breakpoints were clustered within a 600-base-pair region of 10q24 but no heptamer-spacer-nonamer motifs resembling T-cell receptor/immunoglobulin rearrangement signals were noted at the breakpoint. A locus distinct from terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase was found at 10q24. Evolutionarily conserved regions surrounding the 10q24 breakpoint were examined for transcriptional activity. A region telomeric to the 10q24 breakpoint, expected to translocate to the der(14) chromosome, recognized an abundant 2.9-kilobase RNA in a t(10;14) T-cell leukemia. This locus was not active in a variety of other normal and neoplastic T cells, arguing that it was deregulated by he introduction of the T-cell receptor. This locus is a candidate for a putative protooncogene, TCL3, involved in T-cell neoplasia

  13. Robin sequence associated with karyotypic mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, C.F.; Jastrzab, J.M.; Centu, E.S. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Robin sequence is characterized by cleft palate, hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis and respiratory difficulties. The Robin sequence may be observed as an isolated defect or as part of about 33 syndromes; however, to our knowledge, it has never been reported associated with chromosome 22 abnormalities. We examined a two-month-old black boy with a severe case of Robin sequence. Exam revealed a small child with hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis, high palate and respiratory difficulty with continuous apnea episodes resulting in cyanotic lips and nails. In order to relieve the upper airway obstruction, his tongue was attached to the lower lip. Later a tracheostomy was performed. On follow-up exam, this patient was found to have developmental delay. Cytogenetic studies of both peripheral blood and fibroblast cells showed mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities which were designated as follows: 45,XY,-22/46,XY,-22,+r(22)/46,XY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies confirmed the identity of the r(22) and showed the presence of the DiGeorge locus (D22575) but the absence of the D22539 locus which maps to 22q13.3. Reported cases of r(22) show no association with Robin sequence. However, r(22) has been associated with flat bridge of the nose, bulbous tip of the nose, epicanthus and high palate, all characteristics that we also observed in this case. These unusual cytogenetic findings may be causally related to the dysmorphology found in the patient we report.

  14. A French multicenter study of over 700 patients with 22q11 deletions diagnosed using FISH or aCGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirsier, Céline; Besseau-Ayasse, Justine; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Toutain, Jérôme; Missirian, Chantal; Le Caignec, Cédric; Bazin, Anne; de Blois, Marie Christine; Kuentz, Paul; Catty, Marie; Choiset, Agnès; Plessis, Ghislaine; Basinko, Audrey; Letard, Pascaline; Flori, Elisabeth; Jimenez, Mélanie; Valduga, Mylène; Landais, Emilie; Lallaoui, Hakima; Cartault, François; Lespinasse, James; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Callier, Patrick; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Portnoi, Marie-France; Busa, Tiffany; Receveur, Aline; Amblard, Florence; Yardin, Catherine; Harbuz, Radu; Prieur, Fabienne; Le Meur, Nathalie; Pipiras, Eva; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Vialard, François; Doco-Fenzy, Martine

    2016-06-01

    Although 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most recurrent human microdeletion syndrome associated with a highly variable phenotype, little is known about the condition's true incidence and the phenotype at diagnosis. We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of postnatally diagnosed patients recruited by members of the Association des Cytogénéticiens de Langue Française (the French-Speaking Cytogeneticists Association). Clinical and cytogenetic data on 749 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2013 were collected by 31 French cytogenetics laboratories. The most frequent reasons for referral of postnatally diagnosed cases were a congenital heart defect (CHD, 48.6%), facial dysmorphism (49.7%) and developmental delay (40.7%). Since 2007 (the year in which array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was introduced for the routine screening of patients with intellectual disability), almost all cases have been diagnosed using FISH (96.1%). Only 15 cases (all with an atypical phenotype) were diagnosed with aCGH; the deletion size ranged from 745 to 2904 kb. The deletion was inherited in 15.0% of cases and was of maternal origin in 85.5% of the latter. This is the largest yet documented cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS (the most commonly diagnosed microdeletion) from the same population. French cytogenetics laboratories diagnosed at least 108 affected patients (including fetuses) per year from among a national population of ∼66 million. As observed for prenatal diagnoses, CHDs were the most frequently detected malformation in postnatal diagnoses. The most common CHD in postnatal diagnoses was an isolated septal defect.

  15. CADM1 is a strong neuroblastoma candidate gene that maps within a 3.72 Mb critical region of loss on 11q23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, Evi; Speleman, Frank; Hoebeeck, Jasmien; De Preter, Katleen; Schramm, Alexander; Brichard, Bénédicte; De Paepe, Anne; Eggert, Angelika; Laureys, Geneviève; Vandesompele, Jo

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent loss of part of the long arm of chromosome 11 is a well established hallmark of a subtype of aggressive neuroblastomas. Despite intensive mapping efforts to localize the culprit 11q tumour suppressor gene, this search has been unsuccessful thus far as no sufficiently small critical region could be delineated for selection of candidate genes. To refine the critical region of 11q loss, the chromosome 11 status of 100 primary neuroblastoma tumours and 29 cell lines was analyzed using a BAC array containing a chromosome 11 tiling path. For the genes mapping within our refined region of loss, meta-analysis on published neuroblastoma mRNA gene expression datasets was performed for candidate gene selection. The DNA methylation status of the resulting candidate gene was determined using re-expression experiments by treatment of neuroblastoma cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and bisulphite sequencing. Two small critical regions of loss within 11q23 at chromosomal band 11q23.1-q23.2 (1.79 Mb) and 11q23.2-q23.3 (3.72 Mb) were identified. In a first step towards further selection of candidate neuroblastoma tumour suppressor genes, we performed a meta-analysis on published expression profiles of 692 neuroblastoma tumours. Integration of the resulting candidate gene list with expression data of neuroblastoma progenitor cells pinpointed CADM1 as a compelling candidate gene. Meta-analysis indicated that CADM1 expression has prognostic significance and differential expression for the gene was noted in unfavourable neuroblastoma versus normal neuroblasts. Methylation analysis provided no evidence for a two-hit mechanism in 11q deleted cell lines. Our study puts CADM1 forward as a strong candidate neuroblastoma suppressor gene. Further functional studies are warranted to elucidate the role of CADM1 in neuroblastoma development and to investigate the possibility of CADM1 haploinsufficiency in neuroblastoma

  16. Variabilidade fenotípica na síndrome do cromossomo supernumerário der(22t(11;22 (síndrome de Emanuel Phenotypical variability in supernumerary chromosome der(22t(11;22 syndrome (Emanuel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar dois pacientes com a síndrome de Emanuel (SE ou cromossomo supernumerário der(22t(11;22, secundária a translocações balanceadas familiares, apresentando fenótipos distintos. DESCRIÇÃO DE CASO: O primeiro paciente é uma menina branca de cinco anos de idade, apresentando hipotonia, atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, movimentos estereotipados, microcefalia, ptose palpebral, orelhas proeminentes, fossetas e apêndices pré-auriculares, e imperfuração anal. As avaliações adicionais identificaram hipoplasia cerebral e estenose da válvula pulmonar. Possuía história também de laringotraqueomalácia e fenda palatina. O segundo paciente é um menino branco de seis meses de idade com hipotonia, movimentos coreoatetóticos, déficit de crescimento, microcefalia, microssomia hemifacial, fenda palatina, microtia, apêndices pré-auriculares e polegares proximalmente implantados. A ecocardiografia demonstrou estenose da válvula pulmonar, comunicação interatrial e interventricular, persistência do canal arterial e da veia cava superior esquerda. A radiografia de tórax identificou uma costela cervical. O cariótipo por bandas GTG mostrou a presença, em ambos os pacientes, de um cromossomo adicional der(22t(11;22, secundário a uma translocação balanceada materna no primeiro caso e paterna no segundo caso. COMENTÁRIOS: Apesar de a primeira paciente apresentar achados frequentes da SE, o caso adicional representa a segunda descrição da literatura com um fenótipo de espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (EOAV. Assim, ambos salientam a variabilidade clínica observada na SE e a importância da avaliação cariotípica em indivíduos com fenótipo de EOAV.OBEJECTIVE: To report two patients with Emanuel syndrome (ES or supernumerary chromosome der(22t(11;22, secondary to familial balanced translocations, presenting distinct phenotypes. CASES DESCRIPTION: The first patient was a five-year-old white girl presenting

  17. Associations between social cognition, skills, and function and subclinical negative and positive symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, A; Jepsen, J M R; Schmock, H

    2016-01-01

    -related symptoms. The aims of this study were to conduct a comprehensive investigation of social impairments at three different levels (function, skill, and cognition) and their interrelationship and to determine to what degree the social impairments correlate to subclinical levels of negative and positive...... symptoms, respectively, in a young cohort of 22q11.2DS not diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: The level of social impairment was addressed using questionnaires and objective measures of social functioning (The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System), skills (Social Responsiveness Scale), and cognition....... Association between social impairment and negative and positive symptoms levels was examined in cases only. RESULTS: Subjects with 22q11.2DS were highly impaired in social function, social skills, and social cognition (p ≤ 6.2 × 10(-9)) relative to control peers and presented with more negative (p = 5.8 × 10...

  18. Chromosomal imbalances in four new uterine cervix carcinoma derived cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alfredo; Monroy, Alberto; Arana, Rosa Ma; Taja, Lucía; Vázquez, Guelaguetza; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    Uterine cervix carcinoma is the second most common female malignancy worldwide and a major health problem in Mexico, representing the primary cause of death among the Mexican female population. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of this tumor and cervical carcinoma derived cell lines are very useful models for the study of viral carcinogenesis. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) experiments have detected a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances during cervical cancer progression, indicating chromosomal regions that might contain genes that are important for cervical transformation. We performed HPV detection and CGH analysis in order to initiate the genomic characterization of four recently established cervical carcinoma derived cell lines from Mexican patients. All the cell lines were HPV18 positive. The most prevalent imbalances in the cell lines were gains in chromosomes 1q23-q32, 3q11.2-q13.1, 3q22-q26.1, 5p15.1-p11.2, this alteration present as a high copy number amplification in three of the cell lines, 7p15-p13, 7q21, 7q31, 11q21, and 12q12, and losses in 2q35-qter, 4p16, 6q26-qter, 9q34 and 19q13.2-qter. Analysis of our present findings and previously reported data suggest that gains at 1q31-q32 and 7p13-p14, as well as losses at 6q26-q27 are alterations that might be unique for HPV18 positive cases. These chromosomal regions, as well as regions with high copy number amplifications, coincide with known fragile sites and known HPV integration sites. The general pattern of chromosomal imbalances detected in the cells resembled that found in invasive cervical tumors, suggesting that the cells represent good models for the study of cervical carcinoma

  19. Candidate region for Coffin-Siris syndrome at 7q32-->34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, E M; Klump, C J; Bitts, S M; Cotter, P D; Lammer, E J

    2000-07-31

    Coffin-Siris syndrome is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, mental deficiency, coarse face, hypoplastic fifth fingers and nails, hirsutism, and initial difficulties with feeding. The etiology of this syndrome is unknown. We report on an 11-year-old girl with Coffin-Siris syndrome and a de novo, apparently balanced reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 7 and 22 [t(7;22)(q32;q11.2)]. The 7q breakpoint in our patient is very similar to the breakpoint reported in a previous case [McPherson et al., 1997: Am J Med Genet 71:430-433] with a balanced t(1;7)(q21.3;q34). Together, these patients provide evidence that the region 7q32-->34 is a candidate region for the gene responsible for Coffin-Siris syndrome.

  20. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K. [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Interchromosomal insertions. Identification of five cases and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemel, J O; Eussen, H J

    2000-11-01

    In five families with questionable chromosome rearrangements, we identified an interchromosomal insertion by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In case 1 with a dir ins (5;11)(p14;q14q24) in three generations, the mentally retarded and microcephalic proband showed a 5p14-->pter deletion. In case 2, a duplication (13)(q21.31--> q31.2) combined with a deletion (11)(q14-->q22) segregated from a reciprocal ins(11;13)(q14q122)(q21.32q31.2), causing a mixed phenotype with psychomotor retardation, caput quadratum, choanal atresia, and pes equinovarus. In case 3, a dir ins (18;5)(q21.3;p13.1p14) was associated with spontaneous abortions, in case 4, the proband with mental retardation, microcephaly, and a heart defect showed a pure trisomy of (12)(q13-->q15), which had segregated from a carrier of an ins (18;12)(p11.3;q13q15). In case 5, a duplication of (10)(q26.3-->q25.2) segregated from an inv ins(5;10)(q15;q26.3q25.2), which was passed on directly from a mother to her son,with mental retardation. In all families the elucidation of the insertional translocation (IT) considerably increased the associated genetic risks of carriers. For the review, we collected data from 81 articles on 87 IT probands on ascertainment, origin, familial transmittance, progeny, and genetic risks of IT carriers. We also discussed the recombinant chromosomes and complex rearrangements associated with ITs, and listed chromosome regions occurring solely as deletions, or solely as duplications, or as both to facilitate genotype/phenotype correlations. We conclude that ITs are rare chromosomal rearrangements with an 1:80,000 incidence, of which nearly 80% were referred because of congenital abnormalities and mental retardation. A maternal origin was seen in 59.5%, a paternal origin in 26.6%, and 13.9% were de novo. No notable difference in fertility between male and female IT carriers was noticed. Bias of ascertainment was excluded in 15 familial cases and led to an estimate of the genetic

  2. Schizophrenia with the 22q11.2 deletion and additional genetic defects: case history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosima, M; Maekawa, M; Toyota, T; Iwayama, Y; Arai, M; Ichikawa, T; Miyashita, M; Arinami, T; Itokawa, M; Yoshikawa, T

    2011-09-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion is the most prominent known genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, but its penetrance is at most approximately 50% suggesting that additional risk factors are required for disease progression. We examined a woman with schizophrenia with this deletion for such risk factors. She had high plasma pentosidine levels ('carbonyl stress') and a frameshift mutation in the responsible gene, GLO1. She also had a constant exotropia, so we examined the PHOX2B gene associated with both schizophrenia and strabismus, and detected a 5-alanine deletion. We propose that the combination of these genetic defects may have exceeded the threshold for the manifestation of schizophrenia.

  3. [Chromosome banding analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with IL2 and CpG oligonucleotide DSP30 in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stěpanovská, K; Vaňková, G; Némethová, V; Tomášiková, L; Smuhařová, P; Divíšková, E; Vallová, V; Kuglík, P; Plevová, K; Oltová, A; Doubek, M; Pospíšilová, S; Mayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations play an important role as prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These aberrations are mostly detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), as chromosomal banding analysis has been scarce due to low proliferative activity of malignant B-lymphocytes in vitro. In 2006, a new method using stimulation with IL-2 and CpG oligonucleotide DSP30 for metaphase generation in CLL was published [1]. The objective of our study was to verify the efficacy of stimulation and to evaluate if the method is suitable for routine diagnostics. In total, peripheral blood samples of 369 CLL patients were analyzed in parallel by chromosomal banding analysis and by FISH probes for 13q14, 11q22-23, CEP12 and 17p13. Out of 369 patients, 307 (83%) were successfully stimulated for metaphase generation. Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 243 (79%) out of 307 patients evaluated by chromosomal banding analysis. Other aberrations that are not included into standard FISH panel were detected in patients karyotypes, e.g. del(6q), del(14q), t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(11;14)(q13;q32) and t(18;22)(q21;q11). One hundred and three (42%) patients showed complex aberrant karyotype not detected by FISH analysis. Stimulation with IL-2 and oligonucleotide DSP30 is an efficient method how to induce proliferation of malignant B-lymphocytes and allows detection of a substantial number of chromosomal aberrations in addition to those detected by standard FISH panel. Using this method in routine diagnostics is helpful particularly in identification of patients with complex aberrant karyotype.

  4. Lack of association of genetic variation in chromosome region 15q14-22.1 with type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiishi Eiichiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome 15q14-22.1 has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D and its related traits in Japanese and other populations. The presence of T2D disease susceptibility variant(s was assessed in the 21.8 Mb region between D15S118 and D15S117 in a Japanese population using a region-wide case-control association test. Methods A two-stage association test was performed using Japanese subjects: The discovery panel (Stage 1 used 372 cases and 360 controls, while an independent replication panel (Stage 2 used 532 cases and 530 controls. A total of 1,317 evenly-spaced, common SNP markers with minor allele frequencies > 0.10 were typed for each stage. Captured genetic variation was examined in HapMap JPT SNPs, and a haplotype-based association test was performed. Results SNP2140 (rs2412747 (C/T in intron 33 of the ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 1 (UBR1 gene was selected as a landmark SNP based on repeated significant associations in Stage 1 and Stage 2. However, the marginal p value (p = 0.0043 in the allelic test, OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.07–1.48 for combined samples was weak in a single locus or haplotype-based association test. We failed to find any significant SNPs after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusion The two-stage association test did not reveal a strong association between T2D and any common variants on chromosome 15q14-22.1 in 1,794 Japanese subjects. A further association test with a larger sample size and denser SNP markers is required to confirm these observations.

  5. The idic(X)(q13) in myeloid malignancies: breakpoint clustering in segmental duplications and association with TET2 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsson, Kajsa; Haferlach, Claudia; Fonatsch, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia with an isodicentric X chromosome [idic(X)(q13)] occur in elderly women and frequently display ringed sideroblasts. Because of the rarity of idic(X)(q13), little is known about its formation, whether a fusion gene is generated, and patterns......, respectively. In total, TET2 mutations were seen in 4/11 (36%) analyzed cases, thus constituting a common secondary event in idic(X)-positive malignancies....

  6. A 725 kb deletion at 22q13.1 chromosomal region including SOX10 gene in a boy with a neurologic variant of Waardenburg syndrome type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomou, Elisavet; Manolakos, Emmanouil; Petersen, Michael; Thomaidis, Loretta; Gyftodimou, Yolanda; Orru, Sandro; Papoulidis, Ioannis

    2012-11-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare (1/40,000) autosomal dominant disorder resulting from melanocyte defects, with varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and inner ear. WS is classified into four clinical subtypes (WS1-S4). Six genes have been identified to be associated with the different subtypes of WS, among which SOX10, which is localized within the region 22q13.1. Lately it has been suggested that whole SOX10 gene deletions can be encountered when testing for WS. In this study we report a case of a 13-year-old boy with a unique de novo 725 kb deletion within the 22q13.1 chromosomal region, including the SOX10 gene and presenting clinical features of a neurologic variant of WS2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical Magnitude Processing Impairments in Genetic Syndromes: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison of Turner and 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Wel, Anke; Swillen, Ann; De Smedt, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Cross-syndrome comparisons offer an important window onto understanding heterogeneity in mathematical learning disabilities or dyscalculia. The present study therefore investigated symbolic numerical magnitude processing in two genetic syndromes that are both characterized by mathematical learning disabilities: Turner syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion…

  8. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  9. Inheritance of a Ring Chromosome 21 in a Couple Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaschi, Roberto L. P.; Love, Donald R.; Hayes, Ian; George, Alice

    2011-01-01

    An amniotic fluid sample from an in vitro fertilized pregnancy was referred for cytogenetic analysis based on a Down syndrome screening risk of 1 : 21. Routine cytogenetic analysis showed a nonmosaic karyotype of 46,XX,r(21)(p11.2q22.3), with partial monosomy for chromosome 21 due to a ring chromosome replacing one of the normal homologues. Detailed ultrasound scanning for the remainder of the pregnancy did not reveal any unusual findings. Parental bloods showed that the mother was mosaic for the ring 21 with a karyotype of 46,XX,r(21)(p11.2q22.3)/46,XX and the father had an unrelated Robertsonian translocation, with a karyotype of 45,XY,rob(13;14)(q10;q10). Microarray analysis of cultured amniocytes determined the extent of the deletion of chromosome 21 material in the ring. The parents were given genetic counselling, and a phenotypically normal female baby was delivered at term. This case highlights the importance of karyotyping as an initial step in the management of couples referred for in vitro fertilization. PMID:23074672

  10. The effect of visual arrangement on visuospatial short-term memory: Insights from children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Rousselle, Laurence

    2018-04-11

    Recent models of visuospatial (VSSP) short-term memory postulate the existence of two dissociable mechanisms depending on whether VSSP information is presented simultaneously or sequentially. However, they do not specify to what extent VSSP short-term memory is under the influence of general VSSP processing. This issue was examined in people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, a genetic condition involving a VSSP deficit. The configuration of VSSP information was manipulated (structured vs. unstructured) to explore the impact of arrangement on VSSP short-term memory. Two presentation modes were used to see whether the VSSP arrangement has the same impact on simultaneous and sequential short-term memory. Compared to children matched on chronological age, children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome showed impaired performance only for structured arrangement, regardless of the presentation mode, suggesting an influence of VSSP processing on VSSP short-term memory abilities. A revised cognitive architecture for a model of VSSP short-term memory is proposed.

  11. Association of HLA Class I and Class II genes with bcr-abl transcripts in leukemia patients with t(9;22) (q34;q11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundhada, Shailendra; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Cano, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    Based on the site of breakpoint in t(9;22) (q34;q11), bcr-abl fusion in leukemia patients is associated with different types of transcript proteins. In this study we have seen the association of HLA genes with different types of bcr-abl transcripts. The association could predict the bcr-abl peptide presentation by particular HLA molecules. The study included a total of 189 patients of mixed ethnicity with chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia who were being considered for bone marrow transplantation. Typing of bcr-abl transcripts was done by reverse transcriptase PCR method. HLA typing was performed by molecular methods. The bcr-abl and HLA association was studied by calculating the relative risks and chi-square test. Significant negative associations (p < 0.05) were observed with HLA-A*02 (b2a2, e1a2), -A*68 (b2a2, b3a2, e1a2), -B*14 (b2a2, b3a2, e1a2), -B*15 (b2a2, b3a2), -B*40 (b2a2), -DQB1*0303 (b2a2, b3a2), -DQB1*0603 (b2a2), -DRB1*0401 (e1a2), -DRB1*0701 (b3a2), and -DRB1*1101 (b2a2). The negative associations of a particular bcr-abl transcript with specific HLA alleles suggests that these alleles play a critical role in presenting peptides derived from the chimeric proteins and eliciting a successful T-cell cytotoxic response. Knowledge of differential associations between HLA phenotypes and bcr-abl fusion transcript types would help in developing better strategies for immunization with the bcr-abl peptides against t(9;22) (q34;q11)-positive leukemia

  12. Identification of a Cryptic Insertion ins(11;X)(q23;q28q12) Resulting in a KMT2A-FLNA Fusion in a 13-Month-Old Child with Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentes, Jana; Thomay, Kathrin; Schneider, Dominik T; Bernbeck, Benedikt; Reinhardt, Dirk; Marschalek, Rolf; Meyer, Claus; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Göhring, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    In pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chromosomal abnormalities leading to a disruption of the lysine methyltransferase 2A (KMT2A) gene in 11q23 are the most frequent rearrangements. Here, we report on the identification of a novel cryptic insertion, ins(11;X)(q23;q28q12), resulting in a translocation of the KMT2A gene in 11q23, leading to a KMT2A-FLNA fusion in a 13-month-old boy with de novo acute myelomonocytic leukemia, who died 38 days after diagnosis. The patient presented a complex karyotype 48∼49,Y,del(X)(q12),+del(X)(q12),+8,ins(11;X)(q23; q28q12),+19. The identified fusion gene was predicted to be out-of-frame (fusion of portions of KMT2A exon 11 with FLNA exon 11). However, RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that a potentially functional transcript was generated by alternative splicing where KMT2A exon 10 was spliced in-frame to the truncated FLNA exon 11. This case report helps to better understand the rare but potentially severe impact of KMT2A- FLNA fusions in infants with AML to improve prognostic stratification of therapy and clinical management. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs and/or possible