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Sample records for chromatographytandem mass spectrometry

  1. Confirmatory analysis of acetylgestagens in plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sarah Kelly; Pedersen, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    -assisted liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) on Extrelut NT columns followed by C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE). Analytes were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (I-C-MS/MS), and quantification was performed using matrix-matched calibration standards in combination with deuterated internal...

  2. Protein identification using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry is an efficient technique for the identification of peptides on the basis of their fragmentation pattern (MS/MS scan). It can generate individual spectra for each peptide, thereby creating a powerful tool for protein identification on the basis of peptide characterization. This important advance in automatic data acquisition has allowed an efficient association between liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and the use of nanocolumns and nanoelectrospray ionization has dramatically increased the efficiency of this method. Now large sets of peptides can be identified at a femtomole level. At the end of the process, batch processing of the MS/MS spectra produces peptide lists that identify purified proteins or protein mixtures with high confidence.

  3. Determination of albendazole sulfoxide in human plasma by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraner, Nihal; Özkan, Güler Yağmur; Güney, Berrak; Alkan, Erkin; Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan; Sağlam, Onursal; Fikirdeşici, Ezgi; Yıldırım, Mevlüt

    2016-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for determination of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) in human plasma. The plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation using albendazole sulfoxide-d3 as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters Xbridge C18Column (100×4.6mm, 3.5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of ammonia solution, water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.70mL/min. ABZOX was detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 3-1500ng/mL for ABZOX. This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study in human plasma samples.

  4. Determination of parabens in serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Correlation with lipstick use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Gabriella Padovani; Santos, Nayara de Kássia Souza; Albuquerque, Ana Carolina; Martins, Isarita

    2016-08-01

    Parabens are the most widely used preservative and are considered to be relatively safe compounds. However, studies have demonstrated that they may have estrogenic activity, and there is ongoing debate regarding the safety and potential cancer risk of using products containing these compounds. In the present work, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to determine methylparaben and propylparaben concentrations in serum, and the results were correlated with lipstick application. Samples were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The validation results demonstrated the linearity of the method over a range of 1-20 ng/mL, in addition to the method's precision and accuracy. A statistically significant difference was demonstrated between serum parabens in women who used lipstick containing these substances compared with those not using this cosmetic (p = 0.0005 and 0.0016, respectively), and a strong association was observed between serum parabens and lipstick use (Spearman correlation = 0.7202).

  5. Determination of bromate in drinking water by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; Busquets, Rosa; Alomary, Ahmad Khodran

    2012-10-01

    Bromate is a byproduct formed as a result of disinfection of bromide-containing source water with ozone or hypochlorite. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recognized bromate as a possible human carcinogen, thus it is essential to determine in drinking water. Present work highlights a development of sensitive and fast analytical method for bromate determination in drinking water by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The quality parameters of the developed method were established, obtaining very low limit of detection (0.01 ng/mL), repeatability and reproducibility have been found to be less than 3% in terms of relative standard deviation when analyzing a bromate standard at 0.05 μg/mL with 0.4 min analysis time. Developed method was applied for the analysis of metropolitan and bottled water from Saudi Arabia; 22 samples have been analyzed. Bromate was detected in the metropolitan water samples (from desalinization source) at concentrations ranging between 3.43 and 75.04 ng/mL and in the bottled water samples at concentrations ranging between 2.07 and 21.90 ng/mL. Moreover, in comparison to established analytical methods such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the proposed method was found to be very sensitive, selective and rapid for the routine analysis of bromate at low level in drinking water.

  6. A New Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Determination of Bisoprolol in Human Plasma Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Peste; Nela Bibire; Mihai Apostu; Aurel Vlase; Corneliu Oniscu

    2009-01-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) detection is one of the most powerful analytical tools for organic compound analysis. The advantages of using LC/MS methods over HPLC methods include: selectivity, chromatographic integrity, peak assignment, structural information, and rapid method development. In this paper, a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of bisoprolol in human plasma s...

  7. Simultaneous determination of estrogens and progestogens in honey using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work describes the development and validation of a method for the simultaneous determination of 13 estrogens and progestogens in honey by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The target compounds were preconcentrated by solid phase extraction. Pretreatment variables ...

  8. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M. van der; Koning, T.J. de; Lefeber, D.J.; Fleer, A.; Prinsen, B.H.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was v

  9. Structural Elucidation of DNA-Protein Crosslinks Using Reductive Desulfurization and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramaratne, Susith; Tretyakova, Natalia Y.

    2014-01-01

    Structural characterization of DNA-protein crosslinks involving cysteine using reductive desulfurization in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is highlighted. The novel approach was used to identify hydrolytically stable DNA-protein lesions involving alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT).

  10. Determination of olanzapine in whole blood using simple protein precipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2009-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the quantification of the antipsychotic drug olanzapine in whole blood using dibenzepine as internal standard (IS). After acidic methanol-induced protein precipitation...

  11. Simultaneous Determination of 25 Common Pharmaceuticals in Whole Blood Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2012-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of 25 common pharmaceuticals in whole blood. The selected pharmaceuticals represent the most frequently detected drugs in our forensic laboratory with basic properties...

  12. Analysis of bromate in drinking water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Takei, Kanako; Akiba, Michihiro

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method for determining bromate in drinking water was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The (18)O-enriched bromate was used as an internal standard. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of bromate was 0.2 µg/L. The peak of bromate was separated from those of coexisting ions (i.e., chloride, nitrate and sulfate). The relative and absolute recoveries of bromate in two drinking water samples and in a synthesized ion solution (100 mg/L chloride, 10 mg N/L nitrate, and 100 mg/L sulfate) were 99-105 and 94-105%, respectively. Bromate concentrations in 11 drinking water samples determined by LC-MS/MS were water without sample pretreatment.

  13. Morphine brain pharmacokinetics at very low concentrations studied with accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Muhammad Waqas; Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2011-02-01

    Morphine has been predicted to show nonlinear blood-brain barrier transport at lower concentrations. In this study, we investigated the possibility of separating active influx of morphine from its efflux by using very low morphine concentrations and compared accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as a method for analyzing microdialysis samples. A 10-min bolus infusion of morphine, followed by a constant-rate infusion, was given to male rats (n = 6) to achieve high (250 ng/ml), medium (50 ng/ml), and low (10 ng/ml) steady-state plasma concentrations. An additional rat received infusions to achieve low (10 ng/ml), very low (2 ng/ml), and ultralow (0.4 ng/ml) concentrations. Unbound morphine concentrations from brain extracellular fluid and blood were sampled by microdialysis and analyzed by LC-MS/MS and AMS. The average partition coefficient for unbound drug (K(p,uu)) values for the low and medium steady-state levels were 0.22 ± 0.08 and 0.21 ± 0.05, respectively, when measured by AMS [not significant (NS); p = 0.5]. For the medium and high steady-state levels, K(p,uu) values were 0.24 ± 0.05 and 0.26 ± 0.05, respectively, when measured by LC-MS/MS (NS; p = 0.2). For the low, very low, and ultralow steady-state levels, K(p,uu) values were 0.16 ± 0.01, 0.16 ± 0.02, and 0.18 ± 0.03, respectively, when measured by AMS. The medium-concentration K(p,uu) values were, on average, 16% lower when measured by AMS than by LC-MS/MS. There were no significant changes in K(p,uu) over a 625-fold concentration range (0.4-250 ng/ml). It was not possible to separate active uptake transport from active efflux using these low concentrations. The two analytical methods provided indistinguishable results for plasma concentrations but differed by up to 38% for microdialysis samples; however, this difference did not affect our conclusions.

  14. Optimization of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of the plant lignans secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol and pinoresinol in foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milder, I.E.J.; Arts, I.C.W.; Venema, D.P.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Wähälä, K.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of the four major enterolignan precursors [secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, and pinoresinol] in foods. The method consists of alkaline methanolic extraction, followed by enzymati

  15. Determination of vitamin B12 in dairy products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Zironi; Teresa Gazzotti; Andrea Barbarossa; Federica Farabegoli; Andrea Serraino; Giampiero Pagliuca

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble molecule composed of a tetrapyrrolic complex with a cobalt atom at its centre. It is an essential regulatory element, synthesized only by bacteria; for this reason it is present only in food of animal origin and the daily requirement for humans is about 1 to 2 µg. Since milk and dairy products provide a significant dietary cobalamin intake, an ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry method was applied to samples collected at different sta...

  16. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of intestinal permeability of loperamide in physiological buffer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S Rubelt

    Full Text Available Analysis of in vitro samples with high salt concentrations represents a major challenge for fast and specific quantification with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. To investigate the intestinal permeability of opioids in vitro employing the Ussing chamber technique, we developed and validated a fast, sensitive and selective method based on LC-MS/MS for the determination of loperamide in HEPES-buffered Ringer's solution. Chromatographic separation was achieved with an Atlantis dC18 column, 2.1 mm×20 mm, 3 µm particle size and a gradient consisting of methanol/0.1% formic acid and ammonium acetate. The flow rate was 0.7 ml/min, and the total run time was 3 min. For quantification, two mass transitions for loperamide and a deuterated internal standard (methadone-d(3 were used. The lower limit of loperamide quantification was 0.2 ng/ml. This new LC-MS/MS method can be used for the detection of loperamide in any experimental setup using HEPES-buffered Ringer's solution as a matrix compound.

  17. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of troxerutin in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Xu, Yu; Rui, Lei; Gao, Shu; Dong, Haijun; Guo, Qingxiang

    2006-01-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to quantify troxerutin in human plasma. The analyte and rutin, used as the internal standard, were analyzed on a Phenomenex Synergi Fusion RP column interfaced with a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using positive electrospray ionization. Acetonitrile/water (20:80 v/v) was used as the isocratic mobile phase, with 0.1% formic acid in water. A simple sample preparation method of protein precipitation with perchloric acid was employed. The assay was linear over the concentration range 31.25-4000 pg/mL. Correlation coefficients generated by linear regression with a 1/x(2) weighting factor ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9996. The intra- and inter-day precision over the entire concentration range were less than 12.28%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of a 300 mg troxerutin drop pill to 18 healthy volunteers.

  18. [Determination of aflatoxins in cashew by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ruifeng; Fan, Zhixian; Fu, Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method for the determination of four aflatoxins in cashew using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The sample was extracted with methanol-water (8: 2, v/v) solution, followed by a cleanup procedure with Florisil column. The target compounds were eluted using 5 mL acetone-water-formic acid (96: 3.5:0.5, v/v/v) solution. The eluate was dried under N2, then dissolved in 1 mL methanol. Four aflatoxins were separated in MG C18 column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 3 microm) adopting a gradient program within 15 min. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode was used to detect the aflatoxins. The good correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.997) of the four aflatoxins were obtained within their respective linear ranges. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were between 0.009 microg/kg and 0.04 microg/kg, and the limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were between 0.03 microg/kg and 0.12 microg/kg. The recoveries were in a range of 63.0% -78.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied from 2.8% to 9.1%. The validation results meet the requirements of trace assay. Matrix effects were estimated and the signal suppression/enhancement ranged from 88.8% to 99.4%. The results indicate that the developed method is simple, fast, accurate, and can be applied for the determination of fours aflatoxins in cashew.

  19. Antibiotic toxicity and absorption in zebrafish using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    Full Text Available Evaluation of drug toxicity is necessary for drug safety, but in vivo drug absorption is varied; therefore, a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for measuring drugs is needed. Zebrafish are acceptable drug toxicity screening models; we used these animals with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method in a multiple reaction monitoring mode to quantify drug uptake in zebrafish to better estimate drug toxicity. Analytes were recovered from zebrafish homogenate by collecting supernatant. Measurements were confirmed for drugs in the range of 10-1,000 ng/mL. Four antibiotics with different polarities were tested to explore any correlation of drug polarity, absorption, and toxicity. Zebrafish at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf absorbed more drug than those at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf, and different developmental periods appeared to be differentially sensitive to the same compound. By observing abnormal embryos and LD50 values, zebrafish embryos at 6 hpf were considered to be suitable for evaluating embryotoxicity. Also, larvae at 3 dpf were adapted to measure acute drug toxicity in adult mammals. Thus, we can exploit zebrafish to study drug toxicity and can reliably quantify drug uptake with LC-MS/MS. This approach will be helpful for future studies of toxicology in zebrafish.

  20. Multiresidue analysis of environmental pollutants in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui-Ze; Jiang, Jie; Mao, Ting; Zhao, Ya-Song; Lu, Yong

    2016-09-15

    A novel multiresidue determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. The samples were extracted with hexane-saturated acetonitrile, and after concentration, the extract was directly qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. The calibration curve displayed good linearity in the range of 2-100 μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The mean recoveries were 70.0-110.8% by analysis of spiked oil, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.1-10.2% (n=6), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the 23 PAHs, 17 PAEs and 3 APs were 0.1-1.0 μg/kg, 0.1-4.0 μg/kg and 1.2-3.0 μg/kg, respectively. The established method effectively avoided interference from large amounts of lipids and pigments. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation in routine analysis.

  1. Quantitation of Thioprolines in Grape Wine by Isotope Dilution-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Meng, Xiangpeng; Chan, Wan

    2016-02-17

    Cysteine reacts with reactive carbonyls to form thioprolines, which have been demonstrated to possess various pharmaceutical properties. Therefore, thioproline formation is considered as a major detoxification pathway for carcinogenic reactive carbonyls. In this study, we report the initial identification of thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (1) and 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (2), two very common thioprolines, formed by reacting formaldehyde and acetaldehyde with cysteine in grape wine samples. We have developed an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method featuring high sensitivity (limit of detection of ≤1.5 ng/mL) and selectivity to quantitate compounds 1 and 2. The method after validated to be highly accurate (recovery of ≥92%) and precise [intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) of ≤4.1% and interday RSD of ≤9.7%] was applied to determine the varying compound 1 and 2 contents in grape wine samples. Results revealed the grape type and storage duration-dependent formation of thioprolines in grape wines. Overall, the results are expected to facilitate compound-dependent investigations of the health benefits of grape wine, and our findings could be adopted to predict the age of grape wine.

  2. [Determination of clavulanic acid residue in milk by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Huang, Xianhui; Guo, Chunna; Fang, Qiuhua; He, Limin

    2012-06-01

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of clavulanic acid (CLAV) in milk by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A 2 g milk sample was deproteinized by ethanol. The supernatant was transferred into a pear-shaped bottle to be evaporated to about 0.5 mL, and the residue was dissolved with ammonium acetate solution. The sample was determined by HPLC-MS/MS after the purification. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Luna 5u C8 column using 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phases with gradient elution. The identification of CLAV was carried out by MS/MS equipped with electrospray ionization in negative scanning and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. Matrix-matched calibration standard was used for the quantification. The calibration curve showed perfect linear in the range of 10 - 400 microg/kg with the correlation coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N > or = 3) was 10 microg/kg in milk, and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) was 20 microg/kg. The mean recoveries varied from 80.00% to 91.25% at the four spiked levels of LOQ, 1/2MRL (the maximum residue limit), MRL, and 2MRL with the relative standard deviations of 5.60% -8.77%. In conclusion, the established method can be applied for the determination of CLAV residues in milk.

  3. Validation of salivary cortisol and testosterone assays in chimpanzees by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Koki; Honma, Seijiro; Teramoto, Migaku; Mori, Yusuke; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Yamamoto, Rain; Ishida, Takafumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2009-08-01

    Owing to its high temporal sensitivity, saliva has distinct advantages for measuring steroids, compared with other noninvasive samples such as urine and feces. Here, we report the validity of assaying salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in captive male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. For both the C and T concentrations, we found positive relationships between saliva and plasma. The concentrations of C and T in saliva showed clear patterns of diurnal fluctuation, whereas those in urine and feces did not. These results suggest that the salivary steroid concentrations can be regarded as good indicators of circulating steroid levels. We also developed and validated an efficient method for collecting saliva samples from cotton rope. Although rope includes inherent steroid-like compounds and may affect the accuracy of steroid measurements, our rope-washing procedures effectively removed intrinsic steroidal materials. There was a significant association between the C and T concentrations measured from saliva collected from rope licked by the chimpanzees and those measured from saliva collected directly from the mouth. Salivary T values estimated by LC/MS-MS were similar to those measured by radioimmunoassay. The results indicate the usefulness of saliva as a noninvasive steroid measure and that steroids in the saliva of chimpanzees can be accurately measured by LC-MS/MS.

  4. [Determination of five coumarins in toys by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongjing; Wei, Biwen; Gao, Huan; Yu, Wenjia

    2012-02-01

    A rapid analytical method for the determination of five coumarins (coumarin, 7-methoxycoumarin, dihydrocoumarin, 7-methyl coumarin and 7-ethoxy-4-methyl coumarin) in toys by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been developed. After ultrasonic extraction in tetrahydrofuran, the samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid were used as the mobile phases with gradient elution. The linear ranges of calibration curves were 10 - 1 000 microg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) (S/N > 10) were 2.0 microg/L for all the analytes, except that the LOQ for dihydrocoumarin was 5.0 microg/L. The recoveries of the five coumarins spiked in three types of samples were in the ranges of 93.2% - 105.8%, 97.3% - 103.2% and 96.8% - 102.9%, with the relative standard deviations in the ranges of 4.35% - 8.27%, 3.65% - 6.73% and 4.03% - 6.45%, respectively. The method was applied in the determination of 12 toy samples. The five analytes were found in 9 samples, and in some cases, the presence of quite high concentrations of these coumarins in the toys should be a matter of concern.

  5. Control of levamisole residues in milk using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of the anthelmintic agent levamisole were measured in a total of 85 raw cow milk samples collected during 2014 from dairy farms across Croatia. The liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method used for levamisole quantification was validated according to the criteria set by Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The following validation parameters were determined: limit of decision (CCα 0.55 μg kg-1, detection of capability (CCβ 0.59 μg kg-1, limit of detection (LOD 0.06 μg kg-1, limit of quantification (LOQ 0.22 μg kg-1, precision and accuracy (expressed as recovery 97.3-100 %, intra-laboratory reproducibility (RSD 4.2-5.6 %. Levamisole levels for 45 of the total of 85 samples were below the LOD value (0.06 µg kg-1. In the remaining 40 milk samples, levamisole was measured in the range from 0.061 to 0.142 µg kg-1 and the mean value was 0.092 µg kg-1. Accordingly, all concentrations analysed were below the LOQ value (0.22 µg kg-1 and limit of decision (CCα of the method used.

  6. [Determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Xie, Wen; Shen, Li

    2014-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil. The sample was extracted with ethyl alcohol by vortex-excited oscillation. The extract was cleaned up by 0.22 microm filter membrane and centrifuged for 5 min at 4 000 r/min after standing in a fridge at 4 degrees C for 30 min. The compound was separated on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The detection of gossypol was carried out by LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) of gossypol in edible vegetable oil was 1 mg/kg. The recoveries were from 87.4% to 100% at the spiked levels of 1, 2, 200 mg/kg of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.9% and 12.2%. The method, with high sensitivity, good precision and high recovery, was suitable for the confirmation and quantification of gossypol residue in edible vegetable oil.

  7. Anion exchange SPE and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in GHB analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elian, Albert A; Hackett, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the extraction of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) from urine using solid-phase extraction (SPE) is described. SPE was performed on anion exchange columns after samples of urine had been diluted with de-ionized water. After application of the diluted samples containing GHB-d(6) as an internal standard, the sorbent was washed with deionized water and methanol and dried. The GHB was eluted from the SPE column with a solvent consisting of methanol containing 6% glacial acetic acid. The eluent was collected, evaporated to dryness, and dissolved in mobile phase (100 μL) for analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in negative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Liquid chromatography was performed in gradient mode employing a biphenyl column and a mobile phase consisting of acetontitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. The total run time for each analysis was less than 5 min. The limits of detection/quantification for this method were determined to be 50 and 100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was found to be linear from 500 ng/mL to 10,000 ng/mL (r(2)>0.995). The recovery of GHB was found to be greater than 75%. In this report, results of authentic urine samples analyzed for GHB by this method are presented. GHB concentrations in these samples were found to be range from less than 500 ng/mL to 5110 ng/mL.

  8. On-line high speed lipid extraction for nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yong; Yang, Joon Seon; Park, Se Mi; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-09-16

    An on-line lipid extraction method is introduced by utilizing a short capillary extraction column using HILIC and C4 particles prior to nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). The on-line extraction using a urine sample spiked with PL standards showed similar or slightly higher recovery values (86%-96%) of phospholipids (PLs) compared to those obtained by the conventional off-line extraction based on the Folch method with or without using the air-exposed drying process. In this study, we demonstrated that PL oxidation can occur during the air-exposed drying process of lipid extracts in standard liquid-liquid extraction procedures, which was confirmed by the oxidized PL (OxPL) molecules that were generated from an off-line extraction using a few PL standards. Quantitative comparison of these OxPL species between on- and off-line extraction followed by nLC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis showed a significant decrease (2-10 fold) in unwanted OxPL species when on-line extraction was employed. While the number of identified PLs from a urine sample was somewhat lower than those by off-line extraction, the number of OxPLs was significantly reduced (from 70 to 22) with on-line extraction. The new method offers high speed (∼5min) automated extraction of PLs with nLC-MS/MS analysis and presents the possibility of handling a biological sample with a very limited amount of lipids.

  9. Detection of 36 antibiotics in coastal waters using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NA Guangshui; GU Jia; GE Linke; ZHANG Peng; WANG Zhen; LIU Chunyang; ZHANG Lin

    2011-01-01

    Among pharmaceuticals and personal care products released into the aquatic environment,antibiotics are of particular concern,because of their ubiquity and health effects.Although scientists have recently paid more attention to the threat of antibiotics to coastal ecosystems,researchers have often focused on relatively few antibiotics,because of the absence of suitable analytical methods.We have therefore developed a method for the rapid detection of 36 antibiotic residues in coastal waters,including tetracyclines (TCs),sulfanilamides (SAs),and quinolones (QLs).The method consists of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis,using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode.The SPE was performed with Oasis HLB and Oasis MCX cartridges.Chromatographic separation on a C18 column was achieved using a binary eluent containing methanol and water with 0.1% formic acid.Typical recoveries of the analytes ranged from 67.4% to 109.3% at a fortification level of 100 ng/L.The precision of the method,calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD),was below 14.6% for all the compounds.The limits of detection (LODs) varied from 0.45 pg to 7.97 pg.The method was applied to determine the target analytes in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea in Liaoning,China.Among the tested antibiotics,31 were found in coastal waters,with their concentrations between the LOD and 212.5 ng/L.These data indicate that this method is valid for analysis of antibiotics in coastal waters.The study first reports such a large number of antibiotics along the Yellow Sea coast of Liaoning,and should facilitate future comprehensive evaluation of antibiotics in coastal ecosystems.

  10. [Determination of five pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chen; Ding, Tao; Ma, Xin; Chen, Guosong; Yuan, Fang; Wu, Bin; Shen, Chongyu; Zhang, Rui; Fei, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Lei; Li, Li

    2013-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of five pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (monocrotaline, senkirkine, retrorsine, seneciphylline and senecionine) in honey. The honey samples were dissolved in 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid solution and a strong-cation exchange column was used to purify and concentrate the target analytes. The separation of the analytes was carried out on a Phenomenex C18 column (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 2.6 microm) using the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate-0.1% (volume percentage) formic acid aqueous solution with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization (ESI+). The calibration curves were of good linearity in the range of 1-100 microg/L (r > 0.99). The limit of quantification of the method was 1.0 microg/kg. The average recoveries were between 73.1% to 107.1% at three spiked levels (1, 20 and 50 microg/kg) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 4.1% to 17.0%. The proposed method was applied to different kinds of honey from China, New Zealand, Spain and Australia. The samples included rape, vitex, sunflower, cotton, tilia tree, date, acacia, buckwheat, manuka and eucalyptus honey. Monocrotaline, senkirkine and retrorsine were not detected in the collected honey samples. However, seneciphylline and senecionine were found in most of the honey samples. The concentrations of seneciphylline and senecionine were 11.0 -31.1 microg/kg and 8.3-29.1 microg/kg, respectively.

  11. [Determination of congo red in beef by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Xu, Chunxiang; Yan, Chunrong; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Suilou

    2013-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of congo red in beef. The analyte was identified by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the congo red in the beef sample was separated on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution HD UPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) HPLC , using 95% (volume percentage) methanol as the mobile phase at 0.2 mL/min. The detection was performed on an AB 4000 + triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed that the linear range of congo red mass concentration was 0.03 - 1 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 8. The method had a good precision with the RSDs lower than 5% and the recoveries ranging from 88% to 91%. The limit of detection (LOD) of congo red was 0.01 mg/L. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the determination of the illegally added congo red in beef and other meat products.

  12. Multilaboratory validation of a method to confirm chloramphenicol in shrimp and crabmeat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Walter; Carson, Mary C; Neuhaus, Barbara K; Hurlbut, Jeffrey A; Nochetto, Cristina; Stuart, James S; Brown, Amy; Kilpatrick, Donna; Youngs, Kristl; Ferbos, Krystle; Heller, David N

    2003-01-01

    An existing method for chloramphenicol (CAP) determination in shrimp using a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector was adapted for confirmation of CAP with a liquid chromatograph interfaced to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. CAP residues are extracted from tissue with ethyl acetate, isolated via liquid-liquid extraction, and concentrated by evaporation. Extracts are chromatographed by using a reversed-phased column and analyzed by electrospray negative mode tandem mass spectrometry. Four product ions (m/z 152, 176, 194, and 257) of precursor m/z 321 were monitored. Moving from gas chromatography to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry improved the sensitivity of the method greatly, enabling reliable confirmation of CAP residues at 0.3 microg/kg (ppb). The method meets confirmation criteria recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and 4-point identification criteria established by the European Union. With slight modifications to accommodate different equipment, the method was validated in 3 laboratories.

  13. Colostrum protein uptake in neonatal lambs examined by descriptive and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Argueello, Anastasio; Almeida, Andre M

    2015-01-01

    Colostrum intake is a key factor for newborn ruminant survival because the placenta does not allow the transfer of immune components. Therefore, newborn ruminants depend entirely on passive immunity transfer from the mother to the neonate, through the suckling of colostrum. Understanding...... dodecyl sulfate-PAGE for protein separation and in-gel digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of resulting tryptic peptides for protein identification. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach was subsequently used to provide...

  14. Rapid quantification of the metabolite of valacyclovir hydrochloride in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a rapid,sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of acyclovir (the metabolite of valacyclovir hydrochloride) in human plasma. Methods After addition of ganciclovir as internal standard (IS),plasma samples were prepared by one-step protein precipitation using acetonitrile as precipitant,followed by an isocratic elution with 0.1% formic acid solution-methanol (95∶5,v/v) on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 (150mm×2.1mm i.d.,3....

  15. Screening and determination of drugs in human saliva utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rehim, Abbi; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a new method for collecting and handling saliva samples using an automated analytical microsyringe and microextraction by packed syringe (MEPS). The screening and determination of lidocaine in human saliva samples utilizing MEPS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were carried out. An exact volume of saliva could be collected. The MEPS C8 -cartridge could be used for 50 extractions before it was discarded. The extraction recovery was about 60%. The pharmacokinetic curve of lidocaine in saliva using MEPS-LC-MS/MS is reported.

  16. A New Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Determination of Bisoprolol in Human Plasma Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Peste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography (LC coupled with mass spectrometry (MS detection is one of the most powerful analytical tools for organic compound analysis. The advantages of using LC/MS methods over HPLC methods include: selectivity, chromatographic integrity, peak assignment, structural information, and rapid method development. In this paper, a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of bisoprolol in human plasma samples, using metoprolol as internal standard and liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The assay has proven to be sensitive, specific and reproducible, suitable to determine the bisoprolol concentration, following a single oral administration of a 10 mg bisoprolol tablet in 22 healthy volunteers, in the bioequivalence study of Bisoprolol 10 mg coated tablets, produced by Antibiotice S.A. versus Concor 10 mg, produced by Merck.

  17. Evaluation of propolis polyphenols absorption in humans by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardana, Claudio; Simonetti, Paolo; Berti, Cristiana; Pietta, Piergiorgio

    2007-01-01

    Propolis has various biological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, immunostimulating and antiinflammatory, which are generally ascribed to the polyphenolic fraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption of the main polyphenols [caffeic acid (CA), pinobanksin-5methyl ether (P-5ME), pinobanksin (Pb), chrysin (C), pinocembrin (P), galangin (G), pinobanksin-3-acetate, pinobanksin esters and caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE)] from a dewaxed and standardized extract of propolis (EPID). Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed 5 mL EPID in water, corresponding to 125 mg of flavonoids. Blood samples were collected before, each hour for 8 h and 24 h after EPID intake. After deconjugation by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase the plasma samples were analyzed by a selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method using morin as internal standard (I.S.). A kinetic profile characterized by two t(max), respectively at 1 h and about 5 h post-ingestion, was observed in all the subjects. The two peaks may be due to enterohepatic cycling. Among the various polyphenols ingested, only P-5ME, Pb, C, P and G were detected in plasma and C(max)t(1h) were 65.7 +/- 13.3, 46.5 +/- 12.7, 79.5 +/- 18.6, 168.1 +/- 16.3 and 113.7 +/- 16.8 ng/mL, respectively. These levels decreased significantly after 8 h and were no longer detectable 24 h after EPID intake. The recovery of the extraction for CA, Pb, C, P, G and I.S. from spiked plasma was 95.2 +/- 3.1, 93.1 +/- 3.6, 91 +/- 2.5, 96.4 +/- 4.2, 93.4 +/- 2.4 and 85.5 +/- 2.4%, respectively. The results of this study evidence that flavonoids from EPID are absorbed, metabolized and Pb-5ME and G seem to have apparent absorption, measured as (AUC/dose), higher than C, P and Pb.

  18. Identification of monomenthyl succinate, monomenthyl glutarate, and dimenthyl glutarate in nature by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiserodt, Richard D; Adedeji, Jide; John, T V; Dewis, Mark L

    2004-06-01

    Menthol, menthone, and other natural compounds provide a cooling effect and a minty flavor and have found wide application in chewing gum and oral care products. Monomenthyl succinate, monomenthyl glutarate, and dimenthyl glutarate provide a cooling effect without the burning sensation associated with menthol. Additionally, because they do not have a distinct flavor, they can be used in applications other than mint flavors. Because these menthyl esters have not been reported in nature, we undertook to identify a natural source for these cooling compounds. Using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, monomenthyl succinate was identified in Lycium barbarum and Mentha piperita, and monomenthyl glutarate and dimenthyl glutarate were identified in Litchi chinesis. The identifications were based on the correlation of mass spectrometric and chromatographic retention time data for the menthyl esters in the extracts with authentic standards which resulted in a 99.980% confidence in the identifications.

  19. Characterization of isomeric VX nerve agent adducts on albumin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidian, Hamid; Mirkhani, Valioallah; Mousavi Faraz, Sajjad; Taghi Naseri, Mohammad; Babri, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    This study includes the characterization of isomeric VX organophosphorus adducts on albumin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). VX or its structural isomers were spiked into a vial containing plasma in order to obtain phosphorylated albumin. After pronase and trypsin digestion, the resulting solutions were analyzed to confirm adduct formation with the amino acid tyrosine on the albumin in human plasma. The LC-MS/MS experiments show that VX and its isomers can be attached to tyrosine on the albumin in human blood. Mass spectrometric studies revealed some interesting fragmentation pathways during the ionization process, such as ethylene, formic acid and ammonia elimination and an intermolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The proposed mechanisms for the formation of the fragments were confirmed through the analysis of fragments of deuterated adducts.

  20. Use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect carbapenemase production in Enterobacteriaceae by a rapid meropenem degradation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Claudio; Franza, Vincenzo; Conti, Matteo; Tamburini, Maria Vittoria; Roncarati, Greta; Cordovana, Miriam; Smirnova, Viktoria; Patrono, Daniela; Mancini, Rita; Landini, Maria Paola; Ambretti, Simone

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay to detect carbapenemase activity in a group of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae by meropenem hydrolysis. This one-hour method showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100%, representing a rapid and reliable option compared to conventional phenotypic assays.

  1. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Chen; M. Hoptroff; X. Fei; Y. Su; H.-G. Janssen

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal st

  2. Simultaneous identification of multiple β-lactamases in Acinetobacter baumannii in relation to carbapenem and ceftazidime resistance, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, H.; Mende, K.; Majchrzykiewicz-Koehorst, J.A.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Hulst, A.G.; Jansen, H.J.; Murray, C.K.; Paauw, A.

    2015-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was applied to detect β-lactamases in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The correlation of the detection of β-lactamase proteins (rather than PCR detection of the corresponding genes) with the resistance phen

  3. Detection of Stimulants and Narcotics by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Sports Doping Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Brian D; Kucherova, Yulia; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Sports drug testing laboratories are required to detect several classes of compounds that are prohibited at all times, which include anabolic agents, peptide hormones, growth factors, beta-2 agonists, hormones and metabolic modulators, and diuretics/masking agents. Other classes of compounds such as stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, and glucocorticoids are also prohibited, but only when an athlete is in competition. A single class of compounds can contain a large number of prohibited substances and all of the compounds should be detected by the testing procedure. Since there are almost 70 stimulants on the prohibited list it can be a challenge to develop a single screening method that will optimally detect all the compounds. We describe a combined liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) testing method for detection of all the stimulants and narcotics on the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list. Urine for LC-MS/MS testing does not require sample pretreatment and is a direct dilute and shoot method. Urine samples for the GC-MS method require a liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride.

  4. Validation of a confirmatory method for the determination of melamine in egg by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Xi; Ding Shuangyang; Li Xiaowei; Gong Xiao; Zhang Suxia; Jiang Haiyang; Li Jiancheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Shen Jianzhong, E-mail: sjz@cau.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2009-10-05

    A sensitive and reliable method was developed and validated for detection and confirmation of melamine in egg based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Trichloroacetic acid solution was used for sample extraction and precipitation of proteins. The aqueous extracts were subjected to solid-phase extraction by mixed-mode reversed-phase/strong cation-exchange cartridges. Using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode, melamine was determined by LC-MS/MS, which was completed in 5 min for each injection. For the GC-MS analysis, extracted melamine was derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoracetamide prior to selected ion monitoring detection in electron impact mode. The average recovery of melamine from fortified samples ranged from 85.2% to 103.2%, with coefficients of variation lower than 12%. The limit of detection obtained by GC-MS and UPLC-MS/MS was 10 and 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively. This validated method was successfully applied to the determination of melamine in real samples from market.

  5. Determination of vitamin B12 in dairy products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Zironi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble molecule composed of a tetrapyrrolic complex with a cobalt atom at its centre. It is an essential regulatory element, synthesized only by bacteria; for this reason it is present only in food of animal origin and the daily requirement for humans is about 1 to 2 µg. Since milk and dairy products provide a significant dietary cobalamin intake, an ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry method was applied to samples collected at different stages along the process of cheese making in order to evaluate the distribution of this molecule. In particular, samples of milk, rennet, whey, ricotta cheese, curd, mozzarella cheese and caciotta cheese were analysed. Results showed a level of vitamin B12 about 10 times higher in whey and ricotta cheese with respect to the milk they are derived from. These data would confirm the tendency of cobalamine to concentrate in the proteic fractions along the cheese production process.

  6. Determination of seven bisphenol analogues in reed and Callitrichaceae by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Libin; Yang, Yunjia; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing

    2014-03-15

    An analytical procedure was developed to simultaneously determine bisphenol S, bisphenol F, bisphenol B, bisphenol A, bisphenol AF, tetrachlorobisphenol A, and tetrabromobisphenol A in reed and Callitrichaceae. Homogenized samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified using an ENVI™-Carb cartridge followed by an NH2 cartridge. The analytes were separated and quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The recoveries at three fortified levels in reed and Callitrichaceae were 57-108% and 68-106%, respectively, with relative standard deviations of no more than 15% (n=6). The method limits of quantification and detection for the seven bisphenol analogues were 0.005-0.500μg/kg and 0.002-0.150μg/kg, respectively. This method was used to analyze the seven compounds in ten reed and Callitrichaceae samples collected from Zhejiang, China.

  7. Rapid determination of vitamin D₃ in milk-based infant formulas by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Byung-Man; Jeong, In-Seek; Lee, Moon-Seok; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Jong-Su

    2014-12-15

    A rapid and simple sample preparation method for vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) was developed for emulsified dairy products such as milk-based infant formulas. A sample was mixed in a 50 mL centrifuge tube with the same amount of water and isopropyl alcohol to achieve chemical extraction. Ammonium sulfate was used to induce phase separation. No-heating saponification was performed in the sample tube by adding KOH, NaCl, and NH3. Vitamin D3 was then separated and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results for added recovery tests were in the range 93.11-110.65%, with relative standard deviations between 2.66% and 2.93%. The results, compared to those obtained using a certified reference material (SRM 1849a), were within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labour saving.

  8. Determination of salbutamol and salbutamol glucuronide in human urine by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mareck, Ute; Guddat, Sven; Schwenke, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    The determination of salbutamol and its glucuronide in human urine following the inhalative and oral administration of therapeutic doses of salbutamol preparations was performed by means of direct urine injection utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and employing d(3......)-salbutamol and d(3)-salbutamol glucuronide as internal standards. Unconjugated salbutamol was detected in all administration study urine samples. Salbutamol concentrations following inhalation were commonly (99%) below 1000 ng/ml whereas values after oral administration frequently (48%) exceeded...... this threshold. While salbutamol glucuronide was not detected in urine samples collected after inhalation of the drug, 26 out of 82 specimens obtained after oral application contained salbutamol glucuronide with a peak value of 63 ng/ml. The percentage of salbutamol glucuronide compared to unconjugated...

  9. Determination of artificial sweeteners in beverages with green mobile phases and high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2015-02-15

    A new analytical procedure involving the use of water and a low percentage of ethanol combined to high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in a variety of drink samples. The method permitted the analysis in 23min (including column reequilibration) and consuming only 0.85mL of a green organic solvent (ethanol). This methodology provided limits of detection (after 50-fold dilution) in the 0.05-10mg/L range, with recoveries (obtained from five different types of beverages) being in the 86-110% range and relative standard deviation values lower than 12%. Finally, the method was applied to 25 different samples purchased in Spain, where acesulfame and sucralose were the most frequently detected analytes (>50% of the samples) and cyclamate was found over the legislation limit set by the European Union in a sample and at the regulation boundary in three others.

  10. Determination of Vitamin B12 in Dairy Products by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zironi, Elisa; Gazzotti, Teresa; Barbarossa, Andrea; Farabegoli, Federica; Serraino, Andrea; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2014-12-09

    Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble molecule composed of a tetrapyrrolic complex with a cobalt atom at its centre. It is an essential regulatory element, synthesized only by bacteria; for this reason it is present only in food of animal origin and the daily requirement for humans is about 1 to 2 mg. Since milk and dairy products provide a significant dietary cobalamin intake, an ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry method was applied to samples collected at different stages along the process of cheese making in order to evaluate the distribution of this molecule. In particular, samples of milk, rennet, whey, ricotta cheese, curd, mozzarella cheese and caciotta cheese were analysed. Results showed a level of vitamin B12 about 10 times higher in whey and ricotta cheese with respect to the milk they are derived from. These data would confirm the tendency of cobalamine to concentrate in the proteic fractions along the cheese production process.

  11. Determination of Six Pyrazole Fungicides in Grape Wine by Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Li, Zhou; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Chuanxian; Chen, Xiangzhun; Miao, Qian; Han, Chao

    2016-05-18

    A gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method was developed for the first simultaneous identification and quantification of six pyrazole fungicides (furametpyr, rabenzazole, fluxapyroxad, penflufen, bixafen, and isopyrazam) in grape wine samples. The grape wine samples were first diluted with water, then purified by solid-phase extraction, and finally examined by GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Matrix-matched calibration curves were used to correct the matrix effects. The limits of quantification (LOQs), calculated as 10 times the standard deviation, were 0.2-0.8 μg kg(-1) for the six pyrazole fungicides. The average recoveries were in the range of 74.3-94.5%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.8%, measured at three concentration levels. The proposed method is suitable for the simultaneous determination of six pyrazole fungicides in grape wine samples.

  12. Determination of folic acid in human plasma using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbis, S.D.; Melse-Boonstra, A.; West, C.E.; Breemen, van R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Folic acid is an essential nutrient, and folate deficiency is associated with a variety of disorders including neural tube defects (during pregnancy) and heart disease. A fast, sensitive, and robust HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed for the quantification of free folic ac

  13. The role of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ouweland, Johannes M. W.; Kema, Ido P.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is increasingly used as a routine methodology in clinical laboratories for the analysis of low molecular weight molecules. The high specificity in combination with high sensitivity and multi-analyte potential makes it an attractive comple

  14. Simultaneous determination of seven flavonoids in Epimedium by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Sheng Wu; Bao Lin Guo; Yu Xin Sheng; Jin Lan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method has been developed and validated for the identification and determination of seven flavonoids, namely epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, sagittatoside B, 2"-0-rhamnosyl icariside II, and baohuoside I in Epimedium from different sources.

  15. Highly specific quantification of ergotamine in urine, blood, and hair samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Donata; Frison, Giampietro; Vogliardi, Susanna; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2007-06-01

    Ergotamine has been used for therapeutic purposes since the 1950s, usually to treat vascular headache. It is highly toxic and in large, repeated doses can produce all the symptoms of ergot poisoning. A selective and sensitive method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS2), has been developed for quantifying ergotamine in biological fluids with use of a quick and easy sample preparation. Ergotamine and the internal standard, trideuterated lysergic acid diethylamide, were extracted from human urine, blood, and hair by means of liquid-liquid extraction at alkaline pH. Gradient elution on a cyanopropyl column was used for chromatographic separation. Positive ion electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry determination by collision-induced dissociation were performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The method was validated and successfully applied to a case of iatrogenic ergotism resulting from the intake of ergotamine tartrate for treating headache. For the first time, ergotamine was identified and quantified in hair. The ergotamine concentrations measured were 320 pg/mL in blood, 100 pg/mL in urine, 24 pg/mg in proximal hair, and 15 pg/mg in distal hair.

  16. Quantification of citalopram or escitalopram and their demethylated metabolites in neonatal hair samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Vogliardi, Susanna; Terranova, Claudio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Citalopram and escitalopram are highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors widely used in the treatment of depression. They exhibit adverse drug reactions and side effects, however, and the development of specific methods for their determination is of great interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the assay of citalopram, escitalopram, and their demethylated metabolites in 10-mg hair samples. The analytes were extracted by incubation in methanol and liquid/liquid extraction with diethyl ether/dichloromethane. Gradient elution on a narrow bore C18 column was realized using clomipramine-d3 as an internal standard. Positive ion electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry determination by collision-induced dissociation were performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The method exhibited a linear range of 25 to 2000 pg/mg, a quantification limit of 25 pg/mg for all analytes, relative standard deviations in the range of 12.10 to 9.80 (intraassay), and 13.80 to 11.78 (interassay), and accuracies (as percent recovery of the spiked standards) in the range of 90% to 110%; it was applied to the determination of citalopram and escitalopram and their metabolites in hair samples of two newborns to document their in utero exposure to the drugs. The method proved suitable for neonatal hair analysis of citalopram or escitalopram and was applied to two real cases of gestational exposure.

  17. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Wang, Yuesheng; Wei, Huizhen; Ouyang, Hui; He, Mingzhen; Zeng, Lianqing; Shen, Fengyun; Guo, Qiang; Rao, Yi

    2014-06-01

    A method was developed for the determination of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Maxing shigan decoction. The analytes were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the qualitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS III HPLC column (75 mm x 2.0 mm, 1.6 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on a Triple TOF 5600 quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer. The quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed by separation on an Agilent C18 HPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on an AB Q-TRAP 4500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis results showed that amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin were detected in the plasma sample. The quantitative analysis results showed that the linear range of amygdalin was 1.05-4 200 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 0 and the linear range of prunasin was 1.25-2 490 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 0. The method had a good precision with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 9.20% and the overall recoveries varied from 82.33% to 95.25%. The limits of detection (LODs) of amygdalin and prunasin were 0.50 ng/mL. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amygdalin and prunasin in plasma sample of rats which were administered by Maxing shigan decoction.

  18. Quantitative analysis of a novel antimicrobial peptide in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruo-Wen Zhang; Wen-Tao Liu; Lu-Lu Geng; Xiao-Hui Chen; Kai-Shun Bi

    2011-01-01

    We described the first results of a quantitative ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry method for a novel antimicrobial peptide (phylloseptin, PSN-1). Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Waters bridged ethyl hybrid (BEH) C18 (50mm× 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column with acetonitrile-water (25:75, v/v) as isocratic mobile phase. Mass spectrometry detection was performed in the positive electrospray ionization mode and by monitoring of the transitions at m/z 679.6/120, 509.6/120 (PSN-1) and m/z 340.7/165 (Thymopentin, IS). Protein precipitation was investigated and the recovery was satisfactory (above 82%). The method was shown to be reproducible and reliable with intra-day precision below 5.3%, inter-day precision below 14.2%, and linear range from 0.02 to 2 lag/mL with r〉0.994. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of PSN-1 in rats after intravenous administration.

  19. Quantitation of protein S-glutathionylation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: correction for contaminating glutathione and glutathione disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Michael R; Bucklin, Christopher; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-01-15

    Protein S-glutathionylation is a posttranslational modification that links oxidative stimuli to reversible changes in cellular function. Protein-glutathione mixed disulfide (PSSG) is commonly quantified by reduction of the disulfide and detection of the resultant glutathione species. This methodology is susceptible to contamination by free unreacted cellular glutathione (GSH) species, which are present in 1000-fold greater concentration. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method was developed for quantification of glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), which was used for the determination of PSSG in biological samples. Analysis of rat liver samples demonstrated that GSH and GSSG coprecipitated with proteins similar to the range for PSSG in the sample. The use of [(13)C2,(5)N]GSH and [(13)C4,(5)N2]GSSG validated these results and demonstrated that the release of GSH from PSSG did not occur during sample preparation and analysis. These data demonstrate that GSH and GSSG contamination must be accounted for when determining PSSG content in cellular/tissue preparations. A protocol for rinsing samples to remove the adventitious glutathione species is demonstrated. The fragmentation patterns for glutathione were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry, and candidate ions for detection of PSSG on protein and protein fragments were identified.

  20. Recent advances of liquid chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry in clinical and forensic toxicology - An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remane, Daniela; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Peters, Frank T

    2016-09-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a well-established and widely used technique in clinical and forensic toxicology as well as doping control especially for quantitative analysis. In recent years, many applications for so-called multi-target screening and/or quantification of drugs, poisons, and or their metabolites in biological matrices have been developed. Such methods have proven particularly useful for analysis of so-called new psychoactive substances that have appeared on recreational drug markets throughout the world. Moreover, the evolvement of high resolution MS techniques and the development of data-independent detection modes have opened new possibilities for applications of LC-(MS/MS) in systematic toxicological screening analysis in the so called general unknown setting. The present paper will provide an overview and discuss these recent developments focusing on the literature published after 2010.

  1. Determination of loperamide in human plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Tawfiq; Arafat, Basil; awad, Riad; awwad, Ahmad Abu

    2014-12-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of loperamide in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated, and then successfully applied in pharmacokinetic clinical study to investigate and correlate bioavailability of Imodium(®) 2mg quartet tablet dose in both human plasma and saliva. Loperamide with labeled internal standard was extracted from its biological matrix by methanol as protein direct precipitant in single extraction step. Adequate chromatographic separation for analytes from plasma and saliva matrices was achieved using ACE C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) column, eluted by water/methanol/formic acid (30:70:0.1%, v/v), delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.75ml/min. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to European guideline, and partial validation was applied on saliva, specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, within and between day precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 20-3000pg/ml in both plasma and saliva using a 50μl sample volume. The partial validation sections outcome in saliva was so close to those in plasma. The within- and between-day precisions were all below 8.7% for plasma and below 11.4% for saliva. Accuracies ranged from 94 to 105% for both matrices. In this study, 26 healthy volunteers participated in the clinical study, and 6 of gave their saliva samples in addition to plasma at the same time schedule. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, Tmax and T1/2 in both plasma and saliva were calculated and correlated.

  2. Ring positional differentiation of isomeric N-alkylated fluorocathinones by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Folker; Junge, Thomas

    2012-11-30

    In analogy to our previously published procedure for the differentiation of regioisomeric fluoroamphetamines a method was developed, to differentiate ring positional isomeric fluorocathinones by product ion spectrometry of ions generated by chemical ionization (CI) under GC-MS conditions using methane as reagent gas. N-alkylated ortho-, meta- and para-fluorocathinones could be unequivocally differentiated by product ion spectrometry of the hydrogen fluoride loss ions [M+H-HF](+) using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with argon as collision gas under normalized collision conditions. This method enables the differentiation of ring positional isomers of fluorocathinones even in complex mixtures and low concentrations. The applicability of the method was shown by the analysis of synthesized N-alkylated ortho-, meta- and para-fluorocathinones and seized designer drug mixtures.

  3. [Determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in rice using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhaoyun; Mou, Renxiang; Chen, Mingxue

    2010-08-01

    A method was developed for the determination of glyphosate (GLY) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in rice using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with water followed by a simple cleanup with a C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and then GLY and AMPA were derivatized using 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer. The derivatives of GLY and AMPA were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 9), and finally detected with negative ion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed that the linearities of GLY and AMPA were in the concentration range of 0.000 50 to 1.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 7 and 0.999 9, respectively. The mean spiked recoveries of GLY and AMPA at 3 spiked levels ranged from 72.5% to 113.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 5) of 3.8% - 16.2%. The limits of detection were 2.0 and 3.0 microg/kg for GLY and AMPA, respectively. This method is rapid, sensitive, and suitable for simultaneous determination of GLY and AMPA in rice.

  4. Detection of 10 sweeteners in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-Shiang Chang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for sweeteners in various food matrixes is very important for food quality control and regulation enforcement. A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners [acesulfame potassium (ACS-K, aspartame (ASP, cyclamate (CYC, dulcin (DUL, glycyrrhizic acid (GA, neotame (NEO, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC, saccharin (SAC, sucralose (SCL, and stevioside (STV] in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass chromatography (LC–MS/MS was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 150 mm column with gradient elution of 10 mM ammonium acetate in water and 10 mM ammonium acetate in methanol. The recoveries of the 10 sweeteners were between 75% and 120%, and the coefficients of variation were less than 20%. The limits of quantification were 0.5 μg/kg for NHDC and SCL. For the other sweeteners, the limits of quantification were 0.1 μg/kg. Compared to the traditional high-performance liquid chromatography method, the LC–MS/MS method could provide better sensitivity, higher throughput, enhanced specificity, and more sweeteners analyzed in a single run. The samples included 27 beverages (16 alcoholic and 11 nonalcoholic beverages and 15 pickled foods (1 pickled pepper, 3 candies, and 11 candied fruits. Two remanufactured wines were found to contain 7.2, 8.5 μg/g SAC and 126.5, 123 μg/g CYC, respectively. ACS-K, ASP, SCL, and NEO were detected in five beverages and drinks. The pickled peppers and candied fruits were found to contain SAC, GA, CYC, ASP, STV, NEO, and ACS-K. The wine with sweeteners detected was remanufactured wine, not naturally fermented wine. Therefore, the ingredient label for the sweeteners of remanufactured wine should be regulated by the proper authority for inspection of sweeteners.

  5. Screening and quantitative determination of twelve acidic and neutral pharmaceuticals in whole blood by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Buck, Maike

    2010-01-01

    . The method was fully validated for salicylic acid, paracetamol, phenobarbital, carisoprodol, meprobamate, topiramate, etodolac, chlorzoxazone, furosemide, ibuprofen, warfarin, and salicylamide. The method also tentatively includes thiopental, theophylline, piroxicam, naproxen, diclophenac, and modafinil......We describe a multi-method for simultaneous identification and quantification of 12 acidic and neutral compounds in whole blood. The method involves a simple liquid-liquid extraction, and the identification and quantification are performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...

  6. Quantitative determination of oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Vivekanandan; Gadamsetty, Deepak; Rose, Madhankumar; Maria, Stella; Mustafa, Imran; Khedkar, Anand; Dave, Nitesh; Arumugam, Muruganandam; Iyer, Harish

    2010-05-01

    A kinetic study of atosiban was conducted following repeated intravenous administration in Wistar rats. Sample analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following full validation of an in-house method. Eptifibatide, a cyclic peptide, was used as an internal standard (IS). The analyte and internal standard were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) method. Chromatographic separation was carried out using an ACE C18 5 microm 50 mm x 4.6 mm column with gradient elution. Mass spectrometric detection was performed using TSQ Quantum ultra AM. The lower limit of quantification was 0.01 microg/ml when 100 microl rat plasma was used. Plasma concentrations of atosiban were measured at 0 (pre-dose), 2, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min at the dosage levels of 0.125 mg/kg (low dose), 0.250 mg/kg (mid dose), and 0.500 mg/kg (high dose), respectively. Atosiban plasma concentration measured at Day 1 showed mean peak atosiban concentration (C(max)) 0.40, 0.57, 1.95 microg/ml for low, mid and high dose treated animals and mean peak concentration on Day 28 was 0.41, 0.88, 1.31microg/ml on Day 28 for low, mid and high dose treated animals.

  7. [Determination of pesticide residues from seed coating reagent in agricultural products using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wanchun; Huang, Mei; Xu, Chaoyi

    2008-11-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of eight pesticide residues from seed coating in fruits, vegetable and grain. The sample was extracted by methanol-water (1:1, v/v) and determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive mode (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The UPLC analyses were performed on an Acquity UPLC C18 column with gradient eluation. The utility of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of crude extracts, with no sample clean up, from soybean. The linear range was 1 - 200 microg/L. The correlation coefficients (r) were under 0.997. The average recoveries of eight pesticides in samples (from 0.006 to 1.2 mg/kg) ranged from 60% to 110%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10%. The results indicate that the method is easier, faster, more sensitive, and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative confirmation of pesticide residues from seed coating reagent in fruit, vegetable and grain samples.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of honokiol after intravenous guttae in beagle dogs assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Cui, Gang; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Wei; An, Quan; Lin, Zongtao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2014-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of honokiol in beagle dog plasma after intravenous guttae. With addition of the internal standard magnolol, plasma samples were precipitated with methanol and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II (2.0 × 100 mm, 2.2 µm) with isocratic elution of methanol and water (80:20) solution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. A good separation of honokiol was achieved within 3.5 min. Quantification was performed on a Waters Quattro Premier XE triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization inlet in the negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. Good linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 5.12-15580 ng/mL (r(2) > 0.998). Intra- and inter-day precisions were <13.10%, and accuracy ranged from 89.21 to 99.92%. The lower limit of quantification for honokiol was 5.12 ng/mL, and honokiol was stable under various conditions (three freeze-thaw cycles, short-term temperature, post-preparative and long-term temperature conditions.). This validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of honokiol in dogs by intravenous guttae.

  9. Rapid Determination of Imatinib in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jeong Soo; Cho, Eun Gi; Huh, Wooseong; Ko, Jaewook; Jung, Jin Ah; Lee, Sooyoun [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    A simple, fast and robust analytical method was developed to determine imatinib in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. Imatinib and labeled internal standard were extracted from plasma with a simple protein precipitation. The chromatographic separation was performed using an isocratic elution of mobile phase involving 5.0 mM ammonium formate in water -5.0 mM ammonium formate in methanol (30:70, v/v) over 3.0 min on reversed-stationary phase. The detection was performed using a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The developed method was validated with lower limit of quantification of 10 ng/mL. The calibration curve was linear over 10-2000 ng/mL (R{sup 2} > 0.99). The method validation parameters met the acceptance criteria. The spiked samples and standard solutions were stable under conditions for storage and handling. The reliable method was successfully applied to real sample analyses and thus a pharmacokinetic study in 27 healthy Korean male volunteers.

  10. Determination of Platycodin D and Platycodin D3 in Rat Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platycodon grandiflorum has long been used as a traditional oriental medicine for respiratory disorder. Platycodin D (PD is known as the main component isolated from the root of PG. A simple and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantitation of PD in rat plasma. Quantitation was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer employing electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode. The total chromatographic run time was 4.0 min, and the calibration curves of PD were linear over the concentration range of 50–10,000 ng/mL in rat plasma. The coefficient of variation and relative error at five QC levels were 1.0 to 8.8% and 0.7 to 8.7%, respectively. After a single oral administration of 500 mg/kg and a single intravenous administration of 25 mg/kg of 3% PD extract (a PG extract including 3% of PD, platycodin D and platycodin D3 were detected and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. The oral bioavailability of platycodin D and platycodin D3 was 0.29% and 1.35% in rats at 500 mg/kg of 3% PD extract of PG, respectively. The present method can be applied to pharmacokinetic analysis of platycodins and platycosides of the PG.

  11. How to identify and discriminate between the methyl quinates of chlorogenic acids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2011-03-01

    The methyl esters of chlorogenic acids, methyl quinates, are widely distributed in plant materials and frequently appear as extraction artifacts in plant samples. This is the first time when liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods have been used for the identification and characterization of the methyl quinates. For this purpose, methyl quinates of mono caffeoylquinic acids and mono feruloylquinic acids were synthesized as authentic standards. The methyl quinates of mono and diacyl chlorogenic acids have shown characteristic fragmentation pattern in their tandem mass spectra. MS(n + 1) spectra of the methyl quinates of diacyl chlorogenic acids were identical to MS(n) spectra of mono acyl derivatives. These quinates do not produce any methyl quinate peak at m/z 205 if compared with quinic acid peak at m/z 191 in negative ion mode. In the MS(n) spectra of these quinates, cinnamic acid part or cinnamoyl part was detected as a base peak in negative ion mode. The retention time, order of elution and fragmentation pattern were completely different if compared with LC-MS(n) methods developed for chlorogenic acids. These LC-MS(n) methods have been applied for the identification and regioisomeric characterization of the methyl quinates of chlorogenic acids in maté tea and woodruff (Galium odoratum). Two methyl caffeoylquinates (2 and 4) were identified as methyl 3-caffeoylquinate and methyl 5-caffeoylquinate.

  12. Multi-residue analysis of eight thioamphetamine designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieddu, Maria; Boatto, Gianpiero; Pirisi, Maria Antonietta; Baralla, Elena

    2009-10-01

    An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination in human urine of several thioamphetamine designer drugs (2C-T and ALEPH series) is reported. The quantitative analysis was performed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and has been fully validated. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive-ion, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. In order to minimize interferences with matrix components and to preconcentrate target analytes, solid-phase extraction was introduced in the method as a clean-up step. The entire method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method turned out to be specific, sensitive, and reliable for the analysis of amphetamine derivatives in urine samples. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 1 to 100 ng mL(-1) for all drugs with correlation coefficients that exceeded 0.996. The lower limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1.2 to 4.9 ng mL(-1) and from 3.2 to 9.6 ng mL(-1), respectively.

  13. High-sensitivity simultaneous liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel in human plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhishek Gandhi; Swati Guttikar; Priti Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and simultaneous liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel. The analytes were extracted with methyl-tert-butyl ether: n-hexane (50:50, v/v) solvent mixture, followed by dansyl derivatization. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.6μm) column with a mobile phase of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water and acetonitrile in gradient composition. The mass transitions were monitored in electrospray positive ionization mode. The assay exhibited a linear range of 0.100-20.0 ng/mL for levonorgestrel and 4.00-500 pg/mL for ethinyl estradiol in human plasma. A run time of 9.0 min for each sample made it possible to analyze a throughput of more than 100 samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies.

  14. Determination of residues of quaternary ammonium disinfectants in food products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruijnsvoort, Michel; Rooselaar, Joop; Stern, Alfred G; Jonker, Klaas M

    2004-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of residues of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium, didecyldimethylammonium, didodecyldimethylammonium, and benzyldodecylhydroxyethylammonium compounds in various food matrixes. These quaternary ammonium compounds (QAs) are used in the food industry as disinfectants. According to the Dutch Food Law, the total mass (expressed as cetyltrimethylammonium chloride) of QAs in food products shall not exceed the legislative limit of 0.5 mg/kg. Samples were extracted by a simple salting-out procedure, using acetonitrile and sodium chloride; about 100 samples could be prepared and analyzed daily. Special care had to be taken to thoroughly homogenize samples and to avoid the use of contaminated labware. The method was validated by a procedure in compliance with EU Directive 2002/657. From the matrixes of ice cream and minced meat, recoveries of more than 95% with a relative standard deviation of about 3% were obtained by 3 different analysts (n = 54). Detection limits were in the low microg/kg range. The decision limit (CCalpha) was determined to be 0.55 mg/kg. Dairy and meat products, collected in The Netherlands, were analyzed (761 samples). In 1% of the meat samples, 2% of the ice cream and milkshake samples, and 24% of the whipped cream samples, the Dutch legislative limit was exceeded. Over 2000 injections could be performed on a single column without deterioration of the peak shapes or recoveries.

  15. Multimycotoxin analysis in water and fish plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, J; Font, G; Mañes, J; Ferrer, E

    2016-02-01

    High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the determination of 15 mycotoxins in water and fish plasma samples, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocistin, fusarenon-X and emerging Fusarium mycotoxins. In this work, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was assessed as a sample treatment for the simultaneous extraction of mycotoxins. Results showed differences in recovery assays when different extraction solvents were employed. Ethyl acetate showed better recoveries for the major part of mycotoxins analyzed, except for aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2, which showed better recoveries when employing chloroform as extractant solvent. Fumonisins and beauvericin exhibited low recoveries in both water and plasma. This method was validated according to guidelines established by European Commission and has shown to be suitable to be applied in dietary and/or toxicokinetic studies in fish where is necessary to check mycotoxin contents in rearing water and fish plasma.

  16. Analysis of 19-nortestosterone residue in animal tissues by ion-trap gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-qing JIANG; Lei ZHANG; Guang-ling LI; Hai-tang ZHANG; Xue-feng YANG; Jun-wei LIU; Ren-feng LI; Zi-liang WANG; Jian-hua WANG

    2011-01-01

    A rapid sample treatment procedure for the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination of 19-nortestosterone (19-NT) in animal tissues has been developed. In our optimized procedures, enzymatic hydrolysis with p-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli was performed in an acetate buffer (pH 5.2,0.2 mol/L). Next, the homogenate was mixed with methanol and heated at 60 掳C for 15 min, then placed in an ice-bath at -18 掳C for 2 h. After liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, the analytes were subjected to a normal-phase solid phase extraction (SPE) C18 cartridge for clean-up. The dried organic extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), and then the products were injected into GC-MS. Using electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with positive chemical ionization (PCI), four diagnostic ions (mlz 666, 453, 318, and 306) were determined. A standard calibration curve over the concentration range of 1-20 ng/g was reached, with Y=467084X-68354 (R2=0.9997) for 19-NT, and the detection limit was 0.3 ng. When applied to spiked samples collected from bovine and ovine, the recoveries ranged from 63% to 101% with relative standard deviation (RSD) between 2.7% and 8.9%. The procedure is a highly efficient, sensitive, and more economical method which offers considerable potential to resolve cases of suspected nandrolone doping in husbandry animals.

  17. Analysis of daphnane orthoesters in poisonous Australian pimelea species by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sharon; Fletcher, Mary T; McKenzie, Ross A

    2010-06-23

    Cattle grazing in arid rangelands of Australia suffer periodic extensive and serious poisoning by the plant species Pimelea trichostachya, P. simplex, and P. elongata. Pimelea poisoning (also known as St. George disease and Marree disease) has been attributed to the presence of the diterpenoid orthoester simplexin in these species. However, literature relating to previous studies is complicated by taxonomic revisions, and the presence of simplexin has not previously been verified in all currently recognized taxa capable of inducing pimelea poisoning syndrome, with no previous chemical studies of P. trichostachya (as currently classified) or P. simplex subsp. continua. We report here the isolation of simplexin from P. trichostachya and the development of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to measure simplexin concentrations in pimelea plant material. Simplexin was quantified by positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC-MS/MS with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) of the m/z 533.3 > 253.3 transition. LC-MS/MS analysis of the four poisonous taxa P. trichostachya, P. elongata, P. simplex subsp. continua, and P. simplex subsp. simplex showed similar profiles with simplexin as the major diterpenoid ester component in all four taxa accompanied by varying amounts of related orthoesters. Similar analyses of P. decora, P. haematostachya, and P. microcephala also demonstrated the presence of simplexin in these species but at far lower concentrations, consistent with the limited reports of stock poisoning associated with these species. The less common, shrubby species P. penicillaris contained simplexin at up to 55 mg/kg dry weight and would be expected to cause poisoning if animals consumed sufficient plant material.

  18. Use of an intravenous microdose of 14C-labeled drug and accelerator mass spectrometry to measure absolute oral bioavailability in dogs; cross-comparison of assay methods by accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoko; Kawai, Kenji; Hamabe, Yoshimi; Miyaoka, Teiji; Oh-hara, Toshinari; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Kurihara, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    A technique utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug with oral dosing of non-labeled drug for measurement of absolute bioavailability was evaluated using R-142086 in male dogs. Plasma concentrations of R-142086 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and those of (14)C-R-142086 were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The absence of metabolites in the plasma and urine was confirmed by a single radioactive peak of the parent compound in the chromatogram after intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 (1.5 microg/kg). Although plasma concentrations of R-142086 determined by LC-MS/MS were approximately 20% higher than those of (14)C-R-142086 as determined by AMS, there was excellent correlation (r=0.994) between both concentrations after intravenous dosing of (14)C-R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). The oral bioavailability of R-142086 at 1 mg/kg obtained by simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 was 16.1%, this being slightly higher than the value (12.5%) obtained by separate intravenous dosing of R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). In conclusion, on utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug in conjunction with AMS analysis, absolute bioavailability could be approximately measured in dogs, but without total accuracy. Bioavailability in humans may possibly be approximately measured at an earlier stage and at a lower cost.

  19. Determination of deltamethrin residues in plant materials by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Dieter; Philipowski, Christiane; Posner, Birgit; Gnielka, Agnes; Dirr, Edgar; Dorff, Mario

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a selective and sensitive method that uses liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) for the determination of deltamethrin in a variety of crops. Samples were extracted by conventional high-speed blending. Some samples required no further cleanup; others were cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography, strong cation-exchange cartridges, or partitioning with n-hexane. In the determinative step, the buffered neutral mobile phase, consisting of 10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.8) and methanol, and ESI+ provided strong ammonium adduct formation to [M+NH4]+ at m/z 523, and the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) transition at m/z 523/281 was used for the quantitation of deltamethrin. A second MRM transition at m/z 525/283 was used for confirmation. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) values were 0.01 mg/kg for edible materials and 0.05 mg/kg for nonedible materials. Mean overall recoveries at the LOQ and the 10-fold LOQ ranged from 73 to 96%, and the relative standard deviations were <10% for all samples materials analyzed.

  20. [Determination of 12 flavonoids in tobacco leaves using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Lin, Qian; Pang, Tao; Shi, Junli

    2015-07-01

    Flavonoids are very important secondary metabolites for tobacco plants. They are also considered as important flavor precursors for cigarettes. A method of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of 12 flavonoids in tobacco leaves. The developed method determined 10 more flavonoids compared to the traditional method. A solution of methanol-water-chloroform (5:2:2, v/v/v) was used to extract the flavonoids from tobacco leaves and remove the pigment. Instrument analysis using the UPLC-MS/MS was completed in 13 min. The method validation was performed, and the results showed that the linear correlation coefficients (r2) of all the 12 flavonoids were more than 0.99. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0.3-100 μg/L and 1.2-400 μg/L, respectively. Intra-day and Inter-day reproducibilities were in the range of 3.5%-7.4% and 5.2%-11.4%, respectively. The recoveries were 81.2%-111.9%. The established method was successfully used to analyze the flavonoids of tobacco leaves of 11 varieties. Significant concentration differences of the flavonoids were found among the determined varieties. Furthermore, significant positive correlation among the flavonoids with similar chemical structures (aglycones and their related glycosides, glycosides with the same aglycone, and similar aglycones) was found using the acquired data.

  1. [Determination of thiourea dioxide in lotus seed paste fillings by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zeng, Xiwen; Chang, Xiaotu; Peng, Xinkai; Xia, Lixin; Li, Yiwei

    2014-01-01

    A method of solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine thiourea dioxide which was illegally added into lotus seed paste fillings. An amount of 0.05% (v/v) acetic acid was used to extract thiourea dioxide from fillings, and the BOND ELUT PLEXA column (60 mg/3 mL) was used as the SPE column to clean-up the extraction. Then, an Agilent HILIC column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) was applied to separate target compounds by using the mobile phases of 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were operated by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve showed a good linearity for the target compound in the detection range of 10 - 1 000 microg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of this method were 8.0 microg/kg and 30.0 microg/kg, respectively. The recoveries were in the ranges of 75.3% - 80.7% with the RSDs of no more than 4.83%. This proposed method was rapid, highly specific and suitable for the confirmation and quantitative determination of thiourea dioxide in lotus seed paste fillings.

  2. [Simultaneous determination of eleven sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunmei; Wang, Mingtai; Mu, Jun; Lu, Lijun; Zhou, Xiao

    2011-06-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 11 sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed. The sex hormones in antler velvet were enriched and purified by solid phase extraction and derivatized with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA). A DB-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 microm) with nonlinear gradient program was used in GC separation. The sex hormones were determined in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method realized the complete separation of 11 sex hormones. The limits of detection of this method were from 1.0 to 5.0 microg/kg for the 11 sex hormones. The correlation coefficients were between 0.991 6 and 0.999 9. The recoveries were in the range of 67.4% - 99.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.6% - 13%. This method is accurate and reliable for the determination of the sex hormones in antler velvet health products.

  3. [Determination of 14 mycotoxins in Chinese herbs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with immunoaffinity purification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Baokun; Zhao, Kongxiang; Wang, Wei; Mi, Jiebo

    2011-06-01

    A method was developed for the determination of 14 mycotoxins, aflatoxins, T-2, HT-2, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, etc. in Chinese herbs by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and methanol in turn, and then purified by a high selective multi-functional immunoaffinity column. The column was washed by PBS (containing 0.1% Twain) and water, and then eluted by methanol. The eluate was dried under nitrogen, dissolved in methanol-10 mmol/L NH4Ac (40 : 60, v/v) solution. The mycotoxins were separated on a Waters Xterra C18 MS column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) and detected by MS/MS. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the 14 mycotoxins were from 1.0 to 5.0 microg/kg. The average recoveries of the 14 mycotoxins spiked in Chinese herbs (Ginseng, Campanulaceae, Radix and Ophiopogonis) ranged from 71.9% to 99.7% at the three spiked levels of 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 microg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were between 4.8% and 15.8%. The method is rapid, sensitive and accurate, and suitable for the determination of the 14 mycotoxins in Chinese medicines. The quantification limits of aflatoxins can meet the domestic and foreign requirements.

  4. [Determination of rhodamine B in spices by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Feng; Ding, Zhaowei; Yang, Zhijian

    2012-07-01

    Rhodamine B (RB), as an unlawful colour, is forbidden to add into foods by Chinese government. A solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of RB in spices has been developed. The sample was extracted by acetonitrile and then centrifugated, purified and enriched with a strong positive ion exchange SPE column (Bond Elut Plexa PCX SPE column) after adding 10 mL 1% trichloroacetic acid solution. The HPLC separation was performed on a Pursuit C18 column (100 mm x 2.0 mm, 3 microm) by gradient elution with 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution and methanol as the mobile phase. The analyte was detected by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The good linearity (R2 > 0.99) was obtained over the range of 0.6-6 microg/L. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for RB was 1.2 microg/kg. The average recoveries were ranged from 80% to 121% at the spiked levels of 1.197, 2.992 and 5.985 microg/L, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were not more than 15%. The conditions of mobile phase elution gradients, extraction solvents, and SPE columns were optimized. This method is highly selective and has weak matrix effect for qualitative and quantitative analyses of RB in spices.

  5. [Determination of dimethyl fumarate in leather and textiles by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Qi, Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    An effective method for the determination of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in leather and textiles by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed. Samples of leather or textiles were extracted with ethyl acetate and concentrated, DMF was separated on a VF-5 ms column and analyzed by GC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction (SPE) process. The result shows that this method is sensitive, accurate and reliable. The linear relationship was perfect and the interference with background signal was further eliminated after pretreatment, SPE and GC-MS/MS analytical conditions were optimized. The average recoveries of DMF in leather and textiles at three levels ranged from 84% to 93%, the relative standard deviations (n = 6) were lower than 7.2%, the limits of detection in the range from 0.012 to 0.039 mg/kg (S/N = 3) , the correlation coefficient was 0.999 0 over the range 0.05 - 100 mg/L. It has been applied to routine determination of DMF in leather and textiles with satisfactory results.

  6. Colostrum protein uptake in neonatal lambs examined by descriptive and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Argüello, Anastasio; Almeida, André M; Castro, Noemí; Bendixen, Emøke

    2015-01-01

    Colostrum intake is a key factor for newborn ruminant survival because the placenta does not allow the transfer of immune components. Therefore, newborn ruminants depend entirely on passive immunity transfer from the mother to the neonate, through the suckling of colostrum. Understanding the importance of specific colostrum proteins has gained significant attention in recent years. However, proteomics studies of sheep colostrum and their uptake in neonate lambs has not yet been presented. The aim of this study was to describe the proteomes of sheep colostrum and lamb blood plasma, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE for protein separation and in-gel digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of resulting tryptic peptides for protein identification. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach was subsequently used to provide relative quantification of how neonatal plasma protein concentrations change as an effect of colostrum intake. The results of this study describe the presence of 70 proteins in the ovine colostrum proteome. Furthermore, colostrum intake resulted in an increase of 8 proteins with important immune functions in the blood plasma of lambs. Further proteomic studies will be necessary, particularly using the selected reaction monitoring approach, to describe in detail the role of specific colostrum proteins for immune transfer to the neonate.

  7. Identification of stereoisomeric metabolites of meisoindigo in rat liver microsomes by achiral and chiral liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Goh, Lin Tang; Ho, Paul C

    2008-11-01

    N-methylisoindigotin, abbreviated as meisoindigo, has been a routine therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia in China since the 1980s. However, information relevant to in vitro metabolism of meisoindigo is limited. In this study, in vitro stereoisomeric metabolites of meisoindigo in rat liver microsomes were identified for the first time by achiral and chiral liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, together with proton NMR spectroscopy and synchrotron infrared spectroscopy. The major in vitro phase I metabolites of meisoindigo were tentatively identified as stereoselective-reduced meisoindigo, which comprised a pair of (3-R, 3'-R) and (3-S, 3'-S) enantiomers with lower abundance, as well as another pair of (3-R, 3'-S) and (3-S, 3'-R) enantiomers with higher abundance. One type of minor in vitro metabolites was tentatively identified as stereoselective N-demethyl-reduced meisoindigo including a pair of (3-R, 3'-R) and (3-S, 3'-S) enantiomers, as well as one meso compound. Another type of minor in vitro metabolites was tentatively identified as both stereoselective and regioselective monohydroxyl-reduced meisoindigo. Based on the metabolite profiling, three parallel metabolic pathways of meisoindigo in rat liver microsomes were proposed.

  8. Simultaneous analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and its precursors in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michelle; Laloup, Marleen; Samyn, Nele; Morris, Michael R; de Bruijn, Ernst A; Maes, Robert A; Young, Michael S; Maes, Viviane; De Boeck, Gert

    2004-11-12

    We have developed a rapid method that enables the simultaneous analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors, i.e. gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) in urine. The method comprised a simple dilution of the urine sample, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Atlantis dC18 column, eluted with a mixture of formic acid and methanol. The method was linear from 1-80 mg/L for GHB and 1,4-BD and from 1-50 mg/L for GBL. The limit of quantification was 1 mg/L for all analytes. The procedure, which has a total analysis time (including sample preparation) of less than 12 min, was fully validated and applied to the analysis of 182 authentic urine samples; the results were correlated with a previously published GC-MS procedure and revealed a low prevalence of GHB-positive samples. Since no commercial immunoassay is available for the routine screening of GHB, this simple and rapid method should prove useful to meet the current increased demand for the measurement of GHB and its precursors.

  9. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides and strobilurin fungicides in particle phase atmospheric samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of neonicotinoids and strobilurin fungicides in the particle phase fraction of atmosphere samples. Filter samples were extracted with pressurized solvent extraction, followed by a cleanup step with solid phase extraction. Method detection limits for the seven neonicotinoid insecticides and six strobilurin fungicides were in the range of 1.0-4.0 pg/m(3). Samples were collected from June to September 2013 at two locations (Osoyoos and Oliver) in the southern Okanagan Valley Agricultural Region of British Columbia, where these insecticides and fungicides are recommended for use on tree fruit crops (apples, pears, cherries, peaches, apricots) and vineyards. This work represents the first detection of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, clothianidin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin in particle phase atmospheric samples collected in the Okanagan Valley in Canada. The highest particle phase atmospheric concentrations were observed for imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin at 360.0, 655.6, and 1908.2 pg/m(3), respectively.

  10. [Simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xinlei; Gao, Xia; Hu, Guanghui; Chi, Haitao; Le, Shengfeng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Weili

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were freeze-dried under vacuum and then dissolved with methanol. The separation was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) by using 0.1% (v/v) NH3 · H2O and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in negative ion mode was used for the analysis of the 11 bisphenols in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results verified that the standard curves for the 11 bisphenols were obtained with good correlation coefficients (R2) > 0.997 in their concentration ranges. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for the 11 bisphenols were in the range of 0.01-1.00 μg/L. The mean recoveries for the 11 bisphenols at three spiked levels (low, middle, high) were 75.3%-102.1% with the relative standard deviations of 1.5%-8.9%. Seven plastic bottled drinking water samples were tested, and no bisphenol was found. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and feasible for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water.

  11. Determination of salbutamol and salbutamol glucuronide in human urine by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareck, Ute; Guddat, Sven; Schwenke, Anne; Beuck, Simon; Geyer, Hans; Flenker, Ulrich; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    The determination of salbutamol and its glucuronide in human urine following the inhalative and oral administration of therapeutic doses of salbutamol preparations was performed by means of direct urine injection utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and employing d(3)-salbutamol and d(3)-salbutamol glucuronide as internal standards. Unconjugated salbutamol was detected in all administration study urine samples. Salbutamol concentrations following inhalation were commonly (99%) below 1000 ng/ml whereas values after oral administration frequently (48%) exceeded this threshold. While salbutamol glucuronide was not detected in urine samples collected after inhalation of the drug, 26 out of 82 specimens obtained after oral application contained salbutamol glucuronide with a peak value of 63 ng/ml. The percentage of salbutamol glucuronide compared to unconjugated salbutamol was less than 3%. Authentic doping control urine samples indicating screening results for salbutamol less than 1000 ng/ml, showed salbutamol glucuronide concentrations between 2 and 6 ng/ml, whereas adverse analytical findings resulting from salbutamol levels higher than 1000 ng/ml, had salbutamol glucuronide values between 8 and 15 ng/ml. The approach enabled the rapid determination of salbutamol and its glucuronic acid conjugate in human urine and represents an alternative to existing procedures since time-consuming hydrolysis or derivatization steps were omitted. Moreover, the excretion of salbutamol glucuronide in human urine following the administration of salbutamol was proven.

  12. [Determination of virginiamycin M1, in feeds by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yonghui

    2011-10-01

    A comprehensive analytical method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of virginiamycin M1 in feeds. The sample was extracted twice by ultrasonic extraction with ace-tonitrile-0.2% (v/v) formic acid (8:2, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved with a BEH C18 column and acetonitrile-0. 3% (v/v) formic acid (35: 65, v/v) as the mobile phase. The identification and quantification of the analyte were carried out on electrospray ionization MS/MS in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The correlation coefficient (r) of virginiamycin M1 was 0. 999 5 in the linear range of 0. 3 -226. 6 microg/L. The detection limit (S/ N = 3) and quantification limit (S/N = 10) of virginiamycin M1 were 2 microg/kg and 7 microg/kg, respectively. The average spiked recoveries were in the range of 82. 6% to 102. 7% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.9% - 10.5%. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is simple, sensitive, repeatable and suitable for the testing of virginiamycin M, in feeds.

  13. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of amphetamines in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María del Mar Ramírez; Samyn, Nele

    2011-10-01

    A fast and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for the determination of amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, ephedrine, and p-methoxyamphetamine) in plasma has been developed and validated. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. For optimized chromatographic performance with repeatable retention times, narrow and symmetrical peaks, and focusing all analytes at the column inlet, a gradient start, with acid mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and methanol was chosen. Positive electrospray ionization MS-MS detection was performed with two multiple reaction monitoring transitions for each analyte. Deuteriumlabeled internal standards were used for five of the analytes. The limit of detection was in the range 0.25-1.25 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was fixed at the lowest calibrator of 2.5 ng/mL for all of the compounds. The RSD values of the intra- and interassay precision and accuracy were lower than 11% at four concentration levels, including two external quality controls. No or only minor matrix effects were observed, and the extraction method presented recoveries higher than 93% for all the compounds. Total run time, including equilibration, was 12 min. The method is routinely used at the National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology for quantitative determination of the main amphetamines in plasma from forensic and driving under the influence cases.

  14. Large-scale profiling of diterpenoid glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafii, Behnaz; Vismeh, Ramin; Beaudry, Randy; Warner, Ryan; Jones, A Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The plant Stevia rebaudiana accumulates a suite of diterpenoid metabolites that are natural sweeteners finding increased use as sugar substitutes. To guide breeding of stevia plants that accumulate substances with desirable flavor in high yield, rapid and accurate methods are needed to profile these substances in plant populations. This report describes an 8-min ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for separation and quantification of seven stevia glycosides including steviolbioside; stevioside; rebaudiosides A, B, and C; rubusoside; and dulcoside as well as aglycones steviol and isosteviol. This negative mode electrospray ionization/multiple reaction monitoring method yielded low limits of detection stevia glycosides. Stevioside and Reb A, B, and C were quantified in more than 1,100 extracts from stevia leaves as part of a large-scale profiling exercise. Leaf tissue levels in this population spanned about two orders of magnitude for stevioside (2-125 mg/g dry weight), Reb A (2.5-164 mg/g), Reb B (0.5-50 mg/g), and Reb C (1.5-125 mg/g), but levels of individual metabolites exhibited independent variation. The wide spread of metabolite levels highlights the utility and importance of performing targeted metabolic profiling for large plant populations.

  15. Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry detection of extracellular kynurenine and related metabolites in normal and lesioned rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarangelo, Francesca M; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Macherone, Anthony; Graham, David R; Schwarcz, Robert

    2012-02-15

    We describe here a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) method for the sensitive and concurrent determination of extracellular tryptophan and the kynurenine pathway metabolites kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and quinolinic acid (QUIN) in rat brain. This metabolic cascade is increasingly linked to the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Methodological refinements, including optimization of MS conditions and the addition of deuterated standards, resulted in assay linearity to the low nanomolar range. Measured in samples obtained by striatal microdialysis in vivo, basal levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and QUIN were 415, 89, and 8 nM, respectively, but 3-HK levels were below the limit of detection (<2 nM). Systemic injection of kynurenine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect extracellular tryptophan but produced detectable levels of extracellular 3-HK (peak after 2-3 h: ~50 nM) and raised extracellular QUIN levels (peak after 2h: ~105 nM). The effect of this treatment on QUIN, but not on 3-HK, was potentiated in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-lesioned striatum. Our results indicate that the novel methodology, which allowed the measurement of extracellular kynurenine and 3-HK in the brain in vivo, will facilitate studies of brain kynurenines and of the interplay between peripheral and central kynurenine pathway functions under physiological and pathological conditions.

  16. High throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for mercapturic acids of acrolein and crotonaldehyde in cigarette smokers' urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmella, Steven G; Chen, Menglan; Zarth, Adam; Hecht, Stephen S

    2013-09-15

    3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA) are urinary metabolites of the toxicants acrolein and crotonaldehyde, respectively. Virtually all human urine samples contain these metabolites, resulting from the action of glutathione-S-transferases on acrolein and crotonaldehyde, which are lipid peroxidation products, environmental and dietary contaminants, and constituents of cigarette smoke. We have developed a high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in large numbers of small urine samples, as would be required in molecular epidemiology and clinical studies relating levels of these metabolites to cancer risk. Solid-phase extraction on mixed mode reverse phase-anion exchange 96-well plates provided sufficient purification for LC-MS/MS analysis, which was performed by auto-injection using a 96-well format, and resulted in clean, readily interpretable chromatograms, with detection limits of 4.5pmol/mL urine for 3-HPMA and 3.5pmol/mL urine for HMPMA. Accuracy was 92% for 3-HPMA and 97% for HMPMA while inter-day precision was 9.1% (coefficient of variation) for 3-HPMA and 11.0% for HMPMA. The method was applied to more than 2600 urine samples from smokers; mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 4800±5358 (S.D.)pmol/mL and 3302±3341pmol/mL, respectively.

  17. Detection and determination of reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine in the Annonaceae family using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yaichiro; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Kamizono, Machiko; Matsumoto, Naoki; Tanahashi, Takao; Hara, Hiroshi; Caparros-Lefebvre, Dominique; Ohta, Shigeru

    2004-06-25

    In Guadeloupe, the French West Indies, there is a high incidence of atypical parkinsonism or progressive supranuclear palsy, and all of the investigated patients had taken herbal tea or tropical fruits of the Annonaceae family. Local inhabitants consume the fruits, and also drink tea made from the leaves. In the present study, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to detect low-molecular-weight neurotoxic benzylisoquinoline derivatives in the Annonaceae family. We detected reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine in every Annona muricata sample examined, except for pulp and seed. They were not detected in sweetsop fruits. Norreticuline was not detected in any sample. These three compounds were toxic to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and inhibited mitochondrial respiratory complex I. It is possible that uptake of the benzylisoquinoline derivatives reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine and their accumulation in the brain may be related to the pathogenesis of the local endemic disease.

  18. A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of parabens in human placental tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Vela-Soria, F; Zafra-Gómez, A; Navalón, A; Ballesteros, O; Navea, N; Fernández, M F; Olea, N; Vílchez, J L

    2011-05-15

    Endocrine disruptors are a group of organic compounds widely used, which are ubiquitous in the environment and in biological samples. The main effect of these compounds is associated with their ability to mimic or block the action of natural hormones in living organisms, including humans. Parabens (esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) belong to this group of compounds. In this work, we propose a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to asses the presence of parabens most commonly used in industrial applications (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl-paraben) in samples of human placental tissue. The method involves the extraction of the analytes from the samples using ethyl acetate, followed by a clean-up step using centrifugation prior to their quantification by LC-MS/MS using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the negative mode. Deuterated bisphenol A (BPA-d(16)) was used as surrogate. Found detection limits (LOD) ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 ng g(-1) and quantification limits (LOQ) from 0.1 to 0.2 ng g(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 13.8%. The method was validated using standard addition calibration and a spike recovery assay. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 82% to 108%. This method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of parabens in 50 placental tissue samples collected from women who live in the province of Granada (Spain).

  19. Determination of artificial sweeteners in water samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Edgar Y; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2012-09-21

    The development and performance evaluation of an analytical method for the determination of six artificial sweeteners in environmental waters using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry are presented. To this end, different SPE alternatives have been evaluated: polymeric reversed-phase (Oasis HLB, Env+, Plexa and Strata X), and mixed-mode with either weak (Oasis WAX) or strong anionic-exchange (Oasis MAX and Plexa PAX) sorbents. Among them, reversed-phase sorbents, particularly Oasis HLB and Strata X, showed the best performance. Oasis HLB provided good trueness (recoveries: 73-112%), precision (RSD<10%) and limits of quantification (LOQ: 0.01-0.5 μg/L). Moreover, two LC separation mechanisms were evaluated: reversed-phase (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction (HILIC), with RPLC providing better performance than HILIC. The final application of the method showed the presence of acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose in the wastewater and surface water samples analyzed at concentrations up to 54 μg/L.

  20. Determination of artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge samples using pressurised liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2013-12-13

    An analytical method for the determination of six artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge has been developed. The procedure is based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with water followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. After optimisation of the different PLE parameters, extraction with aqueous 500mM formate buffer (pH 3.5) at 80°C during a single static cycle of 21min proved to be best conditions. After a subsequent SPE, quantification limits, referred to dry weight (dw) of sewage sludge, ranged from 0.3ng/g for acesulfame (ACE) to 16ng/g for saccharin (SAC) and neohespiridine dihydrochalcone. The trueness, expressed as recovery, ranged between 72% and 105% and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was lower than 16%. Moreover, the method proved its linearity up to the 2μg/g range. Finally, the described method was applied to the determination of the artificial sweeteners in primary and secondary sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Four of the six studied artificial sweeteners (ACE, cyclamate, SAC and sucralose) were found in the samples at concentrations ranging from 17 to 628ng/g dw.

  1. Determination of 20 synthetic dyes in chili powders and syrup-preserved fruits by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fen Tsai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method is developed to simultaneously determine 20 synthetic dyes (New Coccine, Indigo Carmine, Erythrosine, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Allura Red AC, Amaranth, Dimethyl Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC, Para Red, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red G in food samples. This method offers high sensitivity and selectivity through the selection of two fragment ion transitions under multiple reaction monitoring mode to satisfy the requirements of both quantitation and qualitation. Using LC-MS/MS, the newly developed extraction protocol used in this study is rapid and simple and does not require the use of solid-phase extraction cartridges. The linearities and recoveries of the method are observed at the concentration range of 0.10–200 μg/kg and more than 90% for all dyes, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to screen 18 commercial chili powders and six commercial syrup-preserved fruits purchased from retail establishments in Taipei City. The results show that three legal food dyes, Tartrazine, and/or Sunset Yellow FCF, and/or New Coccine, are present in some syrup-preserved fruits. Amaranth, an illegal food dye in certain countries but declared illegal in Taiwan, is found in an imported syrup-preserved fruit.

  2. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxy sterols and bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Clara; Werner, Philipp; Worthmann, Anna; Wegner, Katrin; Tödter, Klaus; Scheja, Ludger; Rohn, Sascha; Heeren, Joerg; Fischer, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Recently, hydroxy sterols and bile acids have gained growing interest as they are important regulators of energy homoeostasis and inflammation. The high number of different hydroxy sterols and bile acid species requires powerful analytical tools to quantify these structurally and chemically similar analytes. Here, we introduce a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method for rapid quantification of 34 sterols (hydroxy sterols, primary, secondary bile acids as well as their taurine and glycine conjugates). Chromatographic baseline separation of isomeric hydroxy sterols and bile acids is obtained using a rugged amide embedded C18 (polar embedded) stationary phase. The current method features a simple extraction protocol validated for blood plasma, urine, gall bladder, liver, feces, and adipose tissue avoiding solid phase extraction as well as derivatization procedures. The total extraction recovery for representative analytes ranged between 58-86% in plasma, 85% in urine, 79-92% in liver, 76-98% in adipose tissue, 93-104% in feces and 62-79% in gall bladder. The validation procedure demonstrated that the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges for 97% of the analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R2) of greater than 0.99. A feeding study in wild type mice with a standard chow and a cholesterol-enriched Western type diet illustrated that the protocol described here provides a powerful tool to simultaneously quantify cholesterol derivatives and bile acids in metabolically active tissues and to follow the enterohepatic circulation.

  3. Multi-residue determination of plant growth regulators in apples and tomatoes by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Wang, Suli; You, Xiangwei; Dong, Jiannan; Han, Lijun; Liu, Fengmao

    2011-11-15

    A sensitive and rapid multi-residue analytical method for plant growth regulators (PGRs) (i.e., chlormequat, mepiquat, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, ethephon and flumetralin) in apples and tomatoes was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). A homogenised sample was extracted with a mixture of methanol/water (90:10, v/v) and adjusted to pH <3 with formic acid. Primary secondary amine (PSA) adsorbent was used to clean up the sample. The determination was performed using electrospray ionisation (ESI) and a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyser. Under the optimised method, the results showed that, except for ethephon, the recoveries were 81.8-98.1% in apples and tomatoes at the spiked concentrations of 0.005 to 2 mg/kg, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 11.7%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were lower than their maximum residue limits (MRLs). The procedure was concluded as a practical method to determine the PGR residues in fruit and vegetables and is also suitable for the simultaneous analysis of the amounts of samples for routine monitoring. The analytical method described herein demonstrates a strong potential for its application in the field of PGR multi-residue analysis to help assure food safety.

  4. [Determination of glufosinate residue in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with precolumn derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yonghui; Liu, Zhengcai; Yang, Fang; Qiu, Yuanjin; Liu, Suzhen; Su, Zhijiao; Zhang, Qiong; Xue, Zhimin; Fang, Yu

    2012-12-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the determination of glufosinate (GLUF) residue in tea. The GLUF was extracted with water for 30 min under ultrasonication, and cleaned-up using a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge, then derived using fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer for 2 h. The separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 column with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution (containing 0.2% (v/v) formic acid) in a gradient elution mode. The identification and quantification of the GLUF were carried out by MS/MS in negative electrospray ionization (ESI(-)) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, the quantification analysis was performed by external standard method. The calibration curve showed good linearity in the range of 2.5 - 50.0 microg/L with the correlation coefficient r2 > 0.999. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.10 mg/kg. The average recoveries of GLUF spiked at 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/kg levels in tea were between 61.6% and 81.4%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were between 3.2% and 8.4%. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and suitable for the confirmation and quantification of GLUF in tea.

  5. Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Anderson, Cyrissa A.; Kanagy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-11

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of 229 pesticides compounds (113 pesticides and 116 pesticide degradates) in filtered water samples from stream and groundwater sites. The pesticides represent a broad range of chemical classes and were selected based on criteria such as current-use intensity, probability of occurrence in streams and groundwater, and toxicity to humans or aquatic organisms. More than half of the analytes are pesticide degradates. The method involves direct injection of a 100-microliter (μL) sample onto the LC-MS/MS without any sample preparation other than filtration. Samples are analyzed with two injections, one in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive mode and one in ESI negative mode, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions, with two MRM transitions for each analyte. The LC-MS/MS instrument parameters were optimized for highest sensitivity for the most analytes. This report describes the analytical method and presents characteristics of the method validation including bias and variability, detection levels, and holding-time studies.

  6. Determination of hepatotoxic indospicine in Australian camel meat by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T T; Fletcher, Mary T; Yong, Ken W L; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2014-02-26

    Indospicine is a hepatotoxic amino acid found in Indigofera plant spp. and is unusual in that it is not incorporated into protein but accumulates as the free amino acid in the tissues (including muscle) of animals consuming these plants. Dogs are particularly sensitive to indospicine, and secondary poisoning of dogs has occurred from the ingestion of indospicine-contaminated horse meat and more recently camel meat. In central Australia, feral camels are known to consume native Indigofera species, but the prevalence of indospicine residues in their tissues has not previously been investigated. In this study, a method was developed and validated with the use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to determine the level of indospicine in camel meat samples using isotopically labeled indospicine as an internal standard. UPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that the method is reproducible, with high recovery efficiency and a quantitation limit of 0.1 mg/kg. Camel meat samples from the Simpson Desert were largely contaminated (≈50%) by indospicine with levels up to 3.73 mg/kg (fresh weight) determined. However, the majority of samples (95%) contained less than 1 mg/kg indospicine.

  7. Determination of tolperisone in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Ik; Park, Jung-In; Lee, Hye-In; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Bae, Jung-Woo; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2012-12-12

    We have developed and validated a simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography analytical method employing tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of tolperisone, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, in human plasma. After liquid-liquid extraction with methyl t-butyl ether, chromatographic separation of tolperisone was performed using a reversed-phase Luna C(18) column (2.0mm×50mm, 5μm particles) with a mobile phase of 10mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5) - methanol (12:88, v/v) and quantified by tandem mass detection in ESI positive ion mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 250μL/min and the retention times of tolperisone and the internal standard (IS, dibucaine) were both 0.6min. The calibration curves were linear over a range of 0.5-300ng/mL (r>0.999). The lower limit of quantification, using 200μL human plasma, was 0.5ng/mL. The mean accuracy and precision for intra- and inter-day validation of tolperisone were within acceptable limits. The LC-MS/MS method reported here showed improved sensitivity for quantification of tolperisone in human plasma compared with previously described analytical methods. Lastly, the validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in humans.

  8. Improving quantitative precision and throughput by reducing calibrator use in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, Geoffrey S., E-mail: geoffrey.s.rule@aruplab.com [ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology, 500 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Rockwood, Alan L. [ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology, 500 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, 2100 Jones Medical Research Bldg., Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States)

    2016-05-05

    To improve efficiency in our mass spectrometry laboratories we have made efforts to reduce the number of calibration standards utilized for quantitation over time. We often analyze three or more batches of 96 samples per day, on a single instrument, for a number of assays. With a conventional calibration scheme at six concentration levels this amounts to more than 5000 calibration points per year. Modern LC-tandem mass spectrometric instrumentation is extremely rugged however, and isotopically labelled internal standards are widely available. This made us consider whether alternative calibration strategies could be utilized to reduce the number of calibration standards analyzed while still retaining high precision and accurate quantitation. Here we demonstrate how, by utilizing a single calibration point in each sample batch, and using the resulting response factor (RF) to update an existing, historical response factor (HRF), we are able to obtain improved precision over a conventional multipoint calibration approach, as judged by quality control samples. The laboratory component of this study was conducted with an existing LC tandem mass spectrometric method for three androgen analytes in our production laboratory. Using examples from both simulated and laboratory data we illustrate several aspects of our single point alternative calibration strategy and compare it with a conventional, multipoint calibration approach. We conclude that both the cost and burden of preparing multiple calibration standards with every batch of samples can be reduced while at the same time maintaining, or even improving, analytical quality. - Highlights: • Use of a weighted single point calibration approach improves quantitative precision. • A weighted response factor approach incorporates historical calibration information. • Several scenarios are discussed with regard to their influence on quantitation.

  9. [Determination of imidaclothiz in tea by QuEChERS cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songnan; Zhao, Xinying; Dong, Xiaoqian; Xu, Wenwen; Zhao, Rong

    2015-11-01

    The method for the determination of imidaclothiz residue in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed. The imidaclothiz in tea was extracted by acetonitrile and purified by QuEChERS with PSA (primary secondary amine), C18, GCB (graphitized carbon black) as the adsorbents. The purified solution was centrifuged and the supernatant was diluted with water of equal volume. The separation was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution program of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid) and water at a flow rate of 0.30 mL/min. The mass spectrometer was carried out with electrospray ion source in the positive mode (ESI+) and selective reaction monitoring (SRM), quantified by external standard solution. The results showed that the mass concentration of imidaclothiz in the range of 1 to 500 μg/L was linearly correlated with the peak area, and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.999 9. The limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N ≥ 10) was 0.01 mg/kg. The recoveries in oolong tea and green tea at three spiked levels (0.01, 0.3 and 3 mg/kg) varied from 87.0%-101.0% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7) were between 2.1% and 13.1%. The real sample tests showed that the method is simple, cheap, accurate, specific, rapid, and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative confirmation of imidaclothiz residue in tea.

  10. Determination of the Thyreostats in Animal Feeding Stuffs Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to detect and confirm five thyreostatic drugs: tapazole, thiouracil, methylthiouracil, propylthiouracil, and phenylthiouracil in animal feeding stuff samples. Thyreostats were extracted from feed with methanol, and then degreasing of the extract with petroleum ether was performed, followed by the derivatisation of the compounds with 3-iodobenzylbromide in basic medium (pH 8.0. The derivatives were extracted with diethyl ether and analysed by gradient elution on a Poroshell 120-EC C18 column with triple quadrupole MS detection with turbo spray source in positive ionisation mode. The method was validated in accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. For validation level of 10 ļig kg-1, the recovery ranged from 82% to 97.5% for all examined compounds. The repeatability and reproducibility did not exceed the limit of 20% for all analytes. The linearity was good for all thyreostats in the whole range of tested concentrations, as proved by the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The decision limits (CCa ranged from 1.63 ļig kg-1 to 3.95 ļig kg-1, whereas the detection capabilities (CCß ranged from 2.74 ļig kg-1 to 6.73 ļig kg-1. The developed analysis is sensitive and robust, and therefore useful for quantification and confirmation of thyreostats in residue control programme.

  11. Global Analysis of the Membrane Subproteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonder, Josip; Goshe, Michael B.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Camp, David G.; Wingerd, Mark A.; Davis, Ronald W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2004-05-30

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most significant opportunistic bacterial pathogens in humans causing infections and premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis, AIDS, severe burns, organ transplants or cancer. Liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the large-scale proteomic analysis of the P. aeruginosa membrane subproteome. Concomitantly, an affinity labeling technique, using iodoacetyl-PEO biotin to tag cysteinyl-containing proteins, permitted the enrichment and detection of lower abundance membrane proteins. The application of these approaches resulted in the identification of 786 proteins. A total of 333 proteins (42%) had a minimum of one transmembrane domain (TMD; ranging from 1 to 14) and 195 proteins were classified as hydrophobic based on their positive GRAVY values (ranging from 0.01 to 1.32). Key integral inner and outer membrane proteins involved in adaptation and antibiotic resistance were conclusively identified, including the detection of 53% of all predicted opr-type porins (outer integral membrane proteins) and all the components of the mexA-mexB-oprM transmembrane protein complex. This work represents the most comprehensive qualitative proteomic analysis of the membrane subproteome of P. aeruginosa and for prokaryotes in general to date.

  12. [Determination of 25 quinolones in cosmetics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Yi; Tu, Xiaoke; Xie, Liqi; Yue, Zhenfeng; Kang, Haining; Wu, Weidong; Luo, Yao

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 25 quinolones, including danofloxacin mesylate, enrofloxacin, flumequine, oxloinic acid, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin etc in cosmetics using direct extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Cosmetic sample was extracted by acidified acetonitrile, defatted by n-hexane and separated on Poroshell EC-C18 column with gradient elution program using acetonitrile and water (both containing 0. 1% formic acid) as the mobile phases and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS under the positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The interference of matrix was reduced by the matrix-matched calibration standard curve. The method showed good linearities over the range of 1-200 mg/kg for the 25 quinolones with good linear correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.999). The method detection limit of the 25 quinolones was 1.0 mg/kg, and the recoveries of all analytes in lotion, milky and cream cosmetics matrices ranged from 87.4% to 105% at the spiked levels of 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 4.54%-19.7% (n = 6). The results indicated that this method is simple, fast and credible, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of the quinolones in the above three types of cosmetics.

  13. Simultaneous determination of acidic pesticides in vegetables and fruits by liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Shizuka S; Nemoto, Satoru; Matsuda, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and efficient method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 73 multi-class acidic pesticides, such as phenoxy acid and sulfonylurea herbicides, in vegetables and fruits. The sample preparation procedure was carefully optimized for the efficient removal of co-extracted matrix components. The method involves extraction of acidic pesticides with acetonitrile containing hydrochloric acid, removal of water from crude extract by salting out, and sequential cleanup by octadecylsilyl silica gel and silica gel columns. For samples containing high amounts of pigments, such as spinach, additional cleanup using a graphitized carbon column was performed prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Recovery tests were performed for five times for each sample of cabbage, spinach, potato, eggplant, orange, and apple fortified at 0.01 mg kg-1. Out of the 73 tested pesticides, 70 for cabbage, 67 for spinach, 69 for potato, 67 for eggplant, 64 for orange, and 70 for apple were within the range of 70-120%, with relative standard deviations below 25%. Nitenpyram and pyrasulfotole showed low recoveries for all the samples tested, probably due to low recoveries from silica gel column. The developed method effectively removed co-extracted matrix components and was highly selective, with no interfering peaks found in the chromatograms of blank samples. The overall results indicate that the developed method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of acidic pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits.

  14. Measurement of phthalates diesters in food using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariou, Ronan; Larvor, Frédéric; Monteau, Fabrice; Marchand, Philippe; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    An analytical strategy dedicated to 4 major phthalate diesters (DiBP, DnBP, BBzP and DEHP) monitoring in food items has been developed and validated according to normalized guidelines. The method has been applied to a wide range of foodstuffs (n=54) to generate first-ever occurrence data at the French level. This method involves separation and detection using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, in electron ionisation with highly specific selected reaction monitoring, quantification being performed according to the isotope dilution principle. A particular attention has been paid to background contamination management at any stage of the analytical process, from the sampling to the expression of the results. Limits of reporting, defined as statistically different from background contamination, were found to be 2.7, 0.53, 0.18 and 3.4 μg kg(-1), and relative combined uncertainties were finally found to be 7.6%, 12.2%, 12.0% and 14.1%, for DiBP, DnBP, BBzP and DEHP, respectively.

  15. Quantification of miltefosine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, A.E.; Rosing, H.; Hillebrand, M.J.X.; Castro, M.M.; Gomez, M.A.; Schellens, J.H.M.; Beijnen, J.H.; Dorlo, T.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytes, the physiological compartment in which Leishmania parasites reside, are the main site of action of the drug miltefosine, but the intracellular pharmacokinetics of miltefosine remain unexplored. We developed a bioanalytical method to quantify miltefosine in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), expanding from an existing high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of miltefosine in plasma. The method introduced deuterated miltefosine as an internal standard. Miltefosine was extracted from PBMC pellets by addition of 62.5% methanol. Supernatant was collected, evaporated and reconstituted in plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed phase C18 column and detection with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Miltefosine was quantified using plasma calibration standards ranging from 4 to 1000 ng/mL. This method was validated with respect to its PBMC matrix effect, selectivity, recovery and stability. No matrix effect could be observed from the PBMC content (ranging from 0.17 to 26.3 × 106 PBMCs) reconstituted in plasma, as quality control samples were within 3.0% of the nominal concentration (precision less than 7.7%). At the lower limit of quantitation of 4 ng/mL plasma, corresponding to 0.12 ng/106 PBMCs in a typical clinical sample, measured concentrations were within 8.6% of the nominal value. Recovery showed to be reproducible as adding additional pre-treatment steps did not increase the recovery with more than 9%. This method was successfully applied to measure intracellular miltefosine concentrations in PBMC samples from six cutaneous leishmaniasis patients up to one month post-treatment. PMID:26160472

  16. Determination of cyanuric acid residues in catfish, trout, tilapia, salmon and shrimp by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbiwnyk, Christine M; Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Madson, Mark R; Miller, Keith E; Gieseker, Charles M; Miller, Ron A; Rummel, Nathan G; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2009-04-01

    In May 2007, investigators discovered that waste material from the pet food manufacturing process contaminated with melamine (MEL) and/or cyanuric acid (CYA) had been added to hog and chicken feeds. At this time, investigators also learned that adulterated wheat gluten had been used in the manufacture of aquaculture feeds. Concern that the contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food supply prompted the development of a method for the determination of CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed as a sensitive technique for the analysis of CYA in catfish, tilapia, salmon, trout and shrimp tissue. CYA was extracted from ground fish or shrimp with an acetic acid solution, defatted with hexane, and isolated with a graphitic carbon black solid-phase extraction column. Residues were separated from matrix components using a porous graphitic carbon LC column, and then analyzed with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Selective reaction monitoring was performed on the [M-H](-)m/z 128 ion resulting in the product ions m/z 85 and 42. Recoveries from catfish, tilapia and trout fortified with 10-100 microgkg(-1) of CYA averaged 67% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 18% (n=107). The average method detection limit (MDL) for catfish, tilapia and trout is 3.5 microgkg(-1). An internal standard, (13)C(3)-labeled CYA, was used in the salmon and shrimp extractions. Average recovery of CYA from salmon was 91% (R.S.D.=15%, n=18) with an MDL of 7.4 microgkg(-1). Average recovery of CYA from shrimp was 85% (R.S.D.=10%, n=13) with an MDL of 3.5 microgkg(-1).

  17. Validation of keratan sulfate level in mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Montaño, Adriana M; Oguma, Toshihiro; Dung, Vu Chi; Oikawa, Hirotaka; de Carvalho, Talita Giacomet; Gutiérrez, María L; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fukushi, Masaru; Kida, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Mitsuru; Barrera, Luis; Orii, Tadao

    2010-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA, Morquio A disease), a progressive lysosomal storage disease, causes skeletal chondrodysplasia through excessive storage of keratan sulfate (KS). KS is synthesized mainly in cartilage and released to the circulation. The excess storage of KS disrupts cartilage, consequently releasing more KS into circulation, which is a critical biomarker for MPS IVA. Thus, assessment of KS level provides a potential screening strategy and determines clinical course and efficacy of therapies. We have recently developed a tandem mass spectrometry liquid chromatography [LC/MS/MS] method to assay KS levels in blood. Forty-nine blood specimens from patients with MPS IVA [severe (n = 33), attenuated (n = 11) and undefined (n = 5)] were analyzed for comparison of blood KS concentration with that of healthy subjects and for correlation with clinical severity. Plasma samples were digested by keratanase II to obtain disaccharides of KS. Digested samples were assayed by LC/MS/MS. We found that blood KS levels (0.4-26 µg/ml) in MPS IVA patients were significantly higher than those in age-matched controls (0.67-4.6 µg/ml; P IVA peaked between 2 years and 5 years of age (mean 11.4 µg/ml). Blood KS levels in severe MPS IVA (mean 7.3 µg/ml) were higher than in the attenuated form (mean 2.1 µg/ml) (P = 0.012). We also found elevated blood KS levels in other types of MPS. These findings indicate that the new KS assay for blood is suitable for early diagnosis and longitudinal assessment of disease severity in MPS IVA.

  18. Simultaneous quantification of Pacific ciguatoxins in fish blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Yim Ling; Wu, Jia Jun; Chan, Wing Hei; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-04-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food intoxication caused by exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs) in coral reef fish. Rapid analytical methods have been developed recently to quantify Pacific-CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) in fish muscle, but it is destructive and can cause harm to valuable live coral reef fish. Also fish muscle extract was complex making CTX quantification challenging. Not only P-CTX-1, but also P-CTX-2 and P-CTX-3 could be present in fish, contributing to ciguatoxicity. Therefore, an analytical method for simultaneous quantification of P-CTX-1, P-CTX-2, and P-CTX-3 in whole blood of marketed coral reef fish using sonication, solid-phase extraction (SPE), and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The optimized method gave acceptable recoveries of P-CTXs (74-103 %) in fish blood. Matrix effects (6-26 %) in blood extracts were found to be significantly reduced compared with those in muscle extracts (suppressed by 34-75 % as reported in other studies), thereby minimizing potential for false negative results. The target P-CTXs were detectable in whole blood from four coral reef fish species collected in a CFP-endemic region. Similar trends in total P-CTX levels and patterns of P-CTX composition profiles in blood and muscle of these fish were observed, suggesting a relationship between blood and muscle levels of P-CTXs. This optimized method provides an essential tool for studies of P-CTX pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in fish, which are needed for establishing the use of fish blood as a reliable sample for the assessment and control of CFP.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of HZ08 in rats by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jing-yan; Song, Min; Hang, Tai-jun; Huang, Wen-long; Du, Yun

    2007-09-01

    A selective and sensitive liquid chromatographic method coupled with ion spray tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination and pharmacokinetic study of N-cyano-1-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-N'-octyl-2(1H)-isoquinoline-carboximidamide (HZ08, a candidate reversing agent for multidrug resistance of cancer) liposome injection in rat plasma. The analyte was extracted from plasma using liquid-liquid extraction by methyl tert-butyl ether with drotaverine as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Kromasil-C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 microm) with gradient elution. The tandem mass detection was made with electrospray ionization in positive ion selected reaction monitoring mode with argon collision-induced dissociation. The ion transitions were m/z 523.1 to 342.1 for HZ08 at 27eV and m/z 398.1 to 326.1 at 35eV for the internal standard, respectively. The determination was validated to be accurate and precise for the analysis in the concentration range of 5-10,000 ng/ml for HZ08 with the lower limit of detection (LOD) being 1 ng/ml, when 0.1 ml of rat plasma sample was processed. The main pharmacokinetic parameters found for HZ08 after intravenous (i.v.) administration of its liposome injection at doses of 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg were as follows: C(max) (4511+/-681), (5553+/-1600) and (6444+/-950) ng/ml, T(max) (0.033+/-0), (0.056+/-0.048) and (0.033+/-0) h, t(1/2) (1.75+/-0.19), (1.63+/-0.12) and (1.56+/-0.18) h, AUC(0-6) (899+/-112), (1238+/-190) and (1707+/-307) h ng/ml, AUC(0-infinity) (917+/-110), (1256+/-189) and (1723+/-306) h ng/ml, MRT (1.14+/-0.21), (1.01+/-0.13) and (1.16+/-0.17) h, CL (2.90+/-0.15), (3.01+/-0.74) and (4.11+/-0.59)l/h/kg, respectively. The plasma concentration-time profiles of HZ08 were best fitted with two-compartment models. Linear pharmacokinetics was found for HZ08 in rats after intravenous administration of the liposome injection.

  20. Determining indicator toxaphene congeners in soil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuai; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Huimin; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Lidan; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-01-01

    Toxaphene, which is a broad spectrum chlorinated pesticide, is a complex mixture of several hundred congeners, mainly polychlorinated bornanes. Quantifying toxaphene in environmental samples is difficult because of its complexity, and because each congener has a different response factor. Toxaphene chromatograms acquired using one-dimensional gas chromatography (1DGC) show that this technique cannot be used to separate all of the toxaphene congeners. We developed and validated a sensitive and quantitative method for determining three indicator toxaphene congeners in soil using an isotope dilution/comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC × GC-MS). The samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction, and then the extracts were purified using silica gel columns. (13)C₁₀-labeled Parlar 26 and 50 were used as internal standards and (13)C₁₀-labeled Parlar 62 was used as an injection standard. The sample extraction and purification treatments and the GC × GC-MS parameters were optimized. Subsequently the samples were determined by GC × GC-MS. The limits of detection for Parlar 26, 50, and 62 were 0.6 pg/g, 0.4 pg/g, and 1.0 pg/g (S/N=3), respectively, and the calibration curves had good linear correlations between 50 and 1000 μg/L (r(2)>0.99). Comprehensive two-dimensional GC gave substantial improvements over one-dimensional GC in the toxaphene analysis. We analyzed soil samples containing trace quantities of toxaphene to demonstrate that the developed method could be used to analyze toxaphene in environmental samples.

  1. Rapid and Sensitive Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Quantification of Glycyrrhctic Acid in Human Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li; GAO Xiao-li; CHEN Xiao-yan; ZHONG Da-fang; ZHANG Yi-fan; DAI Xiao-jian

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) for the determination of glycyrrhetic acid in human plasma with ginsenoside Rh2 as internal standard was developed and validated. The plasma samples were prepared via liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Venusil MP-C1s(50 mm×2.1 mm, 5 μm i.d.) column at 25 ℃. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile/5 mmol·L-1 ammonium acetate(10:90, volume ratio) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Negative electrospray ionization was utilized as the ionization source. Glycyrrhetic acid and internal standard were determined via the mutiple reaction monitoring of precursor→production ion transitions at m/z 469→425, 409 and m/z 621→ 161,respectively. Each sample was chromatographed within 2.5 min. The lower limit of quantification was 0.50 ng/mL for 200 μL of plasma sample and the linear range was from 0.50 ng/mL to 800 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 8.76% in terms of relative standard deviation(RSD), and the accuracy was within a range of -3.25% -1.32% in terms of relative error(RE). The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of glycyrrhetic acid in healthy male Chinese volunteers after a single oral administration of 75 mg of glycyrrhizin.

  2. Sensitive method for detection of cocaine and associated analytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Loralie J; Bjergum, Matthew W; Williamson, Christopher L; Crow, Frank W

    2009-10-01

    Cocaine (COC) is a potent CNS stimulant that is metabolized to benzoylecgonine (BE) and further metabolized to minor metabolites such as m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine (m-HOBE). COC is also metabolized to norcocaine (NC). Cocaethylene (CE) is formed when cocaine and ethyl alcohol are used simultaneously. Anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME) is a unique marker following smoked cocaine, and anhydroecgonine ethyl ester (AEEE) is found in cocaine smokers who also use ethyl alcohol. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the detection and quantitation of COC, BE, NC, CE, m-HOBE, AEME, and AEEE in urine. Two hundred samples previously analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with MS were extracted using solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a gradient consisting of mobile phase A [20 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.7)] and mobile phase B (methanol/acetonitrile, 50:50), an XDB-C(8) (50 x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) column and a flow rate of 270 microL/min. Concentrations were calculated by comparing the peak-area with the internal standard and plotted against a standard curve. The assay displayed linearity from 1.0 to 100 ng/mL. Within- and between-run coefficients of variation were < 10% throughout the linear range. A method comparison between GC-MS and LC-MS-MS showed good correlation for COC (r(2) = 0.982) and BE (r(2) = 0.955). We report here on a sensitive method to identify clinically and forensically relevant cocaine and associated analytes at concentrations as low as 1.0 ng/mL.

  3. Pediatric Reference Intervals for Free Thyroxine and Free Triiodothyronine by Equilibrium Dialysis-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    La’ulu, Sonia L.; Rasmussen, Kyle J.; Straseski, Joely A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid hormone concentrations fluctuate during growth and development. To accurately diagnose thyroid disease in pediatric patients, reference intervals (RIs) should be established with appropriate age groups from an adequate number of healthy subjects using the most exact methods possible. Obtaining statistically useful numbers of healthy patients is particularly challenging for pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine non-parametric RIs for free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) using equilibrium dialysis-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with over 2200 healthy children 6 months-17 years of age. Methods: Subjects were negative for both thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies and had normal thyrotropin concentrations. The study included 2213 children (1129 boys and 1084 girls), with at least 120 subjects (average of 125) from each year of life, except for the 6 month to 1 year age group (n=96). Results: Non-parametric RIs (95th percentile) for fT4 were: 18.0-34.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 6 months-6 years) and 14.2-25.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-17 years). RIs for fT3 were: 5.8-13.1 pmol/L (girls, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-11.8 pmol/L (boys, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-10.0 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-12 years); 4.5-8.6 pmol/L (girls, 13-17 years); and 5.2-9.4 pmol/L (boys, 13-17 years). Conclusion: Numerous significant differences were observed between pediatric age groups and previously established adult ranges. This emphasizes the need for well-characterized RIs for thyroid hormones in the pediatric population. PMID:26758817

  4. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of eight vitamin D analogues in milk using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fabio P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Whitfield, Karen; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-09-01

    Milk is an important source of nutrients for various risk populations, including infants. The accurate measurement of vitamin D in milk is necessary to provide adequate supplementation advice for risk groups and to monitor regulatory compliance. Currently used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are capable of measuring only four analogues of vitamin D in unfortified milk. We report here an accurate quantitative analytical method for eight analogues of vitamin D: Vitamin D2 and D3 (D2 and D3), 25-hydroxy D2 and D3, 24,25-dihydroxy D2 and D3, and 1,25-dihydroxyD2 and D3. In this study, we compared saponification and protein precipitation for the extraction of vitamin D from milk and found the latter to be more effective. We also optimised the pre-column derivatisation using 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD), to achieve the highest sensitivity and accuracy for all major vitamin D forms in milk. Chromatography was optimised to reduce matrix effects such as ion-suppression, and the matrix effects were eliminated using co-eluting stable isotope labelled internal standards for the calibration of each analogue. The analogues, 25-hydroxyD3 (25(OH)D3) and its epimer (3-epi-25(OH)D3) were chromatographically resolved, to prevent over-estimation of 25(OH)D3. The method was validated and subsequently applied for the measurement of total vitamin D levels in human, cow, mare, goat and sheep milk samples. The detection limits, repeatability standard deviations, and recovery ranges were from 0.2 to 0.4 femtomols, 6.30-13.5%, and 88.2-105%, respectively.

  5. Effect of D-allose on prostate cancer cell lines: phospholipid profiling by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Rae Ung; Lim, Sangsoo; Kim, Myoung Ok; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2011-08-01

    D-Allose, a rare, naturally occurring monosaccharide, is known to exert anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. The effects of D-allose on the cellular membranes of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell line (DU145), hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP), and normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) were studied at the molecular level by phospholipid (PL) profiling using a shotgun lipidomic method. The molecular structures of 85 PL species including 23 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), 11 phosphatidylserines (PSs), 16 phosphatidylinositols, 9 phosphatidic acids (PAs), and 14 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) were identified by data-dependent collision-induced dissociation of nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the PL amounts were quantified. The addition of D-allose to prostate cancer cell lines during their growth phases had negligible or decreased effects on the relative regulation of PL species, but several new PS molecules (two for DU145 and three for LNCaP) emerged. In contrast, experiments on the PrEC cell line revealed that some high abundant species (14:0/14:0-PE, 16:2/16:0-PG, and 20:6/18:1-PA) showed significant increases in concentration. These findings support a mechanism for the anti-proliferative effect of D-allose on prostate cancer cell lines that involves the induction of programmed cell death since PS molecules are known to induce apoptosis. Principal component analysis was carried out to examine differences in PL distributions among the three cell lines promoted by D-allose.

  6. Determination of resveratrol and piceid in beer matrices by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Rotchés-Ribalta, Maria; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Llorach, Rafael; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Estruch, Ramon; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina

    2011-02-04

    Beer is one of the most commonly consumed undistilled alcoholic beverages in many countries. In recent studies, the stilbenes resveratrol and piceid have been found in some hop varieties which are used in the production of beer. Therefore, they could be transferred to beer. The aim of the present work was to validate a method to study the potential content of trans- and cis-resveratrol and piceid in 110 commercial beers from around the world. The resveratrol and piceid contents of 110 beers were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after a solid-phase extraction (SPE) using optimized and validated procedures for the beer matrix. The beer matrix effect was also studied. Stilbenes were found in quantifiable amounts in 92 beers, while concentrations below the limit of quantification (LOQ) were found in 18 beers. Resveratrol was found in the range of 1.34-77.0μg/L in 79% of the beers analyzed, and piceid was found in the range of 1.80-27.3μg/L in only 33% of them. The mean of total resveratrol in all the beers was 14.7±20.5μg/L. The content of resveratrol has been compared with other resveratrol containing foods. A serving of beer contains similar amounts of stilbenes as berries, less than chocolate and grape products but more than pistachios, peanuts or tomatoes. Overall, beer is one of the products with the lowest levels of total resveratrol (μg/L), and despite its high consumption it should not be considered as a representative source of resveratrol.

  7. Identification and quantitation of amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, Dean; Blum, Kristen; Nonnemacher, Sheena; Haggerty, Brenda J; Sullivan, Matthew P; Cone, Edward J

    2009-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring multiple licit and illicit drugs and metabolites in oral fluid require high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. With the limited volume available for testing, comprehensive methodology is needed for simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes in a single aliquot. This report describes the validation of a semi-automated method for the simultaneous extraction, identification, and quantitation of 21 analytes in a single oral fluid aliquot. The target compounds included are amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, norcodeine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, norhydrocodone, dihydrocodeine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, noroxycodone, oxymorphone, and phencyclidine. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept device and extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Drug recovery from the Intercept device averaged 84.3%, and SPE extraction efficiency averaged 91.2% for the 21 analytes. Drug analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the positive electrospray mode using ratios of qualifying product ions within +/-25% of calibration standards. Matrix ion suppression ranged from -57 to 8%. The limit of quantitation ranged from 0.4 to 5 ng/mL using 0.2 mL of diluted oral fluid sample. Application of the method was demonstrated by testing oral fluid specimens from drug abuse treatment patients. Thirty-nine patients tested positive for various combinations of licit and illicit drugs and metabolites. In conclusion, this validated method is suitable for simultaneous measurement of 21 licit and illicit drugs and metabolites in oral fluid.

  8. Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis of Gibberellin Residues in Tomato Paste by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li; ZHAO Yan-sheng; NIE Xue-mei; LING Yun; CHU Xiao-gang; SHANG De-jun; DONG Ying

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of gibberellic acid(GA3),gibberellin A4(GA4) and gibberellin A7(GA7) residues in tomato paste was developed by coupling solid phase extraction to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization based stable isotope dilution analysis(SIDA).The isotope labeled internal standard can compensate for the losses during the extraction and cleanup steps and for discrimination due to ion suppression.After extraction from methanol,hydrophile lipophilic balance(HLB) solid phase extraction(SPE) column was tested for the capacity of the cleanup of the tomato paste in compared with C18 SPE column which is the common way to the detection of GAs,and the former gained better result.Spiked experiments were performed in the non-contaminated tomato pastes and the recoveries of GA3,GA4 and GA7 were 42.6%-75.0% in external standard method(ESM) and 91.1%-103.8% in internal standard method(ISM) respectively.The validities of this method were investigated and good analytical performance for the three GAs was obtained,including low limits of method detection(2 ng/g for GA3 and GA4,0.3 ng/g for GA7),excellent linear dynamic ranges(5-500 ng/g for GA3 and GA4,1-100 ng/g for GAy) and good relative standard deviation ranges(4.8%-9.4% for the intra-day test and 3.5%-11.9% for the inter-day test).

  9. [Simultaneous determination of four mercapturic acids in human urine using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongwei; Xiong, Wei; Gao, Na; Song, Dongkui; Tang, Gangling; Hu, Qingyuan

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of four mercapturic acids (MAs), N-acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (3-HPMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxyethyl)-L-cysteine ( CEMA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), in human urine using solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Frozen urine samples were thawed at room temperature, and centrifuged to remove any settled precipitate. The supernatant was then purified and concentrated by a C18 solid phase extraction column, and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for the quantitative analysis. The ranges of recovery for DHBMA, 3-HPMA, CEMA and SPMA spiked in human urine matrix at three concentration levels were 105.6%-124.4%, 102.7%-106.5%, 103.2%-103.9% and 101.7%-104.3%, respectively, with the relative standard deviations of 2.6%-7.7%. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N > or = 3) were 0. 062, 0. 031, 0. 020 and 0. 003 microg/L for DHBMA, 3-HPMA, CEMA and SPMA, respectively. The method was successfully used to detect 4 MAs in 37 human urine samples from smokers and non-smokers. It was found that the contents of 3-HPMA, CEMA and SPMA in the urines from cigarette smokers were about three to six-fold more than those in the urines from the non-smokers.

  10. Determination of fluoroquinolones in aquaculture products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J N; Burns, B G; van de Riet, J M; Casey, M D; Potter, R A

    2009-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of fluoroquinolones-ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), danofloxacin (DANO), enrofloxacin (ENRO) and sarafloxacin (SARA)-in aquaculture products, specifically salmon, shrimp and tilapia. After initial sample extraction with an acidic acetonitrile solution, the extract was diluted with dichloromethane and centrifuged, then an aliquot was concentrated and applied to a C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge and concentrated for a second time. The resultant residue was dissolved in acetonitrile, diluted with water, and then further defatted with hexane. The fluoroquinolone residues were determined by UPLC with an HSS T3 C18 reverse-phase column using an ammonium hydroxide-formic acid buffer in an acetonitrile gradient with MS/MS detection using multiple reaction monitoring. Average recoveries for salmon tissue ranged from 73% for DANO to 95% for SARA, for shrimp from 71% for DANO to 109% for SARA, and from 62% for DANO to 111% for SARA in tilapia, fortified at the 1.0 ng g(-1) level. Standard curves were linear between 0.002 and 0.5 ng injected for all compounds. Detection limits of 0.2 ng g(-1) for CIPRO, DANO, ENRO, and SARA were easily obtainable. The operational errors, interferences, and recoveries for fortified samples demonstrate that this described method is suitable for routine use in a regulatory programme. The recommended method is simple, rapid, specific and reliable for the routine monitoring of fluoroquinolone residues in aquatic species such as salmon, tilapia and shrimp.

  11. Quantification of a male sea lamprey pheromone in tributaries of Laurentian Great Lakes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, X.; Johnson, N.S.; Brant, C.O.; Yun, S.-S.; Chambers, K.L.; Jones, A.D.; Li, W.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an assay for measuring 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), a mating pheromone released by male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), at low picomolar concentrations in natural waters to assess the presence of invasive populations. 3kPZS was extracted from streamwater at a rate of recovery up to 90% using a single cation-exchange and reversed-phase mixed-mode cartridge, along with [2H5]3kPZS as an internal standard, and quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was below 0.1 ng L–1 (210 fM), which was the lowest concentration tested. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation were between 0.3–11.6% and 4.8–9.8%, respectively, at 1 ng 3kPZS L–1 and 5 ng 3kPZS L–1. This assay was validated by repeat measurements of water samples from a stream spiked with synthesized 3kPZS to reach 4.74 ng L–1 or 0.24 ng L–1. We further verified the utility of this assay to detect spawning populations of lampreys; in the seven tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes sampled, 3kPZS concentrations were found to range between 0.15 and 2.85 ng L–1 during the spawning season in known sea lamprey infested segments and were not detectable in uninfested segments. The 3kPZS assay may be useful for the integrated management of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes where pheromone-based control and assessment techniques are desired.

  12. Simple and rapid screening procedure for 143 new psychoactive substances by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Tokarczyk, Bogdan

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many new psychoactive substances (NPS) from several drug classes have appeared on the drug market. These substances, also known as 'legal highs', belong to different chemical classes. Despite the increasing number of NPS, there are few comprehensive screening methods for their detection in biological specimens. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop a fast and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening procedure for NPS in blood. The elaborated method allows the simultaneous screening of 143 compounds from different groups (number of compounds): cathinones (36), phenethylamines (26), tryptamines (18), piperazines (9), piperidines (2), synthetic cannabinoids (34), arylalkylamines (7), arylcyclohexylamines (3), aminoindanes (2), and other drugs (6). Blood samples (0.2 mL) were precipitated with acetonitrile (0.6 mL). The separation was achieved with gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water in 14 min. Detection of all compounds was based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. The total number of transitions monitored in dynamic mode was 432. The whole procedure was rapid and simple. The limits of detection (LODs) estimated for 104 compounds were in the range 0.01-3.09 ng/mL. The extraction recoveries determined for 32 compounds were from 1.8 to 133%. The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of forensic blood samples in routine casework. The developed method should have wide applicability for rapid screening of new drugs of abuse in forensic or clinical samples. The procedure can be easily expanded for more substances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Detection of singly- and doubly-charged quaternary ammonium drugs in equine urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2012-01-13

    Quaternary ammonium drugs (QADs) are anticholinergic agents some of which are known to have been abused or misused in equine sports. A recent review of literature shows that the screening methods reported thus far for QADs mainly cover singly-charged QADs. Doubly-charged QADs are extremely polar substances which are difficult to be extracted and poorly retained on reversed-phase columns. It would be ideal if a comprehensive method can be developed which can detect both singly- and doubly-charged QADs. This paper describes an efficient liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and confirmation of 38 singly- and doubly-charged QADs at sub-parts-per-billion (ppb) to low-ppb levels in equine urine after solid-phase extraction. Quaternary ammonium drugs were extracted from equine urine by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using an ISOLUTE(®) CBA SPE column and analysed by LC/MS/MS in the positive electrospray ionisation mode. Separation of the 38 QADs was achieved on a polar group embedded C18 LC column with a mixture of aqueous ammonium formate (pH 3.0, 10 mM) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Detection and confirmation of the 38 QADs at sub-ppb to low-ppb levels in equine urine could be achieved within 16 min using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Matrix interference of the target transitions at the expected retention times was not observed. Other method validation data, including precision and recovery, were acceptable. The method was successfully applied to the analyses of drug-administration samples.

  14. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of ε-Acetamidocaproic Acid in Rat Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi1, Yong Seok; Choi, Young Hee; Kim, Yoon Gyoon

    2013-01-01

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of ε-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA), the primary metabolite of zinc acexamate (ZAC), in rat plasma by using normetanephrine as an internal standard. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation using methanol. Separation was achieved on a Gemini-NX C18 column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, i.d., 3 μm particle size) using a mixture of 0.1% formic acid-water : acetonitril...

  15. Determination of cyanuric acid residues in catfish, trout, tilapia, salmon and shrimp by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbiwnyk, Christine M. [Animal Drugs Research Center, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, P.O. Box 25087, Denver, CO 80225-0087 (United States)], E-mail: christine.karbiwnyk@fda.hhs.gov; Andersen, Wendy C.; Turnipseed, Sherri B. [Animal Drugs Research Center, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, P.O. Box 25087, Denver, CO 80225-0087 (United States); Storey, Joseph M.; Madson, Mark R. [Denver District Laboratory, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, P.O. Box 25087, Denver, CO 80225-0087 (United States); Miller, Keith E. [Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 8401 Muirkirk Road, Laurel, MD 20708 (United States); Gieseker, Charles M.; Miller, Ron A.; Rummel, Nathan G.; Reimschuessel, Renate [University of Denver, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Denver, CO 80208 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    In May 2007, investigators discovered that waste material from the pet food manufacturing process contaminated with melamine (MEL) and/or cyanuric acid (CYA) had been added to hog and chicken feeds. At this time, investigators also learned that adulterated wheat gluten had been used in the manufacture of aquaculture feeds. Concern that the contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food supply prompted the development of a method for the determination of CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed as a sensitive technique for the analysis of CYA in catfish, tilapia, salmon, trout and shrimp tissue. CYA was extracted from ground fish or shrimp with an acetic acid solution, defatted with hexane, and isolated with a graphitic carbon black solid-phase extraction column. Residues were separated from matrix components using a porous graphitic carbon LC column, and then analyzed with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Selective reaction monitoring was performed on the [M-H]{sup -}m/z 128 ion resulting in the product ions m/z 85 and 42. Recoveries from catfish, tilapia and trout fortified with 10-100 {mu}g kg{sup -1} of CYA averaged 67% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 18% (n = 107). The average method detection limit (MDL) for catfish, tilapia and trout is 3.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. An internal standard, {sup 13}C{sub 3}-labeled CYA, was used in the salmon and shrimp extractions. Average recovery of CYA from salmon was 91% (R.S.D. = 15%, n = 18) with an MDL of 7.4 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. Average recovery of CYA from shrimp was 85% (R.S.D. = 10%, n = 13) with an MDL of 3.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1}.

  16. Collaborative trial validation study of two methods, one based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in bakery and potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, Thomas; Karasek, Lubomir; Rosen, Johan; Hellenaes, Karl-Erik; Crews, Colin; Castle, Laurence; Anklam, Elke

    2006-11-03

    A European inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate two analytical procedures for the determination of acrylamide in bakery ware (crispbreads, biscuits) and potato products (chips), within a concentration range from about 20 microg/kg to about 9000 microgg/kg. The methods are based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the derivatised analyte and on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) of native acrylamide. Isotope dilution with isotopically labelled acrylamide was an integral part of both methods. The study was evaluated according to internationally accepted guidelines. The performance of the HPLC-MS/MS method was found to be superior to that of the GC-MS method and to be fit-for-the-purpose.

  17. Determination of doxepin and desmethyldoxepin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, D; Sutherland, F C; de Jager, A D; Scanes, T; Hundt, H K; Swart, K J; Hundt, A F

    2000-05-26

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of doxepin and its active metabolite desmethyldoxepin in plasma was established, using high-performance liquid chromatographic separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection. The samples were extracted with hexane-isoamyl alcohol, separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 5 microm, 150x2.1 mm column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-formic acid (600:400:0.5, v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.25 ml/min. Detection was achieved by a Perkin-Elmer API 2000 mass spectrometer at unit resolution in multiple reaction monitoring mode monitoring the transition of the protonated molecular ions m/z 280.2, 266.2 and 250.1 to the product ions m/z 107.1, 107.1 and 191.0 for analyte, metabolite and internal standard (benzoctamine-HCl), respectively. TurbolonSpray ionisation was used for ion production. The mean recovery for doxepin and desmethyldoxepin was 90% and 75%, respectively, with a lower limit of quantification at 0.320 ng/ml and 0.178 ng/ml for the analyte and its metabolite, respectively, using 0.5 ml plasma for extraction. This is the first assay method described for the simultaneous determination of doxepin and desmethyldoxepin in plasma using LC-MS-MS. The method is sensitive enough to be used in drug bioavailability studies with doxepin.

  18. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, M. van der, E-mail: M.vanderHam-3@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Albersen, M., E-mail: M.Albersen@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, T.J. de, E-mail: T.deKoning@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, G., E-mail: G.Visser-4@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Middendorp, A., E-mail: Alfred_Middendorp@waters.com [Waters Chromatography B.V., Florijnstraat 19, Postbus 379, 4870 AJ Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Bosma, M., E-mail: M.Bosma@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhoeven-Duif, N.M., E-mail: N.Verhoeven@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de, E-mail: M.G.deSain@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5 Prime -phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5 Prime -phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5 Prime -phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L{sup -1} trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D{sub 3} for PL and PM, PN-{sup 13}C{sub 4} for PN, PA-D{sub 2} for PA and PLP-D{sub 3} for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 {yields} 150.1 (PL), 169.1 {yields} 134.1 (PM), 170.1 {yields} 134.1 (PN), 184.1 {yields} 148.1 (PA), 248.1 {yields} 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 {yields} 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 {yields} 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF

  19. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in mollusks by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Ferrero-Refojos, Raúl; Rubí, Elisa; Cela, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been used for over 40 years in different commercial and industrial applications mainly as surfactants and surface protectors and have become an important class of marine emerging pollutants. This study presents the development and validation of a new analytical method to determine the simultaneous presence of eight PFCs in different kinds of mollusks using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Simplicity of the analytical procedure, low volume of solvent and quantity of sample required, low global price, and integration of extraction and clean-up into a single step, are the most important advantages of the developed methodology. Solvent, solid support (dispersing agent), clean-up sorbent, and their amounts were optimized by means of an experimental design. In the final method, 0.5 g of sample are dispersed with 0.2 g of diatomaceous earth and transferred into a polypropylene syringe containing 4 g of silica as clean-up sorbent. Then, analytes are eluted with 20 mL of acetonitrile. The extract is finally concentrated to a final volume of 0.5 mL in methanol, avoiding extract dryness in order to prevent evaporation losses and injected in the LC-MS/MS. The combination of this MSPD protocol with LC-MS/MS afforded detection limits from 0.05 to 0.3 ng g(-1). Also, a good linearity was established for the eight PFCs in the range from limit of quantification (LOQ) to 500 ng mL(-1) with R(2) > 0.9917. The recovery of the method was studied with three types of spiked mollusk and was in the 64-126% range. Moreover, a mussel sample was spiked and aged for more than 1 month and analyzed by the developed method and a reference method, ion-pair extraction, for comparison, producing both methods statistically equal concentration values. The method was finally applied to the determination of PFCs in different kinds of mollusks revealing concentrations up to 8.3 ng g(-1) for

  20. Simultaneous quantification of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Lundqvist, Marika; Bahl, Justyna M C

    2016-01-01

    A remediable cause of poor treatment response in drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB) patients may be low plasma levels of one or more of the first-line anti-TB drugs. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate and precise LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of all four first......-line anti-TB drugs in plasma suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). To adjust for degradation and losses during sample preparation, isotopically labeled compounds were used as internal standards. Plasma samples spiked with internal standards were extracted using protein precipitation with methanol...... and acetonitrile. Simultaneous separation of all four drugs was accomplished with a Chromolith Reversed-Phase column and mobile phases consisting of water, methanol, ammonium acetate and formic acid with subsequent mass spectrometric quantification. The linear range of the calibration curve for isoniazid was 0...

  1. Multiresidue analysis of multiclass plant growth regulators in grapes by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulkar, Dasharath P; Banerjee, Kaushik; Ghaste, Manoj S; Ramteke, Sahadeo D; Naik, Dattatraya G; Patil, Shubhangi B; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Adsule, Pandurang G

    2011-01-01

    A selective and rapid multiresidue analysis method is presented for simultaneous estimation of 12 plant growth regulators (PGRs), namely, auxins (indol-3-acetic acid, indol-3-butyric acid, and naphthyl acetic acid), cytokinins (kinetin, zeatin, and 6-benzyladenine), gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid, and synthetic compounds, namely, forchlorfenuron, paclobutrazole, isoprothiolane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) in bud sprouts and grape berries at the development stages of 2-3 and 6-8 mm diameters, which are the critical phases when exogenous application of PGRs may be necessary to achieve desired grape quality and yield. The sample preparation method involved extraction of plant material with acidified methanol (50%) by homogenization for 2 min at 15000 rpm. The pH of the extract was enhanced up to 6 by adding ammonium acetate, followed by homogenization and centrifugation. The supernatant extract was cleaned by SPE on an Oasis HLB cartridge (200 mg, 6 cc). The final extract was measured directly by LC/MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive mode, except for 2,4-D, GA3, and abscisic acid extracts, which required analysis in negative mode. Quantification by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was supported with full-scan mass spectrometric confirmation using "information-dependent acquisition" triggered with MRM to "enhanced product ionization" mode of the hybrid quadrupole-ion trap mass analyzer. The LOQ of the test analytes varied between 1 and 10 ng/g with associated recoveries of 80-120% and precision RSD <25% (n = 8). Significant matrix-induced signal suppression was recorded when the responses for pre- and postextraction spikes of analytes were compared; this could be resolved by using matrix-matched calibration standards. The method could successfully be applied in analyzing incurred residue samples and would, therefore, be useful in precisely deciding the necessity and dose of exogenous applications of PGRs on the basis of measured

  2. Quantitation of organophosphorus nerve agent metabolites in human urine using isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, W Jack; Shih, Ming; Needham, Larry L; Barr, Dana B

    2002-01-01

    An isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (GC-MS-MS) method was developed for quantitating the urinary metabolites of the organophosphorus nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun (GA), VX, and GF. Urine samples were concentrated by codistillation with acetonitrile, derivatized by methylation with diazomethane, and analyzed by GC-MS-MS. The limits of detection were less than 4 microg/L for all the analytes except for the GA metabolite, which had a limit of detection of less than 20 microg/L.

  3. Pharmacokinetic studies of novel berberine derivatives with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Shen, Qin; Liang, Hui; Hua, Changlong; Liu, Yuhui; Li, Fengzhi; Li, Qingyong

    2016-09-15

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection method was developed for the detection of berberine and its derivatives (A4, B4) in rat plasma and other organs. This validated method was successfully applied to our pharmacokinetic study of BBR derivatives in rats. At the same dose of administration, the Cmax of B4 was about eight times higher than BBR, and its half-life was approximately two times longer than BBR, according to the bigger areas under plasma concentration curves. Inversely, the pharmacokinetic parameter levels of A4 were all inferior to BBR, suggesting a tight structure-activity relationship of these compounds. Small dose of parenteral administration was used for the study of absolute oral bioavailability of A4, B4, and BBR, and the results calculated were 0.12%, 3.4% and 0.7%, respectively. The accumulations of B4 among all organs were intestine>liver>heart>kidney>lung>spleen>plasma, proving a deeply targeting property of B4, which met our experimental assumption. Together, the experimental results proved that compared with BBR and A4, the derivative B4 had higher absolute oral bioavailability and the ability of deeply targeting so that can be likely used in some organ-targeted diseases.

  4. Simultaneous quantitation of amphetamines and opiates in human hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Ray H; Lin, Dong-Liang

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an incubation, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LC-MS-MS procedure was developed, validated and used for simultaneous analysis of amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), morphine (MOR), codeine (COD), 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) and 6-acetylcodeine (6-AC) in hair. Hair samples were initially cut into sections, washed with dichloromethane, then sonicated in a methanol-trifluoroacetic acid mixture. The resulting solutions were processed with a SPE procedure before undergoing LC-MS-MS analysis. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed in positive-ion, multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode, using appropriate collision energy for each selected precursor ion. The overall protocol, when applied to the analysis of hair (50 mg) samples fortified with 100-10,000 pg/mg of the analytes, was found to achieve 55.5-74.6% recovery of the six analytes with the following analytical parameters: (i) intra- and interday precision/accuracy data for the six analytes in the 1.6-7.6%/-6.0-12.8% and 1.3-6.6%/-6.9-9.3% ranges, respectively; (ii) r(2) > 0.998 for all six analytes and (iii) LOD 2 pg/mg for AP and MA, and 8 pg/mg for MOR, COD, 6-AM and 6-AC; LOQ 10 pg/mg for all six analytes. This method was then utilized to (i) analyze hair samples collected from 86 self-reported drug users and (ii) evaluate the deposition pattern of drugs in head hairs from four female MA and heroin users in a rehabilitation facility. This relatively simple protocol was found superior over the GC-MS methods we have previously developed and utilized in our laboratory for the analysis of these six analytes.

  5. Analysis of gibberellins as free acids by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Terezie; Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Hedden, Peter; Strnad, Miroslav

    2013-08-15

    A robust, reliable and high-throughput method for extraction and purification of gibberellins (GAs), a group of tetracyclic diterpenoid carboxylic acids that include endogenous growth hormones, from plant material was developed. The procedure consists of two solid-phase extraction steps (Oasis(®) MCX-HLB and Oasis(®) MAX) and gives selective enrichment and efficient clean-up of these compounds from complex plant extracts. The method was tested with plant extracts of Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana, from which total recovery of internal standards of about 72% was achieved. A rapid baseline chromatographic separation of 20 non-derivatised GAs by ultra performance liquid chromatography is also presented where a reversed-phase chromatographic column Acquity CSH(®) and a mobile phase consisting of methanol and aqueous 10mM-ammonium formate is used. This method enables sensitive and precise quantitation of GAs by MS/MS in multiple-reaction monitoring mode (MRM) by a standard isotope dilution method. Optimal conditions, including final flow rate, desolvation temperature, desolvation gas flow, capillary and cone voltage for effective ionisation in the electrospray ion source were found. All studied GAs were determined as free acids giving dominant quasi-molecular ions of [M-H](-) with limits of detection ranging between 0.08 and 10 fmol and linear ranges over four orders of magnitude. Taking advantage of highly effective chromatographic separation of 20 GAs and very sensitive mass spectrometric detection, the presented bioanalytical method serves as a useful tool for plant biologists studying the physiological roles of these hormones in plant development.

  6. Rapid simultaneous analysis of 17 haloacetic acids and related halogenated water contaminants by high-performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Runmiao; Donovan, Ariel; Shi, Honglan; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos; Eichholz, Todd

    2016-09-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs), which include chloroacetic acids, bromoacetic acids, and emerging iodoacetic acids, are toxic water disinfection byproducts. General screening methodology is lacking for simultaneously monitoring chloro-, bromo-, and iodoacetic acids. In this study, a rapid and sensitive high-performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of chloro-, bromo-, and iodo- acetic acids and related halogenated contaminants including bromate, bromide, iodate, and iodide was developed to directly analyze water samples after filtration, eliminating the need for preconcentration, and chemical derivatization. The resulting method was validated in both untreated and treated water matrices including tap water, bottled water, swimming pool water, and both source water and drinking water from a drinking water treatment facility to demonstrate application potential. Satisfactory accuracies and precisions were obtained for all types of tested samples. The detection limits of this newly developed method were lower or comparable with similar techniques without the need for extensive sample treatment requirement and it includes all HAAs and other halogenated compounds. This provides a powerful methodology to water facilities for routine water quality monitoring and related water research, especially for the emerging iodoacetic acids. Graphical abstract High performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for detection of haloacetic acids in water.

  7. Multi-component quantitation of loratadine, pseudoephedrine and paracetamol in plasma and pharmaceutical formulations with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry utilizing a monolithic column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Abro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid, simple and sensitive quantitation method for pseudoephedrine (PSE, paracetamol (PAR and loratadine (LOR in plasma and pharmaceuticals using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a monolithic column. Separation was achieved using a gradient composition of methanol-0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Mass spectral transitions were recorded in SRM mode. System validation was evaluated for precision, specificity and linearity. Limit of detection for pseudoephedrine, paracetamol, and loratadine were determined to be 3.14, 1.86 and 1.44 ng mL-1, respectively, allowing easy determination in plasma with % recovery of 93.12 to 101.56%.

  8. Stress degradation study and structure characterization of oxidation degradation product of dexlansoprazole using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/time of flight, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lakkireddy PRAKASH; M HIMAJA

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with the forced degradation behavior of dexlansoprazole under International Conference on Harmonisation( ICH)prescribed stress conditions. The drug was found to be more labile under acid,base,neutral,oxidative hydrolysis and thermal stress,while it was moderately stable under photolytic conditions. The known and unknown degradation products were separated on a C-18 column using a stability-indicating method. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry( LC-MS)analysis was performed for all the deg-radation studies. Isolation and structure characterization of oxidation degradation products were executed using sophisticated tools,viz. preparative high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC),liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/time of flight( LC-MS/TOF),liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry( LC-MS/MS),and nuclear magnetic resonance( NMR). This study demonstrates an ample methodology of degradation studies and structure elucidation of unknown degradation products of dexlansoprazole,which helps in the development and stability study of active pharmaceutical ingredients and formulated products.

  9. [Analysis of proteins in the extracts of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino using nanoflow reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyang; Yan, Jiaze; Guo, Ming; Jin, Yan

    2013-04-01

    The protein was extracted from Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino fruit by using water extraction and acid precipitation methods, and it consisted of 188 mg/g of protein on dry basis of the extract. Among 18 amino acids, eight essential amino acids for human account for 31% were found in this extract. Based on shotgun proteomics method, the protein extracted from Physalis fruit was analysed by nanoflow reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-RPLC-MS/MS) system. Combined with database searches and bioinformatics analysis, the protein species and six molecular functions were identified, including with catalytic activity, antioxidant activity, enzyme regular activity, nutrient reservoir activity, transporter activity and binding activity. And three antioxidant activity-related proteins were identified. These results may lay the foundation for further study of the functional properties of the proteins in Physalis fruit.

  10. Rapid and easy multiresidue method for the analysis of antibiotics in meats by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Okihashi, Masahiro; Harada, Kazuo; Uchida, Kotaro; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-06-03

    This study involved the development of a multiresidue method for the rapid analysis of 43 antibiotics in meats using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This method was performed using dispersive-solid phase extraction, which is able to analyze 20 samples within 2 h. All compounds were determined simultaneously on a C18 separation column with gradient elution. Validation of the analytical method was performed by carrying out linearity, limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision, and recovery tests in different meat products. The validation criteria were set according to AOAC International and Japanese validation guidelines. The linearity of each compound was almost the coefficient of determination (r(2)) > 0.98. The LOQs of all tested antibiotics were chicken, respectively. This method can be used for rapid and easy multiresidue screening of antibiotics for three meats (pork, beef, and chicken).

  11. Determination of (fluoro)quinolone antibiotic residues in pig kidney using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Part II: intercomparison exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, B; Chedin, M; Vincent, U; Bordin, G; Rodriguez, A R

    2005-09-23

    A recently in-house validated method for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of eleven (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics (FQs) in pig kidney has been fully validated through an intercomparison exercise. This ring trial involved eight European laboratories and was based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/CE for validation of method and on the IUPAC protocol for method-performances studies. The laboratories data were submitted to a one-way analysis of variance. Satisfactory results were obtained for each FQ with regards to within- and between-laboratory reproducibility and accuracy. The method was validated for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of the eleven FQs in pig kidney around their maximum residue limit (MRL) as defined in the European Council Regulation 2377/90/EEC.

  12. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Honeybees using Modified QUEChERS Sample Work-Up and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Bargańska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of chemical compounds to the environment, especially of pesticides, is one of factors that may explain present honeybee colony losses. In this work, an analytical method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was optimized for the simultaneous screening of 19 pesticides which have not been yet determined in honeybee samples from northern Poland (Pomerania. The sample preparation, based on the QuEChERS method combining salting-out liquid-liquid extraction to acetonitrile and a dispersive-SPE clean-up, was adjusted to honeybee samples by adding a small amount of hexane to eliminate beeswax. The recovery of analytes ranged from 70% to 120% with relative standard deviation ≤20%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.91–25 ng/g. A total of 19 samples of honeybees from suspected pesticide poisoning incidents were analyzed, in which 19 different pesticides were determined.

  13. Refined methodology for the determination of neonicotinoid pesticides and their metabolites in honey bees and bee products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Alaa

    2010-05-26

    An analytical method was refined for the extraction and determination of neonicotinoid pesticide residues and their metabolites in honey bees and bee products. Samples were extracted with 2% triethylamine (TEA) in acetonitrile (ACN) followed by salting out, solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, and detection using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated in triplicate at three fortification concentrations in each matrix. Good recoveries were observed for most analytes and ranged between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations between replicates of pesticides and ranged between 0.2 and 15 ng/g for the neonicotinoid metabolites. This refined method provides lower detection limits and improved recovery of neonicotinoids and their metabolites, which will help researchers evaluate subchronic effects of these pesticides, address data gaps related to colony collapse disorder (CCD), and determine the role of pesticides in pollinator decline.

  14. Comparative pharmacokinetics of a proliposome formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginaton in rats by a sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Xing, Gaoyang; Bi, Ye; Yan, Guodong; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Yingkun; Liu, Yan; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Xie, Jing

    2016-01-01

    As a novel oral drug delivery system, proliposome was applied to improve the solubility of active components of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE). There are currently few reports focusing on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of proliposome of GbE (GbP). A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of active components of GbP and a commercial tablet product (Ginaton) in rat plasma was developed and successfully validated. The method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation of GbP and Ginaton in rat plasma. The results indicated that GbP has a significant effect on absorption, elimination and bioavailability of flavonoids and terpenoid lactones in comparison with Ginaton. The obtained results would be helpful for evaluating the absorption mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract in pharmacokinetic level and guiding the development of the novel oral drug delivery system.

  15. Determination of VX-G analogue in red blood cells via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following an accidental exposure to VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jeffrey M; Taylor, James T; Byers, Christopher E; Jakubowski, Edward M; Thomson, Sandra M

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive method for determining exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX is described in which the biomarker ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (VX-G) is measured in red blood cells (RBCs) following treatment with fluoride ion using isotope-dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analyte was isolated via solid-phase extraction and detected using ammonia chemical ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A good linear relationship was obtained in the quantitative concentration range of 4 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL with an absolute detection limit of VX vapor. Detection and quantitation of VX-G were possible in samples taken as late as 27 days following exposure.

  16. Validated Method for the Quantification of Baclofen in Human Plasma Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Limon Khatun; Cordero, Rosa Elena; Nutt, David; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Turton, Samuel; Durant, Claire; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Sue

    2016-03-01

    A highly sensitive and fully validated method was developed for the quantification of baclofen in human plasma. After adjusting the pH of the plasma samples using a phosphate buffer solution (pH 4), baclofen was purified using mixed mode (C8/cation exchange) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Endogenous water-soluble compounds and lipids were removed from the cartridges before the samples were eluted and concentrated. The samples were analyzed using triple-quadrupole liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous quantification and confirmation. The assay was linear from 25 to 1,000 ng/mL (r(2) > 0.999; n = 6). Intraday (n = 6) and interday (n = 15) imprecisions (% relative standard deviation) were baclofen (10 and 60 mg) on nonconsecutive days were analyzed to demonstrate method applicability.

  17. Stable Isotope Labeling Strategy for Curcumin Metabolite Study in Human Liver Microsomes by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dan; Chen, Xiaowu; Yang, Xiaomei; Wu, Qin; Jin, Feng; Wen, Hongliang; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia

    2015-04-01

    The identification of drug metabolites is very important in drug development. Nowadays, the most widely used methods are isotopes and mass spectrometry. However, the commercial isotopic labeled reagents are usually very expensive, and the rapid and convenient identification of metabolites is still difficult. In this paper, an 18O isotope labeling strategy was developed and the isotopes were used as a tool to identify drug metabolites using mass spectrometry. Curcumin was selected as a model drug to evaluate the established method, and the 18O labeled curcumin was successfully synthesized. The non-labeled and 18O labeled curcumin were simultaneously metabolized in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The two groups of chromatograms obtained from metabolic reaction mixture with and without cofactors were compared and analyzed using Metabolynx software (Waters Corp., Milford, MA, USA). The mass spectra of the newly appearing chromatographic peaks in the experimental sample were further analyzed to find the metabolite candidates. Their chemical structures were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Three metabolites, including two reduction products and a glucuronide conjugate, were successfully detected under their specific HLMs metabolic conditions, which were in accordance with the literature reported results. The results demonstrated that the developed isotope labeling method, together with post-acquisition data processing using Metabolynx software, could be used for fast identification of new drug metabolites.

  18. [Determination of eight bisphenol diglycidyl ethers in water by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijing; Lin, Shaobin

    2014-07-01

    A solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of eight bisphenol diglycidyl ethers, including bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE x HCl), bisphenol A bis (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x 2HCl), bisphenol A (2, 3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE x H2O), bisphenol A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x 2H2O), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x HCl x H2O), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) and bisphenol F bis (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BFDGE 2HCl) in water. A total of ten samples were collected from the leaching of the coatings for drinking water supply system. Then, 200 mL exposure water was preconcentrated on C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. The eight compounds were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method on a C18 column by the gradient elution with methanol, water and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate as mobile phases in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode. The external matrix standard solutions were used for the quantitative determination and the calibration curves of the eight compounds showed good linearity in the range of 0.007-5.00 microg/L with the correlation coefficients more than 0.999 0. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were 7-91 ng/L. The spiked recoveries ranged from 79.1% to 101% with the relative standard deviations of 4.0% - 12%. The method is sensitive and accurate, and is applicable to the determination of bisphenol diglycidyl ethers in water.

  19. [Comparison of the performances of gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in rapid screening and confirmation of 208 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinyue; Pang, Guofang; Jin, Linghe; Kang, Jian; Hu, Xueyan; Chang, Qiaoying; Wang, Minglin; Fan, Chunlin

    2015-04-01

    The performances of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF/MS) for the determination of 208 pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable samples, including apple, orange, tomato and cucumber, were compared comprehensively. Based on the differences of the two instruments, their respective characteristics and scopes of application in the detection of the pesticide residues were presented, which provided the reference for the analysis of pesticide residues. The performance parameters of the two instruments, such as overall recoveries, precisions, limits of detection, linear ranges, identification points and matrix effects, were evaluated according to a designed experiment. At three spiked levels (5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 µg/kg), the average recoveries for the majority of pesticides (93.0%) ranged from 70% to 120% in the four matrices with relative standard deviations below 20%. The limits of detection for most of the pesticides by GC-MS/MS and GC-Q-TOF/MS were less than 5.0 µg/kg. Compared with GC-QTOF/MS, GC-MS/MS showed relatively lower limits of detection and wider linear ranges, and its performance was more satisfactory in accurate quantitative analysis due to its superior sensitivity. On the other hand, GC-QTOF/MS provided accurate mass measurement, which was proved to be an efficient analytical tool on the rapid screening and confirmation of a large number of pesticides and non-target compounds.

  20. Simple determination of fluoride in biological samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun-Myung; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2015-08-14

    A simple and convenient method to detect fluoride in biological samples was developed. This method was based on derivatization with 2-(bromomethyl)naphthalene, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in a vial, and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection. The HS-SPME parameters were optimized as follows: selection of CAR/PDMS fiber, 0.5% 2-(bromomethyl)naphthalene, 250 mg/L 15-crown-5-ether as a phase transfer catalyst, extraction and derivatization temperature of 95 °C, heating time of 20 min and pH of 7.0. Under the established conditions, the lowest limits of detection were 9 and 11 μg/L in 1.0 ml of plasma and urine, respectively, and the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 7.7% at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. The calibration curve showed good linearity of plasma and urine with r=0.9990 and r=0.9992, respectively. This method is simple, amenable to automation and environmentally friendly.

  1. [Determination of 16 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Jiang, Bing; Xu, Yigang; Zhao, Wei; Meng, Xiangrui; Zhou, Yuan; Yu, Jiahui; Zu, Yuangang

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive and convenient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the determination of 16 pesticides such as imidacloprid, prochloraz, difenoconazole, azoxystrobin, and thiamethoxam in fruits and vegetables. After compared with methanol and acetone-cyclohexane (1:2, v/v), acetonitrile was chosen as the extraction solvent. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile in high-speed homogenization. The extraction solution was cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction, and the supernatant was collected. In this work, QuEChERS exhibited much higher efficiency than Carbon-NH2 solid-phase extraction in purification. The pigments and organic acids were removed by purge line (150 mg primary secondary amine (PSA) sorbent and 900 mg absolute magnesium sulfate), leading to the decrease of the background interferences. The average recoveries of the 16 pesticides were almost in the range of 75%-111% at the three spiked levels, and the relative standard deviations were less than 16%. The qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis were investigated by LC-MS/MS and matrix-matched calibration curves. The results showed that the method of QuEChERS combined with LC-MS/MS is rapid, accurate and sensitive for the determination of the 16 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

  2. Simple quantitative determination of potent thiols at ultratrace levels in wine by derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Dimitra L; Ristic, Renata; Pardon, Kevin H; Jeffery, David W

    2015-01-20

    Volatile sulfur compounds contribute characteristic aromas to foods and beverages and are widely studied, because of their impact on sensory properties. Certain thiols are particularly important to the aromas of roasted coffee, cooked meat, passion fruit, grapefruit, and guava. These same thiols enhance the aroma profiles of different wine styles, imparting pleasant aromas reminiscent of citrus and tropical fruits (due to 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one), roasted coffee (2-furfurylthiol), and struck flint (benzyl mercaptan), at nanogram-per-liter levels. In contrast to the usual gas chromatography (GC) approaches, a simple and unique high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for routine analysis of five wine thiols, using 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (DTDP) as a derivatizing agent and polydeuterated internal standards for maximum accuracy and precision. DTDP reacted rapidly with thiols at wine pH and provided stable derivatives, which were enriched by solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. All steps were optimized and the method was validated in different wine matrices, with method performance being comparable to a well-optimized but more cumbersome gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. A range of commercial wines was analyzed with the new method, revealing the distribution of the five thiols in white, red, rosé, and sparkling wine styles.

  3. [Determination of carcinogenic aromatic amines derived from azo colorants in textiles and leather by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuyun; Ou, Yan; He, Mingchao; Gong, Zhenbin

    2013-04-01

    A rapid determination method was developed for the quantification and confirmation of 22 carcinogenic aromatic amines derived from azo colorants in textiles and leather by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The methods of EN 14362-1:2012 (for textiles) and ISO 17234-1:2010 (for leather) were adopted for sample pretreatment, finally diluted with methanol. The target compounds were separated by an Eclipse XDB-C18 RRHD column and eluted with methanol and water in gradient, and then determined by positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The external standard method was used for the quantitative analysis. The separation conditions, fragment voltages, collision energies, etc. were optimized. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were below 0.2 mg/kg for different compounds, matrix spike recoveries ranged from 70% to 120% at the spiked levels of 500, 1 000 and 1 500 microg/L, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%. The proposed method is rapid, sensitive, accurate and selective.

  4. Determination of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV agonist, β-aminoacyl containing thiazolidine derivatives (KR-66223) in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Jong-Shik; Jang, Su-Min; Lee, Byung Hoi; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Ahn, Jin Hee; Yoo, Sung Eun; Song, Im-Sook; Silinski, Peter; Schneider, Stephen Edward; Bae, Myung Ae

    2011-07-15

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for a novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV agonist (DDP-IV) agonist, KR-66223, in rat plasma. It involves liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by HPLC separation and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. KR-66223 and imipramine (IS) was separated on Gemini-NX C18 column with mixture of acetonitrile-ammonium formate (10mM) (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase. The ion transitions monitored were m/z 553.2→206.2 for KR-66223, m/z 281.3→86.1 for imipramine in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The linear ranges of the assay were 0.003-10μg/ml with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) greater than 0.99 and the lower limit of quantification was 3ng/ml. The average recovery was 78.9% and 87.1% from rat plasma for KR-66223 and imipramine, respectively. The coefficients of variation of intra- and inter-assay were 3.9-14.4% and the relative error was 0.8-11.5%. The method was validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of KR-66223 in rat.

  5. [Simultaneous determination of zeranols and chloramphenicol in foodstuffs of animal origin by combination immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Guomin; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Dongdong; Tang, Bobin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Hua

    2014-06-01

    A combination immunoaffinity column (IAC-CZ) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was successfully developed for zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and zearalenone) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples (fish, liver, milk and honey) were enzymatically digested by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase for about 16 h and then extracted with ether. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then the residues were dissolved by 1.0 mL of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtered and diluted with PBS buffer, the reconstituted solution were cleaned-up with a IAC-CZ and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS column with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution. The detection was carried out by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry in MRM mode. The proposed method was validated by the limit of detection (0.04-0.10 microg/kg), linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 0), average recoveries (70.9%-95.6%) and precisions (2.0% - 11.8%). The developed method is reliable, sensitive and has good applicability. The combination immunoaffinity column was proved to be an effective pretreatment technique to decrease the matrix effect, and it met the requirements of residue analysis of co-occurring zeranols and chloramphenicol.

  6. Comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electron ionization for determination of N-nitrosamines in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenwen; Li, Xiaoshui; Huang, Huanfang; Zhu, Xuetao; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yuan; Cen, Kuang; Zhao, Lunshan; Liu, Xiuli; Qi, Shihua

    2017-02-01

    N-nitrosamines are trace organic contaminants of environmental concern when present in groundwater and river water due to their potent carcinogenicity. Therefore, N-nitrosamine analysis is increasingly in demand. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), both with electron ionization (EI), were compared for analysis of nine N-nitrosamines extracted from environmental water matrices. A total of 20 fishpond water, river water, and groundwater samples from Sihui and Shunde, China were collected for a survey of N-nitrosamine concentrations in real water samples. Various solid-phase extraction (SPE) conditions and GC conditions were first examined for the pre-concentration and separation steps. The analysis of N-nitrosamines in environmental waters demonstrated that their quantification with GC-MS poses a challenge due to the occurrence of co-eluting interferences. Conversely, the use of GC-MS/MS increased selectivity because of the fragmentation generated from precursor ions in the 'multiple reaction monitoring' (MRM) mode, which is expected to extract target analytes from the environmental water matrix. Thus, the high performance of GC-MS/MS with EI was used to quantify nine N-nitrosamines in environmental waters with detection limits of 1.1-3.1 ng L(-1). N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) concentrations were in the range of N.D. to 258 ng L(-1). Furthermore, other N-nitrosamines, except N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine (NDPA) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), were also detected. Our findings suggest that GC-MS/MS with EI would be widely applicable in identifying N-nitrosamines in environmental waters and can be used for routine monitoring of these chemicals.

  7. A Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Metformin and Gliclazide in Human Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Y. K.; Gogoi, P. J.; Manna, K.; Bhatt, H. G.; Jain, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Present study reports the development and validation of a simultaneous estimation of metformin and gliclazide in human plasma using supercritical fluid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Acetonitrile:water (80:20) mixture was used as a mobile phase along with liquid CO2 in supercritical fluid chromatography and phenformin as an internal standard. The modified plasma samples were analyzed by electro-spray ionization method in selective reaction monitoring mode in tandem mass spectrometry. Supercritical fluid chromatographic separation was performed using nucleosil C18 containing column as a stationary phase. The separated products were identified by characteristic peaks and specific fragments peaks in tandem mass spectrometry as m/z 130 to 86 for metformin, m/z 324 to 110 for gliclazide and m/z 206 to 105 for phenformin. The present method was found linear in the concentration ranges of 6.0-3550 ng/ml and 7.5-7500 ng/ml for metformin and gliclazide, respectively. Pharmacokinetic study was performed after an oral administration of dispersible tablets containing 500 mg of metformin and 80 mg of gliclazide using same techniques. PMID:20582190

  8. Clinical and forensic examinations of glycaemic marker methylglyoxal by means of high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Cornelius; Stratmann, Bernd; Quester, Wulf; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Madea, Burkhard; Musshoff, Frank

    2013-03-01

    The postmortem determination of hyperglycaemic coma is quite difficult because of the lack of morphological findings and the difficult interpretation of biochemical parameters. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive oxoaldehyde, which is mainly derived from glycolysis. An electrospray ionisation liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric procedure for the determination of methylglyoxal in human serum and postmortem blood was developed. It involves protein precipitation with perchloric acid and a derivatisation step with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene. The assay was validated according to international guidelines. Serum samples from diabetics obtained at a diabetes clinic and from non-diabetics were used to assess data about reference concentrations in human serum. The assay showed linearity within the physiological concentrations in serum (5-500 ng/ml). Intraday imprecision at three concentrations was 10.3, 9.2 and 8.3 %, and interday imprecision was 15.3, 14.2 and 9.4 %; the limit of detection was 1.3 ng/ml, and limit of quantification, 3.2 ng/ml. One hundred and eighteen clinical (100 diabetics, 18 non-diabetics) and 98 forensic samples (84 non-diabetics, 14 in a status of hyperglycaemic coma) were measured. During life, diabetics showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher serum concentrations of MG than non-diabetics. After death, concentrations of MG increased significantly (p < 0.001). However, there was no correlation between the sum formula of Traub in vitreous humour and MG femoral blood concentrations (R = 0.237). This indicates that MG concentrations in the deceased cannot distinguish deaths due to a hyperglycaemic coma from other causes of death.

  9. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of synthetic cathinones and phenethylamines in influent wastewater of eight European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.

    2017-01-01

    (SPE) with Oasis MCX cartridges. Isotopically labelled internal standards were used to correct for matrix effects and potential SPE losses. Following chromatographic separation on a C18 column within 6 min, the compounds were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ionization mode. The method...... relatively stable for up to 7 days. The method was then applied to influent wastewater samples from eight European countries, in which mephedrone, methylone and MDPV were detected. This work reveals that although NPS use is not as extensive as for classic illicit drugs, the application of a highly sensitive...

  10. [Simultaneous determination of four alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Cuiping; Zhou, Yongfang; Xia, Biqi; Zhu, Zhenou; Liu, Aili

    2011-02-01

    A method for the analysis of 4 alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. was developed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted in methanol by ultrasonic, filtered and diluted with methanol for further analysis. The analysis was performed on a C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) using a gradient elution program with the mobile phase of 0.2% acetic acid solution and acetonitrile. The analyte was determined by an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were based on the retention times and characteristic ion pairs consisting of one parent ion and two fragment ions of the analyte. The limits of detection (LODs) for 4 alkaloids were in the range of 0.02 - 0.2 microg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.07 - 0.66 microg/L. The average recoveries were in the range of 93.6% - 103.5% for 4 alkaloids with the relative standard deviations below 3.8%. This method is reliable, sensitive and reproducible, and it can be used for the quality control of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. sample.

  11. Discovering Mercury Protein Modifications in Whole Proteomes Using Natural Isotope Distributions Observed in Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacco, Benjamin J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; LaVoie, Stephen P.; Lipton, Mary S.; Summers, Anne O.; Miller, Susan M.

    2011-08-01

    The identification of peptides that result from post-translational modifications is critical for understanding normal pathways of cellular regulation as well as identifying damage from, or exposures to xenobiotics, i.e. the exposome. However, because of their low abundance in proteomes, effective detection of modified peptides by mass spectrometry (MS) typically requires enrichment to eliminate false identifications. We present a new method for confidently identifying peptides with mercury (Hg)-containing adducts that is based on the influence of mercury’s seven stable isotopes on peptide isotope distributions detected by high-resolution MS. Using a pure protein and E. coli cultures exposed to phenyl mercuric acetate, we show the pattern of peak heights in isotope distributions from primary MS single scans efficiently identified Hg adducts in data from chromatographic separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with sensitivity and specificity greater than 90%. Isotope distributions are independent of peptide identifications based on peptide fragmentation (e.g. by SEQUEST), so both methods can be combined to eliminate false positives. Summing peptide isotope distributions across multiple scans improved specificity to 99.4% and sensitivity above 95%, affording identification of an unexpected Hg modification. We also illustrate the theoretical applicability of the method for detection of several less common elements including the essential element, selenium, as selenocysteine in peptides.

  12. Utilization of micellar electrokinetic chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry employed volatile micellar phase in the analysis of cathinone designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švidrnoch, Martin; Lněníčková, Ludmila; Válka, Ivo; Ondra, Peter; Maier, Vítězslav

    2014-08-22

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the selective separation, identification and determination of twelve new designer drugs from the group of synthetic cathinones. Ammonium salt of perfluorooctanoic acid at various concentrations as a volatile background electrolyte (BGE) to create micellar phase was studied for separation of selected synthetic cathinones with direct tandem mass spectrometry without significant loss of detection sensitivity. The optimized BGE contained 100 mM perfluorooctanoic acid with 200 mM ammonium hydroxide providing acceptable resolution of studied drugs in the MEKC step. In order to minimize interferences with matrix components and to preconcentrate target analytes, solid phase extraction was introduced as a clean-up step. The method was linear in the concentration range of 10-5000 ng mL(-1) and the limits of detection were in the range of 10-78 ng mL(-1). The method was demonstrated to be specific, sensitive, and reliable for the systematic toxicological analysis of these derivatives in urine samples.

  13. Rapid determination of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yu-Dong; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sung Ill; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young; Paeng, Ki-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Benzodiazepines and zolpidem are generally prescribed as sedative, hypnotics, anxiolytics or anticonvulsants. These drugs, however, are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime. Therefore, a rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification and quantification of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using deuterium labeled internal standards (IS). Urine samples (120 μL) mixed with 80 μL of the IS solution were centrifuged. An aliquot (5 μL) of the sample solution was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system for analysis. The mobile phases consisted of water and acetonitrile containing 2mM ammonium trifluoroacetate and 0.2% acetic acid. The analytical column was a Zorbax SB-C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm, Agilent). The separation and detection of 18 analytes were achieved within 10 min. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0.5-20 ng/mL (zolpidem), 1.0-40 ng/mL (flurazepam and temazepam), 2.5-100 ng/mL (7-aminoclonazepam, 1-hydroxymidazolam, midazolam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam), 5.0-200 ng/mL (zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid, α-hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, diazepam and α-hydroxytriazolam), 10-400 ng/mL (lorazepam and desalkylflurazepam) and 10-100 ng/mL (N-desmethylflunitrazepam) with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) above 0.9971. The dilution integrity of the analytes was examined for supplementation of short linear range. Dilution precision and accuracy were tested using two, four and ten-folds dilutions and they ranged from 3.7 to 14.4% and -12.8 to 12.5%, respectively. The process efficiency for this method was 63.0-104.6%. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 11.8% and 9.1%, while intra- and inter-day accuracies were less than -10.0 to 8.2%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification were lower than 10 ng/mL for each analyte. The applicability of the developed method was successfully

  14. Quantification of Photocyanine in Human Serum by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Its Application in a Pharmacokinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Tian Bi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocyanine is a novel anticancer drug. Its pharmacokinetic study in cancer patients is therefore very important for choosing doses, and dosing intervals in clinical application. A rapid, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of photocyanine in patient serum. Sample preparation involved one-step protein precipitation by adding methanol and N,N-dimethyl formamide to 0.1 mL serum. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer operating in multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM mode. Each sample was chromatographed within 7 min. Linear calibration curves were obtained for photocyanine at a concentration range of 20–2000 ng/mL (r>0.995, with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ being 20 ng/mL. The intrabatch accuracy ranged from 101.98% to 107.54%, and the interbatch accuracy varied from 100.52% to 105.62%. Stability tests showed that photocyanine was stable throughout the analytical procedure. This study is the first to utilize the HPLC-MS/MS method for the pharmacokinetic study of photocyanine in six cancer patients who had received a single dose of photocyanine (0.1 mg/kg administered intravenously.

  15. Pharmacokinetic study of 14-(3-methylbenzyl)matrine and 14-(4-methylbenzyl)matrine in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minjie; Wang, Lisheng; Huang, Shulin; Xu, Liba; Hu, Chao; Jiang, Weizhe

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-MS) was developed and validated to determine the 14-(3-methylbenzyl)matrine (3MBM) and 14-(4-methylbenzyl)matrine (4MBM) levels in rat plasma in the present study. The analytes were separated using a C18 column (1.9 μm, 2.1 mm × 100 mm) equipped with a Security Guard C18 column (5 μm, 2.1 mm × 10 mm), followed by detection via triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. Sample pretreatment involved one-step protein precipitation with isopropanol:ethyl acetate (v/v, 25:75), and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was used as an internal standard. The method was linear in the concentration range of 5-2000 ng/ml for both compounds. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%, and all relative errors (REs) were within 15%. The proposed method enables the unambiguous identification and quantification of these two compounds in vivo. This study is the first to determine the 3MBM and 4MBM levels in rat plasma after oral administration of these compounds. These results provide a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical applications of these medicines.

  16. Micro-solid phase extraction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of aflatoxins in coffee and malt beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayoon, Wejdan Shakir; Saad, Bahruddin; Salleh, Baharuddin; Manaf, Normaliza Hj Abdul; Latiff, Aishah A

    2014-03-15

    A single step extraction-cleanup procedure using porous membrane-protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) in conjunction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the extraction and determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1 and G2 from food was successfully developed. After the extraction, AFs were desorbed from the μ-SPE device by ultrasonication using acetonitrile. The optimum extraction conditions were: sorbent material, C8; sorbent mass, 20mg; extraction time, 90 min; stirring speed, 1,000 rpm; sample volume, 10 mL; desorption solvent, acetonitrile; solvent volume, 350 μL and ultrasonication period, 25 min without salt addition. Under the optimum conditions, enrichment factor of 11, 9, 9 and 10 for AFG2, AFG1, AFB2 and AFB1, respectively were achieved. Good linearity and correlation coefficient was obtained over the concentration range of 0.4-50 ng g(-1) (r(2) 0.9988-0.9999). Good recoveries for AFs ranging from 86.0-109% were obtained. The method was applied to 40 samples involving malt beverage (19) and canned coffee (21). No AFs were detected in the selected samples.

  17. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of sanfetrinem in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, C; Braggio, S; Ferrari, L; Fontana, S

    2001-10-25

    A rapid, selective and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of sanfetrinem in human plasma has been developed and validated. The performance of manual and automated sample preparation was assessed; 50 microl of plasma sample was deproteinized with acetonitrile, followed by dilution with water and injection onto the LC system. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Luna C18(2), 50x2.0 (5 microm) column with a mobile phase consisting of water-acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid followed by detection with a Perkin-Elmer API3000 mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The lower limit of quantification was improved by five times compared to the UV method previously reported. A range of concentration from 10 ng/ml to 5 microg/ml was covered. The method was applied to the quantification of sanfetrinem in human plasma samples from healthy volunteers participating in a clinical study.

  18. Pharmacokinetic study of 14-(3-methylbenzylmatrine and 14-(4-methylbenzylmatrine in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Jiang

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-MS was developed and validated to determine the 14-(3-methylbenzylmatrine (3MBM and 14-(4-methylbenzylmatrine (4MBM levels in rat plasma in the present study. The analytes were separated using a C18 column (1.9 μm, 2.1 mm × 100 mm equipped with a Security Guard C18 column (5 μm, 2.1 mm × 10 mm, followed by detection via triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization (ESI source. Sample pretreatment involved one-step protein precipitation with isopropanol:ethyl acetate (v/v, 25:75, and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was used as an internal standard. The method was linear in the concentration range of 5-2000 ng/ml for both compounds. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs were less than 15%, and all relative errors (REs were within 15%. The proposed method enables the unambiguous identification and quantification of these two compounds in vivo. This study is the first to determine the 3MBM and 4MBM levels in rat plasma after oral administration of these compounds. These results provide a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical applications of these medicines.

  19. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic musks in blood and urine by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongtao; Huang, Liping; Chen, Yuxin; Guo, Liman; Li, Limin; Zhou, Haiyun; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-06-15

    A rapid, precise and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of 5 polycyclic musks (PCMs) in biological fluids was developed by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). All parameters influencing SLE-GC-MS performance, including electron energy of electron-impact ionization source, collision energy for tandem mass spectrometer when operated in selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, type and volume of elution reagent, nitrogen evaporation time, pH and salinity of sample have been carefully optimized. Eight milliliter of n-hexane was finally chosen as elution reagent. Blood and urine sample could be loaded into SLE cartridge without adjusting pH and salinity. Deuterated tonalide (AHTN-d3) was chosen as internal standard. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curves of target compounds ranged from 0.9996 to 0.9998. The dynamic range spanned over two orders of magnitude. The limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds in blood and urine ranged from 0.008 to 0.105μgL(-1) and 0.005 to 0.075μgL(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of PCMs in human blood and urine obtaining satisfying recoveries on low, medium and high levels. The method was compared with SLE-GC-MS and shown one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity.

  20. [Simultaneous determination of 11 quinolones in hotpot ingredients by dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng; Mou, Yan; Gao, Fei; Geng, Jinpei; Zhang, Xiqing; Sui, Tao; Liang, Junni; Sha, Meilan; Guan, Lili

    2013-09-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of the residues of 11 quinolones in hotpot ingredients by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (UPLC-MS/MS) was established. The sample was extracted with acetonitrile (containing 5% formic acid) and followed by stratifying with a salting-out agent. Clean-up of the extracts was processed by C18 and PSA, a modified QuEChERS procedure. The analytes were then separated on a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column, and finally detected by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ESI mode. The linearity of all the 11 quinolones in the range from 1.0 to 100.0 microg/kg had correlation coefficients greater than 0.998. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method were from 1.8 to 3.1 microg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were from 6.0 to 10.3 microg/kg. The average recoveries of the 11 quinolones were in the range from 70.1% to 100.3%, with relative standard deviations from 2.42% to 10.88%. The established method is sensitive and of good recoveries. It can be applied as a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the 11 quinolones in hotpot ingredients.

  1. [Determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds (DHTDMAC) in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and diluted with acidified methanol by 5% (v/v) formic acid under ultrasonic assistance. The separation was performed on an Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution and methanol as the mobile phases. Identification and quantification were achieved by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results indicated that the calibration curve of DHTDMAC showed good linear relationship between peak area and mass concentration in the range of 10-280 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9991. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N= 10) of this method were 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries from three typical textile auxiliary matrices including dispersant, antistatic agent and fabric softener, at three spiked levels were in the range of 97.2%-108.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.5%-4.6%. The method is sensitive, accurate, simple and effective for the analysis of DHTDMAC in textile auxiliaries.

  2. Analysis of drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with organic-inorganic hybrid cyanopropyl monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Souza, Israel Donizeti de; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2015-07-01

    This study reports on the development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze sixteen drugs (antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and antipsychotics) in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients. The developed organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with cyanopropyl groups was used for the first dimension of the column-switching arrangement. This arrangement enabled online pre-concentration of the drugs (monolithic column) and their subsequent analytical separation on an XSelect SCH C18 column. The drugs were detected on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (multiple reactions monitoring mode) with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The developed method afforded adequate linearity for the sixteen target drugs; the coefficients of determination (R(2)) lay above 0.9932, the interassay precision had coefficients of variation lower than 6.5%, and the relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -14.0 to 11.8%. The lower limits of quantification in plasma samples ranged from 63 to 1250pgmL(-1). The developed method successfully analyzed the target drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM).

  3. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of ε-Acetamidocaproic Acid in Rat Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Yong Seok; Choi, Young Hee; Kim, Yoon Gyoon

    2013-09-01

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of ε-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA), the primary metabolite of zinc acexamate (ZAC), in rat plasma by using normetanephrine as an internal standard. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation using methanol. Separation was achieved on a Gemini-NX C18 column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, i.d., 3 μm particle size) using a mixture of 0.1% formic acid-water : acetonitrile (80 : 20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 200 μl/min. Quantification was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer employing electrospray ionization and operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and positive ion mode. The total chromatographic run time was 4.0 min, and the calibration curves of AACA were linear over the concentration range of 20~5000 ng/ml in rat plasma. The coefficient of variation and relative error at four QC levels were ranged from 1.0% to 5.8% and from -8.4% to 6.6%, respectively. The present method was successfully applied for estimating the pharmacokinetic parameters of AACA following intravenous or oral administration of ZAC to rats.

  4. Determination of mepitiostane metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Masato; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Kojima, Asami; Kageyama, Shinji

    2015-11-10

    Mepitiostane (2α,3α-epithio-17β-(1-methoxycyclopentyloxy)-5α-androstane), which is a prodrug of epitiostanol (2α,3α-epitio-5α-androstane-17β-ol), is an epitiosteroid having anti-estrogenic and weak androgenic anabolic activities. The World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits the misuse of mepitiostane by athletes. Detection of the urinary metabolites epitiostanol sulfoxide and epitiostanol was studied using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for doping control purposes. The use of LC-MS provided advantages over gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for detecting heat labile steroids because epitiostanol and epitiostanol sulfoxide were primarily pyrolized to 5α-androst-2-en-17β-ol. The method consists of enzymatic hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase (Escherichia coli), liquid-liquid extraction, and subsequent ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Epitiostanol sulfoxide was determined at urinary concentrations of 0.5-50ng/mL, recovery was 76.2-96.9%, and assay precision was calculated as 0.9-1.7% (intra-day) and 2.0-6.6% (inter-day). Epitiostanol was determined at urinary concentrations of 0.5-50ng/mL, recovery was 26.1-35.6% and assay precision was calculated as 4.1-4.6% (intra-day) and 3.3-8.5% (inter-day). The limits of detection for epitiostanol sulfoxide and epitiostanol were 0.05ng/mL and 0.10ng/mL, respectively. Epitiostanol sulfoxide and epitiostanol, as their gluco-conjugates, were identified in human urine after oral administration of 10mg mepitiostane. Epitiostanol sulfoxide and epitiostanol could be detected up to 48h and 24h after administration, respectively. The results showed that the detection window of epitiostanol is much shorter than that of epitiostanol sulfoxide. The LC-MS detection of urinary epitiostanol sulfoxide, a specific metabolite with a sulphur atom in its molecular structure, is likely to be able to identify the abuse of mepitiostane.

  5. Identification of oxidative degradates of the thrombin inhibitor, 3-(2-phenethylamino)-6-methyl-1-(2-amino-6-methyl-5-methyleneca rboxamidomethylpyridinyl)pyrazinone, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Chen, X; Gier, L; Almarsson, O; Ostovic, D; Loper, A E

    1999-07-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to identify reaction products from a solution of 3-(2-phenethylamino)-6-methyl-1-(2-amino-6-methyl-5-methyleneca rboxamidomethylpyridinyl)pyrazinone (L-375,378) and hydrogen peroxide, a system that generates high levels of the oxidative degradates which form in the tablets and intravenous (i.v.) solutions of L-375,378. Two major hydrogen peroxide reaction products of L-375,378 (m/z 407) with m/z values of 369 and 370 were separated and identified. Both compounds were products of ring opening with elimination of three carbon atoms from the center pyrazinone ring. The structural assignments for these two products were alpha-amidinoamide and alpha-diamide compounds, respectively. In addition, five products (m/z 423) with a molecular weight 16 Da greater than that for L-375,378 were separated. Further liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry experiments indicated that three of these M + 16 products were phenolic derivatives of L-375,378. Among them, the para-hydroxy compound has been verified using an authentic standard. The other two phenolic compounds were believed to be the meta- and ortho-hydroxy derivatives of L-375,378. The fourth M + 16 product was derived from hydroxylation of the methyl group on the center pyrazinone ring. The fifth M + 16 product was derived from oxidation on the aminopyridine moiety, most likely N-oxide of the pyridine ring. Other minor hydrogen peroxide reaction products were not studied in detail because they did not appear in tablets or i.v. formulations.

  6. Simultaneous determination of amitraz, chlordimeform, formetanate and their main metabolites in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue; Tan, Yanglan; Guo, Hao

    2017-03-11

    A rapid, simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of amitraz, chlordimeform, formetanate and their main metabolites, N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-methyl-formamidine (DMPF), 2,4-dimethylformamidine (DMF), 2,4-dimethylaniline (DMA), 4-chloro-2-methylaniline and 3-hydroxyacetanilide in human urine. The urine samples were mixed with buffer solutions (pH 8) and subsequently cleaned up by solid supported liquid/liquid extraction (SLE). The target analytes were efficiently separated with a Waters Atlantis T3 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5μm), ionized with electrospray ion source in positive mode, and quantitatively determined by tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. In order to minimize matrix effects, the matrix-matched calibration curves of eight analytes were adopted with correlation coefficients (R(2)) above 0.99. The method were further validated by determining the limits of detection (LODs, 0.3-0.6ng/mL), the limits of quantitation (LOQs, 1.0-2.0ng/mL) and recoveries (89.1%-108.4%) with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD, <11%). The established method was applied and demonstrated in a real case by assaying a urine sample from a female poisoned by formetanate. The achieved results proved this method to be rapid, sensitive and accurate for simultaneous quantitation of eight analytes in human urine for intended forensic cases of human poisoning.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Melamine, Ammelide, Ammeline, and Cyanuric Acid in Milk and Milk Products by Gas Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG MIAO; SAI FAN; YONG-NING WU; LEI ZHANG; PING-PING ZHOU; JING-GUANG LI; HUI-JING CHEN; YUN-FENG ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop an analytical method for simultaneously qualitative and quantitative determination of melamine and triazine-related by-products including ammelide, ammeline, and cyanuric acid in milk and milk products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Methods Melamine and triazine-related by-products namely ammelide, ammeline and cyanuric acid in the samples were extracted in a solvent mixture of diethylamine, water, and acetonitrile (10:40:50, V/V/V). After centrifugation, an aliquot of the supernatant was evaporated to dryness under a gentle stream of nitrogen gas, and then melamine and triazine-related by-products were derivatized using BSTFA with 1% TMCS. The derivatives of melamine and its analogues were determined by gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry using multiple reactional monitoring (MRM) with 2, 6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine (DACP) being used as an internal standard. Results The linear detectable ranges were from 0.004 mg/kg to 1.6 mg/kg for melamine, ammelide, ammeline, and cyanuric acid with a correlation coefficient no less than 0.999. The recovery rates of the four compounds in spiked blank milk powder at concentrations 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg were between 61.4%-117.2%, and the relative standard deviation was no more than 11.5% (n=6). The detection limits of melamine, ammelide, ammeline and cyanuric acid in milk powder were 0.002 mg/kg with a ratio of signal to noise of 3. Conclusion This GC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of melamine, ammelide, ammeline, and cyanuric acid in milk and milk products is sensitive and specific.

  8. Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Hrudey, Steve E; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-09-12

    Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500μL injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water.

  9. [Simultaneous determination of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium residues in tea by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with pre-column derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaogang; Chen, Xiaoquan; Xiao, Haijun; Liu, Binqiu

    2015-10-01

    A method was developed for the determination of glyphosate (GLY) and glufosinate-ammonium (GLUF) in tea using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with ultrapure water and dichloromethane for 30 min under ultrasonication, followed by a simple cleanup with a C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and then GLY and GLUF were derivatized using 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer for 2 h. The derivatives of GLY and GLUF were separated on a Waters C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) in a gradient elution mode, and finally detected with positive electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS ) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The quantification analysis was performed by external standard method. The method showed a good linearity (r > 0. 990) in the range of 0.003 125-0.1 mg/L. The limits of detection (LODs) of GLY and GLUF were 0.03 mg/kg. At the spiked levels of 0.375, 1.5 and 4.5 mg/kg, the recoveries of GLY and GLUF were 87.37%-99.11% and 81.44% -86.17% respectively, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 6) of GLY and GLUF were 0.68%-1.35% and 1.01%-2.33%, respectively. This method is simple, rapid and characterized with acceptable sensitivity and accuracy to meet the requirements for the analysis of GLY and GLUF simultaneously in tea.

  10. Quantification of Oxidized and Unsaturated Bile Alcohols in Sea Lamprey Tissues by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and reliable method was developed and validated for the determination of unsaturated bile alcohols in sea lamprey tissues using liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The liver, kidney, and intestine samples were extracted with acetonitrile and defatted by n-hexane. Gradient UHPLC separation was performed using an Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase of water and methanol containing 20 mM triethylamine. Multiple reaction monitoring modes of precursor-product ion transitions for each analyte was used. This method displayed good linearity, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99, and was validated. Precision and accuracy (RSD % were in the range of 0.31%–5.28%, while mean recoveries were between 84.3%–96.3%. With this technique, sea lamprey tissue samples were analyzed for unsaturated bile alcohol analytes. This method is practical and particularly suitable for widespread putative pheromone residue analysis.

  11. Assessment of parabens and ultraviolet filters in human placenta tissue by ultrasound-assisted extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Soria, F; Gallardo-Torres, M E; Ballesteros, O; Díaz, C; Pérez, J; Navalón, A; Fernández, M F; Olea, N

    2017-03-03

    Increasing concerns have been raised over recent decades about human exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs), especially about their possible effects on embryo, foetus, newborn, and child. Parabens (PBs) and ultraviolet filters (UV-filters) are prevalent EDCs widely used as additives in cosmetics and personal care products (PCPs). The objective of this study was to determine the presence of four PBs and ten UV-filters in placental tissue samples using a novel analytical method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Multivariate optimization strategies were used to accurately optimize extraction and clean-up parameters. Limits of quantification ranged from 0.15 to 0.5μgkg(-1), and inter-day variability (evaluated as relative standard deviation) ranged from 3.6% to 14%. The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by a recovery assay with spiked samples. Recovery percents ranged from 94.5% to 112%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of the target compounds in human placental tissue samples collected at delivery from 15 randomly selected women. This new analytical procedure can provide information on foetal exposure to compounds, which has been little studied.

  12. Comprehensive study of the phenolics and saponins from Helleborus niger L. Leaves and stems by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckstein, Sarina M; Stintzing, Florian C

    2014-02-01

    The aerial parts of the medicinal plant Helleborus niger L. comprise a substantial number of constituents with only few of them identified so far. To expand the knowledge of its secondary metabolite profile, extracts from H. niger leaves and stems were investigated by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS(n) ). Specific identification strategies using LC/MS are established and discussed in detail. The leaves turned out to contain acylated and non-acylated quercetin and kaempferol oligoglycosides, protoanemonin and its precursor ranunculin, β-ecdysone, and a variety of steroidal saponins, mainly in the furostanol form. The sapogenins were elucidated as of sarsasapogenyl, diosgenyl, and macranthogenyl structures, and confirmed by comparison with the respective reference compounds. The secondary metabolite profiles were almost identical in both plant parts except that the stems lacked kaempferol derivatives and some saponins. The ranunculin derivatives and β-ecdysone were found in both plant parts. Correlations between the location of the compound groups and the plant's defense strategies are proposed. Additionally, the role of the detected secondary metabolites as protective substances against exogenic stress and as a defense against herbivores is discussed.

  13. Absolute quantification of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a stable isotope-labelled peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Sasanuma, Motoe; Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2016-08-01

    Pru av 2, a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein present in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit, is the principal allergen of cherry and one of the chief causes of pollen food syndrome (oral allergy syndrome). In this study, a quantitative assay for this protein was developed with the use of the protein absolute quantification (AQUA) method, which consists of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) employing TGC[CAM]STDASGK[(13)C6,(15)N2], a stable isotope-labelled internal standard (SIIS) peptide. This assay gave a linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) in a concentration range (2.3-600fmol/μL), and the overall coefficient of variation (CV) for multiple tests was 14.6%. Thus, the contents of this allergenic protein in sweet cherry products could be determined using this assay. This assay should be valuable for allergological investigations of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry and detection of protein contamination in foods.

  14. Rapid and sensitive determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangrong; Koetzner, Lee; Boulet, Jamie; Maselli, Harry; Beyenhof, Jessica; Grover, Gary

    2009-09-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) and its major metabolite, salicylic acid (SA), in animal plasma has been developed and validated. Both ASA and SA in plasma samples containing potassium fluoride were extracted using acetonitrile (protein precipitation) with 0.1% formic acid in it. 6-Methoxysalicylic acid was used as the internal standard (IS). The compounds were separated on a reversed-phase column. The multiple reaction monitoring mode was used with ion transitions of m/z 178.9 --> 136.8, 137.0 --> 93.0 and 167.0 --> 123.0 for ASA, SA and IS, respectively. The lower limits of quantification for ASA and SA were 3 and 30 ng/mL, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA and SA after p.o. and i.v. administration of 1 mg/kg to rats.

  15. A simple and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine plasma biotin in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ando, Itiro; Oguma, Shiro; Sato, Emiko; Imai, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Masako

    2016-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and selective method for determination of plasma biotin was developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After single-step protein precipitation with methanol, biotin and stable isotope-labeled biotin as an internal standard (IS) were chromatographed on a pentafluorophenyl stationary-phase column (2.1 × 100 mm, 2.7 μm) under isocratic conditions using 10 mm ammonium formate-acetonitrile (93:7, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The total chromatographic runtime was 5 min for each injection. Detection was performed in a positive electrospray ionization mode by monitoring selected ion transitions at m/z 245.1/227.0 and 249.1/231.0 for biotin and the IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05-2 ng/mL using 300 μL of plasma. The intra- and inter-day precisions were all biotin concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of six Chinese spices on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Maomao; He, Zhiyong; Zheng, Zongping; Qin, Fang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Yahui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-01

    The effects of Chinese spices on the profiles of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven HA categories were investigated in roast beef patties using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and principal component analysis. Three groups of HAs, imidazopyridines (PhIP, DMIP, and 1,5,6-TMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx), and β-carbolines (harman and norharman), were detected and quantified in all of the samples. The results demonstrated that the total HA and imidazopyridine profiles could clearly be affected by 1% pricklyash peel (14.1 ± 0.76 and 6.06 ± 0.32 ng/g), chilli (41.0 ± 0.01 and 23.0 ± 0.52 ng/g), and cumin (59.9 ± 2.44 and 31.1 ± 3.06 ng/g), in comparison with control values of 21.8 ± 2.40 and 14.3 ± 2.04 ng/g, respectively. The difference was only significant (p spices in meat processing to minimize HA formation.

  17. Simultaneous determination of thirteen aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaeli by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jia-Yu; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Xiong, Dong-Mei; Ye, Li-Ming; Chao, Ruo-Bing

    2014-06-01

    Aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids have been reported as the cardioactive components in the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaeli (Fuzi) according to recent studies. Determination of these effective components is of great significance for quality control purposes for Fuzi. Here we report, for the first, the development and validation of a new method to determine the 13 aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi by using a simple and accurate solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis was performed on an ODS column with methanol-0.1 % formic acid (80 : 20, v/v) as the mobile phase. The quantification was performed using MS/MS detection in the positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Linearity was observed within a range of concentrations of 20-2,000 ng/mL. For all the analytes, the r value was greater than 0.9990. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were less than 0.5 ng/mL and 2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were less than 5% and 10%, respectively. The accuracy was within the range of 90 to 105%. This method was successfully applied to determine the 13 aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi from different origins and with different processing methods.

  18. Simultaneous detection of perchlorate and bromate using rapid high-performance ion exchange chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and perchlorate removal in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Danielle M; Mu, Ruipu; Gamagedara, Sanjeewa; Ma, Yinfa; Adams, Craig; Eichholz, Todd; Burken, Joel G; Shi, Honglan

    2015-06-01

    Perchlorate and bromate occurrence in drinking water causes health concerns due to their effects on thyroid function and carcinogenicity, respectively. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to advance a sensitive method for simultaneous rapid detection of perchlorate and bromate in drinking water system, (2) to systematically study the occurrence of these two contaminants in Missouri drinking water treatment systems, and (3) to examine effective sorbents for minimizing perchlorate in drinking water. A rapid high-performance ion exchange chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPIC-MS/MS) method was advanced for simultaneous detection of perchlorate and bromate in drinking water. The HPIC-MS/MS method was rapid, required no preconcentration of the water samples, and had detection limits for perchlorate and bromate of 0.04 and 0.01 μg/L, respectively. The method was applied to determine perchlorate and bromate concentrations in total of 23 selected Missouri drinking water treatment systems during differing seasons. The water systems selected include different source waters: groundwater, lake water, river water, and groundwater influenced by surface water. The concentrations of perchlorate and bromate were lower than or near to method detection limits in most of the drinking water samples monitored. The removal of perchlorate by various adsorbents was studied. A cationic organoclay (TC-99) exhibited effective removal of perchlorate from drinking water matrices.

  19. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for topotecan determination in beagle dog plasma and its application in a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ling; Shi, Jian; Wan, Shanhe; Yang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jiajie; Zheng, Dayong; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2013-11-01

    Topotecan (TPT) is an important anti-cancer drug that inhibits topoisomerase I. A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that potentially determines TPT in beagle dog plasma is needed for a bioequivalence study of TPT formulations. We developed and validated LC-MS/MS to evaluate TPT in beagle dog plasma in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, extraction recovery and matrix effect. Plasma samples were treated with an Ostro(TM) sorbent plate (a robust and effective tool) to eliminate phospholipids and proteins before analysis. TPT and camptothecin (internal standard) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm) with 0.1% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. TPT was analyzed using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The obtained lower limit of quantitation was 1 ng/mL (signal-to-noise ratio > 10). The standard calibration curve for TPT was linear (correlation coefficient > 0.99) at the concentration range of 1-400 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision, accuracy, stability, extraction recovery and matrix effect of TPT were within the acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of TPT in healthy beagle dogs.

  20. Development, validation of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin and metformin in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pavan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin (ROS and metformin (MET in human plasma was developed. The assay procedure involved simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Following precipitation, fraction of supernatant was decanted and evaporated under gentle stream of nitrogen at 40΀C. The residue was reconstituted in mobile phase and injected. The chromatographic separation was achieved with Thermo Hypurity C18 column (50 mm Χ 4.6 mm, 5 μ using a mobile phase composition containing 0.1% v/v formic acid in water and acetonitrile (30:70, v/v at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The total run time was 3.5 min. The method showed good linearity in the range 0.5-200 ng/mL for ROS and 2-2000 ng/mL for MET with correlation coefficient (r >0.9994 for both the analytes. The intra and inter-day precision values for ROS and MET met the acceptance criteria as per regulatory guidelines. The battery of stability studies viz., bench-top, freeze-thaw and long term stability were performed. The developed method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study.

  1. Determination of gymnemagenin in rat plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetics after oral administration of Gymnema sylvestre extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Bhagyashree; Gupta, Ankur; Patil, Dada; Khatal, Laxman; Janrao, Shirish; Moothedath, Ismail; Duraiswamy, Basavan

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of gymnemagenin (GMG), a triterpene sapogenin from Gymnema sylvestre, in rat plasma using withaferin A as the internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were simply extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with tetra-butyl methyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on Luna C(18) column using gradient elution of water and methanol (with 0.1% formic acid and 0.3% ammonia) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. GMG and IS were eluted at 4.64 and 4.36 min, ionized in negative and positive mode, respectively, and quantitatively estimated using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Two MRM transitions were selected at m/z 505.70 → 455.5 and m/z 471.50 → 281.3 for GMG and IS, respectively. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 5.280-300.920 ng/mL. The mean plasma extraction recoveries for GMG and IS were found to be 80.92 ± 8.70 and 55.63 ± 0.76%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters of GMG after oral administration of G. sylvestre extract.

  2. Sensitive and Rapid Quantification of Felodipine by High-performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS) and Its Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Chinese Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics of felodipine in the plasma of healthy Chinese volunteers, 30 healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 5 mg of extended release felodipine tablets. The felodipine was extracted from the matrix with a liquid-liquid extract procedure and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode using an electrospray ion source with positive ion detection. The method was validated over a felodipine concentration range of 0.05-10.00 ng/mL in human plasma. Its main pharmacokinetic parameters values were: ρmax=(1.67±0.84) ng/mL, occurring at (3.93±2.49) h; the plasma elimination half-life: (23.08±9.48) h and the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve: (29.94±14.39) ng·h/mL. The validation results demonstrated that this method showed a satisfactory precision and accuracy across the calibration range. The procedure involved minimal drug administration, sample preparation, and a 2.5-min chromatographic run time. It was well suited to clinical studies of the drug involving large numbers of samples.

  3. Rapid determination of endogenous cytokinins in plant samples by combination of magnetic solid phase extraction with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Cai, Bao-Dong; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-04-01

    A 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/P(AMPS-co-EGDMA)) copolymer was prepared and used as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) medium for recovery of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) from plant extracts. This magnetic porous polymer was characterized by electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption experiments, elemental analysis and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. It was demonstrated to have high extraction capacity toward CKs in plants due to its specificity, surface area and porous structure. Coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS), a rapid, simple, and effective MSPE-HILIC-MS/MS analytical method for the quantitative analysis of endogenous CKs in Oryza sativa (O. sativa) roots was successfully established. Good linearities were obtained for all CKs investigated with correlation coefficients (R²>0.9975. The results showed that LODs (S/N=3) were ranged from 0.18 to 3.65 pg mL⁻¹. Reproducibility of the method was obtained with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 16.1% and the recoveries in plant samples ranged from 72.8% to 115.5%. Finally, the MSPE-HILIC-MS/MS method was applied to several plant samples, and the amounts of endogenous CKs in O. sativa roots, leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) were successfully determined.

  4. Residue analysis and persistence evaluation of fipronil and its metabolites in cotton using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohu; Yu, Yang; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Du, Pengqiang; Wei, Dongmei; Zheng, Yongquan

    2017-01-01

    A simple residue analytical method based on the QuEChERS approach and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) detection was developed for the analysis of fipronil and its three metabolites in cottonseed, cotton plant and soil. The average recoveries of four test compounds from all three matrices were 78.6-108.9% at the level of 0.005 to 0.5 mg/kg, with an RSD in the range of 0.6 to 13.7%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the four test compounds ranged from 0.005 to 0.01 mg/kg. The results of the residual dynamics experiments showed that fipronil dissipated rapidly in cotton plants and soil and that oxidation and photolysis were the main degradation pathways. Moreover, the bi-exponential models demonstrated a good fit of the measured data for fipronil in cotton plants and soil, with R2 in the range of 0.8989 to 0.9989. Furthermore, a total of 40 samples of cottonseed from Shandong Province were analyzed, and all of the samples were free from the four test compound residues.

  5. Multiresidue analysis of sulfonamides, quinolones, and tetracyclines in animal tissues by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang; Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi

    2016-08-01

    A multiresidue method for the efficient identification and quantification of 38 compounds from 3 different classes of antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones) in animal tissues has been developed. The method optimization involved the selection of extraction solutions, comparison of different solid-phase extraction cartridges and different mobile phases. As a result, the samples were extracted with Mcllvaine and phosphate buffers, followed by clean-up step based on solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridge. All compounds were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in one single injection with a chromatographic run time of only 9min. The method efficiency was evaluated in 5 tissues including muscle, liver, and kidney, and the mean recoveries ranged from 54% to 102%, with inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 14%. The limits of quantification were between 0.5 and 10μg/kg, which were satisfactory to support future surveillance monitoring. The developed method was applied to the analysis of swine liver and chicken samples from local markets, and sulfamethazine was the most commonly detected compound in the animal samples, with the highest residue level of 998μg/kg.

  6. Use of Imipenem To Detect KPC, NDM, OXA, IMP, and VIM Carbapenemase Activity from Gram-Negative Rods in 75 Minutes Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M. V.; Zurita, A. N.; Pyka, J. S.; Murray, T. S.; Hodsdon, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics has led to a greater reliance upon carbapenems, but the expression of carbapenemases threatens to limit the utility of these drugs. Current methods to detect carbapenemase activity are suboptimal, requiring prolonged incubations during which ineffective therapy may be prescribed. We previously described a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of carbapenemase activity using ertapenem and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, we assessed 402 Gram-negative rods, including both Enterobacteriaceae and non-Enterobacteriaceae expressing IMP, VIM, KPC, NDM, and/or OXA carbapenemases, by using imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem with LC-MS/MS assays. LC-MS/MS methods for the detection of intact and hydrolyzed carbapenems from an enrichment broth were developed. No ion suppression was observed, and the limits of detection for all three drugs were below 0.04 μg/ml. The sensitivity and specificity of meropenem and ertapenem for carbapenemase activity among non-Enterobacteriaceae were low, but imipenem demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 95%, respectively, among all Gram-negative rods (GNR) tested, including both Enterobacteriaceae and non-Enterobacteriaceae. LC-MS/MS allows for the analysis of more complex matrices, and this LC-MS/MS assay could easily be adapted for use with primary specimens requiring growth enrichment. PMID:24789180

  7. Determination of pesticide residues in wine by membrane-assisted solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeder, M; Bauer, C; Popp, P; van Pinxteren, M; Reemtsma, T

    2012-06-01

    The determination of pesticides in food products is an essential issue to guarantee food safety and minimise health risks of consumers. A protocol based on membrane-assisted solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) that allows the determination of 18 pesticides in red wine at minimum labour effort for sample preparation was developed and validated. Ten millilitres of wine were extracted using 100 μL of toluene filled in a non-porous polyethylene membrane bag which is immersed in the wine sample. After 150 min extraction under stirring, an aliquot of the extraction solution is analysed using HPLC-MS/MS. The limits of quantification ranged from 3 ng/L for Pirimicarb to 1.33 μg/L for Imidacloprid. Quantification by matrix-matched calibration provided relative standard deviations ≤16 % for most of the target pesticides. The linearity of calibration was given over three to four orders of magnitude, which enables the reliable measurement of a broad range of pesticide concentrations, and for each target pesticide, the sensitivity of the protocol meets the maximum residue levels set by legislations at least for wine grapes. Good agreement of results was found when the new method was compared with a standard liquid-liquid extraction protocol. In five wine samples analysed, Carbendazim and Metalaxyl were determined at micrograms per litre concentrations, even in some of the organic wines. Tebuconazol and Cyprodinitril were determined at lower abundance and concentration, followed by Spiroxamin and Diuron.

  8. Simultaneous determination of ambroxol and salbutamol in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhening; Chen, Yangsheng; Ding, Xiaoliang; Huang, Chenrong; Miao, Liyan

    2016-11-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol and salbutamol in human plasma using citalopram hydrobromide as internal standard (IS). The sample was alkalinized with ammonia water (33:67, v/v) and extracted by single liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Separation was achieved on Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a gradient program at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Detection was performed using electrospray ionization in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode by monitoring the ion transitions m/z 378.9 → 263.6 (ambroxol), m/z 240.2 → 147.7 (salbutamol) and m/z 325.0 → 261.7 (IS). The total analytical run time was relatively short (3 min). Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5-100.0 ng/mL for ambroxol and 0.2-20.0 ng/mL for salbutamol, with intra- and inter-run precision (relative standard deviation) salbutamol. The method was successfully applied in a clinical pharmacokinetic study of the compound ambroxol and salbutamol tablets.

  9. Development of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of polyphenolic compounds in liquid samples of grape juice, green tea and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena

    2014-05-01

    A simple and fast method for the analysis of a wide range of polyphenolic compounds in juice, tea, and coffee samples was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was based on a simple sample preparation "dilute and shoot" approach, and LC-MS/MS quantification using genistein-d4 as an internal standard. The performance of six different syringeless filter devices was tested for sample preparation. The method was evaluated for recoveries of polyphenols at three spiking levels in juice, tea, and coffee samples. The recoveries of the majority of polyphenols were satisfactory (70-120%), but some varied significantly (20-138%) depending on the matrix. NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRM) 3257 Catechin Calibration Solutions and 3255 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extract with certified concentrations of catechin and epicatechin were used for method validation. The measurement accuracy in two SRMs was 71-113%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of liquid samples of grape juice, green tea, and coffee.

  10. Simultaneous determination of neonicotinoid insecticides in human serum and urine using diatomaceous earth-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Tadashi; Ohta, Hikoto; Aoyama, Mika; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2014-10-15

    A rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of eight neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, flonicamid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam) and three specific metabolites of acetamiprid (N-desmethylacetamiprid, 5-(N-acetyl-N-methylaminomethyl)-2-chloropyridine and 5-(N-acetylaminomethyl)-2-chloropyridine) in human serum and urine. A diatomaceous earth-assisted extraction using Extrelut NT3 column with chloroform/2-propanol (3:1, v/v) as eluent was selected for the single step cleanup procedure for all the target compounds. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification of eleven compounds were in the ranges of 0.1-0.2ng/mL and 0.5-10ng/mL for serum, 0.1-1ng/mL and 1-10ng/mL for urine, respectively. The extraction recoveries were between 80.9% and 101.8% for serum samples, 91.9% and 106% for urine samples. The intra-day RSDs and the inter-day RSDs were less than 11.5% and 13.2% for serum, less than 8.3% and 8.8% for urine. The proposed procedure will be suitable for forensic investigations of human poisoning cases with neonicotinoid insecticides. This is the first report of simultaneous determination of eight neonicotinoids in serum and urine samples.

  11. Application of gas chromatography/tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry to the multi-residue analysis of pesticides in green leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2008-12-01

    A new, sensitive and specific method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 129 pesticides in lettuce and other green leafy vegetables. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and co-extractives such as fatty acids and pigments were removed using dispersive solid-phase extraction (dispersive-SPE) with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). All pesticides were analyzed in a single injection gas chromatography/tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) acquisition method. Two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of precursor ions fragmenting into product ions were recorded for the targeted pesticides, thus fulfilling the EU identification points system criteria for the identification of contaminants (2002/657/EC). Calibration curves were determined using matrix-matched standards, and exhibited excellent linearity at two orders of magnitude from 0.005 to 0.5 mg/kg for almost all the pesticides studied (R(2) > or = 0.99). The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of lettuce samples spiked at five concentration levels ranging from 0.005 to 0.5 mg/kg for each pesticide. The recovery and repeatability results satisfied SANCO/2007/3131 criteria (i.e. average recoveries were in the range 70-120% with RSDs vegetable samples such as lettuce, cabbage and leek.

  12. Survey of Deoxynivalenol and Aflatoxin B1 in Instant Noodles and Bread Consumed in Thailand by Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralatnet, Sasithorn; Poapolathep, Saranya; Giorgi, Mario; Imsilp, Kanjana; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2016-07-01

    One hundred wheat product samples (50 instant noodle samples and 50 bread samples) were collected from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in these products was analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The limit of quantification values of DON and AFB1 in the instant noodles and bread were 2 and 1 ng g(-1), respectively. The survey found that DON was quantifiable in 40% of collected samples, in 2% of noodles (0.089 μg g(-1)), and in 78% of breads (0.004 to 0.331 μg g(-1)). AFB1 was below the limit of quantification of the method in all of the tested samples. The results suggest that the risk of DON exposure via noodles and breads is very low in urban areas of Thailand. No risk can be attributable to AFB1 exposure in the same food matrices, but further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm these data.

  13. Optimization of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of the plant lignans secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, and pinoresinol in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Ivon E J; Arts, Ilja C W; Venema, Dini P; Lasaroms, Johan J P; Wähälä, Kristina; Hollman, Peter C H

    2004-07-28

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of the four major enterolignan precursors [secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, and pinoresinol] in foods. The method consists of alkaline methanolic extraction, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis using Helix pomatia (H. pomatia) beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase. H. pomatia was selected from several enzymes based on its ability to hydrolyze isolated lignan glucosides. After ether extraction samples were analyzed and quantified against secoisolariciresinol-d8 and matairesinol-d6. The method was optimized using model products: broccoli, bread, flaxseed, and tea. The yield of methanolic extraction increased up to 81%, when it was combined with alkaline hydrolysis. Detection limits were 4-10 microg/(100 g dry weight) for solid foods and 0.2-0.4 microg/(100 mL) for beverages. Within- and between-run coefficients of variation were 6-21 and 6-33%, respectively. Recovery of lignans added to model products was satisfactory (73-123%), except for matairesinol added to bread (51-55%).

  14. [Determination of virginiamycin M1 and S1 residues in livestock and poultry products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuanjin; Yang, Fang; Liu, Zhengcai; Lin, Yonghui; Liu, Suzhen

    2012-05-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the determination of virginiamycin M1 and S1 residues in livestock and poultry products. The sample was extracted by methanol-acetonitrile solution (1:1, v/v). The supernatant was diluted with 0.01 mol/L ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solution, then purified and concentrated on an Oasis HLB cartridge. The separation of virginiamycin M1 and S1 was performed on a Luna C18 column with the mobile phases acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid) in a gradient elution mode. The identification and quantification of the drugs were carried out by positive electrospray ionization (ESI + ) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.15-10.0 microg/L with correlation coefficients (r2) above 0. 999. The limits of quantities (LOQs) were both 0.25 microg/kg. The average recoveries of the two drugs spiked at 0.25, 0.5 and 2.5 microg/kg levels in different matrices were between 71.2% and 98.4%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were between 3.6% and 15.4%. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for the confirmation and quantification of virginiamycin M1 and S1 residues in livestock and poultry products.

  15. A new method for rapid and quantitative detection of the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide in food products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kawai, Takao; Kitagawa, Mikiya; Kumeda, Yuko

    2013-05-01

    The Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide causes foodborne intoxication, which may occasionally result in severe disease, and even death. To differentially diagnose the emetic-type of foodborne disease caused by B. cereus and assess the safety of commercial food, we developed a rapid method to quantitate cereulide. This method was combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for the extraction of cereulide from food using a normal-phase silica gel cartridge. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.5 ng of cereulide ml(-1), respectively. Spiked cereulide was reproducibly recovered with over 67% efficiency from nine diverse foods implicated in cereulide food poisoning. The recovery rate, reproducibility, and intermediate precision for this single laboratory validation using boiled rice were 87.1%, 4.4%, and 7.0%, respectively. Further, we detected a wide range of cereulide concentrations in leftover food and vomitus samples from two emetic foodborne outbreaks. LC-MS/MS analysis correlated closely with those acquired using the HEp-2 cell assay, and quantitated cereulide from 10 food samples at least five times faster than the bioassay. This new method will provide clinicians with an improved tool for more rapidly and quantitatively determining the presence of cereulide in food and diagnosing food poisoning caused by cereulide.

  16. Optimization of solid-phase-extraction cleanup and validation of quantitative determination of eugenol in fish samples by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a rapid and sensitive method for the determination of eugenol in fish samples, based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleanup was performed using C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE). The determination of eugenol was achieved using an electron-ionization source (EI) in multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. Under optimized conditions, the average recoveries of eugenol were in the range 94.85-103.61 % and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was lower than 12.0 %. The limit of detection (LOD) was 2.5 μg kg(-1) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5.0 μg kg(-1). This method was applied to an exposure study of eugenol residue in carp muscle tissues. The results revealed that eugenol was nearly totally eliminated within 96 h. Graphical Abstract Flow diagram for sample pretreatment.

  17. Analysis of Nitrosamines in Cooked Bacon by QuEChERS Sample Preparation and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Backflushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Han, Lijun; Johnston, John J

    2015-12-02

    Nitrites are added as a preservative to a variety of cured meats, including bacon, to kill bacteria, extend shelf life, and improve quality. During cooking, nitrites in the meat can be converted to carcinogenic nitrosamines (NAs), the formation of which is mitigated by the addition of antioxidants. In the past, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) monitored NAs in pan-fried bacon, but FSIS terminated monitoring of NAs in the 1990s due to the very low levels found. FSIS recently chose to conduct a risk assessment of NAs in cooked bacon to determine if current levels warrant routine monitoring of NAs again. To meet FSIS needs, we developed, validated, and implemented a new method of sample preparation and analysis to test cooked bacon for five NAs of most concern, which consist of N-nitroso-dimethylamine, -diethylamine, -dibutylamine, -piperidine, and -pyrrolidine. Sample preparation was based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) approach and analysis by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ruggedness was improved markedly in the analysis of the complex fatty extracts by backflushing the guard column, injection liner, and half of the analytical column after every injection. Validation results were acceptable with recoveries of 70-120% and bacon gave slightly lower concentrations overall compared to pan-frying.

  18. Liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide in human plasma for bioequivalence studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj M. Rathod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An improved high performance liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS method has been developed for sensitive and rapid determination of albendazole (ABZ and its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO, in the positive ionization mode. The method utilized solid phase extraction (SPE for sample preparation of the analytes and their deuterated internal standards (ISs from 100 µL human plasma. The chromatography was carried out on Hypurity C18 column using acetonitrile-2.0 mM ammonium acetate, pH 5.0 (80:20, v/v as the mobile phase. The assay exhibited a linear response over the concentration range of 0.200–50.0 ng/mL for ABZ and 3.00–600 ng/mL for ABZSO. The recoveries of the analytes and ISs ranged from 86.03%–89.66% and 89.85%–98.94%, respectively. Matrix effect, expressed as IS-normalized matrix factors, ranged from 0.985 to 1.042 for the both analytes. The method was successfully applied for two separate studies in healthy subjects using single dose of 400 mg conventional tablets and 400 mg chewable ABZ tablets, respectively.

  19. Microwave-assisted extraction and determination of citrus red 2 dye in oranges and orange juice by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Zhenou; Huang, Fuzhen; Chen, Xiangzhun; Shen, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A fast, simple, low cost, and high-throughput method has been developed for the determination of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples. The procedure is based on microwave-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The method was optimized, and the analyte was efficiently extracted from the samples in 30 min using hexane/acetone (v/v, 3 : 1). The method was validated and showed good linearity and selectivity. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 5 μg/kg (sample size of 2 g) for both orange and orange juice samples. The average recoveries, measured at 3 concentration levels (5, 10, and 20 μg/kg), were in the range 77.5% to 87.6% for the compound tested with relative standard deviations below 7.3%. The proposed method is rapid, accurate, and could be utilized for the routine analysis of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples.

  20. Determination of acrylamide and glycidamide in various biological matrices by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Kyu Bong; Seo, Won Sik; Shin, Jeong Cheol; Choi, Jin Ho; Weon, Kwon-Yeon; Joo, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Seok Won; Shin, Beom Soo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a heat-generated food toxicant formed when starchy foods are fried or baked. This study describes a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the simultaneous quantification of AA and its active metabolite, glycidamide (GA) in rat plasma, urine, and 14 different tissues. The assay utilized a simple method of protein precipitation and achieved a lower limit of quantification of 5, 10 and 25 ng/mL of AA and 10, 20 and 100 ng/mL of GA for plasma, tissues and urine, respectively. The assay was fully validated to demonstrate the linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, process recovery, and stability using matrix matched quality control samples. The mean intra- and inter-day assay accuracy was 91.6-110% for AA and 92.0-109% for GA, and the mean intra- and inter-day assay precisions were ≤ 10.9% for AA and ≤ 8.60% for GA. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of AA and GA following intravenous and oral administration of AA in rats. Tissue distribution characteristics of AA and GA were also determined under steady-state conditions.

  1. Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Organophosphate Esters in Aqueous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique was established to identify eight organophosphate esters (OPEs in this work. It utilised dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction in combination with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The type and volume of extraction solvents, dispersion agent, and amount of NaCl were optimized. The target analytes were detected in the range of 1.0–200 µg/L with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9982 to 0.9998, and the detection limits of the analytes were ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 µg/L (S/N=3. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by identifying OPEs in aqueous samples that exhibited spiked recoveries, which ranged between 48.7% and 58.3% for triethyl phosphate (TEP as well as between 85.9% and 113% for the other OPEs. The precision was ranged from 3.2% to 9.3% (n=6, and the interprecision was ranged from 2.6% to 12.3% (n=5. Only 2 of the 12 selected samples were tested to be positive for OPEs, and the total concentrations of OPEs in them were 1.1 and 1.6 µg/L, respectively. This method was confirmed to be simple, fast, and accurate for identifying OPEs in aqueous samples.

  2. Determination of nerve agent metabolites in human urine by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after solid phase supported derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Chen, Jia; Yan, Long; Guo, Lei; Wu, Bidong; Li, Chunzheng; Feng, Jianlin; Liu, Qin; Xie, Jianwei

    2014-08-01

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed and validated for determining ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA), isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), isobutyl methylphosphonic acid (iBuMPA), and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA) in human urine using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) coupled with solid phase derivatization (SPD). These four alkyl methylphosphonic acids (AMPAs) are specific hydrolysis products and biomarkers of exposure to classic organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents VX, sarin, RVX, and soman. The AMPAs in urine samples were directly derivatized with pentafluorobenzyl bromide on a solid support and then extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. The analytes were quantified with isotope-dilution by negative chemical ionization (NCI) GC-MS/MS in a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. This method is highly sensitive, with the limits of detection of 0.02 ng/mL for each compound in a 0.2 mL sample of human urine, and an excellent linearity from 0.1 to 50 ng/mL. It is proven to be very suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of degradation markers of OP nerve agents in biomedical samples.

  3. Blood monitoring of perfluorocarbon compounds (F-tert-butylcyclohexane, perfluoromethyldecalin and perfluorodecalin) by headspace-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, N; Saugy, M; Augsburger, M; Varlet, V

    2015-11-01

    A headspace-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS/MS) method for the trace measurement of perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) in blood was developed. Due to oxygen carrying capabilities of PFCs, application to doping and sports misuse is speculated. This study was therefore extended to perform validation methods for F-tert-butylcyclohexane (Oxycyte(®)), perfluoro(methyldecalin) (PFMD) and perfluorodecalin (PFD). The limit of detection of these compounds was established and found to be 1.2 µg/mL blood for F-tert-butylcyclohexane, 4.9 µg/mL blood for PFMD and 9.6 µg/mL blood for PFD. The limit of quantification was assumed to be 12 µg/mL blood (F-tert-butylcyclohexane), 48 µg/mL blood (PFMD) and 96 µg/mL blood (PFD). HS-GC-MS/MS technique allows detection from 1000 to 10,000 times lower than the estimated required dose to ensure a biological effect for the investigated PFCs. Thus, this technique could be used to identify a PFC misuse several hours, maybe days, after the injection or the sporting event. Clinical trials with those compounds are still required to evaluate the validation parameters with the calculated estimations.

  4. Determination and quantification of the emetic toxin cereulide from Bacillus cereus in pasta, rice and cream with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Asp, Tone Normann; Granum, Per Einar

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for determination and quantification of cereulide in cream, rice and pasta. Samples are homogenised after addition of amylase to cooked rice and pasta, and cereulide is extracted with methanol. After the removal of water with methyl-tert butyl ether/hexane and evaporation until dryness, no further purification was required before analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Recently, both cereulide and (13)C6-cereulide has become commercially available at high purities; hence, this method offers a more reliable quantification of positive samples than previous methods using valinomycin or in-house produced and purified cereulide as calibration standard. The introduction of amylase in the sample preparation improves both the extraction yield of cereulide from positive samples of starch-rich matrices such as pasta and rice, and the within-laboratory reproducibility of the analytical method. The LoQ of the method is 1.1 ng/g cereulide with RSDs ranging from 2.6% to 10%. The method is fully validated based on Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, suitable for routine analysis, and has been used to analyse samples from a cereulide food poisoning outbreak in a kindergarten in Norway. Cereulide production in different rice and pasta samples was investigated, showing that cereulide was unexpectedly produced by emetic Bacillus cereus in all eight pasta and rice samples.

  5. Molecularly imprinted polymer-sol-gel tablet toward micro-solid phase extraction: I. Determination of methadone in human plasma utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beqqali, Aziza; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2016-09-14

    In the present work molecularly imprinted sol-gel tablet (MIP-Tablet) was prepared. The MIP-sol-gel was prepared as a thin layer on polyethylene material in a tablet form. Methadone-d9 was selected as the template and 3-(propylmethacrylate)-trimethoxysilane was used as precursor. MIP-Tablet was applied for micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE). The MIP-Tablet was used for the determination of methadone in human plasma samples utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; and each tablet could be used twenty times. The extraction time was 10 min while desorption time was 6 min. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency such as desorption solvents, sample pH, salt addition, extraction time, desorption time and adsorption capacity were investigated. The calibration curves were obtained within the range of 5-5000 ng/mL using methadone in human plasma samples. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) values were ≥0.999 for all runs and the extraction recovery was >80%. The accuracy values for quality control samples varied from +3.6 to +9.7% and the inter-day precision (RSD %) values were ranged from 5.0 to 8.0%. The limit of detection was 1.0 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL utilizing methadone in human plasma samples.

  6. Rapid determination of 12 antibiotics and caffeine in sewage and bioreactor effluent by online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Tomita, Inês N; Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a column-switching solid-phase extraction online-coupled to a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 12 antibiotics (7 sulfonamides and 5 fluoroquinolones) and caffeine detected in the sewage and effluent of a pilot anaerobic reactor used in sewage treatment. After acidification and filtration, the samples were directly injected into a simple and conventional LC system. Backflush and foreflush modes were compared based on the theoretical plates and peak asymmetry observed. The method was tested in terms of detection (MDL) and quantification limit (MQL), linearity, relative recovery, and precision intra- and inter-day in lab-made sewage samples. The method presented suitable figures of merit in terms of detection, varying from 8.00 × 10(-5) to 6.00 × 10(-2) ng (0.800 up to 600 ng L(-1); caffeine) with direct injection volume of only 100 μL and 13 min of total analysis time (sample preparation and chromatographic run). When the method was applied in the analysis of sewage and effluent of the anaerobic reactor (n = 15), six antibiotics and caffeine were detected in concentrations ranging from 0.018 to 1097 μg L(-1). To guarantee a reliable quantification, standard addition was used to overcome the matrix effect.

  7. [Determination of gibberellins in Arabidopsis thaliana by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Qian; Duan, Chunfeng; Wu, Dapeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2011-09-01

    A method for the analysis of gibberellin A1 (GA1), gibberellin A3 (GA3) and gibberellin A4 (GA4) in Arabidopsis thaliana by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction (MSPD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The solid sample of Arabidopsis thaliana was gently blended with C18 to obtain a homogeneous mixture. This mixture was transferred to an SPE cartridge filled with 0.5 g C18 to form a MSPD column. GA1, GA3 and GA4 were eluted with cold 80% methanol aqueous solution. The target compounds were separated on a C18 column with a gradient elution of 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The identification and quantification were carried out by using electrospray ionization in negative ion mode (ESI-) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The linear ranges for GA1, GA3 and GA4 were all from 10 to 300 ng/g with correlation coefficients greater than 0.98. The limits of detection were in the range of 1.1-4.1 ng/g. The average recoveries and relative standard deviations were 54.7%-102.6% and 3.2%-12.8% respectively in the spiked range of 10-50 ng/g. The method is simple, sensitive, efficient and accurate. It is suitable for the confirmation and quantitative determination of GA1, GA3 and GA4 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. A column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitation of 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid and 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid in Chinese smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongwei; Xiong, Wei; Gao, Na; Zhang, Xiaotao; Tang, Gangling; Hu, Qingyuan

    2012-11-01

    The acrylonitrile metabolites 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) and 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid (HEMA) have been determined in human urine using an automated column-switching procedure. A diluted sample was centrifuged just prior to being injected into a reusable precolumn packed with a restricted access material and coupled to a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. This method achieved satisfactory reproducibility and accuracy. Average intra- and interday variations (% relative standard deviations) ranged from 2.4 to 3.8% for CEMA and from 2.7 to 10.5% for HEMA. The limits of quantification were 0.003 and 0.099ng/ml for CEMA and HEMA, respectively. It was used to study the uptake of acrylonitrile from smoke constituents by both nonsmokers and smokers of different tar yield cigarettes under ISO 3308 smoking condition. Metabolite concentrations in smoker urine samples were approximately 12 times higher compared with those in nonsmokers for CEMA and 3 times higher for HEMA. Urinary CEMA levels show a clear dose-response relationship with daily cigarette consumption and urinary cotinine. CEMA can also discriminate between smokers of different ISO cigarettes. Because HEMA is not specific, it is only slightly related to smoking and acrylonitrile exposure. The validated biomarker CEMA will continue to be useful for studies of acrylonitrile uptake by smokers.

  9. Investigation of endogenous blood lipids components that contribute to matrix effects in dried blood spot samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a rapidly developing approach in the field of biopharmaceutical analysis. DBS sampling enables analysis of small sample volumes with high sensitivity and selectivity while providing a convenient easy to store and ship format. Lipid components that may be extracted during biological sample processing may result in matrix ionization effects and can significantly affect the precision and accuracy of the results. Glycerophosphocholines (GPChos), cholesterols and triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main lipid components that contribute to matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Various organic solvents such as methanol, acetonitrile, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl ether, dichloromethane and n-hexane were investigated for elution of these lipid components from DBS samples. Methanol extracts demonstrated the highest levels of GPChos whereas ethyl ether and n-hexane extracts contained less than 1.0 % of the GPChos levels in the methanol extracts. Ethyl ether extracts contained the highest levels of cholesterols and TAG in comparison to other investigated organic solvents. Acetonitrile is recommended as an elution solvent due to low lipid recoveries. Matrix effects resulted from different extracted lipid components should be studied and assessed carefully in DBS samples.

  10. Biomonitoring of 21 endocrine disrupting chemicals in human hair samples using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Martín, J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Alonso, E; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A

    2017-02-01

    Rapid industrial growth has increased human exposure to a large variety of chemicals with adverse health effects. These industrial chemicals are usually present in the environment, foods, beverages, clothes and personal care products. Among these compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have raised concern over the last years. In the present work, the determination of 21 EDCs in human hair samples is proposed. An analytical method based on the digestion of the samples with a mixture of acetic acid/methanol (20:80, v/v) followed by a solid-liquid microextraction and analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The most influential parameters affecting the extraction method were optimized. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays. Limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 4 ng g(-1), limits of quantification from 0.5 to 12 ng g(-1), and inter- and intra-day variability was under 15% in all cases. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 92.1 to 113.8%. The method was applied for the determination of the selected compounds in human hair. Samples were collected weekly from six randomly selected volunteers (three men and three women) over a three-month period. All the analyzed samples tested positive for at least one of the analyzed compounds.

  11. Quantitative determination of corticosteroids in bovine milk using mixed-mode polymeric strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölgyesi, Adám; Tölgyesi, László; Sharma, Virender K; Sohn, Mary; Fekete, Jeno

    2010-12-01

    A new method was developed to identify and quantify corticosteroids (prednisolone, methylprednisone, flumetasone, dexamethasone, and methylprednisolone) in raw bovine milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) utilizing mixed-mode polymeric strong cation exchange and reversed-phase (MCX) solid-phase extraction (SPE) to reduce ion effects in a multimode ion (MMI) source. The main advantage of this method over other commonly used methods includes the use of a single SPE cartridge with a low volume for sample preparation and fast separation on the HPLC system with reduced ion suppression. This study is the first to report the determination of methylprednisone, a metabolite of methylprednisolone, in bovine milk. This method was validated in accordance with the European Union (EU) Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The recoveries vary between 90% and 105%. The within-laboratory reproducibility (precision) is less than 30%. The decision limits and detection capabilities were calculated along with LODs, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 microg/kg. The method was further enhanced by its successful adaptation to other LC-MS/MS systems equipped with the newly developed ion source, Agilent Jet Stream (AJS). After optimization of the AJS ion source and MS parameters, even lower LOD values were achieved (0.001-0.006 microg/kg) for the corticosteroids. Analytical results obtained with the AJS were characterized by an enhanced area response and similar noise level comparable to those obtained with conventional orthogonal atmospheric ionization (API).

  12. Measurement of (15)N enrichment of glutamine and urea cycle amino acids derivatized with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate using liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidehiro; Karakawa, Sachise; Watanabe, Akiko; Kawamata, Yasuko; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Shimbo, Kazutaka; Sakai, Ryosei

    2015-05-01

    6-Aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) is an amino acid-specific derivatizing reagent that has been used for sensitive amino acid quantification by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of this method to measure the isotopic enrichment of amino acids and to determine the positional (15)N enrichment of urea cycle amino acids (i.e., arginine, ornithine, and citrulline) and glutamine. The distribution of the M and M+1 isotopomers of each natural AQC-amino acid was nearly identical to the theoretical distribution. The standard deviation of the (M+1)/M ratio for each amino acid in repeated measurements was approximately 0.1%, and the ratios were stable regardless of the injected amounts. Linearity in the measurements of (15)N enrichment was confirmed by measuring a series of (15)N-labeled arginine standards. The positional (15)N enrichment of urea cycle amino acids and glutamine was estimated from the isotopic distribution of unique fragment ions generated at different collision energies. This method was able to identify their positional (15)N enrichment in the plasma of rats fed (15)N-labeled glutamine. These results suggest the utility of LC-MS/MS detection of AQC-amino acids for the measurement of isotopic enrichment in (15)N-labeled amino acids and indicate that this method is useful for the study of nitrogen metabolism in living organisms.

  13. Analysis of 76 veterinary pharmaceuticals from 13 classes including aminoglycosides in bovine muscle by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Michali, Christina S; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-06-24

    A multiresidue/multiclass method for the simultaneous determination of 76 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals in bovine muscle tissue has been developed and validated according to the requirements of European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The analytes belong in 13 different classes, including aminoglycoside antibiotics, whose different physicochemical properties (extremely polar character) render their simultaneous determination with other veterinary drugs quite problematic. The method combines a two-step extraction procedure (extraction with acetonitrile followed by an acidic aqueous buffer extraction) with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) determination, allowing confirmation and quantification in a single chromatographic run. Further cleanup with solid phase extraction was performed using polymeric SPE cartridges. A thorough ionization study of aminoglycosides was performed in order to increase their sensitivity and significant differences in the abundance of the precursor ions of the analytes were revealed, depending on the composition of the mobile phase tested. Further gradient elution optimization and injection solvent optimization were performed for all target analytes.The method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. Recoveries varied from 37.4% (bromhexine) to 106% (kanamycin) in the lowest validation level and 82% of the compounds showed recovery >70%. Detection capability (CCβ) varied from 2.4 (salinomycin) to 1302 (apramycin) μgkg(-1).

  14. Determination of ceftiofur metabolite desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disulfide in bovine tissues using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a surrogate marker residue for ceftiofur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shixia; Chiesa, Oscar A; Kijak, Philip; Chattopadhaya, Chaitali; Lancaster, Vicki; Smith, Elizabeth A; Girard, Lauren; Sklenka, Sara; Li, Hui

    2014-06-04

    Ceftiofur is a widely used cephalosporin β-lactam antibiotic with frequently reported residue violations. This paper reports a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determining a ceftiofur metabolite, desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disulfide (DCCD), in bovine kidney, liver, and muscle tissues. Incurred tissue samples were obtained from dosed animals and analyzed to evaluate the utility of the method. For kidney, the target tissue, the method utilized a simple extraction with phosphate buffer followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup. For liver and muscle, acetonitrile and hexane were used to remove most proteins and fat from the initial buffer extract before the SPE cleanup. Method accuracy was between 97 and 107%, and the coefficient of variation was between 3.4 and 11.0% for all three types of tissues. The relationship between the new and regulatory methods for bovine kidney was established. It was concluded that DCCD is a suitable surrogate marker residue for ceftiofur in bovine kidney.

  15. Automated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of firocoxib in urine and plasma from horse and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Laura; Kvaternick, Valerie; Tecle, Berhane; Fischer, James

    2007-06-15

    A rugged, sensitive and efficient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of firocoxib in urine from 5 to 3000 ng/mL and in plasma from 1 to 3000 ng/mL. The method requires 200 microL of either plasma or urine and includes sample preparation in 96-well solid phase extraction (SPE) plates using a BIOMEK 2000 Laboratory Automated Workstation. Chromatographic separation of firocoxib from matrix interferences was achieved using isocratic reversed phase chromatography on a PHENOMENEX LUNA Phenyl-Hexyl column. The mobile phase was 45% acetonitrile and 55% of a 2 mM ammonium formate buffer. The method was accurate (88-107%) and precise (CV93% were achieved and ionization efficiencies (due to matrix effects) were >72%. Extensive stability and ruggedness testing was also performed; therefore, the method can be used for pharmacokinetic studies as well as drug monitoring and screening. The data presented here is the first LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of firocoxib in plasma (LLOQ of 1 ng/mL), a 25-fold improvement in sensitivity over the HPLC-UV method and the first quantitative method for firocoxib in urine (LLOQ of 5 ng/mL). Additionally the sample preparation process has been automated to improve efficiency.

  16. Determination of tulobuterol in rat plasma using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of tulobuterol patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Liu, Ran; Ji, Lifang; Hui, Mei; Li, Qing; Fang, Liang; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for determination of tulobuterol in rat plasma for the first time. Plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction method with methyl tert-butyl ether and the analyte and clenbuterol (IS) were separated on a Venusil MP C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm) using 0.1% formic acid-water-methanol as mobile phase, with a runtime of 5min. The analyte was detected in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization. Transitions of m/z 228.2→154.0 for tulobuterol and m/z 277.1→203.0 for the clenbuterol were monitored. The linear range was 0.5-100ng/ml (r=0.9967) for tulobuterol with the lower limit of quantitation of 0.5ng/ml. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 10.3% for the analyte and the accuracy was less than -8.6%. The RSD of matrix effect and recovery yield were within ±15% of nominal concentrations and tulobuterol was stable during stability studies. The validated method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of three doses of tulobuterol patch in rats for the first time.

  17. Automated hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of aflatoxin M₁ in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siming; Hu, Du; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Fang; Jiang, Ruifen; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-10-16

    An automated hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the extraction and determination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the extraction phase, matrix conditions, extraction time and temperature, were investigated. Under the optimal conditions (ratio of water to milk, 4:1; extraction time, 50 min; extraction temperature, 50°C; extraction phase, 50 mg L(-1) anti-AFM1 antibody in PBS buffer solution; volume of HCl solution, 250 μL; agitation speed, 250 rpm), the matrix-matched calibration curve for AFM1 determination showed good linearity in the range of 0.25-5 μg kg(-1). The enrichment factor (EF) reached 48, and the limits of detection and quantification were 0.06 and 0.21 μg kg(-1), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the extraction of AFM1 from spiked milk samples, with recoveries from 61.0% to 106.7%. The method was highly specific to AFM1 analysis, and the results demonstrated that the method can be automated, inexpensive, and free from interference.

  18. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry profiling of anthocyanins and flavonols in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) of varying genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Dykes, Linda; Awika, Joseph M

    2012-04-11

    The structure of flavonoids in food plants affects bioactivity and important nutritional attributes, like micronutrient bioavailability. This study investigated flavonol and anthocyanin compositions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) of varying genotypes. Black, red, green, white, light brown, and golden brown cowpea phenotypes were analyzed for anthocyanins and flavonols using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. Eight anthocyanins and 23 flavonols (15 newly identified in cowpea) were characterized. Mono-, di-, and tri(acyl)glycosides of quercetin were predominant in most phenotypes; myricetin and kaempferol glycosides were present only in specific phenotypes. The red phenotypes had the highest flavonol content (880-1060 μg/g), whereas green and white phenotypes had the lowest (270-350 μg/g). Only black (1676-2094 μg/g) and green (875 μg/g) phenotypes had anthocyanins, predominantly delphinidin and cyanidin 3-O-glucosides. Cowpea phenotype influenced the type and amount of flavonoids accumulated in the seed; this may have implications in selecting varieties for nutrition and health applications.

  19. A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in fresh fish and dried seafoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenshuo; Han, Zheng; Aerts, Johan; Nie, Dongxia; Jin, Mengtong; Shi, Wen; Zhao, Zhiyong; De Saeger, Sarah; Zhao, Yong; Wu, Aibo

    2015-03-27

    A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of nine mycotoxins, i.e., aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin, HT2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON), in fresh fish (muscle and entrails) as well as dried seafoods. Special focus was given to sample pretreatment which is crucial for an accurate and reliable analytical method. With regards to the high complexity of the matrices, extraction solvent, time, and temperature as well as clean-up cartridges were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and reduce matrix effects. The optimum procedure included ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v) at 40 °C for 30 min, defatting with n-hexane and purification by Oasis HLB cartridges. The method was further validated by determining the linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9989), sensitivity (limit of detection ≤ 2 μg/kg, limit of quantitation ≤ 3 μg/kg), recovery (72.2-119.9%) and precision (≤ 18.3%) in muscle and entrails of fresh crucian carp (Carassius carassius) as well as dried fish products. The method was proven to be suitable for its intended purposes. Mycotoxins of OTA, ZEN and AFB2 have been found in fresh fish and dried seafoods for the first time.

  20. Development of a multi-preservative method based on solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for cosmetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Vila, Marlene; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2014-04-25

    A simple methodology based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of different classes of preservatives including benzoates, bronidox, 2-phenoxyethanol, parabens, BHA, BHT and triclosan in cosmetic products. In situ acetylation and subsequent organic modifier addition have been successfully implemented in the SPME process as an effective extractive strategy for matrix effect compensation and chromatographic performance improvement. Main factors affecting SPME procedure such as fiber coating, sampling mode, extraction temperature and salt addition (NaCl) were evaluated by means of a 3×2(3-1) factorial experimental design. The optimal experimental conditions were established as follows: direct solid-phase microextraction (SPME) at 40°C and addition of NaCl (20%, w/v), using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber coating. Due to the complexity of the studied matrices, method performance was evaluated in a representative variety of both rinse-off and leave-on samples, demonstrating to have a broad linear range (R(2)>0.9964). In general, quantitative recoveries (>85% in most cases) and satisfactory precision (RSDcreams, deodorants, sunscreen, bath gel, dental cream and make-up products amongst others, demonstrating to be a reliable multi-preservative methododology for routine control.

  1. Two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods to study the excretion and metabolic interaction of edaravone and taurine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dao-quan; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Li, Yin-jie; Bian, Ting-ting; Yu, Yan-yan; Du, Qian; Yang, Dong-zhi; Jiang, Shui-shi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, two independent and complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were respectively developed and validated for the determination of edaravone or taurine in rat urine, feces and bile after intravenous administration, using 3-methyl-l-p-tolyl-5-pyrazolone and sulfanilic acid as the internal standards (IS). Edaravone was separated on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (100×2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) using methanol and water (containing 5 mM ammonium formate and 0.02% formic acid) as mobile phase, while taurine was performed on a Waters Atlantis HILIC Silica column (150×2.1 mm, 3 μm) using acetonitrile and water (containing 5mM ammonium formate and 0.2% formic acid) as mobile phase. The mass analysis was performed in a Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with negative ionization mode. The optimized mass transition ion pairs (m/z) for quantification were 173.1→92.2 and 187.2→106.0 for edaravone and its IS, 124.1→80.0 and 172.0→80.0 for taurine and its IS, respectively. The validated methods have been successfully applied to the excretion and metabolism interaction study of edaravone and taurine in rats after independent intravenous administration and co-administration with a single dose. The results demonstrated that there were no significant alternations on the metabolism and cumulative excretion rate of edaravone and taurine, implying that the proposed combination therapy was pharmacologically viable.

  2. Enantioselective determination of protein amino acids in fertilizers by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on chiral teicoplanin stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taujenis, Lukas; Olšauskaitė, Vilma; Padarauskas, Audrius

    2014-11-19

    High-performance liquid chromatography on a glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin-based chiral stationary phase coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for fast and reliable enantioseparation and determination of protein amino acids in hydrolyzed fertilizer samples. The effect of the mobile phase parameters (type and content of organic modifier and pH) and the column temperature on the enantioselectivity was investigated. Under optimized conditions, the majority (15 of 19) of d/l-amino acid pairs were resolved with a resolution factor (Rs) higher than 1.5 with a run time of 15 min. A triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode with an electrospray ionization (ESI) ion source was employed for detection. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, precision, and accuracy. Linear responses were obtained with determination coefficients higher than 0.998 for all analytes, and limits of detection were from 0.04 to 0.24 μg/mL. Sample spike/recovery experiments gave recovery values ranging from 73% for d-threonine to 116% for L-tryptophan. Relative standard deviations for inter- and intraday precision experiments were lower than 21.7%. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of the free amino acid enantiomers in five commercially available hydrolyzed protein fertilizer samples.

  3. [Simultaneous determination of penicillin G and its major metabolites in blood using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Yan, Hui; Shen, Baohua; Zhuo, Xianyi

    2012-05-01

    A fast method for the quantitative determination of penicillin G (PEN G) , penicilloic acid and penilloic acid in blood with ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was developed. A simple deproteinization of the blood was used with a mixed solution of acetonitrile and water (4:1, v/v) as extraction solvent. The blood extract was directly injected onto an LC column. The chromatographic separation of the components was performed on a BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive electrospray ion mode. Finally, the analysis was carried out with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) for these three compounds were in the range of 0.1 to 2.0 ng/mL and the limits of quantification (LOQs) in the range of 0.5 to 5.0 ng/mL. Within the linear range, the correlation coefficients (r) of PEN G and its metabolites were all more than 0.9974. Accuracies for these targeted compounds were ranged from 92.3% to 105.5%, and the within-day precisions were less than 10%. The stabilities of the components were evaluated in the temperature range from 18 to 80 degrees C, and the mass concentration of penicillin G was decreased significantly with the extensions of storage temperature and storage time. Biological samples of the rats medicated with PEN G were analyzed using the developed method. The results show that PEN G can just be detected at 0.5 h after administration. However, the detection time limitation of penicilloic acid can be extended to 36 h. The established method has been further expanded for the applicability of forensic identification, and has a reference value for the detection of penicillin G residue in food.

  4. Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in environmental water samples based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ligang; Zhang Xiaopan; Xu Yang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China); Du Xiaobo; Sun Xin [College of Physics, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun Lei; Wang Hui; Zhao Qi; Yu Aimin; Zhang Hanqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China); Ding Lan, E-mail: dinglan@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2010-03-03

    A simple method based on magnetic separation for selective extraction of fluoroquinolones (FQs) from environmental water samples has been developed using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) as sorbent. The MMIP has been prepared using ciprofloxacin as template molecule, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linking agent and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite as magnetic component. The polymer has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and vibrating sample magnetometry. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were evaluated in order to achieve optimal concentration and reduce non-specific interactions. The analytes desorbed from the polymers were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The matrix effect was evaluated by using different washing solvents for removing interfering compounds from the MMIPs after sample loading. Under the optimal conditions, the linearity of the method obtained is in the range of 20-2000 ng L{sup -1}. The detection limits of FQs are in the range of 3.2-6.2 ng L{sup -1}. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day tests ranging from 2.5 to 7.2% and from 3.6 to 9.1% are obtained. In all three spiked levels (20, 100 and 200 ng L{sup -1}), the recoveries of FQs are in the range of 76.3-94.2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine FQs including ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, lomefloxacin, levofloxacin, fleroxacin and sparfloxacin in different water samples, such as lake water, river water, primary and final sewage effluent. Ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin were found in primary and final sewage effluent samples with the contents in the range of 26-87 ng L{sup -1}.

  5. Planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial for extraction of chlorophenols from environmental water samples coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Su, Jie; Hu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Qian; Dong, Chun-Ying; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-08-12

    A planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial (PGO-MILN) was synthesized. The prepared PGO-MILN was characterized by transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The results of adsorption experiments showed that the PGO-MILN had great adsorption capacity for 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Based on the adsorption experimental data, a sensitive magnetic method for determination of the five CPs in environmental water samples was developed by an effective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effects of main MSPE parameters including the solution pH, extraction time, desorption time, and volume of desorption solution on the extraction efficiencies had been investigated in detail. The recoveries ranged from 85.3 to 99.3% with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9994 and the linear ranges were between 10 and 500ngL(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the five CPs ranged from 0.2 to 2.6ngL(-1) and 0.6 to 8.7ngL(-1), respectively. The intra- and inter- day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range from 0.6% to 7.4% and from 0.7% to 8.4%, respectively. It was confirmed that the PGO-MILN was a kind of highly effective MSPE materials used for enrichment of trace CPs in the environmental water.

  6. Degradation Behavior of Moroxydine Hydrochloride in Rice Plant and Field Water Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Through field experiments, which were conducted in Zhaodong County of Heilongjiang Province, Zhulou County of Henan Province and Jurong County of Jiangsu Province, the degradation dynamics of moroxydine hydrochloride in rice plant and field water were investigated.The detection was performed by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in positive mode(ESI+. The results showed that the average recoveries of rice plant and field water at three spiked levels (0.005, 0.05, 0.5 mg·kg -1were found in the range of 92.50%-109.20% with RSD 6.10%-6.90% and 86.40%-107.2% with RSD 0.73%-3.10%, respectively. Limits of detection(LODof plant and water were 0.005 mg·kg -1. The degradation kinetic equation showed that the half-life of moroxydine hydrochloride in rice plant and field water was 1.2-4.7 d,1.0-3.5 d, respectively. The moroxydine hydrochloride was proved to be an easily degradable pesticide.

  7. A Quantitative Analysis of Memantine in Human Plasma Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Dubey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the single-dose oral bioavailability of memantine hydrochloride 10 mg tablets of Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, with NAMENDA™ tablets (containing memantine hydrochloride 10 mg of Forest Pharmaceuticals Inc. in healthy, adult, human subjects under fasting condition. The study was carried out as 2-way crossover design on 8 subjects in fasting and fed conditions. The plasma samples were obtained over a 72 h post dose in each period. Plasma memantine samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS with positive ion electro spray ionization using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM. A sensitive, reproducible, accurate and validated LC-MS/MS method with limit of quantification (LOQ 0.200 ng/mL was used to analyze memantine. Ln transformed AUC0-72 and Cmax were assessed for bioequivalence using 90% confidence interval (CI. 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of test and reference (Ratio of least-squares mean for ln-transformed AUC0-72 and Cmax were within the regulatory acceptance criteria of 80-125%.

  8. Quantification of Iohexol in Serum by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Faye B; Vespa, Gina; Miller, Alan; Haymond, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Iohexol is a nonradioactive contrast medium, and its clearance from serum or urine is used to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is the most useful indicator of kidney function and progression of kidney disease. GFR determination using iohexol clearance is increasingly being applied in clinical practice, given its advantages over and correlation with inulin. We describe a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for iohexol clearance, requiring only 50 μL of serum. The sample preparation involves protein precipitation with LC/MS-grade methanol, containing ioversol as the internal standard. Samples are centrifuged and supernatant is dried under nitrogen gas at room temperature. Samples are reconstituted with mobile phase (ammonium acetate-formic acid-water). Iohexol is separated using an HPLC gradient method on a C-8 analytical column. MS/MS detection is in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and the transitions monitored are m/z 822.0 to m/z 804.0 and m/z 807.0 to m/z 588.0 for iohexol and ioversol, respectively.

  9. Simultaneous determination of fluoroquinolones in environmental water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with direct injection: A green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Marina; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2015-10-30

    This work describes an on-line multi-residue method for simultaneous quantification of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in superficial and wastewater samples. For that, an octyl restricted-access media bovine serum albumin column (RAM-BSA C8) was used for sample clean-up, enrichment and analysis with quantitation carried out by tandem mass spectrometry. For water samples volumes of only 500μL the method provided good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision with quantification limits in the order of 20-150ngL(-1). Out of the six fluoroquinolones only ciprofloxacin (195ngL(-1)) and norfloxacin (270ngL(-1)) were quantified in an influent sample of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of São Carlos (SP, Brazil). None were found in the superficial water samples analyzed. The capability of injecting native sample in an automated mode provides high productivity and represents a greener approach in environmental sample analysis.

  10. Determination of L-ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and caffeine in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stephen D; Fletcher, Brenda L; Silinski, Melanie A Rehder; Brown, Sherri S; Lodge, Jon W; Fernando, Reshan A; Collins, Bradley J

    2011-07-01

    A rapid and simple liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of L-ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and caffeine in male Fisher-344 rat plasma at nanogram-per-milliliter concentrations for use in support of toxicology studies. Only 25 μL of plasma is required, and extraction is performed using a simple, single-step protein precipitation. The method was validated over a range of 2.09 to 5460 ng/mL for L-ephedrine, 2.09 to 5050 ng/mL for pseudoephedrine and 2.03 to 5340 ng/mL for caffeine. A binary gradient elution at 0.3 mL/min was used with a Waters XBridge Phenyl (2.1 × 150 mm, 3.5 μm) column and a Waters XBridge Phenyl 2.1- × 10-mm guard column at ambient temperature. The mobile phase consisted of 10 mM ammonium acetate in water (pH 5.0) and methanol. Caffeine trimethyl-(13)C(3) was used as the internal standard. The method was evaluated for linearity, recovery, precision, accuracy, and stability, and it was successfully applied in toxicokinetic studies of ephedrine, administered alone, in combination with caffeine, and in the herbal source Ma Huang.

  11. Simultaneous determination of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and naloxone in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Xiaohua; Xu, Allan; Nasser, Azmi F; Heidbreder, Christian

    2016-02-20

    A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of naloxone, buprenorphine and its metabolite norbuprenorphine in human plasma. Human plasma samples were extracted using a single step liquid-liquid extraction, and then separated on an Imtakt Unison UK-C18 column (2.1×50mm, 3μm) using alkaline mobile phases with gradient elution. All of the analytes were detected in positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method was validated and the specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, precision, accuracy, recoveries and stability were determined. The linear range was 20-10000pg/mL for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine; and 1-500pg/mL for naloxone. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) values for all three analytes were ≥0.995. The precision and accuracy for intra-day and inter-day were 63% and matrix effects were tracked by the deuterated internal standards (IS) with the IS-normalized matrix factor ranging from 0.96 to 1.33 for all three analytes. The validated method was successfully applied in a clinical pharmacokinetic study with low dose administration of sublingual buprenorphine and naloxone.

  12. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of mineral nanoparticles derived from human body fluids and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Chen, Chi-De; Yu, Jau-Song; Young, John D

    2011-11-01

    Mineralo-protein nanoparticles (NPs) formed spontaneously in the body have been associated with ectopic calcifications seen in atherosclerosis, chronic degenerative diseases, and kidney stone formation. Synthetic NPs are also known to become coated with proteins when they come in contact with body fluids. Identifying the proteins found in NPs should help unravel how NPs are formed in the body and how NPs in general, be they synthetic or naturally formed, interact within the body. Here, we developed a proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography (LC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine the protein composition of carbonate-apatite NPs derived from human body fluids (serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, ascites, pleural effusion, and synovial fluid). LC-MS/MS provided not only an efficient and comprehensive determination of the protein constituents, but also a semiquantitative ranking of the identified proteins. Notably, the identified NP proteins mirrored the protein composition of the contacting body fluids, with albumin, fetuin-A, complement C3, α-1-antitrypsin, prothrombin, and apolipoproteins A1 and B-100 being consistently associated with the particles. Since several coagulation factors, calcification inhibitors, complement proteins, immune regulators, protease inhibitors, and lipid/molecule carriers can all become NP constituents, our results suggest that mineralo-protein complexes may interface with distinct biochemical pathways in the body depending on their protein composition. We propose that LC-MS/MS be used to characterize proteins found in both synthetic and natural NPs.

  13. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.

  14. Quantification of clenbuterol at trace level in human urine by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Raul; Petrou, Michael; Badoud, Flavia; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2013-05-31

    Clenbuterol is a β2 agonist agent with anabolic properties given by the increase in the muscular mass in parallel to the decrease of the body fat. For this reason, the use of clenbuterol is forbidden by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in the practice of sport. This compound is of particular interest for anti-doping authorities and WADA-accredited laboratories due to the recent reporting of risk of unintentional doping following the eating of meat contaminated with traces of clenbuterol in some countries. In this work, the development and the validation of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of clenbuterol in human urine is described. The analyte was extracted from urine samples by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) in basic conditions using tert butyl-methyl ether (TBME) and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS with a linear gradient of acetonitrile in 9min only. The simple and rapid method presented here was validated in compliance with authority guidelines and showed a limit of quantification at 5pg/mL and a linearity range from 5pg/mL to 300pg/mL. Good trueness (85.8-105%), repeatability (5.7-10.6% RSD) and intermediate precision (5.9-14.9% RSD) results were obtained. The method was then applied to real samples from eighteen volunteers collecting urines after single oral doses administration (1, 5 and 10μg) of clenbuterol-enriched yogurts.

  15. Determination of endocrine-disrupting compounds in drinking waters by fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Emanuele; Scapolla, Carlo; Di Carro, Marina; Liscio, Camilla

    2010-09-01

    Growing attention has been recently paid to safety of food and drinking water, making necessary the adoption of policies for water sources protection and the development of sensitive and rapid analytical methods to identify micropollutants. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have emerged as a major issue as they alter the functioning of the endocrine system. Since ingestion of EDCs via food is considered the major exposure route, there is a growing interest in understanding EDC fate during drinking water treatment and in monitoring potential contamination of surface waters and groundwaters. In this work, a fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in drinking waters. In the literature analytical articles seldom provide details regarding fragmentation pathways. In this paper spectra of the five EDCs in negative ESI were interpreted with the support of accurate mass spectra acquired by a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument; fragmentation pathways were also proposed. The chromatographic separation of EDCs was optimized on a Pinnacle DB Biphenylic column with a water-acetonitrile gradient. Quantitative analysis was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using bisphenol A-d(16) (BPA-d(16)) as internal standard; calibration curves showed good correlation coefficients (0.9989-0.9997). All figures of merit of the method were satisfactory; limits of detection were in the range 0.2-0.4 ng/ml. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in waters sampled by polar organic chemical integrative samplers in a drinking water treatment plant. Rather low concentration of BPA, NP and E1 were measured in the inlet, while none of the considered EDCs was detected in the outlet.

  16. [Determination of perfluorooctane sulfonates in fire-fighting foam and other materials by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiming; Cheng, Yan; Chen, Wei; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Xi; Wang, Zheng

    2010-02-01

    A novel method based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS) in the fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents. The PFOS residue was extracted with water at first by ultrasonic, then separated by high-speed centrifugation. The supernatant was purified by pre-conditioned solid phase extraction (SPE) micro-column, and the extract was filtrated through a membrane with 0.2 microm diameter. The filtrated liquid was analyzed by HPLC using acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (80 : 20, v/v) as mobile phase. The PFOS was detected by using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) on a tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis of the PFOS can be performed by using the relative abundance of two daughter ions of PFOS, and the quantitative analysis was performed by external standard method. The linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.002 - 0.1 mg/L with a linear correlation coefficient (r2 ) of 0.998. The spiked recoveries for PFOS in the fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents were 93.4% - 103%, 93.2% - 102% and 91.8% - 102% with the relative standard deviation of 0.48% - 3.52%, 0.78% - 1.79% and 0.47% - 3.47%, respectively. And the detection limit for PFOS was 2 mg/kg (S/N > or = 10), which can meet the requirement for the PFOS restriction in fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents in the EU directives. With high accuracy and sensitivity, the method is simple and rapid, and can be used for PFOS inspection in fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents.

  17. Simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using ¹³C₁₅-deoxynivalenol as internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, P G; Han, Z; Cai, Z X; Wu, Y J; Ren, Y P

    2010-12-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain was developed. The selected mycotoxins were: deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon X, moniliformin, zearalenone, zearalanone, ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B. The samples were extracted with aqueous acetonitrile (84 : 16, v/v) and purified by reliable laboratory-made mixed cartridges. The analytes were separated on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) and eluted with a mobile phase of water containing 0.2% aqueous ammonia and acetonitrile/methanol (90 : 10, v/v). All mycotoxins were detected with a Waters Micromass Quattro Ultima Pt tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in negative electrospray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring mode. Accurate determination was achieved by employing commercial ¹³C₁₅-deoxynivalenol as internal standard, which compensated for target loss and eliminated matrix effects. The established method was further validated by determining the linearity (R² > 0.9990), average recovery (75.8-106.5%), sensitivity (limit of quantitation 0.09-8.48 µg kg⁻¹) and precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 6.9%). It was shown to be a suitable method for simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain. Finally, a total of 69 corn samples randomly collected from eastern and northern China were analyzed. The results showed that deoxynivalenol was the most frequently detected contaminant, whilst 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, zearalanone, fusarenon X and moniliformin also occurred frequently. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B were present only in trace amounts in a small number of samples.

  18. [Determination of five aflatoxins in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shen; Liu, Ying; Lu, Meiling; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Jinhua

    2011-07-01

    A method for the determination of five aflatoxins (B1 , B2, G1 , G2, M1 ) in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol-water solution, followed by stepwise purification using an immunoaffinity column. The target compounds were then eluted with methanol. The extract was filtered then analyzed. With the gradient elution using a binary mobile phase containing of 0.1% formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution and methanol, the five aflatoxins were separated on an UHPLC BEH C18 column, followed by positive electrospray ionization and multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) provided by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. The limits of detection for the standard solution of aflatoxins ranged from 0.05-0.3 microg/L. The linear response was observed in the spiked concentration range of 0.5-100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The spiked recoveries were within 62.3%-82.4% at the spiked levels of 1.0 microg/kg and 5.0 microg/kg for all the five aflatoxins with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 10% (n = 6). The developed method is sensitive, accurate, and reproducible with the reasonable recoveries, and can be applied to the determination of the 5 aflatoxins in the Chinese traditional patent medicines, medicinal herbs as well as other similar complex matrices.

  19. Simultaneous quantification of three active alkaloids from a traditional Chinese medicine Ramulus Mori (Sangzhi) in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang; Wang, Baolian; Xia, Xuejun; Li, Xue; Wang, Renyun; Sheng, Li; Li, Dan; Liu, Yuling; Li, Yan

    2015-05-10

    Fagomine, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) are the major bioactive constituents in the active fraction of alkaloids from the traditional Chinese medicine mulberry twig (Ramulus Mori, Chinese name Sang Zhi), which has a strong activity on α-glucosidase in vitro and in vivo. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of DNJ, fagomine and DAB in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared using a simple protein precipitation by the addition of 1% volume of Tris and two volumes of methanol-acetonitrile. The analytes and internal standard (IS, miglitol) were chromatographed in an XBridge™ amide column with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (0.1% ammonium hydroxide) at a flow rate of 0.7mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Linear detection responses were obtained for DNJ ranging from 5.00 to 5000.00ng/mL, 10.00 to 2500.00ng/mL for fagomine and DAB. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were 5.00, 10.00, 10.00ng/mL for DNJ, fagomine and DAB, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (R.S.D.%) were within 10% for three analytes with accuracies (R.E.%) less than 12%. The mean recoveries of analytes were greater than 85%. All analytes were proved to be stable during the sample storage, preparation and analytic procedures. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the three alkaloids in rats after oral administration of the active fraction of alkaloids from mulberry twig.

  20. Study on the determination and chiral inversion of R-salbutamol in human plasma and urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Shan; Zhao, Ting; Wu, Jie; Lai, Wenshi; He, Mingzhi; Xu, Beining; Qu, Shanshan; Xu, Ling; Tan, Wen

    2015-10-01

    The chiral inversion has been a concerned issue during the research and development of a chiral drug. In this study, a sensitive chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of salbutamol enantiomers in human plasma and urine. The chiral inversion mechanism of R-salbutamol was fully investigated for the first time by studying the effects of physicochemical factors, including pH, temperature and time. A fitted model to predict the chiral inversion ratio of R-salbutamol was proposed using a Box-Behnken design. All the samples were separated on an Astec Chirobiotic T column and detected by a tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Lower limit of quantification of 0.100ng/mL was achieved under the optimized conditions. The method was fully validated and successfully applied to the clinical pharmacokinetic study of R-salbutamol in healthy volunteers. Chiral inversion of R-salbutamol to S-salbutamol has been detected in urine samples. The results indicated that pH and temperature were two dominant factors that caused the chiral inversion of R-salbutamol, which should be taken into consideration during the analysis of chiral drugs. The chiral inversion of R-salbutamol determined in this study was confirmed resulted from the gastric acid in stomach rather than caused by the analysis conditions. Moreover, the calculated results of the fitted model matched very well with the enantioselective pharmacokinetic study of R-salbutamol, and the individual difference of the chiral inversion ratio of R-salbutamol was related to the individual gastric environment. On the basis of the results, this study provides important and concrete information not only for the chiral analysis but also for the metabolism research of chiral drugs.

  1. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Ju Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C18 cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C18 column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (± naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7–7.4% and 1.5–8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals.

  2. Development of a new multi-analyte assay for the simultaneous detection of opioids in serum and other body fluids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, K; Röhrich, J; Breitmeier, D; Ferner, M; Laufenberg-Feldmann, R; Urban, R

    2015-09-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using electrospray ionization in positive ionization mode was developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple opioid-type drugs in plasma. The presented assay allows the quantitative determination of alfentanil, buprenorphine, codeine, desomorphine, dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, ethylmorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, naloxone, naltrexone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine, pholcodine, piritramide, remifentanil, sufentanil, and tramadol as well as the metabolites 6-monoacetylmorphine, bisnortilidine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, naltrexol, norbuprenorphine, norfentanyl, norpethidine, nortilidine, and O-desmethyltramadol. Serum and blood samples were purified by solid-phase extraction. The analytes were separated on a phenyl-hexyl (100mm) column by formic acid/acetonitrile gradient elution using an UPLC 1290 Infinity coupled with a 6490 Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer. The limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.6ng/mL and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 0.1 to 2.0ng/mL. The calibration curves were linear between Calibration Levels 1-6 for all 35 substances. Recovery rates ranged between 51 and 88% for all compounds except alfentanil, bisnortilidine, pethidine, and morphine-3-glucuronide. The matrix effect ranged from 86% for ethylmorphine to 105% for desomorphine. Using the validation procedure proposed by the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry, acceptable precision and accuracy data for almost all analytes were obtained. The method was successfully applied to 206 authentic serum samples provided by the palliative and intensive care units of the University Medical Center and the police authorities. Furthermore, a suspected fatal intoxication is demonstrated by an analysis of the sufentanil in post mortem body fluids and tissues.

  3. A novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of glycine as biomarker in brain microdialysis and cerebrospinal fluid samples within 5min.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voehringer, Patrizia; Fuertig, René; Ferger, Boris

    2013-11-15

    Glycine is an important amino acid neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and a useful biomarker to indicate biological activity of drugs such as glycine reuptake inhibitors (GRI) in the brain. Here, we report how a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the fast and reliable analysis of glycine in brain microdialysates and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples has been established. Additionally, we compare this method with the conventional approach of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FD). The present LC-MS/MS method did not require any derivatisation step. Fifteen microliters of sample were injected for analysis. Glycine was detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. The total running time was 5min. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was determined as 100nM, while linearity was given in the range from 100nM to 100μM. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the LC-MS/MS method, we measured glycine levels in striatal in vivo microdialysates and CSF of rats after administration of the commercially available glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitor LY 2365109 (10mg/kg, p.o.). LY 2365109 produced 2-fold and 3-fold elevated glycine concentrations from 1.52μM to 3.6μM in striatal microdialysates and from 10.38μM to 36μM in CSF, respectively. In conclusion, we established a fast and reliable LC-MS/MS method, which can be used for the quantification of glycine in brain microdialysis and CSF samples in biomarker studies.

  4. Development of a Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Azacitidine in Rat Plasma and Its Application to a Bioavailability Study

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    Dongpo Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Azacitidine is widely used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS and acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML. The analysis of azacitidine in biological samples is subject to interference by endogenous compounds. Previously reported high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical assays for azacitidine suffer from expensive sample preparation procedures or from long separation times to achieve the required selectivity. Herein, supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS was explored as a more promising technique for the selective analysis of structure-like or chiral drugs in biological matrices. In this study, a simple, rapid and specific SFC/MS/MS analytical method was developed for the determination of azacitidine levels in rat plasma. Azacitidine was completely separated from the endogenous compounds on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column (100 mm × 3.0 mm, 1.7 μm; Waters Corp., Milford, MA, USA using isocratic elution with CO2/methanol as the mobile phase. The single-run analysis time was as short as 3.5 min. The sample preparation for protein removal was accomplished using a simple methanol precipitation method. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ of azacitidine was 20 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 15%, and the relative error (RE was within ±15% for the medium- and high-concentration quality control (QC samples and within ±20% for the low-concentration QC samples. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats following the intravenous administration of azacitidine.

  5. Quantitative comparison of lipoprotein fractions derived from human plasma and serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

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    Collins Lisamarie A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipoproteins are complex, globular molecules which play essential roles in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol. Their implication in the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, has sustained a great deal of interest in these particles. Their various functions, and their contribution to the development of atherosclerosis, are often attributed to their protein constituents, which vary greatly among the different lipoprotein classes. Recent advances in the field of mass spectrometry have provided insight into the array of proteins associated with low-density lipoproteins (LDLs and, even more so, with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs. Plasma and serum are the most commonly used samples for the analysis of lipoproteins. Although these lipoprotein sources are unique, it was our goal to determine whether or not their inherent differences would ultimately affect a quantitative analysis of the LDL and HDL proteomes. To this end, we isolated LDL and HDL fractions with fast protein liquid chromatography-size exclusion chromatography (FPLC-SEC from both human plasma and serum samples from the same individuals. After delipidating these samples, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis to compare the lipoprotein-associated proteins derived from both plasma and serum. Results Although the primary differences between the samples are found in fibrinogen proteins which are removed from serum, it of interest to note that, with respect to LDL-associated proteins, apolipoproteinB-100 was found at significantly higher levels in serum samples. Complement component 3 was found at significantly higher levels in serum-derived HDL fractions. Both of these proteins are known LDL- and HDL-associated proteins, respectively. Conclusion Overall, the results from our study indicate that both plasma and serum samples are equally suited for proteomic studies, and provide similar results. These findings are particularly

  6. On-line liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry simultaneous determination of opiates, cocainics and amphetamines in dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saussereau, E; Lacroix, C; Gaulier, J M; Goulle, J P

    2012-02-15

    A novel approach has been developed for the illicit drugs quantitative determination using dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. The illicit drugs tested were opiates (morphine and its 3- and 6-glucuronide metabolites, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine), cocainics (ecgonine methylester, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, cocaethylene) and amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA). The described method, requiring a small blood volume, is based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using on-line extraction. A Whatman card 903 was spotted with 30μL of whole blood and left overnight to dry at room temperature. A 3-mm diameter disk was removed using a manual punch, suspended in 150μL of water for 10min with ultrasonication, and then 100μL was injected in the on-line LC-MS/MS system. An Oasis HLB was used as an extraction column and a C18 Atlantis as an analytical column. The chromatographic cycle was performed with 20mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 2.8) (solvent A) and acetonitrile/solvent A (90:10, v/v) gradient in 16min. Detection was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI+) with a Quattro Micro (Waters). Recoveries of all analytes were up to 80%. DBS were stored in duplicate at 4°C and -20°C for up to 6 months. Illicit drugs seemed to be much more stabled at -20°C. Furthermore, it was tested whether analysis of DBS may be as reliable as that of whole blood investigating authentic samples; significant correlations were obtained. This DBS assay has potential as rapid, sensitive and inexpensive option for the illicit drugs determination in small blood volumes, which seems of great interest in suspected cases of driving under the influence of drugs.

  7. Rapid methods to determine procyanidins, anthocyanins, theobromine and caffeine in rat tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Piñol, Carme; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-06-01

    Rapid, selective and sensitive methods were developed and validated to determine procyanidins, anthocyanins and alkaloids in different biological tissues, such as liver, brain, the aorta vein and adipose tissue. For this purpose, standards of procyanidins (catechin, epicatechin, and dimer B(2)), anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside) and alkaloids (theobromine, caffeine and theophylline) were used. The methods included the extraction of homogenized tissues by off-line liquid-solid extraction, and then solid-phase extraction to analyze alkaloids, or microelution solid-phase extraction plate for the analysis of procyanidins and anthocyanins. The eluted extracts were then analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple quadrupole as the analyzer. The optimum extraction solution was water/methanol/phosphoric acid 4% (94/4.5/1.5, v/v/v). The extraction recoveries were higher than 81% for all the studied compounds in all the tissues, except the anthocyanins, which were between 50 and 65% in the liver and brain. In order to show the applicability of the developed methods, different rat tissues were analyzed to determine the procyanidins, anthocyanins and alkaloids and their generated metabolites. The rats had previously consumed 1g of a grape pomace extract (to analyze procyanidins and anthocyanins) or a cocoa extract (to analyze alkaloids) per kilogram of body weight. Different tissues were extracted 4h after administration of the respective extracts. The analysis of the metabolites revealed a hepatic metabolism of procyanidins. The liver was the tissue which produced a greater accumulation of these metabolites.

  8. Simultaneous quantitation of urinary cotinine and acrylonitrile-derived mercapturic acids with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Fang; Uang, Shi-Nian; Chiang, Su-Yin; Shih, Wei-Chung; Huang, Yu-Fang; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2012-02-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN), a widely used industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke, has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. AN can be detoxified by glutathione S-transferase (GST) to form glutathione (GSH) conjugates in vivo. It can be metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 2E1 to form 2-cyanoethylene oxide, which can also be detoxified by GST to generate GSH conjugates. The GSH conjugates can be further metabolized to mercapturic acids (MAs), namely, N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine (CEMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (HEMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-cyano-2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (CHEMA). This study developed an ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantitatively profile the major AN urinary metabolites (CEMA, HEMA, and CHEMA) to assess AN exposure, as well as analyze urinary cotinine (COT) as an indicator for tobacco smoke exposure. The limits of quantitation were 0.1, 0.1, 1.0, and 0.05 μg/L for HEMA, CEMA, CHEMA, and COT, respectively. This method was applied to analyze the three AN-derived MAs in 36 volunteers with no prior occupational AN exposure. Data analysis showed significant correlations between the level of COT and the levels of these MAs, suggesting them as biomarkers for exposure to low levels of AN. The results demonstrate that a highly specific and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method has been successfully developed to quantitatively profile the major urinary metabolites of AN in humans to assess low AN exposure.

  9. Determination of pesticide residues in olives by liquid extraction surface analysis followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Almenar, M. C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pesticides are essential in modern agriculture for crop protection, however, this use supposes a potential risk for human health and the environment. Traditional techniques of pesticide determination require the use of laborious and complex extraction methods to separate pesticides from the matrix, above all in fatty matrices like olives. For this reason, a new simple, rapid, cheap and selective method for the extraction and quantification of the most frequently used pesticides in olive growing has been developed. Pesticide determination was carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Mean recoveries were found in a range between 73 and 114% with relative standard deviations lower than 20% in most pesticides evaluated and the limits of detection (LODs and quantification (LOQs were lower than 4 μg· kg-1 and 8 μg· kg-1, respectively. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of 25 olive samples where Dimethoate and Terbuthylazine were detected in some cases, but their results were lower than 15 μg· kg-1.Hoy en día los pesticidas son esenciales en la agricultura moderna para la protección de los cultivos pero su uso supone un riesgo para la salud y el medio ambiente. Las técnicas tradicionales de determinación de pesticidas requieren el uso de métodos de extracción complejos a fin de separar los pesticidas de la matriz, sobre todo en matrices grasas como las aceitunas. Por ello, se ha desarrollado un nuevo método simple, rápido, barato y selectivo para la extracción y cuantificación de los pesticidas más frecuentemente utilizados en el cultivo del olivo, empleando cromatografía líquida de ultra-resolución (UPLC acoplada a espectrometría de masas (MS/MS. Las recuperaciones alcanzadas variaron entre el 73 y 114% obteniendo desviaciones estándar relativas inferiores al 20%. Los límites de detección (LD y cuantificación (LQ fueron

  10. Rapid and simple extraction of lipids from blood plasma and urine for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dae Young; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2014-02-28

    A simple and fast lipid extraction method from human blood plasma and urine is introduced in this study. The effective lipid extraction from biological systems with a minimization of the matrix effect is important for the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method described here is based on the modification of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method, which was originally developed for pesticide residue analysis in food, for the purpose of isolating lipids from biological fluids. Applicability of QuEChERS method for lipids was evaluated by varying organic solvents for the extraction/partitioning of lipids in MgSO4/CH3COONa for the removal of water and by varying sorbents (primary secondary amines, graphitized carbon black, silica, strong anion exchange resins and C18 particles) for the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) step. This study shows that 2:1 (v/v) CHCl3/CH3OH is effective in the extraction/partitioning step and that 50mg of C18 particles (for 0.1mL plasma and 1mL of urine) are more suitable for sample cleanup for the dSPE step of the QuEChERS method. Matrix effects were calculated by comparing the recovery values of lipid standards spiked to both plasma and urine samples after extraction with those of the same standards in a neat solution using nanoflow LC-ESI-MS/MS, resulting in improved MS signals due to the decrease of the ion suppression compared to the conventional Folch method. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to lipid extracts from both human urine and plasma samples, demonstrating that it can be powerfully utilized for high-speed (lipids compared to the Folch method, with equivalent or slightly improved results in lipid identification using nLC-ESI-MS/MS.

  11. Analysis of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in spirulina-containing supplements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has come under intense scrutiny. International laboratory and epidemiological research continues to support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to BMAA (e.g., through dietary practices, water supply) can promote the risk of various neurodegenerative diseases. A wide variety of cyanobacteria spp. have previously been reported to produce BMAA, with production levels dependent upon species, strain and environmental conditions. Since spirulina (Arthrospira spp.) is a member of the cyanobacteria phylum frequently consumed via dietary supplements, the presence of BMAA in such products may have public health implications. In the current work, we have analyzed ten spirulina-containing samples for the presence of BMAA; six pure spirulina samples from two separate raw materials suppliers, and four commercially-available multi-ingredient products containing 1.45 g of spirulina per 8.5 g serving. Because of controversy surrounding the measurement of BMAA, we have used two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods: one based on reversed phase LC (RPLC) with derivatization and the other based on hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC). Potential matrix effects were corrected for by internal standardization using a stable isotope labeled BMAA standard. BMAA was not detected at low limits of detection (80 ng/g dry weight) in any of these product samples. Although these results are reassuring, BMAA analyses should be conducted on a wider sample selection and, perhaps, as part of ongoing spirulina production quality control testing and specifications. PMID:25120905

  12. Occurrence of specific environmental risk factors in brain tissues of sudden infant death and sudden intrauterine unexpected death victims assessed with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termopoli, Veronica; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Magrini, Laura; Cappiello, Achille

    2015-03-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sudden intrauterine unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS) are an unresolved teaser in the social-medical and health setting of modern medicine and are the result of multifactorial interactions. Recently, prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants has been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes, and verification of their presence in fetal and newborn tissues is of crucial importance. A gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method, using a triple quadrupole analyzer, is proposed to assess the presence of 20 organochlorine pesticides, two organophosphate pesticides, one carbamate (boscalid), and a phenol (bisphenol A) in human brain tissues. Samples were collected during autopsies of infants and fetuses that died suddenly without any evident cause. The method involves a liquid-solid extraction using n-hexane as the extraction solvent. The extracts were purified with Florisil cartridges prior to the final determination. Recovery experiments using lamb brain spiked at three different concentrations in the range of 1-50 ng g(-1) were performed, with recoveries ranging from 79 to 106%. Intraday and interday repeatability were evaluated, and relative standard deviations lower than 10% and 18%, respectively, were obtained. The selectivity and sensitivity achieved in multiple reaction monitoring mode allowed us to achieve quantification and confirmation in a real matrix at levels as low as 0.2-0.6 ng g(-1). Two MS/MS transitions were acquired for each analyte, using the Q/q ratio as the confirmatory parameter. This method was applied to the analysis of 14 cerebral cortex samples (ten SIUDS and four SIDS cases), and confirmed the presence of several selected compounds.

  13. Sensitive determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in water samples by ultrasound assisted emulsification microextraction prior to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2010-06-15

    A novel application of an ultrasound assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) technique is proposed for the extraction and preconcentration of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) from water samples prior to its determination by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). USAEME employs a non-polar high-density solvent (extractant solvent), which forms an oil-in-water emulsion (O/W) in the aqueous sample bulk assisted by ultrasonic radiation. Several factors including, solvent type and volume, extraction time, extraction temperature, shaking mode and matrix modifiers were studied and optimized over the relative recovery of the target analyte. An aliquot of 5mL water sample was conditioned by adding 150microL 6.15molL(-1) sodium chloride and 300microL 0.05molL(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 6), and finally extracted with 40microL chloroform by using USAEME technique. Under the optimal experimental conditions 2,4,6-TCA was quantitatively extracted achieving an enrichment factor (EF) of 555. The detection limit (LOD), calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), was 0.2ngL(-1) and the RSD was 6.3% (n=5) when 1ngL(-1) 2,4,6-TCA standard mixture was analyzed. The coefficients of estimation of the calibration curves obtained following the proposed methodology was >or=0.997 and the linear working range was 1-5000ngL(-1). Finally, the proposed technique was successfully applied for extraction and determination of the 2,4,6-TCA in water samples. Recovery studies lead values >or=94%, which showed a successfully robustness of the analytical methodology for determination of nanogram per liter of 2,4,6-TCA in water samples.

  14. Determination of caffeine, myosmine, and nicotine in chocolate by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Vetter, Florian; Richter, Elmar; Bracher, Franz

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence of the bioactive components caffeine (xanthine alkaloid), myosmine and nicotine (pyridine alkaloids) in different edibles and plants is well known, but the content of myosmine and nicotine is still ambiguous in milk/dark chocolate. Therefore, a sensitive method for determination of these components was established, a simple separation of the dissolved analytes from the matrix, followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS). This is the first approach for simultaneous determination of caffeine, myosmine, and nicotine with a convenient SPME technique. Calibration curves were linear for the xanthine alkaloid (250 to 3000 mg/kg) and the pyridine alkaloids (0.000125 to 0.003000 mg/kg). Residuals of the calibration curves were lower than 15%, hence the limits of detection were set as the lowest points of the calibration curves. The limits of detection calculated from linearity data were for caffeine 216 mg/kg, for myosmine 0.000110 mg/kg, and for nicotine 0.000120 mg/kg. Thirty samples of 5 chocolate brands with varying cocoa contents (30% to 99%) were analyzed in triplicate. Caffeine and nicotine were detected in all samples of chocolate, whereas myosmine was not present in any sample. The caffeine content ranged from 420 to 2780 mg/kg (relative standard deviation 0.1 to 11.5%) and nicotine from 0.000230 to 0.001590 mg/kg (RSD 2.0 to 22.1%).

  15. [Simultaneous determination of six organophosphorous flame retardants in textiles by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with microwave assisted extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengyun; Li, Lixia; Xie, Tangtang; Zhang, Weiya; Liu, Caiming; Zhu, Naiqing

    2011-08-01

    An effective method was established for the simultaneous determination of six banned organophosphorous flame retardants in textiles by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) combined with microwave assisted extraction (MAE). By investigating the extraction efficiency of 12 different extraction solvents for the target analytes, the optimal conditions were that the sample was extracted by microwave assisted extraction using acetone as the solvent at 76 degrees C for 30 min. Then the extract was analyzed by GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and the concentration of each analyte was calibrated by external standard method. The linear ranges of tris-(1-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide (TEPA), tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris-(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCP), bis-(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (DDBPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) and tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TRIS) were 9.17 - 366.80, 0.95 - 75.98, 1.04 - 83.20, 41.60 - 832.00, 3.80 - 75.90, and 40.48 - 809.60 microg/L, respectively, the correlation coefficients were not less than 0.997 5, while the limits of quantification (LOQ) (S/N = 10) were 3.0, 0.2, 0.3, 25.0, 2.5 and 29.0 microg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries varied from 82.62% to 96.88% with the relative standard deviations of 3.80% to 8.79%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of organophosphorous flame retardants in eight commercial textiles. The experimental results demonstrated that the method developed is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, which could satisfy the demand of the analysis of banned organophosphorous flame retardants in textiles.

  16. Simultaneous determination of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, soil and manure compost by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y B; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-11-02

    A multi-residue analytical method was developed to quantify nine antibiotics and one hormone in soil, broiler manure and manure compost. The developed method was based on ultrasonic extraction with MeOH:ACN:EDTA:McIlvaine buffer, solid phase extraction (SPE) using HLB (3 cc/60 mg) cartridge, followed by instrumental analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with 25 min total run time. It was validated and tested on soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples and showed that the method is able to simultaneously detect and quantify the target analytes with good selectivity and sensitivity. The developed method was linear in a concentration range from its instrumental quantification limit (IQL) to 500 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. The overall method performance was good for the majority of the analytes, with recoveries range from 63% to 121% in all the sample matrices. The method quantification limit (MQL) for the 10 target analytes in the soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples were 2-10, 3-16 and 5-15 μg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively. The method has also included tilmicosin, an antibiotic known to be reported in the environment for the first time. The developed method was then applied on broiler manure samples and its relative manure amended agricultural soil samples to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. These analytes were detected in broiler manure and soil samples, with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78516.1 μg/kg DW (doxycycline) and 1331.4 μg/kg DW (flumequine), respectively. The results showed that the method can potentially be adopted for the analysis of veterinary antibiotic and hormone wastes in solid environmental matrices.

  17. Identification and quantification of 5α-dihydrotestosterone in the teleost fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Sumpter, John P

    2013-09-15

    The steroid hormone 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is one of the most physiologically important androgens in male vertebrates, with the exception of teleost fish, in which it is generally assumed that DHT does not play any major physiological role. However, this assumption is challenged by the fact that all the components involved in DHT biosynthesis and action are present and evolutionary conserved in teleost fish. In fact, testosterone (T) is converted into DHT by two isoforms of the enzyme steroid-5-alpha-reductase (5αR), and both 5αRs gene expression and enzymatic activity have been detected in several tissues of different teleost species, which also have an androgen receptor with high binding affinity to DHT. This body of evidence strongly suggest that DHT is synthesised by teleost fish. We investigated this hypothesis using the cyprinid fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) as the experimental model. The study of the evolutionary and functional conservation of 5αRs in teleost fish was used to support the experimental approach, based on an ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method to identify and measure simultaneously T and DHT in fathead minnow biological fluids and tissues. The analyses were performed using plasma samples collected from both male and female adult fish and samples of testicular tissue collected from sexually mature males. Both T and DHT were identified and quantified in all the samples analysed, and in particular, the high concentrations of DHT quantified in the testes suggested that these organs are a likely site of synthesis of DHT in the teleost fathead minnow, as they are in mammals. These results may represent the basis for future studies aimed at elucidating the physiological role, if any, of DHT in teleost fish.

  18. Trace-level determination of sweeteners in sewage sludge using selective pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeláez, Paula; Borrull, Francesc; Maria Marcé, Rosa; Pocurull, Eva

    2015-08-21

    The occurrence of sweeteners in the environment has become a matter of concern due to the possibility of adverse effects on human health and wildlife species. One of the routes by which sweeteners enter the environment is through sewage sludge. Therefore, a method was developed with a selective-pressurized liquid extraction (S-PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of eight sweeteners in sewage sludge. The chromatographic separation was achieved in less than ten minutes using an amide polar-embedded reversed-phase column. Due to the high matrix effect present in the sample, an extensive study was conducted in order to overcome this issue, with C18 in-cell and solid-phase extraction (Oasis HLB) as a clean-up method. S-PLE/SPE recoveries at two levels of concentration (50μg/kg and 1000μg/kg in dry weight (d.w.), n=5) were higher than 61%. Repeatability and reproducibility at the same concentrations (%RSD, n=5) were lower than 11% and 16%, respectively. The limits of detection were 10μg/kg (d.w) for all compounds, except for cyclamate (5μg/kg (d.w.)). The method was successfully applied to sewage sludge samples from three sewage treatment plants located in Catalonia (Spain). Of the eight compounds, five were determined in all of the samples analysed, with acesulfame and saccharine being recorded at the highest concentrations of up to 481μg/kg and 591μg/kg (d.w.), respectively.

  19. Large volume of water samples introduced in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of 15 triazole fungicides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Chen, Fujiang; Song, Zhiyu; Sun, Caixia; Li, Zuguang; Liu, Wenhan; Lee, Mawrong

    2016-10-01

    A novel method of large volume of water samples directly introduced in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed, which is based on ultrasound/manual shaking-synergy-assisted emulsification and self-generating carbon dioxide gas (CO2) breaking down the emulsion for the determination of 15 triazole fungicides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This technique makes low-density extraction solvent toluene (180 μL) dissolve in 200 mL of samples containing 0.05 mol L(-1) of HCl and 5 % of NaCl (w/v) to form a well emulsion by synergy of ultrasound and manual shaking, and injects NaHCO3 solution (1.0 mol L(-1)) to generate CO2 achieving phase separation with the assistance of ultrasound. The entire process is accomplished within 8 min. The injection of NaHCO3 to generate CO2 achieves phase separation that breaks through the centrifugation limited large volume aqueous samples. In addition, the device could be easily cleaned, and this kind of vessel could be reconfigured for any volume of samples. Under optimal conditions, the low limits of detection ranging from 0.7 to 51.7 ng L(-1), wide linearity, and enrichment factors obtained were in the range 924-3669 for different triazole fungicides. Southern end of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal water (Hangzhou, China) was used to verify the applicability of the developed method. Graphical Abstract Flow chart of ultrasound/manual shaking-synergy-assisted emulsification and self-generating carbon dioxide gas breaking down the emulsion.

  20. Determination of low-molecular-weight organic acids in non-small cell lung cancer with a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupczynska, Agnieszka; Plewa, Szymon; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech; Kasprzyk, Mariusz; Sytek, Natalia; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-09-10

    As compared to other classes of metabolites, determination of organic acids is an underrepresented field in cancer research and till now there has been a lack of appropriate analytical procedure for determination of serum levels of organic acids potentially associated with cancer development. The aim of the study was to develop a new rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of six low-molecular-weight organic acids in human serum and to apply this method in an analysis of samples collected from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and a matched control group. The samples were prepared by solid phase extraction (Clean-up CUQAX, UCT). Chromatography was conducted on a Synergi Hydro-RP column (Phenomenex) and a gradient run of 15min. Detection was performed using a negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration ranges were as follows: 0.24-38.42μmol/L for 2-hydroxybutyric acid, 0.09-17.23μmol/L for fumaric acid, 0.08-15.13μmol/L for glutaric acid, 0.11-2.22mmol/L for lactic acid, 0.39-30.98μmol/L for pyroglutamic acid, and 0.08-16.93μmol/L for succinic acid. Mean relative recovery range was 85.99-114.42% and the determined intra- and inter day coefficients of variation were ≤14%. Among the studied acids, pyroglutamic acid showed the best discriminating potential and enabled to identify accurately NSCLC patients and control subjects regardless of the cancer stage. Further investigations of serum organic acids may allow us to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in NSCLC and develop novel means of its detection and treatment. The developed method may be also a valuable tool to study metabolic changes associated with other types of cancer.

  1. Analysis method for determination of nisin A and nisin Z in cow milk by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Yuk; Park, So Ra; Lee, Chae A; Kim, Meehye

    2015-03-01

    Nisin, a polypeptide with antimicrobial properties, is known as a natural preservative. It is used in various foods, including dairy products. This study validated a novel procedure using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of nisin A and nisin Z in cow milk. An extraction solution of 0.1 M acetate buffer containing 1 M NaCl (pH 2.0) and MeOH (1:1) was used to extract nisin A and nisin Z from milk samples. After the addition of extraction buffers, the samples were homogenized and centrifuged. The supernatant was filtered and injected for LC-MS/MS analysis. The linearity of the analytical method had a high correlation coefficient (r≥0.9987). The limits of quantitation of nisin A and nisin Z were approximately 12.9 and 10.9 µg/kg, respectively. The accuracy of the analytical method in milk ranged from 90.6 to 103.4% for nisin A and from 83.8 to 104.4% for nisin Z. The coefficient of variation values of intra- and interday in milk determined to be less than 5% in both nisin A and nisin Z. Because the proposed method has comparatively high recovery and low coefficient of variation, it seems appropriate for the determination of nisin A and nisin Z in milk samples. As the quantification of nisin A and nisin Z in milk samples by using LC-MS/MS has only been rarely reported until now, this study provides a meaningful technological advance for the dairy industry.

  2. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acids in Rhizoma Arisaematis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Chi, Yumei; Kang, An

    2014-12-01

    A method for the identification and determination of the polar amino components without ultraviolet activity in traditional Chinese medicines was developed. With Rhizoma Arisaematis as the object of this study, using pre-column derivatization with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) as the derivatization reagent, compounds were separated and identified on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 µm) by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A total of 20 components, including 18 amino acids and 2 amine compounds were identified. Furthermore, after the optimization of the derivatization conditions, 15 amino acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Diamonsil C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm), detected at 254 nm and gradiently eluted by acetonitrile and 0. 05 mol/L ammonium acetate-acetic acid (pH 6. 5) as the mobile phases. The results of methodological study demonstrated that the method can meet the requirements of the determination. All calibration curves expressed good linearity: Glu, Try in the range of 2-100 mg/L, Arg in the range of 6-300 mg/L, others in the range of 0. 8-40 µg/L, with the correlation coefficients ≥ 0. 999 5. The average recovery of this method was among 95%-105% and the RSD was less than 3%. The developed method was successfully applied to quantitative determination of amino compounds in 12 batches of Rhizoma Arisaematis samples. The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, and can be used for rapid identification and determination of amino components in traditional Chinese medicines.

  3. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect.

  4. [Determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal and aquatic products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hailuan; Wu, Congming; Cheng, Linli; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was established for the determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) in animal tissues and aquatic products. The analyte was extracted with 0.2 mol/L hydrochloric acid. The extract was cleaned up on a Bond Elut C18 cartridge. Then the eluate was collected and evaporated to dryness under nitrogen gas at 35 degrees C. The residue was redissolved in acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. The identification was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionization. The quantification was done by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity within the range of 2-500 microg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.990. The limits of detection (LODs) of MQCA in pork, swine liver, pig kidney, fish, prawn, and crab were 0.90, 1.51, 0.94, 1.04, 1.62 and 1.80 microg/kg, respectively; and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 3.00, 5.02, 3.13, 3.46, 5.40 and 6.00 microg/kg, correspondingly. The recoveries of MQCA in animal tissues and aquatic products were 73.6%-89.0% at the spiked levels of 3-100 microg/kg. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) were less than 15%, and inter-day RSDs (n = 3) were less than 20%. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity, accuracy, and precision were fit for the requirements of veterinary drug residue analysis.

  5. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of acrivastine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma and its application in pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J-C; Feng, E-F; Liu, M; Li, H-L; Tian, M; Zhang, Q; Dong, L-C; Xu, G-L

    2012-10-01

    A specific, sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of acrivastine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma samples. Plasma samples were processed and analyzed on a Phenomenex Luna 3 μ CN 100A column (150 mm×2.0 mm) eluted with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate water solution containing 0.1% formic acid (45:55, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The analytes were detected by positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The transitions of m/z 349→278, m/z 166→148 and m/z 256→167 were monitored for acrivastine, pseudoephedrine and diphenhydramine (IS), respectively. The method was specific and sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 1.52 ng/mL for acrivastine and 8.13 ng/mL for pseudoephedrine. The method showed good linearity in the range of 1.52~606.0 0 ng/mL for acrivastine and 8.13~813.12 ng/mL for pseudoephedrine (r≥0.996). The mean recovery were ranged 91.82% ~ 98.46% for acrivastine and 90.77% ~ 92.05% for pseudoephedrine. Validation results, such as accuracy, precision and repeatability were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of the acrivastine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride compound capsule in humans.

  6. Matrix solid-phase dispersion combined to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of paraben preservatives in mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    A method for the extraction and determination of seven parabens, esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, widely used as preservatives in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, etc., and two chlorinated derivatives (mono- and di-chloro methyl paraben) from mollusk samples was developed by combining matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. MSPD parameters, such as solvent, solid support and clean-up sorbent, were optimized. Besides, since blank problems were observed for some parabens, these were investigated and blanks were tackled by precleaning all sorbents prior to use. Under final conditions, 0.5g of freeze-dried mollusk were dispersed with 1.2g of silica and packed into a cartridge containing 3g of C18, as on-line clean-up sorbent. This cartridge was eluted with 10mL of acetonitrile, evaporated and reconstituted in methanol for analysis. In the validation stage, successful linearity (R(2)>0.999), recoveries (between 71 and 117% for most analytes), precision (RSD lower than 21%) and limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ, lower than 0.4 and 1.4ngg(-1) dry weight respectively) levels were achieved. Finally, the new methodology was applied to mussel, clam and cockle samples. Methyl paraben was above the LOQ in five of the six samples (not found in one clam sample) at concentrations up to 7ngg(-1) dry weight. Ethyl paraben was found above the LOQ in mussel and cockle samples at a concentration level around 0.3ngg(-1). n-Propyl paraben was only above the LOQ in one mussel sample.

  7. Simultaneous determination of gallic acid and gentisic acid in organic anion transporter expressing cells by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Halquist, Matthew S; Sweet, Douglas H

    2013-10-15

    In order to elucidate the role of organic anion transporters (OATs) in the renal elimination of gallic acid and gentisic acid, a new, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of gallic acid and gentisic acid in cell lysate, using Danshensu as the internal standard (IS). After a simple liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes were detected in negative ESI mode using selected reaction monitoring. The precursor-to-product ion transitions (m/z) were 169.0→125.0, 153.1→108.0, and 196.8→135.2 for gallic acid, gentisic acid, and the IS, respectively. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using mobile phases consisting of water with 0.1% acetic acid (A) and acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid. (B) The total run time was 3min and calibration curves were linear over the concentrations of 0.33-2400ng/mL for both compounds (r(2)>0.995). Good precision (between 3.11% and 14.1% RSD) and accuracy (between -12.7% and 11% bias) was observed for quality controls at concentrations of 0.33 (lower limit of quantification), 1, 50, and 2000ng/mL. The mean extraction recovery of gallic acid and gentisic acid was 80.7% and 83.5%, respectively. Results from post-column infusion and post-extraction methods indicated that the analytical method exhibited negligible matrix effects. Finally, this validated assay was successfully applied in a cellular uptake study to determine the intracellular concentrations of gallic acid and gentisic acid in OAT expressing cells.

  8. Simultaneous quantitative determination of celecoxib and its two metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in alternating polarity switching mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-A; Kim, Donghak; Lee, Soo Hyun; Jung, Byung Hwa

    2015-03-25

    A simple and rapid quantitative analytical method for the simultaneous detection of celecoxib and its two main metabolites, hydroxycelecoxib (celecoxib-OH) and celecoxib carboxylic acid (celecoxib-COOH), in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The plasma sample was prepared through simple protein precipitation, and the reconstitution solution (0.1% formic acid in 50% methanol) was optimized to achieve the best peak shape and recovery. The analytes were separated using an Atlantis T3 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3 μm), and the mobile phase was composed of 10 mM ammonium formate in either 5% acetonitrile or 95% acetonitrile. The detection of the analytes was performed in alternating polarity switching mode using electrospray ionization. As celecoxib-OH and celecoxib-COOH were slightly unstable following freeze-thaw cycles and long-term storage at -80°C in stability tests, every analysis was carefully conducted with one-freeze thaw cycle and a short storage duration (<1 week). Acceptable accuracy (<15%) and precision (<15%) were obtained in intra- and inter-day validations. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of celecoxib, celecoxib-OH and celecoxib-COOH following the oral administration of celecoxib in rats at a dose of 10mg/kg. Comparing the related pharmacokinetic parameters of celecoxib and its metabolites, celecoxib was quickly metabolized into celecoxib-OH and subsequently converted to celecoxib-COOH in short intervals. The AUCs for the two metabolites were less than 10% of that for celecoxib, indicating that the rate of celecoxib metabolism was low.

  9. [Determination of migration of 15 N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosatable substances from children's latex articles by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pi; Bai, Hua; Li, Haiyu; Chen, Ming; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using solid phase extraction (SPE) has been developed for the determination of 15 N-nitrosamines from children's latex articles. Artificial saliva was used as the migration solution to extract N-nitrosamines in children' s latex articles. And then a polar modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (Chromabond Easy) was used for the selective SPE of the analytes in the migration solution. The analytes were then separated on an HP-5MS UI GC column and determined by MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Good linearity ranged from 5 microg/L to 2 000 microg/L was observed for all the compounds (R2 > 0.998) and the limits of quantification for the 15 N-nitrosamines were 0.625 - 12.50 microg/kg (S/N = 10), which were lower than the limits required by the EU 2009/48/EC Directive. The average recoveries of the target analytes at low, medium, and high spiked levels were in the ranges of 53.8% - 116.2%, 52.7% - 105.1% and 49.5% - 102.9%, respectively. The average within-day and between-day RSDs were from 1.3% to 14.0% (n = 6) and from 1.6% to 7.6% (n = 4), respectively. The proposed method was used to monitor N-nitrosamines in baby nipples and balloons, and N-nitrosamines were found in some samples. The total contents of the 15 N-nitrosamines in the analyzed nipples and balloons samples ranged from 0.049 9 mg/kg to 41.2 mg/kg. And the total contents of the N-nitrosatable substances in the analyzed samples ranged from 0.026 4 mg/kg to 12.5 mg/kg.

  10. Comparison of electron and chemical ionization modes for the quantification of thiols and oxidative compounds in white wines by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibon, Cécile; Pons, Alexandre; Mouakka, Nadia; Redon, Pascaline; Méreau, Raphaël; Darriet, Philippe

    2015-10-09

    A rapid, sensitive method for assaying volatile impact compounds in white wine was developed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) technology, with a triple quadrupole analyzer operating in chemical ionization and electron impact mode. This GC-MS/MS method made it possible to assay volatile thiols (3SH: 3-sulfanylhexanol, formerly 3MH; 3SHA: 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, formerly 3MHA; 4MSP: 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one, formerly 4MMP; BM: benzenemethanethiol; E2SA: ethyl 2-sulfanylacetate; and 2FM: 2-furanmethanethiol) and odoriferous oxidation markers (Sotolon: 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5)H-furanone, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde) simultaneously in dry white wines, comparing electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes. More molecular ions were produced by CI than protonated molecules, despite the greater fragmentation caused by EI. So, even using the best reactant gas giving the highest signal for thiols, EI was the best ionization mode, with the lowest detection limits. For all compounds of interest, the limits of quantification (LOQ) obtained were well below their detection thresholds (ranging from 0.5 to 8.5ng/L for volatile thiols and 65-260ng/L for oxidation markers). Recovery rates ranged from 86% to 111%, reproducibility (in terms of relative standard deviation; RSD) was below 18% in all cases, with correlation coefficients above 0.991 for all analytes. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of compounds of interest in Sauvignon Blanc wines from a single estate and ten different vintages.

  11. Comparison of liquid chromatography-ultraviolet and chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of indapamide in human whole blood and their applications in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Libo; Gu, Shifen; Xu, Rong; Cui, Xiaoyu; Gan, Fangliang; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods which were based on liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively, to determine indapamide (CAS 26807-65-8) and to apply them to bioequivalence studies. The universal parameters, including selectivity, linearity, precision, and quantification limit, served as gold standard for the comparison of the two methods. As a result, the two methods were both very consistent and reliable. Furthermore, the LC-MS/MS method required only one-fifth the blood volume needed by the other method and was approximately 25 times more sensitive than the other method. The total run time of the LC-MS/MS method was 3.5 min per sample as opposed to 11 min for the other method. Forty healthy male Chinese volunteers were selected as subjects. One half were orally administrered 2.5 mg indapamide immediate release tablets while the other half were orally administered 1.5 mg indapamide sus-tained release coated tablets. The collected blood samples were determined with the two methods described above. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. For the bioequivalence studies, the pharmacokinetic parameters acquired here were in line with the literature and parameters met the criteria set by the State Food and Drug Administration of China (SFDA) for bioequivalence study, indicating that generic drugs are bioequivalent to branded drugs. The present study suggests that the two methods based on LC-UV and LC-MS/MS were suitable for bioavailability studies of indapamide with different pharmaceutical formulations. Consequently, it can be believed that the criterion that each individual expected concentration range would need a given bioassay with the requested sensitivity is not absolutely right. In practice, most of the time, the highest sensitivity allows to bioassay concentrations in a higher range.

  12. A new derivatization approach with D-cysteine for the sensitive and simple analysis of acrylamide in foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2014-09-26

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed in order to determine the amount of acrylamide in foods after derivatization with d-cysteine. The sulfhydryl group of d-cysteine was added at the β-site double bond of acrylamide to form 2-amino-3-(3-amino-3-oxo-propyl)sulfanyl-propanoic acid. Deuterated acrylamide (acrylamide-d3) was chosen as the internal standard (IS) for analyzing the food samples. Acrylamide was extracted from 2.0 g of food sample with 6 mL of methylene chloride, and the organic extract was diluted with 3 mL of hexane, and then the analyte was back-extracted with 0.5 mL of pure water. The derivatization of acrylamide was performed in the water extract. The best reaction conditions (3.0mg of d-cysteine, a pH 6.5, a reaction temperature of 90°C, and a heating time of 50 min) were established by the variation of parameters. The formed derivative was injected into the LC-MS/MS without further extraction or purification procedures. Separation and detection were improved with the use of an ion-pairing reagent of perfluorooctanoic acid. Under the established conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 0.04 μg/kg and 0.14 μg/kg, respectively, and the inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 8% at concentrations of 20 and 100 μg/kg. The method was successfully applied to determine the amount of acrylamide in potato chips, French fries, and coffee.

  13. Quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in dairy-free probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus by nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Renu; Talapatra, Kesh

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are a heterogeneous group of ribosomally synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced predominantly by lactic acid bacteria, with potential applications as biopreservatives and probiotics. We describe here a novel strategy based on a bottom-up, shotgun proteomic approach using nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) with multiple fragmentation techniques for the quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in the probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus. A direct LC-MS/MS analysis with alternate collision-induced dissociation, high-energy collision dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation fragmentation following a filter-assisted size-exclusion sample prefractionation has resulted in the identification of peptides belonging to 37 bacteriocins or related proteins. Peptides from lactacin F, helveticin J, lysin, avicin A, acidocin M, curvaticin FS47, and carocin D were predominant. The process of freeze drying under vacuum was observed to affect both the diversity and abundance of bacteriocins. Data acquisition using alternating complementary peptide fragmentation modes, especially electron-transfer dissociation, has significantly enhanced the peptide sequence coverage and number of bacteriocin peptides identified. Multi-enzyme proteolytic digestion was observed to increase the sample complexity and dynamic range, lowering the chances of detection of low-abundant bacteriocin peptides by LC-MS/MS. An analytical platform integrating size exclusion prefractionation, nanoLC-MS/MS analysis with multiple fragmentation techniques, and data-dependent decision tree-driven bioinformatic data analysis is novel in bacteriocin research and suitable for the comprehensive bioanalysis of diverse, low-abundant bacteriocins in complex samples.

  14. Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yibadatihan, S; Jinap, S; Mahyudin, N A

    2014-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently, it has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern about economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in PKC and (2) to validate and verify the method. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) in both positive- and negative-ion modes was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB₁, AFB₂, AFG₁ and AFG₂), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB₁ and FB₂), T-2 and HT-2 toxin in PKC. An optimum method using a 0.2 ml min⁻¹ flow rate, 0.2% formic acid in aqueous phase, 10% organic phase at the beginning and 90% organic phase at the end of the gradient was achieved. The extraction of mycotoxins was performed using a solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v) without further clean-up. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked PKC samples ranged from 81% to 112%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for mycotoxin standards and PKC samples ranged from 0.02 to 17.5 μg kg⁻¹ and from 0.06 to 58.0 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Finally, the newly developed method was successfully applied to PKC samples. The results illustrated the fact that the method is efficient and accurate for the simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in PKC, which can be ideal for routine analysis.

  15. Development and validation of a stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of bisphenols in ready-made meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Jorge; Wenzl, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Due to their growing consumption, ready-made meals are a major dietary component for many people in today's society, representing an important potential route of human exposure to several food contaminants. The recent restrictions in the use of bisphenol A have led the plastic industry to look for alternative chemicals, most of them belonging to the same family of p,p'-bisphenols. The aim of the current work was to develop and validate a method based on stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of bisphenol A and its main analogs - bisphenol S, 4,4'-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol), bisphenol F, bisphenol E, bisphenol B, bisphenol Z, bisphenol AF, bisphenol AP, tetrabromobisphenol A and bisphenol P - in solid foodstuffs, and particularly in ready-made meals. Extraction was carried out by ultrasound-assisted extraction after sample disruption with sand. A selective solid-phase extraction procedure was then applied to reduce potential matrix interferences. Derivatization of bisphenols with pyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride increased their ionization efficiency by electrospray ionization. Validation of the proposed method was performed in terms of selectivity, matrix effects, linearity, precision, measurement uncertainty, trueness and limits of detection. Satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision were obtained; the related relative standard deviations were ≤7.8% and ≤10%, respectively. The relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) was below 17% for all bisphenol analogs and the trueness of the method was demonstrated by spike recovery experiments. Low limits of detection, in the range from 0.025μgkg(-1) to 0.140μgkg(-1), were obtained for all compounds. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, it was eventually applied to several ready-made meals purchased from different supermarkets in Belgium.

  16. Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Tzioumis, Emma; Thomke, Arjun; Rifai, Sami; Kellogg, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized chromatography permitted elution of both analytes within 1.3 min of the applied gradient. Positive-mode electrospray ionization and a triple quadruple MS/MS instrument operated in multiple reaction mode were used for detection. (13)C(3) isotopically labeled caffeine was included as an internal standard to improve accuracy and precision. Implementing a 20-fold dilution of the isolated low MW biofluid fraction prior to injection effectively minimized the deleterious contributions of all three matrices to quantitation. The assay was linear over a 160-fold concentration range from 2.5 to 400 micromol L(-1) for both theobromine (average R(2) 0.9968) and caffeine (average R(2) 0.9997) respectively. Analyte peak area variations for 2.5 micromol L(-1) caffeine and theobromine in saliva, plasma and urine ranged from 5 and 10% (intra-day, N=10) to 9 and 13% (inter-day, N=25) respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision of theobromine and caffeine elution times were 3 and theobromine ranged from 114 to 118% and 99 to 105% at concentration levels of 10 and 300 micromol L(-1). This validated protocol also permitted the relative saliva, plasma and urine distribution of both theobromine and caffeine to be quantified following a cocoa intervention.

  17. Ion-exchange solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanmei; Xuan, Yanfang; Song, Wei; Si, Wenshuai; Zhao, Zhihui; Rao, Qinxiong

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers is crucial for an assessment of potential risks to soil microbial communities and human health. We develop a robust and sensitive method to quantitatively determine 19 veterinary drugs (amantadine, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones) in organic fertilizers. The method involved a simple solid-liquid extraction step using the combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer as extraction solvent, followed by cleanup with a solid-phase extraction cartridge containing polymeric mixed-mode anion-exchange sorbents. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to separate and detect target analytes. We particularly focused on the optimization of sample clean-up step: different diluents and dilution factors were tested. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, sensitivity and specificity. The recoveries of all the drugs ranged from 70.9% to 112.7% at three concentration levels, with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 15.7%. The limits of quantification were between 1.0 and 10.0μg/kg for all the drugs. Matrix effect was minimized by matrix-matched calibration curves. The analytical method was successfully applied for the survey of veterinary drugs contamination in 20 compost samples. The results indicated that fluoroquinolones had higher incidence rate and mean concentration levels ranging from 31.9 to 308.7μg/kg compared with other drugs. We expect the method will provide the basis for risk assessment of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers.

  18. Fast determination of seven synthetic pigments from wine and soft drinks using magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Zhou, Li-Xin; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2014-06-13

    A novel, simple and sensitive method based on the use of magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (M-dSPE) procedure combined with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine seven synthetic pigments (tartrazine, amaranth, carmine, sunset yellow, allura red, brilliant blue and erythrosine) in wines and soft drinks. An amino-functionalized low degrees of cross-linking magnetic polymer (NH2-LDC-MP) was synthesized via suspension polymerization, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The NH2-LDC-MP was used as the M-dSPE sorbent to remove the matrix from the solution, and the main factors affecting the extraction were investigated in detail. The obtained results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of NH2-LDC-MP with recoveries between 84.0 and 116.2%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the seven synthetic pigments were between 1.51 and 5.0μg/L in wines and soft drinks. The developed M-dSPE UFLC-MS/MS method had been successfully applied to the real wines and soft drinks for food-safety risk monitoring in Zhejiang Province, China. The results showed that sunset yellow was in three out of thirty soft drink samples (2.95-42.6μg/L), and erythrosine in one out of fifteen dry red wine samples (3.22μg/L), respectively. It was confirmed that the NH2-LDC-MP was a kind of highly effective M-dSPE materials for the pigments analyses.

  19. Rapid analysis of aminoglycoside antibiotics in bovine tissues using disposable pipette extraction and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovska, Katerina; Lightfield, Alan R; Nuñez, Alberto; Dutko, Terry; Ng, Chilton; Bluhm, Louis

    2013-10-25

    A high-throughput qualitative screening and identification method for 9 aminoglycosides of regulatory interest has been developed, validated, and implemented for bovine kidney, liver, and muscle tissues. The method involves extraction at previously validated conditions, cleanup using disposable pipette extraction, and analysis by a 3 min ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The drug analytes include neomycin, streptomycin, dihydrosptreptomycin, and spectinomycin, which have residue tolerances in bovine in the US, and kanamicin, gentamicin, apramycin, amikacin, and hygromycin, which do not have US tolerances established in bovine tissues. Tobramycin was used as an internal standard. An additional drug, paromomycin also was validated in the method, but it was dropped during implementation due to conversion of neomycin into paromomycin. Proposed fragmentation patterns for the monitored ions of each analyte were elucidated with the aid of high resolution MS using a quadrupole-time-of-flight instrument. Recoveries from spiking experiments at regulatory levels of concern showed that all analytes averaged 70-120% recoveries in all tissues, except hygromycin averaged 61% recovery. Lowest calibrated levels were as low as 0.005 μg/g in matrix extracts, which approximately corresponded to the limit of detection for screening purposes. Drug identifications at levels <0.05 μg/g were made in spiked and/or real samples for all analytes and tissues tested. Analyses of 60 samples from 20 slaughtered cattle previously screened positive for aminoglycosides showed that this method worked well in practice. The UHPLC-MS/MS method has several advantages compared to the previous microbial inhibition screening assay, especially for distinguishing individual drugs from a mixture and improving identification of gentamicin in tissue samples.

  20. Application of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and tissue distribution of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianqin; Pan, Yu; Jianshe, Ma; Shi, Shaohua; Zheng, Xiaoyong; Xiang, Zheng

    2014-06-01

    1. This study was aimed at developing a high sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) in rat plasma and tissues for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability and tissue distribution studies. 2. Biological samples were processed with one-step protein precipitation. Rutin was chosen as the internal standard (IS). Chromatographical separation was achieved on an SB-C18 (2.1 mm× 150 mm, 5 μm) column with acetonitrile--0.1% formic acid in water as the mobile phase with gradient elution. Electrospray ionization (ESI) source was applied and operated in negative ion mode; selected ion monitoring mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 611.4 for NHDC and m/z 609.1 for IS. 3. Calibration plots were linear over the range of 10-3000 ng/mL for NHDC. Lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for NHDC was 10 ng/mL. Mean recovery of NHDC from plasma and tissues was better than 80.3%. Coefficient of variation of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 15%. The bioavailability of NHDC was 21.8%. 4. In conclusion, a sensitive, simple and specific LC-ESI-MS method for the determination of NHDC in rat biological samples was developed. This developed method is successfully used in the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of NHDC in rats.

  1. Determination of high-intensity sweeteners in river water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeláez, Paula; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2015-05-08

    High-intensity sweeteners have been suggested as potential organic contaminants due to their widespread use in food, drugs and sanitary products. As a consequence, they are introduced into the environment by different pathways, affecting aquatic life. In this study, a method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of eight sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, acesulfame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucralose, stevioside and glycyrrhizic acid) in river water and wastewater. To get the maximum recoveries in SPE, several commercial sorbents were tested and Oasis HLB gave the best results, with recoveries higher than 41% for all of the compounds in the different matrices. Method limits of detection were in the range of 0.001-0.04μg/L in river water and 0.01-0.5μg/L in influent and effluent wastewater. Method reproducibility between days (n=5) was below 15% for all compounds. The method was applied to the determination of sweeteners in various river waters and wastewaters in Catalonia. Cyclamate, aspartame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, acesulfame and sucralose were found in river water, with the two last compounds being present at the highest values (1.62μg/L for acesulfame and 3.57μg/L for sucralose). In influent and effluent wastewater, all of the compounds were found at concentration levels ranging from 0.05 to 155μg/L except for stevioside and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, which were not detected.

  2. Pre-analytical and analytical variation of drug determination in segmented hair using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of total uncertainty of analytical methods for the measurements of drugs in human hair has mainly been derived from the analytical variation. However, in hair analysis several other sources of uncertainty will contribute to the total uncertainty. Particularly, in segmental hair analysis pre-analytical variations associated with the sampling and segmentation may be significant factors in the assessment of the total uncertainty budget. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the analysis of 31 common drugs in hair using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with focus on the assessment of both the analytical and pre-analytical sampling variations. The validated method was specific, accurate (80-120%), and precise (CV≤20%) across a wide linear concentration range from 0.025-25 ng/mg for most compounds. The analytical variation was estimated to be less than 15% for almost all compounds. The method was successfully applied to 25 segmented hair specimens from deceased drug addicts showing a broad pattern of poly-drug use. The pre-analytical sampling variation was estimated from the genuine duplicate measurements of two bundles of hair collected from each subject after subtraction of the analytical component. For the most frequently detected analytes, the pre-analytical variation was estimated to be 26-69%. Thus, the pre-analytical variation was 3-7 folds larger than the analytical variation (7-13%) and hence the dominant component in the total variation (29-70%). The present study demonstrated the importance of including the pre-analytical variation in the assessment of the total uncertainty budget and in the setting of the 95%-uncertainty interval (±2CVT). Excluding the pre-analytical sampling variation could significantly affect the interpretation of results from segmental hair analysis.

  3. Simultaneous determination of salidroside and its aglycone metabolite p-tyrosol in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Hu, Zhiwei; Fan, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Dehui; Xu, Tao; Yu, Tao; Wang, Yang; Li, Haiying

    2012-04-23

    Salidroside and its aglycone p-tyrosol are two major phenols in the genus Rhodiola and have been confirmed to possess various pharmacological properties. In our present study, p-tyrosol was identified as the deglycosylation metabolite of salidroside after intravenous (i.v.) administration to rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg, but was not detectable after intragastric gavage (i.g.) administration through HPLC-photodiode array detection (PDA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Next, an accurate and precise LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantitatively determine salidroside and p-tyrosol in rat plasma samples. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on a reverse-phase xTerra MS C18 column which was equilibrated and eluted with an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile-water (1:9, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analytes were monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) under the negative electrospray ionization mode. The precursor/product transitions (m/z) were 299.0 → 118.8 for salidroside, 137.0 → 118.9 for p-tyrosol and 150.1 → 106.9 for the internal standard (IS), paracetamol, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration ranges of 50-2,000 ng/mL for salidroside and 20-200 ng/mL for p-tyrosol. The inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision were within ± 15%. The method has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study and the oral bioavailability was calculated.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Salidroside and Its Aglycone Metabolite p-Tyrosol in Rat Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Guo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Salidroside and its aglycone p-tyrosol are two major phenols in the genus Rhodiola and have been confirmed to possess various pharmacological properties. In our present study, p-tyrosol was identified as the deglycosylation metabolite of salidroside after intravenous (i.v. administration to rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg, but was not detectable after intragastric gavage (i.g. administration through HPLC-photodiode array detection (PDA and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. Next, an accurate and precise LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantitatively determine salidroside and p-tyrosol in rat plasma samples. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on a reverse-phase xTerra MS C18 column which was equilibrated and eluted with an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile-water (1:9, v/v at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analytes were monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM under the negative electrospray ionization mode. The precursor/product transitions (m/z were 299.0→118.8 for salidroside, 137.0→118.9 for p-tyrosol and 150.1→106.9 for the internal standard (IS, paracetamol, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration ranges of 50–2,000 ng/mL for salidroside and 20–200 ng/mL for p-tyrosol. The inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision were within ±15%. The method has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study and the oral bioavailability was calculated.

  5. Simultaneous enantioselective determination of triadimefon and its metabolite triadimenol in edible vegetable oil by gel permeation chromatography and ultraperformance convergence chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhoulin; Li, Xiaoge; Miao, Yelong; Lin, Mei; Xu, Mingfei; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hu

    2015-11-01

    A novel, sensitive, and efficient enantioselective method for the determination of triadimefon and its metabolite triadimenol in edible vegetable oil, was developed by gel permeation chromatography and ultraperformance convergence chromatography/tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After the vegetable oil samples were prepared using gel permeation chromatography, the eluent was collected, evaporated, and dried with nitrogen gas. The residue was redissolved by adding methanol up to a final volume of 1 mL. The analytes of six enantiomers were analyzed on Chiralpak IA-3 column (150 × 4.6 mm) using compressed liquid CO2-mixed 14 % co-solvents, comprising methanol/acetonitrile/isopropanol = 20/20/60 (v/v/v) in the mobile phase at 30 °C, and the total separation time was less than 4 min at a flow rate of 2 mL/min. Quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves. The overall mean recoveries for six enantiomers from vegetable oil were 90.1-97.3 %, with relative standard deviations of 0.8-5.4 % intra-day and 2.3-5.0 % inter-day at 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/kg levels. The limits of quantification were 0.5 μg/kg for all enantiomers based on five replicate extractions at the lowest fortified level in vegetable oil. Moreover, the absolute configuration of six enantiomers had been determined based on comparisons of the vibrational circular dichroism experimental spectra with the theoretical curve obtained by density functional theory calculations. Application of the proposed method to the 40 authentic vegetable oil samples from local markets suggests its potential use in enantioselective determination of triadimefon and triadimenol enantiomers. Graphical Abstract Chemical structures and UPC(2)-MS/MS separation chromatograms of triadimefon and triadimenol.

  6. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained r...

  7. Simultaneous determination of triazines and their main transformation products in surface and urban wastewater by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, Federica; Marín, José M; Sancho, Juan V; Canobbio, Sergio; Mezzanotte, Valeria; Hernández, Félix

    2010-08-01

    This work describes the optimization, validation and application of an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the quantification and confirmation of 11 compounds (atrazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, terbumeton, terbutryn and their main transformation products) in surface and wastewater samples. Several of these analytes are included in the list of priority substances in the framework on European Water Policy. The application of this method to water samples reveals that the most relevant transformation products (TPs) should be incorporated into current analytical methods to obtain a more realistic knowledge of water quality regarding pesticide contamination. TPs are generally more polar and mobile than parents and can be transported to the aquatic environment more easily than their precursors. This can explain their concentrations found in water, which in many cases are much higher than intact triazines. To efficiently combine UHPLC with MS/MS, a fast-acquisition triple quadrupole mass analyser was used. Working in selected reaction monitoring mode, up to three simultaneous transitions per compound were acquired, allowing a reliable quantification and confirmation at nanogram per litre levels. The method developed includes a pre-concentration step based on solid-phase extraction (OASIS HLB cartridges). Satisfactory recoveries (70-120%) and relative standard deviations (<20%) were obtained for all compounds in different water sample types spiked at two concentrations (0.025 and 0.1 microg/L in surface water; 0.25 and 1.0 microg/L in effluent wastewater; 0.5 and 2.0 microg/L in influent wastewater). The optimized method was found to have excellent sensitivity with instrumental detection limits as low as 0.03 pg. In addition, the influence of the matrix constituents on the ionization efficiency and the extraction recovery was studied in different types of Italian and Spanish surface and urban wastewater. Signal

  8. Development and validation of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to measure creatinine in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraselle, S; De Cremer, K; Coucke, W; Glorieux, G; Vanmassenhove, J; Schepers, E; Neirynck, N; Van Overmeire, I; Van Loco, J; Van Biesen, W; Vanholder, R

    2015-04-15

    Despite decades of creatinine measurement in biological fluids using a large variety of analytical methods, an accurate determination of this compound remains challenging. Especially with the novel trend to assess biomarkers on large sample sets preserved in biobanks, a simple and fast method that could cope with both a high sample throughput and a low volume of sample is still of interest. In answer to these challenges, a fast and accurate ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to measure creatinine in small volumes of human urine. In this method, urine samples are simply diluted with a basic mobile phase and injected directly under positive electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, without further purification steps. The combination of an important diluting factor (10(4) times) due to the use of a very sensitive triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (XEVO TQ) and the addition of creatinine-d3 as internal standard completely eliminates matrix effects coming from the urine. The method was validated in-house in 2012 according to the EMA guideline on bioanalytical method validation using Certified Reference samples from the German External Quality Assessment Scheme (G-Equas) proficiency test. All obtained results for accuracy and recovery are within the authorized tolerance ranges defined by G-Equas. The method is linear between 0 and 5 g/L, with LOD and LOQ of 5 × 10(-3) g/L and 10(-2) g/L, respectively. The repeatability (CV(r) = 1.03-2.07%) and intra-laboratory reproducibility (CV(RW) = 1.97-2.40%) satisfy the EMA 2012 guideline. The validated method was firstly applied to perform the German G-Equas proficiency test rounds 51 and 53, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The obtained results were again all within the accepted tolerance ranges and very close to the reference values defined by the organizers of the proficiency test scheme, demonstrating an excellent accuracy of the developed method. The

  9. Development of a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of acetylcholine and related neurotransmitters in brain microdialysis samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-Yi; Hughes, Zoë A; Kerns, Edward H; Lin, Qian; Beyer, Chad E

    2007-06-28

    Monitoring concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) in specific brain regions is important in understanding disease pathology, as well as in designing and evaluating novel disease-modifying treatments where cholinergic dysfunction is a hallmark feature. We have developed a sensitive and quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method to analyze the extracellular concentrations of ACh, choline (Ch) and (3-carboxylpropyl)-trimethylammonium (iso-ACh) in brain microdialysis samples of freely moving animals. One immediate advantage of this new method is the ability to monitor ACh in its free form without having to use a cholinesterase inhibitor in the perfusate. The separation of ACh, Ch, iso-ACh and related endogenous compounds was carried out based on cation exchange chromatography with a volatile elution buffer consisting of ammonium formate, ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. An unknown interference of ACh, which was observed in brain microdialysates from many studies, was well separated from ACh to ensure the accuracy of the measurement. Optimization of electrospray ionization conditions for these quaternary ammonium compounds achieved the limits of detection (S/N=3) of 0.2 fmol for ACh, 2 fmol for Ch and 0.6 fmol for iso-ACh using a benchtop tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer with moderate sensitivity. The limit of quantitation (S/N=10) was 1 fmol for ACh, 3 fmol for iso-ACh and 10 fmol for Ch. This method was selective, precise (iso-ACh and 15-3000 nM for Ch. To demonstrate that the developed method can be applied to monitoring changes in ACh concentrations in vivo, reference agents that have previously been shown to influence ACh levels were studied in rat dorsal hippocampus. This includes the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist, SB-271046, and the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil. Moreover, levels of ACh were demonstrated to be sensitive to infusion of tetrodotoxin (TTX) suggesting that the ACh being measured in vivo was of neuronal origin

  10. Characterization of metabolites of leonurine (SCM-198) in rats after oral administration by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and NMR spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Jinlian; Yang, Ping; Tan, Bo; Liu, Xinhua; Zheng, Yuanting; Cai, Weimin; Zhu, Yizhun

    2014-01-01

    Leonurine, a major bioactive component from Herba Leonuri, shows therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention in some preclinical experiments. The aim of this study is to characterize metabolites of leonurine in rats using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column using a gradient elution with acetonitrile/ammonium acetate buffer (10 mM, pH 4.0) solvent system. An information dependent acquisition (IDA) method was developed for screening and identifying metabolites of leonurine under positive ion mode. Compared with control, the interesting compound in the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) of the in vivo samples was chosen and further identified by analyzing their retention times, changes in observed mass (Δm/z), and spectral patterns of product ion utilizing advanced software tool. For the first time, a total of three metabolites were identified, including two phase II metabolites generated by glucuronidation (M1) and sulfation (M2) and one phase I metabolite formed by O-demethylation (M3). Finally, the lead metabolite M1 was isolated from urine and its structure was characterized as leonurine-10-O- β-D-glucuronide by NMR spectroscopy (¹H, ¹³C, HMBC, and HSQC).

  11. Characterization of Metabolites of Leonurine (SCM-198 in Rats after Oral Administration by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry and NMR Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leonurine, a major bioactive component from Herba Leonuri, shows therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention in some preclinical experiments. The aim of this study is to characterize metabolites of leonurine in rats using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column using a gradient elution with acetonitrile/ammonium acetate buffer (10 mM, pH 4.0 solvent system. An information dependent acquisition (IDA method was developed for screening and identifying metabolites of leonurine under positive ion mode. Compared with control, the interesting compound in the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC of the in vivo samples was chosen and further identified by analyzing their retention times, changes in observed mass (Δm/z, and spectral patterns of product ion utilizing advanced software tool. For the first time, a total of three metabolites were identified, including two phase II metabolites generated by glucuronidation (M1 and sulfation (M2 and one phase I metabolite formed by O-demethylation (M3. Finally, the lead metabolite M1 was isolated from urine and its structure was characterized as leonurine-10-O-β-D-glucuronide by NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, HMBC, and HSQC.

  12. Generic solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for fast determination of drugs in biological fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellen, A.; Ooms, B.; Lagemaat, D. van de; Vreeken, R.; Dongen, W.D. van

    2003-01-01

    A generic method was developed for the fast determination of a wide range of drugs in serum or plasma. The methodology comprises generic solid-phase extraction, on-line coupled to gradient HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The individual components of the SPE-LC-MS/MS sys

  13. Characterization of lemon (Citrus limon) polar extract by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Escobar, C A; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-11-01

    Eighty four metabolites (32 flavonoids, 15 amino acids, nine carboxylic acids, six coumarins, six sugars, five phenolic acids and 11 unclassified compounds) have been tentatively identified in a polar extract from lemon, without reference standards, based on their liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS/MS spectra and the comparison with databases. Despite information in databases for some families of plant compounds is poor, tentative identification based on MS/MS information (mass of the precursor ion and their fragments, together with neutral mass loss) was possible with the help of known fragmentation patterns for the given families of compounds. Both positive and negative ionization modes and at least two collision energies were always applied to obtain as much information as possible from each molecular entity, thus helping for identification. As the tentatively identified metabolites are the same regardless of the organism they belong, their fragmentation patterns are useful for identification with independence of the sample nature.

  14. Quantification of aconitine in post-mortem specimens by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method: three case reports on fatal 'monkshood' poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicker, Wolfgang; Monticelli, Fabio; Bauer, Andreas; Roider, Gabriele; Keller, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The diester-diterpene alkaloid aconitine was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in post-mortem specimens of three cases where suicidal ingestion of Aconitum napellus L. ('monkshood') was supposed. In an attempt at rationalization, sample preparation and chromatographic conditions of plasma/serum drug analysis routine were utilized. Linearity was established from 0.5 to 20 µg L⁻¹ using newborn calf serum (NCS) as a surrogate calibration matrix for all sample types and mesaconitine as an internal standard. Validation (selectivity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recovery of the extraction procedure, matrix effect, processed sample stability) confirmed the applicability of the analytical method to various post-mortem matrices. Internal standard selection was based on multi-matrix process efficiency data. In human post-mortem peripheral blood a lower limit of quantification of 0.51 µg L⁻¹ and a limit of detection of 0.13 µg L⁻¹ were accomplished (0.1 ml sample aliquots). Aconitine was degraded to a large extent in different sample types when being stored at +20 °C for 30 days, while at -20 °C and for some matrices also at +4 °C no appreciable degradation occurred. Aconitine concentrations in real samples were 10.3-17.9 µg L⁻¹ (peripheral blood, n = 3), 14.9-87.9 µg L⁻¹ (heart blood, n = 3), 317-481 µg L⁻¹ (urine, n = 2), 609-4040 µg L⁻¹ (stomach content, n = 3), 139-240 µg L⁻¹ (bile, n = 2), 8.4 µg L⁻¹ (vitreous humor, n = 1), 54.7 µg L⁻¹ (pericardial fluid, n = 1), 492 µg kg⁻¹ (liver, n = 1), 15.2-19.7 mg L⁻¹ (unknown liquids secured onsite, n = 3). Together with concomitant circumstances the analytical data provided compelling evidence for acute Aconitum poisoning as being the cause of death.

  15. Simultaneous quantification of four metabolites of sulfur mustard in urine samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Cai; Liu, Shi-Lei; Xi, Hai-Ling; Yu, Hui-Lan; Zhou, Shi-Kun; Huang, Gui-Lan; Liang, Long-Hui; Liu, Jing-Quan

    2017-04-07

    Four HD urinary metabolites including hydrolysis metabolite thiodiglycol (TDG), glutathione-derived metabolite 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-S-(N-acetylcysteinyl)ethane] (SBSNAE), as well as the β-lyase metabolites 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethane] (SBMSE) and 1-methylsulfinyl-2-[2-(methylthio) ethylsulfonyl]ethane (MSMTESE) are considered as important biomarkers for short-term retrospective detection of HD exposure. In this study, a single method for simultaneous quantification of the four HD metabolites in urine samples was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The four urinary metabolites were simultaneously extracted from urinary samples using a solid phase extraction (SPE) method with high extraction recoveries for all four metabolites varied in the range of 71.1-103% followed by UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The SPE is simple and high effective only requiring 0.1mL of urinary samples and 0.5h time consuming. The problem of previous co-elution of TDG and SBSNAE in UHPLC was well solved, and complete separation of TDG, SBSNAE, SBMSE and MSMTESE from SPE-processed urine matrix was obtained to increase specificity and sensitivity. A full method validation was performed for each analyte in urine matrix. The linear range of calibration curves for the four analytes were respectively from 0.50-500ngmL(-1) for TDG and SBSNAE, 0.05-500ngmL(-1) for SBMSE and MSMTESE with coefficient of determination value (R(2)) ≥0.990. The limit of detection was 0.25ngmL(-1) for TDG and SBSNAE, 0.01ngmL(-1) for SBMSE and MSMTESE spiked in normal urine. The intra/inter-day precision for each analyte at three QC levels had relative standard deviation (%RSD) of ≤10.3%, and the intra/inter-day accuracy ranged between 88.0-108%. This developed method allows for simultaneous and trace measurement of four HD urinary metabolites within one single determination with the lowest usage amount of urine samples over all previous methods This

  16. Correlation between Serum Levels of 3,3',5'-Triiodothyronine and Thyroid Hormones Measured by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Sakai

    Full Text Available For measuring serum 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3 levels, radioimmunoassay (RIA has traditionally been used owing to the lack of other reliable methods; however, it has recently become difficult to perform. Meanwhile, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS has recently been attracting attention as a novel alternative method in clinical chemistry. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies to date comparing results of the quantification of human serum rT3 between LC-MS/MS and RIA. We therefore examined the feasibility of LC-MS/MS as a novel alternative method for measuring serum rT3, thyroxine (T4, and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 levels.Assay validation was performed by LC-MS/MS using quality control samples of rT3, T4, and T3 at 4 various concentrations which were prepared from reference compounds. Serum samples of 50 outpatients in our department were quantified both by LC-MS/MS and conventional immunoassay for rT3, T4, and T3. Correlation coefficients between the 2 measurement methods were statistically analyzed respectively.Matrix effects were not observed with our method. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 10.8% and 9.6% for each analyte at each quality control level, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day accuracies were between 96.2% and 110%, and between 98.3% and 108.6%, respectively. The lower limit of quantification was 0.05 ng/mL. Strong correlations were observed between the 2 measurement methods (correlation coefficient, T4: 0.976, p < 0.001; T3: 0.912, p < 0.001; rT3: 0.928, p < 0.001.Our LC-MS/MS system requires no manual cleanup operation, and the process after application of a sample is fully automated; furthermore, it was found to be highly sensitive, and superior in both precision and accuracy. The correlation between the 2 methods over a wide range of concentrations was strong. LC-MS/MS is therefore expected to become a useful tool for clinical diagnosis and research.

  17. Dispersive solid-phase extraction as a simplified clean-up technique for biological sample extracts. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Camargo, Alejandra; Martinez, Luis D; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2011-05-06

    Dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) is proposed for the first time as a simplified, fast and low cost clean-up technique of biological sample extracts for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determination. The combination of a traditional extraction technique, such as ultrasound-assisted leaching (USAL) with DSPE was successfully applied for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytes were first extracted from 1g homogenized sample in n-hexane:dichloromethane (8:2) by applying USAL technique and further cleaned-up using DSPE with 0.20 g C(18)-silica as sorbent material. Different solvent mixtures, sorbent type and amount, and lipid digestion procedures were evaluated in terms of clean-up and extraction efficiency. Under optimum conditions, the method detection limits (MDLs) for PBDEs, calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were within the range 9-44 pg g(-1) wet weight. The calibration graphs were linear within the concentration range of 53-500,000 pg g(-1), 66-500,000 pg g(-1), 89-500,000 pg g(-1) and 151-500,000 pg g(-1) for BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-99 and BDE-153, respectively; and the coefficient of determination (r(2)) exceeded 0.9992 for all analytes. The proposed methodology was compared with a reference solid-phase extraction technique. The applicability of the methodology for the screening of PBDEs has been demonstrated by analyzing spiked and real samples of biological nature (fish, egg and chicken) with different lipid content as well as reference material (WELL-WMF-01). Recovery values ranged between 75% and 114% and the measured concentrations in certified material showed a reasonable agreement with the certified ones. BDE-47, BDE-100 and BDE-99 were quantified in three of the seven analyzed samples and the concentrations ranged between 91 and 140 pg g(-1). In addition, this work is the first description of PBDEs detected in fish of Argentinean environment.

  18. Multi-class determination of around 50 pharmaceuticals, including 26 antibiotics, in environmental and wastewater samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lor, Emma; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix

    2011-04-22

    A multi-class method for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 47 pharmaceuticals in environmental and wastewater samples has been developed. The target list of analytes included analgesic and anti-inflammatories, cholesterol lowering statin drugs and lipid regulators, antidepressants, anti-ulcer agents, psychiatric drugs, ansiolitics, cardiovasculars and a high number (26) of antibiotics from different chemical groups. A common pre-concentration step based on solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges was applied, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) measurement. All compounds were satisfactorily determined in just one single injection, with a chromatographic run time of only 10 min. The process efficiency (combination of the matrix effect and the extraction process recovery) for the 47 selected compounds was evaluated in nine effluent wastewater (EWW) samples, and the use of different isotope-labelled internal standards (ILIS) was investigated to correct unsatisfactory values. Up to 12 ILIS were evaluated in EWW and surface water (SW). As expected, the ILIS provided satisfactory correction for their own analytes. However, the use of these ILIS for the rest of pharmaceuticals was problematic in some cases. Despite this fact, the correction with analogues ILIS was found useful for most of analytes in EWW, while was not strictly required in the SW tested. The method was successfully validated in SW and EWW at low concentration levels, as expected for pharmaceuticals in these matrices (0.025, 0.1 and 0.5 μg/L in SW; 0.1 and 0.5 μg/L in EWW). With only a few exceptions, the instrumental limits of detection varied between 0.1 and 8 pg. The limits of quantification were estimated from sample chromatograms at the lowest spiked levels tested and normally were below 20 ng/L for SW and below 50 ng/L for EWW. The developed method was applied to the analysis of around forty water samples (river

  19. Pharmacokinetic study of calenduloside E and its active metabolite oleanolic acid in beagle dog using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meiyun; Yang, Yan; Sun, Yantong; Cheng, Longmei; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Huibo; Fawcett, J Paul; Sun, Xiaobo; Gu, Jingkai

    2014-03-01

    Aralia mandshrica is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine from Northeast China commonly used to treat digestive, circulatory and immune system disorders. Calenduloside E is one of its bioactive components currently under evaluation as a pure drug. In this study, a highly sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantitation of calenduloside E and its active metabolite oleanolic acid in beagle dog plasma has been developed and validated. Samples containing the ammonium salt of simvastatin acid as internal standard (IS) were purified by solid phase extraction and separated on a SUPELCO Ascentis-C18 column (50mm×4.6mm i.d., 5μm) using gradient elution with 0.35% formic acid and acetonitrile. Analytes and IS were detected in a cycle time of 5min after ionization in the negative ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring of the precursor-to-product ion transitions at m/z 631.4→455.4 and m/z 435.4→319.0 for calenduloside E and IS respectively and by single ion monitoring of the ion at m/z 455.4 for oleanolic acid. The method was linear over the concentration range 0.4-100ng/mL for both analytes using 0.5mL plasma. Inter- and intra-day precisions were both beagle dogs were given oral doses of calenduloside E (1.05, 2.10 and 4.20mg/kg) and an intravenous injection of 2.10mg/kg. The absolute bioavailability of calenduloside E was only 0.58%. Area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-t)) for the oral doses of calenduloside E was approximately dose proportional while other PK parameters (t1/2, Tmax and MRT) showed no significant differences among the three doses (P>0.05). The PK data provide a useful platform on which to base future clinical studies of calenduloside E.

  20. Development of a simple extraction and clean-up procedure for determination of organochlorine pesticides in soil using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A; Nawaz, S; Barker, H; Ahmad, I; Ashraf, M

    2010-04-23

    A procedure based on QuEChERS extraction and a simultaneous liquid-liquid partition clean-up was developed. The procedure involved extraction of hydrated soil samples using acetonitrile and clean-up by liquid-liquid partition into n-hexane. The hexane extracts produced were clean and suitable for determination using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The method was validated by analysis of soil samples, spiked at five levels between 1 and 200 microg kg(-1). The recovery values were generally between 70 and 100% and the relative standard deviation values (%RSDs) were at or below 20%. The procedure was validated for determination of 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides. These were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide (trans), aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane (trans), chlordane (cis), oxychlordane, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, endrin, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE. The method achieved low limits of detection (LOD; typically 0.3 microg kg(-1)) and low limits of quantification (LOQ; typically 1.0 microg kg(-1)). The method performance was also assessed using five fortified soil samples with different physico-chemical properties and the method performance was consistent for the different types of soil samples. The proposed method was compared with an established procedure based on Soxtec extraction. This comparison was carried out using six soil samples collected from regions of Pakistan with a history of intensive pesticide use. The results of this comparison showed that the two procedures produced results with good agreement. The proposed method produced cleaner extracts and therefore led to lower limits of quantification. The proposed method was less time consuming and safer to use. The six samples tested during this comparison showed that soils from cotton growing regions contained a number of persistent OC residues at relatively low levels (<10 microg kg(-1)). These

  1. High-throughput analysis of amphetamines in blood and urine with online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María del Mar Ramírez; Wille, Sarah M R; Samyn, Nele; Wood, Michelle; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; De Boeck, Gert

    2009-01-01

    An automated online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS) method for the analysis of amphetamines in blood and urine was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nucleodur Sphinx RP column with an LC gradient (a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile), ensuring the elution of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, PMA, and ephedrine within 11 min. The method was fully validated, according to international guidelines, using only 100 and 50 microL of blood and urine, respectively. The method showed an excellent intra- and interassay precision (relative standard deviation 0.99, 2.5-400 microg/L for blood and 25-1000 microg/L for urine). Limits of quantification were determined to be 2.5 and 25 microg/L for blood and urine, respectively. Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 microg/L for blood and 0.25 to 2.5 microg/L for urine, depending on the compound. Furthermore, the analytes and the processed samples were demonstrated to be stable (in the autosampler for at least 72 h and after three freeze/thaw cycles), and no disturbing matrix effects were observed for all compounds. Moreover, no carryover was observed after the analysis of high concentration samples (15,000 microg/L). The method was subsequently applied to authentic blood and urine samples obtained from forensic cases, which covered a broad range of concentrations. The validation results and actual sample analyses demonstrated that this method is rugged, precise, accurate, and well-suited for routine analysis as more than 72 samples are analyzed non-stop in 24 h with minimum sample handling. The combination of the high-throughput online SPE and the well-known sensitivity and selectivity assured by MS-MS resulted in the elimination of the bottleneck associated with the sample preparation requirements and provided increased sensitivity, accuracy, and precision.

  2. Analysis of intracellular and extracellular microcystin variants in sediments and pore waters by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastepa, Arthur; Pick, Frances R; Blais, Jules M; Saleem, Ammar

    2015-05-04

    The fate and persistence of microcystin cyanotoxins in aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood in part due to the lack of analytical methods for microcystins in sediments. Existing methods have been limited to the extraction of a few extracellular microcystins of similar chemistry. We developed a single analytical method, consisting of accelerated solvent extraction, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid phase extraction, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, suitable for the extraction and quantitation of both intracellular and extracellular cyanotoxins in sediments as well as pore waters. Recoveries of nine microcystins, representing the chemical diversity of microcystins, and nodularin (a marine analogue) ranged between 75 and 98% with one, microcystin-RR (MC-RR), at 50%. Chromatographic separation of these analytes was achieved within 7.5 min and the method detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.5 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). The robustness of the method was demonstrated on sediment cores collected from seven Canadian lakes of diverse geography and trophic states. Individual microcystin variants reached a maximum concentration of 829 ng g(-1) dw on sediment particles and 132 ng mL(-1) in pore waters and could be detected in sediments as deep as 41 cm (>100 years in age). MC-LR, -RR, and -LA were more often detected while MC-YR, -LY, -LF, and -LW were less common. The analytical method enabled us to estimate sediment-pore water distribution coefficients (K(d)), MC-RR had the highest affinity for sediment particles (log K(d)=1.3) while MC-LA had the lowest affinity (log K(d)=-0.4), partitioning mainly into pore waters. Our findings confirm that sediments serve as a reservoir for microcystins but suggest that some variants may diffuse into overlying water thereby constituting a new route of exposure following the dissipation of toxic blooms. The method is well suited to determine the fate and persistence of different

  3. An improved method for retrospective quantification of sulfur mustard exposure by detection of its albumin adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ChangCai; Liang, LongHui; Xiang, Yu; Yu, HuiLan; Zhou, ShiKun; Xi, HaiLing; Liu, ShiLei; Liu, JingQuan

    2015-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) adduct to human serum albumin (ALB) at Cys-34 residue has become an important and long-term retrospective biomarker of HD exposure. Here, a novel, sensitive, and convenient approach for retrospective quantification of HD concentration exposed to plasma was established by detection of the HD-ALB adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with a novel non-isotope internal standard (IS). The HD-ALB adduct was isolated from HD-exposed plasma with blue Sepharose. The adduct was digested with proteinase K to form sulfur-hydroxyethylthioethyl ([S-HETE])-Cys-Pro-Phe tripeptide biomarker. The tripeptide adduct could be directly analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS without an additional solid phase extraction (SPE), which was considered as a critical procedure in previous methods. The easily available 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES) as HD surrogate was first reported to be used as IS in place of traditional d8-HD for quantification of HD exposure. Furthermore, 2-CEES was also confirmed to be a good IS alternative for quantification of HD exposure by investigation of product ion spectra for their corresponding tripeptide adducts which exhibited identical MS/MS fragmentation behaviors. The method was found to be linear between 1.00 and 250 ng•mL(-1) HD exposure (R(2)>0.9989) with precision of <4.50% relative standard deviation (%RSD), accuracy range between 96.5% and 114%, and a calculated limit of detection (LOD) of 0.532 ng•mL(-1). The lowest reportable limit (LRL) is 1.00 ng•mL(-1), over seven times lower than that of the previous method. The entire method required only 0.1 mL of plasma sample and took under 7 h without special sample preparation equipment. It is proven to be a sensitive, simple, and rugged method, which is easily applied in international laboratories to improve the capabilities for the analysis of biomedical samples related to verification of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC).

  4. [Optimization of sample pretreatment method for the determination of typical artificial sweeteners in soil by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Biting; Gan, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongwei; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-09-01

    The sample pretreatment method for the determination of four typical artificial sweeteners (ASs) including sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame in soil by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was optimized. Different conditions of extraction, including four extractants (methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, deionized water), three kinds of ionic strength of sodium acetate solution (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 mol/L), four pH values (3, 4, 5 and 6) of 0.01 mol/L acetate-sodium acetate solution, four set durations of extraction (20, 40, 60, 120 min) and number of extraction times (1, 2, 3, 4 times) were compared. The optimal sample pretreatment method was finally set up. The sam- ples were extracted twice with 25 mL 0.01 mol/L sodium acetate solution (pH 4) for 20 min per cycle. The extracts were combined and then purified and concentrated by CNW Poly-Sery PWAX cartridges with methanol containing 1 mmol/L tris (hydroxymethyl) amino methane (Tris) and 5% (v/v) ammonia hydroxide as eluent. The analytes were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The recoveries were obtained by spiked soil with the four artificial sweeteners at 1, 10, 100 μg/kg (dry weight), separately. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 86.5% to 105%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 2.56%-5.94% and 3.99%-6.53%, respectively. Good linearities (r2 > 0.995) were observed between 1-100 μg/kg (dry weight) for all the compounds. The limits of detection were 0.01-0.21 kg/kg and the limits of quantification were 0.03-0.70 μg/kg for the analytes. The four artificial sweeteners were determined in soil samples from farmland contaminated by wastewater in Tianjin. This method is rapid, reliable, and suitable for the investigation of artificial sweeteners in soil.

  5. Development, optimization and validation of a multimethod for the determination of 36 mycotoxins in wines by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; de Kok, Andre; Scholten, Jos; Righi, Laís W; Cardoso, Carmem D; Rohers, Graciele Necchi; da Silva, Rosselei C

    2014-11-01

    A fast and efficient multimethod for the determination of 36 mycotoxins in wine, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), was developed, optimized, validated and implemented in routine analysis. A simplified, quick extraction was performed with acetonitrile, derived from the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) approach, which was traditionally developed for pesticides analysis. This study aimed at a single extraction and chromatographic separation for 36 mycotoxins. Optimization tests were performed to find the proper ratio of wine: water and extraction solvent and the need for an additional buffering step with ammonium formate/formic acid and a dispersive SPE cleanup with various sorbents. The dSPE steps did not show significant improvement in analysis results, therefore, it was not applied in the final method to be validated. The mycotoxins were separated and detected on a UPLC-MS/MS system, used in the ESI positive ionization mode. The various mycotoxins were divided in three different concentration level groups, according to their sensitivity in UPLC-MS/MS. The validation was performed by analyzing recovery samples at three different spike levels with six replicates (n=6) at each level. Linearity (r(2)) of calibration curves, accuracy (recovery %), instrument limits of detection and method limits of quantification (LOD and LOQ), precision (RSD%) and matrix effects (%) were determined for each individual mycotoxin. From the 36 mycotoxins analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS (ESI+), 35 showed average recoveries in the range 70-120%, and 86% of these with a RSD≤20% at the lowest spike level (for Group I, II and III, respectively, 1, 50 and 10 µg kg(-1)). The higher spike levels showed even better results. Only nivalenol could not be quantified at any concentration level. The method LOQ for 86% of the mycotoxins studied was the lowest spike level tested. The matrix effect observed was low for most mycotoxins

  6. Analysis of intracellular and extracellular microcystin variants in sediments and pore waters by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zastepa, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.zastepa@gmail.com; Pick, Frances R.; Blais, Jules M.; Saleem, Ammar

    2015-05-04

    Highlights: • First analytical method for intracellular microcystins (MCs) in sediment. • Includes a suite of variants (LR, {sup 7dm}LR, RR, YR, WR, LA, LF, LY, LW) and nodularin. • Reports the first measurements of MCs in sediment pore waters. • MCs detected in >100 year old lake sediments suggesting long-term preservation. • Sediment-pore water distribution (K{sub d}) differed between variants suggesting differences in environmental fate. - Abstract: The fate and persistence of microcystin cyanotoxins in aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood in part due to the lack of analytical methods for microcystins in sediments. Existing methods have been limited to the extraction of a few extracellular microcystins of similar chemistry. We developed a single analytical method, consisting of accelerated solvent extraction, hydrophilic–lipophilic balance solid phase extraction, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, suitable for the extraction and quantitation of both intracellular and extracellular cyanotoxins in sediments as well as pore waters. Recoveries of nine microcystins, representing the chemical diversity of microcystins, and nodularin (a marine analogue) ranged between 75 and 98% with one, microcystin-RR (MC-RR), at 50%. Chromatographic separation of these analytes was achieved within 7.5 min and the method detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.5 ng g{sup −1} dry weight (dw). The robustness of the method was demonstrated on sediment cores collected from seven Canadian lakes of diverse geography and trophic states. Individual microcystin variants reached a maximum concentration of 829 ng g{sup −1} dw on sediment particles and 132 ng mL{sup −1} in pore waters and could be detected in sediments as deep as 41 cm (>100 years in age). MC-LR, -RR, and -LA were more often detected while MC-YR, -LY, -LF, and -LW were less common. The analytical method enabled us to estimate sediment-pore water

  7. Determination of co-administrated opioids and benzodiazepines in urine using column-switching solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lingjuan; Wang, Rong; Liang, Chen; Teng, Xiaomei; Jiang, Fengli; Zeng, Libo; Ye, Haiying; Ni, Chunfang; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Rao, Yulan; Zhang, Yurong

    2015-05-22

    Co-administration of opioids with benzodiazepines is very common around the world. A semi-automated method was developed for the determination of four opioids and two benzodiazepines as well as their metabolites (including glucuronide metabolites) in human urine, based on on-line column-switching-solid-phase extraction (CS-SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The CS-SPE was performed by loading 200μL of urine sample to an Oasis HLB cartridge. Detection was achieved using a LC-MS/MS system equipped with an electrospray ionization source (ESI). For unequivocal identification and confirmation, two selected reaction monitoring transitions were registered for each compound, and no co-elution of interferences was observed at the expected retention time. Significant ion suppressions were observed for most analytes during chromatographic runs, but isotope-labeled internal standards (ISs) were used and found to be useful to compensate for the determination error caused by the matrix effect. The assay's linearity ranged from 1-20ng/mL to 800-1000ng/mL for 23 compounds, except for lorazepam (LOR), whose linearity was in the range of 1-100ng/mL. This method showed to be precise and accurate. The relative standard deviation (RSD) % values of within-run precision, between-run precision and total precision were not greater than 10.4% (n=3), 12.9% (n=5) and 15.1% (n=15), respectively. Accuracy values were in the range of 87.5-110%. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.2ng/mL to 5ng/mL, and limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1ng/mL to 20ng/mL. The method was applied to the assay of 12 samples from forensic cases, which exemplified the co-administration of benzodiazepines (BZDs) by some heroin abusers. This method was of high sensitivity, selectivity and reliability, minimum sample manipulation, semi-automation, and fairly high throughput (analysis time per sample was 20min). The method developed will be useful for the detection of co

  8. Determination of Rotenone Residues in Foodstuffs by Solid-Phase Extraction(SPE)and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry(LC-MS/MS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dun-ming; ZHOU Yu; LIN Li-yi; ZHANG Zhi-gang; ZHANG Jin; LU Sheng-yu; YANG Fang; HUANG Peng-ying

    2010-01-01

    We developed a novel approach to determine rotenone residues in foodstuffs,by integrating solid-phase extraction(SPE)and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS)technologies,to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity.In our method,the solvent extraction with n-hexane-dichloromethane(50:50,v/v)and cleanup with florisil SPE cartridges using ethyl acetate-ethyl ether(25:75,v/v)as eluents provided adequate recovery of rotenone.The detection of rotenone was then carried out by LC-MS/MS using acetonitrile-water with the 0.1% formic acid(w/v)as the mobile phase.The multiple reaction monitoring(MRM)scheme employed in the approach involved the transitions of the precursor ion to three selected product ions,in which one pair for quantification was m/z 395.3>213.2 and the other two pairs for identification were m/z 395.3>192.2 and 395.3>367.0.The limits of quantification(LOQs)of the method ranged from 0.001 to 0.005 mg kg-1 depending on the matrix,Intra-and inter-day precisions(relative standard deviations,RSDs)for rotenone were less than 7.1 and 14.8%,respectively.Results from repetitive analysis suggested good reproducibility of the method for rotenone residue detection.The recoveries at three concentrations(LOQ,10LOQ and 100LOQ)ranged from 79.3-118.3% in cabbage,potato,onion,carrot,apple,orange,banana,lichee,tea,and Shiitake mushroom.The proposed procedure was then applied to the analysis of 129 real samples collected from Xiamen,Fujian Province,China.The existence of rotenone was found in two tea products with concentrations of 0.012 and 0.016 mg kg-1,respectively.The method has great potential for routine analysis of monitoring rotenone residue in foodstuffs.

  9. Characterization of in vitro metabolites of deoxypodophyllotoxin in human and rat liver microsomes using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Jun, In Hye; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Kim, Ju Hyun; Seo, Young Min; Kang, Mi Jeong; Lee, Seung Ho; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro metabolism of deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), a medicinal herbal product isolated from Anthriscus sylvestris (Apiaceae), was investigated in rats and human microsomes and human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYPs. The incubation of DPT with pooled human microsomes in the presence of NADPH generated five metabolites while its incubation with dexamethasone (Dex)-induced rat liver resulted in seven metabolites (M1-M7) with major metabolic reactions including mono-hydroxylation, O-demethylation and demethylenation. Reasonable structures of the seven metabolites of DPT could be proposed, based on the electrospray tandem mass spectra. Chemical inhibition by ketoconazole and metabolism studies with human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYPs indicated that CYP 3A4 and 2C19 are the major CYP isozymes in the metabolism of DPT in human liver microsomes.

  10. Determination of pazopanib (GW-786034) in mouse plasma and brain tissue by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Minocha, Mukul; Khurana, Varun; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of pazopanib in mouse plasma and brain tissue homogenate. Single liquid-liquid extraction step with ethyl acetate was employed for analysis of pazopanib and the internal standard (IS); vandetanib. HPLC separation was performed on an XTerra® MS C18 column 50 × 4.6mm, 5.0 μm. The mobile phase consisted of 70% acetonitrile and 30% wat...

  11. Quantitation of metabolites of the nerve agents sarin, soman, cyclohexylsarin, VX, and Russian VX in human urine using isotope-dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, John R; Driskell, W J; Aston, Linda S; Martinez, Rodolfo A

    2004-01-01

    Organophosphorus nerve agents are among the most toxic organic compounds known and continue to be a threat for both military and terrorist use. We have developed an isotope-dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (GC-MS-MS) method for quantitating the urinary metabolites of the organophosphorus nerve agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), VX, Russian VX (RVX), and cyclohexylsarin (GF). Urine samples were acidified, extracted into ether-acetonitrile, derivatized by methylation with diazomethane, and analyzed by GC-MS-MS. The limits of detection were less than 1 micro g/L for all analytes.

  12. Quantification of antidepressants and antipsychotics in human serum by precipitation and ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo

    2011-01-01

    precipitated with zinc sulphate and methanol containing a stable isotope labelled analog for each analyte. Quantitative analysis was performed by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography combined with a tandem mass spectrometer using a Zorbax SB-C8 column (2.0×50mm; 1.8m) with a mobile phase consisting of 0...... for therapeutic drug monitoring. The method was developed to replace old techniques which applied solid phase extraction and ultra-violet detection. The old methods had reached their limit of capacity regarding the number of samples and co-medicated drugs interfering with the detection. Serum samples were.......1% formic acid in water and methanol, respectively. The total run time of the chromatography was 4 min. Precision and trueness varied from 2.6% to 14.9% and 87.6% to 103.5%, respectively. At the lower limit of quantification, precision was up to 17.9% and trueness varied from 89.5% to 111.5%. A five point...

  13. Determination of Aromatic Amines Released from Azo Dyes in Paper Packaging by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Bian, Zhaoyang; Li, Zhonghao; Fan, Ziyan; Wang, Ying; Liu, ShanShan; Deng, Huimin; Tang, Gangling

    2016-09-01

    An LC-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of 21 kinds of carcinogenic aromatic amines released from azo dyes in food wrappers was used in this research. Sodium dithionite was added to a citric acid buffer medium to reduce and decompose possible azo dyes. The extract was analyzed after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and dispersive SPE (d-SPE). The conditions for chromatographic separation, mass spectrum, LLE, and d-SPE were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the LOD was in the range of 0.13-0.35 mg/kg and LOQ in the range of 0.38-1.05 mg/kg, with the addition of standard recoveries of most aromatic amines being ≥80% and RSDs ≤10%. The recoveries for 2,4-diaminotoluene and 2,4-diaminoanisole were significantly lower, being ≤40%. The method was successfully used to analyze 30 practical samples, and the results showed that it is user-friendly, with high sensitivity, rapid control, and low matrix interference.

  14. Simultaneous quantification of caffeine and its three primary metabolites in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eu Jin; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Jung Bae; Kwon, Min Jo; Jang, Su Min; Zheng, Yu Fen; Lee, Young Sun; Lee, Su-Jun; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2013-12-01

    A rapid, sensitive, simple and accurate LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of caffeine, and its three primary metabolites, theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline, in rat plasma was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column using 1 μg/mL acetaminophen as an internal standard. Each sample was run at 0.5 mL/min for a total run time of 7 min/sample. Detection and quantification were performed using a mass spectrometer in selected reaction-monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The lower limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL for all analytes with linear ranges up to 5000 ng/mL for caffeine and 1000 ng/mL for its metabolites. The coefficient of variation for assay precision was less than 12.6%, with an accuracy of 93.5-114%. The assay was successfully applied to determine plasma concentrations of caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline in rat administered various energy drinks containing the same caffeine content. Various energy drinks exhibited considerable variability in the pharmacokinetic profiles of caffeine and its three primary metabolites, even containing the same caffeine. Different additives of energy drinks might contribute to these results.

  15. Validation of analysis of amphetamines, opiates, phencyclidine, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine in oral fluids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Subbarao V; Harris, Steve E; Freijo, Tom D; Gerlich, Stan

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a method for the detection and quantitation of drugs of abuse in oral fluids. Fortified oral fluid samples (made in-house) and samples from donors collected with Quantasil oral fluid collection kits from Immunalysis were screened on an Olympus 5400 using reagents purchased from Immunalysis. Amphetamines (AMPs), opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in oral fluids were quantitated by an Applied Biosystems 3200 QTRAP liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS-MS). AMPs, opiates, PCP, cocaine, and BE were extracted from samples using liquid-liquid or solid-phase extractions and the extracts were separated on a Shimadzu high-performance liquid chromatograph prior to the MS-MS analysis. For each drug, two multiple reaction mode transitions were monitored using positive electrospray ionization coupled to an MS-MS detector. Corresponding d3, d5, d6, and d11 internal standards were used to quantitate the results. The limit of detection/quantitation for AMPs, opiates, PCP, cocaine, and its metabolite BE were 10, 10, 2, 2, and 2 ng/mL of oral fluid, respectively, on a signal-to-noise ratio > 4. This corresponded to 25, 25, 5, 5, and 5 pg on column. The method was verified by participating in the North America Oral Fluid Proficiency Testing administered by Research Triangle Institute and by analyzing real samples from donors. In conclusion, LC-MS-MS provided a simple way to analyze and quantitate drugs of abuse in oral fluids.

  16. Determination of Glyphosate, its Degradation Product Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate, in Water by Isotope Dilution and Online Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Lee, Edward A.; Hinshaw, Gary H.; Dietze, Julie E.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey method (0-2141-09) presented is approved for the determination of glyphosate, its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in water. It was was validated to demonstrate the method detection levels (MDL), compare isotope dilution to standard addition, and evaluate method and compound stability. The original method USGS analytical method 0-2136-01 was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantitation by standard addition. Lower method detection levels and increased specificity were achieved in the modified method, 0-2141-09, by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The use of isotope dilution for glyphosate and AMPA and pseudo isotope dilution of glufosinate in place of standard addition was evaluated. Stable-isotope labeled AMPA and glyphosate were used as the isotope dilution standards. In addition, the stability of glyphosate and AMPA was studied in raw filtered and derivatized water samples. The stable-isotope labeled glyphosate and AMPA standards were added to each water sample and the samples then derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate. After derivatization, samples were concentrated using automated online solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by elution in-line with the LC mobile phase; the compounds separated and then were analyzed by LC/MS/MS using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring. The deprotonated derivatized parent molecule and two daughter-ion transition pairs were identified and optimized for glyphosate, AMPA, glufosinate, and the glyphosate and AMPA stable-isotope labeled internal standards. Quantitative comparison between standard addition and isotope dilution was conducted using 473 samples analyzed between April 2004 and June 2006. The mean percent difference and relative standard deviation between the two quantitation methods was 7.6 plus or minus 6.30 (n = 179), AMPA 9.6 plus or minus 8

  17. Determination of myrtucommulone from Myrtus communis in human and rat plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbeth, Kathleen; Meins, Jürgen; Werz, Oliver; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies revealed that the non-prenylated acylphloroglucinol myrtucommulone (MC) from myrtle ( MYRTUS COMMUNIS) potently suppresses the biosynthesis of eicosanoids by direct inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1, and 5-lipoxygenase at IC₅₀ values in the range of 1 to 29 µM. Moreover, MC showed potent efficacy in animal models of inflammation after intraperitoneal administration. Since the main prerequisite for therapeutic efficacy is sufficient bioavailability, it is important to evaluate whether the concentrations of MC achieved in plasma coincide with the pharmacological active concentrations determined in vitro. For that reason, a sensitive LC/MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of MC in human plasma. This method is based on liquid-liquid extraction of plasma samples with 20 % ethyl acetate in tert-butyl methyl ether using the structurally related acylphloroglucinol hyperforin as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Gemini C6 Phenyl column using a mixture of acetonitrile/water (85 : 15 v/v) containing 6 mM ammonium formate in a run time of 15 min at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, a column temperature of 40 °C, and an autosampler temperature of 5 °C. Mass spectrometric quantification was carried out in the negative ion mode using electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). The most intense [M-H]⁻ MRM transition at m/z 667.4 → m/z 194.9 was used for quantification of MC and the transition at m/z 535.4 to m/z 383.2 was used to monitor hyperforin. The method was linear in the range of 1-100 ng/mL with r > 0.998, an intra- and inter-day RSD of 1.1-8.4 and 7.1-11.8 %, respectively, and a maximum R. E. of 13.8 % at the lowest concentration level. Moreover, cross validation revealed the suitability of the developed LC/MS method for application in rat studies.

  18. Determination of type A trichothecenes in coix seed by magnetic solid-phase extraction based on magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maofeng; Si, Wenshuai; Wang, Weimin; Bai, Bing; Nie, Dongxia; Song, Weiguo; Zhao, Zhihui; Guo, Yirong; Han, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction (m-SPE) is a promising sample preparation approach due to its convenience, speed, and simplicity. For the first time, a rapid and reliable m-SPE approach using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs) as the adsorbent was proposed for purification of type A trichothecenes including T-2 toxins (T2), HT-2 toxins (HT-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), and neosolaniol (NEO) in coix seed. The m-MWCNTs were synthesized by assembling the magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with MWCNTs by sonication through an aggregation wrap mechanism, and characterized by transmission electron microscope. Several key parameters affecting the performance of the procedure were extensively investigated including extraction solutions, desorption solvents, and m-MWCNT amounts. Under the optimal sample preparation conditions followed by analysis with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), high sensitivity (limit of quantification in the range of 0.3-1.5 μg kg(-1)), good linearity (R (2) > 0.99), satisfactory recovery (73.6-90.6 %), and acceptable precision (≤2.5 %) were obtained. The analytical performance of the developed method has also been successfully evaluated in real coix seed samples. Graphical Abstract Flow chart of determination of type A trichothecenes in coix seed by magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

  19. Application of a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of buflomedil in human plasma for a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Yang, Chun; Peng, Yan; Li, Fan; Li, Ying-Hui; Zheng, Heng

    2013-09-15

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method based on ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry for the determination of buflomedil in human plasma has been developed and validated using carbamazepine as internal standard. After the precipitation of plasma sample with methanol, the analyte and IS were separated on an Ultimate C18 column (5μm, 2.1mm×50mm, MD, USA) with an isocratic mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 5mM ammonium acetate in water (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25ml/min. The analyte and IS were detected with proton adducts at m/z 308.3-237.1 and m/z 237.2-194.2 in positive ion electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring acquisition mode, respectively. The lower limit of quantification of the method was 23.64ng/ml with a linear dynamic range of 23.64-1182ng/ml for buflomedil. The intra- and inter-batch precisions were less than 5.8%. The developed method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of two buflomedil hydrochloride preparations (150mg) in 22 healthy Chinese male volunteers.

  20. Rapid and sensitive method for quantification of gestodene in human plasma as the oxime derivative by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and its application to bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ashish; Gupta, Arun; Kasibhatta, Ravisekhar; Bob, Manoj; Kumar, V Praveen; Purwar, Bipin

    2014-01-15

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the estimation of gestodene in human plasma. Gestodene was extracted from human plasma by using solid-phase extraction technique. Gestodene D6 was used as the internal standard. An Acquity HSS-T3 column provided chromatographic separation of analytes followed by detection with mass spectrometry. The mass transition ion-pair was followed as m/z 326.2→124.1 for gestodene and m/z 332.3→129.1 for gestodene D6. The method involves a solid phase extraction from plasma, rapid derivatization with hydroxylamine to form oxime, simple gradient chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometric detection that enables detection at sub-picogram levels. The proposed method has been validated for a linear range of 50-11957pg/ml with a correlation coefficient≥0.9994. The intra-run and inter-run precision and accuracy were within 10%. The overall recoveries for gestodene and gestodene D6 were 62.02% and 67.57% respectively. The total run time was 4.0min. The developed method was applied for the determination of the pharmacokinetic parameters of gestodene following a single oral administration of a 2×0.06mg gestodene tablets in 10 healthy female volunteers.

  1. Application of Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Determination of Veterinary Drug Residues%液相色谱—串联质谱法在兽药残留检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付石军; 郭时金; 张志美; 沈志强

    2012-01-01

    With the long-term and irrational use of veterinary drugs and drug additives in the process of animal feeding, the veterinary drug residues in animals and their additives can be ingested into the human body and pose potential threat to human health. Detection of veterinary drug residues are extremely important to protect the ecological environment and human health. In recent years, liquid chromatography-tan-dem mass spectrometry has been widely used in veterinary drug residue detection because of its applicability, qualitative and quantitative features as well as high sensitivity. This article summarized the application of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in detection veterinary drug residues from feed, animal products, and urine as well as illicit drugs and harmful additives.%随着兽药和药物添加剂在畜禽饲养过程中长期不合理的使用,残留在动物体内的兽药及其添加剂随着食物链进入人体,对人类的健康构成潜在威胁.加强对兽药残留的检测,对保护生态环境和人类的身体健康有着极其重要的现实意义.近年来,液相色谱—串联质谱技术以其良好的适用性、定性定量功能及高灵敏度等优点,在兽药残留的检测方面已得到了广泛应用.论文概述了液相色谱—串联质谱技术在饲料、畜产品和尿液中兽药残留以及违禁药物和有害添加剂检测的应用现状.

  2. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry simultaneous determination of repaglinide and metformin in human plasma and its application to bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-Rong; Dai, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ding, Jue-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2013-04-01

    A simple, sensitive, selective, and reproducible liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of repaglinide and metformin in human plasma using d5-repaglinide and d6-metformin as internal standards (ISs). After a simple protein precipitation using acetonitrile as the precipitation solvent, both analytes and ISs were separated on a Venusil ASB C 18 (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) via gradient elution using acetonitrile--10 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate as the mobile phase. A chromatographic total run time of 7.5 min was achieved. Mass spectrometric detection was conducted with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization under positive-ion and multiple-reaction monitoring modes. The method was linear over the 0.2 to 60.0 ng x mL(-1) concentration range for repaglinide and over the 4 to 1 000 ng x mL(-1) range for metformin. For both analytes, the intra- and inter-accuracies and precisions were within the +/- 15% acceptable limit across all concentrations. The validated method was successfully applied to a clinical bioequivalence study.

  3. Optimization of solid phase extraction clean up and validation of quantitative determination of corticosteroids in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Hansen, Lene Gram; Pedersen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) method for extraction and clean up of 9 synthetic corticosteroids was optimized for quantification by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/negative electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Clean up was accomplished using a mixed mode polymeric...

  4. METHOD 544. DETERMINATION OF MICROCYSTINS AND NODULARIN IN DRINKING WATER BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY (LC/MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 544 is an accurate and precise analytical method to determine six microcystins (including MC-LR) and nodularin in drinking water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS). The advantage of this SPE-LC/MS/MS is its sensi...

  5. Simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive, confirmatory ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to detect 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components) in bovine milk. Compounds of interest were sequentially extracted from milk with acetonitrile and basified acetonitrile using sodium chloride to induce liquid-liquid partition. The extract was purified on a mixed mode solid-phase extraction cartridge. Using rapid polarity switching in electrospray ionization, a single injection was capable of detecting both positively and negatively charged analytes in a 9 min chromatography run time. Recoveries based on matrix-matched calibrations and isotope labeled internal standards for milk ranged from 51.7% to 101.8%. The detection limits and quantitation limits of the analytical method were found to be within the range of 2-20 ng/kg and 5-50 ng/kg, respectively. The recommended method is simple, specific, and reliable for the routine monitoring of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk samples.

  6. Human liver cytosolic sulfotransferase 2A1-dependent dehydroepiandrosterone sulfation assay by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-20

    Sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1) is a major catalyst of the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in human liver cytosol. However, there is a lack of a sensitive and fast analytical method for the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. Therefore, we developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify DHEA-S and used it to optimize the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. DHEA-S and cortisol (internal standard) eluted at 2.95 and 2.75min, respectively. Negative multiple reaction monitoring was used to quantify DHEA-S (m/z 367.3→97.0) and cortisol (m/z 407.2→331.3). No interfering peaks were observed in blank samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2pmol DHEA-S and the calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision was sulfotransferase enzyme assays, and it is the first UPLC-MS/MS method for determining SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation in human liver cytosol.

  7. Simultaneous determination of β-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors in bovine milk by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nasi; Feng, Feng; Yang, Bingcheng; Jiang, Pingping; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-01-15

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four β-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone) and two β-lactamase inhibitors (tazobactam, sulbactam) in bovine milk. The analytes were extracted with water from bovine milk and purified with Oasis HLB solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The analytes were determined in less than 3min by UPLC-MS/MS in positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) modes, separately. The method was linear over the range of 1-100μg/L for tazobactam, sulbactam, ampicillin, and cefoperazone, and 2-100μg/L for amoxicillin and cefotaxime. The recoveries for all six analytes in bovine milk ranged from 82.5 to 98.3%. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were 0.1-0.2μg/L and 0.3-0.5μg/L, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 6% for each compound.

  8. A new high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method based on dispersive solid phase extraction for the determination of the mycotoxin fusarin C in corn ears and processed corn samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleigrewe, Karin; Söhnel, Anna-Carina; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-10-12

    Fusarin C is a mycotoxin that is produced by a variety of Fusarium species and is therefore a possible contaminant in food and feed. For this reason, a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of fusarin C in food and feed samples was developed based on dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE). This method has a limit of detection (LOD) of 2 μg/kg, a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 7 μg/kg, and a recovery rate of 80%. Fifty different corn samples were analyzed, and fusarin C was detected in 40 of them. The fusarin C level varied in kernels of corn ears from not detectable up to 83 mg/kg and in food samples from not detectable up to 28 μg/kg. The co-occurrence of further structural analogues of fusarin C was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography Fourier transformation mass spectrometry (HPLC-FTMS). In addition, the stability of fusarin C under storage conditions was evaluated.

  9. Simultaneous determination of benzodiazepines and their metabolites in human serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a high-resolution octadecyl silica column compatible with aqueous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohmori, Tomofumi; Itoh, Yoshinori; Terashita, Masato; Hirano, Kazuyuki

    2009-04-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using a high-resolution octadecyl silica column compatible with aqueous compounds was developed for the simultaneous determination of benzodiazepines and their metabolites in human serum. This method enabled us to determine multiple benzodiazepines, including flurazepam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, nitrazepam, clonazepam, flunitrazepam, estazolam, clobazam, lorazepam, alprazolam, triazolam, brotizolam, fludiazepam, diazepam, quazepam, prazepam and their metabolites such as 7-aminonitrazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-acetamidonitrazepam, N-desmethylclobazam and N-desmethyldiazepam. The analytes spiked into human serum were subjected to solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The running time was within 25 min for the measurement of 22 benzodiazepines and their metabolites. The recovery rates exceeded 58.1% for those compounds except for quazepam, which showed a recovery of 45.8%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.3 to 11.4 ng/mL. Linearity was satisfactory for all compounds. These data suggest that the present method can be applicable to routine assay for benzodiazepines in the clinical setting.

  10. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples by membrane-assisted solvent extraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xizhi; Tang, Zigang; Sun, Aili; Zhou, Lei; Zhao, Jian; Li, Dexiang; Chen, Jiong; Pan, Daodong

    2014-12-01

    A highly efficient and environment-friendly membrane-assisted solvent extraction system combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector was applied in the simultaneous determination of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples. Variables affecting extraction efficiency, including extraction solvent used, stirring rate, extraction time, and temperature, were optimized extensively. Under optimal extraction conditions, recoveries between 76.9% and 104.6% in seawater samples were achieved, and relative standard deviation values below 10% were obtained. The limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) and limit of quantification (signal-to-noise ratio=10) of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater ranged from 0.14ngL(-1) to 0.36ngL(-1) and 0.46ngL(-1) to 1.19ngL(-1), respectively. Matrix effects on extraction efficiency were evaluated by comparing with the results obtained using tap water. The extraction effect of developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction method was further demonstrated by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry which can provide structural information of the analytes for more accurate identification, and results identical to those produced by gas chromatography-electron capture detector were obtained. These findings demonstrate the applicability of the developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction determination method for coupling to gas chromatography-electron capture detector or tandem mass spectrometry for determining polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples.

  11. Determination of pazopanib (GW-786034) in mouse plasma and brain tissue by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Mukul; Khurana, Varun; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of pazopanib in mouse plasma and brain tissue homogenate. Single liquid-liquid extraction step with ethyl acetate was employed for analysis of pazopanib and the internal standard (IS); vandetanib. HPLC separation was performed on an XTerra® MS C18 column 50 × 4.6mm, 5.0 μm. The mobile phase consisted of 70% acetonitrile and 30% water with 0.1% formic acid, pumped at a flow rate of 0.25 ml/min. Analysis time was 3.5 min per run and both the analyte and IS eluted within 1.8–2.0 minutes. Multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was utilized to detect the compounds of interest. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ion mode for detection. The precursor to product ions (Q1 Q3) selected for pazopanib and internal standard during quantitative optimization were (m/z) 438.1 357.2 and 475.0 112.2 respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 3.9–1000ng/ml in both biological matrices. Lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for mouse plasma and brain tissue was 3.9ng/ml. The values for inter and intra day precision and accuracy were well within the ranges acceptable for analytical assessment (<15%). This method was applied to determine brain to plasma concentration ratio and relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of pazopanib after a single intravenous dose of 5mg/kg in FVB wild type mice. PMID:22749591

  12. In-Cell Clean-Up Pressurised Liquid Extraction Method to Determine Pesticides in Mushroom Compost by Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Tena; María Pilar Martínez-Moral; Patricia Labarta

    2012-01-01

    A fast, simple, and easily automated method for the determination of two insecticides, diazinon and deltamethrin, and two fungicides, iprodione and prochloraz, in mushroom cultivation compost samples, based on selective pressurised liquid extraction (SPLE) and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, is presented. The proposed method integrates extraction and clean-up processes in one single step, by adding a clean-up sorbent into the extraction cell. SPLE variables were thorou...

  13. A high-throughput method for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Alastair B; Svelander, Cecilia; Savolainen, Otto I;

    2016-01-01

    supported extraction methods for extracting alkylresorcinols from plasma and improved a normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer method to reduce sample analysis time. The method was validated and compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Sample preparation...... with HybridSPE supported extraction was most effective for alkylresorcinol extraction, with recoveries of 77-82% from 100 μl of plasma. The use of 96-well plates allowed extraction of 160 samples per day. Using a 5-cm NH2 column and heptane reduced run times to 3 min. The new method had a limit of detection...

  14. [Simultaneous determination of erdosteine and its active metabolite in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with pre-column derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ma, Zhi-Yu; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2013-03-01

    A sensitive, rapid and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method with pre-column derivatization was developed for the simultaneous determination of erdosteine and its thiol-containing active metabolite in human plasma. Paracetamol and captopril were chosen as the internal standard of erdosteine and its active metabolite, respectively. Aliquots of 100 microL plasma sample were derivatized by 2-bromine-3'-methoxy acetophenone, then separated on an Agilent XDB-C18 (50 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 1.8 microm) column using 0.1% formic acid methanol--0.1% formic acid 5 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate as mobile phase, in a gradient mode. Detection of erdosteine and its active metabolite were achieved by ESI MS/MS in the positive ion mode. The linear calibration curves for erdosteine and its active metabolite were obtained in the concentration ranges of 5-3 000 ng x mL(-1) and 5-10 000 ng x mL(-1), respectively. The lower limit of quantification of erdosteine and its active metabolite were both 5.00 ng x mL(-1). The pharmacokinetic results of erdosteine and its thiol-containing active metabolite showed that the area under curve (AUC) of the thiol-containing active metabolite was 6.2 times of that of erdosteine after a single oral dose of 600 mg erdosteine tables in 32 healthy volunteers, The mean residence time (MRT) of the thiol-containing active metabolite was (7.51 +/- 0.788) h, which provided a pharmacokinetic basis for the rational dosage regimen.

  15. Quantification of piroxicam and 5'-hydroxypiroxicam in human plasma and saliva using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Adriana Maria; Santos, Gabriel Mulinari; Dionísio, Thiago José; Marques, Maria Paula; Brozoski, Daniel Thomas; Lanchote, Vera Lúcia; Fernandes, Maria Helena Raposo; Faria, Flávio Augusto Cardoso; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2016-02-20

    Saliva sampling used to quantify piroxicam and 5'-hydroxypiroxicam is a noninvasive and painless method when compared to sequential blood sampling. For that, a rapid, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of piroxicam and 5'-hydroxypiroxicam in saliva and human plasma was developed and validated. Piroxicam and its major metabolite were separated using a LiChroCART 125-4 RP Select-B Sorbent C18 column using a mixture of methanol and 2% phosphoric acid (pH 2.7) (70:30, v/v) for the mobile phase with a flow injection of 1mL/min. The run time was 4min. Volunteers had saliva and blood sampled before, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 24, 48 and 72h after taking a 20mg oral dose of piroxicam. The pharmacokinetic parameters of piroxicam in plasma samples were as follows: AUC0-72 (64819hng/mL), predicted clearance (0.2L/h), distribution volume (14.8L), elimination half-life (50.7h) and saliva/plasma concentration ratio (0.003). The estimation of all pharmacokinetic parameters for 5'-hydroxypiroxicam would require collections beyond 72h; however, it was possible to quantify the mean maximum concentration (133ng/mL), time to peak concentration (53.6h), mean AUC0-72 (6213hng/mL), predicted clearance (110.3L/h) and saliva/plasma concentration ratio (0.04). The developed methods proved effective and sensitive for determining the lower quantification limit of piroxicam in plasma (6.1ng/mL) and saliva (0.15ng/mL) and of 5'-hydroxypiroxicam in plasma (1.2ng/mL) and saliva (0.15ng/mL).

  16. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Stuart A

    2012-12-28

    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA).

  17. Determination of 19 drugs of abuse and metabolites in whole blood by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Marie Kjaergaard; Nielsen, Marie K K; Markussen, Lotte Ø

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of 19 drugs of abuse and metabolites and used in whole blood. The following compounds were included: amphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine...... frequent drugs of abuse and their metabolites in whole blood. The quantification by LC-MS/MS was successfully applied to 412 forensic cases from October 2008 to mid February 2009, where 267 cases were related to zero-tolerance traffic legislation....

  18. Identification and characterization of the phenolic glycosides of Lagenaria siceraria Stand. (bottle gourd) fruit by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-02-12

    Bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria Stand. (Cucurbitaceae), fruit is used in folk medicines and for culinary purposes in Asia. The phenolics of bottle gourd fruit were investigated qualitatively by LC-MS(n). Twenty-two phenolic glycosides were detected and characterized on the basis of their unique fragmentation pattern in the negative ion mode tandem MS spectra. Twenty of them were extracted for the first time from this source, and twelve of them have not been reported previously in nature. It was also possible to distinguish between the individual classes of isobaric phenolic glycosides by tandem and high-resolution mass spectrometry. In this study we also discuss the mass spectrometric fragmentation mechanism of 6-(hydroxycinnamoyl)glucoses. This is the first report of the full characterization of phenolic glycosides of bottle gourd fruit by LC-MS²⁻⁴.

  19. Simultaneous quantification of two canthinone alkaloids of Picrasma quassioides in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a rat pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Hong, Chunyan; Xu, Jian; Yang, Xiaoling; Xie, Ning; Feng, Feng; Liu, Wenyuan

    2015-04-01

    Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. is used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammation. Characteristic components of the medicinal extract are canthinone alkaloids. In this study, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for simultaneous quantification of two major canthinone alkaloids, 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one and 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one, in rat plasma after oral administration of P. quassioides extract (200 mg/kg). The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using acetonitrile-aqueous 0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase. Plasma samples were prepared for analysis using a simple liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Analytes were detected using tandem mass spectrometry in positive multiple reaction monitoring mode. Method validation revealed excellent linearity over the range 1.25-900 ng/mL for 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one and 0.5-800 ng/mL for 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one with satisfactory intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy and recovery. Samples were stable under the conditions tested. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the analytes in rats showed that both canthinones were rapidly absorbed and that 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one was eliminated faster than 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one.

  20. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of nine corticosteroid residues in bovine liver samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusi, Guglielmo, E-mail: guglielmo.dusi@izsler.it [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell' Emilia Romagna, ' B. Ubertini' , Via Bianchi 9, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Gasparini, Mara; Curatolo, Michele; Assini, Walter; Bozzoni, Eros; Tognoli, Nadia; Ferretti, Enrica [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell' Emilia Romagna, ' B. Ubertini' , Via Bianchi 9, 25124 Brescia (Italy)

    2011-08-26

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) confirmatory method for the simultaneous determination of nine corticosteroids in liver, including the four MRL compounds listed in Council Regulation 37/2010, was developed. After an enzymatic deconjugation and a solvent extraction of the liver tissue, the resulting solution was cleaned up through an SPE Oasis HLB cartridge. The analytes were then detected by liquid chromatography-negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, using deuterium-labelled internal standards. The procedure was validated as a quantitative confirmatory method according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The results showed that the method was suitable for statutory residue testing regarding the following performance characteristics: instrumental linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility), recovery, decision limit (CC{alpha}), detection capability (CC{beta}) and ruggedness. All the corticosteroids can be detected at a concentration around 1 {mu}g kg{sup -1}; the recoveries were above 62% for all the analytes. Repeatability and reproducibility (within-laboratory reproducibility) for all the analytes were below 7.65% and 15.5%, respectively.

  1. Fast and sensitive quantification of human liver cytosolic lithocholic acid sulfation using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification of lithocholic acid (LCA) to lithocholic acid sulfate (LCA-S) is catalyzed by sulfotransferases, mainly SULT2A1. We developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify human liver cytosolic-dependent LCA sulfation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an UPLC C18 column (2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) and a gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Negative electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify LCA-S (455.3→97.0) and cholic acid (407.2→343.3; internal standard). The retention time was 3.51min for LCA-S and 3.08min for cholic acid. The lower limit of quantification of LCA-S was 0.5nM (or 0.23ng/ml in 400μl total volume) and the assay was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were <14%. The quality control samples were stable at room temperature for 4h, 4°C for 24h, -20°C for 14 days, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. The matrix (20-100μg cytosolic protein) did not affect LCA-S quantification. This is the first UPLC-MS/MS method applied to optimization of the human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation assay. The optimal levels of MgCl2 and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) cofactor were 2.5mM and 20μM, respectively. Addition of reducing agents (2-mercaptoethanol and DL-dithiothreitol) did not affect LCA-S formation. Human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation was linear with 20-100μg of cytosolic protein and 5-30min incubation time. This UPLC-MS/MS approach offers a specific, sensitive, fast, and direct approach for quantifying human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation.

  2. Determination of a novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 inhibitor, 2-[4-(4-{5-[2-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl) oxazole-4-carboxamido]-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl} phenyl) cyclohexyl] acetic acid (KR-69232) in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyewon; Choi, Sung Heum; Kwak, Eun-Young; Zheng, Zhi; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Ahn, Jin Hee; Lee, Yong-Moon; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Myung Ae; Song, Jin Sook

    2014-03-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of KR-69232, a diacyltransferase 1 inhibitor, in rat plasma. KR-69232 in the concentration range of 0.004-4 µg/mL was linear. The intra-and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable (KR-69232 was stable under various storage and handling conditions. The method was applied successfully in a pharmacokinetic study of KR-69232 in rats.

  3. Simultaneous determination of 14-thienyl methylene matrine and matrine in rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application in a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minjie; Wang, Lisheng; Jiang, Weizhe; Huang, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 14-thienyl methylene matrine (TMM) and matrine (MT) in rat plasma in the present study. The analytes were separated on a C18 column (1.9 μm, 2.1 mm × 100 mm) with a security guard C18 column (5 μm, 2.1 mm × 10 mm) and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was applied for detection. With pseudoephedrine hydrochloride as internal standard, sample pretreatment involved in a one-step protein precipitation with isopropanol:ethyl acetate (v/v, 20:80). The method was linear over the concentration ranges of 5-1000 ng/ml for TMM and 10-2000 ng/ml for MT. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 15% and the relative errors (RE) were all within 15%. The proposed method enables unambiguous identification and quantification of TMM and MT in vivo. This was the first report on determination of the TMM and MT in rat plasma after oral administration of TMM. The results provided a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical applications of the medicine.

  4. An ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of three physalins in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii (Chinese lantern) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yunliang; Chen, Yong; Ren, Yiping; Luan, Lianjun; Wu, Yongjiang

    2012-01-25

    An ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of three major ingredients in Chinese lantern preparations (CLP) in rat plasma. Following extraction by ethyl acetate, the analytes were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP C(18) column using a gradient mobile phase system of acetonitrile-water. Electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem interface was employed prior to mass spectrometric detection. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 5.0-500.0 ng/ml for physalin D, 2.3-230.0 ng/ml for physalin G and 0.71-71.0 ng/ml for 4,7-didehydroneophysalin B. The average extraction recoveries, examined at four concentration levels, carried from 57.1% to 76.9%, and the accuracies ranged from 94.0% to 113.3% with precision (RSD) <15%. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of the three physalins in rat plasma after intragastric administration of CLP suspension.

  5. Small molecule adduct formation with the components of the mobile phase as a way to analyse valproic acid in human serum with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadosz, Marek; Klintschar, Michael; Teske, Jörg

    2014-05-15

    A valproic acid (VPA) LC-MS/MS analytical method using analyte adduct formation was developed and validated in human serum. The fragmentation of the sodium acetate adduct (mass transition: 225/143) and acetic acid adduct (mass transition: 203/143) were used as the target and qualifier mass transition, respectively. A Luna 5 μm C18 (2) 100 A, 150 mm×2 mm analytical column and a mobile phase consisting of A (H2O/methanol=95/5, v/v) and B (H2O/methanol=3/97, v/v), both with 10mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% acetic acid (pH=3.2) were used. A binary flow pumping mode with a total flow rate of 0.4 mL/min was applied. Protein precipitation with 1 mL of the mobile phase B was used as sample preparation. The calculated limit of detection/quantification was 0.45/1.0 μg/mL and the inter-/intra-day precision was adduct formation reproducibility. The strategy applied made the VPA LC-MS/MS analysis in human serum on the basis of two mass transitions possible. Therefore, it is an interesting alternative for the VPA pseudo multiple reaction monitoring methods (mass transition 143/143) and a proof that the developed strategy is also useful for the analysis of compounds which do not produce any stable ion fragments detectable by tandem mass spectrometry.

  6. Determination of muscimol and ibotenic acid in Amanita mushrooms by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takemi; Kishi, Tohru

    2007-06-01

    A reliable analytical method was developed for the quantification and identification of muscimol (MUS) and ibotenic acid (IBO), the toxic constituents of Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina. MUS and IBO were extracted from mushrooms by aqueous methanol and derivatized with dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl). After extraction with ethyl acetate and evaporation of the solvent, the residue was ethylated with 1.25 M hydrogen chloride in ethanol. The resulting derivatives were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and identified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 25-2500 ppm for MUS and 40-2500 ppm for IBO, respectively. This method was successfully applied to identify and quantify MUS and IBO in Amanita mushrooms naturally grown and circulated in the drug market.

  7. Enantioselective determination of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in whole blood from forensic cases using automated solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ragnar; B. Rasmussen, Henrik; Linnet, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    A chiral liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) method was developed and validated for quantifying methylphenidate and its major metabolite ritalinic acid in blood from forensic cases. Blood samples were prepared in a fully automated system by protein precipitation followed...... methylphenidate was not determined to be related to the cause of death, the femoral blood concentration of d-methylphenidate ranged from 5 to 58 ng/g, and from undetected to 48 ng/g for l-methylphenidate (median d/l-ratio 5.9). Ritalinic acid was present at concentrations 10–20 times higher with roughly equal...... amounts of the d- and l-forms. In blood from 10 living subjects that were not suspected of being intoxicated by methylphenidate, the concentration ranges and patterns were similar to those of the postmortem cases. Thus, methylphenidate does not appear to undergo significant postmortem redistribution....

  8. Tentative identification of polar and mid-polar compounds in extracts from wine lees by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high-resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado de la Torre, M P; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-06-01

    Sustainable agriculture has a pending goal in the revalorization of agrofood residues. Wine lees are an abundant residue in the oenological industry. This residue, so far, has been used to obtain tartaric acid or pigments but not for being qualitatively characterized as a source of polar and mid-polar compounds such as flavonoids, phenols and essential amino acids. Lees extracts from 11 Spanish wineries have been analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in high resolution mode. The high-resolution power of LC-MS/MS has led to the tentative identification of the most representative compounds present in wine lees, comprising primary amino acids, anthocyans, flavanols, flavonols, flavones and non-flavonoid phenolic compounds, among others. Attending to the profile and content of polar and mid-polar compounds in wine lees, this study underlines the potential of wine lees as an exploitable source to isolate interesting compounds.

  9. Determination of sulfadiazine in phosphate- and DOC-rich agricultural drainage water using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyou, P.A. Léon; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Trace levels of the veterinary antibiotic compound sulfadiazine (SDZ) can be determined in agricultural drainage water samples with this new method. Optimized sample pretreatment and solid-phase extraction was combined with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE LC...... obtained ranged from 104 to 109 % (relative standard deviation 2.8–5.2 %). The new methods enable determination of the veterinary antibiotic compound SDZ in agricultural drainage water from field experiments and monitoring schemes for phosphate- and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-rich water samples......-MS/MS) using positive electrospray ionization. The linear dynamic range for the LC-MS/MS was assessed from 5 μg/L to 25 mg/L with a 15-point calibration curve displaying a coefficient of correlation r 2 = 0.9915. Agricultural drainage water spiked at a concentration of 25 ng/L gave recoveries between 63 and 98...

  10. Development and validation of a multiclass method for the quantification of veterinary drug residues in honey and royal jelly by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Zhang, Jinzhen; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Jinhui; Li, Yi

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the analysis of a wide range of veterinary drugs in honey and royal jelly. A modified sample preparation procedure based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was developed, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination. Use of the single sample preparation method for analysis of 42 veterinary drugs becomes more valuable because honey and royal jelly belong to completely different complex matrices. Another main advantage of the proposed method is its ability to identify and quantify 42 veterinary drugs with higher sensitivity than reference methods of China. This work has shown that the reported method was demonstrated to be convenient and reliable for the quick monitoring of veterinary drugs in honey and royal jelly samples.

  11. Silymarin in liposomes and ethosomes: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in free-moving rats by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Wen; Hou, Mei-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-12-03

    The aim of this study was to prepare silymarin formulations (silymarin entrapped in liposomes and ethosomes, formulations referred to as LSM and ESM, respectively) to improve oral bioavailability of silymarin and evaluate its tissue distribution by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in free-moving rats. Silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, which is the main component to be analyzed. A rapid, sensitive, and repeatable LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated in terms of precision, accuracy, and extraction recovery. Furthermore, the established method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of silymarin in rats. The size, ζ potential, and drug release of the formulations were characterized. These results showed that the LSM and ESM encapsulated formulations of silymarin may provide more efficient tissue distribution and increased oral bioavailability, thus improving its therapeutic bioactive properties in the body.

  12. [Analysis of rice leaves proteomes by liquid chromatography-tandem, mass spectrometry based on the purification using a novel affinity detergent removal spin column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaolin; Gong, Jiadi; Chen, Mingxue; Yu, Shasha; Bian, Yingfang; Cao, Zhaoyun

    2014-11-01

    A purification method was established for the analysis of proteomes in rice leaves based on a novel detergent removal spin column (DRSC). The proteins were extracted by phenol protein extraction method followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) lysis. The lysate was purified by the detergent removal spin column and the enzymolytic peptides were detected by the nanoflow liquid chromatography-hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (nanoLC-LTQ/Orbitrap). In terms of SDS removal efficiencies and protein identification, the method of DRSC was compared with those of filter aided sample preparation (FASP) and acetone precipitation. As a result, there were good efficiencies ( > 95%) of SDS removal for the three methods. With the DRSC purification strategy, 563 proteins were identified from rice leaves, while only 196 and 306 proteins were identified by FASP and acetone precipitation procedures respectively, in spite of certain complementarities among these identified proteins by the three methods. DRSC is suitable for proteins with various relative molecular masses and pI values. However, there were similar losses of proteins with different relative molecular masses and pI values with the other two methods. Using the established method, 588 proteins were identified by once injection analysis. According to the molecular functions, 296 proteins with at least two identified peptides can be classified into eight categories with binding activity, enzyme activity, transporter activity, inhibitor activity, structural constitute, catalytic activity, other and unknown functions. The method provides technical reference for conducting rice proteomes.

  13. Development and validation of a sensitive, simple, and rapid method for simultaneous quantitation of atorvastatin and its acid and lactone metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macwan, Joyce S; Ionita, Ileana A; Dostalek, Miroslav; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the proposed work was to develop and validate a simple and sensitive assay for the analysis of atorvastatin (ATV) acid, ortho- and para-hydroxy-ATV, ATV lactone, and ortho- and para-hydroxy-ATV lactone in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All six analytes and corresponding deuterium (d5)-labeled internal standards were extracted from 50 μL of human plasma by protein precipitation. The chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using a Zorbax-SB Phenyl column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of a gradient mixture of 0.1% v/v glacial acetic acid in 10% v/v methanol in water (solvent A) and 40% v/v methanol in acetonitrile (solvent B). All analytes including ortho- and para-hydroxy metabolites were baseline-separated within 7.0 min using a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Mass spectrometry detection was carried out in positive electrospray ionization mode, with multiple-reaction monitoring scan. The calibration curves for all analytes were linear (R(2) ≥ 0.9975, n = 3) over the concentration range of 0.05-100 ng/mL and with lower limit of quantitation of 0.05 ng/mL. Mean extraction recoveries ranged between 88.6-111%. Intra- and inter-run mean percent accuracy were between 85-115% and percent imprecision was ≤ 15%. Stability studies revealed that ATV acid and lactone forms were stable in plasma during bench top (6 h on ice-water slurry), at the end of three successive freeze and thaw cycles and at -80 °C for 3 months. The method was successfully applied in a clinical study to determine concentrations of ATV and its metabolites over 12 h post-dose in patients receiving atorvastatin.

  14. [Determination of the residues of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal origin foods by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Wu, Yujie; Li, Yong; Li, Lihua

    2012-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) as the marker residues for carbadox (CBX) and olaquindox (OLA), respectively, in the muscles and livers of porcine and chicken and in the muscles of fish and shrimp. The MQCA and QCA were deproteinated with 5% metaphosphoric acid in 10% methanol followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Further clean-up was performed by solid phase extraction (SPE) through mixed mode anion-exchange columns (Oasis MAX SPE). The separation of the compounds was carried on a Waters Xterra MS C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) by a gradient elution using methanol and 0.2% formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization. The MQCA and QCA were quantified by internal standard method. The linear ranges were 1.0-20.0 microg/L and the correlation coefficients were not less than 0.9996. The average recoveries and relative standard deviations ranged from 62.4%-118% and 1.48%-28.1% respectively at the spiked levels of 0.1, 0.2 and 1.0 microg/kg for the both markers. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.1 microg/kg. The method is sensitive, accurate and suitable for the determination and confirmation of MQCA and QCA in animal origin foods.

  15. Determination of helicid in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%UPLC-MS/MS法测定大鼠血浆中的豆腐果苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志祥; 顾玲玲; 鲁西强; 陆伟根

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of helicid in rat plasma. Methods Protein precipitation was used to separate the drug from rat plasma. A BEH C18 column was used with mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile-water by gradient elution. Sample was detected by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry and multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The transitions of helicid were m/z 329→ 121. Results The calibration curve of helicid was linear in the concentration range 2~1000 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 15%. Matrix effects were less than 15%. Conclusion The method can be applied in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies of helicid.%目的 建立超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法(UPLC-MS/MS)测定大鼠血浆中的豆腐果苷.方法 蛋白沉淀法分离血浆样品;采用BEH C18色谱柱,0.1%甲酸-乙腈-水为流动相,梯度洗脱,离子化方式为负离子电喷雾,多反应监测,药物的监测离子对为m/z329→121.结果 豆腐果苷浓度在2~1000 ng/mL范围内线性关系良好,日内及日间精密度均小于15%,基质效应小于15%.结论本研究建立的方法 可应用于豆腐果苷药动学和生物利用度研究.

  16. Simultaneous determination of N-hydroxymethyl-N-methylformamide, N-methylformamide and N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cystein in urine samples from workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae Ho; Han, Min Jeong; Lee, Mi Young; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Yang, Jeong Sun

    2005-02-07

    N-Hydroxymethyl-N-methylformamide (HMMF) and N-methylformamide (NMF) in urine samples from workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) cannot be distinguished by a gas chromatographic method because HMMF is converted to NMF at the injection port of gas chromatography (GC). Total NMF (HMMF+NMF) has been measured instead. Also, the determination of N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cystein (AMCC), which is supposed to be related to the toxicity of DMF, needs multiple treatments to convert to a volatile compound before GC analysis. There is no previous report of a simultaneous determination of three major metabolites of DMF in urine. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and selective method for the determination of DMF metabolite in urine. By using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we can directly distinguish these three major metabolites of DMF in a single run. The diluted urine samples were analyzed on Capcell Pak MF SG80 column with the mobile phase of methanol in 2mM formic acid (10:90, v/v). The analytes were detected by an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. The standard curves were linear (r>0.999) over the concentration ranges of 0.004-8 microg/mL. The precision and accuracy of quality control samples for inter-batch (n=6) analyses were in the range of 1.3-9.8% and 94.7-116.8, respectively. The sum of each HMMF and NMF concentration determined by LC-MS/MS method shows high correlation (r=0.9927 with the slope of 1.0415, p<0.0001) with NMF included HMMF concentration determined by GC method for 13 urine samples taken from workers exposed to DMF. The excretion ratio of HMMF:NMF:AMCC is approximately 4:1:1 in molar concentration.

  17. Development of a Method for the Quantitation of Three Thiols in Beer, Hop, and Wort Samples by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction with in Situ Derivatization and Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Kishimoto, Toru

    2015-08-05

    A method for analysis of hop-derived polyfunctional thiols, such as 4-sulfanyl-4-methylpentan-2-one (4S4M2Pone), 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SHol), and 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), in beer, hop water extract, and wort at nanogram per liter levels was developed. The method employed stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization (der-SBSE) using ethyl propiolate (ETP), followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS/MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. A prior step involved structural identification of the ETP derivatives of the thiols by TD-GC-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with parallel sulfur chemiluminescence detection (Q-TOF-MS/SCD) after similar der-SBSE. The der-SBSE conditions of the ETP concentration, buffer concentration, salt addition, and extraction time profiles were investigated, and the performance of the method was demonstrated with spiked beer samples. The limits of detection (LODs) (0.19-27 ng/L) are below the odor threshold levels of all analytes. The apparent recoveries at 10-100 ng/L (99-101%) and the repeatabilities [relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.3-7.2%; n = 6] are also good. The method was successfully applied to the determination of target thiols at nanogram per liter levels in three kinds of beer samples (hopped with Cascade, Citra, and Nelson Sauvin) and the corresponding hop water extracts and wort samples. There was a clear correlation between the determined values and the characteristics of citrus hop aroma for each sample.

  18. Validation and use of a fast sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in analysis of ultra-trace levels of 98 organophosphorus pesticide and carbamate residues in a total diet study involving diversified food types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen W C; Chan, Benny T P

    2010-07-16

    This paper reports a comprehensive sensitive multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for detection, identification and quantitation of 73 pesticides and their related products, a total of 98 analytes, belonging to organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and carbamates, in foods. The proposed method makes use of a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rigged, and safe) procedure that combines isolation of the pesticides and sample clean-up in a single step. Analysis is performed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, acquiring two specific precursor-product ion transitions per target compound. Two main fragment ions for each pesticide were obtained to achieve the identification according to the SANCO guidelines 10684/2009. The method was validated with various food samples, including edible oil, meat, egg, cheese, chocolate, coffee, rice, tree nuts, citric fruits, vegetables, etc. No significant matrix effect was observed for tested pesticides, therefore, matrix-matched calibration was not necessary. Calibration curves were linear and covered from 1 to 20 microg L(-1) for all compounds studied. The average recoveries, measured at 10 microg kg(-1), were in the range 70-120% for all of the compounds tested with relative standard deviations below 20%, while a value of 10 microg kg(-1) has been established as the method limit of quantitation (MLOQ) for all target analytes. Similar trueness and precision results were also obtained for spiking at 200 microg kg(-1). Expanded uncertainty values were in the range 21-27% while the HorRat ratios were below 1. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 700 food samples in the course of a baseline monitoring study of OPPs and carbamates.

  19. Simultaneous determination of five plant growth regulators in fruits by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaomei; Jin, Fen; Huang, Yuting; Du, Xinwei; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Miao; Shao, Hua; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-11

    An effective method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and optimized to obtain a complete separation of five representative plant growth regulators (PGRs) [gibberellic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), thidiazuron, forchlorfenuron, and paclobutrazol] in fruits. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid, applying modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) methodology. LC-MS/MS conditions including composition of mobile phases and mass spectrometry (MS) conditions were evaluated to achieve the highest sensitivity in MS detection. All of the data acquisition was employed in the segmented multiple-reaction monitoring mode for the selected negative and positive transition ions. The octadecylsilyl (C18) dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent was found to provide the more satisfied recoveries than primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB) for five target PGRs. The optimized method allowed for recoveries of 76-112% for the five PGRs from fruit samples with relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 10%. Limits of quantification (0.5-16.5 μg/kg) were lower than the maximum limit of residues established for PGRs. The results demonstrated that the developed LC-MS/MS and QuEChERS extraction method is highly effective for analyzing trace amounts of target PGRs in fruit samples. Finally, the method was successfully used to detect residual PGRs in Beijing, China, in 2010. The concentrations of 2,4-D (5.1-1503 μg/kg) and paclobutrazol (1-1381 μg/kg) found in orange and peach, respectively, suggesting that the use of these PGRs in these fruits should be regulated in China in the future.

  20. Simultaneous determination of vitamins A and D3 in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, I. S. A.; Hammouri, M. K.; Habib, I.

    2015-10-01

    A potential method for simultaneous determination of vitamin A and vitamin D3 (25- hydroxyvitamin D3) in fresh milk samples is addressed. The method is based on combination of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry during the course of analysis. The method applied for determination of vitamins A and D3 on eighteen (18) different fresh milk samples using liquid chromatography along with tandem -mass spectrometry. The work describes the suitability of the proposed method for the simultaneous determination of both vitamins using LC-MS/MS as a specific and quantitative technique. The vitamins of milk were separated by C18 Thermo gold column(100mm × 4.6mm × 5 μm) with a flow rate of 1ml/min (using an isocratic mobile phase). The method was validated using duplicate analyses, relative recovery experiment, and comparative analysis with control samples. Liquid- liquid extraction was employed as a pre-concentration step with n-hexane - dichloromethane mixture (90%:10%) as an extraction solvent. The molecular ions (m/z) appeared near 286 and 385nm and for the base peaks were appeared near 255 and 355nm for vitamins A and D3. Good correlation coefficients were obtained, 0.9999 for vitamin D3 and 0.9994 for vitamin A. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were found to be 0.09ng/ml and 0.54ng/ml for vitamin D3 and 0.32ng/ml and 1.8ng/ml and for vitamin A. The proposed method showed excellent recoveries, about 98% for both vitamins A and D3.

  1. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS) methods for the quantification of captan and folpet phthalimide metabolites in human plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Aurélie; Bouchard, Michèle; Schüpfer, Patrick; Vernez, David; Danuser, Brigitta; Huynh, Cong Khanh

    2011-02-01

    Captan and folpet are fungicides largely used in agriculture. They have similar chemical structures, except that folpet has an aromatic ring unlike captan. Their half-lives in blood are very short, given that they are readily broken down to tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI) and phthalimide (PI), respectively. Few authors measured these biomarkers in plasma or urine, and analysis was conducted either by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography with UV detection. The objective of this study was thus to develop simple, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS) methods to quantify both THPI and PI in human plasma and urine. Briefly, deuterated THPI was added as an internal standard and purification was performed by solid-phase extraction followed by LC/APCI-MS/MS analysis in negative ion mode for both compounds. Validation of the methods was conducted using spiked blank plasma and urine samples at concentrations ranging from 1 to 250 μg/L and 1 to 50 μg/L, respectively, along with samples of volunteers and workers exposed to captan or folpet. The methods showed a good linearity (R (2) > 0.99), recovery (on average 90% for THPI and 75% for PI), intra- and inter-day precision (RSD, <15%) and accuracy (<20%), and stability. The limit of detection was 0.58 μg/L in urine and 1.47 μg/L in plasma for THPI and 1.14 and 2.17 μg/L, respectively, for PI. The described methods proved to be accurate and suitable to determine the toxicokinetics of both metabolites in human plasma and urine.

  2. An evaluation of sucrose as a possible contaminant in e-liquids for electronic cigarettes by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Paweł; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-05-01

    The influence of sucrose combustion products on smoking and nicotine addiction is still controversial because the presence of the sucrose may be treated as a source of aldehydes and organic acids. In e-liquids used as refills for electronic cigarettes, which are made primarily of poly(propylene glycol), glycerine and ethanol, sucrose may be present at trace levels, and its impact on mainstream smoke formation, and hence on human health and smoking/nicotine addiction is unknown. An analytical method was developed where high-performance liquid chromatography in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode and tandem mass spectrometry were used for fast and simple determination of sucrose and other saccharides in e-liquids for electronic cigarettes. Minimal effort was required in the sample preparation step, and satisfactory results were obtained, and the sample matrix had an insignificant impact. The chromatographic separation was done using an Ascentis Express OH5 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm). The coefficients of variation for within-day precision for three concentrations were 2.4 %, 1.6 % and 2.3 %, and the between-day coefficients of variation for a single concentration were 2.1 %, 2.5 % and 1.7 % measured on the next 3 days. The detection limit was 0.73 μg/g, and the sucrose content in e-liquids ranged from 0.76 to 72.93 μg/g among 37 samples. Moreover, with the method presented it is possible to determine the presence of other saccharides such as fructose, glucose, maltose and lactose. However, only sucrose was found in all samples of e-liquids. The proposed method is rapid, simple and reliable in terms of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

  3. [Determination of 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on optimization of QuEChERS sample preparation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianzhu; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ruilong; Lin, Zixu; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dengfei; Lin, Dejuan; Xu, Dunming

    2013-12-01

    The raw extracts of six vegetables (tomato, green bean, shallot, broccoli, ginger and carrot) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in full scan mode combined with NIST library search to confirm main matrix compounds. The effects of cleanup and adsorption mechanisms of primary secondary amine (PSA) , octadecylsilane (C18) and PSA + C18 on co-extractives were studied by the weight of evaporation residue for extracts before and after cleanup. The suitability of the two versions of QuEChERS method for sample preparation was evaluated for the extraction of 51 carbamate pesticides in the six vegetables. One of the QuEChERS methods was the original un-buffered method published in 2003, and the other was AOAC Official Method 2007.01 using acetate buffer. As a result, the best effects were obtained from using the combination of C18 and PSA for extract cleanup in vegetables. The acetate-buffered version was suitable for the determination of all pesticides except dioxacarb. Un-buffered QuEChERS method gave satisfactory results for determining dioxacarb. Based on these results, the suitable QuEChERS sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry under the optimized conditions were applied to determine the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in six vegetables. The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched standard solution. The recoveries at three levels of 10, 20 and 100 microg/kg spiked in six vegetables ranged from 58.4% to 126% with the relative standard deviations of 3.3%-26%. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) were 0.2-10 microg/kg except that the LOQs of cartap and thiofanox were 50 microg/kg. The method is highly efficient, sensitive and suitable for monitoring the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables.

  4. A strategy for identification and structural characterization of compounds from Gardenia jasminoides by integrating macroporous resin column chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with ion-mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Xueju; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui

    2016-06-24

    In this paper, an analysis strategy integrating macroporous resin (AB-8) column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) combined with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was proposed and applied for identification and structural characterization of compounds from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides. The extracts of G. jasminoides were separated by AB-8 resin column chromatography combined with reversed phase liquid chromatography (C18 column) and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was employed as a supplementary separation technique to discover previously undetected isomers from the fruits of G. jasminoides. A total of 71 compounds, including iridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, monoterpenoids, carotenoids and phenolic acids were identified by the characteristic high resolution mass spectrometry and the ESI-MS/MS fragmentations. In conclusion, the IMS-MS technique achieved the separation of isomers in crocin-3 and crocin-4 according to their acquired mobility drift times differing from classical analysis by mass spectrometry. The proposed strategy can be used as a highly sensitive and efficient procedure for identification and separation isomeric components in extracts of herbal medicines.

  5. Detection of β-agonists in pork tissue with novel electrospun nanofibers-based solid-phase extraction followed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Zheng, Shenglan; Qu, Bin; Geng, Shiwei; Kang, Xuejun

    2017-07-15

    A selective analytical method based on packed-fiber solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PFSPE-UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of six β-agonists (clorprenaline, bambuterol, clenbuterol, brombuterol, mabuterol, and penbuterol) in pork tissue. Polystyrene-polymeric crown ether (PS-PCE) composite nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and utilized to prepare the homemade extraction columns. With optimal conditions, all analytes were separated very well and the blank pork did not disturb the determination, and the linearity is good in a range of 5.0μg/kg-25.0μg/kg. The recoveries were 79.3-110.1%. RSDs for intra-day were in the range of 1.5-10.5% and RSDs for inter-day were 4.7-11.8%. Above all, only 5mg of sorbent and 200μL of elution solvent were favorable to directly extract all analytes in a complex matrix. The method is simple and cost-effective, and has the potential to be applied to quantitatively analyze the concentrations of polar species in food samples containing complex matrix.

  6. Novel amphiphilic polymeric ionic liquid-solid phase micro-extraction membrane for the preconcentration of aniline as degradation product of azo dye Orange G under sonication by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Wei, Xiao-Qing; Du, Chun-Hui; Ma, Xu-Ming; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2014-07-04

    A novel amphiphilic polymeric ionic liquid membrane containing a hydrophilic bromide anion and a hydrophobic carbonyl group was synthesized in dimethylformamide (DMF) systems using the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide (BVImBr) and the methylmethacrylate (MMA) as monomers. The prepared amphiphilic ploy-methylmethacrylate-1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide (MMA-BVImBr) was characterized by a scanning electron microscope and an infrared spectrum instrument. The results of solid-phase micro-extraction membrane (SPMM) experiments showed that the adsorption capacity of membrane was about 0.76μgμg(-1) for aniline. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of trace aniline, as a degradation product of azo dye Orange G under sonication, was developed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The calibration curve showed a good linearity ranging from 0.5 to 10.0μgL(-1) with a correlation coefficient value of 0.9998. The limit of quantification was 0.5μgL(-1). The recoveries ranged from 90.6% to 96.1%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 8.3% and 10.9%. The developed SPMM-LC-MS/MS method was used successfully for preconcentration of trace aniline produced during the sonication of Orange G solution.

  7. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and its major metabolite, salicylic acid, in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetic study of Astrix in Korean healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soo Kyung; Seo, Kyung Ah; Jung, Eun Ji; Kim, Ho-Sook; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shon, Ji-Hong; Park, Kyung-Mi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2008-06-01

    The first liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) and one of its major metabolites, salicylic acid (SA), in human plasma using simvastatin as an internal standard has been developed and validated. For ASA analysis, a plasma sample containing potassium fluoride was extracted using a mixture of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the presence of 0.5% formic acid. SA, a major metabolite of ASA, was extracted from plasma using protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The compounds were separated on a reversed-phase column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid (8:2, v/v). The ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode were m/z 179 --> 137, 137 --> 93 and 435 --> 319 for ASA, SA and IS, respectively. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 9.3%, and the accuracy exceeded 86.5%. The lower limits of quantification for ASA and SA were 5 and 50 ng/mL, respectively. The developed assay method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA and SA after single oral administration of Astrix (entero-coated pellet, 100 mg of aspirin) to 10 Korean healthy male volunteers.

  8. Multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using low-temperature cleanup and solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Zhu, Ailing; He, Jianli; Chang, Qiaoying; Hu, Xueyan; Chen, Hui; Fan, Chunlin; Jiang, Wenxiao; Chen, Min; Li, Jiancheng; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang

    2015-10-01

    A multi-class multi-residue analysis method for determination of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established. These 17 classes, a total of 40 kinds of target compounds were chosen because their administration to food-producing animals is banned or regulated in China and may be potentially abused or misused. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (49.5+49.5+1, v/v/v). Most of lipids in the extract were removed by low-temperature cleanup, prior to solid phase extraction on HLB cartridges. The quantification and confirmation of the 40 analytes were performed by LC-MS/MS with electro-spray ionization (ESI) interface in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.006-0.3μg/kg and 0.02-1.0μg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries in milk, yogurt, milk powder and cheese samples were from 67.3% to 106.9%. The repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility were less than 12.7% and 13.9%. Applying this method, our results revealed the presences of chloramphenicol, cimeterol, and flunixin at the concentration of 0.027-0.452μg/kg in some samples.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted leaching-dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment samples by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Lana, Nerina B; Martinez, Luis D; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2010-06-30

    Ultrasound-assisted leaching-dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (USAL-DSPE-DLLME) technique has been developed as a new analytical approach for extracting, cleaning up and preconcentrating polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from sediment samples prior gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. In the first place, PBDEs were leached from sediment samples by using acetone. This extract was cleaned-up by DSPE using activated silica gel as sorbent material. After clean-up, PBDEs were preconcentrated by using DLLME technique. Thus, 1 mL acetone extract (disperser solvent) and 60 microL carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent) were added to 5 mL ultrapure water and a DLLME technique was applied. Several variables that govern the proposed technique were studied and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the method detection limits (MDLs) of PBDEs calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were within the range 0.02-0.06 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for five replicates were or =0.9991. Validation of the methodology was carried out by standard addition method at two concentration levels (0.25 and 1 ng g(-1)) and by comparing with a reference Soxhlet technique. Recovery values were > or =80%, which showed a satisfactory robustness of the analytical methodology for determination of low PBDEs concentration in sediment samples.

  10. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results.

  11. Quantitation of the DNA Adduct of Semicarbazide in Organs of Semicarbazide-Treated Rats by Isotope-Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Comparative Study with the RNA Adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Wong, Tin-Yan; Chan, Wan

    2016-09-19

    Semicarbazide is a widespread food contaminant that is produced by multiple pathways. However, the toxicity of semicarbazide to human health remains unclear. Using a highly accurate and sensitive isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, we identified and quantitated in this study for the first time the DNA and RNA adduct of semicarbazide in DNA/RNA isolated from the internal organs of semicarbazide-exposed rats. The analysis revealed a dose-dependent formation of the adducts in the internal organs of the semicarbazide-dosed rats and with the highest adduct levels identified in the stomach and small intestine. Furthermore, results showed significantly higher levels of the RNA adduct (4.1-7.0 times) than that of the DNA adducts. By analyzing DNA/RNA samples isolated from rat organs in semicarbazide-dosed rats at different time points postdosing, the adduct stability in vivo was also investigated. These findings suggest that semicarbazide could have exerted its toxicity by affecting both the transcription and translation processes of the cell.

  12. Simple and quick determination of analgesics and other contaminants of emerging concern in environmental waters by on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Aguirre, Alejandra; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, J L Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2016-05-13

    A simple and quick analytical method has been developed for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water. An on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been optimized to determine 7 contaminants of emerging concern in environmental waters at ngL(-1) levels. This procedure requires minimal sample handling and small sample volume (900μL) with a total running time of 18min. Several SPE parameters were evaluated and optimized in order to achieve a high sample throughput. Therefore sample volume, carryover and reusability of the cartridges were evaluated. Performance characteristics were evaluated and good linearity was obtained (R(2)>0.98). Recoveries were evaluated in spiked samples at three concentrations and the values ranged from 71 to 104%. Intra and inter-day precision was lower than 10 and 13% respectively. Limits of quantification were equal to or lower than 10ngL(-1), except for 1,7-dimethylxanthine (20ngL(-1)) and ibuprofen (50ngL(-1)). The method was applied to 20 environmental water samples, and ibuprofen was the compound most widely detected at concentrations up to 42.06μgL(-1), whereas the other compounds were detected in fewer samples at lower concentrations (up to 15.99μgL(-1)).

  13. Automated and sensitive determination of four anabolic androgenic steroids in urine by online turbulent flow solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a novel approach for clinical monitoring and doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Shao, Jing; Liu, Qian; Shi, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2014-07-01

    A novel method for automated and sensitive analysis of testosterone, androstenedione, methyltestosterone and methenolone in urine samples by online turbulent flow solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The optimization and validation of the method were discussed in detail. The Turboflow C18-P SPE column showed the best extraction efficiency for all the analytes. Nanogram per liter (ng/L) level of AAS could be determined directly and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 ng/mL, which were much lower than normally concerned concentrations for these typical anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (0.1 ng/mL). The linearity range was from the LOQ to 100 ng/mL for each compound, with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) ranging from 0.9990 to 0.9999. The intraday and interday relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 1.1% to 14.5% (n=5). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of urine samples collected from 24 male athletes and 15 patients of prostate cancer. The proposed method provides an alternative practical way to rapidly determine AAS in urine samples, especially for clinical monitoring and doping control.

  14. Simultaneous determination of banned acid orange dyes and basic orange dyes in foodstuffs by liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry via negative/positive ion switching mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guozhen; Wu, Yu; Dong, Xiaomeng; Liu, Cuicui; He, Shaoyuan; Wang, Shuo

    2013-04-24

    Simultaneous detection of two classes of dyes possessing different chemical properties is difficult. In this study, through negative/positive ion switching mode, simultaneous determination of four typical acid orange dyes and three typical basic orange dyes was achieved by a single high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, and the analytical efficiency of multiresidues identification was greatly improved. To enhance detection sensitivity, the sample pretreatment conditions and HPLC-MS/MS determining conditions were carefully optimized. Under optimal conditions, good linearity was obtained over the range of 5-500 μg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) >0.9998. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the seven dyes were 0.5-3.0 and 2.0-6.0 μg kg(-1), respectively. The recoveries of the seven dyes in soybean products and marinated eggs were 74-126% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.22-25.4%, suggesting the developed method is promising for the accurate quantification of the seven dyes at trace levels in foods.

  15. Estimation of measurement uncertainty for the quantification of 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and its glucuronide in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwon, Woonyong; Kim, Hee Seung; Suh, Sungill; In, Moon Kyo

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the estimation of the measurement uncertainty has become a significant issue in the quality control of forensic drug testing. In the present study, the uncertainty of the measurement was calculated for the quantification of 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) and its glucuronide conjugate (THC-COOH-glu) in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The procedure was based on liquid-liquid extraction of a volume of urine (800 µL) with ethyl acetate. The sources of uncertainty were identified and classified into four major categories as follows: standard preparation, calibration curve, method precision and bias. The overall contribution of combined standard uncertainty on THC-COOH increased in the order of standard preparation (0.9%), method precision (10.4%), calibration curve (30.3%) and bias (58.4%) and, while calibration curve (53.0%) and bias (40.4%) gave the bigger contributions to the combined standard uncertainty for THC-COOH-glu than method precision and standard preparation, which accounted for 6.3 and 0.3%, respectively. The reliability of a measurement was expressed by stating the expanded uncertainty of the measurement result at 95% confidence level. The concentrations of THC-COOH and THC-COOH-glu in the urine sample with their expanded uncertainties were 10.20 ± 1.14 ng/mL and 25.42 ± 5.01 ng/mL, respectively.

  16. Trace determination of antibacterial pharmaceuticals in fishes by microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase purification combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiting; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Xinpeng; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhao, Longshan; Liang, Ning

    2016-02-01

    A novel pretreatment method involving microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase purification combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MAE-SPP-DLLME) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of six antibacterial pharmaceuticals including metronidazole, tinidazole, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, malachite green and crystal violet. The conditions of MAE were optimized using an orthogonal design and the optimal conditions were found to be 8mL for acetonitrile, 50°C for 5min. Then, neutral alumina column was employed in the solid-phase purification. Finally, the critical parameters affecting DLLME, including selection of extraction and dispersive solvent, adjustment of pH, salt concentration, extraction time, were investigated by single factor study. Under optimum conditions, good linearities (r>0.9991) and satisfied recoveries (Recoveries>87.0%, relative standard deviation (RSD)extraction followed by purification. The established method was sensitive, rapid, accurate and employable to simultaneously determine target analytes in farmed fish, river fish and marine fish.

  17. Determination of ampicillin in human plasma by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) and its use in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Talita Mota; Bedor, Danilo César Galindo; de Abreu, Luís Renato Pires; de Sousa, Carlos Eduardo Miranda; Rolim, Clarice M Bueno; de Santana, Davi Pereira

    2008-01-01

    A simple, fast, sensitive and selective solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of ampicillin (CAS 69-53-4) in human plasma was developed using amoxicillin as internal standard, and sample extraction by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Extracts were separated by reversed-phase C18 with aqueous mobile phase (acetonitrile, 80:20, v/v) with 0.1% formic acid. The method was validated and successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of capsules 500 mg of ampicillin. Using a short running time of 2.5 min, the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for obtained ampicillin was 0.1 microg/ml for a plasma sample of 250 microl and a recovery of 94.38% +/- 4.05. Bioequivalence between the products was determined by calculating 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the ratio of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf values for the test and reference products, which were within the 0.80-1.25 interval proposed by FDA and EMEA. It is concluded that the two formulations are bioequivalent in their rate and extent of absorption, and thus, may be used interchangeably.

  18. Simultaneous analysis of different classes of phytohormones in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Ge, Liya; Lee, Anna S Y; Yong, Jean Wan Hong; Tan, Swee Ngin; Ong, Eng Shi

    2008-03-10

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water, which contains many uncharacterized phytohormones is extensively used as a growth promoting supplement in plant tissue culture. In this paper, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of various classes phytohormones, including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA), zeatin (Z), N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in young coconut water (CW). The analysis was carried out using a reverse-phase HPLC gradient elution, with an aqueous mobile phase (containing 0.1% formic acid, pH adjusted to 3.2 with triethylamine (TEA)) modified by methanol, and solute detection made at 265 nm wavelength. The method was validated for specificity, quantification, accuracy and precision. After preconcentration of putative endogenous phytohormones in CW using C(18) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the HPLC method was able to screen for putative endogenous phytohormones present in CW. Finally, the identities of the putative phytohormones present in CW were further confirmed using independent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface.

  19. Design of online solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) hyphenated systems for quantitative analysis of small organic compounds in biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Calafat, Antonia M; Barr, John R; Pirkle, James L

    2011-12-01

    Three online solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method examples are presented where two different types of chromatographic columns or solvent systems were coupled to meet specific analytical objectives: (i) SPE of target analytes by restricted access media from high ionic strength urine matrix was coupled with reversed phase LC-MS/MS conditions accommodating high ionization potentials of the analytes (urinary bisphenol A and other phenolic derivatives); (ii) strong cation exchange SPE of analytes of diverse polarity and pK(a) was coupled with reversed phase LC-MS/MS analysis (urinary atrazine metabolites); (iii) pre-concentration of low pg per sample analytes by weak anion exchange SPE was hyphenated with ion pair LC-MS analysis (intracellular nucleotide triphosphate analogs). With these examples we suggest a conductive generic work flow for the development of online SPE-LC-MS methods and show how advanced commercial LC devices and software allow for the design of complex yet highly versatile analytical separation systems suited to the unique physicochemical properties of the target analytes.

  20. [Determination of five avermectins in bovine liver by on-line solid-phase extraction with hydrophobic monolithic column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yaoqin; Ai, Lianfeng; Wang, Xuesheng; Wang, Manman; Xu, Houjun; Hao, Yulan

    2015-06-01

    A method based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) with hydrophobic monolithic column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of five avermectins in bovine liver. A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was used as the sorbent. The parameters influenced on on-line SPE and separation process such as the loading mobile phase, the eluting flow rate and the solvent for the separation were investigated in detail. Blank samples, spiked samples, matrix effect and recovery experiments were investigated to evaluate the extraction efficiency and potential interfering compounds originating from the matrix. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed a linear range of 1-100 µg/L and the quantification limit of 5 µg/kg for each analyte. The presented method gave recoveries of 77.4%-98.4%. The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were 4.46%-8.03% and 4.79%-8.68%, respectively. Moreover, no significant changes were found in the extraction performance after more than 400 usages on one monolithic column, and even on the monoliths with various batches. The feasibility of the developed poly (butyl methacrylate-coethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column based on the on-line SPE method for the determination of avermectins was further demonstrated by the analysis of real samples.

  1. Parallel extraction columns and parallel analytical columns coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for on-line simultaneous quantification of a drug candidate and its six metabolites in dog plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Y Q; Hop, C E; Liu, D Q; Vincent, S H; Chiu, S H

    2001-01-01

    A method with parallel extraction columns and parallel analytical columns (PEC-PAC) for on-line high-flow liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of a drug candidate and its six metabolites in dog plasma. Two on-line extraction columns were used in parallel for sample extraction and two analytical columns were used in parallel for separation and analysis. The plasma samples, after addition of an internal standard solution, were directly injected onto the PEC-PAC system for purification and analysis. This method allowed the use of one of the extraction columns for analyte purification while the other was being equilibrated. Similarly, one of the analytical columns was employed to separate the analytes while the other was undergoing equilibration. Therefore, the time needed for re-conditioning both extraction and analytical columns was not added to the total analysis time, which resulted in a shorter run time and higher throughput. Moreover, the on-line column extraction LC/MS/MS method made it possible to extract and analyze all seven analytes simultaneously with good precision and accuracy despite their chemical class diversity that included primary, secondary and tertiary amines, an alcohol, an aldehyde and a carboxylic acid. The method was validated with the standard curve ranging from 5.00 to 5000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was no more than 8% CV and the assay accuracy was between 95 and 107%.

  2. Multi-residue method for determination of 58 pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in water using solvent demulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Rombaldi, Caroline; Arias, Jean Lucas de Oliveira; Marube, Liziane Cardoso; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and efficient sample pretreatment using solvent-based de-emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-DLLME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was studied for the extraction of 58 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and pesticides from water samples. Type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, pH, salt addition, amount of salt and type of demulsification solvent were evaluated. Limits of quantification (LOQ) in the range from 0.0125 to 1.25 µg L(-1) were reached, and linearity was in the range from the LOQ of each compound to 25 μg L(-1). Recoveries ranged from 60% to 120% for 84% of the compounds, with relative standard deviations lower than 29%. The proposed method demonstrated, for the first time, that sample preparation by SD-DLLME with determination by LC-MS/MS can be successfully used for the simultaneous extraction of 32 pesticides and 26 PPCPs from water samples. The entire procedure, including the extraction of 58 organic compounds from the aqueous sample solution and the breaking up of the emulsion after extraction with water, rather than with an organic solvent, was environmentally friendly. In addition, this technique was less expensive and faster than traditional techniques. Finally, the analytical method under study was successfully applied to the analysis of all 58 pesticides and PPCPs in surface water samples.

  3. Rapid and effective sample cleanup based on graphene oxide-encapsulated core-shell magnetic microspheres for determination of fifteen trace environmental phenols in seafood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sheng-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Shen, Hao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ping; Cai, Mei-Qiang; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-05-05

    In this study, graphene oxide-encapsulated core-shell magnetic microspheres (GOE-CS-MM) were fabricated by a self-assemble approach between positive charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA)-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 and negative charged GO sheets via electrostatic interaction. The as-prepared GOE-CS-MM was carefully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer analysis (VSM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and was used as a cleanup adsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for determination of 15 trace-level environmental phenols in seafood coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The obtained results showed that the GOE-CS-MM exhibited excellent cleanup efficiency and could availably reduce the matrix effect. The cleanup mechanisms were investigated and referred to π-π stacking interaction and hydrogen bond between GOE-CS-MM and impurities in the extracts. Moreover, the extraction and cleanup conditions of GOE-CS-MM toward phenols were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were found to be 0.003-0.06 μg kg(-1), and satisfactory recovery values of 84.8-103.1% were obtained for the tested seafood samples. It was confirmed that the developed method is simple, fast, sensitive, and accurate for the determination of 15 trace environmental phenols in seafood samples.

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction sorbents for simultaneous determination of type A trichothecenes in maize, wheat and rice by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maofeng; Si, Wenshuai; Jiang, Keqiu; Nie, Dongxia; Wu, Yongjiang; Zhao, Zhihui; De Saeger, Sarah; Han, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as sorbents coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of four type A trichothecenes in maize, wheat and rice for the first time. Several key parameters including the composition of sample loading solutions, washing and elution solvents were thoroughly investigated to achieve optimal SPE recoveries and efficiency. Performance of the MWCNTs materials was significantly affected by pH, and after optimization, n-hexane and 5% methanol aqueous solution as the washing solutions and methanol containing 1% formic acid as the elution solvent presented an excellent purification efficiency for the four targets in the different matrices. The method was validated by determining the linearity (R(2)≥0.992), recovery (73.4-113.7%), precision (1.2-17.1%) and sensitivity (limit of quantification in the range of 0.02-0.10μg/kg), and was further applied for simultaneous determination of type A trichothecenes in 30 samples. Although low contamination levels of type A trichothecenes in wheat, maize and rice were observed revealing mitigated risks to consumers in Shanghai, China, the developed method has proven to be a valuable tool for type A trichothecenes monitoring in complex crop matrices.

  5. Use of oleic-acid functionalized nanoparticles for the magnetic solid-phase microextraction of alkylphenols in fruit juices using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; Pastor-Belda, Marta; Torres, Aitor; Campillo, Natalia; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite with oleic acid as the surfactant (CoFe2O4/oleic acid) were used as sorbent material for the determination of alkylphenols in fruit juices. High sensitivity and specificity were achieved by liquid chromatography and detection using both diode-array (DAD) and electrospray-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode of the negative fragment ions for alkylphenols (APs) and in positive mode for ethoxylate APs (APEOs). The optimized conditions for the different variables influencing the magnetic separation procedure were: mass of magnetic nanoparticles, 50mg, juice volume, 10mL diluted to 25mL with water, pH 6, stirring for 10min at room temperature, separation with an external neodymium magnet, desorption with 3mL of methanol and orbital shaking for 5min. The enriched organic phase was evaporated and reconstituted with 100µL acetonitrile before injecting 30µL into a liquid chromatograph with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile/0.1% (v/v) formic acid under gradient elution. Quantification limits were in the range 3.6 to 125ngmL(-1). The recoveries obtained were in the 91-119% range, with RSDs lower than 14%. The ESI-MS/MS spectra permitted the correct identification of both APs and APEOs in the fruit juice samples.

  6. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the estimation of adefovir in human plasma:Application to a pharmacokinetic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dipanjan Goswami; Sanjay Gurule; Arabinda Saha; Poonam Vats; Arshad Khuroo; Tausif Monif

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method based on solid phase extraction was developed and validated for analysis of adefovir in human plasma. Adefovir-d4 was used as an internal standard and Synergi MAX RP80A (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 4μm) column provided the desired chromatographic separation of compounds followed by detection with mass spectrometry. The method used simple isocratic chromato-graphic condition and mass spectrometric detection in the positive ionization mode. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.50–42.47 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantitation validated at 0.50 ng/mL. Matrix effect was assessed by post-column infusion experiment to monitor phospholipids and post-extraction addition experiment was performed. The degree of matrix effect for adefovir was determined as 7.5%and ion-enhancement in five different lots of human plasma was 7.1%and had no impact on study samples analysis with 4.5 min run time. The intra- and inter-day precision values were within 7.7% and 7.8%, respectively, for adefovir at the lower limit of quantification level. Validated bioanalytical method was successfully applied to clinical sample analysis.

  7. Ultrapressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for quantification of 4-methoxydiphenylmethane in pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Nashid; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Shim, Yun M; Paige, Mikell; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian

    2016-09-05

    4-Methoxydiphenylmethane (4-MDM), a selective augmenter of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H), is a new anti-inflammatory compound for potential treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently, there is no liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 4-MDM. A major barrier for developing the LC-MS/MS method is the inability of electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) to ionize 4-MDM due to its hydrophobicity and lack of any functional group for ionization. With the advent of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique, many hydrophobic compounds have been demonstrated to ionize by charge transfer reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for the quantifications of 4-MDM in rat plasma has been developed and validated. 4-MDM was extracted from the plasma by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated chromatographically using a reverse phase C8 column. The photoionization (PI) was achieved by introducing anisole as a dopant to promote the reaction of charge transfer. The assay with a linear range of 5 (LLOQ)-400ngmL(-1) met the regulatory requirements for accuracy, precision and stability. The validated assay was employed to quantify the plasma concentrations of 4-MDM after an oral dosing in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.

  8. Rapid chiral separation of atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol and the zwitterionic metoprolol acid using supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry - Application to wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svan, Alfred; Hedeland, Mikael; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L; Pettersson, Curt E

    2015-08-28

    A method for enantiomeric separation of the three β-blocking agents atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol and the zwitterionic metoprolol acid, a major metabolite of both metoprolol and in environmental matrices also atenolol, has been developed. By use of supercritical fluid chromatography and the polysaccharide-based Chiralpak(®) IB-3, all four compounds were simultaneously enantiomerically separated (Rs>1.5) within 8min. Detection was performed using tandem mass spectrometry, and to avoid isobaric interference between the co-eluting metoprolol and metoprolol acid, the achiral column Acquity(®) UPC(2) BEH 2-EP was attached ahead of to the chiral column. Carbon dioxide with 18% methanol containing 0.5% (v/v) of the additives trifluoroacetic acid and ammonia in a 2:1 molar ratio were used as mobile phase. A post column make-up flow (0.3mL/min) of methanol containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid was used to enhance the positive electrospray ionization. Detection was carried out using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the selected reaction monitoring mode, using one transition per analyte and internal standard. The method was successfully applied for monitoring the enantiomeric fraction change over time in a laboratory scale wetland degradation study. It showed good precision, recovery, sensitivity and low effect of the sample matrix.

  9. Quantification of 17-desacetyl norgestimate in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and its application to bioequivalence study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish Saxena; Arun Kumar Gupta; V. Praveen Kumar; M. Sundaramoorthi Nainar; Manoj Bob; Ravisekhar Kasibhatta

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the estimation of 17-desacetyl norgestimate in human plasma using solid-phase extraction technique. 17-desacetyl norgestimate D6 was used as the internal standard. Simple gradient chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometric detection enabled accurate and precise measurement of 17-desacetyl norgestimate at sub-picogram levels. The proposed method was validated for a linear range of 20–5000 pg/mL with a correlation coefficient Z 0.9988. The intra-run and inter-run precision and accuracy were within 10%. The overall recoveries for 17-desacetyl norgestimate and 17-desacetyl norgestimate D6 were 96.30%and 93.90%, respectively. The total run time was 4.5 min. The developed method was applied for the determination of the pharmacokinetic parameters of 17-desacetyl norgestimate following a single oral administration of a norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol 0.250 mg/0.035 mg tablets in 35 healthy female volunteers.

  10. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methylphosponic and alkyl methylphosphonic acids determination in environmental samples after pre-column derivatization with p-bromophenacyl bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygildiev, T M; Rodin, I A; Stavrianidi, A N; Braun, A V; Lebedev, A T; Rybalchenko, I V; Shpigun, O A

    2016-04-15

    Once exposed to the environment organophosphate nerve agents readily degrade by rapid hydrolysis to the corresponding alkyl methylphosphonic acids which do not exist in nature. These alkyl methylphosphonic acids are finally slowly hydrolyzed to methylphosphonic acid. Methylphosphonic acid is the most stable hydrolysis product of organophosphate nerve agents, persisting in environment for a long time. A highly sensitive method of methylphosphonic acid and alkyl methylphosphonic acids detection in dust and ground mixed samples has been developed and validated. The fact that alkyl methylphosphonic acids unlike methylphosphonic acid did not react with p-bromophenacyl bromide under chosen conditions was discovered. This allowed simultaneous chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection of derivatized methylphosphonic acid and underivatized alkyl methylphosphonic acids using HILIC-MS/MS method. Very simple sample pretreatment with high recoveries for each analyte was developed. Methylphosphonic acid pre-column derivate and alkyl methylphosphonic acids were detected using tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization after hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation. The developed approach allows achieving ultra-low detection limits: 200 pg mL(-1) for methylphosphonic acid, 70 pg mL(-1) for ethyl methylphosphonic acid, 8 pg mL(-1) for i-propyl methylphosphonic acid, 8 pg mL(-1) for i-butyl methylphosphonic acid, 5 pg mL(-1) for pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid in the extracts of dust and ground mixed samples. This approach was successfully applied to the dust and ground mixed samples from decommissioned plant for the production of chemical weapons.

  11. Simultaneous quantification of protein phosphorylation sites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics: a linear algebra approach for isobaric phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Yang, Ting; Sheng, Yuan; Zhong, Ting; Yang, Mi; Chen, Yun

    2014-12-05

    As one of the most studied post-translational modifications (PTM), protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in almost all cellular processes. Current methods are able to predict and determine thousands of phosphorylation sites, whereas stoichiometric quantification of these sites is still challenging. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted proteomics is emerging as a promising technique for site-specific quantification of protein phosphorylation using proteolytic peptides as surrogates of proteins. However, several issues may limit its application, one of which relates to the phosphopeptides with different phosphorylation sites and the same mass (i.e., isobaric phosphopeptides). While employment of site-specific product ions allows for these isobaric phosphopeptides to be distinguished and quantified, site-specific product ions are often absent or weak in tandem mass spectra. In this study, linear algebra algorithms were employed as an add-on to targeted proteomics to retrieve information on individual phosphopeptides from their common spectra. To achieve this simultaneous quantification, a LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics assay was first developed and validated for each phosphopeptide. Given the slope and intercept of calibration curves of phosphopeptides in each transition, linear algebraic equations were developed. Using a series of mock mixtures prepared with varying concentrations of each phosphopeptide, the reliability of the approach to quantify isobaric phosphopeptides containing multiple phosphorylation sites (≥ 2) was discussed. Finally, we applied this approach to determine the phosphorylation stoichiometry of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) at Ser78 and Ser82 in breast cancer cells and tissue samples.

  12. Characterization of decomposition products and preclinical and low dose clinical pharmacokinetics of decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) by a new liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry quantification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongfa; Marcucci, Guido; Byrd, John C; Grever, Michael; Xiao, Jim; Chan, Kenneth K

    2006-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation patterns resulting in gene transcriptional repression are observed in numerous cancers. Decitabine, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, is being clinically evaluated in patients with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Decitabine is rather unstable and decomposes to 1-beta-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl-3-guanylurea under basic conditions and several additional unknown products under neutral conditions. This has greatly limited application of pharmacokinetic assays to clinical development of decitabine. In this paper, a high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-MSn) study of the decomposition of decitabine in water and human plasma revealed that these previously unknown products are isomers of the intermediates formyl-1-beta-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl-3-guanylurea and 1-beta-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl-3-guanylurea. A HPLC tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the determination of decitabine concentrations in human and rat plasma has been developed. This method was based on a specific fragmentation pathway of the molecular ion of decitabine at m/z 229 to generate a unique fragment ion at m/z 113 under collision-induced dissociation. Separation of decitabine and the stable internal standard dihydro-5-aza-cytidine from the endogenous interfering substance in plasma extract was carried out on a C18 Aquasil column under an isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of 5% water/acetonitrile and 10 mM ammonium formate. The detection of decitabine was via selected reaction monitoring (SRM, 229 > 113), and its ionization was enhanced by post-column addition of acetonitrile. Effects of sample preparation and handling parameters on the stability of decitabine were also evaluated in human plasma at various temperatures. The accuracy and precision of this assay showed a coefficient of variation of decitabine in rats following intravenous doses of 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg were characterized. In the rat

  13. Development of a Novel, Sensitive, Selective, and Fast Methodology to Determine Malondialdehyde in Leaves of Melon Plants by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa E. Yonny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early production of melon plant (Cucumis melo is carried out using tunnels structures, where extreme temperatures lead to high reactive oxygen species production and, hence, oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a recognized biomarker of the advanced oxidative status in a biological system. Thus a reliable, sensitive, simple, selective, and rapid separative strategy based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-(+ESI-MS/MS was developed for the first time to measure MDA, without derivatization, in leaves of melon plants exposed to stress conditions. The detection and quantitation limits were 0.02 μg·L−1 and 0.08 μg·L−1, respectively, which was demonstrated to be better than the methodologies currently reported in the literature. The accuracy values were between 96% and 104%. The precision intraday and interday values were 2.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to monitoring of changes in MDA levels between control and exposed to thermal stress conditions melon leaves samples. Important preliminary conclusions were obtained. Besides, a comparison between MDA levels in melon leaves quantified by the proposed method and the traditional thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS approach was undertaken. The MDA determination by TBARS could lead to unrealistic conclusions regarding the oxidative stress status in plants.

  14. Development of a Novel, Sensitive, Selective, and Fast Methodology to Determine Malondialdehyde in Leaves of Melon Plants by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonny, Melisa E.; Rodríguez Torressi, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Early production of melon plant (Cucumis melo) is carried out using tunnels structures, where extreme temperatures lead to high reactive oxygen species production and, hence, oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a recognized biomarker of the advanced oxidative status in a biological system. Thus a reliable, sensitive, simple, selective, and rapid separative strategy based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-(+)ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the first time to measure MDA, without derivatization, in leaves of melon plants exposed to stress conditions. The detection and quantitation limits were 0.02 μg·L−1 and 0.08 μg·L−1, respectively, which was demonstrated to be better than the methodologies currently reported in the literature. The accuracy values were between 96% and 104%. The precision intraday and interday values were 2.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to monitoring of changes in MDA levels between control and exposed to thermal stress conditions melon leaves samples. Important preliminary conclusions were obtained. Besides, a comparison between MDA levels in melon leaves quantified by the proposed method and the traditional thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) approach was undertaken. The MDA determination by TBARS could lead to unrealistic conclusions regarding the oxidative stress status in plants. PMID:28203476

  15. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzo[a]pyrene in black ginseng using fluorescence detector and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Hye-jin; Son, Byeong-cheol; Jo, Dong-keun; Cho, Byung-lim

    2013-05-01

    Black ginseng is produced by steaming a ginseng root followed by drying repeatedly 9 times during the process and it is changed to be black color, so it is known that a black ginseng has more contents of saponins than red ginseng. However a fake black ginseng which is produced to be black color at high temperature in a short period of time generate carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) through the process. In this year, maximum residue level(MRL) for BaP was established to 2 ug/kg in black ginseng and more sensitive method was developed to quantitatively analyze the BaP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupling with florescence detector and tandem mass spectrometry (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Supelcosil™ LC-PAH column (3 μm, 3 mm x 50 mm). Mobile phase A was water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. BaP was exactly separated from other 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have been selected as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Linearity of detection was in the range of 0.2~20 μg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) for BaP was lower than 0.1 μg/kg, limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.2 μg/kg. The recovery of Bap was 92.54%+/-6.3% in black ginseng.

  16. Comparison of antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the measurement of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, G; Barco, S; Bonifazio, P; Maffia, A; Agazzi, A; Melioli, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the results of a commercially available liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method in a clinical pathology laboratory for routine Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tacr) in pediatric patients with those obtained with the current antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay (ACMIA). Whole blood levels of CsA (n= 135) and Tacr (n=100) were sequentially analyzed by using ACMIA and LC-MS/MS on pediatric transplanted patients. The differences were analyzed by using the Passing Bablok regression analysis and the Bland and Altman test. The LC-MS/MS method showed excellent reproducibility and lower limits of quantification compared to the ACMIA. A linear relationship between ACMIA and LC-MS/MS was obtained for both CsA Tacr. No significant inter-method biases were observed. The analytical performances of the LC-MS/MS method make it suitable for the accurate measurement of CsA and Tacr in pediatric transplanted patients. However ACMIA results are also accurate and reliable. For this reason the choice of the method to be used in a routine clinical pathology laboratory can be made on the bases of non-analytical considerations such as costs, organization, availability of skilled personnel.

  17. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniye Imamoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n=18. The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices.

  18. [Determination of zearalanol and related mycotoxins in pork by solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Fan, Sai; Zhao, Rong; Li, Bing; Liu, Wei; Wu, Guohua

    2013-07-01

    A method was established for the determination of six compounds of zearalanol and related mycotoxins in pork and its products. After hydrolysis of the target compounds in the pork by beta-glucosidase/sulfatase, they were extracted with methanol aqueous solution and further purified by an HLB column. The separation was performed on a BEH C18 column with gradient elution using acetonitrile-water as mobile phases. The analytes were determined by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative scan mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. alpha-Zearalenol-D7 and beta-zearalenol-D7 were used as internal standards. The good linearities (r > 0. 999) were achieved for the six compounds over the range of 1. 0 - 100 microg/L based on the internal standard calibration. The detection limits of the method were 0.03 -0.09 microg/kg. The mean recoveries of the six target compounds spiked at three levels from 1. 0 - 10. 0 microg/kg ranged from 76. 7% to 100. 5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 20%. The proposed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and complies with the regulations for the determination of trace contaminant residues in food matrice.

  19. Determination of estrogenic mycotoxins in environmental water samples by low-toxicity dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emídio, Elissandro Soares; da Silva, Claudia Pereira; de Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues

    2015-04-24

    A novel, simple, rapid and eco-friendly method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using a bromosolvent was developed to determine six estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, zearalanone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol) in water samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the negative mode (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The optimal conditions for this method include the use of 100 μL bromocyclohexane as an extraction solvent (using a non-dispersion solvent), 10 mL of aqueous sample (adjusted to pH 4), a vortex extraction time of 2 min, centrifugation for 10 min at 3500 rpm and no ionic strength adjustment. The calibration function was linear and was verified by applying the Mandel fitting test with a 95% confidence level. No matrix effect was observed. According to the relative standard deviations (RSDs), the precision was better than 13% for the repeatability and intermediate precision. The average recoveries of the spiked compounds ranged from 81 to 118%. The method limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) considering a 125-fold pre-concentration step were 4-20 and 8-40 ng L(-1), respectively. Next, the method was applied to the analysis of the environmental aqueous samples, demonstrating the presence of β-zearalanol and zearalanone in the river water samples.

  20. Multi-allergen Quantitation and the Impact of Thermal Treatment in Industry-Processed Baked Goods by ELISA and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Christine H; Khuda, Sefat E; Pereira, Marion; Ross, Mark M; Fu, Tong-Jen; Fan, Xuebin; Wu, Yan; Williams, Kristina M; DeVries, Jonathan; Pulvermacher, Brian; Bedford, Binaifer; Zhang, Xi; Jackson, Lauren S

    2015-12-16

    Undeclared food allergens account for 30-40% of food recalls in the United States. Compliance with ingredient labeling regulations and the implementation of effective manufacturing allergen control plans require the use of reliable methods for allergen detection and quantitation in complex food products. The objectives of this work were to (1) produce industry-processed model foods incurred with egg, milk, and peanut allergens, (2) compare analytical method performance for allergen quantitation in thermally processed bakery products, and (3) determine the effects of thermal treatment on allergen detection. Control and allergen-incurred cereal bars and muffins were formulated in a pilot-scale industry processing facility. Quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut in incurred baked goods was compared at various processing stages using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and a novel multi-allergen liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) method. Thermal processing was determined to negatively affect the recovery and quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut to different extents depending on the allergen, matrix, and analytical test method. The Morinaga ELISA and LC-MS/MS quantitative methods reported the highest recovery across all monitored allergens, whereas the ELISA Systems, Neogen BioKits, Neogen Veratox, and R-Biopharm ELISA Kits underperformed in the determination of allergen content of industry-processed bakery products.

  1. Multiplex liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of wheat, oat, barley and rye prolamins towards the assessment of gluten-free product safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Anita; Mattarozzi, Monica; Giannetto, Marco; Careri, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Celiac patients should feel confident in the safety of foods labelled or expected to be gluten-free. In this context, a targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique was proposed to assess the presence of celiotoxic cereals, namely wheat, oats, barley and rye, in raw and processed food products. To this aim, unique marker peptides were properly selected in order to distinguish between the different cereal types. A revised cocktail solution based on reducing and denaturing agents was exploited for prolamin extraction from raw and processed food; in addition, defatting with hexane was carried out for sample clean-up, allowing to largely reduce problems related to matrix effect. Method validation on fortified rice flour showed good analytical performance in terms of sensitivity (limits of detection in the 2-18 mg kg(-1) range). However, poor trueness was calculated for self-made incurred bread (between 3 and 30% depending on the peptide), probably due to baking processes, which reduce gluten extractability. Thus, it is evident that in the case of processed foods further insights into sample treatment efficiency and reference materials for protein calibration are required to obtain accurate gluten determination. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of market food products, offering the possibility to discriminate among cereals, with good agreement with labelled ingredients for gluten-containing foodstuffs.

  2. In-cell clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of hydrophobic persistent and emerging organic pollutants in coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2016-01-15

    The main goal of this work was to develop, optimize and validate a multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of 97 contaminants, including fragrances, UV filters, repellents, endocrine disruptors, biocides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organophosphorus flame retardants, and several types of pesticides in marine sediment samples. Extraction and cleanup were integrated into the same step using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with in-cell clean-up (1g of alumina). The extraction was performed using dichloromethane at 100 °C, 1500 psi and 3 extraction cycles (5 min per cycle). Extracts were derivatized with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) to improve the signal and sensitivity of some target compounds (i.e., triclosan, 2-hydroxybenzophenone). Separation, identification and quantification of analytes were carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Under optimal conditions, the optimized protocol showed good recovery percentages (70-100%), linearity (>0.99) and limits of detection below 1 ng g(-1) for all compounds. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of sediment samples from different coastal areas from Andalusia (Spain), where occurrence and distribution of emerging contaminants in sediments is very scarce. Twenty five compounds out of 98 were detected in all samples, with the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol and the fragrance galaxolide showing the highest concentrations, up to 377.6 ng g(-1) and 237.4 ng g(-1), respectively.

  3. In-Depth Analysis of Exoproteomes from Marine Bacteria by Shotgun Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: the Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 Case-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Armengaud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms secrete into their extracellular environment numerous compounds that are required for their survival. Many of these compounds could be of great interest for biotechnology applications and their genes used in synthetic biology design. The secreted proteins and the components of the translocation systems themselves can be scrutinized in-depth by the most recent proteomic tools. While the secretomes of pathogens are well-documented, those of non-pathogens remain largely to be established. Here, we present the analysis of the exoproteome from the marine bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 grown in standard laboratory conditions. We used a shotgun approach consisting of trypsin digestion of the exoproteome, and identification of the resulting peptides by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Three different proteins that have domains homologous to those observed in RTX toxins were uncovered and were semi-quantified as the most abundantly secreted proteins. One of these proteins clearly stands out from the catalogue, representing over half of the total exoproteome. We also listed many soluble proteins related to ABC and TRAP transporters implied in the uptake of nutrients. The Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 case-study illustrates the power of the shotgun nano-LC-MS/MS strategy to decipher the exoproteome from marine bacteria and to contribute to environmental proteomics.

  4. Determination of quinolones of veterinary use in bee products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a QuEChERS extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo-Agüí, Manuel; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen

    2012-05-15

    A reliable and rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of the eight quinolones of veterinary use regulated by European Union (marbofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, flumequine and oxolinic acid). Chromatographic conditions were optimized in order to increase sample throughput and sensitivity. The antibiotics were detected by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and MS/MS conditions were optimized in order to increase selectivity, selecting the corresponding product ions for quantification and identification. The separation was achieved in 3 min, using a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm × 2.1mm, 1.8 μm), with a mobile phase of 0.02% aqueous formic acid solution and acetonitrile. A dispersive solid phase extraction methodology, often referred to as the "QuEChERS" (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method, was optimized for extraction of the quinolones from honey and also it was evaluated for other bee products such as royal jelly and propolis. The method was validated for each matrix in terms of linearity, trueness, precision, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQ). LODs ranged between 0.2 and 4.1 μg kg(-1) with precision lower than 12% and satisfactory recoveries in most cases. The method was also applied for studying the occurrence of these antibiotics in several market samples.

  5. Dynamic behaviour and residual pattern of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in Swiss chard using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Farha, Waziha; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kabir, Md Humayun; Im, So Jeong; Jung, Da-I; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Kim, Sung-Woo; Son, Young Wook; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-05-01

    A simultaneous method was developed to analyse thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in Swiss chard using tandem mass spectrometry (in the positive electrospray ionisation mode using multiple reaction monitoring mode) to estimate the dissipation pattern and the pre-harvest residue limit (PHRL). Thiamethoxam (10%, WG) was sprayed on Swiss chard grown in two different areas under greenhouse conditions at the recommended dose rate of 10 g/20 L water. Samples were collected randomly up to 14 days post-application, extracted using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) acetate-buffered method and purified via a dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) procedure. Matrix matched calibration showed good linearity with determination coefficients (R(2)) ⩾ 0.998. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.007 and 0.02 mg/kg. The method was validated in triplicate at two different spiked concentration levels. Good recoveries (n=3) of 87.48-105.61% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) thiamethoxam residues in/on Swiss chard was best described by first-order kinetics with half-lives of 6.3 and 4.2 days. We predicted from the PHRL curves that if the residues were thiamethoxam concentrations would be below the maximum residue limits during harvest.

  6. Evaluation and prevention of the negative matrix effect of terpenoids on pesticides in apples quantification by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacinti, Géraldine; Raynaud, Christine; Capblancq, Sophie; Simon, Valérie

    2017-02-03

    The sample matrix can enhance the gas chromatography signal of pesticide residues relative to that obtained with the same concentration of pesticide in solvent. This paper is related to negative matrix effects observed in coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ion trap (GC/MS(2)) quantification of pesticides in concentrated extracts of apple peel prepared by the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. It is focused on the pesticides most frequently used on the apple varieties studied, throughout the crop cycle, right up to harvest, to combat pests and diseases and to improve fruit storage properties. Extracts from the fleshy receptacle (flesh), the epiderm (peel) and fruit of three apple varieties were studied by high-performance thin-layer chromatography hyphenated with UV-vis light detection (HPTLC/UV visible). The peel extracts had high concentrations of triterpenic acids (oleanolic and ursolic acids), reaching 25mgkg(-1), whereas these compounds were not detected in the flesh extracts (<0.05mgkg(-1)). A significant relationship has been found between the levels of these molecules and negative matrix effects in GC/MS(2). The differences in the behavior of pesticides with respect to matrix effects can be accounted for by the physicochemical characteristics of the molecules (lone pairs, labile hydrogen, conjugation). The HPTLC/UV visible method developed here for the characterization of QuEChERS extracts acts as a complementary clean-up method, aimed to decrease the negative matrix effects of such extracts.

  7. Quasi-MSn identification of flavanone 7-glycoside isomers in Da Chengqi Tang by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zunjian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Da Chengqi Tang (DCT is a common purgative formula in Chinese medicine. Flavanones are its major active compounds derived from Fructus Aurantii Immaturus. The present study developed an LC-MS/MS method to characterize two pairs of flavanone 7-glycoside isomers, i.e., hesperidin versus neohesperidin and naringin versus isonaringin. Methods After solid phase purification, components in sample were separated on a Agilent zorbax SB-C18 (5 μm, 250 mm × 4.6 mm analytical column. ESI-MS and quasi-MSn were performed in negative ion mode to obtain structural data of these two pairs of flavanone 7-glycoside isomers. Moreover, UV absorption was measured. Results There was no intra-pairs difference in the UV-Vis and MS/MS spectra of the two pairs of 7-glycoside isomers, whereas the mass spectrometry fragmentation pathways between pairs were different. Conclusion The present study developed a LC-MS/MS method to explore the inter- and intra-pair difference of two pairs of flavanone 7-glycoside isomers.

  8. Comparative study of different fabric phase sorptive extraction sorbents to determine emerging contaminants from environmental water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakade, Sameer S; Borrull, Francesc; Furton, Kenneth G; Kabir, Abuzar; Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2015-11-01

    A new sorptive extraction technique, fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), using different coating chemistries: non-polar sol-gel poly(dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) (PDMDPS), medium polar sol-gel poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), and polar sol-gel poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PPG-PEG triblock) and sol-gel Carbowax 20 M were evaluated to extract a group of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with wide range of polarity from environmental aqueous samples. Different parameters affecting FPSE such as sample pH, stirring speed, addition of salt, extraction time, sample volume, elution solvent and desorption time were optimized for each sorbent coated FPSE media. Under optimum conditions, FPSE media coated with sol-gel Carbowax 20 M provided the highest absolute recoveries (77-85%) for majority of the analytes with the exception of the most polar ones. Nevertheless, all four sorbents offered better recovery compared to the commercially available coating for stir-bar sorptive extraction based on Ethylene Glycol/Silicone (EG/Silicone). The method based on FPSE with sol-gel Carbowax 20 M media and liquid chromatography-(electrospray ionization) tandem mass spectrometry (LC-(ESI) MS/MS) was developed and validated for environmental water samples. Good apparent recoveries (41-80%), detection limits (1-50 ng L(-1)), repeatability (%RSD<15%, n=5) and reproducibility (%RSD<18%, n=5) were achieved.

  9. Selective and rapid determination of raltegravir in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ionization mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Gupta; Swati Guttikar; Priyanka A. Shah; Gajendra Solanki; Pranav S. Shrivastav; Mallika Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    A selective and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of raltegravir using raltegravir-d3 as an internal standard (IS). The analyte and IS were extracted with methylene chloride and n-hexane solvent mixture from 100 mL human plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Chromolith RP-18e endcapped C18 (100 mm ? 4.6 mm) column in a run time of 2.0 min. Quantitation was performed in the negative ionization mode using the transitions of m/z 443.1-316.1 for raltegravir and m/z 446.1-319.0 for IS. The linearity of the method was established in the concentration range of 2.0–6000 ng/mL. The mean extraction recovery for raltegravir and IS was 92.6% and 91.8%, respectively, and the IS-normalized matrix factors for raltegravir ranged from 0.992 to 0.999. The application of this method was demonstrated by a bioequivalence study on 18 healthy subjects.

  10. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide in human plasma for bioequivalence studies$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dhiraj M. Rathod; Keyur R. Patel; Hiren N. Mistri; Arvind G. Jangid; Pranav S. Shrivastav; Mallika Sanyal

    2016-01-01

    An improved high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method has been developed for sensitive and rapid determination of albendazole (ABZ) and its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), in the positive ionization mode. The method utilized solid phase ex-traction (SPE) for sample preparation of the analytes and their deuterated internal standards (ISs) from 100 mL human plasma. The chromatography was carried out on Hypurity C18 column using acetonitrile-2.0 mM ammonium acetate, pH 5.0 (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase. The assay exhibited a linear re-sponse over the concentration range of 0.200–50.0 ng/mL for ABZ and 3.00–600 ng/mL for ABZSO. The recoveries of the analytes and ISs ranged from 86.03%–89.66% and 89.85%–98.94%, respectively. Matrix effect, expressed as IS-normalized matrix factors, ranged from 0.985 to 1.042 for the both analytes. The method was successfully applied for two separate studies in healthy subjects using single dose of 400 mg conventional tablets and 400 mg chewable ABZ tablets, respectively.

  11. In vivo solid-phase microextraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for monitoring blood eicosanoids time profile after lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Zhan, Yanwei; De Lannoy, Inés A M; Saldivia, Victor; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-12-11

    A fast and non-lethal in vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method for rat blood coupled to liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for monitoring rapid changes in concentrations of eicosanoids - lipid mediators involved in the development of inflammatory conditions - using diffusion-based calibration. Sampling rates of target eicosanoids were pre-determined under laboratory conditions with a precision of ≤10%, and directly used for quantification of analyte concentrations in blood after lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed significant changes in unbound plasma concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) in response to the treatment. Next, performance of the proposed method was compared with protein precipitation (PP) of plasma, a conventional sample preparation technique. Finally, percentages of plasma protein binding (PPB) of specific eicosanoids were determined. PPB of target eicosanoids was in agreement with literature values, ranging from 99.3 to 99.9% for 12-HETE and DHA, respectively. We envision that the proposed method is a particularly suitable alternative to lethal sampling and current methods based on sample depletion in animal studies for accurate monitoring of rapid changes in blood concentrations of small molecules.

  12. An ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of teicoplanin in plasma of neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begou, O; Kontou, A; Raikos, N; Sarafidis, K; Roilides, E; Papadoyannis, I N; Gika, H G

    2016-02-04

    The development and validation of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was performed with the aim to be applied for the quantification of plasma teicoplanin concentrations in neonates. Pharmacokinetic data of teicoplanin in the neonatal population is very limited, therefore, a sensitive and reliable method for the determination of all isoforms of teicoplanin applied in a low volume of sample is of real importance. Teicoplanin main components were extracted by a simple acetonitrile precipitation step and analysed on a C18 chromatographic column by a triple quadrupole MS with electrospray ionization. The method provides quantitative data over a linear range of 25-6400ng/mL with LOD 8.5ng/mL and LOQ 25ng/mL for total teicoplanin. The method was applied in plasma samples from neonates to support pharmacokinetic data and proved to be a reliable and fast method for the quantification of teicoplanin concentration levels in plasma of infants during therapy in Intensive Care Unit.

  13. Confirmatory method for the determination of resorcylic acid lactones in urine sample using immunoaffinity cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusi, Guglielmo [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell' Emilia Romagna, ' B. Ubertini' , Via Bianchi 7, 25124 Brescia (Italy)], E-mail: guglielmo.dusi@bs.izs.it; Bozzoni, Eros; Assini, Walter; Tognoli, Nadia; Gasparini, Mara; Ferretti, Enrica [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell' Emilia Romagna, ' B. Ubertini' , Via Bianchi 7, 25124 Brescia (Italy)

    2009-04-01

    The presence of zeranol ({alpha}-zearalanol) in urine samples due to natural contamination or illegal treatment is under debate within the European Union. The simultaneous determination of zeranol, its epimer taleranol ({beta}-zearalanol), zearalanone and the structurally related mycotoxin zearalenone with the corresponding {alpha}- and {beta}-zearalenol metabolites appears to be critical in deciding whether an illegal use has occurred. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a simple analytical procedure applicable to bovine and swine urine samples for the determination of all six resorcylic acid lactones. After an enzymatic deconjugation, the urine was subjected to a one-step cleanup on a commercially available immunoaffinity chromatography cartridge. The analytes were detected by liquid chromatography-negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry using deuterium-labelled internal standards. The method was validated as a quantitative confirmatory method according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The evaluated parameters were: linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility), recovery, decision limit, detection capability and ruggedness. The decision limits (CC{alpha}) obtained, were between 0.56 and 0.68 {mu}g L{sup -1}; recovery above 66% for all the analytes. Repeatability was between 1.4 and 5.3% and within-laboratory reproducibility between 1.9 and 16.1% for the six resorcylic acid lactones.

  14. Development of a fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of endocrine-disrupting compounds in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carro, Marina; Scapolla, Carlo; Liscio, Camilla; Magi, Emanuele

    2010-09-01

    A fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed to study five endocrine-disrupting compounds (4-n-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) in water. Different columns were tested; the chromatographic separation of the analytes was optimized on a Pinnacle DB biphenylic column with a water-acetonitrile gradient elution, which allowed the separation of the selected endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in less than 6 min. Quantitative analysis was performed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode; two transitions were chosen for each compound, using the most abundant for quantitation. Calibration curves using bisphenol A-d (16) as internal standard were drawn, showing good correlation coefficients (0.9993-0.9998). All figures of merit of the method were satisfactory; limits of detection were in the low pg range for all analytes. The method was then applied to the determination of the analytes in real water samples: to this aim, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the influent and in the effluent of a drinking water treatment plant in Liguria (Italy). The EDC level was rather low in the influent and negligible in the outlet, reflecting the expected function of the treatment plant.

  15. [Determination of 23 antibiotics and 3 β-agonists in livestock drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with solid-phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ao

    2016-02-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 antibiotics (four categories) and 3 β-agonists in livestock drinking water using solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI MS/MS). The samples were adjusted pH to 5. 0, added Na2EDTA, enriched and cleaned-up by an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge. The target compounds were confirmed and quantified by UPLC-ESI MS/MS with external standard method for the anti- biotics and internal standard method for the β-agonists. The recoveries were assessed by using lab tap water as matrix. The average recoveries of the 23 antibiotics and the 3 β-agonists were in the range of 50. 7%-104. 6% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2. 6%-8. 8% (n= 3). Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves of the 23 antibiotics and the 3 β-agonists showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients better than 0. 994. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N≥3) ranged from 0. 01-0. 20 ng/L. The developed method was applied to analyze the livestock drinking waters in 36 Beijing intensive livestock farms. The results showed that some antibiotics were detected.

  16. Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraval, Isabelle; Sen, Kemal; Agrebi, Abdelhamid; Menut, Chantal; Morere, Alain; Boulanger, Renaud; Gay, Frédéric; Mestres, Christian; Gunata, Ziya

    2010-08-24

    A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d(2)-pyrroline (2AP-d(2)), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n=10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r(2)=0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g(-1) of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

  17. Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraval, Isabelle [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sen, Kemal [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Agrebi, Abdelhamid; Menut, Chantal; Morere, Alain [UMR 5247, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron (IBMM), CNRS, Universites Montpellier 2 et 1, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 8 Rue de l' Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Boulanger, Renaud [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gay, Frederic [CIRAD, DORAS Centre, Research and Development Building, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Mestres, Christian [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gunata, Ziya, E-mail: zgunata@univ-montp2.fr [UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-08-24

    A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d{sub 2}-pyrroline (2AP-d{sub 2}), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r{sup 2} = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g{sup -1} of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

  18. A simple sample preparation approach based on hydrophilic solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determination of endogenous cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bao-Dong; Zhu, Jiu-Xia; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2013-12-30

    Cytokinins (CKs), a vital family of phytohormones, play important roles in the regulation of shoot and root development. However, the quantification of CKs in plant samples is frequently affected by the complex plant matrix. In the current study, we developed a simple, rapid and efficient hydrophilic interaction chromatography-solid phase extraction (HILIC-SPE) method for CKs purification. CKs were extracted by acetonitrile (ACN) followed by HILIC-SPE (silica as sorbents) purification. The extraction solution of plant samples could be directly applied to HILIC-SPE without solvent evaporation step, which simplified the analysis process. Moreover, with HILIC chromatographic retention mechanism, the hydrophobic co-extracted impurities were efficiently removed. Subsequently, CKs were separated by RPLC, orthogonal to the HILIC pretreatment process, and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. The method exhibits high specificity and recovery yield (>77.0%). Good linearities were obtained for all eight CKs ranging from 0.002 to 100ngmL(-1) with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9927. The limits of detection (LODs, signal/noise=5) for the CKs were between 1.0 and 12.4pgmL(-1). Reproducibility of the method was evaluated by intra-day and inter-day measurements and the results showed that relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10.5%. Employing this method, we successfully quantified six CKs in 20mg Oryza sativa leaves and the method was also successfully applied to Brassica napus (flower and leaves).

  19. A high-throughput inhibition screening of major human cytochrome P450 enzymes using an in vitro cocktail and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong-Zhen; Ren, Xian; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Yao; Yin, Ji-Ye; Yu, Jing; Qu, Jian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2014-02-01

    A sensitive and high-throughput inhibition screening liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of five probe metabolites (7-hydroxycoumarin, CYP2A6; 4-hydroxytolbutamide, CYP2C9; 4'-hydroxymephenytoin, CYP2C19; α-hydroxymetoprolol, CYP2D6; and 1-hydroxymidazolam, CYP3A4) for in vitro cytochrome P450 activity determination in human liver microsome and recombinant. All the metabolites and the internal standard, tramadol, were separated on a Waters 2695 series liquid chromatograph with a Phenomenex Luna C18 column (150 × 2.0 mm, 5 µm). Quality control samples and a positive control CYP inhibitor were included in the method. The IC50 values determined for typical CYP inhibitors were reproducible and in agreement with the literature. The method was selective and showed good accuracy (99.13-103.37%), and inter-day (RSD high-quality and -throughput cocktail provides suitable information in drug discovery and screening for new drug entities.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds in Edible Oil by Gel-Permeation Chromatography Combined with Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Jin, Fen; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yanxin; Wang, Jian; Shao, Hua; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Jing

    2015-09-30

    A simple analytical method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 18 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in edible oil. The target compounds were extracted by acetonitrile, purified by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) using graphitized carbon black (GCB) and octadecyl (C18), and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) in negative ion mode. Recovery studies were performed at three fortification levels. The average recoveries of all target PFCs ranged from 60 to 129%, with an acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) (1-20%, n = 3). The method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.004 to 0.4 μg/kg, which was significantly improved compared with the existing liquid-liquid extraction and cleanup method. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of all target PFCs in edible oil samples collected from markets in Beijing, China, and the results revealed that C6-C10 perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCAs) and C7 perfluorosulfonic acid PFSAs were the major PFCs detected in oil samples.

  1. Method Development and Validation for Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distributions of Ellagic Acid Using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Yan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ellagic acid is a dietary polyphenol found in numerous fruits and vegetables, possessing several health benefits such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-atherosclerotic biological properties. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ellagic acid in rats. A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method to determine the ellagic acid in plasma and tissue samples was developed and validated. The separation was achieved using reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, and the mass spectrometric detection was achieved using heated electrospray ionization (negative mode and multiple ion monitoring (m/z 301/229. A sample cleanup with a solid phase extraction (SPE step prior to the UPLC-MS/MS analysis was also developed. The SPE and UPLC-MS/MS method established here was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic profiles and tissue distribution of ellagic acid. After oral administration dosing at 50 mg/kg, plasma levels of ellagic acid peaked at about 0.5 h, with Cmax value of 93.6 ng/mL, and the results showed that the ellagic acid was poorly absorbed after oral administration. The pharmacokinetic profile of ellagic acid fitted to a two-compartment model with t1/2α 0.25 h and t1/2β 6.86 h, respectively. Following oral administration, ellagic acid was detected in all examined tissues including kidney, liver, heart, lung and brain et al., and the highest levels were found in kidney and liver.

  2. Determination of metoprolol enantiomers in human plasma and saliva samples utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmongy, Hatem; Ahmed, Hytham; Wahbi, Abdel-Aziz; Amini, Ahmad; Colmsjö, Anders; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    A sensitive, accurate and reliable bioanalytical method for the enantioselective determination of metoprolol in plasma and saliva samples utilizing liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Human plasma and saliva samples were pretreated by microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) prior to analysis. A new MEPS syringe form with two inputs was used. Metoprolol enantiomers and internal standard pentycaine (IS) were eluted from MEPS sorbent using isopropanol after removal of matrix interferences using aliquots of 5% methanol in water. Complete separation of metoprolol enantiomers was achieved on a Cellulose-SB column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using isocratic elution with mobile phase 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in hexane-isopropanol (80:20, v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. A post-column solvent-assisted ionization was applied to enhance metoprolol ionization signal in positive mode monitoring (+ES) using 0.5% formic acid in isopropanol at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The total chromatographic run time was 10 min for each injection. The detection of metoprolol in plasma and saliva samples was performed using triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in +ES under the following mass transitions: m/z 268.08 → 72.09 for metoprolol and m/z 303.3 → 154.3 for IS. The linearity range was 2.5-500 ng/mL for both R- and S-metoprolol in plasma and saliva. The limits of detection and quantitation for both enantiomers were 0.5 and 2.5 ng/mL respectively, in both matrices (plasma and saliva). The intra- and inter-day precisions were presented in terms of RSD values for replicate analysis of quality control samples and were metoprolol enantiomers in both human plasma and saliva samples successfully, which can aid in therapeutic drug monitoring in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. “One-shot” analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated and methoxylated analogs in human breast milk and serum using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butryn, Deena M.; Gross, Michael S. [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Chi, Lai-Har [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Schecter, Arnold [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville College of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Olson, James R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Aga, Diana S., E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated (OH-BDE) and methoxylated (MeO-BDE) analogs in humans is an area of high interest to scientists and the public due to their neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects. Consequently, there is a rise in the investigation of the occurrence of these three classes of compounds together in environmental matrices and in humans in order to understand their bioaccumulation patterns. Analysis of PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be accomplished simultaneously, but detection limits for PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in LC-MS is insufficient for trace level quantification. Therefore, fractionation steps of the phenolic (OH-BDEs) and neutral (PBDEs and MeO-BDEs) compounds during sample preparation are typically performed so that different analytical techniques can be used to achieve the needed sensitivities. However, this approach involves multiple injections, ultimately increasing analysis time. In this study, an analytical method was developed for a “one-shot” analysis of 12 PBDEs, 12 OH-BDEs, and 13 MeO-BDEs using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This overall method includes simultaneous extraction of all analytes via pressurized liquid extraction followed by lipid removal steps to reduce matrix interferences. The OH-BDEs were derivatized using N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (TBDMS-MTFA), producing OH-TBDMS derivatives that can be analyzed together with PBDEs and MeO-BDEs by GC-MS/MS in “one shot” within a 25-min run time. The overall recoveries were generally higher than 65%, and the limits of detection ranged from 2 to 14 pg in both breast milk and serum matrices. The applicability of the method was successfully validated on four paired human breast milk and serum samples. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs in breast milk were 59, 2.2, and 0.57 ng g{sup −1} lipid

  4. Development and validation of a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Xin; Ye, Xiaolan; Sun, Fanlu; Li, Jinying; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma was developed to assess the plasma pharmacokinetics of neostigmine. After protein precipitation in a Sirocco 96-well filtration plate, the filtrate was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The analytes were separated on a Hanbon Hedera CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the water containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, with a split ratio of 1:1 flowing 300 μL into the mass spectrometer. The run time was 3 min. Detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 223.0 → 72.0 and 306.0 → 140.0 for neostigmine and anisodamine (internal standard), respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL, and good linearity in the range 0.1-100ng/mL for neostigmine (r ≥ 0.998). All the validation data, such as accuracy, intra-run and inter-run precision, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of neostigmine methylsulfate injection in beagle dogs.

  5. Highly sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of nifedipine in human plasma and its application to a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Daxesh P; Sharma, Primal; Sanyal, Mallika; Singhal, Puran; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2012-12-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of nifedipine in human plasma using nifedipine-d6 as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction on Phenomenex Strata-X cartridges employing 200 μL human plasma. Chromatography was carried out on Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C₁₈ (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm particle size) analytical column under isocratic conditions using a mobile phase consisting of 4.0 mm ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (15:85, v/v). The precursor → product ion transitions for nifedipine (m/z 347.2 → 315.2) and IS (m/z 353.1 → 318.1) were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operating in the multiple reaction monitoring and positive-ion mode. The method was validated over a wide dynamic concentration range of 0.050-150 ng/mL. Matrix effect was assessed by post-column analyte infusion and the mean extraction recovery was 95.6% across four quality control levels. The method is rugged and rapid with a total run time of 1.2 min and was applied to a bioequivalence study of 20 mg nifedipine tablet formulation in 30 healthy Indian subjects under fasting condition. Assay reproducibility was confirmed by reanalysis of 116 incurred samples.

  6. A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin C effervescent tablet by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan

    2013-05-01

    In present study, a rapid and sensitive method using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin C effervescent tablet. The optimum chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase Waters® Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 μm particle size, 100 mm × 2.1 mm ID) with an isocratic elution profile and mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (75:25, v/v, pH 3.5) at flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1. The influences of mobile phase composition, flow rate and pH on chromatographic resolution were investigated. The total chromatographic analysis time was as short as 2 min with excellent resolution. Detection and quantification of the target compounds were carried out with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. The performance of the method was evaluated and very low limits of detection less than 0.09 μg g-1, excellent coefficient correlation (r2 > 0.999) with liner range over a concentration range of 0.1-1.0 μg g-1 for both L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, and good intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin C effervescent tablet.

  7. Determination of melamine in milk-based products and other food and beverage products by ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Maria; Sancho, Juan V. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, E-12071, Castellon (Spain); Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, E-12071, Castellon (Spain)

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes a fast method for the sensitive and selective determination of melamine in a wide range of food matrices, including several milk-based products. The method involves an extraction with aqueous 1% trichloroacetic acid before the injection of the 10-fold diluted extract into the liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) system, using labelled melamine as the internal standard. As melamine is present in aqueous media in the cationic form, the chromatographic separation in reversed-phase LC requires the use of anionic ion-pair reagents, such as tridecafluoroheptanoic acid (THFA). This allows a satisfactory chromatographic retention and peak shape in all the types of food samples investigated. The method has been validated in six food matrices (biscuit, dry pasta and four milk-based products) by means of recovery experiments in samples spiked at 1 and 5 mg kg{sup -1}. Average recoveries (n = 5) ranged from 77% to 100%, with excellent precision (RSDs lower than 5%) and limits of detection between 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg{sup -1}. In addition, accuracy and robustness of the method was proven in different soya-based matrices by means of quality control (QC) sample analysis. QC recoveries, at 1 and 2.5 mg kg{sup -1}, were satisfactory, ranging from 79% to 110%. The method developed in this work has been applied to the determination of melamine in different types of food samples. All detections were confirmed by acquiring two MS/MS transitions (127 > 85 for quantification; 127 > 68 for confirmation) and comparing their ion intensity ratio with that of reference standards. Accuracy of the method was also assessed by applying it to a milk-based product and a baking mix material as part of an EU proficiency test, in which highly satisfactory results were obtained.

  8. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative method for the cellular analysis of varying structures of gemini surfactants designed as nanomaterial drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkuru, McDonald; Michel, Deborah; Awad, Hanan; Katselis, George; El-Aneed, Anas

    2016-05-13

    Diquaternary gemini surfactants have successfully been used to form lipid-based nanoparticles that are able to compact, protect, and deliver genetic materials into cells. However, what happens to the gemini surfactants after they have released their therapeutic cargo is unknown. Such knowledge is critical to assess the quality, safety, and efficacy of gemini surfactant nanoparticles. We have developed a simple and rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of various structures of gemini surfactants in cells. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was employed allowing for a short simple isocratic run of only 4min. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) was 3ng/mL. The method was valid to 18 structures of gemini surfactants belonging to two different structural families. A full method validation was performed for two lead compounds according to USFDA guidelines. The HILIC-MS/MS method was compatible with the physicochemical properties of gemini surfactants that bear a permanent positive charge with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic elements within their molecular structure. In addition, an effective liquid-liquid extraction method (98% recovery) was employed surpassing previously used extraction methods. The analysis of nanoparticle-treated cells showed an initial rise in the analyte intracellular concentration followed by a maximum and a somewhat more gradual decrease of the intracellular concentration. The observed intracellular depletion of the gemini surfactants may be attributable to their bio-transformation into metabolites and exocytosis from the host cells. Obtained cellular data showed a pattern that grants additional investigations, evaluating metabolite formation and assessing the subcellular distribution of tested compounds.

  9. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of valproic acid and its ene-metabolites in epilepsy patient plasma$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Lu; Chong Su; Lei Yin; Liqiang Gu; Jingkai Gu; Xiaohui Chen

    2016-01-01

    A simple and high throughput method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of valproic acid and its two toxicant ene-metabolites, 2-enevalproic acid and 4-enevalproic acid in epilepsy patient plasma using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Probenecid was used as in-ternal standard and solid-phase extraction was selected for sample preparation. A chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Poroshell SB-C18 column (50 mm ? 4.6 mm i.d., 2.7μm) by an optimized gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The total run time was 7 min. Electrospray ionization was used in negative ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring of the precursor-to-product ion transitions at m/z 143.0-143.0 for valproic acid, m/z 140.9-140.9 for 2-enevalproic acid and 4-enevalproic acid for their poor fragments, and m/z 283.9-239.9 for probenecid. The results showed good linearity of valproic acid, 2-enevalproic acid and 4-enevalproic acid in their respective linear ranges. The correlation coefficients were more than 0.998. The intra- and inter-day precision of the assay was less than 11.0%and the accuracy ranged from 2%to 12%. This analytical method was successfully applied to assay plasma concentrations of valproic acid and its two ene-metabolites in epilepsy patient plasma and used for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  10. Selection of possible marker peptides for the detection of major ruminant milk proteins in food by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Parisa; Stoppacher, Norbert; Rudolf, Judith; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Baumgartner, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was the determination of peptides, which can function as markers for identification of milk allergens in food samples. Emphasis was placed on two casein proteins (α- and β-casein) and two whey proteins (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin). In silico tryptic digestion provided preliminary information about the expected peptides. After tryptic digestion of four milk allergens, the analytical data obtained by combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) led to the identification of 26 peptides. Seven of these peptides were synthesized and used for calibration of the LC-MS/MS system. Species specificity of the selected peptides was sought by BLAST search. Among the selected peptides, only LIVTQTMK from β-lactoglobulin (m/z 467.6, charge 2+) was found to be cow milk specific and could function as a marker. Two other peptides, FFVAPFPEVFGK from α-casein (m/z 693.3, charge 2+) and GPFPIIV from β-casein (m/z 742.5, charge 1+), occur in water buffalo milk too. The other four peptides appear in the milk of other species also and can be used as markers for ruminant species milk. Using these seven peptides, a multianalyte MS-based method was developed. For the establishment of the method, it was applied at first to different dairy samples, and then to chocolate and blank samples, and the peptides could be determined down to 1 ng/mL in food samples. At the end, spiked samples were measured, where the target peptides could be detected with a high recovery (over 50%).

  11. Trace analysis of three fungicides in animal origin foods with a modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhaobin; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-02-01

    A multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed and validated for the determination of three selected fungicides (propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, and isopyrazam) in seven animal origin foods. The overall recoveries at the three spiking levels of 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) spanned between 72.3 and 101.4% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 0.7 and 14.9%. The method shows good linearity in the concentrations between 0.001 and 1 mg L(-1) with the coefficient of determination (R (2)) value >0.99 for each target analyte. The limit of detections (LODs) for target analytes were between 0.04 and 1.26 μg kg(-1), and the limit of quantifications (LOQs) were between 0.13 and 4.20 μg kg(-1). The matrix effect for each individual compound was evaluated through the study of ratios of the areas obtained in solvent and matrix standards. The optimized method provided a negligible matrix effect for propiconazole within 20%, whereas for pyraclostrobin and isopyrazam, the matrix effect was relatively significant with a maximum value of 49.8%. The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 210 animal origin samples obtained from 16 provinces of China. The results suggested that the developed method was satisfactory for trace analysis of three fungicides in animal origin foods.

  12. Automated determination of aliphatic primary amines in wastewater by simultaneous derivatization and headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.