WorldWideScience

Sample records for chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels

  1. Thermophysical Properties of a Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Steel in the Solid and Liquid Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilthan, B.; Reschab, H.; Tanzer, R.; Schützenhöfer, W.; Pottlacher, Gernot

    2008-02-01

    Numerical simulation of vacuum arc re-melting, pressurized or protective electro-slag re-melting, and ingot casting have become quite important in the metal industry. However, a major drawback of these simulation techniques is the lack of accurate thermophysical properties for temperatures above 1,500 K. Heat capacity, heat of fusion, density, and thermal conductivity are important input parameters for the heat transfer equation. Since, direct measurements of thermal conductivity of alloys in the liquid state are almost impossible, its estimation from electrical conductivity using the Wiedemann Franz law is very useful. The afore-mentioned thermophysical properties of several steels are investigated within the context of an ongoing project. Here, we present a full set of thermophysical data for the chromium nickel molybdenum steel meeting the standard DIN 1.4435 (X2CrNiMo18-14-3); these values will be used by our partner to simulate various re-melting and solidification processes. Wire-shaped samples of the steel are resistively volume-heated, as part of a fast capacitor discharge circuit. Time-resolved measurements with sub-μs resolution of current through the specimen are performed with a Pearson probe. The voltage drop across the specimen is measured with knife-edge contacts and ohmic voltage dividers, the temperature of the sample with a pyrometer, and the volumetric expansion of the wire with a fast acting CCD camera. These measurements enable the heat of fusion, the heat capacity, and the electrical resistivity to be determined as a function of temperature in the solid and liquid phases. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are estimated via the Wiedemann Franz law.

  2. Effect of welding thermal cycle and hydrogen concentration on the tendency of chromium-nickel-molybdenum-vanadium steels to brittle failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of welding thermal cycle and hydrogen concentration in metals on the tendency of Cr-Ni-Mo-V steels (15Kh2NMFA, 25KhN3MFA, 35KhN3MFA, 10GN2MFA) to cold cracking are investigated. The samples have been subjected to heat treatment simulating arc and electroslag welding cycles, than the fatigue crack has been formed and fracture toughness in various areas of heat affected zone has been studied. Stress intensity factors after welding thermal cycle as well as the effect of carbon content on the stress intensity factor are studied. The tendency of steels to hydrogen embrittlement is evaluated. It has been determined that cold cracks appear as a result of a slow propagation of microdefects which significantly accelerates in the presence of hydrogen

  3. Influence of nitrogen on the corrosion behaviour of solution treated and annealed austenitic 18/10 chromium-nickel and 18/12 chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into the corrosion behaviour of CrNi steels with (weight-%) 0.019-0.029 C, 18.5 Cr, 11 Ni, 0.022-0.138 N and 0.020 to 0.031 C, 17.2 Cr, 13 Ni, 2.6 Mo, 0.028 to 0.130 N by the Strauss-Test, the Strauss-Test under rigid condition and the Huey-Test. The first part of this paper is devoted in particular to the analysis of structural constituents and in particular to precipitations. In the molybdenum-free steel heat treatment results in precipitation of M23C6 and Cr2N, the precipitation of the first being independent from nitrogen content. In the case of the molybdenum-bearing steels the precipitation of M23C6 is independent from nitrogen content too but is shifted toward higher temperatures. The precipitation of Cr2N is slowed down by Mo. The precipitation of other phases (chi-, sigma- and Z-phases) is affected differently by nitrogen. (orig.)

  4. Features of phase composition of stainless austenitic steels and possibility of selection tubes of these steels in accordance with their steel grades by means of eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on mechanical, magnetic and electric characteristics of some types of chromium-nickel and chromium-nickel-molybdenum austenitic steels used for manufacturing hot-rolled tubes are carried out. A possibility of nondestructive control of stainless austenitic steel by grades is disclosed. A mock-up of an eddy device with a superposed transformer for measurements on samples of tubes is described

  5. A ferric-austenitic CrNiMoN steel alloy to be used as material to manufacture welded components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chromium-nickel-molybdenum-nitrogen steel alloy (ferritic-austenite) is used to manufacture welded articles which without thermal treatment are resistant to pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion (Monypenny-Stauss test) or boiling in 65% nitric acid with subsequent cross-breaking test. (IHOE)

  6. Corrosion cracking of high-strength structural steels at large depths in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of field tests of structural chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels of various strength capacity for their tendency to corrosion cracking in the Black sea water, containing hydrogen sulfide at high depths, are presented. Comparison with the laboratory test data is also carried out and certain peculiarities, revealed thereby, are discussed. It is shown, that hydrogen sulfide if biological origin is more aggressive as compared to the chemically obtained one. The rigidity of the hydrogen sulfide at the deep horizons of the Black sea is unprecedented in comparison with any other region of the World ocean

  7. The effect of chemical composition on the behaviour of austenitic corrosion-resistant steels in high-temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonstabilized and stabilized chromium-nickel and chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels were studied in an experimental sodium loop. Sodium volume in the loop was ca. 6 l, sodium circulation rate was 0.1 m/s at the temperature gradient ΔT=100 degC. Steel samples were in the shape of slabs 60x12x1 mm in dimension. Prior to exposure, the samples were ground with metallographic paper, gradually of finer grits, cleaned in diluted ammonia, degreased and weighed. After the 1000-hour exposure the samples were removed under the argon atmosphere, cleaned, dried, and weighed. The chemical composition of steels is tabulated. The effect of chemical composition was shown on the corrosion behaviour of austenitic corrosion resistant steels in high-temperature sodium at convection flow. The obtained results indicate the action of carbon, molybdenum and the stabilizer (Ti). For chromium-nickel nonstabilized steels the possibility was shown of interpreting the weight changes using the carbon transfer analysis. In other materials the observed weight changes were interpreted using the concept of competition behaviour of alphagenous and gammagenous elements during the change in alloy elements diffusion in sodium. It was also shown that after high-temperature exposure in either the sodium or the argon atmosphere the mechanical properties of austenitic steels mainly depended on the process of the carbon exchange of these materials with sodium. (J.B.)

  8. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composition of age hardening steel, % : Fe - (12.0-12.4) Cr - (2-2.7) Ni (0.5-0.6) Ti - (1.0-1.2) Mn - (0.03 - 0.04) C having high values of magnetoelastic internal friction and mechanical properties as well as an ability to operate under the conditions of alternating loadings are proposed. Damping properties of the steel permit to improve labour conditions. Data for the above steel on internal friction, impact strength and tensile properties are given

  9. Biomaterials and Implants in Cardiac and Vascular Surgery - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisławska A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, on prosthesis in cardiac blood vessels and heart valves are used materials of animal or synthetic origin. For animal materials include, among others pericardial sac in which is the heart. Materials such as this (natural are characterized by a remarkable biocompatibility within the human body, but their main disadvantage is the relatively low durability. In turn, synthetic materials, which include the austenitic chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels, alloys with a shape memory (nickel-titanium, or polymeric materials, such as lactic acid, are characterized by high stability in an environment of bodily fluids, wherein the insufficiently high biocompatibility with the organism human requires from patients using after implantation, anticoagulants which prevent anti-platelet deposition on the surface of the prosthesis. The present work is a review of biomaterials using in implantology and implants using in cardiac and vascular surgery.

  10. Steel Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China releases a new plan for the iron and steel industry centered on industrial upgrades The new 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) for China’s iron and steel industry, recently released on the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information

  11. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  12. Alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and properties are listed of alloyed steel for use in the manufacture of steam generators, collectors, spacers, emergency tanks, and other components of nuclear power plants. The steel consists of 0.08 to 0.11% w.w. C, 0.6 to 1.4% w.w. Mn, 0.35 to 0.6% w.w. Mo, 0.02 to 0.07% w.w. Al, 0.17 to 0.37% w.w. Si, 1.7 to 2.7% w.w. Ni, 0.03 to 0.07% w.w. V, 0.005 to 0.012% w.w. N, and the rest is Fe. The said steel showed a sufficiently low transition temperature between brittle and tough structures, a greater depth of hardenability, and better weldability than similar steels. (B.S.)

  13. Steel welding.

    OpenAIRE

    Kučera, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Topic of the thesis concerns the problem of steel welding. The aim was to give acomprehensive overview on the topic, describe the known methods, advantages and disadvantages of welding technology. The introductory part is focused on introducing the basics of the process required to produce high-quality connections. Chapter three offers an overview of known and used welding methods with thein brief description of the method. The next chapter describes steel as material suitable for welding....

  14. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Even in our globalized world the notion of national economies remain incredibly strong, just as a considerable part of the literature on transnational governance and globalization continue to rely on a zero-sum perspective concerning the relationship between the national and the transnational. De...... of the European steel industry....

  15. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wadsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Reactor construction steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic functions of light water reactor components are shown on the example of a pressurized water reactor and the requirements resulting therefrom for steel, the basic structural material, are derived. A detailed analysis of three main groups of reactor steels is presented and the applications are indicated of low-alloyed steels, high-alloyed austenitic steels, and steels with a high content of Ni and of alloying additions for steam generator pipes. An outline is given of prospective fast breeder reactor steels. (J.K.)

  17. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  18. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials

  19. Nitrogen-alloyed martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is presented on initial results with pressure-nitrided martensitic steels. In heat-resistant steels, thermal stability and toughness are raised by nitrogen. In cold work steel, there is a more favourable corrosion behaviour. (orig./MM)

  20. Manganese in sintered steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the review of papers the results of the investigations of sintered manganese steels are presented. The effect of additional alloying elements such as copper, molybdenum and silicon on dimensional changes, density, tensile strength, hardness and elongation of such steels are also reported. (author)

  1. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China's Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Tiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry, environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China' s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China' s steel industry.

  2. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  3. BORONIZING OF STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzum ULUKÖY

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Boride layer has many advantages in comparison with traditional hardening methods. The boride layer has high hardening value and keeps it's hardeness at high temperatures, and it also shows favorible properties, such as the resistance to wear, oxidation and corrosion. The process can be applied at variety of materials, for instance steel, cast iron, cast steel, nickel and cobalt alloys and cermets. In this rewiew, boronizing process properties, boride layer on steel surfaces and specifications and the factors that effect boride layer are examined

  4. Glass Stronger than Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  5. Life after Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  6. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  7. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  8. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels

  9. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  10. Fatigue damage of steel components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster, Søren; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu;

    2014-01-01

    Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials......Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials...

  11. A-3 steel work completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  12. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  13. High-purity steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference heard a total of 32 papers of which 8 were inputted in INIS. These papers are centred on certain topical problems related to the manufacture of high purity steels, on impurities in steels, the effect of the radiation environment on steels made by different melting methods, argon protection against reoxidation during casting, the effects of secondary metallurgy on the properties of stainless austenitic steel, the properties of electroslag remelted steel, the metallurgic quality of the central part of ingots weighing 135 tons, and the chemical heterogeneity of ingots and castings. (J.C.)

  14. On choice of tempered steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of developing a graphical method for choosing structural steels, a change in the propagation work of a crack and in the critical temperature of brittleness of 40, 40Kh, 40KhN, and 40KhNM steels, was examined depending on the hardness after hardening and tempering. A diagram enabling to choose the grade of steel for making an article of known dimensions according to the preset values of its mechanical properties has been plotted. The developed selection scheme takes into account the hardenability of steels and the influence of the hardness after thermal treatment on the cold-shortness of steel

  15. Thermomechanical treatment of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermomechanical treatment is defined as a process in which a forming operation is carried out in the course of a treatment in order to improve the mechanical properties of a material. Several thermomechanical processes for the treatment of steel are described. (WBU)

  16. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  17. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  18. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress

  19. Reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use

  20. Steels and welding nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ENEA Data-Base regards mechanical properties, chemical composition and heat treatments of nuclear pressure vessel materials: type A533-B, A302-B, A508 steel plates and forgings, submerged arc welds and HAZ before and after nuclear irradiation. Irradiation experiments were generally performed in high flux material test reactors. Data were collected from international available literature about water nuclear reactors pressure vessel materials embrittlement

  1. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  2. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  3. Stainless Steel Permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenauer, Dean A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Karnesky, Richard A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  4. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL USING STEEL SLAG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Z. Lan; S. Zhang; J.K. Wang; R. W. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Steel slag is a byproduct produced in large amounts in the steel-making process. It is an important resource that can be effectively utilized. An experiment was described in which steel slag was tested as an adsorbent for the removal of phosphorus from waste water. Phosphorus removal depended on the amount of steel slag added, the pH value, the contact time, and the initial concentration. Under laboratory conditions when the added slag was 7.5g/L, the contact time 2h, and the pH value was equivalent to 6.5, over 99% of the phosphorus was removed; the experimental data on steel slag adsorption of phosphorus in the water fitted the Freundlich isotherm model. Steel slag was found to be very effective in adsorbing phosphorus.

  5. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Stradomski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  6. Fatique behaviour of electrical steel

    OpenAIRE

    Bode B.; Zeismann F.; Brückner-Foit A.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical steel comes into focus with the development of electrically powered cars. In contrast to electrical motors used stationarily (e.g. conveyer belt drives in industrial applications), electrical steel in a car engine is subjected to cyclic loading due to vibrations caused by the imbalance of the rotor and start and stop driving events. For a safe and reliable design of an electrical motor the fatigue behaviour of electrical steel needs to be analysed. To minimize eddy current losses, ...

  7. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP steels, highlighting the importance of microstructure - mechanical properties - applications relationships. In Chapter 2 the material properties and material processing are described into more detai...

  8. Synthesis of thermit noncorrodible steels

    OpenAIRE

    Жигуц, Юрій Юрійович

    2013-01-01

    The present paper the basic solutions to the problem of obtaining cavitation-resistant steels examined the use of thermite steels, the benefits of combining thermite steels with metallotermic methods of getting is showed. The advantages of metallotermic synthesis methods include: autonomy of processes, independence of energy sources, simplicity of equipment, high-performance process and easy transition from experimental research to industrial production. The need to developed the technology o...

  9. Strip casting of stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, D.

    1997-01-01

    FLAT PRODUCTS OF STAINLESS STEELS ARE CONVENTIONALLY MANUFACTURED BY CONTINUOUS CASTING, HOT ROLLING, HOT BAND ANNEALING, PICKLING, COLD ROLLING AND RECRYSTALLISATION. IN THE LAST YEARS STRIP CASTING HAS INCREASINGLY ATTRACTED ATTENTION. IT OFFERS THREE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMPARISON TO THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD.1.) IT ALLOWS TO CAST STEEL SHEETS WITH THE SAME THICKNESS AND WIDTH AS THOSE PRODUCED BY HOT ROLLING. THIS MEANS THAT THE HOT ROLLING PROCESSIS BYPASSED. 2.) THE STRIP CAST STEEL REVEALS A...

  10. Output Model of Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long-qiang; TIAN Nai-yuan; ZHANG Jin; XU An-jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the requirement of compactivity, continuity, and high efficiency, and taking full advantage of cushion capability of flexible parts such as external refining in new generation steel plant, an output model of steel plant was established in terms of matching between BOF and caster. Using this model, the BOF nominal capacity is selected, the caster output and equipment amount are computed, and then the steel plant output is computed.

  11. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.;

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  12. Steels for nuclear power. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles are listed of nuclear reactor operation and the reactors are classified by neutron energy, fuel and moderator designs, purpose and type of moderator. The trend and the development of light-water reactor applications are described. The fundamental operating parameters of the WWER type reactors are indicated. The effect is discussed of neutron radiation on reactor structural materials. The characteristics are described of steel corrosion due to the contact of the steel with steam or sodium in the primary coolant circuit. The reasons for stress corrosion are given and the effects of radiation on corrosion are listed. The requirements and criteria are given for the choice of low-alloy steel for the manufacture of pressure vessels, volume compensators, steam generators, cooling conduits and containment. A survey is given of most frequently used steels for pressure vessels and of the mechanical and structural properties thereof. The basic requirements for the properties of steel used in the primary coolant circuit are as follows: sufficient strength in operating temperature, toughness, good weldability, resistance to corrosion and low brittleness following neutron irradiation. The materials are listed used for the components of light-water and breeder reactors. The production of corrosion-resistant steels is discussed with a view to raw materials, technology, steel-making processes, melting processes, induction furnace steel-making, and to selected special problems of the chemical composition of steels. The effects are mainly discussed of lead, bismuth and tin as well as of some other elements on hot working of high-alloy steels and on their structure. The problems of corrosion-resistant steel welding and of pressure vessel cladding are summed up. Also discussed is the question of the concept and safeguards of the safety of nuclear installation operation and a list is presented of most commonly used nondestructive materials testing methods. The current

  13. Niobium in rail steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening capacity of niobium in high carbon steels is governed by the carbon content, soaking conditions prior to rolling and the finish rolling temperature. Yield and tensile strengths may be increased by up to 70-100 MPa (10-15 k.s.i.) in C-Mn-Cr rails with niobium additions of about 0.03 percent. The strengthening mechanism appears to be precipitation hardening of niobium carbonitride in the pro-eutectoid ferrite and ferrite lamellae in pearlite. In addition, ductility improvements may be effected through the austenite grain refining action of niobium in hot rolling leading to a reduction in pearlite colony size

  14. Steel designers' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenc, Branko; Tinyou, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The Revised 7th Edition of Steel Designers' Handbook is an invaluable tool for all practising structural, civil and mechanical engineers as well as engineering students at university and TAFE in Australia and New Zealand. It has been prepared in response to changes in the design Standard AS 4100, the structural Design Actions Standards, AS /ANZ 1170, other processing Standards such as welding and coatings, updated research as well as feedback from users. This edition is based on Australian Standard (AS) 4100: 1998 and subsequent amendments. The worked numerical examples in the book have been e

  15. The industrial ecology of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  16. Stainless steels low temperature nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen ions implantation of 316L stainless steel leads to monophasic diffusion layers, which are constituted of a solid solution (γN) fcc, metastable, nitrogen sur-saturated, and without order. This article shows that for 316L stainless steels,these layers improve the tribological properties without degradation of the corrosion resistance. (A.B.). 13 refs. 6 figs

  17. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP s

  18. Steel structures for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide presents requirements on the design and manufacturing of steel structures for nuclear facilities as well as on documents to be submitted to Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). Inspection of steel structures during plant construction and operation is also described

  19. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  20. Dual phase bainitic linepipe steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, D.; Yakubtsov, I.; Zhang, R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Poruks, P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Turi, T. [Stelco Lake Erie, Nanticoke, ON (Canada); Emadi, D.; Essadiqi, E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2005-07-01

    Over the past 50 years, the strength of commercial linepipe steel has increased at a steady rate of about 70 MPa per decade due to advances in steelmaking, plate processing and microstructural design. API X100 grade steel, which has a yield strength of 690 MPa, is currently available, and X120 steels are under development. The microstructure of linepipe steels has evolved from predominantly polygonal ferrite to fine bainite. For the X120 steels, lower bainite-, tempered lath martensite- and dual phase microstructures are being examined. This study obtained the microstructures of ultrafine bainite with dispersed particles of the carbon-rich martensite-austenite (M-A) phase. The objective was to obtain a matrix of mostly intragranularly-nucleated bainitic ferrite containing a high volume fraction of dispersed M-A particles. The mechanical properties of bainitic linepipe steels were also examined. Basic studies of phase transformations and mechanical properties in these steels established significant relationships between processing schedule and the evolution of microstructure, and between final microstructure and mechanical properties. The optimal combination of strength and toughness properties was obtained with a microstructure consisting of a matrix of intragranularly-nucleated bainite and small dispersed particles of martensite. This microstructure was described as being a dual phase acicular ferrite (AF) with M-A. The window of steel composition and processing parameters which give the dual phase AF-M-A microstructure was determined in an experimental study on 15 mm thick plate. The minimum strength and toughness properties for Grade 621 (X90) linepipe steel can be achieved by either a lean steel composition with extreme processing parameters, or by a higher alloy composition with a more industrially realistic processing schedule. This study also proposed how this approach can be extended to obtain high strength linepipe grades. 15 refs., 9 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. 2169 Steel Waveform Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnish, M.; Alexander, C.; Reinhart, W.; Brown, J.

    2013-06-01

    In support of efforts to develop multiscale models of materials, we performed eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn). These experiments provided shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were used, with samples 1 to 5 mm thick. The study focused on dynamic strength determination via the release/reshock paths. Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allowed release information to be determined from these free surface samples as well. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  3. New structural high strength rationally alloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New developments in high strength structural steels are reported. Properties and perspective fields of application are described for the following materials: austenitic chromium steels with ultra equilibrium nitrogen content, steels with nitrogen martensite structure, microalloyed ferritic-pearlitic steels with decreased concentrations of Mn and Ni, high ductility heat resisting steels, nonmagnetic chromium free Mn-Ni-Cu-V-C steels and iron powder alloys with superhard carbon phases. Steel 02Kh12G14N4YuM is recommended to be used for parts and assemblies of nuclear power plants

  4. High-strength, low-alloy steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M S

    1980-05-23

    High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels have nearly the same composition as plain carbon steels. However, they are up to twice as strong and their greater load-bearing capacity allows engineering use in lighter sections. Their high strength is derived from a combination of grain refinement; precipitation strengthening due to minor additions of vanadium, niobium, or titanium; and modifications of manufacturing processes, such as controlled rolling and controlled cooling of otherwise essentially plain carbon steel. HSLA steels are less formable than lower strength steels, but dualphase steels, which evolved from HSLA steels, have ferrite-martensite microstructures and better formability than HSLA steels of similar strength. This improved formability has substantially increased the utilization potential of high-strength steels in the manufacture of complex components. This article reviews the development of HSLA and dual-phase steels and discusses the effects of variations in microstructure and chemistry on their mechanical properties. PMID:17772810

  5. Modelling fracture in ferritic steel

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G

    2002-01-01

    Results from mathematical models and computer simulations of fracture in polycrystalline steels are presented for a range of temperatures. The proportions of intergranular and intragranular failure predicted are compared with experimental results for brittle fracture, ductile fracture and in the transition region. Interactive software to create two-dimensional polycrystalline models, which allow a range of physical to be varied independently, is described. The results include those for model materials chosen to match steels used by the power generation industry. The models simulate segregation and cavitation effects in steel and fracture of weldments and their associated heat-affected zones.

  6. Stainless steel denitriding with slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation and experimental methods were used to investigate the process of titanium nitride formation when alloying chromium nickel stainless steels with titanium. At common concentrations of titanium and nitrogen, titanium nitrides were observed to be precipitated from the melt into slag in amounts of 0.1% and more. The laboratory study of the slag influence of the process of steel refining from titanium nitrides showed that the slag containing calcium, aluminium and magnesium oxides is favourable to the denitriding of steel. In addition, the possibility of direct transition of dissolved nitrogen from the metal into the slag is revealed. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Stainless steel display evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Longo, Sam J.; Trissell, Terry L.

    2007-04-01

    Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) technology is one candidate to become a low power alternative in some applications to the currently dominant, active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), technology. Furthermore, fabrication of the AMOLED on stainless steel (SS) foil rather than the traditional glass substrate, while presenting a set of severe technical challenges, opens up the potential for displays that are both lighter and less breakable. Also, transition to an SS foil substrate may enable rollable displays - large when used but small for stowage within gear already worn or carried or installed. Research has been initiated on AMOLED/SS technology and the first 320 x 240 color pixel 4-in. demonstration device has been evaluated in the AFRL Display Test and Evaluation Laboratory. Results of this evaluation are reported along with a research roadmap.

  8. JPDR vessel steel examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel which has been irradiated during normal service. This task has been included with the HSSI Program to provide just such an evaluation of material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the JPDR. The JPDR was a small BWR that began operation in 1963. It operated until 1976, accumulating ∼17,000 h of operation, of which a little over 14,000 h were with the original 45-MWTh core, and the remaining fraction, late in life, with an upgraded 90-MWTh core. The pressure vessel of the JPDR, fabricated from A 302, grade B, modified steel with an internal weld overlay cladding of 304 stainless steel, is approximately 2 m ID and 73 mm thick. It was fabricated from two shell halves joined by longitudinal seam welds located 180 degrees from each other. The rolling direction of the shell plates is parallel to the axis of the vessel. It operated at 273 degrees C and reached a maximum fluence of about 2.3 x 1018 n/cm2 (> 1 MeV). The impurity contents in the base metal are 0.10 to 0.11% Cu and 0.010 to 0.017% P with a nickel content of 0.63 to 0.65%. Impurity contents of the weld metal are 0.11 to 0.14% Cu and 0.025 to 0.039% P with a nickel content of 0.59%

  9. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe - phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  10. Some peculiarities of corrosion of wheel steel

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander SHRAMKO; Alfred KOZLOWSKY; Elena BELAJA; Yuriy PROIDAK; Pinchuk, Sofia; Gubenko, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion mechanism and rate of different chemical composition and structural condition of wheel steel were investigated. It was shown that “white layers”, variation in grain size and banding of wheel steel structure results in corrosion rate. Microstructure of steel from different elements of railway wheels after operation with corrosion was investigated. Wheel steel with addition of vanadium corroded more quickly than steel without vanadium. Non-metallic inclusions are the centre of corrosi...

  11. Effects of changes in steel industry concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Bobenič, T.; A. Bobenič Hintošová; Hliboká, L.; I. Vasková

    2015-01-01

    The paper on a basis of completed mergers and acquisitions within global steel industry presents changes in steel industry concentration and analyzes its effects on world trade with steel products and on prices of input materials as well as of output products. The analyses performed for the 1990 - 2012 period revealed that increased concentration in global steel industry did not lead to more intensive world trade with steel products; however it is connected with increase of finished products ...

  12. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connection...

  13. CHANGES IN DISTRIBUTION OF STEEL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Œlusarczyk

    2009-01-01

    Steel industry is one of the most globalized branch, globalization has had the influence on iron ore supply, steel production and distribution as well. In last years, steel products distribution process has changed significantly, because of rising competitiveness due to common world market influence and main global players actions. The paper presents changes in steel products distribution in Poland focusing on main steel producers activity in distribution as well as distributors response on n...

  14. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  15. High manganese non magnetic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-manganese, non-magnetic steel is specified, having excellent weldability and machinability and suitable for use in the structural parts of electrical equipment or nuclear fusion equipment. (author)

  16. Overlay welding irradiated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overlay technique developed for welding irradiated stainless steel may be important for repair or modification of fusion reactor materials. Helium, present due to n,α reactions, is known to cause cracking using conventional welding methods. Stainless steel impregnated with 3 to 220 appm helium by decay of tritium was used to develop a welding process that could be used for repair. The result was a gas metal arc weld overlay technique with low-heat input and low-penetration into the helium-containing material. Extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of this technique demonstrated substantial reduction of helium embrittlement damage. The overlay technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel containing 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking, although greater than for tritium charged and aged material, was minimal compared to conventional welding methods

  17. Mechanical Behaviour and Microstructural Characterization of Carbon Steel Samples from Three Selected Steel Rolling Plants

    OpenAIRE

    P. O. Atanda; Abioye, A. A.; A. O. Iyiola

    2015-01-01

    The research investigated the mechanical behavior of samples of steel rods obtained from three selected Steel Rolling Companies in South Western part of Nigeria. This was done by carrying out some mechanical tests such as tensile, impact and hardness as well as microstructural examination.Four sets of 16 mm steel rod samples were collected from Tiger steel industries, Phoenix steel and Oxil steel Industies, all located in South West Nigeria, The chemical composition was carried out using a...

  18. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  19. MMFX Microcomposite Steel (MMFX2)

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    One of the major problems facing the construction industry today is the effect of corrosion on steel, and the inherent structural weaknesses it causes in highways, bridges and buildings. MMFX 2 rebar was developed through the use of nanotechnology by Dr. Gareth Thomas, graduate school professor of materials science at Univ. of California, Berkeley. It is highly corrosion resistant and equal, or in many cases, far superior to existing conventional carbon steel in its properties of strength, en...

  20. Hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of ferritic and duplex stainless steels (SS) has been studied by charging annealed or quenched specimens with hydrogen through cathodic polarization. Cathodic charge has been found to reduce severely the ductility of these materials. Using microscopic observations (TEM and SEM and optical) attempts have been made to clarify the initial stage of microstructural changes which are induced by hydrogen charging in these steels. (author)

  1. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, M.; de la Fuente, D.; I. Díaz; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morphology of steel c...

  2. Fatigue Strength of Weathering Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Klusák, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue behaviour of Atmofix 52 steel (comparable to COR-TENâ steel) exposed to atmospheric corrosion for 20 years was investigated. S-N curves for load symmetrical cycling and cycling with stress ratio R = 0 were determined on specimens detracted from a failed transmission tower. The data were compared with those on material without a rust layer. The fracture surfaces and, in particular, the sites of fatigue crack initiation were analyzed. Substantial decrease of fatigue life and fatigue lim...

  3. Fatigue properties of weathering steel

    OpenAIRE

    Zavadilová, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the influence of atmospheric corrosion on high-cycle fatigue properties of a weathering steel ATMOFIX B. New experimental data on fatigue strength of a steel exposed for 20 years to an atmospheric corrosion were compared to those characterizing the base material. Reduction of the fatigue lifetime of the exposed material compared with the base material was predicted on the basic of fractographic examination of fracture surfaces and the influence of surface notches on fatig...

  4. Streamlining Iron and Steel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Eliminating unproductive iron and steel facilities is vital to environmental protection and sustainable development of this industry The Chinese Government is once again shutting down unproductive plants in tune with its green policy and the march toward sustainable development.This time it’s the iron and steel industry to feel the brunt of the Chinese Government’s stringent measures. The deafening buzz of factory floors have

  5. Chinese steel: limits to growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, B. [World Steel Dynamics, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (US)

    2004-07-01

    Twenty one slides/overheads outline the opinion of World Steel Dynamics (WSD) on the future of China's steel industry. Until recently WSD likened this to a Greyhound bus, experiencing massive expansion and gaining momentum. Now constraints have emerged and a new analogy is being used, of a freight train - with slower growth, from 2005-2010 of 5-7% per annum. Ten reasons are identified for this slower growth.

  6. Fatique behaviour of electrical steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical steel comes into focus with the development of electrically powered cars. In contrast to electrical motors used stationarily (e.g. conveyer belt drives in industrial applications, electrical steel in a car engine is subjected to cyclic loading due to vibrations caused by the imbalance of the rotor and start and stop driving events. For a safe and reliable design of an electrical motor the fatigue behaviour of electrical steel needs to be analysed. To minimize eddy current losses, a rotor consists of several hundred electrical steel sheets with a typical thickness of less than 1 mm. Due to optimal electrical and magnetic properties a very coarse microstructure of electrical steel is required. Only one to three grains are distributed along sheet thickness. Regarding the grain size and sheet thickness the material behaviour is governed by the reaction of single grains and grain-grain-interaction to external cyclic loading. Fatigue experiments with a load ratio of R = 0.005 and R = 0.1 were carried out. They give a very flat S-N-curve where the fatigue limit is close to the yield strength of this electrical steel. Crack initiation is observed at surface roughness and areas of stress concentration resulting from manufacturing processes.

  7. Properties of hot rolled steels for enamelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an investigation of the structure and properties of experimental produced hot rolled steels suitable for enamelling are presented in the paper. Hot rolled steels for enamelling represent a special group of the steels for conventional enamelling. Their quality has to be adapted to the method and conditions of enamelling. Therefore, these steels should meet some specific requirements. In addition to usual investigation of the chemical composition and mechanical properties, microstructure and quality of the steel surface also were investigated. The basic aim was to examine steels capability for enamelling, i. e. steels resistance to the fish scales phenomena, by trial enamelling, as well as quality of the steel - enamel contact surface, to evaluate the binding. Also, the changes of the mechanical properties, especially the yield point, during thermal treatment, as a very specific requirement, were investigated, by simplified method. Good results were obtained confirming the steels capability for enamelling. (Original)

  8. Carbon Segregation of Bearing Steel Concasting Billet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The formation mechanism of “white band” and central carbon segregation of high-carbon Cr bearing steel concasting billets are discussed in this paper. The maximum oxygen content in the steel produced by concasting process was 13x10-6 with an average oxygen content of 9.3x 10-6.Comparison of metallurgical quality and fatigue property between the concasting steel (CC) andingot casting steel (IC) showed that the carbon segregation (C/C0) in former steel was 0.92~1.10and its fatigue life was equal to that of the latter steel.

  9. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  10. Microbial corrosion of stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibars, J R; Moreno, D A; Ranninger, C

    1992-11-01

    Stainless steel, developed because of their greater resistance to corrosion in different aggressive environments, have proved to be affected, however, by various processes and types of corrosion. Some of these types of corrosion, mainly pitting, is activated and developed in the presence of microorganisms, which acting in an isolated or symbiotic way, according to their adaptation to the environment, create a favorable situation for the corrosion of these steel. The microorganisms that are involved, mainly bacteria of both the aerobic and anaerobic type, modify the environment where the stainless steel is found, creating crevices, differential aeration zones or a more aggressive environment with the presence of metabolites. In these circumstances, a local break of the passive and passivating layer is produced, which is proper to these types of steel and impedes the repassivation that is more favorable to corrosion. In the study and research of these types of microbiologically influenced corrosion are found electrochemical techniques, since corrosion is fundamentally an electrochemical process, and microbiological techniques for the identification, culture, and evaluation of the microorganisms involved in the process, as well as in the laboratory or field study of microorganism-metal pairs. Microstructural characterization studies of stainless steel have also been considered important, since it is known that the microstructure of steel can substantially modify their behavior when faced with corrosion. As for surface analysis studies, it is known that corrosion is a process that is generated on and progresses from the surface. The ways of dealing with microbiologically influenced corrosion must necessarily include biocides, which are not always usable or successful, the design of industrial equipment or components that do not favor the adherence of microorganisms, using microstructures in steel less sensitive to corrosion, or protecting the materials. PMID:1492953

  11. Kinetics of borided gear steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ibrahim Gunes

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the case properties and diffusion kinetics of GS18NiMoCr36 (GS18), GS22NiMoCr56 (GS22) and GS32NiCrMo6.4 (GS32) gear steels borided in Ekabor-II powder were investigated by conducting a series of experiments at temperatures of 1123, 1173 and 1223 K for 2, 4 and 6 h. The boride layer was characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and microVickers hardness tester. X-ray diffraction analysis of boride layers on the surface of the steels revealed the existence of FeB, Fe2B, CrB and Cr2B compounds. The thickness of the boride layer increases by increasing boriding time and temperature for all steels. The hardness of the boride compounds formed on the surface of the steels GS18, GS22 and GS32 ranged from 1624 to 1905 HV0,05, 1702 to 1948 HV0,05, and 1745 to 2034 HV0,05 respectively, whereas Vickers hardness values of the untreated steels GS18, GS22 and GS32 were 335 HV0,05, 358 HV0,05 and 411 HV0,05, respectively. The activation energies (Q) of borided steels were 228.644 kJ/mol for GS18, 280.609 kJ/mol for GS22 and 294.359 kJ/mol for GS32. The growth kinetics of the boride layers forming on the GS18, GS22 and GS32 steels and the thickness of boride layers were also investigated.

  12. Irradiation embrittlement of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the irradiation embrittlement of some ferritic stainless steels were examined by tensile tests. Steels selected in this investigation were classified into three groups: chi phase, precipitation hardened Fe-13Cr steels; tempered martensitic Fe-12Cr steels; and low alloy steels. The latter steels were chosen in order to compare the irradiation embrittlement characteristics with those of stainless steels. The stainless steels were superior to the low alloy steels with regard to the irradiation embrittlement (the changes in both ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and unstable plastic flow transition temperature (UPFTT)), irrespective of whether these stainless steels had chi phase precipitated structures or tempered martensitic structures. The suppression of the DBTT increase owing to irradiation results from low yield stress increase Δσsub(y) and high |[dσsub(y)(u)/dT]|, where u denotes unirradiated, in the stainless steels. The suppression of the UPFTT results from the high work hardening rate or the high work exponent and the low Lueders strain in the stainless steels. These characteristics of irradiation embrittlement in the ferritic stainless steels are thought to be caused by the defect structure, which is modified by Cr atoms. (author)

  13. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-01

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime. PMID:26891093

  14. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  15. Classical nitriding of heat treatable steel

    OpenAIRE

    Barrallier, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels

  16. Heat treatment of supermartensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low carbon supermartensitic 13% Cr steels with 4-6%Ni and 0-2.5%Mo additives have been developed from type AISI 420 steels for applications in the oil industry. They offer significantly better weldability, improved general corrosion resistance, particularly in carbon dioxide environments, and some grades exhibit improved resistance to sulphide stress corrosion cracking. In this paper results of detailed investigations on a 13Cr-6Ni-2,5Mo-Ti steel after quenching and double tempering are presented. Microstructural studies were carried out using optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The results prove the formation of austenite during tempering at both 690 and 620 oC is accompanied by intensive precipitation of Fe2Mo Laves phase particles. (author)

  17. Corrosion of carbon steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the factors which cause preferential attack to occur in carbon steel fusion welds. It was concluded that the main factors were: the inclusion content of the weld metal, the potential of the weld metal being less noble than that of the parent, and the presence of low-temperature transformation products in the heat-affected zone of the weld. These factors should be minimized or eliminated as appropriate so that the corrosion allowances determined for carbon steel waste drums is also adequate for the welds. An experimental/theoretical approach is recommended to evaluate the relative corrosion resistance of welds prepared from BS 4360 grade 43A steel to that of the parent material. (author)

  18. Optimum design of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  19. Effect of Geobacter sulfurreducens on the microbial corrosion of mild steel, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Mehanna, Maha; Basséguy, Régine; Délia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was tested on the anaerobic corrosion of four different steels: mild steel 1145, ferritic steel 403 and austenitic steels 304L and 316L. Within a few hours, the presence of cells induced a free potential (Eoc) ennoblement around +0.3 V on 1145 mild steel, 403 ferritic steel and 304L austenitic steels and slightly less on 316L. The kinetics of Eoc ennoblement depended on the amount of bacteria in the inoculum, but the final potential value depended ess...

  20. Microstructural Development during Welding of TRIP steels

    OpenAIRE

    Amirthalingam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are promising solutions for the production of lighter automobiles which reduce fuel consumption and increase passenger safety by improving crash-worthiness. Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel (TRIP) are part of the advanced high strength steels which offers a high strength and toughness combination with excellent uniform elongation. However, the higher alloying content of these steel limits their weldability and the thermal cycle of a welding proc...

  1. Hydrogen degradation of high-strength steels

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ćwiek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to evaluate susceptibility of high-strength steels and welded joints to hydrogen degradation and to establish applicable mechanism of their hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen delayed cracking.Design/methodology/approach: High-strength quenched and tempered steel grade S690Q and its welded joints have been used. Structural low-alloy steel 34CrAlNi7-10 with various plasma nitrided layers was evaluated. Susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of steel, welded joints, ...

  2. Coordination of internal transactions at Hoogovens Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, G. Jan van; Meer-Kooistra, Jeltje van der; Scapens, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Hoogovens Steel (HS) is a vertically integrated steel company, which until 1995 was functionally structured. During the eighties the steel market became saturated and more heterogeneous. In order to remain a flexible, market-oriented company, HS changed its organizational structure, by introducing business units responsible for their own financial results. Nevertheless, it remained a vertically integrated steel producer. With the functional structure HS had used cost-based transfer prices. Bu...

  3. Optimising steel hub location in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaradhorn Boontaveeyuwat

    2012-01-01

    The optimal location of a steel hub in Thailand was analysed by applying aspecific research methodology designed to evaluate locations near the seaports. The growth of Thailand’s steel industry has become a centre of attention in the last decade, resulting in substantial efforts to form a distribution service centre to minimise the logistic costs associated with handling large steel flows in the future. The main analysis of the steel hublocation focused on areas situated near Laem Cha Bang, M...

  4. Nonmetallic inclusions in HSLA steel weldments

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Brent A.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Navy is currently funding a program for certification of HSLA steels to replace the HY series of high strength steels for structural fabrication. Integral to this program is the certification of welding consumables for use with these steels. The size, distribution and composition of nonmetallic inclusions in HSLA steel weld metal has been shown to play a key role in the final strength and toughness of the deposited weld. Th...

  5. Boron steel. I Part. Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of the first nuclear reactors arise the need for control rods and shielding duties for some types of radiations. One of the materials used for this purpose has been the high boron steel. This paper describes the melting and casting procedures employed for the production, at laboratory scale, of steels with Boron content ranging from 1 to 4 per cent, as well as the metallographic and X-Ray techniques used for the identification of the present phases. The electrolytic technique employed for the isolation of the Fe2B phase and its subsequent X-Ray identification has proved to be satisfactory. (Author) 11 refs

  6. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  7. Methodology for RPV steels irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. The methodology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels irradiations is elaborated. Irradiation in a materials test reactor and surveillance of the state of embrittlement in 'typical' plant specific materials are considered

  8. Steeling and Resilience in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Donalyn

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incredibly strong alloy of iron and carbon. Due to its incredible strength and durability, this resilient material is commonly used for constructing buildings. The transitive verb "steeling" is defined in Miriam-Webster dictionary as "to fill with resolution or determination, as in, she 'steeled herself to face the…

  9. Susceptibility of irradiated steels to hydrogen embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, A. D.

    1968-01-01

    Investigation determined whether irradiated pressure-vessel steels 4340 and 212-B are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement and to catastrophic failure. Hydrogen-charging conditions which completely embrittled 4340 steel had negligible effect on 212-B steel in tensile and delayed-failure tests.

  10. Sulfide stress cracking of pipeline steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the sulfide stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels and their welded joints have been presented for pipeline steels. Results of hydrogen sulfide stress cracking inhibitors and corrosion inhibitors of three types protective actions on pipeline steels of two grades petroleum range of products are given. (author)

  11. Maraging steel - highest strength steels with simple heat treatment for difficult application purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture concerns the composition of the 18% NiCoMo (maraging) steels, the conversion behaviour and influence of various alloy elements, thermal treatment and its influence on the change of dimension behaviour; comparison of the thermal treatment of maraging steels with tempering steels, influence of trace elements and the way of melting on the mechanical properties, advantages and disadvantages of this group of steel, introduction of newer high-strength maraging steels, their composition and mechanical properties. (orig.)

  12. Hydrogen Effects on Austenitic Stainless Steels and High-Strength Carbon Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Todoshchenko, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement is an important factor in the development of new steel grades for a variety of applications. The thesis describes investigations on hydrogen effects on two classes of steels - austenitic stainless steels and advanced high-strength carbon steels. Hydrogen solubility and diffusion in metastable austenitic stainless steels are studied with thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). This method, together with the mathematical modeling of the processes of hy...

  13. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China′s Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUTiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry,environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China′s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China′s steel industry.

  14. Compresibility and sinterability of HCx PM steel diluted with stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Gordo Elena; Khattab Nermein Hamid; Ruiz-Navas Elisa María

    2003-01-01

    HCx powder metallurgy steel contains in its composition high contents of Cr and C, and significant quantities of alloy elements typical of tool steels (Mo, V, W), to provide the corrosion resistance of stainless steel with wear resistance of tool steels. HCx appears to be a suitable material for applications in aggressive environments, as valve seat inserts in automotive engines. However, this steel presents a low compressibility leading to high production costs. In this work, some results ca...

  15. Prediction of quenched and tempered steel and cast steel properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Smoljan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The influence of processing parameters, such as pouring temperature and cooling rate during the casting, as well as application of hot working and pre-heat treatment, on strength and toughness of quenched and tempered steel was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: Strength and toughness were presented by yield strength and Charpy-V notch toughness, respectively. Experimental procedure of material properties optimization was done using the 25-2 factor experiment.Findings: It was found out that yield strength is insensitive on differences between applied manufacturing processes, but by application of hot working and with appropriate pouring temperature the Charpy-V notch toughness is increased. Also, Charpy-V notch toughness is increased by interactive effect of the appropriate cooling rate during the casting and application of hot working.Research limitations/implications: The research was focused mainly on Charpy-V notch toughness of carbon and low alloyed heat treatable steels.Practical implications: The established algorithms can be used for prediction of tensile strength, yield strength and Charpy-V notch toughness in heat treating practice.Originality/value: Original relation for prediction of quenched and tempered steel and cast steel Charpy-V notch toughness are developed.

  16. Developments in austenitic steels containing manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two broad categories of austenitic steels are considered in this review: (a) alloys based on the Fe-Mn-C system, typified by austenitic wear resistant (Hadfield) steels and (b) alloys based on the Fe-Mn-Cr system, typified by austenitic corrosion resistant steels. Advances made in recent years in understanding and improving the relevant properties and manufacturing methods of these steels are critically appraised. The development of austenitic manganese bearing high technology steels for fusion reactor and other non-magnetic applications, as well as those that can be used in cryogenic structures, is also considered. (author)

  17. Precision machining of steel decahedrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, W. J.; Sealy, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Production of highly accurate decahedron prisms from hardened stainless steel is discussed. Prism is used to check angular alignment of mounting pads of strapdown inertial guidance system. Accuracies obtainable using recommended process and details of operation are described. Photographic illustration of production device is included.

  18. AEM ANALYSIS OF STAINLESS STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie, R.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative AEM of thin films of stainless steel is presented. The X-ray data is corrected for absorption, secondary fluorescence and detector efficiency. A new form of the fluorescence correction has been derived. A modified form of the Cliff-Lorimer equations is also presented.

  19. Ultrasonic determination of steel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the research project 'Determination of steel structures by means of ultrasound' methods are developed for the non-destructive structure characterization with scattered ultrasound. Measurements were made at about 200 steel samples with frequencies between 5 and 20 Mc/sec. In the range of 0,05 <= d/lambda <= 0,5 (d=mean grain size, lambda = wavelength of the ultrasound pulse) known theories can be applied for the quantitative grain size determination and with an accuracy of +-15% the results agree with the metallographically measured values. The best method for this is the combination of two measurements with two different frequencies. Advantages are given by the measurement of the multiple scattering which is leading to the scattering coefficient and to the grain size with one measurement only and without assumptions concerning other parameters of ultrasound propagation. A structure characterization concerning the homogeneity inside the material is possible, too, because of the time (i.e. sound path-)-dependent scattering measurement. It is able to control the structure of monophasic steels with grain sizes between ASTM 1 and ASTM 11. Today problems unsolved are the martensitic steels, the multiphasic structures

  20. Heavy section steel irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment in University of Michigan's Phoenix Ford Reactor is designed to test various materials used in reactor pressure vessel construction. Tests are preformed with specimens maintained at a constant temperature and pressure in a high neutron flux close to the reactor core. The metallurgical test specimens are sandwiched between two steel plates and that each plate contains nine independently controllable electrical heaters

  1. Fatigue Strength of Weathering Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Klusák, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 18-22. ISSN 1392-1320 Grant ostatní: GA MPO(CZ) FT/TA5/076 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fatigue of weathering steel * corrosion pits * fatigue notch factor Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2012

  2. Study on cementitious properties of steel slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The converter steel slag chemical and mineral components in China’s main steel plants have been analysed in the present paper. The electronic microscope, energy spectrum analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the main mineral compositions in the converter slag. Converter slag of different components were grounded to obtain a powder with specific surface area over 400m2/kg, making them to take place some part of the cement in the concrete as the admixture and carry out the standard tests. The results indicate that the converter slag can be used as cementitious materials for construction. Furthermore, physical mechanic and durability tests on the concrete that certain amount of cement be substituted by converter steel slag powder from different steel plants are carried out, the results show that the concrete with partial substitution of steel slag powder has the advantages of higher later period strength, better frost resistance, good wear resistance and lower hydration heat, etc. This study can be used as the technical basis for “Steel Slag Powder Used For Cement And Concrete”, “Steel Slag Portland Cement”, “Low Heat Portland Steel Slag Cement”, “Steel Slag Road Cement” in China, as well as a driving force to the works of steel slag utilization with high-value addition, circular economy, energy conservation and discharge reduction in the iron and steel industry.

  3. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

  4. Erosion behaviour of hydro turbine steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh K Chauhan; D B Goel; Satya Prakash

    2008-04-01

    The martensitic stainless steel (termed as 13/4) is currently being used for fabrication of underwater parts in hydroelectric projects. There are, however, several maintenance problems associated with the use of this steel. A nitronic steel (termed as 21–4–N) has been developed as an alternative with the specific aim of overcoming these problems. A comparative study has been made on the erosion behaviour of 13/4 and 21–4–N steels by means of solid particle impingement using gas jet. The eroded surfaces after erosion tests were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. It is observed that the 21–4–N nitronic steel possesses better resistance to erosion in comparison to 13/4 martensitic stainless steel. The austenitic matrix of the nitronic steel possesses high hardness, high tensile toughness and work hardening ability, which results in higher erosion resistance.

  5. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included

  6. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

  7. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Altaf Khalid; Vadivel Kumar; Prithviraj Jayaram

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets - titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel - using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated ca...

  8. Prediction of quenched and tempered steel and cast steel properties

    OpenAIRE

    B. Smoljan; D. Iljkić; H. Novak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of processing parameters, such as pouring temperature and cooling rate during the casting, as well as application of hot working and pre-heat treatment, on strength and toughness of quenched and tempered steel was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: Strength and toughness were presented by yield strength and Charpy-V notch toughness, respectively. Experimental procedure of material properties optimization was done using the 25-2 factor experiment.Findings: It was ...

  9. Cleanliness of Alloying Structural Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hui-xiang; WANG Xin-hua; ZHANG Jing; LI Hai-bo; WANG Wan-jun

    2011-01-01

    Alloying structural steel used for mechanical structures has a high requirement for cleanliness because its failures are greatly affected by non-metallic inclusions and total oxygen content in steel.It has been reported by some steelmaking plants to have some problems in controlling total oxygen content and inclusions during alloying structural steel production.For this purpose,cleanliness control in 0.2C-0.3Si-0.6Mn-1Cr-0.2Mo steel was investigated.Firstly,low melting temperature zone(≤1873 K) of CaO-Al2O3-MgO system and formation condition of low melting temperature inclusions were investigated through thermodynamic equilibrium calculation.On this basis,industrial tests were carried out.Through sampling at different stages,transformation of oxide inclusions and change of total oxygen content in steel were studied.The results show that:in order to form CaO-Al2O3-MgO system inclusions with low melting temperature,mass percent of Al2O3,MgO and CaO in inclusions should be controlled from 37.6% to 70.8%,0 to 17.4% and 25.5% to 60.6%;For the condition of 1873 K and 0.05%(mass percent) dissolved aluminum in steel,the activities of dissolved oxygen,magnesium and calcium should be controlled as 0.298×10-4-2×10-4,0.1×10-5-40×10-5 and 0.8×10-8-180×10-8 respectively.With secondary refining proceeding,average total oxygen content and inclusion amount decrease,the type of most inclusions changes from Al2O3 after tapping to Al2O3-MgO after top slag is formed during ladle furnace refining and finally to CaO-Al2O3-MgO after RH treatment.In the final products,average total oxygen content was 12.7×10-6 and most inclusions were in spherical shape with size less than 5 μm.

  10. Wear behaviour of plasma nitrided tool steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, M.U. [Tata Iron and Steel Co. Ltd., Jamshedpur (India). Research and Development Div.; Chakraborty, T.K. [Wire Rod Mill, Tata Iron and Steel Co. Ltd., Jamshedpur (India); Mohanty, O.N. [Research and Development Division, Tata Iron and Steel Co. Ltd., Jamshedpur (India)

    1999-09-01

    Plasma nitriding of three grades of tool steels, namely H13, D2 and a special purpose proprietary tool steel, referred to as L7', has been explored in an effort to enhance the working life of roll entry (RE) guides in wire rod rolling mill that are subjected to a complex wear mode including impact, sliding and rolling. In the case of H13 and D2 steels, plasma nitriding is found to improve the life of guide rolls by two to three times depending upon the type of tool steel. The working life of the guide rolls made from L7' steel, however, was observed to be lower after plasma nitriding due to softening of the substrate at plasma nitriding temperature. The cross-section normal to wear scar and the surface of worn-out rolls were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand the wear mechanisms. The SEM examination of worn-out surfaces revealed signatures for the adhesion, abrasion, delamination and tribochemical (oxidative) modes of wear. In the case of rolls without plasma nitriding, adhesion was one of the important causes of wear in all the tool steels. Delamination wear occurred in H13 steel and both delamination and microcutting modes of wear contributed to the overall damage in D2 steel rolls. L7' steel showed breaking of surface oxide film, indicating tribochemical wear. Plasma nitriding decreased the adhesive wear substantially. Delamination was found to be the primary mode of wear in nitrided H13 steel rolls. Abrasive wear contributed to damage in nitrided D2 steel rolls. Severe roll damage occurred in L7' steel, primarily by microcutting, due to softening during plasma nitriding. The working life of the rolls has been deliberated upon in the light of wear mechanisms observed in the different tool steels. (orig.)

  11. Mechanical Behaviour and Microstructural Characterization of Carbon Steel Samples from Three Selected Steel Rolling Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Atanda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The research investigated the mechanical behavior of samples of steel rods obtained from three selected Steel Rolling Companies in South Western part of Nigeria. This was done by carrying out some mechanical tests such as tensile, impact and hardness as well as microstructural examination.Four sets of 16 mm steel rod samples were collected from Tiger steel industries, Phoenix steel and Oxil steel Industies, all located in South West Nigeria, The chemical composition was carried out using a Spectrometer (EDX3600B. Afterwards, different samples were prepared, cut and machined according to ASTM standards dimensions of tensile and impact tests as well as hardness test from which their Ultimate tensile Strength, Yield strength, Percentage elongation, Impact strength and Brinell hardness number were obtained and compared to three standards (ASTM A706, BS 4449 and Nst 65- Mn. Their microstructures were also examined and analyzed.The results showed that the Ultimate tensile strength for the samples from Oxil steel, Phoenix Steel and Tiger steel were 661 N/(mm2 , 653 N/(mm2 and 631 N/(mm2 respectively while their hardness values were 150 BHN, 178 BHN, 214 BHN respectively. The sample from Tiger steel and Oxil Steel had the finest and most coarse microstructure respectively. In conclusion, it was observed that the results of the sample analysis from the three selected Steel Rolling Companies conformed to most of the standards except the sample from Tiger steel which had a high hardness value compared to the standard.

  12. Niobium in engineering bar steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of niobium as a microalloying addition to hot rolled and cold finished bars offers many opportunities to achieve enhanced mechanical properties in a very cost effective manner. By the addition of niobium (sometimes in combination with vanadium) to selected carbon steel grades, it is possible to produce hot rolled bars with minimum yield strengths up to 689 MPa (100 ksi) and cold finished bars with yield strengths up to 1035 MPa (150 ksi). These high-strength-low-alloy bars have a myriad of applications particularly for automotive parts such as shafts, stabilizer bars, tie rods, piston rods, fasteners such as U-bolts, brackets, and various transmission parts. Of particular value has been the specification of Nb-microalloyed steels for such hot forgings as connecting rods and caps, and weld yokes a situation which has permitted elimination of post-forging heat treatment (quenching and tempering). Significant reductions in cost and energy consumption have been realized

  13. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  14. Fatigue Strength of Weathering Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvík KUNZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue behaviour of Atmofix 52 steel (comparable to COR-TENâ steel exposed to atmospheric corrosion for 20 years was investigated. S-N curves for load symmetrical cycling and cycling with stress ratio R = 0 were determined on specimens detracted from a failed transmission tower. The data were compared with those on material without a rust layer. The fracture surfaces and, in particular, the sites of fatigue crack initiation were analyzed. Substantial decrease of fatigue life and fatigue limit due to corrosion exposition was found. Based on observation of surface layer with corrosion products and on fractographic analysis of failed specimens conclusions on fatigue damage mechanism were drawn. No grain boundary corrosion, which can be responsible for fatigue crack initiation, was observed. Initiation of fatigue cracks was related to surface roughness and took place exclusively on corrosion dimples.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1335

  15. Steel Safeguards and the Welfare of U.S. Steel Firms and Downstream Consumers of Steel: A Shareholder Wealth Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Liebman, Benjamin H.; Kasaundra M. Tomlin

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the steel safeguards implemented and subsequently removed during 2001-2003. Our results reveal that for shareholders of U.S. steel companies, safeguards generated positive “abnormal” returns of approximately 6%; and the cancellation of the safeguards resulted in wealth gains of about 5%. Steel shareholders experienced negative abnormal returns of -5% in response to the WTO ruling that the U.S. violated WTO law. The results here are consistent with the neoclassical view tha...

  16. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths (τ (app)) and slip coefficient (β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle (ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  17. Microstructural degradation of bearing steels

    OpenAIRE

    Solano Alvarez, Wilberth

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to clarify one of the most fundamental aspects of fatigue damage in bearings steels through critical experiments, in particular whether damage in the form of cracks precedes hard ?white-etching matter" formation, which is carbon supersaturated nanoscaled ferrite. Heat treatments have been designed to create four different crack types and distributions: scarce martensite plate cracks, fine grain boundary cracks, abundant martensite plate cracks, ...

  18. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  19. Metadynamic recrystallization in C steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R Morgridge

    2002-08-01

    Metadynamic recrystallization has been investigated in three plain carbon steels (ENIA, EN2 and EN24) through the use of hot interrupted compression tests on a wedge plastometer. Holding time was 0.5 s between passes. Strain rates of 0.05 and 0.12/s and small strain increments of 3, 5 and 7% were employed. Test temperatures were varied between 800 and 1100°C. Various incremental and continuous stress strain curves were highlighted at different temperatures and strain rates for 3 steels, ENIA, EN2 and EN24, resulting in varying flow stresses and strains. Highest peak stress was 180 MPa for EN24 at peak strain of 0.25 and 900°C, with a strain rate 0.12/s. Peak strain values for all steels at 1100°C was 0.133 at a strain rate of 0.05/s and 0.15 at a strain rate of 0.12/s. Strain accumulation resulted in dynamic and metadynamic recrystallization with refinement to about 15 m for dynamic and 22 m for metadynamic recrystallization. Fractional softening, , decreased from 0.27 to 0.12 as recrystallization times in metadynamic recrystallization increased from 0.9 s to 1.5 s at 1100°C. Time for 50% metadynamic recrystallization was also reduced as temperature increased. For ENIA, a drop from 10000 s to 20 s, as temperature increased from 800 to 1100 °C was observed. For EN24 and EN2 steels, a drop from 4000 s to 6 s for similar temperature rise was observed. Metadynamic recrystallization (at strains higher than critical strain) is observed to be a strong function of strain rate and a very weak function of temperature and strain. It significantly refined the austenite grain size prior to transformation.

  20. Benchmarking in Mobarakeh Steel Company

    OpenAIRE

    Sasan Ghasemi; Mohammad Nazemi; Mehran Nejati

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarking is considered as one of the most effective ways of improving performance in companies. Although benchmarking in business organizations is a relatively new concept and practice, it has rapidly gained acceptance worldwide. This paper introduces the benchmarking project conducted in Esfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company, as the first systematic benchmarking project conducted in Iran. It aims to share the process deployed for the benchmarking project in this company and illustrate how th...

  1. Nano-composite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  2. GFRP stainless steel hybrid cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an instrument to measure superconducting properties (Jc,Tc,Hc) by the magnetization method, a cryostat containing the magnet that generated an external magnetic field has been developed. To ensure thermal insulation ability and structural durability, this cryostat consists of a GFRP inner vessel and a stainless steel outer vessel. Various tests were carried out to verify the sufficient performance of this cryostat. Results are presented

  3. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Fuente, Daniel de la; Díaz Ocaña, Iván; Cano, Heidis

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morpholog...

  4. Ultra high strength in steel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Parameswaran

    1962-07-01

    Full Text Available Very high strength levels in steel, not obtained by conventional methods of hardening by quenching and low temperature tempering, are obtained by mew hardening techniques involving the thermal-mechanical treatment of metastable austenite.The earlier attempts on such hardening techniques and the development of new processes such as 'Ausforming' investigated in the Ford Motor Company Research Laboratories and ''Maraging'' developed and patented by the International Nickel Company (MondLimited, are briefly reviewed here.

  5. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  6. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  7. Fracture behavior of various welded steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, P295GH (17Mn4) pressure vessel steel and AISI 304 stainless steel were joined by using ER 309L electrodes. Welded specimens were fatigued by four point bending experiments. Cracks occurred on the stainless steel side of the weldment during the fatigue tests. Finite element (FE) analyses were conducted by fixing 2-D precracked model for welded 17Mn4 pressure vessel steel and AISI 304 stainless steel by using ER 309L electrodes. True stress and true strain values of the AISI 304, 17Mn4 steels and ER 309L electrodes were determined by tensile tests. Stress analyses were conducted after entering the linear and nonlinear properties of the materials into software manually. Eventually, fracture mechanics analyses were conducted for the model, and J integral fracture toughness values of the crack on the weldment were calculated.

  8. Some properties of chromized stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials used for constructions in food processing industry should meet mechanical specifications and sanitary requirements. The most often used steels AISI304 and 316L have similar mechanical characteristics but the corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel is considerably better. On the other hand the price of 316L steel is twice higher. The advantageous solution with minimal investment cost is chemical modification of stainless steel surface layer. Main directions of chemical modifications of surface layers were characterized in this paper. In this paper there were also presented effects of chromizing of steel type AISI316L in order to increasing erosion - corrosion resistance. There were analysed structures; mechanical characteristics and durability of chromized stainless steel. (author)

  9. Fracture behavior of various welded steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Tevfik Ertugrul; Cetinel, Hakan [Celal Bayar Univ., Manisa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Uyulgan, Bahadir [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2016-02-01

    In this study, P295GH (17Mn4) pressure vessel steel and AISI 304 stainless steel were joined by using ER 309L electrodes. Welded specimens were fatigued by four point bending experiments. Cracks occurred on the stainless steel side of the weldment during the fatigue tests. Finite element (FE) analyses were conducted by fixing 2-D precracked model for welded 17Mn4 pressure vessel steel and AISI 304 stainless steel by using ER 309L electrodes. True stress and true strain values of the AISI 304, 17Mn4 steels and ER 309L electrodes were determined by tensile tests. Stress analyses were conducted after entering the linear and nonlinear properties of the materials into software manually. Eventually, fracture mechanics analyses were conducted for the model, and J integral fracture toughness values of the crack on the weldment were calculated.

  10. Development and outlook of Chinese steel industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The fast development of Chinese steel industry has drawn great attention from the world.Market n eeding and technical development are the main driving forces for the rapid development of Chinese steel industry. Based on the discussing of the reasons of its rapid development, the present paper further analyzed the main problems and distance towards the advanced level of international steel industry. It bring forward that Chinese steel industry should enhance the research and development on new generation steel materials and production process to ensure its sustainable development. Through populating the key technologies of syntheses energy saving and water saving to realize the main equipments self-making and establish a new recyclable steel production process.

  11. Superclean steel development: Stress corrosion cracking characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    Stress corrosion tests (SCC initiation and propagation) were carried out on a high purity version of the 3.5% NiCrMoV low pressure rotor steel in comparison to similar steels of conventional cleanness. In the constant load tests in 30% sodium hydroxide solution the clean steel showed longer times to crack initiation than the conventional steels with comparable strength levels. The amount of scatter makes it difficult to quantify the improvement, which lay at or above 5% in stress level. Neither in pure water (aerated and deaerated) nor in a concentrated caustic solution were differences in the stress corrosion crack velocities detected. Neither the clean steel nor the conventional steel tested in this programme showed any increase in SCC susceptibility after aging at 350 or 450{degree}C for 10,000 hours. 19 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Microstructures in laser welded high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, P.; Bellingeri, S.; Massimino, F.; Baldissin, D.; Battezzati, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effect of laser welding on the microstructure was studied for three Advanced High Strength Steels: transformation induced plasticity steel (TRIP), dual phase steel (DP) and martensitic steel. Two sheets of the same steel were laser welded and a microstructural study was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. For all samples the welded zone was constituted by martensite and the heat affected zone shows a continuous change in microstructure depending on temperatures reached and on the different cooling rates. The change in mechanical properties in the welded area was followed by Vickers micro-hardness measurements. Quasi binary phase diagrams were calculated and, according to position of T0 lines, it was deduced that austenite is the primary phase forming during rapid solidification for all steels.

  13. Microstructures in laser welded high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the effect of laser welding on the microstructure was studied for three Advanced High Strength Steels: transformation induced plasticity steel (TRIP), dual phase steel (DP) and martensitic steel. Two sheets of the same steel were laser welded and a microstructural study was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. For all samples the welded zone was constituted by martensite and the heat affected zone shows a continuous change in microstructure depending on temperatures reached and on the different cooling rates. The change in mechanical properties in the welded area was followed by Vickers micro-hardness measurements. Quasi binary phase diagrams were calculated and, according to position of T0 lines, it was deduced that austenite is the primary phase forming during rapid solidification for all steels.

  14. Buckling of steel and composite steel and concrete columns in case of fire

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Antonio M.; Rodrigues, João Paulo C.

    2010-01-01

    Bare steel columns are known to have a very low fire resistance. The high thermal conductivity and the sudden decrease of the steel yield stress and Young Modulus in function of the temperature are responsible for this behaviour. The purpose of this study is to compare different modes of failure of building steel columns. The buckling of the columns is strongly influenced by the contact with other elements such as brick walls. Three types of situations were compared: steel columns...

  15. Did US Safeguard Protection on Steel Affect Market Power of European Steel Producers?

    OpenAIRE

    Hylke VANDENBUSSCHE; Zarnic, Ziga

    2006-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the effects of US safeguard protection on steel imports in 2002 on the mark-ups of EU steel producers. We identify a large panel of European steel producers between 1995 and 2004 affected by the safeguards. Using the Roeger method, our results show that US safeguards significantly reduced EU firms?mark-ups. Single-product EU steel firms suffered relatively more from the protection than multi-product firms. Controlling for firm heterogeneity, these results a...

  16. Large deformation structural performance of double skin composite construction using British Steel's 'Bi-Steel'

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, B.

    1999-01-01

    Double skin composite construction consists of two relatively thin steel plates with the space between filled with, usually, normal weight concrete. The transfer of shear between the steel and concrete is possible through the use of steel shear connectors that are welded to the steel plates. A study of previously published information revealed that the areas to market double skin composite construction would be submerged tube tunneling and floating offshore structures, particularly those used...

  17. Stress relief cracking in pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research on the mechanisms of stress relief cracking (SRC) in A508-2 and A533-B steels is reviewed and the factors which control SRC in these steels are identified. New information on the effects of stress, strain, and temperature on the early stages of cracking is presented. Results of a comparative study of the SRC susceptibilities of a large number of heats of both types of steel are also presented. (author)

  18. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges. The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in order to improve calculations of Steel Corrugated Constructions.

  19. The heat treatment of Fermanal cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    F. Binczyk; A. Smoliński; J. Szymszal

    2007-01-01

    The study discloses the results of microstructural examinations, testing of magnetic properties and hardness measurements as cast and after heat treatment conducted on the Fermanal cast steel. A characteristic feature of this cast steel is its density lower by about 10% than the density of carbon cast steel [4]. It has been proved that the factor deciding about the composition of microstructure (fraction of ferrite and austenite) is the content of aluminium. The matrix totally austenitic is p...

  20. Powder metallurgically produced high nitrogen steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liimatainen, J. [Rauma Materials Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Nitrogen alloying of steel is a modern way of improving technical and manufacturing characteristics of stainless, high temperature and wear resistant steels. Powder metallurgy (P/M) enables nitrogen alloying in the melt during alloying or in the solid state for gas atomized powder. Especially the nitrogen alloying in the solid state provides several benefits in enhancing steel properties by nitrogen alloying. This paper describes methods of nitrogen alloying in P/M materials and shows examples of improved material properties. (orig.)

  1. Microstructure and transformation kinetics in bainitic steels

    OpenAIRE

    Luzginova, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of reaching a better understanding of the microstructure evolution and the overall phase transformation kinetics in hyper-eutectoid steels a commercial SAE 52100 bearing steel and 7 model alloys with different concentrations of chromium, cobalt and aluminum have been studied in this work, both experimentally and theoretically. The effect of alloying elements, Cr, Co and Al, on different processes occurring during heat treatment of hyper-eutectoid steels (cementite spheroidization...

  2. Fire resistance of stainless steel structural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Gomboši, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Graduation thesis represents behavior of structural elements made from stainless steel in case of fire. The general rules according to the European standard SIST EN 1993-1-2 to determine design resistance of the steel structural element for fire conditions are presented. The main focus was to determinate behavior of stainless steel column exposed to the standard fire. Buckling resistance of the column was calculated with a simplified method from the standard SIST EN 1993-1-2. Mech...

  3. Super High Strength Steel for automotive applications

    OpenAIRE

    CONFENTE, Mario; SCHNEIDER, Emmanuel; BOMONT, Olivier; LESCALIER, Christophe; BOMONT-ARZUR, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Intensive weight savings and out-sizing programs are developed in automotive industry and lead to increase the mechanical properties of the material of the automotive parts. ArcelorMittal has developed specific steel grades known as Super High Strength Steels which are designed for both high ductility and toughness and fatigue resistance. This paper investigates machinability for a drilling operation using an experimental methodology. One of the materials is a new low bainitic steel grade. Ex...

  4. Sustainability assessment and standardisation : steel buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Joana B.; Bragança, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating in what extent are the existing sustainability assessment methodologies capable of truly reward the benefits of steel-intensive buildings in comparison with other building construction solutions. This evaluation consists in describing the more common sustainability assessment methodologies from the steel construction point of view and in comparing existing assessments to steel buildings. The pros and cons of each will also be pointed out, in order ...

  5. Regularity of Structural Superplasticity of Hypoeutectoid Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yun-lin; WEN Jiu-ba

    2005-01-01

    The curve of the relation between fracture elongation and temperature for unltrafine grained low alloy hypoeutectoid steels generally shows that three peaks occur at temperatures just below Ac1, between Ac1 and Ac3, and just above Ac3, When these steels are subjected to superplastic tensile test at different temperatures, the value of the last one is the lowest and the other two peaks are different one from another depending on components, microstructures and deformation conditions of the steels.

  6. Special steels for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolution of needs of steels and of relations between users and producers is reviewed in the field of nuclear power stations. Very important components are needed now with specifications concerning corrosion, mechanical properties under irradiation. Performances and fiability of steels are now improved by vacuum degassing, new refining methods giving a better control of purity, additions, homogeneity, transition temperature. Testing methods are improved too. Some examples are given of steels for reactor vessel, primary coolant circuit and different smaller components of reactors

  7. Prevention methods against hydrogen degradation of steel

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ćwiek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is presentation of mechanisms and forms of hydrogen degradation in steel along with pointing out methods for hydrogen degradation prevention.Design/methodology/approach: Hydrogen degradation of steel is a form of environmentally assisted failure which is caused by the action of hydrogen often in combination with residual or applied stress resulting in reduction of plasticity, load bearing capacity of a component, and cracking.Findings: The sources of hydrogen in steel w...

  8. Behaviour of high strength steel moment joints

    OpenAIRE

    Girão Coelho, A.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The design of joints to European standard EN 1993 within the semi-continuous/partially restrained philosophy is restricted to steel grades up to S460. With the recent development of high performance steels, the need for these restrictions should be revisited. The semicontinuous joint modelling can be adopted as long as the joint develops rotation capacity and behaves ductile. The research summarized in this paper focuses on moment joints with components made from high strength steel S460, S69...

  9. Hot workability of duplex stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Guilhem

    2011-01-01

    The Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) are defined as a family of stainless steels consisting of a two-phase microstructure involving δ-ferrite and γ-austenite. Exceptional combinations of strength and toughness together with good corrosion resistance under critical working conditions designate DSS a suitable alternative to conventional austenitic stainless steels. Unfortunately, the relatively poor hot workability of these alloys makes the industrial processing of flat products particularly criti...

  10. Spectral Data Processing for Steel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bisot, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    For steel industry, knowing and understanding characteristics of a steel strip surface at every steps of the production process is a key element to control final product quality. Today as the quality requirements increase this task gets more and more important. The surface of new steel grades with complex chemical compositions has behaviors especially hard to master. For those grades in particular, surface control is critical and difficult. One of the promising technics to assess the problem ...

  11. Characteristics of vacuum sintered stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Brytan; L.A. Dobrzański; M. Actis Grande; Rosso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study duplex stainless steels were sintered in vacuum. using rapid cooling form the mixture of prealloyed and alloying element powders The purpose of this paper was to describe the obtained microstructures after sintering as well as the main mechanical properties of sintered stainless steels.Design/methodology/approach: In presented work duplex stainless steels were obtained through powder metallurgy starting from austenitic 316L or ferritic 410L prealloyed stainless s...

  12. Next Move in Steel: Revocation or Retaliation?

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer; Ben Goodrich

    2003-01-01

    In May 2003, the World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute panel ruled that US steel safeguards imposed in March 2002 are illegal. The WTO Appellate Body is all but certain to confirm the panel's judgment, probably by December 2003. Then the Bush administration will face an important choice. It can keep the safeguards in place, pleasing steel producers and important constituencies in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. However, doing so would further anger steel users, who have probably lost ...

  13. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Bridge Steel Weldings With Glass-Steel Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalev, V. N.; Semukhin, B. S.; Danilov, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    A new technology is developed for welding multi-span bridge constructions. The mechanical properties and structure of the low-carbon bridge steel welds have been studied. The welding parameters and application of steel-glass liners provide for long-term service of steel constructions in conformity with the welding industry specifications.

  14. Grain growth in heat resisting austenitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, I.K.; Zakharov, V.N.; Karpova, N.M.; Farber, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on kinetics of grain growth in steels of 37Kh12N8G8 type alloyed by V, Nb, Ti, Mo, W. It was concluded that the nature of carbide phase and kinetics of its dissolution in heat resisting austenitic steels dictate steel tendency to grain growth. At the same time decrease of diffusion mobility of atoms in steel matrix during its alloying by titanium aid tungsten results in sufficient decrease of the tendency to grain growth and variation in grain size.

  15. Stainless steel for reinforcing bar concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Where corrosion resisting reinforcing bar is required, stainless steel has been employed for many applications. The longest recorded use so far is over 75 years for a restoration project in the United Kingdom. Other areas are highway bridge decks, retaining walls, tunnels, pier and overpass structures all of which use stainless steel to prevent corrosion and extend structure life. Carbon steel rebar leads to premature failure via concrete spalling that results in excessive repair, high cost, traffic delay and commerce disruption. Selection of stainless steel is based on its corrosion resistance, strength and long life. Installed cost using stainless steel reinforcing barranges from one to fifteen percent depending on structure complexity. Life Cycle Cost calculations reveal when stainless steel reinforcing bar is factored into the design, with a life expectancy up to 125 years, the alloy is cost effective. Data will be exhibited relative to mechanical and physical properties of stainless steel compared to carbon steel rebar. Some stainless rebar applications around the World will be discussed in addition to laboratory and field test results with U-bent stainless steel specimens embedded in concrete. Comments will also be made relative to the environment, lengthened journeys, delivery delay, fuel burned as vehicles sit at idle, drilling, blasting, crushing and transport of aggregate, cement and the attendant power units to manufacture these items for reconstruction. (author)

  16. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The car industry is facing pressure because of the growing demand for more fuel-efficient passenger cars. In order to limit energy consumption and air pollution the weight of the car body has to be reduced. At the same time, high levels of safety have to be guaranteed. In this situation, the choice of material becomes a key decision in car design. As a response to the requirements of the automotive sector, high strength steels and advanced high strength steels have been developed by the steel industry. These modern steel grades offer an excellent balance of low cost, light weight and mechanical properties. (Author) 48 refs.

  17. Seismic vulnerability and fragility of steel buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Carlos Alberto; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Pujades Beneit, Lluís

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to evaluate the structural behavior of steel buildings. The seismic performance ofa specific steel building located in the campus of the National University of Colombia in Manizales is assessed.The seismic demand is characterized by a peak effective acceleration of 0.25 g. Pushover analysis applied to alow-rise steel moment-resitant frame building and a low-rise steel braced frame building has shown theinadequate seismic behaviour of moment-resistant frame bui...

  18. Calculation results for systems with steel reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation shows the results of Joint JNC-IPPE experiment BFS-62 for UOX and MOX cores with different types of radial blankets: uranium dioxide and steel reflector. Results of analysis of BN-600 hybrid core uncertainties are presented. The following parameters are shown: multiplication factor; U-235 and Pu-239 fission reaction rates for the core, uranium blanket, steel reflector; U-238 fission reaction rates for for the core, uranium blanket, steel reflector. Thus the steel reflector problem was revealed. The presentation includes the ABBN calculation scheme as well as resutlts related to ZPR-3-53, ZPR-3-54 and CIRANO experiments

  19. Laser Welding of High Strength Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    S960 and S700 are two types of high strength low alloy steels (minimum yield strengths at 960 MPa and 700 MPa, respectively) developed recently by Tata Steel. These steels are typically used in heavy lifting equipment. This research examines the feasibility and characteristics of single pass autogenous laser welding (ALW), multi-pass ultra-narrow gap laser welding (NGLW) of 8 mm thick S960 and 13 mm thick S700 high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels and compared the characteristics of the welds...

  20. Auburn Steel Company radioactive contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 21, 1983, workers at the Auburn Steel Company, Auburn, New York discovered that about 120 tons of steel poured that day had become contaminated with 60Co. In addition to the steel, the air cleaning system and portions of the mill used in casting the steel were contaminated. Approximately 25 curies of 60Co were involved. Decontamination and disposal of the contamination cost in excess of $2,200,000. This report details the discovery of the contamination, decontamination of the plant and disposal of the contamination

  1. Progress of Production Technology of Clean Steel in Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiJian

    2005-01-01

    The progress in control technology of carbon, nitrogen, total oxygen, phosphorus, and stdphur as well as inclusions in steel is discussed at Baosteel. The purity obtained in IF steel and pipeline steel is introduced.

  2. Experience with ferrosilicoaluminum alloy during deoxidation of steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mekhtiyev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the process of deoxidation quiet and low-alloyed steel alloy ferrosilicoaluminum complex in comparison the existing, and with steel deoxidation technology with conventional alloys - ferrosilicon and secondary aluminum. A comparative analysis of quality steel, non-metallic inclusions metallographic studies and studies of the mechanical properties of the resulting steel was done. On a large array of experimental steel proved cost-effectiveness and feasibility of ferrosilicoaluminum during deoxidation quiet and low-alloyed steel.

  3. Steel Policy: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer; Ben Goodrich

    2003-01-01

    While the US steel industry has been in distress for decades, the "steel crisis" of 1999-2001 was particularly acute. More than 30 steel producing and steel processing firms fell into bankruptcy between 1997 and 2001, and most of the failures occurred after President Bush took office. During his presidential campaign, Bush promised steelworkers that he would not neglect them. As the crisis worsened, the steel industry and the United Steel Workers of America (USWA) pressed the Bush administrat...

  4. Local buckling strength of steel foam sandwich panels

    OpenAIRE

    Szyniszewski, S; Schafer, BW; Smith, BH; Arwade, SR; Hajjar, JF

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide and verify a new design method for the in-plane compressive strength of steel sandwich panels comprised of steel face sheets and foamed steel cores. Foamed steel, literally steel with internal voids, provides enhanced bending rigidity, exceptional energy dissipation, and the potential to mitigate local instability. In this work, Winters effective width expression is generalized to the case of steel foam sandwich panels. The generalization requires mod...

  5. Effect of Geobacter sulfurreducens on the microbial corrosion of mild steel, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehanna, Maha [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, CNRS - Universite de Toulouse, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP1301, 31029 Toulouse (France)], E-mail: mum34@psu.edu; Basseguy, Regine; Delia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, CNRS - Universite de Toulouse, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP1301, 31029 Toulouse (France)

    2009-11-15

    The influence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was tested on the anaerobic corrosion of four different steels: mild steel 1145, ferritic steel 403 and austenitic steels 304L and 316L. Within a few hours, the presence of cells induced a free potential (E{sub oc}) ennoblement around +0.3 V on 1145 mild steel, 403 ferritic steel and 304L austenitic steels and slightly less on 316L. The kinetics of E{sub oc} ennoblement depended on the amount of bacteria in the inoculum, but the final potential value depended essentially on the nature of the material. This effect was due to the capacity of G. sulfurreducens to create a direct cathodic reaction on steel surfaces, extracting the electrons directly from material. The presence of bacterial cells modified the corrosion features of mild steel and ferritic steel, so that corrosion attacks were gathered in determined zones of the surface. Local corrosion was significantly enhanced on ferritic steel. Potential ennoblement was not sufficient to induce corrosion on austenitic steels. In contrast G. sulfurreducens delayed the occurrence of pitting on 304L steel because of its capability to oxidize acetate at high potential values. The electrochemical behaviour of 304L steel was not affected by the concentration of soluble electron donor (acetate, 1-10 mM) or the amount of planktonic cells; it was directly linked to the biofilm coverage. After polarization pitting curves had been recorded, microscopic observations showed that pits propagated only in the surface zones where cell settlement was the densest. The study evidenced that Geobacter sulfurreducens can control the electrochemical behaviour of steels in complex ways that can lead to severe corrosion. As Geobacteraceae are ubiquitous species in sediments and soils they should now be considered as possible crucial actors in the microbial corrosion of buried equipment.

  6. Effect of Geobacter sulfurreducens on the microbial corrosion of mild steel, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was tested on the anaerobic corrosion of four different steels: mild steel 1145, ferritic steel 403 and austenitic steels 304L and 316L. Within a few hours, the presence of cells induced a free potential (Eoc) ennoblement around +0.3 V on 1145 mild steel, 403 ferritic steel and 304L austenitic steels and slightly less on 316L. The kinetics of Eoc ennoblement depended on the amount of bacteria in the inoculum, but the final potential value depended essentially on the nature of the material. This effect was due to the capacity of G. sulfurreducens to create a direct cathodic reaction on steel surfaces, extracting the electrons directly from material. The presence of bacterial cells modified the corrosion features of mild steel and ferritic steel, so that corrosion attacks were gathered in determined zones of the surface. Local corrosion was significantly enhanced on ferritic steel. Potential ennoblement was not sufficient to induce corrosion on austenitic steels. In contrast G. sulfurreducens delayed the occurrence of pitting on 304L steel because of its capability to oxidize acetate at high potential values. The electrochemical behaviour of 304L steel was not affected by the concentration of soluble electron donor (acetate, 1-10 mM) or the amount of planktonic cells; it was directly linked to the biofilm coverage. After polarization pitting curves had been recorded, microscopic observations showed that pits propagated only in the surface zones where cell settlement was the densest. The study evidenced that Geobacter sulfurreducens can control the electrochemical behaviour of steels in complex ways that can lead to severe corrosion. As Geobacteraceae are ubiquitous species in sediments and soils they should now be considered as possible crucial actors in the microbial corrosion of buried equipment.

  7. Radiotracers in Swedish Steel Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent tracer investigations in Swedish steel plants have mainly dealt with problems concerning uon-metallic inclusions, slag weight determination and - labelling of special steel qualities for identification. Suspected inclusion sources, such as furnace slag, ladle-bottom mortar and some brick materials as stopper, nozzle.and channel bricks have been labelled radioactively in different ways. The labelling technique has been studied for the different systems and a new method was developed for brick materials. This includes vacuum impregnation with an aqueous solution of the inactive tracer, reheating to 1300°C and neutron-irradiation in a reactor. A sufficiently homogeneous labelling of the material was obtained in this way. The tracer used was terbium, which was added as the nitrate and then decomposed to oxide during the heating process. The oxide is strongly bound to the ceramic material. The number of radioactive inclusions was determined by.autoradiography, and related to the total number pf inclusions, obtained by visual slag-counting, to give the percentage of inclusions originating from the labelled object. Some investigations have been made using simultaneous labelling of two or more sources. It seems to be difficult, however, to measure separately more than two tracers: one short-lived (e.g. 140La) and one long-lived (e.g. 160Tb). The slag weight determinations were made using the isotope dilution technique with 131Ba and 140La as tracers. A difference in slag weight is sometimes obtained. An attempt is made to explain these deviations. The material transport through a blast furnace has been followed by using a piece of graphite, labelled with 140La2O3, and measuring the radiation intensity outside the furnace walls and in the tuyere. Studies have been made to determine suitable radiotracers for labelling of steel for subsequent identification. Up to three different isotopes can be used simultaneously without making the identification too complicated for

  8. Evaluation of Steel Cleanliness in a Steel Deoxidized Using Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Cedeño, Edgar-Ivan; Herrera-Trejo, Martín; Castro-Román, Manuel; Castro-Uresti, Fabián; López-Cornejo, Monserrat

    2016-06-01

    The effect of magnesium in the aluminum used as a deoxidizer on the cleanliness of steel was studied throughout a steelmaking route for the production of thin slabs. Two deoxidizers with different Mg contents were used. The Mg content of a "typical" deoxidizer was ~0.5 wt pct Mg, whereas that for an alternative deoxidizer was ~2 wt pct Mg. The inclusion population at different stages of the steelmaking process was characterized in terms of chemical composition, number, and size distribution. The inclusion modification path shows that the solid Al2O3 and Al2O3-MgO inclusions formed in the early stage of the steel ladle treatment are modified into Al2O3-MgO-CaO liquid and MgO-Al2O3-liquid inclusions. Although some slight differences were observed in the ladle furnace samples, the chemical composition of inclusions was similar in the samples taken at the mold of the continuous casting, regardless of the deoxidizer used. Gumbel, generalized extreme value (GEV), and generalized Pareto (GP) distributions were used for the description of the size distribution. The GEV and GP distributions resulted in proper distributions to describe the evolution of size distribution throughout the steelmaking process. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences between inclusion size distributions resulting from the use of either deoxidizer were found.

  9. Experimental investigation of axially loaded steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete-filled steel tube columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亦焱; 李娜; 李杉; 梁鸿骏

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study on the compressive behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete-filled steel tube columns is presented. Specimens were tested to investigate the effects of the concrete strength, the thickness of steel tube and the steel fiber volume fraction on the ultimate strength and the ductility. The experimental results indicate that the addition of steel fibers in concrete can significantly improve the ductility and the energy dissipation capacity of the concrete-filled steel tube columns and delay the local buckling of the steel tube, but has no obvious effect on the failure mode. It has also been found that the addition of steel fibers is a more effective method than using thicker steel tube in enhancing the ductility, and more advantageous in the case of higher strength concrete. An analytical model to estimate the load capacity is proposed for steel tube columns filled with both plain concrete and steel fiber reinforced concrete. The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained in this work and literatures.

  10. Luders bands in RPV Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, D H

    2013-01-01

    The R6 procedure is used for the prevention and prediction of crack behaviour and other defects in the reactor pressure vessel(RPV). The RPV material is an upper-bainitic, low alloy steel structure, which deforms inhomogeneously when yielding. The current codes that are used to design and calculate the fracture, within an RPV, assume that the material yields continuously as the size of the L¨uders strain is less than 2%. However, the work of Wenman et al[1] has shown that the inclusion of a L...

  11. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.;

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding. The...... overall assessment of the weld bonding process is made using several commercial adhesives with varying working times under different surface conditions. The quality of the resulting joints is evaluated by means of macroetching observations, tension-shear tests and peel tests. The theoretical investigation...

  12. Fatigue problems of steel bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urushadze, Shota; Frýba, Ladislav; Škaloud, Miroslav; Pirner, Miroš; Zörnerová, Marie

    Stirlingshire : Civil-Comp Press, 2012 - (Pombo, J.), s. 142-151 ISBN 978-1-905088-53-9. ISSN 1759-3433. [International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance /1./. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ES), 18.04.2012-20.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08098 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) RFSR-CT-2008-00033 (BRIFAG); GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/1340 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : steel bridges * fatigue * S-N curve * orthotropic deck * web breathing Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  13. Spectrographic analysis of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two spectrogaphyic solution techniques, 'Porous Cup' and 'Vacuum Cup', were investigated in order to determine the minor constituents (Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, Cu and V) of stainless steels. Iron and cobalt were experimented as internal standards. The precision varied from 4 to 11% for both spectrographic techniques, in which cobalt was used as international standard. Certified standards from National Bureau of Standards and Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas were analysed to verify the accuracy of both techniques. The best accuracy was obtained with the Vacuum Cup techniques. (Author)

  14. Development of structural steels for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To established the bases of nuclear structural material technologies, this study was focused on the localization and improvement of nuclear structural steels, the production of material property data, and technology developments for integrity evaluation. The important test and analysis technologies for material integrity assessment were developed, and the materials properties of the pressure vessel steels were evaluated systematically on the basis of those technologies, they are microstructural characteristics, tensile and indentation deformation properties, impact properties, and static and dynamic fracture toughness, fatigue and corrosion fatigue etc. Irradiation tests in the research reactors were prepared or completed to obtain the mechanical properties of irradiated materials. The improvement of low alloy steel was also attempted through the comparative study on the manufacturing processes, computer assisted alloy and process design, and application of the inter critical heat treatment. On the other hand, type 304 stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and tested successfully. High strength type 316LN stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and the microstructural characteristics, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties at high temperatures, low cycle fatigue property etc. were tested and analyzed in the view point of the effect of nitrogen. Type 347 stainless steels with high corrosion resistance and toughness for pipings and tubes and low-activated Cr-Mn steels were also developed and their basic properties were evaluated. Finally, the martensitic stainless steels for turbine blade were developed and tests. (author). 242 refs., 100 tabs., 304 figs

  15. Development of structural steels for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Byun, T. S.; Yoon, J. H.; Park, D. K.; Oh, J. M.; Cho, H. D.; Kim, H.; Kim, H. D.; Kang, S. S.; Kim, J. W.; Ahn, S. B.

    1997-08-01

    To established the bases of nuclear structural material technologies, this study was focused on the localization and improvement of nuclear structural steels, the production of material property data, and technology developments for integrity evaluation. The important test and analysis technologies for material integrity assessment were developed, and the materials properties of the pressure vessel steels were evaluated systematically on the basis of those technologies, they are microstructural characteristics, tensile and indentation deformation properties, impact properties, and static and dynamic fracture toughness, fatigue and corrosion fatigue etc. Irradiation tests in the research reactors were prepared or completed to obtain the mechanical properties of irradiated materials. The improvement of low alloy steel was also attempted through the comparative study on the manufacturing processes, computer assisted alloy and process design, and application of the inter critical heat treatment. On the other hand, type 304 stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and tested successfully. High strength type 316LN stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and the microstructural characteristics, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties at high temperatures, low cycle fatigue property etc. were tested and analyzed in the view point of the effect of nitrogen. Type 347 stainless steels with high corrosion resistance and toughness for pipings and tubes and low-activated Cr-Mn steels were also developed and their basic properties were evaluated. Finally, the martensitic stainless steels for turbine blade were developed and tests. (author). 242 refs., 100 tabs., 304 figs.

  16. Chemical resistance of the stainless REMANIT steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaflet contains tables showing the corrosion behaviour of the REMANIT steels in various media, as e.g. in acids, brines, salty solutions, or in organic environments. The data given include information on the composition and concentration of the attacking agent, and on temperatures. The documentation is intended to serve as a guide for selecting the suitable steel quality for intended applications. (MM)

  17. Sprayformed Hot Work Steels for Rapid Tooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng Yang; Simo-Pekka Hannula

    2003-01-01

    The present work compares microstructures of hot work steels made by different processes, that is, by sprayforming,by casting, and a commercially supplied H13 steel. Material benefits are recognized by sprayforming hot working tools such as die inserts fo

  18. Bauxite Based Bricks for Steel Ladle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of bauxite based bricks for steel ladle linings.This standard is applicable to bauxite based bricks for working layer of steel ladle.

  19. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro-and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate...

  20. VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

  1. Behaviour of high strength steel moment joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girão Coelho, A.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The design of joints to European standard EN 1993 within the semi-continuous/partially restrained philosophy is restricted to steel grades up to S460. With the recent development of high performance steels, the need for these restrictions should be revisited. The semicontinuous joint modelling can b

  2. Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was

  3. Optimising steel hub location in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaradhorn Boontaveeyuwat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal location of a steel hub in Thailand was analysed by applying aspecific research methodology designed to evaluate locations near the seaports. The growth of Thailand’s steel industry has become a centre of attention in the last decade, resulting in substantial efforts to form a distribution service centre to minimise the logistic costs associated with handling large steel flows in the future. The main analysis of the steel hublocation focused on areas situated near Laem Cha Bang, Map Ta Phut and Prachuab ports since these top three ports are considered important in terms of their steel throughput in Thailand. The transport costs associated with the shipment and inland transport together with port tariffs were calculated for the proposed scenarios of steel hub establishment andthese were compared with the existing situation without steel hub. The findings showed that a steel hub located near Laem Cha Bang port was the optimal option involving a saving of 9.4% on the total system costs incurred under the existing situation.

  4. A survey on decentralized steel industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past three decades there have been tremendous efforts on building steel factories on economic scales. The primary question is to find an economic scale for such plants which could also meet domestic demand. In this paper, we perform an empirical survey to find out whether building small steel factories are more suitable or setting up giant steel industries to meet regional demands. The results indicate that in many countries, building small steel plants based on the recent advances of technologies not only reduces the total cost of steel production but also it could significantly reduce the unnecessary transportation cost, providing cheaper labor, etc. This would lead to better competition which would increase the productivity.

  5. Corrosion of steels in sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a study on the effects of sour gas environments on steels. Emphasis is placed on alloys commonly used in the heavy water, sour gas and refining industries. In addition, 'high strength, low alloy' steels, known as 'oil country tubular goods', are included. Reference is made to the effects of hydrogen sulphide environments on austenitic steels and on certain specialty steels. Theories of hydrogen-related cracking mechanisms are outlined with emphasis placed on sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking in carbon and low alloy steels. Methods of controlling sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking are addressed separately. Case histories from the heavy water, refining, and sour gas industries are used to illustrate operating experience and failure mechanisms. Finally, recommendations, based largely on the author's industrial experience, are made with respect to quality assurance and inspection requirements for sour service components. Only published literature was surveyed. Abstracts were made of all references, reviewing the major sources in detail

  6. A modification of 4330 alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogolewski, R.; Cunningham, B.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Gentile, R.; Fleming, S. (Norton Defense Systems, Mahwah, NJ (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We have developed a modification of 4330 alloy steel which does not have an exact equivalent expressed in any standard specification. When we compare the ballistic performance of our modified cast steel in thicknesses of about 120 mm with that of stacked, 24 mm thick rolled 4340 alloy steel plates of comparable hardness and the same total thickness, we do not find a significant difference in terminal ballistic performance against either heavy metal kinetic energy penetrators or precision shaped charges. This result is surprising in relation to contemporary experience in which cast steel has been found to be ballistically inferior to rolled steel against either kinetic energy projectiles or shaped charge warheads. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  7. Austenitic stainless steels with cryogenic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most used austenitic stainless steels are alloyed with chromium and nickel and have a reduced carbon content, usually lower than 0.1 % what ensures corresponding properties for processing by plastic deformation at welding, corrosion resistance in aggressive environment and toughness at low temperatures. Steels of this kind alloyed with manganese are also used to reduce the nickel content. By alloying with manganese which is a gammageneous element one ensures the stability of austenites. Being cheaper these steels may be used extensively for components and equipment used in cryogenics field. The best results were obtained with steels of second group, AMnNi, in which the designed chemical composition was achieved, i.e. the partial replacement of nickel by manganese ensured the toughness at cryogenic temperatures. If these steels are supplementary alloyed, their strength properties may increase to the detriment of plasticity and toughness, although the cryogenic character is preserved

  8. Hydrogen embrittlement in power plant steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Dayal; N Parvathavarthini

    2003-06-01

    In power plants, several major components such as steam generator tubes, boilers, steam/water pipe lines, water box of condensers and the other auxiliary components like bolts, nuts, screws fasteners and supporting assemblies are commonly fabricated from plain carbon steels, as well as low and high alloy steels. These components often fail catastrophically due to hydrogen embrittlement. A brief overview of our current understanding of the phenomenon of such hydrogen damage in steels is presented in this paper. Case histories of failures of steel components due to hydrogen embrittlement, which are reported in literature, are briefly discussed. A phenomenological assessment of overall process of hydrogen embrittlement and classification of the various damage modes are summarized. Influence of several physical and metallurgical variables on the susceptibility of steels to hydrogen embrittlement, mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement and current approaches to combat this problem are also presented.

  9. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  10. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Altaf Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets - titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel - using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated canine retraction was undertaken to evaluate the difference in frictional resistance between titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires. Results and Conclusion: We compared the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires, with the help of Instron Universal Testing Machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student′s "t" test, and post hoc multiple range test at level of <0.05 showed statistically significant difference in the mean values of all groups. Results demonstrated that the titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets of 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot had no significant variations in frictional résistance. The self-ligating bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the other groups. The titanium bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the stainless steel brackets.

  11. An understanding of HSLA-65 plate steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, K.

    2006-02-01

    HSLA-65 plate steels can be produced using one of five plate manufacturing techniques: normalizing, controlled rolling (CR), controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling (CR-AC), direct quenching and tempering (DQT), or conventional quenching and tempering (Q&T). The HSLA-65 steels are characterized by low carbon content and low alloy content, and they exhibit a low carbon equivalent that allows improved plate weldability. These characteristics in turn (a) provide the steel plate with a refined microstructure that ensures high strength and toughness; (b) eliminate or substantially reduce the need for preheating during welding; (c) resist susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) when fusion (arc) welded using low heat-input conditions; and (d) depending on section thickness, facilitate high heat-input welding (about 2 kJ/mm) without significant loss of strength or toughness in the HAZ. However, application of this plate manufacturing process and of these controls produces significant differences in the metallurgical structure and range of mechanical properties of the HSLA-65 plate steels both among themselves and versus conventional higher strength steel (HSS) plates. For example, among the HSLA-65 plate steels, those produced by Q&T exhibit minimal variability in mechanical properties, especially in thicker plates. Besides variability in mechanical properties depending on plate thickness, the CR and CR-AC plate steels exhibit a relatively higher yield strength to ultimate tensile strength (YS/UTS) ratio than do DQT and Q&T steels. Such differences in processing and properties of HSLA-65 plate steels could potentially affect the selection and control of various secondary fabrication practices, including arc welding. Consequently, fabricators must exercise extreme caution when transferring allowable limits of certified secondary fabrication practices from one type of HSLA-65 plate steel to another, even for the

  12. Graphitization in CK 45 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R.Kiani-Rashid

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of heat treatment cycle on graphite phase formation on CK 45 steel. The presence of well distributed graphite in the matrix is responsible for the good mechanical and thermal properties of this kind of alloy. Such properties include excellent wear resistance, higher resistance to thermal shock, and higher resistance to oxidation at high temperature. A number of specimens were made up of appropriate design to provide the experimental materials. The transformation phase to a free carbon microstructure during graphitization under different conditions was then examined for the most successful experimental steels. Austenitising temperature of 920℃ ahd the following isothermal heat treatment of 750℃ at different holding times were used. Microstructures were examined by OM (optical microscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Furthermore, it was found that isothermal transformation at 750℃for different soaking times produced a typical microstructure. Also, the amount of graphite increased with increasing isothermal heat treatment time. Heat treatment leading to supersaturation of iron with carbon was described and some of the consequences of the supersaturation were presented. Finally, the formation of the thermodynamically stable state of the graphite taken from the supersaturated solid solution was discussed.

  13. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a the morphology of steel corrosion products and corrosion product layers; and b long-term atmospheric corrosion ( > 10 years.

    La corrosión atmosférica del acero suave es un tema de gran amplitud que ha sido tratado por muchos autores en numerosas regiones del mundo. Este artículo de compilación incorpora publicaciones relevantes sobre esta temática, en particular sobre la naturaleza de los productos de corrosión atmosférica, mecanismos y cinética de los procesos de corrosión atmosférica, prestando una atención especial a dos aspectos sobre los que la información publicada ha sido menos abundante: a morfología de los productos de corrosión del acero y capas de productos de corrosión, y b corrosión atmosférica a larga duración (> 10 años.

  14. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Casuccio (RJ Lee Group); Michael Potter (RJ Lee Group); Fred Schwerer (RJ Lee Group); Dr. Richard J. Fruehan (Carnegie Mellon University); Dr. Scott Story (US Steel)

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel

  15. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet

  16. Hardenability of steels for oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gojic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Alloying elements in steels are used for a various reasons. One of the most important is the achievement of higher strength in required shapes and sizes. Often in very large sections of steels are used for production of the oil country tubular goods (OCTG. Therefore the hardenability of steels is an important property aim for the appropriate concentration of alloying elements needed to harden the section of steel for oil industry. In this study the hardenability, the cooling rates and microstructures of low alloy Cr-Mo and Mn-Mo steels were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: The cooling rate determines the amount of martensite structure. Hardenability test was carried out by Jominy method. During Jominy testing the temperature changes were monitored by means of CrNi-Ni thermocouples which are connected to eight-channel digital/analogues converter. Microstructure was determined using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Findings: The cooling rates in the temperature range between 1133 and 973 K at different distances from the quenched end of low alloy Cr-Mo and Mn-Mo steels were found. Also the hardness and microstructures against the distances from quenched end are determined.Research limitations/implications: It is known that carbon has a marked the effect on hardenability of steel, but its use at higher levels is limited because lower toughness and increased probability of distortion and cracking during heat treatment and welding. Addition of manganese at low alloy steels is very useful for improvement of their hardenability.Practical implications: Chemical composition of low alloy steels for oil industry is usually complex and defined in most cases by standard which give range of concentration of the important alloying elements (Cr, Mo, Mn, etc. as well as the upper limits of impurity elements (S and P. Alloying elements increase the cost of the steel and from these reason it is important to select only steels which required to

  17. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2...

  18. A Survey of Mathematical Programming Applications in Integrated Steel Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goutam Dutta; Robert Fourer

    2001-01-01

    Mathematical programming techniques were used in the steel industry as early as 1958, and many applications of optimization in steel production have been reported since then. In this survey, we summarize published applications in the largest steel plants by type, including national steel planning, product-mix optimization, blending, scheduling, set covering, and cutting stock.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where steel joists are...

  20. The heat treatment of Fermanal cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discloses the results of microstructural examinations, testing of magnetic properties and hardness measurements as cast and after heat treatment conducted on the Fermanal cast steel. A characteristic feature of this cast steel is its density lower by about 10% than the density of carbon cast steel [4]. It has been proved that the factor deciding about the composition of microstructure (fraction of ferrite and austenite is the content of aluminium. The matrix totally austenitic is present in cast steel containing from 0,8 to 0,9% C, from 22 to 24% Mn, and from 4,5 to 5,5% Al. The magnetic properties examined on samples of the Fermanal cast steel were determined by spectroscopy of the Mössbauer effect with isotope 57Fe. The magnetic properties represented by a mean value of the hyperfine magnetic field Bhf and relative magnetic permeability were determined. It has been stated that the level of magnetic properties of the Fermanal cast steel depends on the content of ferrite. The effect of the parameters of solutioning and ageing on the cast steel microstructure and hardness after modification with additions of B, Ti and Nb was investigated.

  1. Duplex stainless steels for osteosynthesis devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigada, A; Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B; Giacomazzi, M; Roos, A

    1989-09-01

    The austenitic stainless steels used today for the manufacture of osteosynthesis devices are sensitive to crevice corrosion. In this study the corrosion properties of some duplex stainless steels were evaluated and compared to traditional austenitic stainless steels. According to our results the following ranking was established: 23Cr-4Ni less than AISI 316L less than ASTM F138 less than 22Cr-5Ni-3Mo less than 27Cr-31Ni-3.5Mo less than 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N. In particular the results showed that the high-performance 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel, with high molybdenum and nitrogen contents, can be considered not susceptible to crevice corrosion in the human body. The duplex stainless steels have also better mechanical properties at the same degree of cold working compared with austenitic stainless steels. Hence the 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel can be considered a convenient substitute of ASTM F138 for orthopedic and osteosynthesis devices. PMID:2777835

  2. Low-alloy constructional cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bartocha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of constructional casting competitive for welded structure of high-strength steel first of all required high metallurgical quality of cast steel. Assumptions, methodology and results of investigation which the aim was determination of the most advantageous: configuration and parameters of metallurgical treatments and ways to modify, in aspects of reach the low-alloy cast steel of the highest quality as possible, are presented. A series of low-alloy cast steel melts modeled on cast steel L20HGSNM was performed, the way of argoning in laboratory induction furnace with a capacity of 50kg was worked out, modifications with additions of FeNb, FeV and master alloy MgCe were performed. During each melts samples of cast steel direct from metal bath were get and series of experimental casting was made. Chemical compositions of melted cast steel, contents of O, N and H were determined as well as influence of additions on structure and nature of impact strength samples fracture were estimated.

  3. Preparation of precursor for stainless steel foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiang-yang; LI Shan-ni; LI Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of polyurethane sponge pretreatment and slurry compositions on the slurry loading in precursor were discussed, and the,performances of stainless steel foams prepared from precursors with different slurry loadings and different particle sizes of the stainless steel powder were also investigated. The experimental results show that the pretreatment of sponge with alkaline solution is effective to reduce the jam of cells in precursor and ensure the slurry to uniformly distribute in sponge, and it is also an effective method for increasing the slurry loading in precursor; the mass fraction of additive A and solid content in slurry greatly affect the slurry loading in precursor, when they are kept in 9%-13% and 52%-75%, respectively, the stainless steel foam may hold excellent 3D open-cell network structure and uniform muscles; the particle size of the stainless steel powder and the slurry loading in precursor have great effects on the bending strength, apparent density and open porosity of stainless steel foam; when the stainless steel powder with particle size of 44 tan and slurry loading of 0.5 g/cm3 in precursor are used, a stainless steel foam can be obtained, which has open porosity of 81.2%, bending strength of about 51.76 MPa and apparent density of about 1.0 g/cm3.

  4. Ferritic steels for French LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austenitic stainless steels have been widely used in many components of the French LMFBR. Up to now, ferritic steels have not been considered for these components, mainly due to their relatively low creep properties. Some ferritic steels are usable when the maximum temperatures in service do not exceed about 5300C. It is the case of the steam generators of the Phenix plant, where the exchange tubes of the evaporator are made of 2,25% Cr-1% Mo steel, stabilized or not by addition of niobium. These ferritic alloys have worked successfully since the first steam production in October 1973. For the SuperPhenix power plant, an ''all austenitic stainless alloy'' apparatus has been chosen. However, for the future, ferritic alloys offer potential for use as alternative materials in the evaporators: low alloys steels type 2,25% Cr-1% Mo (exchange tubes, tube-sheets, shells), or at higher chromium content type 9% Cr-2% Mo NbV (exchange tubes) or 12M Cr-1% Mo-V (tube-sheets). Most of these steels have already an industrial background, and are widely used in similar applications. The various potential applications of these steels are reviewed with regards to the French LMFBR steam generators, indicating that some points need an effort of clarification, for instance the properties of the heterogeneous ferritic/austenitic weldments

  5. Hydrogen degradation of high-strength steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ćwiek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to evaluate susceptibility of high-strength steels and welded joints to hydrogen degradation and to establish applicable mechanism of their hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen delayed cracking.Design/methodology/approach: High-strength quenched and tempered steel grade S690Q and its welded joints have been used. Structural low-alloy steel 34CrAlNi7-10 with various plasma nitrided layers was evaluated. Susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of steel, welded joints, and nitrided layers was evaluated using monotonically increasing load. Slow strain rate test (SSRT was carried out in hydrogen generating environments. Susceptibility to hydrogen delayed cracking was evaluated under constant load in artificial sea water. Fractographic examinations with the use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM were performed to establish suitable mechanism of hydrogen-enhanced cracking.Findings: Tested high-strength steel and its welded joints are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement when evaluated with the use of SSRT. The loss of plasticity is higher for welded joints then for the base metal. Tested steel and welded joints reveal high resistance to hydrogen degradation under constant load. Plasma nitrided layers are effective barriers for hydrogen entry into structural steel.Research limitations/implications: There has been no possibility to perform direct observations of exact mechanism of hydrogen-assisted cracking so far. Further research should be taken to reveal the exact mechanism of increased plasticity of a nitrided layer with absorbed hydrogen.Practical implications: Tested steel and its welded joints could be safely utilized within elastic range of stress in hydrogen generating environments, and constructions under cathodic protection provided that overprotection does not take place.Originality/value: Hydrogen-Enhanced Localized Plasticity (HELP model is a more applicable mechanism of hydrogen degradation than the others

  6. Estimation of quality for steel wire ropes according

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Peterka; Boroka Ján; Kreák Jozef

    1997-01-01

    Life and work dependability of steel wire ropes depend also on their quality. Test results of the steel wire ropes for pull, bend and torque are used for determination of their work capacity by safety factors and standards. To estimate the quality of steel wire ropes a factor of unequal pull steel wires, which we evaluated for sixty nine operating steel wire ropes made in various countries, can be calculated. The tests revealed that producers of steel wire ropes use for their products steel ...

  7. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ľ Ambriško; L Pešek

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with an experimental determination of the stretch zone dimensions in the notch tip in thin steel sheets. The stretch zone dimensions depend on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones were observed and measured on three steel grades. Fracture area and stretch zones were analysed by SEM. Stable crack growth was monitored by videoextensometry techniques on CT (Compact Tension) specimens. Specimens were loaded under two loading rates by eccentric tension, whereby the deformation in the notch surrounding area was recorded using a non-contact measurement–videoextensometry technique. Linear relation between the stretch zone dimensions was determined.

  8. Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-05-01

    Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

  9. Tribocorrosion wear of austenitic and martensitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rozing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of tribocorrosion wear caused by an aggressive acidic media. Tests were conducted on samples made of stainless steel AISI 316L, 304L and 440C. Austenitic steels were tested in their nitrided state and martensitic in quenched and tempered and then induction hardened state. Electrochemical corrosion resistance testing and analysis of the microstructure and hardness in the cross section was carried out on samples of selected steels. To test the possibility of applying surface modification of selected materials in conditions of use, tests were conducted on samples/parts in a worm press for final pressing.

  10. Recycle of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy owns large quantities of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steel which could by recycled for reuse if appropriate release standards were in place. Unfortunately, current policy places the formulation of a release standard for USA industry years, if not decades, away. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and various university and industrial partners are participating in initiative to recycle previously contaminated austenitic stainless steels into containers for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. This paper describes laboratory scale experiments which demonstrated the decontamination and remelt of stainless steel which had been contaminated with radionuclides

  11. Noise pollution in iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron and steel industry is characterized by high energy consumption and thus present remarkable problems from the point of view of noise pollution. The aims of this paper is to examine characteristic and acoustical emissions and immisions of some fundamentals iron and steel plants with several remarks on the possible measures to reduce noise pollution. For a large integrate iron and steel system, some surveys are shown with all devices running and, in addition, comparisons are made with other surveys when the main devices were out of service owing to great maintenance works

  12. Quenching simulation of steel grinding balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Hernandez, O.; Reyes, L. A.; Camurri, C.; Carrasco, C.; Garza-Monte-de-Oca, F.; Colas, R.

    2015-07-01

    The phase transformations of high carbon steel during quenching and equalizing were modelled using commercial computer packages based on the finite element method and the kinetic transformation of steel. The model was used to predict the temperature and microstructural changes taking place within balls of two different sizes that are used for grinding mineral ores. A good correlation between the temperatures measured by inserted thermocouples and those predicted by the model was obtained after modifying the thermal conductivity of the steel within the temperature domain at which mixed phases are present. The phase transformations predicted were confirmed by metallographic analyses. (Author)

  13. Thermal embrittlement of reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of observations of possible thermal embrittlement from recent studies with welds removed from retired steam generators of the Palisades Nuclear Plant (PNP), an assessment was made of thermal aging of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under nominal reactor operating conditions. Discussions are presented on (1) data from the literature regarding relatively low-temperature thermal embrittlement of RPV steels; (2)relevant data from the US power reactor-embrittlement data base (PR-EDB); and (3)potential mechanisms of thermal embrittlement in low-alloy steels

  14. Batch-annealed dual-phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-phase steel, consisting essentially of a ferrite matrix containing islands of martensite, is produced by batch annealing of hot or cold rolled steel having carbon below 0.2% and manganese below 2% and at least critical contents of copper (0.4%) and nickel (0.6%), with heat to the alpha plus gamma region, followed by slow cooling. This procedure is effective and controllable, and yields a dual-phase steel product that has high tensile strength with excellent elongation properties and that develops good yield strength upon moderate deformation

  15. Dynamic characteristics of automotive steel sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihaliková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experimental research was to perform an analysis of deformation characteristics on two different types of steel: IF steel, and micro-alloyed steel were used automotive industry. For that purpose changes of properties of these materials were carried out by static 10-3 · s-1 and dynamic 103 · s-1 strain rate assess its plastic properties. Vickers micro hardness test was carried out by the static and dynamic loading condition and describes different hardness distribution. The higher strain hardening of materials was obtained too that was confirmed by distribution of dislocations.

  16. Radiation-induced sensitisation of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains the proceedings of a symposium on radiation-induced sensitization of stainless steels, which took place at Berkeley, United Kingdom, 1986. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the mechanism leading to inter-granular corrosion of 20%Cr/25% Ni/Nb stainless steel cladding of AGR fuel following irradiation. Nine papers are presented, of which three are theoretical, two papers are based upon corrosion studies of 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb steel, and the remaining are concerned with compositional redistribution and its measurement. (U.K.)

  17. Ageing of cast stainless steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry uses cast stainless steels in areas where it is paramount to ensure reactor safety. Investigations into the resistance of cast stainless steels to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in simulated light water reactor conditions have shown contrary to expectation, some nuclear grade steels are indeed susceptible to SCC. The paper sets out of determine whether the information available in the various life extension databanks is sufficient for the application of the various empirical and theoretical models to the relevant safety analyses or if not, to identify areas where data is deficient. (Author)

  18. The optical metallography of some maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural features of maraging steels, including those that impose limitations on strength and toughness, are briefly reviewed. Phase relationships in the iron-nickel matrix system are introduced which, in conjunction with alloy composition and heat treatment, allow the interpretation of microstructure. Details are presented of methods for revealing the microstructure of maraging steels; the prior austenite grain size following a variety of heat treatments is of special interest since excessive grain size can lead to poor ductility. These methods are illustrated with micrographs of the microstructures of MAR 350 and MAR 400 steels in the cast, solution-treated, aged and cold-worked states

  19. Diffusion zinc plating of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the research on diffusion zinc plating of structural steels when replacing their cyanide cadmium plating. The results of the experiments in the open air, in vacuum, in the inert atmosphere, under various temperatures (300 - 500 deg.C) for different steel brands are presented. It is shown that diffusion zinc plating in argon or nitrogen atmosphere ensures obtaining the qualitative anticorrosion coating with insignificant change of mechanical properties of steels. The process is simple, reliable, ecology pure and cost-effective. (authors)

  20. Steels for large steam pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are the results of pilot-scale operation and scientific investigation of metal of pipes 500 to 1100 mm in diameter manufactured by various techniques from 15Kh1M1F steel. The structure and the properties of the metal of ten meltings were investigated for homogeneity in the following zones: base metal, near-weld zone and weld metal. It was found that the macrostructure of pipes cast by a centrifugal method has a fairly dense structure; there is homogeneity across and lengthwise of the pipe. After a heat treatment, the metal of centrifugally cast pipes has both high short-time and long-time properties. Introduction of centrifugally cast pipe manufacture opens possibilities for using larger pipes in steam conduits of hot intermediate superheating devices

  1. Niobium in steels and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on the reserves and processing of niobium raw materials followed by brief review of the current status and long-range trends in the commercial usage of niobium and its compounds. A survey is made of the physical properties of niobium and its chemical reactions with elements of direct concern in the manufacture of ferroalloys, quality steels and other products. Niobium minerals and ores, along with common ore processing practices are described briefly. Attention is paid to Brazilian niobium ores, and to the Araxa deposit specifically. Some emphasis has been given to methods of processing lean niobium ores not easily amenable to simple concentration. A systematic review is presented of the techniques used in the production of niobium ferroalloys. (E.G.)

  2. 76 FR 15299 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with...) steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are recognized as low carbon steels with... FR 74682 (December 1, 2010). On January 3, 2011, we received from United States Steel Corporation,...

  3. The Viability of Steel-Concrete Composite Girder Bridges With continuous Profiled Steel Deck

    OpenAIRE

    Hatlee, Jonathan Russell

    2009-01-01

    The continuous permanent metal deck form system provides a quick and efficient method of constructing short-span, simply supported composite steel girder bridges. However, because shear studs can only be welded to the girder through the steel deck at rib locations, the number of shear stud locations is limited to the number of ribs in the shear span while the spacing of the shear studs is restricted to the rib spacing of the steel deck. This results in a condition where various...

  4. The Effect of Ladle Treatment on Steel Cleanness in Tool Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Steneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to get an overview of the steel cleanness in tool steel. Plant trial studies of three steel grades were done with different focuses. Firstly the change of the inclusion characteristics during the vacuum degassing in the ladle was looked upon. The top slag composition was altered and sampling was made before and after vacuum degassing and the results showed that the top slag composition has an effect on the inclusion composition. Thermodynamic calculations indic...

  5. THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STEEL SILOS WITH CYLINDRICAL-WALL BEARING AND PROFILE-STEEL BEARING

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengjun Tang; Daibiao Zhou; Chenwei Peng; Wenping Wu

    2015-01-01

    The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with prof...

  6. FEM Simulation of Bending Formability for Laminate Steel/Resin/Steel Lightweight Composite Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guancheng Ll; Yonglin KANG

    2003-01-01

    The ANSYS simulation software was used to analyze the bending formability of laminate steel/resin/steel lightweight composite sheet. The skin steel at external side produces relative slipping-off change during the bending due to its composite structure. The internal stress strain states, materials effect tools parameters and intermediate layer resin of lightweight sheet on slipping-off change were analyzed. The spring back and shear stress state after bending have also been discussed.

  7. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadegan, M. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Feng, A.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeid, T. [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shen, J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

  8. Project B: Improved Liquid Steel Feed For Slab Casters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent S. Isaacson; Mike Slepian; Thomas Richter

    1998-10-01

    This report describes the completion of the development of an electromagnetic valve to control liquid steel flow for improved liquid steel feeding for slab casters. Achievements result from a joint research effort between Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, North American Refractories and U.S. Steel. This effort is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and fifteen North American steel makers.

  9. Effects of HTAW on steel melted metal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper (written by experts of japanese steel-making industry and of the Welding Research Institute of Osaka University) deals with the effects of HTAW on mechanical and corrosion properties of different steels (C-Si-Mn steels, micro-alloyed steels, low alloy steels for current and high temperature applications), and is done from a compilation of documents published between 1981 and 1994. (A.B.)

  10. Experiments on cold-formed ferritic stainless steel slender sections

    OpenAIRE

    Bock Montero, Marina; Arrayago Luquin, Itsaso; Real Saladrigas, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The usage of stainless steel in construction has been increasing owing to its corrosion resistance, aesthetic appearance and favourable mechanical properties. The most common stainless steel grades used for structural applications are austenitic steels. The main drawback of these grades relies on their nickel content (around 8–10%), resulting in a relatively high initial material cost. Other stainless steel grades with lower nickel content such as the ferritic steels offer the benefits of ...

  11. Experience with ferrosilicoaluminum alloy during deoxidation of steel

    OpenAIRE

    Mekhtiyev, A.; Akhmetov, A.; V. Yudakova; Bulatbayev, F.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the process of deoxidation quiet and low-alloyed steel alloy ferrosilicoaluminum complex in comparison the existing, and with steel deoxidation technology with conventional alloys - ferrosilicon and secondary aluminum. A comparative analysis of quality steel, non-metallic inclusions metallographic studies and studies of the mechanical properties of the resulting steel was done. On a large array of experimental steel proved cost-effectiveness and feasibility of ferrosilic...

  12. Do steel prices move together? : a cointegration test

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Ying

    1990-01-01

    Lack of international comparability in crude steel prices presents a problem in constructing an econometric model of the global steel market. The commonly used measures of crude steel prices are the weighted average of the prices of steel products and the index of the weighted average of prices based on a certain year. But in the context of constructing an econometric model of the global steel market, these measures are not comparable internationally. If the various product prices are cointeg...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

    OpenAIRE

    José Britti Bacalhau; Fernanda Moreno Rodrigues; Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition ...

  14. Trends in production and using of the steel ropes

    OpenAIRE

    Vieroslav Molnár; Ján Boroška

    2006-01-01

    The Steel ropes are an important structural and transport element in various industries.There are possible various trends in their production and usage from the technical progress point of view. There also are production improvements and materials for the steel rope properties, the development of machinery for the production of steel ropes and their elements as well as the development of new steel rope structures and the improvement parameters of present steel rope structures. This paper deal...

  15. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The morphology of the corrosion of steel in cement paste was studied in situ. • During galvanostatic corrosion, carbon steel reinforcement corroded homogeneously. • On ferritic stainless steel, deep corrosion pits formed and caused wider cracks. • The measured rate of steel loss correlated well with Faraday’s law of electrolysis. - Abstract: In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover

  16. Transformation behavior of steels. ; Transformation and properties of commercial steels. Tekko no hentai kyodo. ; Jitsuyo zairyo no hentai to seishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunitake, T. (Sumikin Techno Research, Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    Recently, large revolution has occurred in the manufacturing processes and composition designs of steels. By considering such tendency, Materials Research Committee of Japan Steel Association carried out a co-operative research on the transformation behavior of steels. Objected steels are mainly high tensile strength steels and tempered steels, and steels for machinery structures. The research was performed on the items, such as the transformation from processed austenite and its properties, transformation and properties of steels with accelerated heating and cooling, and transformation and properties of reheated medium carbon steels. The author discusses the comparison with the transformation from unprocessed austenite, the effects of microalloying elements of Nb, Ti, V,B, etc., the effects of pre-existing textures on the transformation from in-equilibrium state austenite, and the transformation behavior of vainite and martensite in low temperatures. The research was carried out under considering the actual processes of practical use steels. 15 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Composite Steel Concrete Structural Shear Walls with Steel Encased Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of common reinforced concrete shear walls in high rise buildings is sometimes limited because of the large amount of reinforcement localized at the end of the element. A good alternative in avoiding this disadvantage is to use composite steel concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles. This solution used for high rise buildings, offers to designers lateral stiffness, shear capacity and high bending resisting moment of structural walls. The encasement of the steel shapes in concrete is applied also for the following purposes: flexural stiffening and strengthening of compression elements; fire protection; potentially easier repairs after moderate damage; economy with respect both to material and construction. Until now in the national and international literature poor information about nonlinear behaviour of composite steel concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles is available. A theoretical and experimental program related to the behaviour of steel concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles is developed at “Politehnica” University of Timişoara. The program refers to six different elements, which differ by the shape of the steel encased profile and also by the arrangement of steel shapes on the cross section of the element. In order to calibrate the elements for experimental study some numerical analysis were made. The paper presents the results of numerical analysis with details of stress distribution, crack distribution, structural stiffness at various loads, and load bearing capacity of the elements.

  18. Hydrogen gas embrittlement of stainless steels mainly austenitic steels. Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel behavior in regard to hydrogen is examined especially austenitic steels. Gamma steels are studied particularly the series 300 with various stabilities and gamma steels with improved elasticity limit for intermetallic phase precipitation and nitrogen additions. A two-phase structure γ + α' is also studied. All the samples are tested for mechanical behavior in gaseous hydrogen. Influence of metallurgical effects and of testing conditions on hydrogen embrittlement are evidenced. Microstructure resulting from mechanical or heat treatments, dislocation motion during plastic deformation and influence of deformation rate are studied in detail

  19. Advances in the heat treatment of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of important recent advances in the processing of steels have resulted from the sophisticated uses of heat treatment to tailor the microstructure of the steels so that desirable properties are established. These new heat treatments often involve the tempering or annealing of the steel to accompish a partial or complete reversion from martensite to austenite. The influence of these reversion heat treatments on the product microstructure and its properties may be systematically discussed in terms of the heat treating temperature in relation to the phase diagram. From this perspective, four characteristic heat treatments are defined: (1) normal tempering, (2) inter-critical tempering, (3) intercritical annealing, and (4) austenite reversion. The reactions occurring during each of these treatments are described and the nature and properties of typical product microstructures discussed, with specific reference to new commercial or laboratory steels having useful and exceptional properties

  20. Fatigue in Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    test results. Both the fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner's rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel structures, may give results, which are unconservative, and that the validity of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series have been carried through on various...... types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 360-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-1010 MPa. The fatigue tests and the fracture mechanics analyses...

  1. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  2. Bitter Operation in Global Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sujuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Shrinking international demand Global economy started to decline from the second half of 2008. Along with weak real estate market and dull automobile sales, steel industry fell into stagnant operation after six-year-straight rapid development.

  3. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  4. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography and...... ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro-and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate...... replica has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items, are...

  5. Effect of ultrasonic oscillations on steel rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radial ultrasonic oscillations on rolling has been studied. Plates and pipes made of the St3 and 08Kh18N10T steel were rolled at 20 and at 1200 deg C. Ultrasonic waves proved to reduce pressure on the rollers by 9-14%, this eventually leading to higher efficiency of rolling. Hot rolling involving ultrasonic treatment decreased the ultrimate strength and yield point of both steels by 5-10% and increased relative elongation on account of uniform contraction. Cold ultrasound-involving rolling decreased the ultimate strength and the yield point of the St3 steel, hardly affecting those of the 08Kh18N10T steel

  6. Corrosion behavior of sensitized duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F J; Panyayong, W; Rogers, W; Velasquez-Plata, D; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1998-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel in 0.9% NaCl solution after various heat-treatments, and compares it to that of 316L austenitic stainless steel. Both stainless steels were heat-treated at 500, 650, and 800 degrees C in air for 1 h, followed by furnace cooling. Each heat-treated sample was examined for their microstructures and Vickers micro-hardness, and subjected to the X-ray diffraction for the phase identification. Using potentiostatic polarization method, each heat-treated sample was corrosion-tested in 37 degrees C 0.9% NaCl solution to estimate its corrosion rate. It was found that simulated sensitization showed an adverse influence on both steels, indicating that corrosion rates increased by increasing the sensitization temperatures. PMID:9713683

  7. Extraction and determination of microgram amounts of molybdenum (VI) and tungsten (VI) in carbon steel, mild steel, plain steel and Mn-Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed for the extraction of microgram amounts of molybdenum(VI) and tungsten(VI) from halide medium using tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate dissolved in toluene as an extractant. Various experimental parameters involved in the use of the method such as acid concentration, period of equilibration, nature of stripping agents and interference by diverse ions have been studied. The logD-logC plot is used to ascertain probable extractable species. The method has been applied for separation of molybdenum(VI) and tungsten(VI) in alloys like carbon steel, mild steel, plain steel and Mn-Mo steel. The analysis requires 15-20 min. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  8. Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds has been considered difficult because of the high noise level and remarkable attenuation of ultrasonic waves. To improve flaw detectability in this kind of steel, various inspection techniques have been studied. A series of tests indicated: (1) The longitudinal angle beam transducers newly developed during this study can detect 4.8 mm dia. side drilled holes in dissimilar metal welds (refraction angle: 550 from SUS side, 450 from CS side) and in cast stainless steel welds (refraction angle: 450, inspection frequency: 1 MHz). (2) Cracks more than 5% t in depth in the heat affected zones of fine-grain stainless steel pipe welds can be detected by the 450 shear wave angle beam method (inspection frequency: 2 MHz). (3) The pattern recognition method using frequency analysis technology was presumed useful for discriminating crack signals from spurious echoes. (author)

  9. The World's Largest Steel Casting Poured Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The world's largest steel casting -- the upper beam (or the top head) for free forging oil hydraulic press with a 18,000-ton force capacity, was poured successfully by CITIC Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. (CITICHM) on May 22, 2008. This head piece is 11.95 meters long, 3.8 meters wide, 4.59 meters high and about 520 tons in gross weight. Pouring is the most important and critical step during its manufacturing process. The production of this huge casting requires about 830 tons of refined molten steel from 10 smelting furnaces and pouring with six ladles into the mold cavity at one time, which made it currently the world's largest steel casting poured and the most one-time molten steel organized.

  10. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  11. Horizontal electron beam welding for stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainless steel samples have been realized by local vacuum apparatus for electron beam welding applications to reactor core shell realizations. The best welding parameters have been determined by a systematic study. The welds have been characterized by mechanical tests

  12. Thermal stability of phosphate coatings on steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Szelag, P.; Novák, M.; Mastný, L.; Brožek, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2015), s. 489-492. ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Steel * phosphates * coatings * structure Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  13. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  14. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J. A. [Fermilab; Grimm, C. [Fermilab; Passarelli, D. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  15. Fracture toughness properties of duplex stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Sieurin, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Good toughness properties in base and weld material enable the use of duplex stainless steels (DSS) in critical applications. DSS offer high strength compared to common austenitic stainless steels. The high strength can be utilized to reduce the wall thickness and accordingly accomplish reduction of cost, welding time and transportation weight, contributing to ecological and energy savings. Although DSS have been used successfully in many applications the last decades, the full utilisation in...

  16. Advanced Ultra high Strength Bainitic Steels

    OpenAIRE

    García Caballero, Francisca; García Mateo, Carlos; Capdevila, Carlos; García de Andrés, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The addition of about 2 wt.% of silicon to steel enables the production of a distinctive microstructure consisting of a mixture of bainitic ferrite, carbon-enriched retained austenite, and some martensite. With careful design, impressive combinations of strength and toughness have been reported for high-silicon bainitic steels. More recently, it has been demonstrated experimentally that models based on phase transformation theory can be applied successfully to the design of carbide-free baini...

  17. Phase transformations in welded supermartensitic stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Carrouge, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steels have recently been introduced in the oil and gas industries to substitute more expensive duplex stainless steels for onshore and offshore tubing applications. Although easily joined by arc welding processes, the service life of the supermartensitic welded joint in corrosive environments relies to a large extent on the behaviour of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The microstructure of the HAZ in these new materials has, until now, received little ...

  18. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarev Yuriy; Akhatuly Alisher; Alzhanova Raushan; Panfilova Alla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges). The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in orde...

  19. Acoustic Emission Health Monitoring of Steel Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlavan, Pooria Lotfollah; Paulissen, Joep; Pijpers, Richard; Hakkesteegt, Henk; Jansen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive developments in the field of Acoustic Emission (AE) for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel structures, the implementation of AE systems for large-scale bridges is hindered by limitations associated with instrumentation costs and signal processing complexities. This paper sheds light on some of the most important challenges in the utilization of AE systems for steel bridge decks. These challenges are mainly related to the multi-modal character of guided waves, and the expensi...

  20. Thermal treatment of dissimilar steels' welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, A. A.; Denisova, A. S.; Gradusov, I. N.; Ryabinkina, P. A.; Rushkovets, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper combinations of chrome-nickel steel and high-carbon steel, produced by flash butt welding after heat treatment, are investigated. Light and electron microscopic studies show that the welded joints after heat treatment have a complex structure consisting of several phases as initial welded joints. A martensite structure in welded joints after thermal treatment at 300... 800 °C has been found.

  1. Rapid solidification of candidate ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo steels were rapidly solidified by the liquid dynamic compaction process and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel was prepared by the ultrasonic gas atomization process. The consolidation was performed in the ferritic temperature range in order to minimize segregation. These alloys will be tested at ORNL using 1/3 CVN test specimens and the results will be compared with those for conventially processed alloys

  2. Laser welding of advanced high strength steels

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Essam Ahmed Ali

    2011-01-01

    This research work focuses on characterization of CO2 laser beam welding (LBW) of dual phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel sheets based on experimental, numerical simulation and statistical modeling approaches. The experimental work aimed to investigate the welding induced-microstructures, hardness, tensile properties and formability limit of laser welding butt joints of DP/DP, TRIP/TRIP and DP/TRIP steel sheets under different welding speeds. The effects of shieldin...

  3. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding Tanks Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulskiy, I.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.; Klimova-Korsmik, O.

    2016-04-01

    The results investigate hybrid laser-arc welding of high strength steels using design responsible metallic construction and the highest strength body of vehicles. Welds from modern high strength steels grade Hardox 400, Hardox 450, Armox 600T and AB were created. High power fiber laser LS-15 with output 15 kW and arc rectifier VDU - 1500 DC were used in the experiment. Results of the metallographic research and mechanical tests are presented.

  4. Welding of high manganese- and carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology and conditions of welding of high manganese and carbon steel by a resistance welding technique using an intermediate part are developed. Austenitic chromium-nickel 12Kh18N10T steel is chosen as a material of the intermediate part. The recommended welding conditions insure a high quality of the weld joint in terms of metal structure and its mechanical properties. It is the basic metal of the joint that fractures under mechanical testing

  5. Behaviour of stainless steel in natural seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Compere, Chantal; Le Bozec, Nathalie

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, investigations performed in natural and artificial seawater on stainless steels will be presented. They concerned studies on: biofilm formation, passive layers composition, electrochemical behaviour, localised corrosion and the evolution of these different parameters as a function of ageing time. According to literature surveys, the different aspects will be discussed. Some conclusions will be drawn concerning the actual knowledge on the behaviour of stainless steels in seawater.

  6. Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Shingo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to model carbide precipitation in steels of a quaternary system which includes two substitutional elements. The work focuses on secondary hardening steels which are used for high-strength components, where hydrogen embrittlement is one of the major factors responsible for failure. It is believed that carbide particles can act as hydrogen trapping sites, thus reducing the risk of embrittlement. The thesis begins with a review of the physical metallurgy of secondary...

  7. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Alcántara, Jenifer; Díaz, Iván; Chico, Belén; Simancas, Joaquín; de la Fuente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products...

  8. Microstructural Study of High Irradiated Reactor Steels

    OpenAIRE

    SLUGEN Vladimir; PETRISKA Martin; SOJAK Stanislav; VETERNIKOVA Jana

    2009-01-01

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) techniques in combination with other techniques were effectively used in the testing and selection process of optimal reactor steels for use in Generation III and IV reactors or thermonuclear fusion facilities. Conventional PAS lifetime technique and pulsed low energy positron system were applied on wide spectrum of reactor steels together with other techniques viz., Transmission Electron Microscopy and Mossbauer Spectroscopy focused on the role of Nic...

  9. A Duplex Stainless Steel for Chloride Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, N.; Kolts, J.; Flasche, L. H.

    1985-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of microstructural changes on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue resistance of a duplex stainless steel to chloride environments. The microstructural changes can be precipitation of phases such as sigma and carbides, or changes in the distribution of austenite and ferrite. The former can be important in hot forming operations while the latter is important in welding. The methods of minimizing these deleterious effects can sometimes be different from those used for austenitic stainless steel.

  10. Hard Coating on Steel – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. HiteshriJadhav; Mr.Parthiv Trivedi

    2014-01-01

    Now a days various coating techniques are being used in different fields for a large number of applications. This paper consists of different effects and its respective changes on the steel substrate material coated by High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) coating. It helps enhance the properties such as micro structure, abrasive wear, wear resistance etc. and various techniques such as SEM, XRD, Pin-On-Disc etc. are used to check and analysis these properties. On hard coating steel the material may ...

  11. Neutron irradiation creep in stainless steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuele, Wolfgang (Commission of the European Union, Institute for Advanced Materials, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy)); Hausen, Hermann (Commission of the European Union, Institute for Advanced Materials, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy))

    1994-09-01

    Irradiation creep elongations were measured in the HFR at Petten on AMCR steels, on 316 CE-reference steels, and on US-316 and US-PCA steels varying the irradiation temperature between 300 C and 500 C and the stress between 25 and 300 MPa. At the beginning of an irradiation a type of primary'' creep stage is observed for doses up to 3-5 dpa after which dose the secondary'' creep stage begins. The primary'' creep strain decreases in cold-worked steel materials with decreasing stress and decreasing irradiation temperature achieving also negative creep strains depending also on the pre-treatment of the materials. These primary'' creep strains are mainly attributed to volume changes due to the formation of radiation-induced phases, e.g. to the formation of [alpha]-ferrite below about 400 C and of carbides below about 700 C, and not to irradiation creep. The secondary'' creep stage is found for doses larger than 3 to 5 dpa and is attributed mainly to irradiation creep. The irradiation creep rate is almost independent of the irradiation temperature (Q[sub irr]=0.132 eV) and linearly dependent on the stress. The total creep elongations normalized to about 8 dpa are equal for almost every type of steel irradiated in the HFR at Petten or in ORR or in EBR II. The negative creep elongations are more pronounced in PCA- and in AMCR-steels and for this reason the total creep elongation is slightly smaller at 8 dpa for these two steels than for the other steels. ((orig.))

  12. Neutron irradiation creep in stainless steel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Wolfgang; Hausen, Hermann

    1994-09-01

    Irradiation creep elongations were measured in the HFR at Petten on AMCR steels, on 316 CE-reference steels, and on US-316 and US-PCA steels varying the irradiation temperature between 300°C and 500°C and the stress between 25 and 300 MPa. At the beginning of an irradiation a type of "primary" creep stage is observed for doses up to 3-5 dpa after which dose the "secondary" creep stage begins. The "primary" creep strain decreases in cold-worked steel materials with decreasing stress and decreasing irradiation temperature achieving also negative creep strains depending also on the pre-treatment of the materials. These "primary" creep strains are mainly attributed to volume changes due to the formation of radiation-induced phases, e.g. to the formation of α-ferrite below about 400°C and of carbides below about 700°C, and not to irradiation creep. The "secondary" creep stage is found for doses larger than 3 to 5 dpa and is attributed mainly to irradiation creep. The irradiation creep rate is almost independent of the irradiation temperature ( Qirr = 0.132 eV) and linearly dependent on the stress. The total creep elongations normalized to about 8 dpa are equal for almost every type of steel irradiated in the HFR at Petten or in ORR or in EBR II. The negative creep elongations are more pronounced in PCA- and in AMCR-steels and for this reason the total creep elongation is slightly smaller at 8 dpa for these two steels than for the other steels.

  13. Neutron irradiation creep in stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation creep elongations were measured in the HFR at Petten on AMCR steels, on 316 CE-reference steels, and on US-316 and US-PCA steels varying the irradiation temperature between 300 C and 500 C and the stress between 25 and 300 MPa. At the beginning of an irradiation a type of ''primary'' creep stage is observed for doses up to 3-5 dpa after which dose the ''secondary'' creep stage begins. The ''primary'' creep strain decreases in cold-worked steel materials with decreasing stress and decreasing irradiation temperature achieving also negative creep strains depending also on the pre-treatment of the materials. These ''primary'' creep strains are mainly attributed to volume changes due to the formation of radiation-induced phases, e.g. to the formation of α-ferrite below about 400 C and of carbides below about 700 C, and not to irradiation creep. The ''secondary'' creep stage is found for doses larger than 3 to 5 dpa and is attributed mainly to irradiation creep. The irradiation creep rate is almost independent of the irradiation temperature (Qirr=0.132 eV) and linearly dependent on the stress. The total creep elongations normalized to about 8 dpa are equal for almost every type of steel irradiated in the HFR at Petten or in ORR or in EBR II. The negative creep elongations are more pronounced in PCA- and in AMCR-steels and for this reason the total creep elongation is slightly smaller at 8 dpa for these two steels than for the other steels. ((orig.))

  14. Characteristics of cold rolled stainless steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cold rolling of sheets of austenitic stainless steel was investigated for different temperatures and percentages of reduction. It was also established under which conditions are the mechanical strenght and the ductility improved. It was found that this improvement is related to the characteristics of martensitic transformation taking place during rolling and through the tensile tests performed in stainless steels with different degree of martensitic transformation. The results are explained on the basis of martensite participation in the stained structure. (Author)

  15. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    OpenAIRE

    a Fatehi; Calvo Muñoz, Jessica; Elwazri, A. M.; Yue, S

    2010-01-01

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly...

  16. Strengthening of steels by ceramic phases

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    Production of ceramic reinforced thin sheet steel composites for automotive application with low density, high elastic modulus and strength is the aim of current study. Within this work, potential of various ceramic phases and possible processing routes were studied, summarized and compared through literature research. Laboratory production of TiC, TiB2 and Fe2B reinforced steel composites through conventional melting-casting route, twin roller route and powder metallurgy method were carried ...

  17. Stainless chromium-nickel steels. Chapter I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition is tabulated of 90 chromium-nickel stainless steels and alloys given in volume %. The values are also given of the corrosion resistance of the steels and alloys. The tables show data on the surface condition or the methods of material working, types and chemical composition of the medium where corrosion resistance tests were carried out, temperature, pressure, time of tests, corrosion rates, corrosion types, and literature references. A total of 35 references is given. (J.B.)

  18. Tritium in austenitic stainless steel vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austenitic stainless steels are normally recommended for components of hydrogen-handling equipment in applications where high in-service reliability is required. The literature leading to this recommendation is reviewed, and it is shown that AISI Type 316L stainless is particularly suitable for use in tritium-handling and storage systems. When made of this steel, the storage vessels will be extremely resistant to any degradation from tritium in both routine and accident conditions. (author)

  19. Characteristics of vacuum sintered stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Brytan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study duplex stainless steels were sintered in vacuum. using rapid cooling form the mixture of prealloyed and alloying element powders The purpose of this paper was to describe the obtained microstructures after sintering as well as the main mechanical properties of sintered stainless steels.Design/methodology/approach: In presented work duplex stainless steels were obtained through powder metallurgy starting from austenitic 316L or ferritic 410L prealloyed stainless steels powders by controlled addition of alloying elements powder. Prepared mixes were sintered in a vacuum furnace in 1250°C for 1h. After sintering rapid cooling (6°C/s using nitrogen under pressure was applied. Sintered compositions were subjected to structural examinations by scanning and optical microscopy and EDS analysis as well as X-ray analysis. Mechanical properties were studied through tensile tests and Charpy impact test.Findings: It was demonstrated that austenitic-ferritic microstructures with regular arrangement of both phases and absence of precipitates can be obtained with properly designed powder mix composition as well as sintering cycle with rapid cooling rate. Obtained sintered duplex stainless steels shows good mechanical properties which depends on phases ratio in the microstructure and elements partitioning (Cr/Ni between phases.Research limitations/implications: Basing on alloys characteristics applied cooling rate and powder mix composition seems to be a good compromise to obtain balanced sintered duplex stainless steel microstructures.Practical implications: Mechanical properties of obtained sintered duplex stainless steels structures are rather promising, especially with the aim of extending their field of possible applications.Originality/value: The utilization of vacuum sintering process with rapid cooling after sintering combined with use of elemental powders added to a stainless steel base powder shows its advantages in terms

  20. Electrical stress on electrical steel coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on investigations of the electrical stress/interlaminar voltages on electrical steel coatings and highlights some misconceptions by simulating possible insulation failures in a magnetic core. It concludes by showing that insulation breakdown due to electrical discharge between laminations is not the main cause of short circuits in a magnetic core and questions the significance of insulation resistance consequently, as a selection criterion of electrical steel coatings in the machine building process

  1. Studies of stainless steel exposed to sandblasting

    OpenAIRE

    Horodek Paweł; Eseev Marat K.; Kobets Andrey G.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sandblasting on surface and subsurface of stainless steel is investigated using variable energy positron beam (VEP), positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Samples of stainless steel were blasted using 110 μm particles of Al2O3 under different pressure and time duration. In the case of sandblasting for 90 s, the reduction of positron diffusion length depending on the applied pressure was observed. Sandb...

  2. Deformation and Recrystallisation in Low Carbon Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Almojil, Marwan

    2010-01-01

    The annealing behaviour, including studies of recrystallisation kinetics anddevelopment of crystallographic texture, of two low carbon steels after different coldrolling reductions have been investigated using Optical Microscopy (OM), ElectronBack-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).The primary recrystallisation behaviour of 20, 50, 70 and 90% cold rolled InterstitialFree (IF) and High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels was studied. The HSLA wasinitially proces...

  3. Complex steel saturation with niobium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on determining possibility of niobium and vanadium alloying with carbides were conducted. Possibility of simultaneous saturation of carbon steels with niobium and vanadium was established. Diffusion layers coated on surfaces of 45, U8A and U10A steels under different conditions. It is shown that increase of coating density by means of alloying favours the increase of its corrosion resistance in water and aqueous solutions of salt and soda 2 times, wear resistance -1.6-5 times

  4. Mix design of steel fiber reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, E.; Fernández Cánovas, M.

    1997-01-01

    Mix design of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) is concerned with achieving a workability, homogeneity, durability and strength suitable for its use. Variables defining any mix design of SFRC are commented below, as well as their influence on some properties of fresh and hardened SFRC. A special attention is paid to concrete, since it's the main use of steel fibers in Spain now, followed by paving construction.

    El objetivo de una correcta dosificación de horm...

  5. Ion-nitriding of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ion-nitriding is an extensively industrialized process enabling steel surfaces to be hardened by nitrogen diffusion, with a resulting increase in wear, seizure and fatigue resistance, its direct application to stainless steels, while enhancing their mechanical properties, also causes a marked degradation in their oxidation resistance. However, by adaption of the nitriding process, it is possible to maintain the improved wear resistant properties while retaining the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel. The controlled diffusion permits the growth of a nitrogen supersaturated austenite layer on parts made of stainless steel (AISI 304L and 316L) without chromium nitride precipitation. The diffusion layer remains stable during post heat treatments up to 650 F for 5,000 hrs and maintains a hardness of 900 HV. A very low and stable friction coefficient is achieved which provides good wear resistance against stainless steels under diverse conditions. Electrochemical and chemical tests in various media confirm the preservation of the stainless steel characteristics. An example of the application of this process is the treatment of Reactor Control Rod Cluster Assemblies (RCCAs) for Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactors

  6. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  7. Stainless steel recycle FY94 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Technology Section (MTS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to demonstrate the practicality of recycling previously contaminated stainless steel components such as reactor heat exchanger heads, process water piping and slug buckets into 208 liters (55 gallon) drums and 2.8 cubic meter (100 ft3) storage boxes. Radioactively contaminated stainless steel scrap will be sent to several industrial partners where it will be melted, decontaminated/cast into ingots, and rolled into plate and sheet and fabricated into the drums and boxes. As part of this recycle initiative, MTS was requested to demonstrate that radioactively contaminated Type 304L stainless steel could be remelted and cast to meet the applicable ASTM specification for fabrication of drums and boxes. In addition, MTS was requested to develop the technical basis of melt decontamination and establish practicality of using this approach for value added products. The findings presented in this investigation lead to the following conclusions: recycle of 18 wt% Cr-8 wt% Ni alloy can be achieved by melting Type 304 stainless steel in a air vacuum induction furnace; limited melt decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel was achieved, surface contamination was removed by standard decontamination techniques; carbon uptake in the as-cast ingots resulted from the graphite susceptor used in this experiment and is unavoidable with this furnace configuration. A new furnace optimized for melting stainless steel has been installed and is currently being tested for use in this program

  8. LOCA analysis for manganese-stabilized steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese-stabilized steels have been proposed as candidate structural materials for fusion reactors, because they have been perceived as ''low-activation'' materials. Depending on the neutron spectra and the neutron fluence, the decay heat in Mn-stabilized steels is about 3--7 times larger than that in the Ni-stabilized steels. This large amount of decay heat could have serious impact in the case of loss of coolant accident (LOCA). A two-dimensional LOCA model has been used to examine the LOCA temperature response of the manganese steel when utilized in an earlier US design of ITER. The results show that the Mn-steel has approached its melting temperature by less than 100 degree C after about 7 hours from the onset of LOCA. On the other hand, the results for the nickel stabilized steel alloy 316SS show that the maximum temperature reached is 532 degree C in about the same time. 14 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heput, T.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c

  10. Development and formability analysis of TRIP seamless steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhu Fuxian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the production technology of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was first introduced into the steel tube manufacture field to produce the steel tubes with high strength and plasticity. The TRIP seamless steel tubes with the microstructure of ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and a little martensite were successfully fabricated using a cold-drawn steel tube with two-stage heat treatment technique and continu- ous heat treatment process, respectively. The ring tensile test and cold bend test were carried out to study the formability of the newly developed TRIP seamless steel tube. The results showed that the TRIP seamless steel tubes have a good cold formability, and they are available to be used in the tube hydroforming process. In ad- dition, the equipment of continuous heat treatment developed in the current study can be used to produce TRIP steel tube, and it may serve as an important reference for the industrial production of TRIP steel tube.

  11. Recent Progress in High Strength Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrník J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced High Strength (AHS steels, among them especially Dual Phase (DP steels, Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels, Complex Phase (CP steels, Partially Martensite (PM steels, feature promising results in the field. Their extraordinary mechanical properties can be tailored and adjusted by alloying and processing. The introduction of steels with a microstructure consisting at least of two different components has led to the enlargement of the strength level without a deterioration of ductility. Furthermore, the development of ultra fine-grained AHS steels and their service performance are reviewed and new techniques are introduced. Various projects have been devoted to develop new materials for flat and long steel products for structural applications. The main stream line is High Strength, in order to match the weight lightening requirements that concern the whole class of load bearing structures and/or steel components and one of the most investigated topics is grain refinement.

  12. Surface topography evolvement of galvanized steels in sheet metal forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Ying-ke; YU Zhong-qi; ZHANG Wei-gang; JIANG Hao-min; LIN Zhong-qin

    2009-01-01

    U-channel forming tests were performed to investigate the surface topography evolvement of hot-dip galvanized(GI) and galvannealed(GA) steels and the effects of die hardness on sheet metal forming(SMF). Experimental results indicate that the surface roughness values of the two galvanized steels increase with the number of forming, i.e., the surface topographies of galvanized steels are roughened in SMF. Moreover, GI steel has a better ability of damage-resistance than GA steel. The mechanisms of topography evolvement are different in the forming of GI and GA steels. Scratch is the main form of surface damage in the forming of GI steels. The severity of scratch can be decreased by increasing die hardness. GA steel results in exfoliating of the coating firstly and then severe scratching. The surface topography of galvannealed steels can be improved by increasing die hardness. However, the hardness should not be too high.

  13. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.

  14. The Study on Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot-Stamped Steel by Using Laser Heat Source (Ⅲ) - Comparison on Laser Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot -Stamped Steel-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, So Young; Kim, Jong Do [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Su [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study was conducted to compare the laser weldability of boron steel and hot-stamped steel. In general, boron steel is used in the hot-stamping process. Hot-stamping is a method for simultaneously forming and cooling boron steel in a press die after heating it to the austenitizing temperature. Hot-stamped steel has a strength of 1500 MPa or more. Thus, in this study, the laser weldability of boron steel and that of hot-stamped steel were investigated and compared. A continuous wave disk laser was used to produce butt and lap joints. In the butt welding, the critical cooling speed at which full penetration was obtained in the hot-stamped steel was lower than that of boron steel. In the lap welding, the joint widths were similar regardless of the welding speed when full penetration was obtained.

  15. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components

  16. Effect of cathodic protection on the state of steel reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage of reinforced concrete structures is mainly caused by chloride or carbonation induced corrosion of steel. Cathodic protection is a very effective measure for corrosion control of steel in concrete, especially in chloride contaminated concrete. In this paper, effect of cathodic protection on the state of steel reinforcement is presented. Cathodic polarization of reinforcements in concrete was done under different submerged conditions. Cyclic potentiodynamic tests were used to determine the effect of cathodic protection on the behavior of the steel. Pitting appeared on the non-protected steel, but was not observed on the cathodically protected steel. microscopic photographs show that a close film exists on the protected steel, while the non-protected steel's film is loose. Investigated results have proved the effect of cathodic protection in restoring or strengthening passive film on the steel reinforcement

  17. Current Developments of Alloyed Steels for Hot Strip Roughing Mills : Characterization of High-Chromium Steel and Semi-High Speed Steel

    OpenAIRE

    LECOMTE-BECKERS, Jacqueline; Sinnaeve, Mario; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack

    2012-01-01

    Two alloys grades for work rolls used in the roughing stand of Hot Strip Mill - high chromium steel (HCS) and semi-high-speed steel (semi-HSS), In this paper, the new semi-high-speed steel grade is studied

  18. Characterization of D2 tool steel friction surfaced coatings over low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solid state coating by friction surfacing method. • D2 tool steel is coated over relatively softer low carbon steel. • Defect free interface between tool steel coating and low carbon steel substrate. • D2 coatings exhibited higher hardness and good wear resistance. • Highly refined martensitic microstructure in the coating. - Abstract: In this work D2 tool steel coating is produced over a low carbon steel substrate using friction surfacing process. The process parameters are optimized to get a defect free coating. Microstructural characterization is carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Infrared thermography is used to measure the thermal profile during friction surfacing of D2 steel. Wear performance of the coating is studied using Pin-on-Disk wear tests. A lower rotational speed of the consumable rod and higher translational speed of the substrate is found to result in thinner coatings. Friction surfaced D2 steel coating showed fine-grained martensitic microstructure compared to the as-received consumable rod which showed predominantly ferrite microstructure. Refinement of carbides in the coating is observed due to the stirring action of the process. The infrared thermography studies showed the peak temperature attained by the D2 coating to be about 1200 °C. The combined effect of martensitic microstructure and refined carbides resulted in higher hardness and wear resistance of the coating

  19. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  20. Nanoindentation on ion irradiated steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced mechanical property changes can cause major difficulties in designing systems operating in a radiation environment. Investigating these mechanical property changes in an irradiation environment is a costly and time consuming activity. Ion beam accelerator experiments have the advantage of allowing relatively fast and inexpensive materials irradiations without activating the sample but do in general not allow large beam penetration depth into the sample. In this study, the ferritic/martensitic steel HT-9 was processed and heat treated to produce one specimen with a large grained ferritic microstructure and further heat treated to form a second specimen with a fine tempered martensitic lath structure and exposed to an ion beam and tested after irradiation using nanoindentation to investigate the irradiation induced changes in mechanical properties. It is shown that the HT-9 in the ferritic heat treatment is more susceptible to irradiation hardening than HT-9 after the tempered martensitic heat treatment. Also at an irradiation temperature above 550 deg. C no detectable hardness increase due to irradiation was detected. The results are also compared to data from the literature gained from the fast flux test facility.

  1. Redemption of asthma pharmaceuticals among stainless steel and mild steel welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Hansen, Johnni;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to examine bronchial asthma according to cumulative exposure to fume particulates conferred by stainless steel and mild steel welding through a proxy of redeemed prescribed asthma pharmaceuticals. METHODS: A Danish national company-based historical cohort of 5,303 male ever...... particulates was estimated by combining questionnaire data on welding work with a welding exposure matrix. The estimated exposure accounted for calendar time, welding intermittence, type of steel, welding methods, local exhaustion and welding in confined spaces. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence...... year). A moderate nonsignificant increased rate of redemption of asthma medicine was observed among high-level exposed stainless steel welders in comparison with low-level exposed welders (HR 1.54, 95 % CI 0.76-3.13). This risk increase was driven by an increase risk among non-smoking stainless steel...

  2. Analysis of the Behaviour of Composite Steel and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Petkevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There was a pending influence of steel fiber on the strength and stiffness of composite steel–concrete slabs under statical short–time load. Steel profiled sheeting and steel fiber reinforced concrete were used for specimens. Four composite slabs were made. Experimental investigations into the behaviour and influence of steel fiber reinforced concrete in composite slabs were conducted. Transverse, longitudinal, shear deformation and deflection of the slab were measured. The results indicated that the use of steel fiber in composite slabs was effective: strength was 20–24 % higher and the meanings of deflections under the action of the bending moment were 0,6MR (where MR is the bending moment at failure of the slabs and were 16–18 % lower for slabs with usual concrete. Article in Lithuanian

  3. Creep strength and ductility of 9 to 12% chromium steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Steels", which covers creep data development and analysis for parent materials and welds of all ferritic creep resistant steels ranging from low alloy steels up to 12%Cr steels. The opinions stated in the paper represent the views of the author rather than the whole ECCC WG3A group.......The present paper focuses in on long-term creep properties of parent material of the new 9-12%Cr creep resistant steels, P91, E911 and P92 developed for use in advanced ultrasupercritical power plants. These steels have been at the center of activities in the ECCC Working Group 3A (WG3A) "Ferritic...

  4. Creep strength and ductility of 9 to 12% chromium steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    The present paper focuses in on long-term creep properties of parent material of the new 9-12%Cr creep resistant steels, P91, E911 and P92 developed for use in advanced ultrasupercritical power plants. These steels have been at the center of activities in the ECCC Working Group 3A (WG3A) "Ferritic...... Steels", which covers creep data development and analysis for parent materials and welds of all ferritic creep resistant steels ranging from low alloy steels up to 12%Cr steels. The opinions stated in the paper represent the views of the author rather than the whole ECCC WG3A group....

  5. Corrosion of alloy steels in oil field fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field tests have been conducted on two low alloy and two higher alloy steels at a range of brine salinities and sulfide contents typical of oil well production fluids. AISI types 4130 and 4340 show the same behavior in these fluids as mild steel. AISI type 410 stainless steel and 9% chromium - 1% molybdenum steel corrode at rates as great as that of mild steel at higher chloride or sulfide concentrations. Special corrosion inhibitors are required for higher alloy steels when they are exposed to these conditions

  6. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly dispersed precipitates in the steel matrix. In the present study, the effects of Nb and Cu on mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures in steels with different levels of cool deformation are investigated. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined using the shear punch test and the microstructure was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thermodynamic simulations with FactSage were done to further analyze the precipitation possibility of different elements. It has been found that these alloying elements respond very well to cool deformation, with the strength being highest in steels containing both Nb and Cu. However, a cool deformation effect in the non-Nb and Cu bearing steel is also observed. In all cases, it was confirmed that precipitation plays a key role in the effect of cool deformation, with much of the precipitation taking place dynamically. Nevertheless, static processes also seem to have a measurable effect on room temperature properties. Even low amounts of copper (e.g. ∼0.4 wt%) can contribute to strengthening of the steel. The Cu addition is found to affect the mechanical properties by affecting the precipitation and growth of Nb compounds.

  7. Radioactive Contamination in Steel Products - Indian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sources in both sealed and unsealed forms are used in a wide variety of applications in medicine, industry and research for societal benefits. These applications of radioactive sources are controlled in each country by the respective national regulatory bodies. In spite of regulatory control there are incidents of theft, loss or abandoned radioactive sources worldwide. These lost or stolen sources get into metal scrap used in steel recycling industry. Recently, there have been cases of radioactive contamination in steel products exported by many countries. A few such cases of contamination of material exported from India to foreign countries have been reported to Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. On investigation it was found that the steel products were made out of steel produced in foundries where radioactively contaminated imported metal scrap has been used. Though the radiological impact of such incident is too low to cause any significant hazard, such incidents are undesirable and need to be prevented. A number of measures were taken by AERB to prevent recurrence of such incidents. These include holding meetings with the concerned associations of exporters and the organization of seminars to improve radiation safety awareness among the manufacturers and exporters. The concept of defence in depth is used for detection of radioactivity in metal scrap by the installation of portal monitors at borders, radiation monitoring at metal scrap dealers, foundries, steel mills, manufacturing units of steel products and finally the radiation monitoring of the final product prior to supply in domestic market or export. In this paper, Indian experience in handling the incidents of contaminated steel products and the general and specific preventive measures adopted in India to control such incidents are described. A suggested action plan at the international level is discussed. (author)

  8. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatehi, A., E-mail: arya.fatehi@gmail.com [Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Calvo, J.; Elwazri, A.M.; Yue, S. [Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2010-06-25

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly dispersed precipitates in the steel matrix. In the present study, the effects of Nb and Cu on mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures in steels with different levels of cool deformation are investigated. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined using the shear punch test and the microstructure was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thermodynamic simulations with FactSage were done to further analyze the precipitation possibility of different elements. It has been found that these alloying elements respond very well to cool deformation, with the strength being highest in steels containing both Nb and Cu. However, a cool deformation effect in the non-Nb and Cu bearing steel is also observed. In all cases, it was confirmed that precipitation plays a key role in the effect of cool deformation, with much of the precipitation taking place dynamically. Nevertheless, static processes also seem to have a measurable effect on room temperature properties. Even low amounts of copper (e.g. {approx}0.4 wt%) can contribute to strengthening of the steel. The Cu addition is found to affect the mechanical properties by affecting the precipitation and growth of Nb compounds.

  9. Metallurgical products of microalloy constructional steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ozgowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is a monographic presentation, based on investigations connected with the elaboration of new kinds of microalloy steels and a technique of heat and thermo-mechanical treatment in the production of a selected group of metallurgical products.Design/methodology/approach: The influence of the chemical composition and metallurgical purity on the homogenisation of austenite was analysed, as well as thermally activated processes and phase transformations in the course of deformation and controlled cooling conditions, concerning micradditives Nb, V, Ti, B and metallurgical products.Findings: The chemical composition of the obtained constructional steels with microadditives was quoted, as well as the technological conditions of forging and rolled products required for industrial purposes.Research limitations/implications: The results of investigations concerning the structure and mechanical properties have been presented, as well as the resistance to fracture, mainly of thick plates and hand-forged and drop-forged products and also elements of sheet structures for the automotive industry, made of AHSS steels.Practical implications: The results of the author’s own investigations concerning microalloy steels indicate the actual possibility of their application in practice in many steelworks, particularly in plants producing semi products and final metallurgical products, among others in hot rolling plants and forging shops, first of all in machine building and automotive industry.Originality/value: The application of modern metallurgical technologies and metalforming has been suggested for selected metallurgical products of microalloy steels of the type HSLA with a ferrite-bainite, bainite or tempered martensite structure and also of HSS steels and UHSS steel with a wide range of mechanical properties and technological formability, which is essential in the case of products of the automotive industry.

  10. Heat treatments in a conventional steel to reproduce the microstructure of a nuclear grade steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ferritic steels used in the manufacture of pressurized vessels of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) suffer degradation in their mechanical properties due to damage caused by the neutron fluxes of high energy bigger to a Mega electron volt (E> 1 MeV) generated in the reactor core. The materials with which the pressurized vessels of nuclear reactors cooled by light water are built correspond to low alloy ferritic steels. The effect of neutron irradiation on these steels is manifested as an increase in hardness, mechanical strength, with the consequent decrease in ductility, fracture toughness and an increase in temperature of ductile-brittle transition. The life of a BWR is 40 years, its design must be considered sufficient margin of safety because pressure forces experienced during operation, maintenance and testing of postulated accident conditions. It is necessary that under these conditions the vessel to behave ductile and likely to propagate a fracture is minimized. The vessels of light water nuclear reactors have a bainite microstructure. Specifically, the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (Veracruz, Mexico) are made of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1. At present they are carrying out some welding tests for the construction of a model of a BWR, however, to use nuclear grade steel such as Astm A-533 to carry out some of the welding tests, is very expensive; perform these in a conventional material provides basic information. Although the microstructure present in the conventional material does not correspond exactly to the degree of nuclear material, it can take of reference. Therefore, it is proposed to conduct a pilot study to establish the thermal treatment that reproduces the microstructure of nuclear grade steel, in conventional steel. The resulting properties of the conventional steel samples will be compared to a JRQ steel, that is a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1, provided by IAEA. (Author)

  11. Mechanical properties of irradiated 9Cr-2WVTa steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rieth, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung II

    1998-09-01

    An Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) steel has excellent strength and impact toughness before and after irradiation in the Fast Flux Test Facility and the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increased only 32 C after 28 dpa at 365 C in FFTF, compared to a shift of {approx}60 C for a 9Cr-2WV steel--the same as the 9Cr-2WVTa steel but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile properties before and after irradiation. The 9Cr-2WVTa steel has a smaller prior-austenite grain size, but otherwise microstructures are similar before irradiation and show similar changes during irradiation. The irradiation behavior of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel differs from the 9Cr-2WV steel and other similar steels in two ways: (1) the shift in DBTT of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF does not saturate with fluence by {approx}28 dpa, whereas for the 9Cr-2WV steel and most similar steels, saturation occurs at <10 dpa, and (2) the shift in DBTT for 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF and HFR increased with irradiation temperature, whereas it decreased for the 9Cr-2WV steel, as it does for most similar steels. The improved properties of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel and the differences with other steels were attributed to tantalum in solution.

  12. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien

    2014-06-01

    In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A Comparative Study on Nd:YAG Laser Cutting of Steel and Stainless Steel Using Continuous, Square, and Sine Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, K. H.

    2012-06-01

    Laser cutting with the sine waveform is seldom reported. This article is a comparative study on Nd:YAG laser cutting using the continuous (CW), square, and sine waveforms. The materials used in this study were steel and stainless steel. It has been found that the cutting capability, in descending order, is: CW > sine > square. The cutting of steel (C ~0.3 wt.%) and AISI304 austenitic stainless steel may be satisfactorily described by the Steen model, irrespective of waveform. Steel is slightly easier to cut than stainless steel. Limitations of the present study are discussed and suggestions for future work are made.

  14. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 4500C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the α' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 4500C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 4500C. 18 refs., 13 figs

  15. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Microstructures of cast materials subjected to long-term aging either in reactor service or in the laboratory have been characterized by TEM, SANS, and APFIM techniques. Two precipitate phases, i.e., the Cr-rich α' and Ni- and Si-rich G phase, have been identified in the ferrite matrix of the aged steels. The results indicate that the low-temperature embrittlement is primarily caused by α' precipitates which form by spinodal decomposition. The relative contribution of G phase to loss of toughness is now known. Microstructural data also indicate that weakening of ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitates has a significant effect on the onset and extent of embrittlement of the high-carbon CF-8 and CF-8M grades of stainless steels, particularly after aging at 400 or 4500C. Data from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 4500C are presented and correlated with the microstructural results. Thermal aging of the steels results in an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in impact energy, J/sub IC/, and tearing modulus. The fracture toughness results show good agreement with the Charpy-impact data. The effects of compositional and metallurgical variables on loss of toughness are discussed

  16. Chromium-manganese steels of transition class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibilities of nickel replacing by manganese and preparing the same level of mechanical properties as in chromium-nickel steels due to γ-α transformations taking place during property tests, are studied. Chromium-manganese steels with the composition of 0.05-0.1%C, 13-14%Cr, 5.0-6.5%Mn, 0.2-0.5%Si, 0.03-0.13%N, 0.05-0.01%Al and additionally alloyed 0.3-2.0%Cu, 0.05-0.6%V, 0.3-1.0%Mo, 0.02-0.05%Ca in various combinations have been melted. It is shown, that using alloying and heat treatment one can control the phase composition, austenite resistance to martensite transformation during loading and mechanical properties of chromium-manganese steels of the transition class. The use of the phase transformation in the process of testing determines the level of mechanical properties. The optimum development of the transformation accompanied by a sufficient development of processes of hardening and microstresses relaxation permits to obtain a high level of mechanical properties: σsub(B)=1500 MPa, σsub(0.2)-1130MPa, delta=15%, psi=37%, asub(H)=1000 kJ/msup(2) which exceeds the level for chromium-nickel steels. Steels have a lower cost and do not require any complecated heat treatment regime

  17. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  18. Development of the microalloyed constructional steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adamczyk

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the development and the technical importance of the HSLA-typemicroalloyed constructional steels (High Strength Low Alloy in selected industry branches.Design/methodology/approach: A mechanism of the interaction of Nb, Ti, V and B microadditions introducedinto the steel on mechanical properties of selected metallurgical products with the fine-grained structure,forming under the properly selected hot-working conditions with the of (M-Nb,Ti,V; X-N,C interstitial phasesMX-type is discussed.Findings: The requirements concerning the metallurgical process, continuous casting of steel and the necessityof adjusting the hot-working conditions to the precipitation kinetics of the dispersive MX phases particles inaustenite, in the controlled rolling or thermo-mechanical treatment processes are indicated.Research limitations/implications: The continuation of investigations concerning the thermo-mechanicalrolling of automotive sheets with the multiphase structure of microalloyed steels is planned.Practical implications: The indicated data, coming also from the own research, are of practical use in relationto manufacturing the metallurgical products and machine elements of high strength and crack resistance, alsoat low temperatures.Originality/value: The results contribute to the development of rolling and forging technologies of themicroalloyed steel (HSLA elements produced using the energy-saving thermo-mechanical treatment methods.

  19. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro- and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate the minimum line width that can be realized by our fabrication method and the influence of etching angle on the structure profile during the ion beam etching process. Trenches down to 400 nm in width have been successfully fabricated into a 316 type electro-polished steel wafer. Afterward a plastic replica has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items, are produced. (paper)

  20. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450/sup 0/C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the ..cap alpha..' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 450/sup 0/C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 450/sup 0/C. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Thermodynamic aspects of inclusion engineering in steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Costa e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Tailoring non-metallic inclusions in accordance to the desired effect on steel properties has gained widespread acceptance in the last decades and has become known as "inclusion engineering". Effective inclusion engineering involves three steps: (a) a good knowledge of how inclusions influence properties, (b) understanding what is the effect of each type of inclusions on these properties and thus which is the most desirable inclusion in a given product and (c) adjusting the processing parameters to obtain these inclusions. A significant portion of the process adjustment is done during steel refining, where the steel can be tailored so that the desired chemical composition of the non-metallic inclusions that will precipitate can be altered. Understanding the relations between steel chemistry, processing variables and inclusion chemical composition requires significant understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems involved. These complex equilibrium calculations are best done using computational thermodynamics. In this work some of the basic techniques used to control inclusion composition are reviewed and the thermodynamic information required to perform this task is presented. Several examples of the application of computational thermodynamics to inclusion engineering of different steels grades are presented and compared with experimental results, whenever possible. The potential and limitations of the method are highlighted, in special those related to thermodynamic data and databases.

  2. Equilibrium Model of Precipitation in Microalloyed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Thomas, Brian G.; O'Malley, Ron

    2011-02-01

    The formation of precipitates during thermal processing of microalloyed steels greatly influences their mechanical properties. Precipitation behavior varies with steel composition and temperature history and can lead to beneficial grain refinement or detrimental transverse surface cracks. This work presents an efficient computational model of equilibrium precipitation of oxides, sulfides, nitrides, and carbides in steels, based on satisfying solubility limits including Wagner interaction between elements, mutual solubility between precipitates, and mass conservation of alloying elements. The model predicts the compositions and amounts of stable precipitates for multicomponent microalloyed steels in liquid, ferrite, and austenite phases at any temperature. The model is first validated by comparing with analytical solutions of simple cases, predictions using the commercial package JMat-PRO, and previous experimental observations. Then it is applied to track the evolution of precipitate amounts during continuous casting of two commercial steels (1004 LCAK and 1006Nb HSLA) at two different casting speeds. This model is easy to modify to incorporate other precipitates, or new thermodynamic data, and is a useful tool for equilibrium precipitation analysis.

  3. The Synchrotron Radiation for Steel Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyada Suwanpinij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchrotron X-ray radiation is a great tool in materials characterization with several advantageous features. The high intensity allows clear interaction signals and high energy of X-ray yields higher sampling volume. The samples do not need extra preparation and the microstructure is therefore not affected. With the tunability of the X-ray energy, a large range of elements and features in the samples can be investigated by different techniques, which is a significant difference between a stand-alone X-ray tube and synchrotron X-ray. Moreover, any experimental equipment can be installed through which the synchrotron beam travels. This facilitates the so-called in situ characterization such as during heat treatment, hot deformation, chemical reaction or welding. Although steel which possesses rather high density requires very high energy X-ray for large interaction volume, lower energy is still effective for the investigation of local structure of nanoconstituents. This work picks up a couple examples employing synchrotron X-ray for the characterization of high strength steels. The first case is the quantification of precipitates in high strength low alloyed (HSLA steel by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The other case is the in situ X-ray diffraction for phase fraction and carbon partitioning in multiphase steels such as transformation induced plasticity (TRIP steel.

  4. Fabrication and ageing of cast austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation has been undertaken to determine the magnitude of any reduction in properties which may occur in cast duplex stainless steels and weldments during long term exposure to reactor operating conditions. Test panels were fabricated in CF3 stainless steel by a manual metal arc (MMA) process using 19.9.L (Type 308L) consumables. The mechanical properties and intergranular corrosion resistance of parent material and weldments were measured following accelerated ageing at 3750 and 4000C for up to 10,000 hours. Both the impact energy and J/sub R/ fracture toughness properties of the cast austenitic/ferritic stainless steel were reduced following aging at 4000C for 10,000 hours, whereas austenitic stainless steel MMA weld metals exhibited a reduction in J/sub R/ fracture toughness but no change in impact energy. Even in the unaged state, MMA weld metals were shown to have a much lower resistance to stable crack growth than the parent cast steel, and, following aging, there is a further reduction in the ductile tearing resistance of such weld metals. Therefore, in any assessment of the structural integrity of the reactor coolant pump bowl for a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the weld metal fracture properties during service are likely to be of considerable importance

  5. Measurement of radioactivity in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even after the control of scrap deliveries, there remains a small risk that the radioactive contaminated scrap passes the detecting devices. Therefore, the chemical laboratory takes a role to measure each heat for the absence of artificial radioactive nuclides with a gamma spectrometer equipped with NaI-detector. As the measurement must be performed in sequence with the steel production process, the allowable time for the measurement is quite limited. On the other hand, there could be still some possibility that background radiation might be present as the samples may contain some natural radioactivity. The task is how to differentiate the nature of radioactivity between naturally remaining radioactivity within safe limit and artificial nuclides present in the sample at a low level even though a very small amount of radioactivity could be detected in short time in both cases. We have set the alarm limit to 0.1 Bq/g for Co-60 as indicating nuclide. This limit is set more than 4 s (s = standard deviation) from the average background radiation. Therefore, false alarms are quite improbable. Strategy: The NaI gamma spectrometer performs a gross gamma measurement but it can not differentiate the nature of the nuclides present. If the alarm limit is hurt, the sample is measured on a high resolution gamma spectrometer with Ge-detector for identification of the gamma emitting nuclides. Calibration: Even though no appropriate international standards are adapted and no commercial measuring equipment is commercially available, the desired standard should contain Co-60 in the order of 1 to 100 Bq/g. The presence of other gamma emitting nuclides is desirable. In the Workshop we will present how to surmount this difficulty. (author)

  6. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels.

  7. HTPro: Low-temperature Surface Hardening of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance.......Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance....

  8. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular, the...

  9. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present contribtion gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular, the...

  10. Progress in the development of niobium alloyed high speed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of economy-grades of niobium alloyed high speed steel is described. Both the metallurgical concepts behind the steel design and the results of performance tests are presented. (Author)

  11. Symbiosis of Steel, Energy, and CO2 Evolution in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoung; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Sohn, Il

    2016-05-01

    This study looks at the energy intensity of the steel industry and the greenhouse gas intensity involved with the production of steel. Using several sources of steel production data and the corresponding energy sources used provides a time-series analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy intensity from 1990 to 2014. The impact of the steel economy with the gross domestic product (GDP) provides indirect importance of the general manufacturing sector within Korea and in particular the steel industry. Beyond 2008, the shift in excess materials production and significant increase in total imports have led to an imbalance in the Korean steel market and continue to inhibit the growth of the domestic steel market. The forecast of the GHG and energy intensity along with the steel production up to 2030 is provided using the auto regressive integrated moving average analysis.

  12. Diffusion bonding between ODS ferritic steel and F82H steel for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion bonding techniques were employed to join high Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (Fe–15Cr–2W–0.2Ti–0.35Y2O3) and F82H steel under uni-axial hydrostatic pressure using a high vacuum hot press, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated. The dissimilar joints were bonded by solid-state diffusion bonding (SSDB) and liquid phase diffusion bonding (LPDB). After bonding process, heat treatments were conducted to utilize the phase transformation of F82H steel for recovering the martensitic structure. Tensile tests with miniaturized specimens were carried out to investigate and compare the bonding strengths of each joint. Microstructure was observed for the bonding interface, and fracture mode was investigated after the tensile tests. LPDB joint of interfacial F82H steel fully recovered to martensite phase by post-joining heat treatments, while SSDB joint had ferrite phases at the interface even after heat treatment, which is considered to be due to decarburization of F82H steel during the bonding process. Therefore it is considered that the insert material plays a role as diffusion barrier of carbon during LPDB process. Microstructure observations and tensile tests of the joints revealed that the LPDB joints possess suitable tensile properties which are comparable to that of F82H steel. This indicates that LPDB is more promising method to bond ODS-FS and F82H steel than SSDB.

  13. Low carbon manganese-nickel-niobium steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental heats of a low carbon-manganese-0.5% nickel-0.15% niobium steel have been rolled to plates between 13.5 and 50 mm thickness and to a 16 mm hot strip. Various combinations of soaking temperatures form 11000C to 13000C and of finish rolling temperatures between 7100C and 9300C have been investigated. From mechanical properties obtained, one can conclude that the investigated steel composition provides very good properties e.g. for pipe steels X65 to X75. In particular, the toughness at low temperature is outstanding despite relaxed rolling conditions. Metalographic and special investigations such as electron microscopy, texture evaluation and chemical extraction, correlated with applied rolling schedules and the mechanical properties obtained resulted in a comprehensive understanding about the benefits of high niobium metallurgy combined with nickel addition. All practically applied welding processes generated mechanical properties, in particular toughness of the weldment, that meet arctic specifications.(Author)

  14. Phosphate coating on stainless steel 304 sensitized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stainless steel 304 can be sensitized when welding processes are applied, that causes the precipitation of chromium carbide in the grain limits, being promoted in this way the formation of galvanic cells and consequently the corrosion process. Using a phosphate coating is possible to retard the physiochemical damages that can to happen in the corrosion process. The stainless steel 304 substrate sensitized it is phosphate to base of Zn-Mn, in a immersion cell very hot. During the process was considered optimization values, for the characterization equipment of X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscopy was used. The XRD technique confirmed the presence of the phases of manganese phosphate, zinc phosphate, as well as the phase of the stainless steel 304. When increasing the temperature from 60 to 90 C in the immersion process a homogeneous coating is obtained. (Author)

  15. Explosive Surface Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs-Coskun, T.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of explosion hardening on the microstructure and the hardness of austenitic stainless steel have been studied. The optimum explosion hardening technology of austenitic stainless steel was researched. In case of the explosive hardening used new idea mean indirect hardening setup. Austenitic stainless steels have high plasticity and can be easily cold formed. However, during cold processing the hardening phenomena always occurs. Upon the explosion impact, the deformation mechanism indicates a plastic deformation and this deformation induces a phase transformation (martensite). The explosion hardening enhances the mechanical properties of the material, includes the wear resistance and hardness. In case of indirect hardening as function of the setup parameters specifically the flayer plate position the hardening increased differently. It was find a relationship between the explosion hardening setup and the hardening level.

  16. Hydrogen embrittlement of steels: study and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen embrittlement of steels is one of the important reason of rupture of pieces in the industry (nuclear, of petroleum..). Indeed, there are a lot of situations which can lead to the phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement: introduction of hydrogen in the material during the elaboration or during transformation or implementation processes (heat treatments, welding); use of steels when hydrogen or hydrogenated gaseous mixtures are present; hydrogen produced by electrolytic reactions (surface treatments, cathodic protection). The hydrogen embrittlement can appear in different forms which depend of a lot of parameters: material (state, composition, microstructure..); surrounding medium (gas, aqueous medium, temperature..); condition of mechanical solicitation (static, dynamic, cyclic..). The industrial phenomena which appear during cases of hydrogen embrittlement are more particularly described here. Several methods of steels studies are proposed as well as some possible ways for the prevention of hydrogen embrittlement risks. (O.M.)

  17. Maraging steels, their uses and importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uses and importance of 18 percentage maraging steels are reviewed. These steels contain nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, titanium etc.; and posses unusually high strength coupled with high fracture toughness. They have martensite structure which is very ductile and form able in annealed conditions. They age harden at 480 degree centigrade and produce yield strength upto 350 Ksi. Since these steels have ultra high strength they have found wide applications in many fields including nuclear industry e.g. centrifuge rotors (rmp=75,000 to 80,000). In this paper we review mostly the work done by our group in this field. A method of predicting fracture toughness by tensile properties is also discussed. (author)

  18. New ferritic steels for advanced steam plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K.H; Koenig, H. [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    During the last 15-20 years ferritic-martensitic 9-12 % chromium steels have been developed under international research programmes which permit inlet steam temperatures up to approx. 625 deg C and pressures up to about 300 bars, thus leading to improvements in thermal efficiency of around 8 % and a CO{sub 2} reduction of about 20 % versus conventional steam parameters. These new steels are already being applied in 13 European and 34 Japanese power stations with inlet steam temperature up to 610 deg C. This presentation will give an account of the content, scope and results of the research programmes and of the experience gained during the production of components which have been manufactured from the new steels. (orig.) 13 refs.

  19. Residual stress measurements in carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, J. S.; Min, N.

    1986-01-01

    External dc magnetic field-induced changes in natural velocity of Rayleigh surface waves were measured in steel specimens under various stress conditions. The low field slopes of curves representing the fractional changes of natural velocity were proved to provide correct stress information in steels with different metallurgical properties. The slopes of curves under uniaxial compression, exceeding about one third of the yield stress, fell below zero in all the specimens when magnetized along the stress axis. The slopes under tension varied among different steels but remained positive in any circumstances. The stress effect was observed for both applied and residual stress. A physical interpretation of these results is given based on the stress-induced domain structure changes and the delta epsilon effect. Most importantly, it is found that the influence of detailed metallurgical properties cause only secondary effects on the obtained stress information.

  20. Transformation hardening of steel by laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A locally fabricated 250 Watts Co/sub 2/ laser has been used to study the surface hardening of steel with different carbon concentrations ranging from 0.17 to 0.6%. The laser beam was defocused to a spot size of 2mm. Preliminary results indicate a more than 2.5 times increases in hardness for the 0.17%, 0.45% and 0.6% carbon steel. The microhardness was found to increase exponentially with increasing concentrations of carbon in steel. The microstructure shows that maximum hardness appears in the region that is transformed to martensite. The results were found to be in excellent agreement with similar works carried out elsewhere. (author)

  1. Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Hebsur, Mohan G.; Baaklini, George Y.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment material systems for next generation engines. In order to improve the production for these systems, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, are being utilized to evaluate the brazing quality between the 17-4PH stainless steel face plates and the 17-4PH stainless steel foam core. Based on NDE data, shear tests are performed on sections representing various levels of brazing quality from an initial batch of these sandwich structures. Metallographic characterization of brazing is done to corroborate NDE findings and the observed shear failure mechanisms.

  2. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified ‘classic’ lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov–Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage. (paper)

  3. Thermal aging of cast duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cast duplex stainless steels of CR8M and CF8 are used in major components because of their superior characteristics, such as corrosion resistance, weldability and so on. But, these stainless steels are known to have tendency of thermal aging embrittlement after long term service. Therefore, mechanical properties have been investigated using Charpy impact specimens and fracture toughness specimens aged at 300∼400 C up to 40,000 hours. As the results, effects of thermal aging on mechanical properties of these stainless steels were identified and a good relationship between Charpy impact energy and fracture toughness was obtained. In addition, prediction method for Charpy absorbed energy and fracture toughness was established

  4. Complex Protection of Vertical Stainless Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrislamov Radik Zakievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of fail-safe oil and oil products storage in stainless steel tanks and present the patented tank inner side protection technology. The latter provides process, ecological and fire safety and reducing soil evaporation of oil products, which is a specific problem. The above-mentioned technology includes corrosion protection and heat insulation protection providing increase of cover durability and RVS service life in general. The offered technological protection scheme is a collaboration of the author, Steel Paint GmbH firm and JSC “Koksokhimmontazhproyekt”. PU foam unicomponent materials of Steel Paint GmbH firm provide the protection of tank inner side and cover.

  5. Pattern recognition techniques applied to rust classification in steel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The life and performance of steel structure depends directly upon the steel surface preparation. The restoration of steel structure such as steel bridges, ships and storage tanks is due mainly to the use of manual surface inspection methods accompanied by surface preparation technologies. It requires a long project duration, high costs and hazardous practices for both worker and environment to complete surface restoration. The developments of surface preparation technologies make it essen...

  6. Investigation of Fecraly Coating on Corrosion Behaviour of Mild Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph B. AGBOOLA

    2009-01-01

    Steel has found wide application in hot rolling equipments in the steel industry and the oil rig structures in sea water. These equipments are frequently subjected to corrosive and temperature condition which causes severe damage to them, hence the need to develop steel suitable to withstand these conditions in terms of surface treatment. This research work investigates the effect of FeCrAlY coating on mild steel under high temperature and aggressive environment. Iron based coatings are used ...

  7. Phase transformations in high alloy cold work tool steel

    OpenAIRE

    Šturm, Roman; Moravčík, Roman; Štefániková, Mária; Čička, Roman; Čaplovič, L'ubomír; Kocúrová, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Phase transformations in the alloy tool steels have a crucial effect on the final properties of the steels. High alloy systems have different solidification conditions compared to construction steels. This paper deals with the phase evolution in high alloy tool steel in quasi-equilibrium state. For analysis various methods such as differential thermal analysis, thermomagnetometry, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and di...

  8. Phase transformations in high alloy cold work tool steel:

    OpenAIRE

    Čaplovič, L'.; Čička, Roman; Kocúrová, Karin; Moravčík, Roman; Štefániková, Mária; Šturm, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Phase transformations in the alloy tool steels have a crucial effect on the final properties of the steels. High alloy systems have different solidification conditions compared to construction steels. This paper deals with the phase evolution in high alloy tool steel in quasi-equilibrium state. For analysis various methods such as differential thermal analysis, thermomagnetometry, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and di...

  9. Elevated temperature material properties of stainless steel reinforcing

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, L.; Bu, Y; Francis, P; Baddoo, NR; Cashell, K; McCann, F

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion of carbon steel reinforcing bar can lead to deterioration of concrete structures, especially in regions where road salt is heavily used or in areas close to sea water. Although stainless steel reinforcing bar costs more than carbon steel, its selective use for high risk elements is cost-effective when the whole life costs of the structure are taken into account. Considerations for specifying stainless steel reinforcing bars and a review of applications are presented herein. Atten...

  10. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel sau...

  11. Mechanism of an acoustic wave impact on steel during solidification

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nowacki; P. Musiał; T. Lis

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic steel processing in an ingot mould may be the final stage in the process of quality improvement of a steel ingot. The impact of radiation and cavitation pressure as well as the phenomena related to the acoustic wave being emitted and delivered to liquid steel affect various aspects including the internal structure fragmentation, rigidity or density of steel. The article provides an analysis of the mechanism of impact of physical phenomena caused by an acoustic wave affecting the qual...

  12. Reduction of hydrogen embrittlement on Electrogalvanized Ultra High Strength Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Haglund, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-high strength steels is known to be susceptible for hydrogen embrittlement at very low concentrations of hydrogen. In this thesis three methods to prevent or reduce the hydrogen embrittlement in martensitic steel, with tensile strength of 1500 MPa, were studied. First, a barrier layer of aluminium designed to prevent hydrogen to enter the steel, which were deposited by vacuum evaporation. Second, a decarburization process of the steels surface designed to mitigate the induced stresses f...

  13. Guidelines for the Protection of Steel Piles : Corrosive Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion of steel is a common phenomenon. In a marine environment, steel is corroded at an accelerated rate due to the atmospheric conditions. To combat this corrosion, steel piles are coated in order to protect them. As a major supplier of steel piles, Rautaruukki Oyj (Ruukki) commissioned this project in order to streamline their coating process. Currently Ruukki supplies a different coating system for almost every job; the aim of the project was to reduce the number of systems used to...

  14. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rajala, Pauliina; Carpén, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Raulio, Mari; Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing abil...

  15. Procedure for selecting appropriate steels for machine design

    OpenAIRE

    Zorgani, Muftah Em. M

    2010-01-01

    Selection of steels for industrial purposes usually means choosing a type of steel to make a part or a product. The steel that is chosen must meet all the designer requirements. A quantitative selection procedure has been used to analyze the large amount of data involved in this selection process so that a complete and systematic evaluation can be made. The designer is responsible for the selection of steel, and this selection requires the designer to find data and information on the mecha...

  16. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainl...

  17. Enhanced Incluison Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  18. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  19. Case Hardening of Hardox 450 Steel for Increased Ballistic Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Buberg, Tor Arne

    2011-01-01

    AbstractSteel alloys are the material that is most used in protective constructions today. The reason is the overall good properties of steels, with its high strength and hardness, high ductility, high formability and relatively low cost compared to other materials. Even though armour steels are affordable, work is done to limit expenses from production or come up with new and less expensive alloys.Case hardening is a technique for production of steel with a very hard and durable surface whil...

  20. Bending resistance of composite steel truss and concrete beam

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mickael; Piloto, P.A.G.; Roque, Sérgio; VILA REAL Paulo; Plizzari, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the numerical simulation of the bending resistance of CSTCB in stage 1 (element made only by the self-supported steel truss and base plate). Two different base plates were considered (Steel and Concrete) and two different types of steel trusses (Type I and II). The numerical results are also compared with analytical results, assuming the full interaction between steel truss and concrete, neglecting the tensile strength of concrete, considering the effective area of concret...

  1. The Sino-Japan Steel Trade Negotiations Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Dickson

    1996-01-01

    A factor influencing China's integration with world steel markets is steel's status as a canalised or "designated" commodity under Chinese trade laws. Canalisation limits the number of enterprises permitted to engage in import operations. Canalisation is particularly strict in the case of steel imports from Japan, the largest country supplier of ferrous metal products to China. Until mid-1995, steel supplies were organised under a system of bi-yearly contract negations between the Chinese sin...

  2. Contributions to steel semi-finished parts quality improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of finite steel products depends on steel content of hydrogen. On steel elaboration, in order to remove the dissolved hydrogen, at least one ladle secondary treatment is needed. The paper introduces the results obtained in the increase of hydrogen removal output, during steel secondary treatment inside the LF installation. Correlations were established between the hydrogen removal rate and the parameters of the secondary treatment (bubbling flow, bubbling time and bubbling pressures)

  3. Advanced cold rolled steels for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, H. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Eberhardstrasse 12, 44145 Dortmund (Germany); Mattissen, D.; Schaumann, T.W. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Advanced multiphase steels offer a great potential for bodies-in-white through their combination of formability and achievable component strength levels. They are first choice for strength and crash-relevant parts of challenging geometry. The intensive development of high-strength multiphase steels by ThyssenKrupp has led to hot dip galvanizing concepts with an outstanding forming potential. Hot rolled, hot dip galvanized complex phase steels are currently produced in addition to cold rolled DP and RA steels. New continuously annealed grades with tensile strength levels of up to 1000 MPa in combination with sufficient ductility for applications mainly in the field of structural automobile elements make use of the classic advantages of microalloying as well as the principles of DP and TRIP steels. Further improvement of properties will be reached by the new class of high manganese alloyed steels. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Fortschrittliche Multiphasen-Staehle eroeffnen wegen der inzwischen erreichbaren Kombination aus Umformbarkeit und Bauteilfestigkeit ein enormes Potenzial fuer Rohkarosserien. Sie stellen eine erste Wahl dar, wenn es um Festigkeit und um Crashsicherheit geht und besondere Anforderungen an die Bauteilgeometrien gestellt werden. Bei ThyssenKrupp hat die Entwicklung hochfester Multiphasen-Staehle in Verbindung mit dem Feuerverzinken zur Realisierung von Blechhalbzeugen gefuehrt, die hervorragend formbar sind. Es werden heute feuerverzinkte Komplexphasenstaehle neben den bewaehrten kaltgewalzten Dualphasen(DP) - und Retained Austenit(RA)-Staehlen produziert. Die neuen kontinuierlich gegluehten Stahlvarianten mit Festigkeiten bis zu 1000 MPa in Kombination mit der bei Strukturbauteilen im Automobilbau geforderten Duktilitaet nutzen sowohl die klassischen Vorteile des Mikrolegierens aus und dazu die Prinzipien, die man bei DP- und TRIP-Staehlen anwendet. Eine weitere Verbesserung des Eigenschaftsprofils wird mit dem

  4. Initial oxidation of duplex stainless steel 2205

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donik, E.; Kocijan, A.; Jenko, M. [Institute of metals and technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-07-01

    Due to superior mechanical and corrosion properties of duplex stainless steels which result in weight reduction of the constructions, thus contributing to the decreases in total costs and also due to the large and versatile usage of the alloy, duplex stainless steel is gradually displacing stainless steels of the AISI 300 series. Pickling of duplex stainless steel has proven to be much more difficult than that of standard austenitic grade (AISI 300 series). There is no complete agreement in the literature on scale (high temperature oxidation) dissolution mechanism in neutral pickling solutions. During annealing, duplex stainless steel is heated in annealing furnace up to 1050 C and is kept at this temperature for some time to soften the metal in order to release the work hardening induced by hot and cold rolling. The elimination of surface defects by forming the oxide scale is required to improve the corrosion resistance. Three different techniques were used to produce thin oxide layers on polished and sputter cleaned duplex stainless steel samples. They were exposed to 10{sup -5} mb pure oxygen inside the vacuum chamber, exposed to ambient conditions for 24 hours and plasma oxidized. Oxide layers thus produced were analysed using XPS depth profiling for determination of the oxide layer's composition with depth. It was found that all techniques produce oxide layer with different traces of metallic components and with chromium oxide maximum concentration shifted towards the oxide layer - bulk metal interface. Depletion of Cr in bulk immediately below the interface was also observed. Simplified ARXPS procedure was used to corroborate thickness estimates for thinnest oxide layers. (authors)

  5. Electropolishing and chemical passivation of austenitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baron

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is investigations a dependence between the parameters of the electrochemical treatment of austenitic steel and their electrochemical behavior in Tyrod solution.Design/methodology/approach: Specimens (rode 30 mm × ø1 mm were to give in to the surface treatment – mechanically polishing, electrolytic polishing and passivation with various parameter. Electrochemical investigations concerning the corrosion resistance of austenitic steel samples were carried out by means of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method.Findings: The analysis of the obtained results leads to the conclusion that chemical passivation affects also the chemical composition of the passive layer of steel and changes its resistance to corrosion. Electrolytic polishing improves corrosion resistance, as can be proved by the shift of the value of the corrosion potential and break-down potential of the passive layer and the initiation of pittings.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of anodic passivation parameters of the austenitic steel as a metallic biomaterial. The future research should be focused on selected more suitable parameters of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test to better describe process on the solid/ liquid interface.Practical implications: In result of the presented investigations it has been found that the best corrosion resistance can be achieved thanks to the application of electrolytic polishing of the steel in a special bath and chemical passivation in nitric (V acid with an addition of chromic (VI acid temperature t = 60°C for one hour.Originality/value: The enormous demand for metal implants has given rise to a search for cheap materials with a good biotolerance and resistance to corrosion. Most commonly used are steel implants assigned to remain in the organism for some limited time only. It was compare two electrochemical methods

  6. Hydrogen degradation of high strength weldable steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ćwiek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is presentation of hydrogen degradation issue of high strength steels andespecially their welded joints. Establishing of applicable mechanisms of hydrogen-enhanced cracking was theaim of performed research.Design/methodology/approach: High strength quenched and tempered steels grade S690Q were used. Weldedjoints were prepared with typical technology used in shipyards. Susceptibility to hydrogen degradation in seawater under cathodic polarization was evaluated with the use of mechanical tests. Various kinds of loads wereapplied, i.e. monotonically increasing static, constant, and cyclic. Appropriate measures of hydrogen degradationwere chosen and analyzed. Mechanisms of hydrogen degradation were detected and established on the basis ofscanning electron microscopy (SEM observation of fracture samples surface.Findings: Tested high strength steels and their welded joints are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement whenevaluated using a slow strain rate test (SSRT. On contrary, these steels and welded joints have high resistance tohydrogen delayed cracking under a constant load test. Significant reduction of a fatigue life time due to hydrogenabsorption has been observed during severe low-cycle fatigue tests.Research limitations/implications: There is no possibility to perform direct observation of exact hydrogenassistedcracking mechanisms in massive samples. Valid hydrogen-enhanced cracking model could be onlydeducted from degradation evidences like plasticity loss and fracture modes.Practical implications: Tested quenched and tempered S690Q steel grades could be safely utilized for marinewelded constructions under cathodic polarization. Hydrogen-assisted cracking should not occur unless a hugeoverprotection and plastic deformation take place.Originality/value: Hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP model is the most applicable mechanism ofhydrogen degradation for weldable steels with yield strength up to 1000 MPa.

  7. Initial oxidation of duplex stainless steel 2205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to superior mechanical and corrosion properties of duplex stainless steels which result in weight reduction of the constructions, thus contributing to the decreases in total costs and also due to the large and versatile usage of the alloy, duplex stainless steel is gradually displacing stainless steels of the AISI 300 series. Pickling of duplex stainless steel has proven to be much more difficult than that of standard austenitic grade (AISI 300 series). There is no complete agreement in the literature on scale (high temperature oxidation) dissolution mechanism in neutral pickling solutions. During annealing, duplex stainless steel is heated in annealing furnace up to 1050 C and is kept at this temperature for some time to soften the metal in order to release the work hardening induced by hot and cold rolling. The elimination of surface defects by forming the oxide scale is required to improve the corrosion resistance. Three different techniques were used to produce thin oxide layers on polished and sputter cleaned duplex stainless steel samples. They were exposed to 10-5 mb pure oxygen inside the vacuum chamber, exposed to ambient conditions for 24 hours and plasma oxidized. Oxide layers thus produced were analysed using XPS depth profiling for determination of the oxide layer's composition with depth. It was found that all techniques produce oxide layer with different traces of metallic components and with chromium oxide maximum concentration shifted towards the oxide layer - bulk metal interface. Depletion of Cr in bulk immediately below the interface was also observed. Simplified ARXPS procedure was used to corroborate thickness estimates for thinnest oxide layers. (authors)

  8. Designing of the chemical composition of steels basing on the hardenability of constructional steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the original method of modelling of the relationships between chemical composition of alloy constructional steel and its hardenability, employing neural networks. Basing on the experimental results of the hardenability investigations, which employed Jominy method, the model of the neural networks was developed and fully verified experimentally. The model makes it possible to obtain Jominy hardenability curves basing on the steel chemical composition. The model of neural networks, making it possible to design the steel chemical composition, basing on the known Jominy hardenability curve shape, was developed also and fully verified numerically. (author)

  9. Steel castings Ultrasonic examination, Part 2: Steel castings for highly stressed components

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    This European Standard specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic examination of steel castings (with ferritic structure) for highly stressed components and the methods for determining internal discontinuities by the pulse echo technique. This European Standard applies to the ultrasonic examination of steel castings which have usually received a grain refining heat treatment and which have wall thicknesses up to and including 600 mm. For greater wall thicknesses, special agreements apply with respect to test procedure and recording levels. This European Standard does not apply to austenitic steels and joint welds.

  10. Embrittlement of austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prevent hot-cracking, austenitic stainless steel welds generally contain a small percent of delta ferrite. Although ferrite has been found to effectively prevent hot-cracking, it can lead to embrittlement of welds when exposed to elevated temperatures. The aging behavior of type-308 stainless steel weld has been examined over a range of temperatures 475--850 C for times up to 10,000 hrs. Upon aging, and depending on the temperature range, the unstable ferrite may undergo a variety of solid state transformations. These phase changes creep-rupture and Charpy impact properties

  11. LCF and FCP in Eurofer97 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel, Eurofer97, is considered as one of the potential candidates for the structural components of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) of ITER and of future fusion power plants. Such components will operate under combined mechanical and thermal cycling, thus in order to design them the low cycle fatigue life and the fatigue crack propagation behaviour have to be examined. In the present work the low cycle fatigue life and fatigue crack propagation results for different technological products of Eurofer97 steel were investigated both in reference and in irradiated conditions. The fatigue behaviour of Eurofer97 steel is found to be similar to that of the conventional F82H steel. In both steels the decrease in fatigue resistance is observed with the increase of test temperature. A reduction in low cycle fatigue life occurs above 450 deg. C due to thermal activation of the material. A considerable scatter in fatigue life is observed in both steels, which is often attributed to the fact that fatigue is a stochastic process. No pronounced effect of the different technological product forms on the fatigue life of Eurofer97 has been observed. However, ODS Eurofer97 (0.5 wt.% Y2O3) steel exhibits a shorter fatigue life at higher strain range (1-1.4%). Irradiation at low temperature (300 deg. C, 2.5 dpa), when irradiation hardening occurs, is found to be beneficial at low strain amplitude and to be adverse at high strain amplitude. Irradiation at higher temperatures (> 450 deg. C, 2.5 dpa), when there is no irradiation hardening, seems not to affect low cycle fatigue behaviour of Eurofer97. The effect of creep/fatigue interaction is observed in the low strain ranges where the longer testing times allow the creep mechanism to affect the material. Hold time and irradiation at 450 deg. C up to 2.5 dpa have no influence on the fatigue crack propagation in Eurofer97 steel in the linear region II at testing temperature of 450 deg. C. (author)

  12. Statement of the steel manufacturers association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the policy of the Steel Manufacturers Association regarding regulation of radioactively contaminated scrap metal. In general, the use of sound science combined with accurate cost/benefit analysis is identified as an acceptable basis for the imposition of regulations. An increase in contaminated scrap is attributed to the number of radioactive devices licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and a failure of the NRC to adequately track and control the disposition of these sources. Other topics briefly discussed include steel company preventative measures, potential health effects, economic effects, regulatory jurisdiction, and pre-melt and post-melt recommendations

  13. Tool steel for cold worck niobium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tool steel was designed so as to have a microstructure with the matrix similar a cold work tool steel of D series, containing a dispersion of Niobium carbides, with no intention of putting Niobium in solution on the matrix. The alloy was cast, forged and heat treated. The alloy was easily forged; the primary carbide morfology, after forging, was faceted, tending to equiaxed. The hardness obtained was equivalent to the maximum hardness of a D-3 sttel when quenched from any temperature between 9500C, and 12000, showing a very small sensitivy to the quenching temperature. (Author)

  14. Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.

  15. Cracks in high-manganese cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reasons which account for the formation of in service cracks in castings made from Hadfield steel were discussed. To explain the source of existence of the nuclei of brittle fractures, the properties of cast steel were examined within the range of solidification temperatures, remembering that feeding of this material is specially difficult, causing microporosity in hot spots. This creates conditions promoting the formation of microcracks which tend to propagate during service conditions involving high dynamic stresses, and explains why the cracks are mainly characterized by a brittle nature. The reason for crack formation in service are micro-porosities formed during casting solidification.

  16. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Nuclear process heat for the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various possibilities for using nuclear process heat from a high temperature reactor to reduce iron ore, each using different proportions of nuclear energy. The advantages in separating the high temperature reactor with its associated reducing gas producer from any steel complex, include the ability to supply such gas to other consumers additional to the steel industry. The potential for nuclear gas-producing complexes in Western Europe is discussed as is the need for appropriate co-operation in the considerable research that will be needed to bring this new technology about. (orig.)

  18. MULTIAXIAL FATIGUE OF A RAILWAY WHEEL STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    CHIN-SUNG CHUNG; HO-KYUNG KIM

    2015-01-01

    Uniaxial and biaxial torsional fatigue specimens were extracted from a railway wheel steel. The fatigue tests were performed with the stress ratio of R= -1 by using uniaxial and biaxial torsional fatigue test specimens at room temperature in air. The ultimate and yield strengths of the steel were evaluated. The uniaxial fatigue limit was 422.5 MPa, which corresponds to 67% of the ultimate tensile strength. The ratio of e  e  / was 0.63. Appropriate parameters to predict the fatigue life ...

  19. Exploratory study on H13 steel dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunwoo, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    Ultrahigh-strength H13 steel is a recommended die material for aluminum die casting; dies made from H13 steel can be safely water- cooled during hot working operations without cracking. However, after time the dies exhibited surface cracking and excessive wear. Erosive wear also occurs owing to high pressure injection of molten Al. An exploratory study was made of the causes for surface cracking of H13 dies. Results suggest that surface cracking is caused by interrelated factors, internal to the die material as well as externally induced conditions.

  20. Internal Friction of Pressure Vessel Steel Embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution consists of an abstract of a PhD thesis. The thesis contains a literature study, a description of the construction details of a new inverted torsion pendulum. This device was designed to investigate pressure-vessel steels at high amplitudes (10-4 to 10-2) and over a wide temperature range (90-700K) at approximately 1 Hz in the irradiated condition. Results of measurements on a variety of reactor pressure vessel steels by means of the torsion penduli are reported and interpreted

  1. Measuring secondary phases in duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliari, I.; Brunelli, K.; Dabalà, M.; Ramous, E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of duplex stainless steels is limited by their susceptibility to the formation of dangerous intermetallic phases resulting in detrimental effects on impact toughness and corrosion resistance. This precipitation and the quantitative determinations of the phases have received considerable attention and different precipitation sequences (σ phase, χ phase, and carbides) have been suggested. This study investigates the phase transformation during continuous cooling and isothermal treatments in commercial duplex stainless steel grades and the effects on alloy properties, and compares the most common techniques of analysis.

  2. Outsourced High-strength Steel Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    The thesis was based on Sichuan Sunkun Equipment Corp outsourcing its high-strength steel plate purchasing activity to Sichuan Topcen Logistics Corp. The reason for this was that high-strength steel plates are in short supply in the market and Sunkun is not an expert in purchasing. It brings a series of problem to Sunkun and enforces Sunkun to outsource the purchasing activity to Topcen. The goal of the thesis was to analyze the existing system and optimize it. According to the theory of ...

  3. EIS Response of MIC on Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Maahn, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel under sulphate reducing (sulphide-producing) bacterial activity (SRB) results in the formation of both ferrous sulphides as well as biofilm on the metal surface. The electrochemical characteristics of the ferrous sulphide/steel interface as...... identifying the formation of biofilm/ferrous sulphide layers but unfortunately also that corrosion rate estimation by these electrochemical techniques is unreliable when these layers form. These considerations are also relevant for other corrosion systems where film formation might mask the electrochemical...

  4. Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

  5. Application of digital gammagraphy techniques to steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reveal certain defects in steel by gammagraphy, it is possible to use an electronic detector measuring the transmitted flux point by point. In order to improve the performance of these techniques, the use of multiple detectors is being investigated to facilitate the mapping of flaws in the inspection of large-section products. In this connection, we have developed an experimental test bench designed to elucidate the applicable measurement conditions. We have investigated more particularly the evolution of the volume of the limit detectable fault according to the geometrical measurement parameters. An attempt is also being made to transpose tomographical techniques to the examination of small steel specimens

  6. Tritium in austenitic stainless steel vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vessel used for the long-term storage of tritium (titanium tritide) will be of welded 316L stainless steel construction. The 316L stainless is chosen partially because of its excellent resistance, in the wrought condition, to any degradation of mechanical properties from contact with hydrogen isotopes. The work reported here was undertaken to check that the welds in the vessel would have a satisfactory response to the hydrogen isotopes. A satisfactory response has been demonstrated, leading to a general conclusion that the titanium tritide/316L stainless steel vessel combination provides an extremely reliable storage facility for the tritium

  7. Fire-induced collapses of steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondera, Alexandru; Giuliani, Luisa

    to investigate the collapse behaviour of single-story steel frames and identify relevant structural characteristics that influence the collapse mode. In this paper, a parametric study on the collapse a steel beam-column assembly with beam hinged connection and fixed column support is carried out under...... with bracing system, in case of a fire located on one outer span –situation that represents the worst case for the risk of sway collapse. With respect to this type of frames, a methodology is proposed for the development of design tables that relate the profiles of the elements to the soliciting load...

  8. Development of the microalloyed constructional steels

    OpenAIRE

    J. Adamczyk

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the development and the technical importance of the HSLA-typemicroalloyed constructional steels (High Strength Low Alloy) in selected industry branches.Design/methodology/approach: A mechanism of the interaction of Nb, Ti, V and B microadditions introducedinto the steel on mechanical properties of selected metallurgical products with the fine-grained structure,forming under the properly selected hot-working conditions with the of (M-Nb,Ti,V; X-N,C) ...

  9. Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan T

    2010-06-01

    A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least “cold-work” strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

  10. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Hot Isostatically Pressed-Produced Stainless Steel/High Alloy Tool Steel Compound Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Greta; Flyg, Jesper; Frisk, Karin; Sandberg, Odd

    2011-05-01

    Consolidation of tool steel powders and simultaneous joining to a stainless 316L steel are performed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Two tool steel grades are considered: a high vanadium alloyed carbon tool steel, and a high vanadium and chromium alloyed nitrogen tool steel. The boundary layer arising during diffusion bonding is in focus and, in particular, the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen over the joint. Measurements of the elemental concentration profiles and corrosion tests by the double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) method are performed. Comparative calculations with the DICTRA software are performed and are found to be in agreement with the experimental results. It is found that the carbon tool steel grade has a more critical influence on the corrosion resistance of the stainless 316L steel in comparison to the nitrogen tool steel grade.

  11. Identification of Relevant Work Parameters of Ladle Furnace While Melting the High Ductility Steel and High-Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warzecha M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, secondary metallurgical treatment in ladle furnace during smelting the high carbon steel and steel with improved ductility for cold-deforming, under industrial conditions were analyzed.

  12. Mechanical behavior of steels: from fundamental mechanisms to macroscopic deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Allain, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    My scientific activities aim at understand and predict the mechanical behaviour of steels, from fundamental mechanisms to macroscopic deformation. This manuscript is dedicated to the TWIP effect (TWinning Induced Plasticity) of high manganese austenitic steels and DP effect (Dual-Phase) in more conventional Ferrite-Martensite steels.

  13. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the...

  14. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  15. 77 FR 67593 - Steel Import Monitoring and Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... system can be accessed at http://ia.ita.doc.gov/steel/license/SIMA-FR-Notices.html . FOR FURTHER... ``Steel Import Licensing and Surge Monitoring Program'' (67 FR 79845). In Proclamation 7741 of December 4, 2003 (68 FR 68483), the President terminated the steel safeguard measures but directed the Secretary...

  16. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  17. Microstructure and selected properties of Mn-Al duplex steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Niewielski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Automotive industry constantly demands high-strength steels which are characterized by the energy absorption possibilities during a collision. Such materials may, in the future, replace the currently used conventional steels. The groups of steels which meet these criteria are the austenitic steels and austenitic-ferritic steels with high manganese content (15-30% and high aluminium content (1-6%.Design/methodology/approach: The influence of the chemical composition on the mechanical properties of steel with high carbon, manganese and aluminium concentration was analysed in this paper. Moreover, the susceptibility of those steels to hot deformation was assessed in plastometric tests.Findings: The conducted research enabled the optimisation of the chemical composition of duplex steels and manufacture of steel with favourable relation of strength to ductility.Practical implications: The obtained steel is characterised by beneficial properties which outbalance the austenitic steels type TWIP and may be applied in vehicle construction on elements connected with safety.Originality/value: The achieved results will be used to develop a technology of thermomechanical treatment of duplex steels.

  18. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  19. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178.... 178, App. A Appendix A to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 Designation Chemical composition... ladle analysis may be 1.40 percent. 6 Rephosphorized Grade 3 steels containing no more than 0.15...

  1. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  3. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  4. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of...

  5. Production, properties and application of steels resistant to atmospheric corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steels, resistant to atmospheric corrosion, applied in the USSR and abroad, are reviewed. The influence of alloying elements (Cu, P, Cr, Si, Ni, Mo, Mn, As etc) upon resistance against atmospheric corrosion and mechanical properties of rolled steel is discussed. Technological properties, fields of the above steels application as well as the data on the range of product, are presented

  6. Web-Based Interactive Steel Sculpture for the Google Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Karen C.; Moaveni, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    In almost all the civil engineering programs in the United States, a student is required to take at least one design course in either steel or reinforced concrete. One of the topics covered in an introductory steel design course is the design of connections. Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many…

  7. 21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stainless steel suture. 878.4495 Section 878.4495...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel suture is a needled or unneedled nonabsorbable surgical suture composed of...

  8. Structure of the gradient carbide steels of HS 6-5-2 high-speed steel matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Torralba, J. M.; G. Matula; A. Kloc-Ptaszna; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this work is to obtain gradient carbide steels based on a high-speed steel reinforced wittungsten carbide.Design/methodology/approach: The materials were fabricated using the conventional powder metallurgmethod. The gradient carbide steels was fabricated by mixing high-speed steel with WC powders. The uniaxiapressing before sintering was used for manufacturing the materials, consisting in compacting the powder in closed die, and subsequent sintering. The sintered test pie...

  9. Laser surface modification of tool steel for semi-solid steel forming

    OpenAIRE

    Brabazon, Dermot; Naher, Sumsun; Biggs, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of CO2 laser processing parameters on the surface modification and heat treatment of steels. The CO2 laser and sample movement process parameters are presented. The controlled operation of these in conjunction with each other is required to obtain better surface hardness and structure. H13 tool steel samples were rotated at high speeds to keep exposure times below 0.3s. Laser processed samples were analysed using EDX spectroscopy, optical microsco...

  10. Amorphous stainless steel coatings prepared by reactive magnetron-sputtering from austenitic stainless steel targets

    OpenAIRE

    Cusenza, Salvatore; Schaaf, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Stainless steel films were reactively magnetron sputtered in argon/methane gas flow onto oxidized silicon wafers using austenitic stainless-steel targets. The deposited films of about 200 nm thickness were characterized by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetooptical Kerr-effect, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, corrosion resistance tests, and Raman spectroscopy. These complementary methods were us...

  11. Fiber-laser welding for ultra-high tensile strength steel and stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-high tensile strength steel of 980 or 1150 MPa class has been often used for a large scale construction machine with lightweight parts because of transport weight limit. This steel needs its pre-processing before welding and has a tendency of delayed cracking, that requests a high welding technique with qualified welders. Austenitic stainless steel frequency used for nuclear energy related equipments has much strains caused by welding because of a large coefficient of thermal expansion. As a welding with small amount of its heat input and without a large size facility like a vacuum chamber, a fiber-laser welding was chosen to apply to equipments made of ultra-high tensile strength steel and stainless steel. Tensile and bending tests for I-butt and around 2mm root gap welded joints of high strength steel of 980 MPa showed their mechanical properties were similar to those of base metal. I-butt welded joints of high strength steel of 1150 MPa showed similar mechanical properties of base metal but as for root gap welded joint, a filler metal was not available. With filler metal of 980 MPa instead, the welded joints showed similar tensile strength of base metal but a crack occurred at the bending test according to the JIS welding procedure qualification specification. Application of fiber laser welding to stainless steel had been conducted successfully for I-butt welded joints of good penetration up to the plate thickness of 8mm. As an example, T-joint of mercury target vessel for J-PARC was produced by fiber laser welding, that became to apply to other nuclear equipments. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    OpenAIRE

    Aizik F.; Ran E.; Vizel A.; Weiss A.; Paris V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by match...

  13. Bake hardening behavior of TRIP and DP steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng Zhang; Renyu Fu; Mei Zhang; Rendong Liu; Xicheng Wei; Lin Li

    2008-01-01

    The bake hardening (BH) behavior of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and dual-phase (DP) steels after different prestrains was studied. The experimental results indicate that TRIP steel exhibits good BH ability while DP steel does not, and prestrain displays a strong effect on the BH values of both steels. The comparison of microstructures of the two steels showed that the hard second phase in the matrix might be harmful to the BH ability. For deformed specimens, baking resulted in a loss of uniform elongation, but there was no obvious decrease in uniform elongation for unprestrained specimens.

  14. A review of temperature measurement in the steel reheat furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incentive for conducting research and development on reheat furnaces is substantial; the domestic steel industry spent approximately one billion dollars on fuel in reheat furnaces in 1981. Bethlehem Steel Corp. spent /145 million of that total, and neither figure includes fuel consumed in soaking pits or annealing furnaces. If the authors set a goal to save 10% of these annual fuel costs, that translates into /100 million for the domestic steel industry and /14.5 million for Bethlehem Steel. These large sums of money are significant incentives. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical heating practices and equipment at steel reheat furnaces along with current practices and instrumentation

  15. Advances in the research of nitrogen containing stainless steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The current status of nitrogen containing stainless steels at home and aboard has been introduced. The function and existing forms of nitrogen in the stainless steels, influence of nitrogen on mechanical properties and anti-corrosion properties as well as the application of nitrogen containing cast stainless steels were discussed in this paper. It is clear that nitrogen will be a potential and important alloying element in stainless steels. And Argon Oxygen Decarbonization (AOD) refining can provide an advanced manufacture process for nitrogen containing stainless steels with ultra-low- carbon and high cleanliness.

  16. Sensitivity to Stress Concentration of Steel at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; YANG Ren-hui

    2003-01-01

    A new experimental method was developed to simulate the generation of the surface transversal crack on the continuous casting slab with a discontinuous sample. A high temperature property of steel named "the sensitivity to the stress concentration of steel at high temperature" was defined to evaluate the effect of stress concentration on thermal plasticity of steel. "The sensitivity parameter to the stress concentration of steel at high temperature" was available to determine the temperature range in which steel is sensitive to the stress concentration.

  17. Inclusion and Bubble in Steel--A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2006-01-01

    The type, morphology and sources of inclusion in steels, including indigenous and exogenous inclusions, were discussed and reviewed. Indigenous inclusions are deoxidation products or inclusions precipitated during cooling and solidification of steel. Exogenous inclusions arise primarily from the incidental chemical (reoxidation) and mechanical interaction of liquid steel with its surroundings (slag entrainment and erosion of lining refractory). Types and causes for the nozzle clogging were also summarized. Reasons for bubble formation and bubble size distribution in steels were discussed thereafter. Finally, morphology and causes of inclusion-related defects in continuously cast steel products were reviewed, such as flange cracking in cans, slag spots and line defects on strips.

  18. Sintering and characterization of YAG dispersed ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigates the effect of yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) addition on the densification, mechanical, tribological and corrosion behaviour of ferritic (434L) stainless steels. The composites were sintered at both solid-state (1200 deg. C) and supersolidus (1400 deg. C) sintering conditions. Supersolidus sintering results in superior densification, hardness and corrosion resistance of both straight 434L stainless steel as well as YAG reinforced 434L stainless steels. The addition of YAG to 434L stainless steels at supersolidus sintered conditions improves the strength and wear resistance of 434L stainless steels without significantly degrading the corrosion performance

  19. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE WEAR BEHAVIOR OF PM STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A. Wang; H. Danninger

    2001-01-01

    A review was made on the research progress of wear behavior of PM steels in recentyears. Wear is not an intrinsic property of PM steels, which is strongly influencedby the wear test conditions. However, many other factors that determine the me-chanical properties of PM steels also affect the wear behavior. Porosity has differenteffects on the wear of PM steels depending on the application conditions. Under drysliding condition, higher porosity results in lower wear resistance. The influence ofmicrostructures on wear resistance was in the order: carbide, martensite, bainite andlamellar pearlite. The wear resistance increases with hardness, but this relationshipchanges with the porosity and microstructures of PM steels.``

  20. Stainless steels: general considerations and rates of crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the different types of stainless steels, and presents the laws governing the rates of crack growth for several stainless steels extensively used for the manufacture of structures in nuclear power plants. The laws are not discussed in detail in the report. After a brief review of the development of stainless steels, the main categories of stainless steels, their mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance, are presented. Finally, the rates of crack growth are presented for various stainless steels, mainly austenitic. The study overall aim is an investigation of the cracking in the 900 MWe primary pump thermal barriers and shafts

  1. Advances in the research of nitrogen containing stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiu ZHANG

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The current status of nitrogen containing stainless steels at home and abroad has been introduced. The function and existing forms of nitrogen in stainless steels, influence of nitrogen on mechanical properties and anti-corrosion properties as well as the application of the nitrogen containing stainless steels were discussed in this paper. It is clear that nitrogen will be a potential and important alloying element in stainless steels. And Argon Oxygen Decarbonization (AOD refining can provide an advanced manufacture process for nitrogen containing stainless steels with ultra-low carbon and high cleaniness.

  2. Developing of robot flexible processing system for shipbuilding profile steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚舜; 邱涛; 楼松年; 王宏杰

    2003-01-01

    A robot flexible processing system of shipbuilding profile steel was developed. The system consists of computer integrated control and robot. An off-line programming robot was used for marking and cutting of shipbuilding profile steel. In the system the deformation and position error of profile steel can be detected by precise sensors, and figure position coordinate error resulted from profile steel deformation can be compensated by modifying traveling track of robotic arm online. The practical operation results show that the system performance can meet the needs of profile steel processing.

  3. Boronized stainless steel with zirconia coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Kolísko, J.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Mastný, L.; Pokorný, P.; Tej, P.

    Ostrava: TANGER Ltd, 2015, s. 1069-1074. ISBN 978-80-87294-62-8. [METAL 2015. International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials /24./. Brno (CZ), 03.06.2015-05.06.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Boronised steel * plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * bond strength * zirkonia coatings Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  4. Magnetic Nondestructive Testing Techniques of Constructional Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Er-gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel is a kind of ferromagnetic material, which is extensively applied in such fields as buildings, bridges, railways, machines and lifeline engineering etc. Those engineering structures built of constructional steel will unavoidably experience some damages during their service lifetime, thus which will influence the distribution regularity of internal forces in structures, result in over-stresses, cause the local failure of structures, and even lead to collapse of the whole structure. Therefore, it is a pressing topic to study how to directly evaluate the real-time stressed states of structural members, damages and steel characteristics in present structural health monitoring and diagnosing fields. And the achievements of this research will be of theoretical significance and of application value of engineering. This paper summarizes varieties of new magnetic nondestructive testing techniques used in constructional steel, respectively investigates the testing principles, characteristics and application for the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique, magnetic acoustic emission technique, magnetic flux leakage technique, magnetic memory technique and magnetic absorption technique, and points out the problems present in the application of these new techniques to actual testing and the further research objective.

  5. Case studies of steel structure failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernasovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with some case studies of steel structure failures, which happened in Slovakia a few years ago. Features of cracking are illustrated on real cases of breakdowns in the transmission gas pipelines, at the cement works and in the petrochemical indus-try. All failures were caused by an incorrect technical approach. Possible remedial measures are proposed.

  6. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz; Mayr, Peter

    The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD-process is...

  7. Thermal stability of phosphate coatings on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The work was validated thermal stability of zinc, manganese and tri-cations phosphate coatings on steel, made from commercial phosphating bath type Pragofos. Thermogravimetric data dehydration of scholzite, phosphophylite and hureaulite coatings in the temperature range 160 °C – 400 °C define the conditions for applying paints with higher firing temperature or thermal spraying ceramic coatings.

  8. Steel Spheres and Skydiver--Terminal Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leme, J.; Moura, C.; Costa, Cintia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the use of open source video analysis software in the study of the relationship between the velocity of falling objects and time. We discuss an experiment in which a steel sphere falls in a container filled with two immiscible liquids. The motion is similar to that of a skydiver falling through air.

  9. Computational Modeling Develops Ultra-Hard Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Glenn Research Center's Mechanical Components Branch developed a spiral bevel or face gear test rig for testing thermal behavior, surface fatigue, strain, vibration, and noise; a full-scale, 500-horsepower helicopter main-rotor transmission testing stand; a gear rig that allows fundamental studies of the dynamic behavior of gear systems and gear noise; and a high-speed helical gear test for analyzing thermal behavior for rotorcraft. The test rig provides accelerated fatigue life testing for standard spur gears at speeds of up to 10,000 rotations per minute. The test rig enables engineers to investigate the effects of materials, heat treat, shot peen, lubricants, and other factors on the gear's performance. QuesTek Innovations LLC, based in Evanston, Illinois, recently developed a carburized, martensitic gear steel with an ultra-hard case using its computational design methodology, but needed to verify surface fatigue, lifecycle performance, and overall reliability. The Battelle Memorial Institute introduced the company to researchers at Glenn's Mechanical Components Branch and facilitated a partnership allowing researchers at the NASA Center to conduct spur gear fatigue testing for the company. Testing revealed that QuesTek's gear steel outperforms the current state-of-the-art alloys used for aviation gears in contact fatigue by almost 300 percent. With the confidence and credibility provided by the NASA testing, QuesTek is commercializing two new steel alloys. Uses for this new class of steel are limitless in areas that demand exceptional strength for high throughput applications.

  10. Energy-efficient steels for motor laminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, F. E.; Jaffee, R. I.

    1992-03-01

    Motors use over 60% of all electricity generated, and their losses exceed 200 × 109 kW.hr/year. A significant part of this loss results from eddy currents and hysteretic processes in the motor laminations. These so- called core losses cost motor users about 3 × 109/year. The metallurgy and economics of using various steels are considered, with emphasis on 5- to 125- hp polyphase induction motors. A lower core loss steel, even though it is more expensive, is economically justified most of the time when the operating costs of motors are considered. Impurities must be minimized, and steels can now be made with the principal impurities being less than 30 ppm. Further reduction of core losses depends on using the best steel processing equipment available, production of a consistently low carbon content so that decarburizing during the final anneal can be eliminated, developing a better understanding of the relation between material properties and performance in motors, and an increased willingness by the motor users to pay more for better motors that are cheaper to own in the long run.

  11. Hydrogen gas embrittlement of selected stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen gas embrittlement of selected stainless steels: metastable 18-8, (α+γ) IN 744 and γ' or N-hardened austenites, has been investigated means of the triaxial disk pressure test at various pressure increase rates, at RT or sometimes -500C and +1000C. Test are supplemented with SEM and magnetic phase determination

  12. Fatigue in Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    1999-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series have been carried through on various...

  13. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy. (Author)

  14. Composition for molybdenum siliconizing of steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new composition for molybdenum siliconizing of steel products is suggested that contains molybdenum oxide, aluminium oxide, silicocalcium and ammonium chloride. To increase the saturation ability of previously known composition, copper oxide is additionally introduced in the new composition. It is show that saturating ability. of the above composition for diffusion molybdenum siliconizing is up to 10 times and higher than previously known

  15. Neutron scattering on neutron irradiated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three pressure vessel steel systems (two base material and one weld material) with a 50% irradiation induced hardness enhancement were investigated by small angle neutron scattering. All three steel systems were irradiated in the light water moderated research reactor FRJ-1 at a temperature of 1500C. The strongest scattering effect was found for steel A; a pressure vessel containment steel ASTM a 533 B. This system was irradiated with a fluence of 7 1019 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV). The annealing behaviour was then investigated after isochronal anneals of 300, 350, 400 and 4500C. Viker's hardness measurements were made parallel to the neutron scattering experiments. The hardness enhancement of 50% decreased after the first anneal to 30% and after the second to 18%. The neutron scattering patterns show a decrease in the number of very small voids having a Guinier radius less than 5 A. These voids have annealed, or coagulated into larger voids (Rg = 20-25 A) with a density of n = 1015 cm-3. After the third anneal at 4000C, the scattering patterns became, within statistical errors, identical to the scattering pattern of the unirradiated specimen; but a hardness enhancement of 13% was measured. (orig./WBU)

  16. Hot forming recrystallization kinetics in steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kliber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of kinetics of static recrystallization of steel during hot forming links the phenomenon to certain critical strain, grain size, strain rate, activation energy and temperature. The basic description is provided by the Avrami equation. An overview of equations used was compiled and comments on selected parameters prepared.

  17. Hot forming recrystallization kinetics in steel

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kliber; Fabík, R.; Vitez, I.; Drozd, K.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of kinetics of static recrystallization of steel during hot forming links the phenomenon to certain critical strain, grain size, strain rate, activation energy and temperature. The basic description is provided by the Avrami equation. An overview of equations used was compiled and comments on selected parameters prepared.

  18. Prevention methods against hydrogen degradation of steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ćwiek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is presentation of mechanisms and forms of hydrogen degradation in steel along with pointing out methods for hydrogen degradation prevention.Design/methodology/approach: Hydrogen degradation of steel is a form of environmentally assisted failure which is caused by the action of hydrogen often in combination with residual or applied stress resulting in reduction of plasticity, load bearing capacity of a component, and cracking.Findings: The sources of hydrogen in steel were presented. Forms of hydrogen presence in metals, mechanisms of hydrogen degradation, and types of hydrogen induced damage were discussed in details. Five specific types of hydrogen induced damage to metals and alloys could be distinguished: hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen, hydrogen attack, cracking from hydride formation.Practical implications: Methods for hydrogen degradation prevention include: selection of suitable material, modifying environment to reduce hydrogen charging, and use of surface coatings and effective inhibitors.Originality/value: Originality the paper outlines the problem of hydrogen degradation of steel and other alloys, delivering knowledge to undertake preventive or remedial actions in order to avoid hydrogen induced degradation.

  19. Tests Of Protective Coats For Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III

    1995-01-01

    Report describes laboratory and field tests of candidate paints (primers, tie coats, and topcoats) for use in protecting carbon-steel structures against corrosion in seaside environment at Kennedy Space Center. Coating materials selected because of utility in preventing corrosion, also on basis of legal requirements, imposed in several urban areas, for reduction of volatile organic contents.

  20. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, Joshua (Inventor); Hubbell, Theodore E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A surface of a steel substrate is nitrided without external heating by exposing it to a beam of nitrogen ions under low pressure, a pressure much lower than that employed for ion-nitriding. An ion source is used instead of a glow discharge. Both of these features reduce the introduction of impurities into the substrate surface.

  1. Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Juhas, M.C.

    1985-09-19

    Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K.

  2. Development of a lean duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljas, M.; Johansson, P.; Liu Hui-Ping; Olsson, C.O.A. [Avesta Research Centre, Avesta (Sweden). Outokumpu Stainless

    2008-06-15

    The classic series of duplex stainless steels shows very high corrosion resistance and can be used for very demanding applications. A new lean duplex steel, LDX 2101 {sup registered} (EN 1.4162, UNS S32101), has been developed with corrosion resistance on a par with standard austenitic grades. Application areas include: structural components, chemical industry, tanks and containers. The steel was designed to have equal amounts of ferrite and austenite in annealed condition and with an austenite that is stable against strain-induced martensite. Thanks to its high nitrogen content, the steel has a fast austenite reformation when subjected to thermal cycling, e.g. welding. Unlike conventional duplex grades, the formation of intermetallic phase is very sluggish, although precipitation of nitrides and carbides has a certain impact on material properties after exposure in the temperature range 600 to 800 C. The precipitation behaviour after different isothermal treatments is described and its influence on different product properties is shown. A good agreement was found between impact toughness and corrosion resistance for a wide range of thermal treatments. (orig.)

  3. Iodine adsorption on steel in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium loading of iodine on low chromium alloy steel as functions of iodine partial pressure, temperature, and metal surface conditions were measured. Desorption rates as functions of temperature and He purity were found and the hazards of iodine release as related to licensing and operation were studied

  4. Corrosion of plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behaviour of plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel grades AISI 304, 316 and 321 was studied at various temperatures. Certain plasma nitriding cycles included a post-oxidation treatment. The corrosion rates were measured using linear polarisation technique. Results showed that corrosion rate increased with the plasma nitriding temperature. Minimum deterioration occurred at 653K. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 10 refs

  5. Solar energy reflector for steel tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy is a vital source of energy. It attracted the attention of many nations. In fact two aspects promote the use of solar energy specially for the low temperature heat treatment of metal: 1- Environmental protection. 2- Economical issue. The search for the implementation of solar energy as a source remains a key issue in widening the scope of solar energy application and use in industry. This paper is an attempt to explore the feasibility and efficiency of using solar reflector in the tempering treatment of steel. A solar reflector in constructed, basically by a rolled steel plate with glass mirror strips glued to the rolled steel plate. A heating chamber is constructed at the focal site of the parabola in which small steel specimens were placed and then under the effect of solar sun shine the temperature of the specimens raise and for a period of time they were subjected to tempering. The temperature in the chamber was monitored and it was found that it reaches 110 degree centigrade in the months July and August just past middy 12:35.(Author)

  6. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz;

    1999-01-01

    , the scratch test is used to estimate critical loads for cohesive and adhesive failure of the coatings. Additionally, distortion measurements are carried out. The results emphasize the advantage of induction surface hardening as a method of subsequent heat treatment of CVD-coated steels....

  7. Business Intelligence for Strategic Steel Constructions Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2010-01-01

    vessels, welding, machining, heat treatment, corrosive treatment and quality control. It uses these core competencies to manufacture heavy duty, labour-intensive welded and machine processed steel structures in Eastern Europe. It has many years of sound project management experience and has enjoyed great...

  8. Thermal stability of phosphated coatings on steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Pokorný, P.; Szelag, P.; Cinert, Jakub

    Zagreb: Croatian Metallurgical Society (CMS), 2014 - (Mamuzić, I.). s. 405 ISBN N. [International Symposium of Croatian Metallurgical Society SHMD 2014/11./. 22.06.2014-26.06.2014, Šibenik] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : steel phosphating * phosphate coatings * plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * corrosion resistance * bond strength of coatings Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  9. Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Deuk; Ryu, Seung Ki; Kim Young Ho [POSCO Techanical Researh Laboratories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-25

    Microbially Influenced Corrosion(MIC) is often a significant factor in controlling the long-term performance of most structural materials in industrial applications. This papers cover MIC mechanism and evaluation of stainless steels in soil and sea water environments. Papers also cover detection, monitoring and mitigation of MIC, biocides and treatments. (author). 28 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. Cleavage behaviors in nuclear vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleavage behaviors of nuclear vessel steels in the transition temperature range are reviewed. Viewpoints are presented to assist understanding of cleavage crack speed, cleavage initiation, cleavage arrest, and the sensitivity of fracture toughness to constraint and temperature. The importance of high local stress elevations by high strain rate is emphasized. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 149

  11. OR in the Danish steel industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Thorsen, M.

    1991-01-01

    During the past five years several OR-projects (M.Sc. Thesis) were carried out at IMSOR. These OR-projects dealt with the development of decision support systems based upon heuristic principles, for various planning, production and control problems in the Danish steel industry. The purpose of this...

  12. CASE-HARDENING OF STAINLESS STEEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to case-hardening of a stainless steel article by means of gas including carbon and/or nitrogen, whereby carbon and/or nitrogen atoms diffuse through the surface into the article. The method includes activating the surface of the article, applying a top layer on the activated...

  13. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting...

  14. Generic Inspection Planning for Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified and practically applicable approach for risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details in steel structures. The basic idea is that the fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their Fatigue Design Factor (FDF) and SN curve. When...

  15. Vibrational Based Inspection Of A Steel Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results from a research project concerning vibrational based inspection of a 20 meter high steel mast containing well defined damages. Introductory analyses dealing with among other things evaluation of potential damage indicators and determination of...

  16. Irradiation creep of stainless steel in bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development is described of a test to measure irradiation enhanced creep in bending of 20% cold-worked Type-316 stainless steel. The test will be irradiated in the experimental fast reactor EBR-II. The rationale used in design selection is described. The selected beam designs, the supportive tests in other stress states and the measurement techniques are described in detail. (Auth.)

  17. Irradiation creep of stainless steel in bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development is described of a test to measure irradiation enhanced creep in bending of 20% cold-worked Type-316 stainless steel. The test will be irradiated in the experimental fast reactor EBR-II. The rationale used in design selection is described. The selected beam designs, the supportive tests in other stress states and the measurement techniques are described in detail

  18. The swelling of 316 type steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The position of maximum swelling in pin cladding or wrappers gives an interesting guide to the effect of flux and temperature on swelling. There is no significant difference between the swelling of specimens and that of pin cladding or wrappers. The swelling at high temperatures is due to structural changes in the steel but these are complex. (author)

  19. Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K

  20. Treatment of radioactive wastes from steel mitts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequece of the incident of the smelting sources of Cs-137 in steel mills, there have been generated radioactive waste a few different iron which habitually they are produced in the nuclear facilities operation, which has needed the adjustment of some facilities of the C. A. El Cabril and the implantation of new equipments and systems. (Author)

  1. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M.; Alcantara, J.; Diaz, I.; Chico, B.; Simancas, J.; Fuente, D. de la

    2015-07-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy. (Author)

  2. FORIDA Towers - Analysis of steel transition piece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Rom; Dollerup, Niels; Damkilde, Lars

    This report is a detailed analysis of the transition piece connecting the hybrid wind turbine towers lower UHPFRC part with the top steel part. The analysis of the transition piece includes a validation of the Service Limit State (SLS), the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and the Fatigue loads. The...

  3. Quality assessment of aluminized steel tubes

    OpenAIRE

    K. Żaba

    2010-01-01

    The results of assessments of the welded steel tubes with the Al-Si coating intended for the motorization needs – are presented in thepaper. The measurement of mechanical properties, tube diameters and thickness, internal flash heights as well as the alternative assessmentof the weld quality were performed. The obtained results are presented by means of tools available in the Statistica program andmacroscopic observations.

  4. The energy benefit of stainless steel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy used to produce austenitic stainless steel was quantified throughout its entire life cycle for three scenarios: (1) current global operations, (2) 100% recycling, and (3) use of only virgin materials. Data are representative of global average operations in the early 2000s. The primary energy requirements to produce 1 metric ton of austenitic stainless steel (with assumed metals concentrations of 18% Cr, 8% Ni, and 74% Fe) is (1) 53 GJ, (2) 26 GJ, and (3) 79 GJ for each scenario, with CO2 releases totaling (1) 3.6 metric tons CO2, (2) 1.6 metric tons CO2, and (3) 5.3 metric tons CO2. Thus, the production of 17 million metric tons of austenitic stainless steel in 2004 used approximately 9.0x1017 J of primary energy and released 61 million metric tons of CO2. Current recycling operations reduce energy use by 33% (4.4x1017 J) and CO2 emissions by 32% (29 million tons). If austenitic stainless steel were to be produced solely from scrap, which is currently not possible on a global level due to limited availability, energy use would be 67% less than virgin-based production and CO2 emissions would be cut by 70%. The calculation of the total energy is most sensitive to the amount and type of scrap fed into the electric arc furnace, the unit energy of the electric arc furnace, the unit energy of ferrochromium production, and the form of primary nickel

  5. Heavy steel reflector evaluation using diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovezan, Pamela; Carluccio, Thiago, E-mail: pamela.piovezan@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: thiago.carluccio@ctmsp.mar.mil [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neutronica e Blindagem; Abe, Alfredo; Santos, Adimir dos, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: asantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A new component named heavy reflector that did not exist in actual nuclear power plants was introduced recently by the EPR reactor. The component was designed to partially reflect neutrons inside the core to increase fuel efficiency and protect the vessel during its 60-year operational life. Recently, an experiment was designed and performed to address the real neutron reflector contribution due to the stainless steel in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor. The experiment consisted of several plates of stainless steel which were conveniently positioned at water reflector region of the reactor core. The main experimental results were the critical control bank positions and reactivity as a function of the number of stainless steel plates. The main outcome of the experimental results showed a quite clear effect on neutron absorption and neutron reflection due to the stainless steel plates. The objective of this preliminary work is to address theoretically this experiment using the diffusion theory code CITATION, besides existing evaluation using Monte Carlo (MCNP and Tripoli) and transport (TORT) codes, in order to verify the performance of diffusion theory for the reflector region. (author)

  6. Stainless steel forgings for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Specification covers detailed requirements for the supply of austenitic stainless steel forgings used in radioactive and corrosive areas within the Nuclear Industry. With the exception of 316S51 the materials specified are all suitable for contact with nitric acid, 316S51 being included as suitable for use in contact with sodium and other alkali metals at elevated temperatures. (author)

  7. Multiscale Modeling of Phase Transformations in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militzer, M.; Hoyt, J. J.; Provatas, N.; Rottler, J.; Sinclair, C. W.; Zurob, H. S.

    2014-05-01

    Multiscale modeling tools have great potential to aid the development of new steels and processing routes. Currently, industrial process models are at least in part based on empirical material parameters to describe microstructure evolution and the resulting material properties. Modeling across different length and time scales is a promising approach to develop next-generation process models with enhanced predictive capabilities for the role of alloying elements. The status and challenges of this multiscale modeling approach are discussed for microstructure evolution in advanced low-carbon steels. First-principle simulations of solute segregation to a grain boundary and an austenite-ferrite interface in iron confirm trends of important alloying elements (e.g., Nb, Mo, and Mn) on grain growth, recrystallization, and phase transformation in steels. In particular, the linkage among atomistic simulations, phase-field modeling, and classic diffusion models is illustrated for the effects of solute drag on the austenite-to-ferrite transformation as observed in dedicated experimental studies for iron model alloys and commercial steels.

  8. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipeline Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the differences between high pH and near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking ofpipeline steels, influencing factors, and mechanisms. The characteristics and historical information on both forms ofSCC are discussed. The prospect for research in the future is also presented.

  9. Compresibility and sinterability of HCx PM steel diluted with stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gordo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available HCx powder metallurgy steel contains in its composition high contents of Cr and C, and significant quantities of alloy elements typical of tool steels (Mo, V, W, to provide the corrosion resistance of stainless steel with wear resistance of tool steels. HCx appears to be a suitable material for applications in aggressive environments, as valve seat inserts in automotive engines. However, this steel presents a low compressibility leading to high production costs. In this work, some results carried out to improve the compressibility of HCx are presented. The way to attempt this improvement is the dilution of base material with two stainless steels, the ferritic 430LHC and the austenitic 316L. The powder mixes prepared were uniaxially pressed to study the compressibility. The sinterability was study by determining of density, hardness, transverse rupture strength (TRS and microstructural evolution after vacuum sintering at different temperatures. As a result, better compressibility is observed in the mixes although not all of them present the properties required.

  10. Systems design of advanced gear steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John Patrick

    A new generation of Ni-Co secondary hardening gear steels has been developed using a systems approach. These high toughness ultrahigh-strength martensitic steels show great promise for demanding gear applications. Quantitative science-based modeling was used to create prototype alloys of superior strength and fatigue resistance over conventional steels. Carburizing and strengthening models were developed to relate processing parameters to microstructure and microstructure to strength. The failure of the DICTRA software to accurately predict the carburizing behavior of Ni-Co steels led to a series of experiments to refine its kinetic database. New carbon diffusivities were calculated from the concentration gradients of carburized model alloys, resulting in a significant improvement of simulation accuracy. A structure/property model was created to equate the strength of a secondary hardening steel to the sum of the effects of solid solution, precipitates, dislocation density, and the substructure of the lath martensite matrix. The strengthening model was subsequently combined with the carburizing simulations to predict the hardness gradient in a case-hardened alloy based upon initial carburizing conditions. In addition, existing precipitation theory was used in conjunction with the microstructure/strength relationship to simulate the evolution of material hardness during secondary hardening. The creation of three prototype gear steels began with the use of the strengthening model to establish the carbon and alloying element contents required to reach the core and case hardness objectives of 50 and 70 HRC respectively. The design approach also included the establishment of proper transformation and solution temperatures and the maximization of the efficiency of the Msb2C carbide strengthening dispersion. The core hardnesses of the C3-A and B prototypes significantly exceeded the design goal. A reduction in core carbon content from 0.16 to 0.12 weight percent was

  11. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Pauliina; Carpén, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Raulio, Mari; Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland) for periods of 3 and 8 months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel. PMID:26257707

  12. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina eRajala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland for periods of three and eight months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel.

  13. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Pauliina; Carpén, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Raulio, Mari; Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland) for periods of 3 and 8 months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel. PMID:26257707

  14. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  15. Low-chromium reduced-activation ferritic steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Kenik, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Development of reduced-activation ferritic steels has concentrated on high-chromium (8-10 wt% Cr) steels. However, there are advantages for a low-chromium steel, and initial ORNL studies on reduced-activation steels were on compositions with 2.25 to 12% Cr. Those studies showed an Fe-2.25Cr-2W-0.25V-0.1C (2 1/4Cr-2WV) steel to have the highest strenglth of the steels studied. Although this steel had the best strength, Charpy impact properties were inferior to those of an Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) and an Fe-2.25Cr-2W-0.1C (2 1/4Cr-2W) steel. Therefore, further development of the low-chromium Cr-W steels was required. These results indicate that it is possible to develop low-chromium reduced-activation ferritic steels that have tensile and impact properties as good or better than those of high-chromium (7-9% Cr) steels. Further improvement of properties should be possible by optimizing the composition.

  16. Development of commercial nitrogen-rich stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the development of nitrogen alloyed stainless steels. Nitrogen alloying of austenitic stainless steels started at an early stage and was to a large extent caused by nickel shortage. However, direct technical advantages such as increased strength of the nitrogen alloyed steels made them attractive alternatives to the current steels. It was not until the advent of the AOD (argon oxygen decarburisation) process in the late 1960s that nitrogen alloying could be controlled to such accuracy that it became successful commercially on a broader scale. The paper describes production aspects and how nitrogen addition influences microstructure and the resulting properties of austenitic and duplex stainless steels. For austenitic steels there are several reasons for nitrogen alloying. Apart from increasing strength nitrogen also improves structural stability, work hardening and corrosion resistance. For duplex steels nitrogen also has a decisive effect in controlling the microstructure during thermal cycles such as welding. (orig.)

  17. Influence of titanium on the tempering structure of austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of titanium-stabilized and initially deformed (approximately 20%) austenitic stainless steels used in structures of fast neutrons reactors has been studied after one hour duration annealings (500 0C) by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, microhardness and transmission electron microscopy. The studied alloys were either of industrial type CND 17-13 (0.23 to 0.45 wt% Ti) or pure steels (18% Cr, 14% Ni, 0 or 0.3 wt% Ti). During tempering, the pure steels presented some restauration before recristallization. In the industrial steels, only recristallization occurred, and this only in the most deformed steel. Precipitation does not occur in the titanium-free pure steel. In industrial steels, many intermetallic phases are formed when recristallization starts

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Britti Bacalhau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition on the nitriding response have been evaluated. From forged steel bars, Charpy impact test and characterization via EPMA have been conducted. The proposed contents of Cr, Mo, and Al have attributed to the new VEX grade a much better tempering resistance than H13, as well as a deeper and harder nitrided layer. Due to the unique characteristics, this new steel provides an interesting alternative to the aluminum extrusion companies to increase their competitiveness.

  19. Assessing resistance of stabilized corrosion resistant steels to intergranular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistance to intergranular corrosion was determined for four types of titanium-stabilized steels from the coefficients of stabilization efficiency according to the degree the chemical composition was known. The ATA SUPER steel showed the highest resistance parameter value. The resistance of this type of steel of a specific composition, showing a relatively low value of mean nitrogen content was compared with steel of an optimized chemical composition and with low-carbon niobium stabilized, molybdenum modified steels. The comparison showed guarantees of a sufficient resistance of the steel to intergranular corrosion. The method of assessing the resistance to intergranular corrosion using the calculation of the minimum content of Cr', i.e., the effective chromium content, and the maximum effective carbon content C' giving the resistance parameter k seems to be prospective for practical use in the production of corrosion resistant steels. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 15 refs

  20. Corrosion resistance testing of high-boron-content stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron steels, i.e. stainless steels with boron contents of 0.2 to 2.25 wt.%, are employed in nuclear engineering for the manufacture of baskets or wells in which radioactive fissile materials are stored, mostly spent nuclear fuel elements. The resistance of such steels to intergranular corrosion and uniform corrosion was examined in the Strauss solution and in boric acid; the dependence of the corrosion rate of the steels on their chemical composition was investigated, and their resistance was compared with that of AISI 304 type steel. Corrosion resistance tests in actual conditions of ''wet'' compact storage (demineralized water or a weak boric acid solution) gave evidence that boron steels undergo nearly no uniform corrosion and, as electrochemical measurements indicated, match standard corrosion-resistant steels. Corrosion resistance was confirmed to decrease slightly with increasing boron content and to increase somewhat with increasing molybdenum content. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs