WorldWideScience

Sample records for christchurch urban development

  1. Ethnicity and Early Labour Market Experiences in the Christchurch Health and Development Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Maloney

    2002-01-01

    This study uses data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study to investigate differences by ethnicity in early labour market experiences of a birth cohort born in Christchurch in 1977. The study finds that Maori youth acquire fewer school and post-school qualifications, and accumulate less work experience by age 21, than other youth. There is also more heterogeneity among Maori than other youth – a substantially larger proportion of Maori youth, compared to others, accumulate very l...

  2. The annual terrestrial gamma radiation dose to the population of the urban Christchurch area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured with a high pressure ionization chamber at 70 indoor (195 site measurements) and 58 outdoor locations in the metropolitan Christchurch area. Based on these site measurements, the average gonad dose rate to the population from natural terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 273+-56 microgray per annum. (auth)

  3. Don't forget about the Christchurch earthquake: Lessons learned from this disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Michael W.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the devastating magnitude-9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck the Tohoku region of Japan on March 11, attention quickly turned away from a much smaller, but also highly destructive earthquake that struck the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, just a few weeks earlier, on Feb. 22. Both events are stark reminders of human vulnerability to natural disasters and provide a harsh reality check: Even technologically advanced countries with modern building codes are not immune from earthquake disasters. The Christchurch earthquake carried an additional message: Urban devastation can be triggered even by moderate-sized earthquakes.

  4. Estimating seismic site response in Christchurch City (New Zealand) from dense low-cost aftershock arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Anna E.; Benites, Rafael A.; Chung, Angela I.; Haines, A. John; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Fry, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The Mw 7.1 September 2010 Darfield earthquake, New Zealand, produced widespread damage and liquefaction ~40 km from the epicentre in Christchurch city. It was followed by the even more destructive Mw 6.2 February 2011 Christchurch aftershock directly beneath the city’s southern suburbs. Seismic data recorded during the two large events suggest that site effects contributed to the variations in ground motion observed throughout Christchurch city. We use densely-spaced aftershock recordings of the Darfield earthquake to investigate variations in local seismic site response within the Christchurch urban area. Following the Darfield main shock we deployed a temporary array of ~180 low-cost 14-bit MEMS accelerometers linked to the global Quake-Catcher Network (QCN). These instruments provided dense station coverage (spacing ~2 km) to complement existing New Zealand national network strong motion stations (GeoNet) within Christchurch city. Well-constrained standard spectral ratios were derived for GeoNet stations using a reference station on Miocene basalt rock in the south of the city. For noisier QCN stations, the method was adapted to find a maximum likelihood estimate of spectral ratio amplitude taking into account the variance of noise at the respective stations. Spectral ratios for QCN stations are similar to nearby GeoNet stations when the maximum likelihood method is used. Our study suggests dense low-cost accelerometer aftershock arrays can provide useful information on local-scale ground motion properties for use in microzonation. Preliminary results indicate higher amplifications north of the city centre and strong high-frequency amplification in the small, shallower basin of Heathcote Valley.

  5. Wintertime organic aerosols in Christchurch and Auckland, New Zealand: contributions of residential wood and coal burning and petroleum utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haobo Wang; Kimitaka Kawamura; David Shooter [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Institute of Low-Temperature Science

    2006-09-01

    Wintertime PM10 samples from two New Zealand cities (Christchurch and Auckland) have been characterized using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for biomass burning tracers, hopanes, n-alkanes, fatty acids, n-alkanols and sugars. The aerosol samples of Christchurch, which were heavily influenced by residential wood and coal burning, showed substantially higher ambient concentrations for most of the organic compounds than those of Auckland, where major sources of aerosols were vehicular emissions and sea-salt. Mass ratios between the biomass burning tracers studied were found to be significantly different (e.g., {beta}-sitosterol to nssK{sup +} ratios were more than three times higher in Christchurch than in Auckland), although levoglucosan to nssK{sup +} ratios were similar at the both sites. We also estimated, for the first time using stereochemical configurations of hopanes, that 60% of fossil fuel emissions came from petroleum utilization with the remaining 40% being from coal burning in Christchurch. In contrast, contribution of coal burning was negligible in Auckland. Moreover, contributions of most biomass burning tracers to organic carbon (OC) were significantly higher in Christchurch than in Auckland. On the other hand, saccharides (excluding levoglucosan) and hopanes accounted for larger fractions of OC in Auckland. This study demonstrates that intensive wood and coal burning can significantly affect organic aerosol composition in an urban environment. 46 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development, Urbanization and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Khan Mumtaz

    2011-01-01

    Kamil Khan Mumtaz looks at how the perpetual increase in production and consumption implied by the economic growth model of development and modern urbanization is unsustainable. A sustainable economy would fully recycle all that it consumes, while sustainable cities would be structurally integrated with the regions from which they derive their basic sustenance. Above all, sustainable development requires a paradigm change that must begin with a redefinition of the goals of development.

  7. Unit-pricing: Minimising Christchurch Domestic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    One economic tool that can aid in the achievement of waste minimisation targets is unit-pricing. Unit-pricing in the waste management sector refers to a pricing system that charges households for their collection and disposal service relative to the amount of waste disposed by the household. This research investigates the potential impact of implementing a unit-pricing policy for domestic waste collection and disposal services in Christchurch. Data is collected using a Contingent Valuation su...

  8. Preventing Informal Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2008-01-01

    . This is directly linked to citizen participation in the process of land use control. Decentralisation should aim to combine responsibility for decision making with accountability for financial, social, and environmental consequences. Decentralisation requires access to appropriate quality of land information......The issue of informal development was discussed in details at the joint FIG Com 3 and UNECE/WPLA workshop in Sounio, Greece, March 2007. Emphasis was given to the scale of the problem in Southern and Eastern Europe and to means of legalising such informal urban development. This paper, instead......, addresses the main issue of how to prevent informal urban development, especially through the use of adequate and sustainable means of land use control and good governance. Three key means are addressed: Decentralisation: There is a need to separate central policy/regulation making and local decision making...

  9. Urbanization Path Selection Toward Harmonious Urban-Rural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Unbalanced urban-rural development is one of the most apparent issues in the process of Chinese urbanization.While harmonious urban-rural development is an objective of urbanization,urbanization is also necessary in realizing harmonious urban-rural development.Such development will be an emblem of the implementation of the Scientific View of Development,and may be realized through an urbanization path with integrated urban-rural system,win-win machine for urban and rural areas,integrated urban-rural market,and coordinated urban-rural industrial structures.

  10. Dancing Earthquake Science Assists Recovery from the Christchurch Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Candice J.; Quigley, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The 2010-2012 Christchurch (Canterbury) earthquakes in New Zealand caused loss of life and psychological distress in residents throughout the region. In 2011, student dancers of the Hagley Dance Company and dance professionals choreographed the performance "Move: A Seismic Journey" for the Christchurch Body Festival that explored…

  11. Urban Quality Development & Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

    2008-01-01

    universities. Design/methodology/approach: The study has been carried out as action research. Using innovation and user-producer interaction as the framework, the authors present the development process; the structure, contents and methodology of the programme; and report on their research findings. Findings......: Urban quality development and management is dependent on human resource development, institutionalised networks and confident exchange of knowledge, and must identify and incorporate multiple environmental, social, economic and cultural aspects. The authors find that at the core of innovative societies......, an interlinkage exists between practice (business, civil society, governance) and theory (research, education). The case illustrates how a new curriculum takes time to develop and implement and how it relies on confidence and trust between partners, in this case cities and universities, before being able to plant...

  12. Strengthening Urban Forest Development Improving Urban Ecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGZehui

    2004-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, urban development in China has entered a period of rapid progress. While making significant achievements, urban environmental problems such as air pollution, heatisland effects, water loss and soil erosion have become increasingly prominent. To speed up the process of urbanization in China, new challenges have been imposed on urban forest development, urban environment protection and ecological urban development. Aimed at ecological and environment problems existing in urban development in China, summarizing Chinese experiences and learning from other countries, scientifically planning urban forest to promote urban ecological development, improving urban forest ecosystem to assure urban ecological safety, carrying on forest culture to develop urban ecological civilization, have become the main tasks and direction for urban forest development in China.

  13. Urban Development Tools in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsborg, Christian; Enemark, Stig; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder følgende afsnit: 1. Urbax and the Danish Planning system 2. Main Challenges in the Urban Development 3. Coordination and Growth (Management) Policies and Spatial Planning Policies 4. Coordination of Market Events and Spatial Planning 5. The application of Urban Development Tools...

  14. The Christchurch Earthquake: Crush Injury, Neuropathic Pain, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frances Cammack; Shipton, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    On February 22, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck Christchurch, New Zealand. The peak ground acceleration, a measure of the shaking or intensity of an earthquake, was one of the highest ever recorded worldwide. One hundred and eighty-five people lost their lives; many others were injured. Two cases both involving young women are presented; they sustained crush injuries to limbs after being trapped by falling debris and went on to develop severe neuropathic pain. This report examines...

  15. Developing an Urban Art Music

    OpenAIRE

    March, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The focus of my thesis is on the development of an Urban Art Music; urban in the sense that it reflects the character and events emanating from my experience of post-globalization urban society. The Commentary demonstrates how my approach has evolved and changed substantially from a starting point of deploying very specific and challenging but, to some extent, theoretically-based compositional techniques through to my current approach which is more spectrally-influenced and focuses on th...

  16. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  17. Sustainable urban development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    Sustainability in urban planning has a long history and it has been a widespread solution to build high and compact in order to minimise the need for transportation, land use and heating. Recent research, however, points towards the need for a supplementary approach which includes the consumer...... behaviour of the household. This approach necessarily has to work from below and include the citizens, as it is their daily practices that have to be challenged. This article reviews the literature of to what extent compact cities are the most sustainable and it use lifestyle interpretations of urbane forms...... to challenge the compact cities approach. As an alternative or supplementary approach the article introduce practice theory as a way to understand consumption and it gives examples on how this approach can be used to inspire local authorities to alternative and supplementary strategies of achieving sustainable...

  18. Impacts of residential heating intervention measures on air quality and progress towards targets in Christchurch and Timaru, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.J.; Scarrott, C. [Environment Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2011-06-15

    Elevated wintertime particulate concentrations in the New Zealand cities of Christchurch and Timaru are mostly attributed to the burning of wood and coal for residential heating. A carrot-and-stick approach was adopted for managing air quality in Christchurch, where strict intervention measures were introduced together with a residential heater replacement programme to encourage householders to change to cleaner forms of heating. A similar approach was only recently implemented for Timaru. This paper presents the results of a partial accountability analysis, where the impact of these measures on the target source, PM10 emissions, and PM10, concentrations are quantified. A statistical model was developed to estimate trends in the concentrations, which were tested for significance after accounting for meteorological effects, and to estimate the probability of meeting air quality targets. Results for Christchurch and Timaru are compared to illustrate the impacts of differing levels of intervention on air quality. In Christchurch, approximately 34,000 (76%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced with cleaner heating technology from 2002 to 2009, and total open fires and solid fuel burner numbers decreased by 45%. Over the same time period, estimated PM10 emissions reduced by 71% and PM10 concentrations by 52% (maxima), 36% (winter mean), 26% (winter median) and 41% (meteorology-adjusted winter means). In Timaru, just 3000 (50%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced from 2001 to 2008, with total open fire and solid fuel burner numbers reduced by 24%. PM10 emissions declined by 32%, with low reductions in the PM10 concentrations (maxima decreased by 7%, winter means by 11% and winter medians by 3%). These findings indicate that the combination of stringent intervention measures and financial incentives has led to substantial air quality improvements in Christchurch.

  19. Strategic Trend of Chinese Urban Forestry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    China is facing new challenges of urban expansion of scale and deterioration of the ecological environment. Urban forestry has a new role and position in Chinese forestry development. ""Chinese Sustainable Development Forestry Strategic Research"" established the strategic objectives and policy measures on urban forestry, improved urban ecological environment and pushed Chinese urban ecological process through building up green forest island in urban central district, green forest zone in suburbs, forest system in remoter outskirts of cities.

  20. The University of Canterbury Library (Christchurch, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Jevnikar-Zajc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful performance of study and research programs of individual academic institutions depends on the quality of its support services, including library services. An example of such a service is the University of Canterbury Library in New Zealand,which fulfills its mission and set goals on the basis of international library standards.Adequately furnished areas, well organized work and professional staff enable the library to function successfully. Its work is mainly aimed at user education and information technology development. This is achieved by bringing information closer to the user by means of a well organized communication process, user education for active use of library services, by offering reference and information aid and by enabling different access to information resources and library services. The majority of library services can be processed by users themselves - eg. retrieval, ordering and browsing through materials, the use of electronic resources, information printing, learning how to use library services and resources. The library is an essential part of an information centre of a wider area of the Christchurch and Canterbury region and as such does not serve the students’ needs alone but follows globalisation trends in the field of acquisition, accessibility and information exchange.

  1. Agriculture, Development and Urban Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk J. Bezemer; Headey, Derek

    2007-01-01

    Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction and structural transformation at early stages of development. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to discriminate against agricultural development in the poorest countries. This paper studies the causes and manifestations of this ‘urban bias’, including discrimination ...

  2. Impacts of residential heating intervention measures on air quality and progress towards targets in Christchurch and Timaru, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angelique J.; Scarrott, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Elevated wintertime particulate concentrations in the New Zealand cities of Christchurch and Timaru are mostly attributed to the burning of wood and coal for residential heating. A carrot-and-stick approach was adopted for managing air quality in Christchurch, where strict intervention measures were introduced together with a residential heater replacement programme to encourage householders to change to cleaner forms of heating. A similar approach was only recently implemented for Timaru. This paper presents the results of a partial accountability analysis, where the impact of these measures on the target source, PM 10 emissions, and PM 10 concentrations are quantified. A statistical model was developed to estimate trends in the concentrations, which were tested for significance after accounting for meteorological effects, and to estimate the probability of meeting air quality targets. Results for Christchurch and Timaru are compared to illustrate the impacts of differing levels of intervention on air quality. In Christchurch, approximately 34,000 (76%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced with cleaner heating technology from 2002 to 2009, and total open fires and solid fuel burner numbers decreased by 45%. Over the same time period, estimated PM 10 emissions reduced by 71% and PM 10 concentrations by 52% (maxima), 36% (winter mean), 26% (winter median) and 41% (meteorology-adjusted winter means). In Timaru, just 3000 (50%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced from 2001 to 2008, with total open fire and solid fuel burner numbers reduced by 24%. PM 10 emissions declined by 32%, with low reductions in the PM 10 concentrations (maxima decreased by 7%, winter means by 11% and winter medians by 3%). These findings, supported by the results of the meteorology corrected trend analysis for Christchurch, strongly indicate that the combination of stringent intervention measures and financial incentives has led to substantial air quality

  3. Polycentric urban development: the case of Hangzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Wenze Yue; Yong Liu; Peilei Fan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the advantages of polycentric structure and its rich literature drawn from cities in industialized countries, little attention has been paid to the study of polycentric urban development in developing countries based on land-use information. With Hangzhou used as a case study, the authors investigate polycentric urban development through an analysis of directions of urban expansion, urban – rural gradients, and growth types. The multidisciplinary methodology employed, based on theorie...

  4. A Parametric Urban Design Approach to Urban Development in Cairo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    -designer professionals can provide input and evaluate the spatial effects instantly in the context of participatory design processes. Cairo, Egypt, currently experiences rapid urban growth, while formal urban planning is absent in large parts, resulting in large-scale informal and unplanned development. A parametric...... in the course of participatory processes, as the consequences of changing different parameters cannot easily be evaluated by means of traditional design tools. In recent years, new parametric design tools have opened up new possibilities for dynamic scenario building in urban design. By way of a parametric...... design approach, different urban design parameters can be modified and new urban space scenarios can be rendered three-dimensionally in almost real time. In short, this is parametric urban design. It opens up completely new possibilities for participatory design, as both lay stakeholders and non...

  5. NEW PATTERNS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    According to the basic features of socio-economic development in China, the paper retrospects the developmental process of Chinese ciries in the 20th century. Based on lots of data and related research achievements, five new patterns of Chinese urban development are pointed out, that is 1) regional disparity of urban development in China is still obvious and large; 2) cities in developed region develop in the form of agglomeration and coordination; 3) spatial layout shape of Chinese cities appears relatively tight, and there exists great outside expansion inclination; 4) the construction of exploitation zone becomes the new important factor of urban development in the 1990s; 5) number increase of cities at county level become the main tide of urban development, but cause the discrete understanding for the concept of urban substantial region, which construct a challenge to urban management. In the end the article puts forward a series thoughtson the future trends and countermeasures of urban development in China.

  6. Development Path of Urban-rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The urban and rural areas are regarded as two major components of the regional economic system. Only through joint balanced development of the two can we achieve overall economic optimization and social welfare maximization. But the great social division of labor has separated urban areas from rural areas,which casts the shadow of city-oriented theory on cooperative relations between urban and rural areas. Mutual separation between urban and rural settlements and independent development trigger off a range of social problems. We must undertake guidance through rational development path of urban-rural integration,to eliminate the phenomenon of urban-rural dual structure,and promote the sustainable development of population,resources and environment in urban and rural areas as soon as possible.

  7. Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen;

    2014-01-01

    the population has grown by only 33%. In the PLUREL project - an integrated project within the EU’s 6th Research Framework Programme - more than 100 researchers from 15 countries analysed the impacts of urban land consumption at a pan-European level and, through six European and one Chinese case studies......An important driving force behind urban expansion is the growth of the urban population. But for Europe, this is not a sufficient explanation. The major trend is that European cities have become much less compact. Since the mid-1950s European cities have expanded on average by 78%, whereas......, identified how land use conflicts and the pressure towards peri- urban areas can be strategically managed in different development and regulatory contexts. To summarise, the following strategies were identified as important steps towards more sustainable urban-rural futures: (i) better coordination...

  8. Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen;

    2014-01-01

    An important driving force behind urban expansion is the growth of the urban population. But for Europe, this is not a sufficient explanation. The major trend is that European cities have become much less compact. Since the mid-1950s European cities have expanded on average by 78%, whereas...... the population has grown by only 33%. In the PLUREL project - an integrated project within the EU’s 6th Research Framework Programme - more than 100 researchers from 15 countries analysed the impacts of urban land consumption at a pan-European level and, through six European and one Chinese case studies......, identified how land use conflicts and the pressure towards peri- urban areas can be strategically managed in different development and regulatory contexts. To summarise, the following strategies were identified as important steps towards more sustainable urban-rural futures: (i) better coordination...

  9. Immediate behavioural responses to earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S; Wu, Hao Che; Huang, Shih-Kai; Johnston, David M; Becker, Julia S; Shiroshita, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study examines people's immediate responses to earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan. Data collected from 257 respondents in Christchurch and 332 respondents in Hitachi revealed notable similarities between the two cities in people's emotional reactions, risk perceptions, and immediate protective actions during the events. Respondents' physical, household, and social contexts were quite similar, but Hitachi residents reported somewhat higher levels of emotional reaction and risk perception than did Christchurch residents. Contrary to the recommendations of emergency officials, the most frequent response of residents in both cities was to freeze. Christchurch residents were more likely than Hitachi residents to drop to the ground and take cover, whereas Hitachi residents were more likely than Christchurch residents to evacuate immediately the building in which they were situated. There were relatively small correlations between immediate behavioural responses and demographic characteristics, earthquake experience, and physical, social, or household context. PMID:26271626

  10. Development of European urban tourist systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jerković Senta

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between urban development and tourism is a significant process in Europe today. Development of tourism has caused many organizational changes in urban environment. In the middle of the 20th century cultural and historical heritage in the cities was impetus of development of tourism in European cities. Nowadays, in many European cities tourism is recognized as a mean of further economic development. Strategy of polycentricity, outlined in European spatial development perspective i...

  11. Spatial Autocorrelation and Localization of Urban Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jisheng; CHEN Yanguang

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of urban evolution is made by using of spatial autocorrelation theory. A first-order nonlinear autoregression model based on Clark's negative exponential model is proposed to show urban population density. The new method and model are applied to Hangzhou City, China, as an example. The average distance of population activities, the auto-correlation coefficient of urban population density, and the auto-regressive function values all show trends of gradual increase from 1964 to 2000, but there always is a sharp first-order cutoff in the partial autocorrelations. These results indicate that urban development is a process of localization. The discovery of urban locality is significant to improve the cellular-automata-based urban simulation of modeling spatial complexity.

  12. Shaken but not broken: Supporting breastfeeding women after the 2011 Christchurch New Zealand earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargest-Slade, Anna Claire; Gribble, Karleen D

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Christchurch New Zealand earthquake adversely affected large numbers of people and resulted in many mothers and infants evacuating the city. In the town of Timaru, an emergency day-stay breastfeeding service assisted evacuee women. The service was established after media messaging alerted mothers to the importance of breastfeeding and the location of breastfeeding assistance. The local hospital provided rooms for the breastfeeding support service, which delivered counselling to mothers experiencing breastfeeding challenges. The vulnerability of infants in emergencies demands that governments and aid organisations plan to support their wellbeing and access to safe food and liquid. Plans should be developed in accordance with the Emergency Nutrition Network's Operationalguidance on infant and young child feeding in emergencies and include breastfed and formula-fed infants. Many countries have existing health resources and personnel with the expertise to support infant feeding in emergencies. However, only comprehensive pre-emergency planning can ensure that infants are protected. PMID:27183769

  13. Development of Urban Forests in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAHYUNITien

    2005-01-01

    Developments in urban area, which result situation of urban environment progressively become only going forward economical but retreat ecologically. Though urban stability is very important ecologically,it is the same important as its stability value economical. Annoyed stability of urban ecosystem showed nature's reaction in the form of: the increasing of air temperature, degradation of ground water, floods,degradation of surface of land, sea water intrusion, coastal abrasion, contamination of water in the form of drinking water smell, containing heavy metal, contamination of air like the increasing of rate of CO, ozone (O3), carbon-dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and brimstone (S), dirt, barren atmosphere, monotonous,dirty and noisy. Some metropolis and developing cities in Indonesia are developing urban forests to anticipate the above-mentioned problems.

  14. Theme: Chinese Media and Urban Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Media and Urban Development Forum hosted by Communication University of China and Singapore Media Corporation will be held in March 2009 in Beijing.China is now witnessing an unprecedented climax of urbanization and construction It has been recognized that the competition between

  15. Urban underground resources management for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huanqing

    2010-01-01

    Urban problems such as congestions, land scarcity, pollutions, could be alleviated by underground solutions, which are critical underground infrastructues and buildings adaptable to subsurface. An integrated approach of urban underground management is put forward, aiming to research on the feasability of developing valuable subsurface, and to promote the sustainability of resources' multi-usage exploitation.

  16. Vulnerabilities to Rock-Slope Failure Impacts from Christchurch, NZ Case History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A.; Wartman, J.; Massey, C. I.; Olsen, M. J.; Motley, M. R.; Hanson, D.; Henderson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rock-slope failures during the 2010/11 Canterbury (Christchurch), New Zealand Earthquake Sequence resulted in 5 fatalities and caused an estimated US$400 million of damage to buildings and infrastructure. Reducing losses from rock-slope failures requires consideration of both hazard (i.e. likelihood of occurrence) and risk (i.e. likelihood of losses given an occurrence). Risk assessment thus requires information on the vulnerability of structures to rock or boulder impacts. Here we present 32 case histories of structures impacted by boulders triggered during the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquake sequence, in the Port Hills region of Christchurch, New Zealand. The consequences of rock fall impacts on structures, taken as penetration distance into structures, are shown to follow a power-law distribution with impact energy. Detailed mapping of rock fall sources and paths from field mapping, aerial lidar digital elevation model (DEM) data, and high-resolution aerial imagery produced 32 well-constrained runout paths of boulders that impacted structures. Impact velocities used for structural analysis were developed using lumped mass 2-D rock fall runout models using 1-m resolution lidar elevation data. Model inputs were based on calibrated surface parameters from mapped runout paths of 198 additional boulder runouts. Terrestrial lidar scans and structure from motion (SfM) imagery generated 3-D point cloud data used to measure structural damage and impacting boulders. Combining velocity distributions from 2-D analysis and high-precision boulder dimensions, kinetic energy distributions were calculated for all impacts. Calculated impact energy versus penetration distance for all cases suggests a power-law relationship between damage and impact energy. These case histories and resulting fragility curve should serve as a foundation for future risk analysis of rock fall hazards by linking vulnerability data to the predicted energy distributions from the hazard analysis.

  17. Just Environments : Politicising Sustainable Urban Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Karin

    2009-01-01

      European cities are becoming increasingly multicultural and diverse in terms of lifestyles and socioeconomic conditions. However, in planning for sustainable urban development, implications of this increased diversity and possibly conflicting perspectives are seldom considered. The aim of this thesis is to explore dimensions of justice and politics in sustainable urban development by studying inclusionary/exclusionary effects of discursive power of official strategies for eco-friendly livin...

  18. Rethinking Resilience: Reflections on the Earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, 2010 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Mary. Hayward

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience has emerged as a policy response in an era of public concern about disasters and risks that include fear of terrorism and environmental or economic catastrophe. Resilience is both a refreshing and a problematic concept. It is refreshing in that it creates new opportunities for interdisciplinary research and vividly reminds us that the material world matters in our social lives, political economy, and urban planning. However, the concept of resilience is also problematic. Widespread, uncritical calls for greater resilience in response to environmental, economic, and social challenges often obscure significant questions of political power. In particular, we may ask, resilience of what, and for whom? My reflection here was written in the context of the ongoing grief, disruption, and community protest in my home city of Christchurch, New Zealand, a city that experienced 59 earthquakes of magnitude 5 or more, and over 3800 aftershocks of magnitude 3 or greater between September 2010 and September 2012. From this perspective, I call for expanding our political imagination about resilience, to include ideas of compassion and political resistance. In my observation, both compassion, expressed as shared vulnerability, and resistance, experienced as community mobilization against perceived injustice, have been vital elements of grassroots community recovery.

  19. Urban development and global sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferlaino Fiorenzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s, the economist Simon Kuznets theorized the existence of a bell-shaped curve describing the correlation between the level of GDP per capita and income inequality. This generated another hypothesis concerning the existence of an inverted-U relationship between income per capita (GDP and environmental impact. By means of a cross-country analysis, the article shows that, at least at the global scale, an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC does not exist, but rather an Environmental Urban Curve (EUC. The city exhibits an complex socioeconomic metabolism that we can define in terms of dissipative and resilience territorial structures.

  20. Urban sustainability and community development: Creating healthy sustainable urban communities

    OpenAIRE

    Malo André Hutson

    2011-01-01

    Increased urbanization has also led to many challenges for urban residents. In the United States, land use and zoning, transportation and infrastructure, lack of affordable housing, and disinvestment have severely affected the quality of life of poor urban populations. Despite these challenges, opportunities do exist to make economically disadvantaged urban communities more sustainable, livable, and healthy. This working paper discusses the challenges facing urban communities and then conside...

  1. Decarbonising cities mainstreaming low carbon urban development

    CERN Document Server

    Rauland, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This book sets out some positive directions to move forward including government policy and regulatory options, an innovative GRID (Greening, Regenerative, Improvement Districts) scheme that can assist with funding and management, and the first steps towards an innovative carbon credit scheme for the built environment. Decarbonising cities is a global agenda with huge significance for the future of urban civilisation. Global demonstrations have shown that technology and design issues are largely solved. However, the mainstreaming of low carbon urban development, particularly at the precinct

  2. Stress drop Scaling and Stress Release in the Darfield-Christchurch, New Zealand Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, R. E.; Fry, B.; Gerstenberger, M. C.; Doser, D. I.; Bannister, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    To investigate earthquake rupture dynamics, and which factors (e.g. normal stress, strain rate, fluids, rheology) govern the earthquake source and consequent ground motions, we need to study earthquakes over a wide range of magnitudes, from a diverse range of tectonic environments. The uncertainties and discrepancies between studies of earthquake stress drop are a frustration to all those who are interested in earthquake source and fault dynamics. There is controversy over whether the earthquake rupture process is self-similar and whether it varies with tectonic setting; different studies give different results. It is unclear whether this is due to differences between the earthquakes, or the analysis methods. We are developing a direct wave, spectral ratio analysis approach that includes realistic estimates of uncertainties and has strict objective criteria for assessing the quality of an EGF derived spectral ratio (Abercrombie, 2012, submitted). Comparing this approach to other methods reveals significant random and systematic biases, enabling us to improve our understanding of the real uncertainties. The Canterbury earthquake sequence that began with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake in September 2010, and includes the devastating M6.2 Christchurch earthquake in February 2011 is a very active sequence within a low strain rate tectonic setting. To date there have been 15 earthquakes with M>5.5. High quality recording and accurate relocations make this an ideal sequence to investigate any spatial, temporal, or magnitude dependence to stress drop. The largest earthquakes appear to have relatively high stress drops (and apparent stress), consistent with the high ground accelerations and damage in Christchurch. This observation is also consistent with the hypothesis that faults in low-strain rate regions with long inter-event times rupture in higher stress drop earthquakes. We use recordings from the various GeoNet broadband stations deployed to record the ongoing

  3. Urbanism and energy in developing regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, R.L.; Berman, S.; Dowell, D.

    1978-03-01

    The pace of urbanization must continue, because in most parts of the world the surplus population in the countryside has nowhere else to go. The world is about 40% urban now and apparently headed for the 80 to 90% share of the total population presently exhibited by the developed countries. Thus, the 1.6 billion urban dwellers in 1978 would become about 3 billion in 1995--if major catastrophes can be avoided. Feasibility assessments for Sao Paulo-Rio de Janeiro, Calcutta, Cairo-Alexandria, Mexico City, and Seoul are presented in the appendices. This analysis-from-a-distance is insufficient to judge how much extra installed electrical generating capacity is required before 1995, the added refining capability for liquid fuels, or the uses for new LNG and coal imports due to be arranged. It is evident that energy (and perhaps also water in most regions) planning is the major determinant of the manner in which these urban areas will adapt to the extraordinary pressures for new settlement. The current round of planning in such metropolitan areas has been addressed to solving traffic-congestion problems, and reorganizing land use in central districts, as the most-pressing issues. Since energy sources and distribution systems now affect the largest and most crucial investments in urban growth it is to be expected that future metropolitan planning may concentrate upon energy efficiency. Energy supplies must be planned to meet requirements set by locally dominant values regarding human services and the environment.

  4. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

  5. Agriculture, development, and urban bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Headey, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction, and structural transformation. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to d

  6. EMERGING APPROACHES TO URBAN ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT: THE POTENTIAL OF LOW IMPACT URBAN DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES

    OpenAIRE

    MARJORIE VAN ROON

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of integrated water cycle management into urban design is essential for urban sustainability. This paper provides insight into the evolution of Low Impact Urban Design and Development (LIUDD). It explores changes in urban design and infrastructure that reduce or avoid adverse biophysical effects that have contributed to the decline of aquatic biotic integrity following urban intensification in catchments. Recent practices in Canada, the United States and New Zealand offset r...

  7. Railway development. Impacts on urban dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, Frank; Pels, Eric; Rietveld, Piet [Free Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Spatial Economics; Priemus, Hugo; Wee, Bert van (eds.) [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management

    2008-07-01

    This book addresses the role of railways in urban development. The central aim is to inquire into how especially the development of high-speed rail and light rail links will affect European cities. The analyses are carried out with special attention given to the broader institutional environment of the railway system, including the shift toward privatised railway companies, internationalisation, the occurrence of market and government failures in land markets, and private-public partnerships in the development of railway station areas. The essence of the plans to invest in railway stations is that railway stations are not considered merely as nodes where people transfer from one vehicle to another, but also as places where spatial concentrations of high value activity are recognised as having a positive impact on cities. The development of real estate near stations is increasingly seen as a negotiation process in which both public and private actors play certain roles to revitalise central urban areas. (orig.)

  8. Curitiba: Towards sustainable urban development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovitch, J.

    1995-12-31

    Curitiba is best known for its innovative public transport system based on buses but this is only one among many initiatives which have improved the environment and quality of life in the city, limited pollution and waste and reduced resource use. The public transport system has also been complemented by comprehensive initiatives in planning and land use management. This paper describes not only the development of the public transport system but also the planning and administrative framework that was needed to make it, and other initiatives taken in Curitiba, effective.

  9. Challenges of urbanization and peri-urban development in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Urbanisation has arguably been the most significant process of land use change in Europe since Second World War. Over 70% of Europe's population now lives in urban areas, which in turn, have grown in area by almost 80% over the last fifty years (EEA 2006). Urban areas cover approximately five...... percent of the territory of the European Union (EU25), and are growing more than twice as fast as the European population. A general consequence of the urbanisation trend and increasing wealth and mobility is urban sprawl, as well as the emergence of peri-urban areas....

  10. The Christchurch Earthquake: Crush Injury, Neuropathic Pain, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Cammack

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On February 22, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck Christchurch, New Zealand. The peak ground acceleration, a measure of the shaking or intensity of an earthquake, was one of the highest ever recorded worldwide. One hundred and eighty-five people lost their lives; many others were injured. Two cases both involving young women are presented; they sustained crush injuries to limbs after being trapped by falling debris and went on to develop severe neuropathic pain. This report examines the mechanisms of neuropathic pain in the setting of crush injury, the treatment modalities, and the association between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. These case reports highlight the fact that crush injury is relatively common during major earthquakes and that neuropathic pain is an important sequel of this. Post-traumatic stress disorder is common in earthquake survivors with a recognised association with chronic pain. Pain-related disability may increase as well. Issues such as chronic pain and physical disability should not be overlooked as attention focuses on disaster management and the treatment of life-threatening injuries.

  11. Self-organized criticality and urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Batty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban society is undergoing as profound a spatial transformation as that associated with the emergence of the industrial city two centuries ago. To describe and measure this transition, we introduce a new theory based on the concept that large-scale, complex systems composed of many interacting elements, show a surprising degree of resilience to change, holding themselves at critical levels for long periods until conditions emerge which move the system, often abruptly, to a new threshold. This theory is called ‘self-organized criticality’; it is consistent with systems in which global patterns emerge from local action which is the hallmark of self-organization, and it is consistent with developments in system dynamics and their morphology which find expression in fractal geometry and weak chaos theory. We illustrate the theory using a unique space–time series of urban development for Buffalo, Western New York, which contains the locations of over one quarter of a million sites coded by their year of construction and dating back to 1773, some 60 years before the city began to develop. We measure the emergence and growth of the city using urban density functions from which measures of fractal dimension are used to construct growth paths of the way the city has grown to fill its region. These phase portraits suggest the existence of transitions between the frontier, the settled agricultural region, the centralized industrial city and the decentralized postindustrial city, and our analysis reveals that Buffalo has maintained itself at a critical threshold since the emergence of the automobile city some 70 years ago. Our implied speculation is: how long will this kind of urban form be maintained in the face of seemingly unstoppable technological change?

  12. Urban Forestry and its Relevanceto Tourism Development in Sabah

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEEYF; LIGUNJANGJ; YONGSC

    2005-01-01

    Urban forestry is understood to be the management of trees and forests in urban areas. It yields many environmental and material benefits. In Sabah, the environmental services of urban forestry are more important than material products. The potential of practising urban forestry in various zones and under different land ownership is evaluated. As urbanisation has occurred recently in Sabah, urban forestry has only been practised to a limited extent. Tourism is an economic sector which has gained prominence in recent years and has huge growth potential. With the numerous environmental services provided by urban forestry to make urban areas more inhabitable, the increasing tourism activities necessitate intensification of urban forestry activities. The main urban centres contain many tourist attractions, and are also the gateways to many other ecotourist destinations located throughout Sabah. With tourism high on the development agenda in Sabah, urban forestry needs to be promoted so that both locals and visitors can enjoy the numerous social,environmental and economic benefits.

  13. Brief Analysis on Highway Construction and Urban Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; XU; Zhongxiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of studying influence of means of transportation on urban distribution and form,this paper focuses on influence of highway on modern urban areas. Results show that construction of highway accelerates urbanization,forms organic traffic network connecting large, medium and small cities and towns,and promotes development of modern urban agglomeration. Finally,it presents rational ideas of strengthening planning,integrating urban and rural development,preventing blind expansion of urban areas,and building ecological and garden cities.

  14. Networks as Tools for Sustainable Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Tollin, Nicola

    . By applying the GREMI2-theories of “innovative milieux” (Aydalot, 1986; Camagni, 1991) to the case study, we will suggest some reasons for the benefits achieved by the Dogme-network, compared to other networks. This analysis will point to the existence of an “innovative milieu” on sustainability within......, strategies and actions. There has been little theoretically development on the subject. In practice networks for sustainable development can be seen as combining different theoretical approaches to networks, including governance, urban competition and innovation. To give a picture of the variety...

  15. Ljubljana – phases of urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Jakoš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Second World War there were approximately 100.000 people living in the compact part of Ljubljana. A period of rapid population development ensued (urbanisation because of immigration from other parts of Slovenia and later from various regions of the former Yugoslav Republics. This period is marked by numerous new housing estates and early stagnation of the old city core. A period ob sub-urbanisation followed and city expansion along the main roads, interspersed with poor quality building and illegal development. Costly renewal of old buildings, diminished construction of housing estates and high prices of building land triggered the flight of city dwellers (de-urbanisation and caused non-urban development in neighbouring municipalities (secondary urbanisation. By rehabilitation of the old city centre and attempts at revitalisation Ljubljana is trying re-urbanise itself. The flight of the younger population, caused by limited offer of housing, still remains the main problem that furthermore causes increased volumes of daily commuting and congestion in the city centre caused by parked vehicles. The tally of increased population during the last decade to small neighbouring municipalities, caused by flight from Ljubljana, is 20.000, while the population of Ljubljana is decreasing. With its quarter of a million inhabitants, Ljubljana is the third smallest capital city of Europe (without the “pocket” states. The main issue in the neighbouring municipalities is expressively non-urban development, meaning that too much land is used and the utilities infrastructure threshold is not met. The present division of the Ljubljana metropolitan region truly calls for a Strategy of spatial development, at least on the level of the Ljubljana urban region.

  16. Climate Resilient Urban Development: Why responsible land governance is important

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Enemark, Stig; van der Molen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In less-developed countries, the major global pressures of rapid urbanization and climate change are resulting in increased vulnerability for urban dwellers. Much of the climate impact is concentrated in urban and coastal areas, as urban development spreads into areas that are hazard-prone. Often...... managed through responsible governance of land tenure rights, and effective land-use planning to reduce vulnerability, provide adequate access to safe land and shelter, and improve environmental sustainability....

  17. Cluster Development of Zhengzhou Urban Agriculture Based on Diamond Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on basic theory of Diamond Model,this paper analyzes the competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture from production factors,demand conditions,related and supporting industries,business strategies and structure,and horizontal competition.In line with these situations,it introduces that the cluster development is an effective approach to lifting competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture.Finally,it presents following countermeasures and suggestions:optimize spatial distribution for cluster development of urban agriculture;cultivate leading enterprises and optimize organizational form of urban agriculture;energetically develop low-carbon agriculture to create favorable ecological environment for cluster development of urban agriculture.

  18. Sustainable urban development on Brownfield sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹阳

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to critically discuss sustainable urban development on Brownfield sites in United Kingdom. It will start with description of background of Brownfield. Then, it will move on to introduce how the issue of sustainable brownfield regeneration is addressed in the UK. The overview of sustainable brownfield redevelopment in UK will be presented, followed by analyzing the example of Connaught square in this part. After that, it will take Hafen city to be the case study. It will examine the strategies about economic, social and environment sustainability; discuss how to transfer these ideas into reality. Finally, this paper will close with gives some recommendations on brownfiled redevelopment in UK.

  19. Population development in Ljubljana urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Rebernik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main characteristic of population development and urbanisation processes in Ljubljana and Ljubljana urban region. Up to the end of the seventies fast population growth was a consequence of strong immigration from rural parts of Slovenia and the rest of Yugoslavia. In the eighties and nineties deconcentration of population within the region with intense suburbanisation and depopulation of inner city and older residential neighbourhoods were the main urbanisation processes. In the second half of the nineties the highest population growth was recorded in dispersed rural settlements in the periphery of the region. In some parts of the inner city reurbanisation and gentrification occurred.

  20. Dynamic Mechanism for Development of Urban and Rural Spatial Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lufeng; DUAN

    2014-01-01

    The space is a place where human beings conduct social and economic activities,and also the carrier of any public living form and right action. Urban area and rural area are two integral parts of regional economic system. Without joint and coordinated development of urban and rural areas,it is impossible to realize global optimization of economy and maximization of social welfare. Through study of dynamic mechanism for development of urban and rural spatial integration,it is expected to understand laws,mechanism and means of urban and rural spatial structure evolution,so as to better promote sustainable development of urban and rural population,resources and environment.

  1. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  2. The Development Trend and Characteristics of Urban Forestry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Urban forestry, which rose in the west in the latter half of the 20th century, is a type of forestry serving for city. Its important characteristic is that it makes through its narrow sense, or "urban afforestation", whose objective is to make city green and beautiful, and develops into a forestry system serving for the urban system. The consequence of rapid modern civilization is that skyscrapers concentrate in urban district and green space become narrower, resulting that green

  3. Sustainable Urban Development Calls for Responsibility through Life Cycle Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Ristimäki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban development bestows a great opportunity to increase sustainability in the built environment as cities are responsible for the majority of environmental impacts. However, the urban development process is fragmented and sub-optimization leads to unsustainable life cycle outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the urban development process from a life cycle perspective and identify how different actors understand life cycle management. By utilizing an inductive qualitative research design, 38 in-depth thematic interviews were conducted within the Finnish urban development industry including a case study and independent interviews from different phases of the urban development life cycle. The theoretical perspective is a combination of the ecosystem construct and life cycle management. Results show that there is no clear responsible actor for life cycle management in urban development. All actors claim that there is value to be added, mostly in economic, but also environmental and social terms. This study reveals that investors should be the responsible actor in the urban development process. By claiming responsibility and focusing on life cycle leadership we can improve sustainability in urban development, and respond to the urban sustainability challenge, thus improving the quality of life and welfare in our urban society.

  4. Development of Urban Agriculture in Xixian New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinyan; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Short for Xi’an-Xianyang New Development area,Xixian New Area is a modern garden city and the development urban agriculture is its key and bright point.With the aid of SWOT method,this paper analyzes strength,weakness,opportunity and threat of urban agriculture in Xixian New Area.Combining actual conditions of developing urban agriculture in Xixian New Area,it discusses general and specific development modes of urban agriculture.It is concluded that urban agriculture in Xixian New Area should bring into play its strength and avoid its weakness,select suitable development mode and road.Besides,it should give into play multi-function of urban agriculture,so as to promote coordinated and sustainable development of economy,society,ecology and environment.

  5. Urban and peri-urban forestry as a valuable strategy towards African urban sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Michela Conigliaro; Simone Borelli; Fabio Salbitano

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urban populations necessarily imply an increasing demand for food and basic services. . In most African cities, rapid urbanization has outpaced the capacity of urban settlements to provide dwellers with essential services and goods. The urbanization process has thus largely been translated into unsustainable production and consumption patterns, depletion of natural resources, decreasing access to adequate water, food, energy sources, job opportunities and sanitation facilities as w...

  6. Third-world development: urbanizing for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcilwaine, C

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews some issues reflected in the 1996 UN Habitat II agenda and recent research on urbanization. The themes of the 1996 Habitat conference were urban development, urban poverty, and governance, civil society, and social capital. It is expected that over 50% of total world population will live in cities in the year 2000. Cities are viewed both as engines of economic growth and centers of severe economic, environmental, and social problems. There is some disagreement about whether cities are rational economic structures or what the World Bank's urban agenda is and its relationship with macroeconomic policy. Discussions of global urban issues are criticized for their neglect of issues of equity and poverty, cultural diversity, and identity and representation. Habitat II also stressed urban sustainability. There is growing recognition that urban management involves more than the "Brown Agenda" of environmental and physical aspects of urban growth. Recent studies identify how politics and power affect people's access to basic urban services. Urban economic activity can also contribute to environmental problems. Urban growth affects the provision of health services. Although there is not a consensus on the role of cities in expanding economic and social development and the best management practices, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that urban processes are varied throughout the developing world. The links between urban and rural areas differentiate cities and expose the need to understand the role of intermediate urban areas surrounding and between larger cities. Poverty has become increasingly urbanized, but the extent of poverty is unknown. Habitat II was an unprecedented effort to engage nongovernment groups, local government staff, trade unions, and the private sector and to emphasize community participation. Networks of trust and reciprocity are key to solving poverty, inequality, and disempowerment problems. PMID:12293005

  7. Urban development in Freiburg, Germany – sustainable and neoliberal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mössner, Samuel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sustainable urban development has emerged as a relevant but contested field in urban studies. A broad and diverse literature has discussed sustainable development from various perspectives. Some authors have researched urban sustainability from a technocratic perspective, looking for technical and managerial solutions. Others have shed light on the political dimension of urban sustainable development in our times of urban neoliberalization. This branch of literature focuses on the problematic relationship between market-oriented growth on the one hand and aspects of equality and justice on the other hand, which come along with the idea of sustainability. This article argues that the professionalization and new forms of urban management, as well as a shift towards urban governance and citizens’ participation have intensified consensual practices of urban regulation. Sustainable politics that have occurred in many cities around the world place emphasis on justice, tolerance and participation as the principal drivers for urban development. Empirical evidence shows, however, that these goals are subjugated to economic growth. Drawing on empirical work carried out in Freiburg, Germany – a city long hailed as a forerunner of urban sustainable development – this article promotes the opinion that the idea of ‘sustainable development’ in its current form is nothing more than an oxymoron, aimed and invented as a fuzzy concept in order to disguise the fundamentalist believe in growth that lies beyond such development.

  8. Quantifying rockfall risk on roads in the Port Hills, Christchurch, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrader, Stefan; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The Canterbury earthquake sequence starting on 22 September 2010 triggered widespread mass movements in the Port Hills area of Christchurch, the largest agglomeration of New Zealand's South Island. The MW 6.2 Christchurch earthquake of 22 February 2011 in particular generated the largest ground motions ever recorded in New Zealand and as a result initiated several thousands of rockfalls. Over 6,000 boulders were released and mapped shortly after the event. The risk from rockfall to residents in the Port Hills was quantitatively assessed by the regulatory authorities in order to develop an adjusted land zoning policy. Apart from damaging residential buildings many of these boulders also hit several road sections across the Port Hills. Due to the inherent differences between identifying hazard and risk to people in static structures and in moving objects, a recently carried out risk assessment of rockfall was limited to exposed properties. However, given the importance of local road infrastructure for commuter traffic, local risk management strategies would clearly benefit from quantifying the threat of boulders endangering traffic lines. For this study, existing datasets describing the hazard including recently estimated frequency-magnitude bands for earthquakes and non-seismic triggering events, boulder production rates, boulder size distribution and associated run-out distances, were used. These data were provided by the Christchurch City Council's (CCC) GIS web service. A digital layer of the local road network as well as a detailed dataset of traffic counts was used for GIS analysis, and the probability of individuals being hit by boulders was calculated for each road segment that intersects one or more rockfall hazard zones. Finally, risk was computed. The method applied follows a state-of-the-art approach in risk assessment which is generally based on the risk equation defining risk as the probability of occurrence of an event times the expected loss. More

  9. Empirical Research on the Urban Development Level of Wuhan Urban Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Xiong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research object of this paper is the nine cities of Wuhan urban circle. Firstly, this paper establishes the comprehensive evaluation indicator system and evaluation model of the urban development level via systems analysis, then makes a PCA (Principal Components Analysis to the original data by means of SPSS; Next, this paper analyzes the worked data via AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and comprehensive score and ranking of the nine cities is obtained and the nine cities are divided into three clusters via K-means clustering analysis; Finally, this paper appraises urban development level of Wuhan urban circle.

  10. City Planning Evolution - Urban Development Directions in the Transition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Grigorovschi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban evolution post 1989 has a series of specific characteristics mainly on a spatial-territorial plane. Determination of the main developing factors and urban evolution directions (dimensions, rhythm, expansion level, centrifugal and axial character, concentric, centripetal, functional evolution, tendencies and social implications, etc. represents a necessity and obligation for action from professionals in urban and landscaping fields. This necessity even arises from the perspective of the need for realizing strategies, planning, documentation and urban studies, which must intervene correctively in the evolution of areas with structural problems and to guide urban evolution towards the main goal namely the growth in residential quality of life in human settlements.

  11. Development Prospect of China's Urban Gas Filling Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zuoxian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Status of China's urban gas filling station Development scale China's urban gas filling stations have kept on increasing in recent years along with the development of gas autos. The number of urban gas filling stations in China increased to 712 in 2004 from 130 in 1999, with the growth rate 448 percent. The annual growth rate of LPG filling stations and CNG filling stations was 34.3 percent and 32.2 percent respectively (see Fig. 1).

  12. Green roofs for sustainable urban development : the Oslo case study

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Kristin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing cities around the world face complex issues in sustainable urban development. In particular, urban ecological systems and food security are important in ensuring healthy, sustainable cities but they are threatened by population growth. Green roofs are a tool that is increasingly used in urban development due to their ability to control stormwater runoff and lessen the likelihood of flooding and combined sewer system overflow. However, this narrow focus on stormwater limits the...

  13. COORDINATES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Maria IORDACHE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, urban tourism began to develop gradually from the '80s, nowadays being a distinct form of tourism whose importance is increasing. Thus, there were concerns about specific facilities for different categories of visitors and their harmonization with the demands of caring for the smooth functioning of urban settlements. By adding tourism to the local economy inventory activities of an urban area, it can be considered a catalyst and a reviving factor for strengthening urban cities especially because it represents an important source of income and it is responsible for creating thousands of jobs. Given the need to adapt to the demands of tourists, this paper attempts to clarify some issues related to content, characteristics and influencing factors of urban tourism, but also the adoption of policies for exploitation through tourism of the specific elements of urban space and urban tourism prospects.

  14. Development Prospect of Urban Transport in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Traffic congestion has become a troublesome issue annoying more and more people in China.However,only a few people know exactly the fact of the inherent confliction between urban transport and urban sprawl,which brings on traffic congestion

  15. Developing a Parametric Urban Design Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben

    2014-01-01

    Parametric urban design is a potentially powerful tool for collaborative urban design processes. Rather than making one- off designs which need to be redesigned from the ground up in case of changes, parametric design tools make it possible keep the design open while at the same time allowing...

  16. Urban Migration and Koineization in the Development of the Berlin Urban Vernacular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Berlin urban vernacular during the late Early Modern and Industrial Period has been described in the literature in two primary ways: The first describes it as the result of the wholesale adoption of an autochthonous Upper Saxon dialect by a small and mobile urban elite in Berlin, who in turn imparted this newly-acquired…

  17. Development Status and Countermeasures of China's Urban Rail Transit Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ning; Qian Jun

    2008-01-01

    Urban rail transit has been a new emerging industry growing up since China's reform and opening-up. As the city's public service facility, the construction and operation of urban rail transit will surely face a series of impact and reform on management and concept under the condition of market economy system. By analyzing the development status of China's urban rail transit, the paper identifies the problems existing in the development and puts fin-ward the countermeasures for securing sound develolopment of the China's urban rail transit industry.

  18. A Global Review on Peri-Urban Development and Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Woltjer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Wilayah perkotaan di seluruh dunia semakin menghadapi tantangan pertumbuhan metropolitan yang sangat dinamis, dan pada saat yang sama, perubahan kelembagaan seperti desentralisasi dan globalisasi. Perubahan-perubahan semacam ini tampak nyata pada kawasan peri-urban, tempat bertemunya kehidupan perkotaan dan perdesaan. Secara khusus kawasan peri-urban ini telah menjadi tempat bagi transformasi fisik, sosial dan ekonomi yang pesat. Berdasarkan kajian literatur, artikel ini mengidentifikasi karakteristik umum peri-urbanisasi dan bagaimana perencanaan pembangunan menanggapinya. Tiga karakteristik umum yang diidentifikasi: ruang peri-urban (ungkapan ruang dari pembangunan peri-urban, kehidupan peri-urban (tampilan fungsional dari tata guna lahan, aktivitas peri-urban dan inovasi, dan perubahan peri-urban (perspektif kausal dan temporal yang meliputi aliran dan penggerak perubahan. Diperlihatkan pula bahwa umumnya tanggapan kelembagaan perencanaan dan pembangunan gagal untuk menanggapi karakteristik peri-urbanisasi global yang dinamis dan semakin terfragmentasi.Kata kunci: Peri-urbanisasi, pertumbuhan metropolitan, kapasitas kelembagaan, globalisasiAbstract: Urban regions worldwide are increasingly facing the challenge of dealing with highly dynamic metropolitan growth and, at the same time, institutional changes like decentralisation and globalisation. These kinds of changes express themselves most evidently in peri-urban areas, where urban and rural life meets. These peri-urban areas in particular have been the stage for rapid physical, social and economic transformations, both in developed and developing countries. Peri-urbanization takes place here. Based on literature review, this paper presents an effort to identify generic attributes of peri-urbanisation and the way in which development planning tends to reply. Three major attributes are identified: peri-urban space (the spatial expression of peri-urban development, peri-urban life

  19. Urban agriculture in the developing world: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Francesco; Kahane, Remi; Nono-Womdim, Remi; Gianquinto, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    International audience The year 2007 marked a critical event in the world history. For the first time, more than half of the world population now lives in cities. In many developing countries, the urbanization process goes along with increasing urban poverty and polluted environment, growing food insecurity and malnutrition, especially for children, pregnant and lactating women; and increasing unemployment. Urban agriculture represents an opportunity for improving food supply, health condi...

  20. City Planning Evolution - Urban Development Directions in the Transition Period

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Grigorovschi

    2010-01-01

    Urban evolution post 1989 has a series of specific characteristics mainly on a spatial-territorial plane. Determination of the main developing factors and urban evolution directions (dimensions, rhythm, expansion level, centrifugal and axial character, concentric, centripetal, functional evolution, tendencies and social implications, etc.) represents a necessity and obligation for action from professionals in urban and landscaping fields. This necessity even arises from the perspective of the...

  1. Workshop Report On Sustainable Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, Stephanie; Martin, Gary; Barone, Larry; Wagener, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The key workshop goal was to explore and document how NASA technologies, such as remote sensing, climate modeling, and high-end computing and visualization along with NASA assets such as Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can contribute to creating and managing a sustainable urban environment. The focus was on the greater Bay Area, but many aspects of the workshop were applicable to urban management at the local, regional and global scales. A secondary goal was to help NASA better understand the problems facing urban managers and to make city leaders in the Bay Area more aware of NASA's capabilities. By bringing members of these two groups together we hope to see the beginnings of new collaborations between NASA and those faced with instituting sustainable urban management in Bay Area cities.

  2. NETWORKING - THE URBAN AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA NOWICKA-SKOWRON

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of innovations embraces everything that is connected with creation and application of new knowledge in order to win competitive advantage. A traditional approach applied by organizational and management sciences are not enough to explain and manage the development of enterprises as well as that of cities, regions and countries. According to a new approach to innovativeness, creation of innovations depends on a complex/system approach. A phenomenon of particular importance is the approach to network pro-innovation structures from the urban and regional point of view. What makes a network work is a mutual relation between actors who have same rights to access and participate in the network. The whole system must be perceived by every actor. Simultaneously, every actor is partially responsible for the whole. The nature of networking can be understood as a differentiated system of relations (particularly personal ones inside the network. Tolerance and trust are other foundations of information flow and information return.

  3. Urban development in developing countries: analysing current policies for Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh; Mandal, Anindita

    2011-01-01

    Urban areas in developing countries have been growing exponentially. In a list of cities with 5 million people or more, Mumbai did not feature in 1950, but in 1975 it occupied the 15th position which changed to 5th in 2000 and is expected to be 3rd by 2015. The rapid and continued growth of Mumbai and its sprawling metropolitan regions has put considerable strain on the city’s infrastructure and caused environmental degradation. Not only is Mumbai one of the most crowded cities in the wor...

  4. Introduction to Participatory Environmental Planning (PEP) for sustainable urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchhart, I.

    2000-01-01

    This training handbook is a result of the Environment and Urban Development Training Project. This project introduced participatory environmental planning for sustainable development of small and intermediate towns in Kenya. The human living environment was taken as the entry point.

  5. Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture in Developing Countries Studied using Remote Sensing and In Situ Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kwasi Appeaning Addo

    2010-01-01

    Urban farming, practiced by about 800 million people globally, has contributed significantly to food security and food safety. The practice has sustained livelihood of the urban and peri-urban low income dwellers in developing countries for many years. Its popularity among the urban low income is largely due to lack of formal jobs and as a means of adding up to household income. There is increasing need to sustainably manage urban farming in developing nations in recent times. Population incr...

  6. Urban Forestry as a Vehiclefor Healthy and Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NILSSONKjell

    2005-01-01

    Urban forestry has been defined as the art, science and technology of managing trees and forest resources in and around urban community ecosystems for the physiological, sociological, economic and aesthetic benefits trees provide. The importance of urban forestry has received limited attention in many poor countries as it is often percieved as being associated with beautification projects, which are considered a luxury benefiting only the wealthier part of the population. However, urban forestry may have a number ofenvironmental, economic and socio-cultural values, which will also benefit poorer segments of city populations.Even in poorer countries, planning for urban trees and forests is a good investment, as these areas will be demanded when income levels increase. Once everything is allocated to other construction or infrastructure,it may be very difficult to create new green areas unless these are planned for.The Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning has been leading actor in the development of Urban Forestry during the last decade. EUFORIC (European Urban Forestry Research and Information Centre),COST Action E12 “Urban Forests and Trees” and E39 “Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing” are all examples of activities initiated and coordinated by the Danish centre. It has also developed urban forestry and urban greening as a concept for environment and development aid projects in Eastern Europe and developing countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa. Over the coming years, the main challange will be to ensure that the expansion of the green infrastructure in the world's urban areas is implemented within the framework of sustainability and human health and well-being, without the use of a technology inimical to man and nature and with as few chemical aids as possible.

  7. A method to study the management of urban development projects

    OpenAIRE

    Heurkens, E

    2011-01-01

    The management of urban development projects in the Netherlands has changed significantly in recent years. These projects have become mainly ‘led’ by developers as they manage the entire life cycle of development projects, while public actors mainly facilitate development projects. This changes the way projects are organized and managed and might resolve in different outcomes. Therefore, this research aims at understanding the roles of public and private actors in private sector-led urban dev...

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF URBAN SPECTRAL LIBRARY FOR REMOTE SENSING OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ezaty Mohd Nasarudin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral technology is useful for urban studies due to its capability in examining detailed spectral characteristics of urban materials. This study aims to develop a spectral library of urban materials and demonstrate its application in remote sensing analysis of an urban environment. Field measurements were conducted by using ASD FieldSpec 3 Spectroradiometer with wavelength range from 350 to 2500 nm. The spectral reflectance curves of urban materials were interpreted and analyzed. A collection of 22 spectral data was compiled into a spectral library. The spectral library was put to practical use by utilizing the reference spectra for WorldView-2 satellite image classification which demonstrates the usability of such infrastructure to facilitatefurther progress of remote sensing applications in Malaysia.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF URBAN SPECTRAL LIBRARY FOR REMOTE SENSING OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ezaty Mohd Nasarudin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral technology is useful for urban studies due to its capability in examining detailed spectral characteristics of urban materials. This study aims to develop a spectral library of urban materials and demonstrate its application in remote sensing analysis of an urban environment. Field measurements were conducted by using ASD FieldSpec 3 Spectroradiometer with wavelength range from 350 to 2500 nm. The spectral reflectance curves of urban materials were interpreted and analyzed. A collection of 22 spectral data was compiled into a spectral library. The spectral library was put to practical use by utilizing the reference spectra for WorldView-2 satellite image classification which demonstrates the usability of such infrastructure to facilitate further progress of remote sensing applications in Malaysia.

  10. Analysis on Relationship between Adjustment of Agricultural Structure and Urbanization Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua; TANG; Yinghui; LI; Hongxia; LI; Yilin; LIU; Gangqiang; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    As a part of certain region,agricultural development has inevitable connection with regional urbanization,and they are highly heterogeneous and complementary in space. Their internal relationship is manifested as agricultural structure suits demand of urbanization development through adjustment in the process of urbanization,while urbanization is based on development of regional agriculture. From history of world agriculture and urbanization development,agriculture firstly provides primitive accumulation for urbanization development,and drives regional urbanization through promoting agricultural development. When urbanization develops to certain stage,urbanization accumulation increases and reaches the goal of " boosting urbanization through agriculture". If urbanization develops slowly,agricultural adjustment will lack motive force. On the contrary,weak agricultural development will lead to stagnation of urbanization. Therefore,adjustment of agricultural structure and urbanization development are interconnected,mutually promoted and restricted,and interdependent.

  11. Urbanization and its Political Challenges in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal ÖZDEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries in the twenty-first century is experiencing rapid urbanization with a high concentration of people in the urban areas while the population of people in the rural areas is decreasing due to the rise in rural-urban push which has adverse consequences on the economic and political development of developing countries, in particular African cities. Therefore, this study seeks to analyze the trends and nature of urbanization in Africa from the pre-colonial era to the contemporary period of globalization in order to ascertain the implications of rapid urbanization on the processes of democratic transitions, on the vagaries of food sufficiency and crisis as well as its multiplier effects on the escalating rate of poverty and insurgency in the cities. These problems stem from the lack of good governance, high rate of corruption and the misappropriation of state resources through diverse economic liberalizing reforms and development strategies. Thus, this study affirms that urbanization is a process that requires objective management and institutional role differentiations and performance to create the organizational synergy, moderation and frugality necessary for the equitable distribution of the common wealth for the greatest good of all peoples not only in the urban areas but also in the rural areas which invariably will bring about political and economic development in African cities, and reduce the high incidences of poverty, insurgency and food crisis.

  12. Engaging Urban Youths: A Youth Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellison, Don

    2009-01-01

    The limited number of organized sport and exercise programs available in urban areas in comparison with more affluent communities, as well as the limited resources, the low pay of service providers who offer the programs (especially in youth work), and the besieged mentality of many professionals require our attention and assistance. Our field…

  13. Spatiotemporal trends of urban heat island effect along the urban development intensity gradient in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Hao, Lu; Sun, Ge; Liu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Chao

    2016-02-15

    Urban heat island (UHI) represents a major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system and its relationship with urban development is poorly understood at a regional scale. Using Aqua MODIS data and Landsat TM/ETM+ images, we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the UHI effect (ΔT, relative to the rural reference) along the urban development intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2003 to 2012. We found that the daytime and nighttime ΔT increased significantly (purbanization effects on local climate cross China and offer limitations on how these certain methods should be used to quantify UHI intensity over large areas. Furthermore, the impacts of urbanization on climate are complex, thus future research efforts should focus more toward direct observation and physical-based modeling to make credible predictions of the effects.

  14. The role of citizenship education in development of urban branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farangis Heshmati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey on the role of citizenship education in development of urban branding in city of Tehran, Iran. The study considers the effects of attitude, subjective norms, perceived control and intend adopted by the local community on development of urban branding. We design a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 400 randomly chosen people in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above the desirable level. Using Pearson correlation test as well as stepwise regression techniques, the study has determined a positive and meaningful effects of perceived control and intend adopted by the local community on urban branding.

  15. Urban-rural Coordinated Development in China from the Perspective of New Urbanization: A Case Study of Jinan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai; LIU; Mei; REN; Jianlan; REN

    2015-01-01

    New urbanization has important and practical significance and profound historical significance to the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects,acceleration of the socialist modernization process and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. And new urbanization emphasizes the coordinated development of urban and rural areas,and it provides new idea for constructing new relationship between urban and rural areas and solving issues of agriculture. This paper sees new urbanization as background,takes Jinan City as an example to study the constraints on coordinated development of urban and rural areas,path choice,urban and rural primary missions. The strategies and measures are finally put forward. This paper will help to solve the problem of the uncoordinated development of urban and rural areas,enrich the research content of urban and rural areas,and provide a reference for other cities.

  16. Developing knowledge cities : aligning urban, corporate and university strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, A.C.; De Vries, J.C.; De Jonge, H.

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of knowledge cities increasingly depends on collaboration between urban and regional authorities, knowledge institutions and businesses. Policy makers and business strategists do acknowledge the interrelated objectives of these actors in the knowledge economy and their dif

  17. Scaling and Stress Release in the Darfield-Christchurch, New Zealand Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, R. E.; Fry, B.; Doser, D. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Canterbury earthquake sequence began with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake in 2010, and includes the devastating M6.2 Christchurch earthquake in 2011. The high ground accelerations and damage in Christchurch suggested that the larger eartthquakes may be high stress drop events. This is consistent with the hypothesis that faults in low-strain rate regions with long inter-event times rupture in higher stress drop earthquakes. The wide magnitude range of this prolific sequence, and the high-quality recording enable us to test this. The spatial migration of the sequence, from Darfield through Christchurch and then offshore, enables us to investigate whether we can resolve any spatial or temporal variation in earthquake stress drop. An independent study of 500 aftershocks (Oth & Kaiser, 2014) found no magnitude dependence, and identified spatially varying stress drop. Such patterns can be more confidently interpreted if observed by independent studies using different approaches. We use a direct wave, empirical Green's function (EGF) approach that includes measurement uncertainties, and objective criteria for assessing the quality of each spectral ratio (Abercrombie, 2013). The large number of earthquakes in the sequence enables us to apply the same approach to a wide range of magnitudes (M~2-6) recorded at the same stations, and so minimize the effects of any systematic biases in results. In our preliminary study, we include 2500 earthquakes recorded at a number of strong motion and broadband stations. We use multiple EGFs for each event, and find 300 earthquakes with well-resolved ratios at 5 or more stations. The stress drops are magnitude independent and there is broad correlation with the results of Oth & Kaiser. We apply the same approach to a much larger data set and compare our results to those of Oth & Kaiser, and also to other regions studied using our EGF method.

  18. The urban-rural dimension in national economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, M L; Bendick M

    1986-01-01

    Urban growth should be evaluated less as good or bad in itself than in terms of whether it promotes the efficient and equitable performance of vital economic functions within a nation. Much urban growth in developing nations both reflects national growth and promotes it. Cities are sources of economic growth, which is their dominant characteristic. There is a strong tendency for large cities and their surrounding core regions to be the most active, rapidly growing areas of developing nations. Certain economic functions tend to be found only in cities and tend to cluster into certain cities because it is economically efficient. 3 mechanisms which make cities economically efficient are 1) internal economies of scale, 2) localization economies, and 3) agglomeration economies. Urban areas can provide support functions for rural areas and, in turn, their growth depends on the support of an agricultural base. Urban areas also provide alternative employment and income opportunities for the rural surplus population. There are 4 prominent questions often raised about possible negative effects of urbanization on national growth and development. One question is urban growth and urban bias, which the authors argue is overemphasized. Another question is diseconomies of scale in large cities; this, the authors suggest, is not a matter of size as much as operating efficiently. Third is urbanization and regional dualism, which the authors argue can be maintained through a strategy of changing a nation's mix and location of urban activity. Fourth is the question of cities and rural outmigration. The authors argue that although most people who leave rural areas are younger, more motivated, and better educated than those left behind, their departures are economically favorable. Getting economic activity located correctly along an urban-rural spectrum is important to the growth of developing countries. 6 rules that illustrate how to do this are 1) be guided by local circumstances, not

  19. Sustainable urban development and the multi-level transition perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Petter; Vogel, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some challenges and possible adaptations of transition theory as a framework for analyzing the prospects for environmentally more sustainable development of urban land use and transport infrastructure. Rather than depending first and foremost on niche innovations, a transition toward sustainable urban development is a matter of changing the composition of existing multisegmented land use and transportation regimes. Those well-experienced forms of built environment and t...

  20. Urban youth unemployment and human capital development in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This is a study on the main causes of urban youth unemployment in Iran. It argues that, based upon structural and classical explanations of unemployment, urban youth unemployment in Iran is caused by deficiencies in human capital development. Based in the two approaches to human capital development, the study uses empirical findings obtained through interviews, surveys and statistics in Iran to discuss earlier studies on the phenomenon, and to see whether investments in human capital developm...

  1. A theoretical framework on CSR and urban development

    OpenAIRE

    Tsavdaridou, Maria; Metaxas, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    The role of enterprises in society is without doubt controversial nowadays due to the economic crisis. Although enterprises offer infrastructures, jobs, innovative solutions to local communities their primary goal is profit in order to be competitive and sustainable. This article examines the implementation of urban development projects under the CSR strategy and provides case studies of European enterprises that offered successful urban development projects in their local communities. There...

  2. The factor analysis of sustainable development of the urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Murzin А. D.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of improvement the scientific approach to the factors analysis of the urban areas sustainable development. Each element of public, natural and economic system of urban areas in aspect of social, ecological and economic approach is studied in detail. The sequence of the social, ecological and economic environment analysis, and also management system of city complex development is offered.

  3. Guiding urban development on the municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As emphasised in the presented plan of Copenhagen, the town plan cannot solve all urban problems. It should represent a proposed order that often crumbles because of unexpected spatial events. Problems are often solved only when they appear. Therefore a town plan has to be conceived as flexible and adaptable, allowing necessary change. It must nevertheless give a town strong basic guidelines and thus enable the inhabitants to use opportunities given by the new era to enforce dwelling qualities.

  4. The interaction between land subsidence and urban development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, R.; Zhou, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    The Yangtze River Delta and North China Plain are experiencing serious land subsidence development and are also the areas that have undergone the fastest urbanization. Rapid urban development inevitably requires more water resources. However, China is a country with small per capita water resources, nonuniform distribution of water resources, and over-exploitation of groundwater - all of which are critical factors contributing to the potential for a land subsidence disaster. In addition, land subsidence has brought about elevation loss, damaged buildings, decreased safety of rail transit projects, lowered land value, and other huge economic losses and potential safety hazards in China. In this paper, Beijing, a typical northern Chinese city deficient in water, is taken as an example to explore (a) the problems of urban development, utilization of water resources, and land subsidence development; (b) the harm and influence of land subsidence hazards on urban construction; and (c) the relationship between urban development and land subsidence. Based on the results, the author has predicted the trend of urban development and land subsidence in Beijing and puts forward her viewpoints and suggestions.

  5. Sustainable urban development and the multi-level transition perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Vogel, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some challenges and possible adaptations of transition theory as a framework for analyzing the prospects for environmentally more sustainable development of urban land use and transport infrastructure. Rather than depending first and foremost on niche innovations, a transit......This article discusses some challenges and possible adaptations of transition theory as a framework for analyzing the prospects for environmentally more sustainable development of urban land use and transport infrastructure. Rather than depending first and foremost on niche innovations...... those that are not should be actively constrained and reduced. Urban development in a Danish provincial city is used as a case to illustrate some of the points made in the theoretical part of the article. Due to the wide gap between present conditions and those required to realize a sustainable urban...

  6. Strategies for managing the effects of urban development on streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiella, Karen; Stack, William P.; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Lane, Cecilia; McMahon, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Urban development remains an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The U.S. population grew by 17 percent from 1982 to 1997, while urbanized land area grew by 47 percent, suggesting that urban land consumption far outpaced population growth (Fulton and others, 2001; Sierra Club, 2003; American Farmland Trust, 2009). Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas. Each American effectively occupies about 20 percent more developed land (for housing, schools, shopping, roads, and other related services) than 20 years ago (Markham and Steinzor, 2006). Passel and Cohn (2008) predict a dramatic 48 percent increase in the population of the United States from 2005 to 2050. The advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems (EUSE) during 1999–2004 provides the most spatially comprehensive analysis of stream impacts of urban development that has been completed in the United States. A nationally consistent study design was used in nine metropolitan areas of the United States—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A summary report published as part of the EUSE study describes several of these impacts on urban streams (Coles and others, 2012).

  7. A method to study the management of urban development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.

    2011-01-01

    The management of urban development projects in the Netherlands has changed significantly in recent years. These projects have become mainly ‘led’ by developers as they manage the entire life cycle of development projects, while public actors mainly facilitate development projects. This changes the

  8. Urban development results in stressors that degrade stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Amanda H.; Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Woodside, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, eighty-three percent of Americans lived in metropolitan areas, and considerable population increases are predicted within the next 50 years. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic biota. Every stream is connected downstream to other water bodies, and inputs of contaminants and (or) sediments to streams can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. Understanding how algal, invertebrate, and fish communities respond to physical and chemical stressors associated with urban development can provide important clues on how multiple stressors may be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a comprehensive assessment by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas.

  9. Ensuring Sustainable Development through Urban Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and nontreatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan

  10. The Making of Sustainable Urban Development: A Synthesis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ting Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In a time of rapid climate change and environmental degradation, planning and building an ecologically sustainable environment have become imperative. In particular, urban settlements, as a densely populated built environment, are the center of attention. This study aims to build a clear and concise synthesis of sustainable urban development not only to serve as an essential reference for decision and policy makers, but also encourage more strategically organized sustainability efforts. The extensive similarities between environmental planning and a policy-making/decision-making/problem-solving process will be carefully examined to confirm the fundamental need to build a synthesis. Major global urban sustainability rankings/standards will be presented, discussed, and integrated to produce a holistic synthesis with ten themes and three dimensions. The study will assemble disparate information across time, space, and disciplines to guide and to facilitate sustainable urban development in which both environmental concerns and human wellbeing are addressed.

  11. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World: Beyond Megacities

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Pojani; Dominic Stead

    2015-01-01

    Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable urban development, not only because they are home to at least a quarter of the world’s population but because they also offer great potential for sustainable transformations. In principle, their si...

  12. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Stephen; Armstrong, Sarah; McGregor, David

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD) assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT) renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04–June 08. Of those, 65 (40%) proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5%) did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88%) were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P = 0.00004). Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out. PMID:27034659

  13. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Alsulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04–June 08. Of those, 65 (40% proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5% did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88% were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P=0.00004. Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out.

  14. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulaiman, Thamer; Mark, Stephen; Armstrong, Sarah; McGregor, David

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD) assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT) renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04-June 08. Of those, 65 (40%) proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5%) did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88%) were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P = 0.00004). Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out.

  15. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World: Beyond Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Pojani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable urban development, not only because they are home to at least a quarter of the world’s population but because they also offer great potential for sustainable transformations. In principle, their size allows for flexibility in terms of urban expansion, adoption of “green” travel modes, and environmental protection. At the same time, smaller and medium-sized cities often have fewer resources to implement new transport measures and can be more vulnerable to fluctuations in the world economy. This article critically reviews the potential role and impact of nine commonly considered options for sustainable urban transport in cities in developing countries: (1 road infrastructure; (2 rail-based public transport; (3 road-based public transport; (4 support for non-motorized travel modes; (5 technological solutions; (6 awareness-raising campaigns; (7 pricing mechanisms; (8 vehicle access restrictions; and (9 control of land-uses. Drawing on international research and examples of policies to reduce the environmental impacts of transport in urban areas, this article identifies some key lessons for sustainable urban transport in smaller and medium-sized cities in developing countries. These lessons are certainly not always identical to those for megacities in the global south.

  16. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization in a Developed Region of Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a practical methodology to monitor the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban expansion in response to rapid urbanization at the provincial scale by integrating remote sensing, urban built-up area boundaries, spatial metrics and spatial regression. Sixty-seven cities were investigated to examine the differences of urbanization intensity, urbanization patterns and urban land use efficiency in conjunction with the identification of socio-economic indicators and planning strategies. Planning proposals to allocate the urbanization intensity among different-sized cities by considering sustainable urban development were also explored. The results showed that the urban area of Zhejiang Province expanded from 31,380 ha in 1980 to 415,184 ha in 2010, indicating that the area of the urban region expanded to more than 13-times the initial urban area. The urban built-up area boundaries became more complex and irregular in shape as the urban area expanded throughout the entire study period. Rapid urban population growth and economic development were identified as significant in stimulating the urban expansion process. However, different-sized cities exhibited marked differences in urban development. Small cities experienced the rapidest urbanization before 2000. Large cities, which are estimated to have the highest urban land use efficiency, had the most dramatic sprawl in urban area at the beginning of the 21st century. Promoting the development of large cities to mega-cities is recommended in Zhejiang Province to ensure sustainable urban development with consideration of land resource preservation.

  17. QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTION OF TAIYUAN URBAN COORDINATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As the economic, political and cultural center of a nation or a region, cities are the caniers of human activities. In a sense, only cities take the path of the coordinated sustainable development, it is possible for a country or a region, even the whole world, to develop coordinately and sustainbly. Today, how to describe the urban sustainable developing level and measure the coordinated degree of environment, economy and society, has attracted more and more attentions of urban managers and researchers. City is assumed to be a big system composed by 3 subsystems of environment,economy and society, a set of indicators for urban coordinated sustainable development of Taiyuan have been designed according to the thought of coordinated sustainable development and the reality of Taiyuan development. In this indicator setthere are three levels, which can be called as target level, indicator level and statistic indicator level. Among them, target level includes three high-generalized grade-1 indicators, representing the development standard of economy, societyand environment subsystems. In this paper, according to the ideas of system theory and QIAN Xue-sen's theory ofmeta-synthesis methodology from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis, the level, the sustainable degree and the coordinated degree of urban development were set up, which described the urban coordinated sustainable development scientifically and quantitatively. The above indicator system and the method of quantitative description were applied to Taiyuan.Through calculating, we have got the economic developing level, social developing level, environmental quality situationand the overall developing level, of Taiyuan from 1986 to 1995. Also, we worked out the sustainability oftbe whole development, the respective coordinatabilities of the subsystems of economy and society, society and environment, and environment and economy, and the coordinatability of the overall development of Taiyuan in the same

  18. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  19. Spatial and functional changes in recent urban development of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the urban development of Zagreb in the transition period. It analyses four processes which have caused spatial and functional changes in the cityćs development within its administrative limits. These are: the process of a new CBD establishment, expansion of hypermarkets and commercial centres, housing construction under new conditions and transportation problems and solutions. Under the influence of these processes the spatiofunctional structure of the city becomes more and more complex. In this connection the city has started to have more influence on the urban regions development.

  20. Understanding regional metabolism for a sustainable development of urban systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, P

    1996-06-01

    Cities are the most complex forms of settlements which man has built in the course of his cultural development. Their "metabolism" is connected with the world economy and is run mainly by fossil energy carriers. Up to now there are no validated models for the evaluation of a sustainable development of urban regions.The guidelines for a "sustainable development" suggest the reduction of resource consumption. The article is concerned with the problem of how the "sustainable-development concept" can be transformed from a global to a regional scale. In urban settlements the strategy of final storage should be applied. By this, the subsystem waste management can be transformed within 10 to 15 years to a "sustainable status".With regard to the system "agronomy", the article concludes that agriculture in urban systems should focus on food production instead of promoting reduction of food production in favour of energy plants, which is not a suitable strategy.The main problems are the energy carriers. Transformation to a "sustainble status" is only possible by a reconstruction of the urban system, i.e. of buildings and the transportation network. The rate determining step in achieving such a status is the change in the fabric of buildings and in the type of transportation networks. The reconstruction of an urban system needs, mainly for economical reasons, a time period of two generations. PMID:24234960

  1. Application of the ACASA model for urban development studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K. T.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Since urban population is growing fast and urban areas are recognized as the major source of CO2 emissions, more attention has being dedicated to the topic of urban sustainability and its connection with the climate. Urban flows of energy, water and carbon have an important impact on climate change and their quantification is pivotal in the city design and management. Large effort has been devoted to quantitative estimates of the urban metabolism components, and several advanced models have been developed and used at different spatial and temporal scales for this purpose. However, it is necessary to develop suitable tools and indicators to effectively support urban planning and management with the goal of achieving a more sustainable metabolism in the urban environment. In this study, the multilayer model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) was chosen to simulate the exchanges of heat, water vapour and CO2 within and above urban canopy. After several calibration and evaluation tests over natural and agricultural ecosystems, the model was recently modified for application in urban and peri-urban areas. New equations to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat exchange and carbon production, as well as key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions to separate both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, were added to test changes in land use or urban planning strategies. The analysis was based on the evaluation of the ACASA model performance in estimating urban metabolism components at local scale. Simulated sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon fluxes were compared with in situ Eddy Covariance measurements collected in the city centre of Florence (Italy). Statistical analysis was performed to test the model accuracy and reliability. Model sensitivity to soil types and increased population density values was conducted to investigate the potential use of ACASA for evaluating the impact of planning alternative scenarios. In

  2. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature

  3. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Beijing Modern Urban Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We analyze development situations of Beijing modern urban agriculture from agricultural distribution,agricultural foundation and agricultural industrial system.Our research on challenges and opportunities of Beijing modern urban agriculture indicates that challenges include short of resources,deterioration of environment,and high production cost,and opportunities include large market space,advanced agricultural industrial experience and many other development opportunities.On the basis of these,we put forward development thought of Beijing modern urban agriculture in " the Twelfth Five Plan" period.We must improve foundation,integration and demonstration of agriculture;orient towards market and satisfy medium and high end market demands;actively cultivate and strengthen agricultural industrial level;create unique product brand;and raise added value of agricultural products.

  4. The Development and Significance of American Urbanization%The Development and Significance of American Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃丹

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with the European urbanization, which stretches back roughly 5500 years, the American transformation from village to city was achieved in an amazingly short space of time. From the eighteenth century on, Americans experienced the painful yet

  5. URBAN GREEN SPACES – BASIC ELEMENTS IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. CASE STUDY: THE CITY OF CLUJ NAPOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA COZEA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces- basic elements in sustainable tourism and urban development. Due to their multiple functions within the cities: landscape function, aesthetical, sanitary, utilitary, economic, protection, educational, scientific and social function, green spaces need to be extended, arranged and valorized in the most efficient ways. An average value of the green space surface per invididual has been established. Sustainable urban development involves the execution of works on lands, premises and buildings, as well as the adoption of social measures for the psychical and psychological confort of the population and for a rational development and arrangement of urban areas. The tourism potential of urban green space derives from the valorization of its biological and aesthetical function, the harmonisation and beautification of urban architectural complexes as well as from its specific urbanism elements.

  6. Spatial and functional changes in recent urban development of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the urban development of Zagreb in the transition period. It analysesfour processes which have caused spatial and functional changes in the city’s developmentwithin its administrative limits. These are: the process of a new CBD establishment, expansionof hypermarkets and commercial centres, housing construction under new conditions andtransportation problems and solutions. Under the influence of these processes the spatiofunctionalstructure of the city becomes more and more complex. In this connection the cityhas started to have more influence on the urban region’s development.

  7. Dilemmas of energy efficient urban development in three Nordic cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane; Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    Energy is high on the agenda of the European Union and in current urban development. In this study we focus on the role of urban planning in energy efficiency in 3 Northern European cities - Turku (FI), Eskilstuna (SE) and Tartu (EE). The case studies were developed in close collaboration between...... the authors and representatives of the cities. The research was carried out by field trips, interviews and analysis of local reports and planning documents. This work was done in the framework of the EU-FP7 project PLEEC (Planning for energy efficient cities), GA no. 314704, www.pleecproject.eu...

  8. The challenge of sustainable mobility in urban planning and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin; Næss, Petter; Yao, Yinmei;

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is how the challenge of sustainable mobility has been dealt with in urban planning and urban development in the metropolitan areas of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Hangzhou (China). The two metropolises have followed different trajectories in their land use and transport...... infrastructure development since the 1990s. Land use policies in Copenhagen have to some extent been explicitly geared towards limiting traffic growth, to a less extent in Hangzhou. In both cities, public transport improvements have been combined with road capacity increases. The trajectories of the two city...

  9. The Role of Open Government Data in Urban Areas Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The next step for our urban areas is to become friendly using open data. The focus of this paper is to highlight the necessity and the implementation of Open Government Data (OGD. It also presents the principles of Open Government Data. The paper aims to analyze the OGD solutions and the impact of these for urban development using a SWOT analysis. In our age OGD confers an important advantage in development economy. In this case everybody tries to implement efficient OGD.

  10. Urban metabolism: Measuring the city's contribution to sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conke, Leonardo S; Ferreira, Tainá L

    2015-07-01

    Urban metabolism refers to the assessment of the amount of resources produced and consumed by urban ecosystems. It has become an important tool to understand how the development of one city causes impacts to the local and regional environment and to support a more sustainable urban design and planning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to measure the changes in material and energy use occurred in the city of Curitiba (Brazil) between the years of 2000 and 2010. Results reveal better living conditions and socioeconomic improvements derived from higher resource throughput but without complete disregard to environmental issues. Food intake, water consumption and air emissions remained at similar levels; energy use, construction materials and recycled waste were increased. The paper helps illustrate why it seems more adequate to assess the contribution a city makes to sustainable development than to evaluate if one single city is sustainable or not.

  11. Urban Slums and Children's Health in Less-Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Jorgenson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We utilize first-difference panel regression analysis to assess the direct effect of urban slumprevalence on national level measures of under-5 mortality rates over the period 1990 to 2005.Utilizing data on 80 less developed countries, the results illustrate increasing urban slumprevalence over the period is a robust predictor of increasing child mortality rates. This effectobtains net the statistically significant influence of gross domestic product per capita, fertilityrate, and educational enrollment. Cross-sectional analyses for 2005 that include additionalcontrols provide further evidence of the mortality / urban slum relationship. The results confirmurban slum prevalence growth is an important contextual dynamic whereby the socialproduction of child mortality is enacted in the less developed countries.

  12. Metrics in Urban Health: Current Developments and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amit; Gray, Chelsea Bettina; Ross, Alex; Kano, Megumi

    2016-01-01

    The research community has shown increasing interest in developing and using metrics to determine the relationships between urban living and health. In particular, we have seen a recent exponential increase in efforts aiming to investigate and apply metrics for urban health, especially the health impacts of the social and built environments as well as air pollution. A greater recognition of the need to investigate the impacts and trends of health inequities is also evident through more recent literature. Data availability and accuracy have improved through new affordable technologies for mapping, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing. However, less research has been conducted in low- and middle-income countries where quality data are not always available, and capacity for analyzing available data may be limited. For this increased interest in research and development of metrics to be meaningful, the best available evidence must be accessible to decision makers to improve health impacts through urban policies. PMID:26789382

  13. Strategies of urban development between europeisation, the state and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Sitar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In European and national strategic documents, even Slovene ones, emphasis in physical and regional development, which is aligned to principles of sustainable development, is on goals and directions for balanced spatial development, while contemporary urbanisation processes, conditioned by global competitiveness of the post-industrial age, underline the leading role of large urban centres. On the other hand structural transformations in Europe are increasingly changing spatial relations between states, regions, cities and agglomerations. With growth of economic and infrastructure flows and strategic enforcement of transnational authority a uniform European economic and social space is emerging, in which different integrations are substituting the role of states. We are deliberating on the necessity of changing the viewpoint on prospective development of cities and urban regions, whereby focus of spatial policies and strategies is on integral dealings with space. Conditions for successful, competitive urban economy can be established only by connecting economic policies with other spatially-relevant departmental policies (transport, environment, agriculture etc.; with general welfare as the goal, another component is becoming significantly closer, which is social cohesion. In different chapters the article presents various global, regional and local factors and in European circumstances identifies the most typical factors affecting roles and functions in city development. Starting from various theoretical embarkation points and selected practical examples from different urban environments, the article tries to define possibilities for identifying initiatives and recommendations for designing development policies and strategies that are essential even in Slovene circumstances.

  14. Electric Buses in Urban Transport, The Situation and Development Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakub Slavlk

    2014-01-01

    A study called "E-mobilita v MHD" (e-mobility in urban mass transit) has been conducted by the author's private consultancy to inform Czech public transport operators about the technologies and operational experience to date and stimulate the e-bus utilization as well as their involvement in e-bus research and development projects. The study covers trolley-buses, diesel hybrids and e-buses including fuel cell buses. These electric urban buses have been compared with combustion engine vehicles represented by diesel and CNG (compressed natural gas) buses, in terms of energy consumption and cost, greenhouse gas emissions, noise and life cycle cost. Relations between urban transport e-mobility and the "smart grid" concept have been presented as well. Comprehensive reports prepared on the European Union and the USA levels have been the basis for the study, completed by information from the field research, focused especially on the bus operational reliability and other parameters important for a transport operator and covering, interalia, 12 case studies. The results show electric buses as a promising urban transport mode with massive technology development overcoming their operational limitations. Synergies between electric buses and other urban systems, such as power supply, are notable as well.

  15. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  16. Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against a backdrop of concerns about climate change, peak oil, and energy security issues, reducing energy intensity is often advocated as a way to at least partially mitigate these impacts. This study uses recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques like mean group estimators and common correlated effects estimators to model the impact that income, urbanization and industrialization has on energy intensity for a panel of 76 developing countries. In the long-run, a 1% increase in income reduces energy intensity by − 0.45% to − 0.35%. Long-run industrialization elasticities are in the range 0.07 to 0.12. The impact of urbanization on energy intensity is mixed. In specifications where the estimated coefficient on urbanization is statistically significant, it is slightly larger than unity. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Highlights: ► The impact of urbanization and industrialization on energy intensity is modeled. ► Use recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques ► The model is tested on a panel of developing countries. ► Income has a negative impact on energy intensity. ► Industrialization has a positive impact on energy intensity

  17. Reactive and proactive legal instruments for government driven urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobma, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Governments would be fairly powerless to implement their urban development plans and regulations if they were solely dependant on the voluntary compliance of citizens and companies. Public interest, which after all constitutes the foundation of regulation, would be poorly served as a consequence. Go

  18. Urban sustainable development (Case study Darreh Shahr city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Ali Shaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Appraisement and report of cities sustainable development have started in some counties especially in the developed countries,for some years and their main goal is investigating the sustainability or unsustainability of development of cities. According to the investigation of varying parts ofcity and its comparison with country average, it is found that most of socialeconomic and environmental indices are low in comparison with the average valueof the country. Keeping the livestock, low per capita of green area, problems of potable water, weakness of thegarbage collection system, incompetence in wastewater disposal, constructions,air pollution, urban traffic and etc. are the problems of this city making unstable environmental, social and economic conditions of Dahreshar city. Basedon the lack of clarification of all aspects of a sustainable city andimpossibility of presenting the definite solutions to achieve the sustainablecity, there are some solutions to achieve the urban sustainable development ofDahreshar city such as: Increasing urban use density, reduction of reliance oncars in transportation (especially personal cars, modification of citymanagement system, protection and renovation of natural systems around city,reduction of resources consumption to decline the pollutions. It seems that thebasic cause of unsustainability of Dahreshar is dedicated to weakness of citymanagement, and urban management review if presented for its solution (e.g. definiteauthority, plans, goals and executive methods and etc.

  19. Dense and expanding: Urban development and land markets in Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dowall, David E.; Monkkonen, Paavo

    2007-01-01

    There is growing research literature on urban land and housing markets in India. Over the past five years, detailed studies have been carried out on urban land market dynamics in Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi. Taken together, these studies provide detailed assessments of urban land development in India, and explore the various effects of urban planning and development control regulation on the spatial development of India’s leading urban regions. This paper adds to this discussion by providing ...

  20. Spatiotemporal trends of urban heat island effect along the urban development intensity gradient in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Hao, Lu; Sun, Ge; Liu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Chao

    2016-02-15

    Urban heat island (UHI) represents a major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system and its relationship with urban development is poorly understood at a regional scale. Using Aqua MODIS data and Landsat TM/ETM+ images, we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the UHI effect (ΔT, relative to the rural reference) along the urban development intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2003 to 2012. We found that the daytime and nighttime ΔT increased significantly (pcities, respectively. More rapid increases were observed in the southeastern and northwestern parts of China in the day and night, respectively. Moreover, the ΔT trends differed greatly by season and during daytime in particular. The ΔT increased more rapidly in summer than in winter during the day and the reverse occurred at night for most cities. Inter-annually, the ΔT increased significantly in about one-third of the cities during both the day and night times from 2003 to 2012, especially in suburban areas (0.25cities. We also found that the ΔT patterns along the UDI gradient were largely controlled by local climate-vegetation conditions, while that across years were dominated by human activities. Our results highlight the strong and highly diverse urbanization effects on local climate cross China and offer limitations on how these certain methods should be used to quantify UHI intensity over large areas. Furthermore, the impacts of urbanization on climate are complex, thus future research efforts should focus more toward direct observation and physical-based modeling to make credible predictions of the effects. PMID:26674691

  1. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  2. Archaeologically Sustainable Development in an Urban Context

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, John C

    2013-01-01

    Archaeological deposits pose a financial risk for developers resulting from the planning constraints that are imposed by the premise that a public interest exists in those deposits and in the consequent impact that any development might have upon them. In England and Wales, those planning constraints arise from the principles now established by the National Planning Policy Framework. Here archaeological deposits are identified as being among the heritage assets that go to make up the heritage...

  3. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF URBAN TOURISM IN ALBANIA - THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF URBAN TOURISM IN COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ALBANIA DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fioralba VELA; Alexandru NEDELEA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the main objective is to introduce the role of urban tourism as a potential form of tourism in the competitive development of the Albanian destination and the role of urban tourism to the community of the Albanian urban areas and the problems related to this development. For the purpose of the study, it’s needed to define the criteria of the study and the organization of the Albanian cities that offers the greatest possibilities to develop the urban tourism as a competitive for...

  4. Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinico F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

  5. Urban Development from the Perspective of Geodivesity in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Y.; Lee, D. K.; Han Kyul, H.

    2015-12-01

    In regard to ensuring a sustainable Earth, geodiversity (which is the variety of non-living nature) has been recognized as being equivalent to biodiversity in terms of importance. Geodiversity, as a platform, provides diverse habitats; however when a city is developed, threatened and vulnerable species are seen as important components of conservation but geodiversity is not. This study analyzes the components of geodiversity in cities that developed rapidly, and identifies which characteristics of geodiversity were related to this development. We estimated the components of geodiversity through the use of land cover maps and digital elevation maps (DEMs) in South Korean cities that developed rapidly between the 1980s and early-2010s, such as Yong-in and Namyangju. The relationships between land use changes and geodiversity components were analyzed and a factor analysis for land use changes was conducted using geodiversity components. Results show that even though adjacent rivers and streams, low elevation, and flat surfaces have high geodiversity, these areas were mainly converted into built-up areas and agricultural areas. As such, it can be stated that urban development in these cities has lowered geodiversity. Other geodiversity components related to urban development, such as slope, upslope contributing areas, streams, and lithology, were also identified. To conclude, this study showed how geodiversity components related to urban development has been affected by this growth and how they are intimately connected to each other. Identifying geodiversity in future development sites could help to estimate the most sensitive areas regarding the planned development; therefore, we need to view urban development from a geodiversity perspective.

  6. Use marketing methods in urban development

    OpenAIRE

    Karlíková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with marketing and marketing communication district of Prague 20. The aim is to assess the impact of marketing communication on the development of the district. The theoretical part defines the basic concepts of marketing and marketing communication and introduces concepts such as marketing mix, segmentation, marketing tools and communication channels. The practical part describes characteristic of district. This section further analyzes the communication of district, which ...

  7. Finances and governance of urban local bodies: an approach of urban development perspective from a developing country (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman PAUL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanisation and the pressure on urban areas for service delivery, the role of urban local governments is undoubtedly becoming important and, here, their financial capacity can hold the key. At the same time, there are several issues in urban governance that need to be addressed yet. Delegation of decision making powers to urban local bodies (ULBs, which are traditionally considered as a part of the system of State government and acting on behalf of it, is one of them. The constitutional mechanisms like inter-governmental fiscal transfers were an attempt to reduce the gap of ULBs, but they were not effective in implementation at ground. It has become imperative now to understand the financial position of ULBs in order to move forward with the new means of fund flow. This paper presents a cross sectional analysis of the finance of 27 ULBs in North 24 Parganas District of West Bengal, India in terms of their financial base and its adequacy vis-à-vis norms, and their revenue and expenditure performance. Using certain ratios, the relative performance of municipalities on dependency measures was also assessed. The implications of finances of ULBs, in terms of raising resources, improving inter-governmental transfers and charting new mechanisms are also discussed. Lastly, an approach has been made to develop an index, i.e. Urban Governance Index (UGI to a better understanding of the per-capita expenditure scenario of ULBs.

  8. Innovative economic structures – support for development of urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Marian Buhociu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is

  9. THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Cecilia STANCIULESCU

    2009-01-01

    Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services), while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract ...

  10. Urban Development on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin, Syeda Tanjima

    2014-01-01

    Urban environment is a major global concern especially where the pollution isincreasing due to rapid growth of population along with less development of physicalinfrastructure. Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is now being considered asone of the most immediate and serious environmental issue for rapid increasing anddensely populated cities of least developing countries, unfortunately a large portion ofurban areas has no service for solid waste disposal. But globally, the amount of MSWh...

  11. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Vogt; J. Douglas Mastin; Suzanne Aussems

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version) into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming stud...

  12. Orchestrating sustainable urban development: Final report of the SASUI project

    OpenAIRE

    Mäntysalo, Raine; Leino, Helena; Wallin, Johan; Hulkkonen, Jussi; Laine, Markus; Santaoja, Minna; Schmidt-Thomé, Kaisa; Syrman, Simo

    2016-01-01

    Transition towards a low-carbon society needs the development of innovations, such as solutions of low-carbon everyday mobility or new techniques of collaborative urban densification. Partnerships as social innovations are pivotal in enabling these developments. Cities may take several roles in partnership arrangements. The roles can be anything from being project partners in experiments that are closely related to the jurisdiction of the local authorities to orchestrating whole innovation ec...

  13. Comparison of psychomotor development in urban and rural preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amouzadeh Khalili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Baekgrouund & purpose: The purpose of this study was comparing the motor and cognitive development of urban and rural preschool children in Semnan, Iran.Materials and Methods: 97 healthy preschool children participated in the study, including 57 urban (n1=57 and 40 rural (n2=40 children.6 assessment methods including equilibrium on one leg, drawing a man, Juorchin, fekr-e-bekr, equilibrium board and the test of easy fine motor, were employed to evaluate the motor and cognitive development in the participants.For analysis of the obtained results t tests was used to determine significant differences between the two groups.Results:equilibrium on one leg and the test of easy fine motor, considering there was significant differences between, urban and rural groups.In the other four tests there was no significant differences between the two groups.Conclusion: the findings indicated that the rural children have more success in motor skills when compared to urban children, while in cognitive tests the two groups showed the same results, indicating. That revision is required for the preschool programme

  14. Comprehensive Evaluation on Urban Sustainable Development of Harbin City in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chunmiao; SHANG Jincheng

    2009-01-01

    It is an effective way in realizing urban coordinated and sustainable development to establish a series of indicators and to evaluate urban environmental and socioeconomic development. According to the characteristics of Harbin City in Northeast China, an indicator system including five subsystems and 37 indicators was established for comprehensive evaluation on urban sustainable development. The development indexes of all urban subsystems and complex system were calculated quantitatively using the comprehensively integrated methods composed of Principle Component Analysis, Analytic Hierarchy Process and weighed index method, and then the comprehensive level of urban sustainable development and the degree of urban interior coordination were analyzed. The results indicated that 1) the overall urban development presented an uptrend, however, the interior development was not well balanced from 1996 to 2006; 2) the development in each subsystem presented a strong fluctuation; and 3) the development in resources subsystem showed a downtrend. Based on those results, the suggestions of urban sustainable development were put forward at the end.

  15. Urban Agriculture:The Major Direction of Future Agricultural Development in Huainan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xing-ying

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of urban agriculture, this paper analyses the necessity of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City as follows: it is the need of transformation and upgrading of agricultural industry; it is the need of development of urban-rural integration; it is the need of sustainable urban development; it is the need of solving the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers effectively. Then this paper analyses the endowment of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City. And finally the basic conception in industrial form and spatial framework is put forward, to develop urban agriculture in Huainan City.

  16. The Integration and Sustainable Development of Chengdu-Chongqing Urban Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie; Mao Hanying

    2006-01-01

    Urban Agglomeration is an inevitable outcome of urbanization and industrialization, and a main form of urban development. Based on the analysis of urbanization and urban system situation, this paper will discuss the integration of urban agglomeration development, using the urban area of Cheng (Chengdu)-Yu (Chongqing)Urban agglomeration (CYUA) as a case study. By means of industries, population and spatial integrations, the function, strength and competition of CYUA will be improved and this urban agglomeration will transit from a budding state to a growing and mature one in future. The sustainable development of CYUA will depend on countermeasures, such as accelerating industrialization and urbanization, building a traffic network and express roads, strengthening the ability of self-sufficiency,enlarging the ecological construction and environmental protection, and establishing the synergetic institution of cross districts.

  17. Modeling Fractal Dimension Curve of Urban Growth in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    The growth curve of fractal dimension of cities can be described with sigmoid function such as Boltzmann's equation and logistic function. The logistic models of fractal dimension curves have been presented for the cities in developed countries. However, these models cannot be well fitted to the observational data of fractal dimension of urban form in developing countries (e.g. China). By statistic experiments of fractal parameters, we find that the quadratic Boltzmann's equation can be used to describe fractal dimension change of Chinese cities. For the normalized fractal dimension values, the Boltzmann's equation can be reduced to a quadratic logistic function. In practice, a fractal dimension dataset of urban growth can be approximately fitted with the quadratic logistic function. Thus, a series of models of fractal dimension curve can be proposed for the cities in developing countries. The models are applied to the city of Beijing, Chinese capital, and yield satisfying trend lines of the observational dat...

  18. STRATEGIC PLANNING OF INNOVATION GOAL-SETTING IN DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Murzin

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the development of the goal setting concept in the strategic urban development and the identification of innovative priorities for sustainable development of urban areas, acting as catalysts for reforming of municipalities’ management.The purpose of this research is to establish an effective system of milestones of innovative development of urban areas in the process of strategic urban development.Methodological basis of the research is the complex of abstract and hyp...

  19. “Put on a jacket, you wuss”: cultural identities, home heating, and air pollution in Christchurch, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Cupples; Victoria Guyatt; Jamie Pearce

    2007-01-01

    Central heating, insulation, and double glazing, such as you might find in many countries with colder climates in the northern hemisphere, are virtually lacking in Christchurch, in New Zealand’s South Island. In this city, houses tend to be inadequately heated and rely primarily on a combination of open fires, log burners, and electrical heaters. This form of home heating, combined with local climatic and topographical factors, results in high levels of wintertime air pollution. While much re...

  20. The influence of urban development and social mobility on socioeconomic level: The application of GIS on urban ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specifically, the integration between social sciences and natural science are fundamental in our understanding of the economic, social and technological transformations that have drastically changed the society. This study will be based on the municipality of Sungai Petani, Kedah as it has been most influenced by urbanization and urban development. Urban development in Sungai Petani is closely associated with a tremendous increase in demand for land, which is highly related to population growth, human movement and their social mobility. The qualitative case study taken will rely on the visual interpretation technique that would allow the researcher to develop a map of urban changes detection. The potential application of GIS information to estimate socioeconomic indicators and the modelling of socio-economic activities that are explored in this study is hoped to increase further our understanding of the impacts of development and urbanization on social life

  1. The influence of urban development and social mobility on socioeconomic level: The application of GIS on urban ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaili Mansor, Nur; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Mansor, Shattri; Paradhan, Biswajeet

    2014-06-01

    Specifically, the integration between social sciences and natural science are fundamental in our understanding of the economic, social and technological transformations that have drastically changed the society. This study will be based on the municipality of Sungai Petani, Kedah as it has been most influenced by urbanization and urban development. Urban development in Sungai Petani is closely associated with a tremendous increase in demand for land, which is highly related to population growth, human movement and their social mobility. The qualitative case study taken will rely on the visual interpretation technique that would allow the researcher to develop a map of urban changes detection. The potential application of GIS information to estimate socioeconomic indicators and the modelling of socio-economic activities that are explored in this study is hoped to increase further our understanding of the impacts of development and urbanization on social life.

  2. Urbanization and watershed sustainability: Collaborative simulation modeling of future development states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Timothy O.; Raposa, Sarah

    2014-11-01

    Urbanization has a significant impact on water resources and requires a watershed-based approach to evaluate impacts of land use and urban development on watershed processes. This study uses a simulation with urban policy scenarios to model and strategize transferable recommendations for municipalities and cities to guide urban decisions using watershed ecohydrologic principles. The watershed simulation model is used to evaluation intensive (policy in existing built regions) and extensive (policy outside existing build regions) urban development scenarios with and without implementation of Best Management practices (BMPs). Water quantity and quality changes are simulated to assess effectiveness of five urban development scenarios. It is observed that optimal combination of intensive and extensive strategies can be used to sustain urban ecosystems. BMPs are found critical to reduce storm water and water quality impacts on urban development. Conservation zoning and incentives for voluntary adoption of BMPs can be used in sustaining urbanizing watersheds.

  3. Greater Amman: metropolitan growth and scenarios for sustainable urban development

    OpenAIRE

    Abu al Haija, A.; Potter, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of Greater Amman, Jordan noting that the vast urban expansion that has occurred over the last fifty years has led to the desertification of rare fertile lands, following the fragmented and scattered territorial expansion of the city. The future scenario for planning in Greater Amman is analyzed in respect of proposals outlined in the Metropolitan Growth Plan of 2008, which assumes a rapid population growth from 2,200,000 persons in 2006, to a...

  4. Developing knowledge cities : aligning urban, corporate and university strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Den Heijer, A.C.; De Vries, J.C.; de Jonge, H.

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of knowledge cities increasingly depends on collaboration between urban and regional authorities, knowledge institutions and businesses. Policy makers and business strategists do acknowledge the interrelated objectives of these actors in the knowledge economy and their different roles in a common network. They also identify the physical settings as an important resource to achieve mutual goals. While a shift from awareness to active collaboration is taking place, th...

  5. Impact of Short-term Changes In Earthquake Hazard on Risk In Christchurch, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyst, M.

    2012-12-01

    The recent Mw 7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield, and Mw 6.2, 22 February 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand earthquakes and the following aftershock activity completely changed the existing view on earthquake hazard of the Christchurch area. Not only have several faults been added to the New Zealand fault database, the main shocks were also followed by significant increases in seismicity due to high aftershock activity throughout the Christchurch region that is still on-going. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) models take into account a stochastic event set, the full range of possible events that can cause damage or loss at a particular location. This allows insurance companies to look at their risk profiles via average annual losses (AAL) and loss-exceedance curves. The loss-exceedance curve is derived from the full suite of seismic events that could impact the insured exposure and plots the probability of exceeding a particular loss level over a certain period. Insurers manage their risk by focusing on a certain return period exceedance benchmark, typically between the 100 and 250 year return period loss level, and then reserve the amount of money needed to account for that return period loss level, their so called capacity. This component of risk management is not too sensitive to short-term changes in risk due to aftershock seismicity, as it is mostly dominated by longer-return period, larger magnitude, more damaging events. However, because the secondairy uncertainties are taken into account when calculating the exceedance probability, even the longer return period losses can still experience significant impact from the inclusion of time-dependent earthquake behavior. AAL is calculated by summing the product of the expected loss level and the annual rate for all events in the event set that cause damage or loss at a particular location. This relatively simple metric is an important factor in setting the annual premiums. By annualizing the expected losses

  6. Urbanity

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlfeldt, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    I define a composite amenity that provides aesthetic and consumption value to local residents: Urbanity. A novel data set of geo-tagged photos shared in internet communities serves as a proxy for urbanity. From the spatial pattern of house prices and photos I identify the value of urbanity in two of the largest European cities, Berlin and London. I find an elasticity of indirect utility with respect to urbanity of about 1%. The aggregated willingness to pay equates to about $1 bn per year in ...

  7. Achieving urban food and nutrition security in the developing world:

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, James L.; Ruel, Marie T.

    2000-01-01

    CONTENTS: Brief 1. Overview / James L. Garrett Brief 2. An urbanizing world / Martin Brockerhoff Brief 3. Rural-urban interdependence / Ceclia Tacoli Brief 4. Urban livelihoods and labor markets / Arjan de Haan Brief 5. Feeding the cities: food supply and distribution / Olivio Argenti Brief 6. The hidden significance of urban agriculture / Luc J.A. Mougeot Brief 7. Urbanization and the nutrition transition / Barry M. Popkin Brief 8. Urban women: balancing work and childcare / Patrice L. Engle...

  8. The Relationship of Financial Development, Urbanization and Urban-Rural Income Gap: An Empirical Research Based on Provincial Panel Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial development and the urbanization are important influence factors of the urban-rural income gap, and financial development can be measured by three main indexes which are financial scale, financial activities and financial efficiency. The financial development scale of China has obviously widened the urban-rural income gap. But rural financial activities have obvious effect on increasing farmers’ income, and the improvement of financial efficiency is helpful for narrowing the urban-rural income gap. The Kuznets effect between economic development and the urban-rural income gap has regional diversity. Besides that, the improvement of urbanization is also helpful for shorting the urban-rural income gap.

  9. Urban development, heat demand and power supply; Stadtentwicklung, Waermebedarf und Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blesl, Markus [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Rapp, Harald [AGFW - Der Energieeffizienzverband fuer Waerme, Kaelte und KWK e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Walther, Joerg [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl Stadttechnik

    2010-05-15

    The first part of this publication presented the fundamentals of the interaction between urban development, climate and power supply concepts. Part 2 presents an example of an urban development project in a big city. The interdependences between heat demand, power supply and urban development are outlined by looking at selected parameters separately. (orig.)

  10. STRATEGIC PLANNING OF INNOVATION GOAL-SETTING IN DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Murzin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the development of the goal setting concept in the strategic urban development and the identification of innovative priorities for sustainable development of urban areas, acting as catalysts for reforming of municipalities’ management.The purpose of this research is to establish an effective system of milestones of innovative development of urban areas in the process of strategic urban development.Methodological basis of the research is the complex of abstract and hypothetical and logical tools, as well as the axiomatic analysis of the problems and prospects of innovative development of urban areas.The research results include the study of terminological apparatus of urban innovations, formation of the main directions of innovation policy implementation in the process of urban development of urban areas, the development of a fundamental algorithm of strategic goal setting in the innovative development of urban areas.The scope of application of the research results is a system of planning of social and economic development of municipalities, as well as comprehensive programs of financing and investment support of social projects of the urban environment development.The main conclusion of this research is the statements of need for innovative orientation of plans for social and economic planning of the urban environment, revealing the negative effects of the inertial urban design, characteristic of most Russian cities, inattention to which can lead to a social and economic damage and even to a social, ecological and economic degradation of territories.

  11. Rural versus urban preferences for renewable energy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Ariel; Hanley, Nick [Environmental Economics Research Group, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Colombo, Sergio [Department of Agricultural Economics, Instituto Andaluz de Investigacion Agraria IFAPA, Huelva (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    Development of renewable energy resources, such as wind farms and hydro-electric schemes, are being promoted as a new method of expanding and diversifying employment in rural areas. However, such energy projects are associated with a range of environmental impacts which might be detrimental to other economic activities, such as those based on nature tourism. The authors use a Choice Experiment to quantify peoples' preferences over environmental and employment impacts that may result from the deployment of renewable energy projects in rural areas of Scotland, focussing in particular on any differences between the preferences of urban and rural dwellers, and on heterogeneity within these groups. Rural and urban households are shown to have different welfare gains which are dependent on the type of renewable energy technology and on the scale of project under consideration. (author)

  12. CITY IMAGE AND URBAN IDENTITY AS A PREREQUISITE FOR CITY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kotāne, Inta

    2010-01-01

    City environment or urban environment is a complex social, economic and biophysical system, which emerged as a result of the human-nature interaction. Urban development issues, the city image and urban identity exploration in Latvia have become a key subject in times of economic globalisation as well as determination of city and district development direction and priorities for urban development programs is also the reason for such an interest. The article deals with the research on the theor...

  13. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  14. Factors Contributing to Urban Heat Island Development: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, W.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) are the result of the urban core of a city encountering temperatures that are warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Temperature in the urban core can be 2-5°C warmer during the day and as much as 10°C warmer at night compared to outlying areas. This modification of the local climate can contribute to significant health-related impacts during heat waves, increased energy consumption, a decrease in air quality, deteriorating urban ecosystems, and enhancing the thermal pollution into urban water bodies. To understand the mechanisms contributing to the formation of UHIs and to identify sound mitigation strategies requires examining the UHIs of cities around the world to look for factors that enhance or minimize the heat island effect. Numerous factors influence the strength of the UHI, and vary from city to city. Population size and density influence the magnitude and spatial extent of the UHI. The ecosystem in which the city resides affects the rural climatology. Regional weather patterns can also influence the development of UHIs, with the frequency of certain types of weather conducive to the development of strong UHIs. Local geography such as proximity to water bodies and topography can influence UHI development. Cultural and regional influences such as the use of certain types of building materials, architecture, and the density of vegetation can all contribute towards the strength of a city's UHI. To better understand how UHIs develop and to understand the factors that influence them, we have undertaken the Islands in the Sun project, which includes an analysis of the UHIs of the largest cities in the world. In this study we examine how different factors have influenced the structure of the UHI and to identify factors that can mitigate and minimize their impact. Here we present a preliminary analysis of four metropolitan areas: Minneapolis-St. Paul, Buenos Aires, Riyadh, and Jakarta. In this study we investigate how various factors

  15. The urban development in Dubai : A descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal, Fatema

    2008-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to analyse the urban development in Dubai by means of the fourquadrant model, presented by DiPasquale and Wheaton, which represents the market for real estate use and assets. The focus is on factors such as economic growth, access to oil, population growth and the incentive of the government to promote developments in Dubai, to study how they affect the real estate market. It is observed how all these factors contribute to the expansion of the construction sector an...

  16. Urban Agglomerations in Regional Development: Theoretical, Methodological and Applied Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shmidt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of the major process of modern socio-economic development, such as the functioning of urban agglomerations. A short background of the economic literature on this phenomenon is given. There are the traditional (the concentration of urban types of activities, the grouping of urban settlements by the intensive production and labour communications and modern (cluster theories, theories of network society conceptions. Two methodological principles of studying the agglomeration are emphasized: the principle of the unity of the spatial concentration of economic activity and the principle of compact living of the population. The positive and negative effects of agglomeration in the economic and social spheres are studied. Therefore, it is concluded that the agglomeration is helpful in the case when it brings the agglomerative economy (the positive benefits from it exceed the additional costs. A methodology for examination the urban agglomeration and its role in the regional development is offered. The approbation of this methodology on the example of Chelyabinsk and Chelyabinsk region has allowed to carry out the comparative analysis of the regional centre and the whole region by the main socio-economic indexes under static and dynamic conditions, to draw the conclusions on a position of the city and the region based on such socio-economic indexes as an average monthly nominal accrued wage, the cost of fixed assets, the investments into fixed capital, new housing supply, a retail turnover, the volume of self-produced shipped goods, the works and services performed in the region. In the study, the analysis of a launching site of the Chelyabinsk agglomeration is carried out. It has revealed the following main characteristics of the core of the agglomeration in Chelyabinsk (structure feature, population, level of centralization of the core as well as the Chelyabinsk agglomeration in general (coefficient of agglomeration

  17. Projecting failure as success: Residents’ perspectives of the Christchurch earthquakes recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Simons

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2010 and February 2011, the Canterbury region was rocked by a series of earthquakes. The success or otherwise, of a recovery from a crisis can be found in the perceptions of stakeholders. Many different stakeholders exist, including different levels of Government, bureaucratic institutions and state institutions, private enterprise, non-governmental organisations and the public. In this article, the public are the focus and their perception of the recovery is collected. An online survey was conducted, and it demonstrates a significant gap between the Government’s perception and the perception of residents of Christchurch. How do publics react when they feel as though they have been marginalised by the authorities charged with the crisis event recovery? The Government’s account of success is not shared by the majority of respondents, who have mobilised politically using social media platforms. There are implications for Governments and authorities that are seen to fail segments of the public in the age of social media, where crisis management and public relations meet and political mobilisation against officials and official bodies takes place.

  18. The initial health-system response to the earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand, in February, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardagh, Michael W; Richardson, Sandra K; Robinson, Viki; Than, Martin; Gee, Paul; Henderson, Seton; Khodaverdi, Laura; McKie, John; Robertson, Gregory; Schroeder, Philip P; Deely, Joanne M

    2012-06-01

    At 1251 h on Feb 22, 2011, an earthquake struck Christchurch, New Zealand, causing widespread destruction. The only regional acute hospital was compromised but was able to continue to provide care, supported by other hospitals and primary care facilities in the city. 6659 people were injured and 182 died in the initial 24 h. The massive peak ground accelerations, the time of the day, and the collapse of major buildings contributed to injuries, but the proximity of the hospital to the central business district, which was the most affected, and the provision of good medical care based on careful preparation helped reduce mortality and the burden of injury. Lessons learned from the health response to this earthquake include the need for emergency departments to prepare for: patients arriving by unusual means without prehospital care, manual registration and tracking of patients, patient reluctance to come into hospital buildings, complete loss of electrical power, management of the many willing helpers, alternative communication methods, control of the media, and teamwork with clear leadership. Additionally, atypical providers of acute injury care need to be integrated into response plans. PMID:22510397

  19. 2010 World Expo and Urban Life Quality in Shanghai in Terms of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Dajian; Peter P.Rogers

    2006-01-01

    Based on sustainable development theory and the UN's Human Development Index, this thesis puts forward what the quality of urban life implies,makes a study of the world Expo's potential influences on the urban life of Shanghai and advances the strategy and measures to strengthen the life-quality-facing urban management

  20. Analysis of Constrains Facing Urban Agriculture Development in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Pourjavid

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify the constrainsaffecting urban agriculture in Tehran, Iran. The statisticalpopulation of this study consisted of city dwellers within the 22municipal districts of Tehran out of which 320 individuals wereselected as the sample of the study. Cochran’s formula was usedto determine the sampling size based on stratified samplingmethod. A panel of experts confirmed the validity of the questionnaireused in this study. The calculated Cronbach’s alpha forthe main sections of the questionnaire was 0.95 and 0.93. Resultsof the ranking of constrains and challenges revealed that “highstart-up costs” and “lack of knowledge among managers andauthorities” were among the most important constrains. Theresults of factor analysis revealed that 7 factors including “education-research”, “infrastructure”, “support”, “regulations andpolicy making”, “technical”, “financial-economic” and “cultural”explained 67.36 of the variance. Although list of constrainsrevealed is not perfect, this work paves the way for furtherresearch regarding factors influencing urban agriculture. It alsoprovides interesting information for planners about the challengesof urban agriculture development.

  1. Detecting Development Pattern of Urban Business Facilities Using Reviews Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Botao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals and utilizes the growing power of online customer reviews in the space and time context. The location of commercial facilities and online customer reviews offered by Dianping.com provide an important data source for the study of spatial and temporal dynamics of urban commercial facilities. The constraints of road network are taken into account towards computing the density of urban commercial facilities and associated online customer reviews, as well as their spatial distribution, temporal trend, and the coupling relationship between facility number and stratification level. This paper maps the spatial distribution of commercial facilities onto the nearby road network, reflecting the influences of the locations, number and satisfaction levels of other commercial facilities across various street types. Because more and more customers tend to make a final shopping decision by sorting through search results by ratings and feedback, the research conducted in this paper can provide the proof for quantitative evaluation of urban planning on commercial facility development.

  2. Planning Urban Development from an Outsider’s Perspective: Siem Reap, the Backdrop of Changing Urban Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Esposito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the internationalization of urban planning in Siem Reap, the town situated as the gateway to the Archaeological Park of Angkor. After Angkor was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1992, international donors and consultants have been involved in the management of Siem Reap Province, where the archaeological park is located. Not only have they been engaged in the conservation and the enhancement of the  archaeological heritage, but they have also planned the future development of nearby Siem Reap. Foreign consultants, coming from Europe and East Asia, have tried to determine what the best suitable models and tools for the urban development of Siem Reap should be, while tourism development and foreign investments were constantly growing. No planning proposal implemented has been completely successful but, several teams of international consultants have carried out new plans that acknowledged the evolution of the urban context. In this article, I question the representation of urban space formulated by these plans and the way they were constructed by consultants coming from different cultural backgrounds and having specific objectives. The article describes how Siem Reap’s built heritage and recent urban phenomena are perceived and analyzes how internationally shared notions and principles (e.g., the discourse of “sustainable development” influence the imagination of future urban development. Faced with the failure of this series of plans, Siem Reap appears to be the backdrop to where evolving urban imagination takes place.

  3. Model cities: argumentation, institutions and urban development since 1880

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Sean Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bangalore, Barcelona and Singapore are just three of the many “model cities” identified in urban studies. Such model cities constitute a phenomenon which has received little critical attention in urban studies, though there has been much progress in the related fields of urban policy mobilities, comparative urbanism and global urbanism. This thesis builds upon these contributions whilst concentrating specifically on the model city. It defines three core characteristics of grounded model citie...

  4. Sustainable Development of Agriculture from the Perspective of Rural Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,China’s economic construction enters into a new development period.The buyer’s market appears,structural demand of agricultural products becomes excessive,and the demand market becomes depressed.In the process of seeking approaches for expanding domestic demands,accelerating construction of small towns is a breakthrough point of rural population urbanization,and also an optimal approach for realizing transfer of rural surplus labor.Besides,accelerating construction of small towns is an inevitable path for intensive management of rural land implementing ecological agriculture,and also an optimal path for improving farmers’ quality and improving living conditions.In addition,it is an essential strategy for increasing consumption,expanding domestic demand,pulling rural economic and social development,and also a powerful measure for realizing sustainable development of agriculture.In the process of construction of rural urbanization,it is required to attach importance to strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.This is beneficial for the present generation and for descendants.Therefore,how to build small towns and how to solve many problems in sustainable development of agriculture have received much concern.

  5. Comparison of Integrated Urban-Rural Development between Chongqing and Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of review of integrated urban and rural development process in Chengdu and Chongqing, we summed up experience of reform and compared the practice in these two regions. Results show that both regions have opened free flow of rural and urban factors, made detailed and scientific planning of integrated urban and rural development, and carried out exploration in equalization of urban and rural public service.

  6. Building Sustainable Regions of Urban Innovation and Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-ling Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cities are the center of population aggregation and human economic activities. They are important drivers of economic and social development, and are also a basic element in creating a country’s competitiveness. Building sustainable cities and promoting the region’s economic prosperity is a fundamental goal of local governments. As economic development gradually becomes driven by knowledge and innovation, the economic functions of key cities also transform to become a gathering place for resources—such as knowledge and technology—and playing the role of knowledge proliferation. This then leads to the concurrent development of the surrounding areas. Therefore, connecting innovation and urban development and creating sustainable and innovation-orientated cities has become a major development focus for international cities.

  7. Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.

    2016-06-01

    With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.

  8. GEOSPATIAL MODELLING APPROACH FOR 3D URBAN DENSIFICATION DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Koziatek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D. The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE, and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI’s CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA language.

  9. Reflections Of Developing Communication Technologies On Urban Life And Urban Public Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    serkan sinmaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New communication systems has influenced all sections of society since the early 2000s. The dependence of the individuals on private spaces is increasing as they adapt themselves to new modes of communication. The needs fulfilled in public spaces are reduced and people became alienated to a way of life based on physical interaction which is convenient for the human nature by the development of communication technologies. Especially urban public spaces became meaningless encountering the attractiveness of virtual world. Changing social life and increasing mobility between private spaces are influencing the quality, level of perception and the way of using the public spaces. The objective of this article is to explain the present position of communication technologies and their direct affects on social life, and then to evaluate indirect effects on urban public spaces. Communication technologies considers the way of mobilization depending on private spaces and appliances nowadays. But they promise independence from the space in the future. Present conditions contain a risk of transferring the society that lost the public values towards the spatial independence of future. For this reason, it is important to reveal the indirect effects of new mode of interaction and communication technologies on public spaces to make public spaces suitable for changing needs.

  10. Cultural Development Strategies and Urban Gay Tourism Revitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Prat Forga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal governments increasingly turn to cultural and leisure activities to promote and revitalize their cities. This study analysed the development of gay tourism in Barcelona (Spain by means of music festivals. While a significant body of literature has examined revitalization strategies that focus primarily around entertainment and commerce, this paper focuses on strategies in the development of cultural and leisure activities around this specific tourism population. It presents findings from a local survey distributed to key stakeholders in the promotion and development of this tourism (local agents and gay tourists. The survey data indicate that although most agents are guided by a varied set of goals, marketing objectives (“image city” and “brand city” guide the development and support of urban gay tourism in Barcelona.

  11. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Danish Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Tophøj; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system – procedures and tools – for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very...... transparent as the distribution is regulated throughout the whole planning and environmental regulation system. Furthermore, development agreements – an “old” tool in many countries and an efficient tool to distribute profits and costs between the public and private sector – have only recently become possible...... in Denmark, and only under some special circumstances. This paper aims to clarify how costs and profits are distributed between the municipality and the developers/landowners in Denmark. The paper analyses how the Danish planning and environmental regulation system handles this issue. Based on the analysis...

  12. Urban Sprawl in the Mediterranean Urban Regions in Europe and the Crisis Effect on the Urban Land Development: Madrid as Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Díaz-Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The middle of 2007 saw the beginning of a worldwide financial crisis that led to a sharp reduction in investment based on construction and urban development. This new situation is generating a new process, characterised by a slowdown that has almost reached a standstill when compared with the frenzied development of previous decades. In order to analyse these processes, this study examines urban land use changes and the urban growth rate and spatial dynamics of the metropolitan region of Madrid. The analysis has been carried out on a large scale between two periods (2000–2006 and 2006–2009 using a regional land use geodatabase. The results show the changes in the urban land use dynamics that took place over these two periods that could characterise the cities of Mediterranean Europe, where contrarily to the general pattern in Europe built-up areas are combining scattered built-up areas with new aggregated compact developments.

  13. Rope Transport Systems as Elements for Urban and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Simeone

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility and mobility have an important role in urban and regional development strategies, in a particular way for the touristic uses of territories. Transport infrastructures constitute in fact necessary elements for the use of urban areas, but assume an extra function related to the valorization of the territory. Furthermore structures for mobility are a component of the touristic supply system especially the rope transport structures that offer dynamic and unique point of views. Cable ways in urban area have this characteristic more than other rope transport systems. Starting from this assume, the article describes four projects developed in the last years in Campania Region and a transport system carry out in Perugia. The five study cases demonstrate how an increasing attention rope transport technology is diffusing in different contest especially for tourism uses. The first case is the Giffoni Valle Piana inclined lift that should connect the city centre in the valley with the medieval Castle. This project is strictly related to a general touristic strategy of the whole municipality. The second project regards the Ravello-Minori cable way and the objective to offer a sustainable alternative to the private car for travelling around two of the most beautiful areas in the Amalfi coast. The third project is located in the centre of the city of Naples and regards a cable way for the connection between the principal museums of the metropolitan area: the National and the Capodimonte museums. The new infrastructure is well integrated in the multimodal transport network and will offer spectacular visuals for tourists and residents. The Perugia Minimetro is the fourth study case and constitute an example of good integration between sustainable transport and urban planning development. The last project is the Fisciano people mover that has the aim of connecting two university campus with the interchange station of the National rail network. The

  14. Development of the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and evaluation of urban greening effects on energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, H.; Nakayama, T.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.; Tagami, H.

    2009-12-01

    It is necessary to reduce Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions drastically to stabilize climate change, and Japan is also required to assess its long-term global warming policy. In achieving the low carbon society and sustainable cities, the numerical evaluation of environmental impacts of the application of different technologies and policies was preliminarily examined by utilizing integrative urban environmental model. This research aims to develop the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and to evaluate the urban greening effects on energy consumption from household and business sectors. It developed the multi-scale model combined the process-based NIES integrated catchment-based eco-hydrology (NICE) model with the meso-scale meteorological model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System : RAMS) and urban canopy model to estimate the urban climate mitigation effects by introduction of urban heat environmental mitigation technology and scenario. The numerical simulation conducted with the multi-scale level horizontally consisting regional scale (260×260km with 2km grid) and urban area scale (36×26km with 0.2km grid) against the objective area, Kawasaki city of Japan. The urban canopy model predicts the three dimensional atmospheric conditions including anthropogenic heat effect from household, business and factory sectors. Furthermore the tile method applied into the urban canopy model for the improvement of numerical accuracy and detailed land use information in each grid. The validation of this model was conducted by comparison with the observed air temperature of 29 points in entire Kawasaki area from 1st to 31th of August, 2006. From the quantitative validation of model performance, the coefficient of correlation was 0.72 and the root mean square error was 2.99C. The introduction of patch method into urban canopy model made it possible to calculate the each land use effect, and the accuracy of predicted results was improved against the land use area

  15. Developing Research Base Learning in Urban Sociology Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumban Arofah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe an introduction research base learning in the urban sociology class. The idea came after evaluating answer sheet from previous year students. Although the student had an ability to demonstrate their understanding on the subject, but they could not be able to relate and describe the subject into the local urban case. The lecture developed the lesson plan that enable student to do a small research and will be presented in the class. The research report and participation of presentation will be counted in for final score. The project divided into 5 steps; preparation - research – presentation – discussion – summarizing. Reflecting the lesson process, there are several important points as a lesson learned; student have an ability to reflect the theories and perspective in urban sociology, understand the differences of formal migrant and informal migrant, describe the behavior of inhabitant in public sphere, analyzing survival mechanism of informal trader, and understand how urban sub culture maintain their culture and develop their group as a place of fellowships for other sub culture members.Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan digunakannya metode pembelajaran berbasis riset pada mata kuliah Sosiologi Perkotaan. Hal tersebut merupakan hasil dari evaluasi lembar jawaban Mahasiswa pada tes final semester pada tahun sebelumnya. Hasil tes final menunjukkan bahwa Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan materi yang diajarkan dalam pembelajaran namun kesulitan ketika harus mengkaitkannya terhadap permasalahan lokal perkotaan. Pengajar kemudian membuat rencana pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa melakukan penelitian sederhana yang nantinya dipresentasikan di depan kelas. Laporan penelitian dan partisipasi dalam pembelajaran diperhitungkan sebagai komponen penilaian dalam skor akhir. Proyek tersebut dibagi kedalam lima tahapan; persiapan – penelitian lapangan – presentasi – diskusi – simpulan.  Berpijak dari pembelajaran

  16. Development of Urban Agriculture: A Case Study of Qianjin Village, Jiangxia District, Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Bo; Shu, Chang-jun

    2012-01-01

    We take the case of Qianjin Village, Jiangxia District, Wuhan City, to research how to establish the system of urban agriculture with distinctive features relying on the advantage of urban resources. Under the guidance of guiding ideology, basic principles and overall objectives of urban agriculture development planning, we analyze the specific construction planning of urban agriculture in Qianjin Village, mainly including the construction of growing areas and construction of leisure areas. T...

  17. A neural network model to develop actions in urban complex systems represented by 2D meshes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tortosa, Leandro; Oliver, Jose Luis; Vicent, Jose Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The main idea of this work is to present a tool which may be useful to generate a mesh of points where urban actions may be taken after analyzing and understanding complex urban situations. By the word complex we mean urban concentrations without precise limits and without a recognizable geometry pattern. What we propose is an adaptation of a neural network algorithm to work in the context of urban networks. Our objective is to develop an strategy to change this weakne...

  18. A novel method for feasibility testing urban sustainable development policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Doherty Travis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy making to promote more sustainable development is a complex task due in part to the large number of both stakeholders and potential policies. Policy feasibility testing provides a guide to the viability and practicality of policy implementation and forms an important part of an evidence based policy making process. An extensive literature review has identified no standardized approach to feasibility testing. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by describing a novel method using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA for feasibility testing of policies aimed at increasing the sustainability of towns and villages in Ireland. Feasibility results are provided for 40 frequently cited policy interventions tested for 18 settlements in Ireland. Policies were selected in the arenas of transport, food, housing and urban form, energy, waste and water. Policies are feasibility tested through analysis of operational evidence from both quantitative and qualitative data sources. Following testing, policies are ranked in terms of feasibility. This research examines the effectiveness of local and national level policies and the importance of both local community involvement and central government regulation in policy success. The inter-settlement variation in feasibility testing scores prioritises policy selection and aims to reduce cherry-picking of policies to support the viewpoints of the decision maker. Although developed for an Irish urban context the methods described here may have applicability elsewhere.

  19. Development and demonstration of autonomous behaviors for urban environment exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Fellars, Donald; Kogut, Gregory; Pacis Rius, Estrellina; Schoolov, Misha; Xydes, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Under the Urban Environment Exploration project, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacic (SSC- PAC) is maturing technologies and sensor payloads that enable man-portable robots to operate autonomously within the challenging conditions of urban environments. Previously, SSC-PAC has demonstrated robotic capabilities to navigate and localize without GPS and map the ground oors of various building sizes.1 SSC-PAC has since extended those capabilities to localize and map multiple multi-story buildings within a specied area. To facilitate these capabilities, SSC-PAC developed technologies that enable the robot to detect stairs/stairwells, maintain localization across multiple environments (e.g. in a 3D world, on stairs, with/without GPS), visualize data in 3D, plan paths between any two points within the specied area, and avoid 3D obstacles. These technologies have been developed as independent behaviors under the Autonomous Capabilities Suite, a behavior architecture, and demonstrated at a MOUT site at Camp Pendleton. This paper describes the perceptions and behaviors used to produce these capabilities, as well as an example demonstration scenario.

  20. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined.

  1. The Accidental Spokesperson - Science Communication during the 2010-2011 Christchurch, NZ Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning September 4, 2010, with a Mw 7.1 earthquake, a multi-year earthquake sequence changed life in Canterbury NZ. Information communicated by a core group of university-based earthquake scientists provided accessible information to the general public, the press, and policy makers. Although at the start of this prolonged sequence, no one anticipated its longevity nor its impact, this initial (and largest) event did catalyze a demand from the public and policy makers for information and led to some important lessons in how to communicate science to a broad audience as an event unfolds and when it is personally important to the general public. Earthquakes are neither new nor rare to New Zealand, but the Christchurch area was seen as likely suffering only from the far-field effects of a major earthquake on the Alpine Fault or Marlborough fault system. Policy makers had planned and expected that another city such as Wellington would be where they would need to respond. As a visiting faculty at the University of Canterbury, with expertise in earthquake science, I was entrained and engaged in the response - both the scientific and communication aspects. It soon became clear that formal press releases and statements from government ministries and agencies did little to address the questions and uncertainties that the public, the press, and even the policy makers had. Rather, a series of public lectures, broad ranging discussions with the media (both print and radio/television), and OpEd pieces provided by this small group of earthquake focused faculty at the University of Canterbury provided the background information, best estimates of what could occur in the future, and why Earth was acting as it was. This filled a critical gap in science information going to the public, and helped build a level of trust in the public that became critically needed after the situation escalated with subsequent damaging events through early-mid 2011, and onward.

  2. Peri urban agriculture as a new strategy of urban development: a case study in Cenaia, Pisa

    OpenAIRE

    Bilge Ozel; Mecca, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Rural-urban interface never vanishes but only slides outwards from the city core as the city grows. This interface, so-called “peri-urban area”, is characterised by “dynamism” and “diversity” as it acts like the place where movements of people, commercial goods and capital take place. As a consequence, peri-urban area becomes the zone of coexistence of rural and urban areas, and constitutes a strong linkage between the two words. The Ecocity project in Cenaia aims to reorganize the expanding ...

  3. Transport Scheduling for Sustainable Urban Development in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Lazaroiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to analyze the existing railway infrastructure and to develop the trains scheduling in the north-west of Italy for an efficient and sustainable urban development. The Genoa rail corridor, in north-west of Italy, has a very complex track configuration and complex junction intersections, with a constrained capacity network shared by a large number passenger and freight trains. In the present study a new methodology to create a modular, periodical and symmetrical train scheduling for Genoa, Italy rail corridor is proposed. The objective is to answer the necessities for a modern and irregular mobility, typical for large metropolitan areas. The understanding of preferred methods of transportation, amounts of commodities shipped and types of commodities shipped can provide vision into the resiliency of the transportation system and project future sustainable infrastructure improvements necessary to create more reliable and efficient methods of transportation.

  4. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures.

  5. Groundwater sustainability and urban development - a major challenge for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is a critical, but often under appreciated, resource for urban water supply, a serious and costly hazard to urban infrastructure, and the 'invisible link' between various facets of the urbanisation process. An overview is presented of the benefits of urban groundwater use, together with some insidious and persistent problems that groundwater can present (especially those related to groundwater pollution from inadequate sanitation) for urban development. Spontaneous piecemeal approaches invariably mean that 'one person's solution becomes another person's problem' - and there is a strong argument for groundwater considerations to be part of a more holistic approach to urban infrastructure planning and management. However this is not a simple task because of the widespread vacuum of institutional responsibility and accountability for groundwater in urban areas. The current state of urban groundwater management will be reviewed, and pragmatic solutions to strengthening various facets of urban groundwater governance and management presented, using examples from Latin America and South Asia.

  6. Analysis of urban development by means of multi-temporal fragmentation metrics from LULC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapena, M.; Ruiz, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    The monitoring and modelling of the evolution of urban areas is increasingly attracting the attention of land managers and administration. New data, tools and methods are being developed and made available for a better understanding of these dynamic areas. We study and analyse the concept of landscape fragmentation by means of GIS and remote sensing techniques, particularly focused on urban areas. Using LULC data obtained from the European Urban Atlas dataset developed by the local component of Copernicus Land Monitoring Services (scale 1:10,000), the urban fragmentation of the province of Rome is studied at 2006 and 2012. A selection of indices that are able to measure the land cover fragmentation level in the landscape are obtained employing a tool called IndiFrag, using as input data LULC data in vector format. In order to monitor the urban morphological changes and growth patterns, a new module with additional multi-temporal metrics has been developed for this purpose. These urban fragmentation and multi-temporal indices have been applied to the municipalities and districts of Rome, analysed and interpreted to characterise quantity, spatial distribution and structure of the urban change. This methodology is applicable to different regions, affording a dynamic quantification of urban spatial patterns and urban sprawl. The results show that urban form monitoring with multi-temporal data using these techniques highlights urbanization trends, having a great potential to quantify and model geographic development of metropolitan areas and to analyse its relationship with socioeconomic factors through the time.

  7. Feasibility assessment tool for urban anaerobic digestion in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Rodić, Ljiljana; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2013-09-15

    This paper describes a method developed to support feasibility assessments of urban anaerobic digestion (AD). The method not only uses technical assessment criteria but takes a broader sustainability perspective and integrates technical-operational, environmental, financial-economic, socio-cultural, institutional, policy and legal criteria into the assessment tool developed. Use of the tool can support decision-makers with selecting the most suitable set-up for the given context. The tool consists of a comprehensive set of questions, structured along four distinct yet interrelated dimensions of sustainability factors, which all influence the success of any urban AD project. Each dimension answers a specific question: I) WHY? What are the driving forces and motivations behind the initiation of the AD project? II) WHO? Who are the stakeholders and what are their roles, power, interests and means of intervention? III) WHAT? What are the physical components of the proposed AD chain and the respective mass and resource flows? IV) HOW? What are the key features of the enabling or disabling environment (sustainability aspects) affecting the proposed AD system? Disruptive conditions within these four dimensions are detected. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis is used to guide the process of translating the answers from six sustainability categories into scores, combining them with the relative importance (weights) attributed by the stakeholders. Risk assessment further evaluates the probability that certain aspects develop differently than originally planned and assesses the data reliability (uncertainty factors). The use of the tool is demonstrated with its application in a case study for Bahir Dar in Ethiopia. PMID:23722149

  8. The Influence of Urbanization Development on Farmers’ Income Growth in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhili; LI

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades,with the development of urbanization in Wuhan,farmers’ income has been substantially increased in Wuhan City,and urbanization has played an important role in farmers’ income growth. By the empirical analysis of the data related to the level of urbanization development and farmers’ income in Wuhan City during 1993- 2013,this paper finds that there is a long-term stable equilibrium relationship between urbanization development and farmers’ income growth in Wuhan City,and urbanization development has become an important driving force for farmers’ income growth. Finally,this paper puts forth some policy recommendations for promoting farmers’ income by urbanization development in Wuhan City on the basis of empirical analysis.

  9. Networking Forests and Water areas:Urban Forest Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGZhenhua

    2004-01-01

    Building a forest city requires sufficient area of urban forests and an expedite water circulating system. Taking Shanghai as an example, it is proposed that China should develop its urban forestry through networking of forests and water areas due to high density of population, limited land resources and poor water circulating system. In order to develop a conception of urban forest with Chinese characteristics, this paper elaborates implications, foundation, evolution and development of the new conception through comparative studies of urban forest development inside and outside China.

  10. BORDER PORT MANZHOULI: URBAN FUNCTION AND SPACE DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Manzhouli is the largest land port city on the Sino-Russia border, transit cargo through the land port amount-ed to 5.95 million tons, transit tourists were 304 500 in 2000. It stands at the joint place of China, Mongolia and Russi-a, faces to Siberia area of Russia, receives direct support fromthe Northeast China and Bohai Sea Rim Area, and possess-es priorities in geographical location, land port infrastructure, water resources, coal resources, tourist resources andgreat potentiality in economic cooperation with Russia. The future urban function is a key port on the First Eurasia Continen-tal Bridge. Manzhouli Port will keep its first place between China and Russia land transport, and it is forecasted that thetransit amount through Manzhouli Port will go up to 10 million tons in 2005 and 20 million tons in 2010. It will be construct-ed to be a trade center of the peripheral area extending to Russia and Mongolia, a key export-oriented processing industri-al zone supported by industries such as export processing industries, export agriculture, trade services, technology trad-ing and the other service industries. It keeps being a well-known touring city for trade, shopping, sightseeing, vocation,local food, recreation and cultural events. To build Manzhouli Export Processing Industry Zone will improve city econom-ic structure, and the main sectors are organic food processing, livestock products processing, garment and furniture indus-try. Moreover, Manzhouli Export Processing Industry Zone will eventually be upgraded to be a border free trade zone.The city functional transition will inevitably affect urban spatial restructure and its expansion. The city space transforma-tion will develop as such: one development axis of No. 301 highway paralleling with Bin - Zhou (Harbin - Manzhouli) rail-way which cuts through central part of Manzhouli City, and links Zhalainuoer District with central city; three urban unitsincluding central city, Zhalainuoer District and Manzhouli

  11. Development of a computationally efficient urban flood modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Ntegeka, Victor; Murla, Damian;

    This paper presents a parsimonious and data-driven modelling approach to simulate urban floods. Flood levels simulated by detailed 1D-2D hydrodynamic models can be emulated using the presented conceptual modelling approach with a very short calculation time. In addition, the model detail can...... be adjust-ed, allowing the modeller to focus on flood-prone locations. This results in efficiently parameterized models that can be tailored to applications. The simulated flood levels are transformed into flood extent maps using a high resolution (0.5-meter) digital terrain model in GIS. To illustrate...... the developed methodology, a case study for the city of Ghent in Belgium is elaborated. The configured conceptual model mimics the flood levels of a detailed 1D-2D hydrodynamic InfoWorks ICM model accurately, while the calculation time is an order of magnitude of 106 times shorter than the original highly...

  12. Development of a computationally efficient urban modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Murla, Damian; Ntegeka, Victor;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a parsimonious and data-driven modelling approach to simulate urban floods. Flood levels simulated by detailed 1D-2D hydrodynamic models can be emulated using the presented conceptual modelling approach with a very short calculation time. In addition, the model detail can...... the developed methodology, a case study for the city of Ghent in Belgium is elaborated. The configured conceptual model mimics the flood levels of a detailed 1D-2D hydrodynamic InfoWorks ICM model accurately, while the calculation time is an order of magnitude of 106 times shorter than the original highly...... be adjust-ed, allowing the modeller to focus on flood-prone locations. This results in efficiently parameterized models that can be tailored to applications. The simulated flood levels are transformed into flood extent maps using a high resolution (0.5-meter) digital terrain model in GIS. To illustrate...

  13. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects.

  14. Self-organization in interface dynamics and urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Meron

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The view of the urban environment as an extended nonlinear system introduces new concepts, motivates new questions, and suggests new methodologies in the study of urban dynamics. A review of recent results on interface dynamics in nonequilibrium physical systems is presented, and possible implications on the urban environment are discussed. It is suggested that the growth modes of specific urban zones (e.g. residential, commercial, or industrial and the factors affecting them can be studied using mathematical models that capture two generic interface instabilities.

  15. Development of Urban Agriculture:A Case Study of Qianjin Village,Jiangxia District,Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We take the case of Qianjin Village,Jiangxia District,Wuhan City,to research how to establish the system of urban agriculture with distinctive features relying on the advantage of urban resources.Under the guidance of guiding ideology,basic principles and overall objectives of urban agriculture development planning,we analyze the specific construction planning of urban agriculture in Qianjin Village,mainly including the construction of growing areas and construction of leisure areas.Then we put forth the security system of development of urban agriculture as follows: land transfer is the prerequisite of development of urban agriculture;policy support is the important foundation of development of urban agriculture; agricultural science and technology is strong support for development of urban agriculture;good leadership is the organizational guarantee for development of urban agriculture;the industrialization of agriculture is the main objective of development of urban agriculture.

  16. Coupling Modelling of Urban Development and Flood Risk – An Attempt for a Combined Software Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Sto Domingo, Nina; Urich, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a setup that couples the urban development model DANCE4WATER with the 1D-2D hydraulic model MIKE FLOOD. The setup makes it possible to assess the impact of urban development and infrastructural change scenarios on flood risk in an automated manner. In addition, it permits us to ...

  17. Overall Planning of Development of Urban-Rural Areas:A Policy Mechanism for Urban-Rural Coordinated Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jin

    2004-01-01

    While analyzing overall planning and coordinated development of urban-rural areas, this paper shows that overall planning for the development of urban-rural areas is a requirement for the best use of productive forces. It means the setting up of a policy mechanism for coordinated growth.Recognizing this, the government should set up a way to lead and manage a unified program to increase service and decrease controlling administration power,while safeguarding and fulfilling the farmers' ownership to the means of production.

  18. Analysis of the Prescriptions for Energy Quality Buildings in Three Parisian Urban Development Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Tardieu; Morgane Colombert; Youssef Diab; Olivier Blanpain

    2015-01-01

    In Paris (France), urban projects currently cover 10% of the territory. In the context of rising energy costs and the fight against climate change, reducing energy consumption in buildings and transportation is an unavoidable issue for these urban projects. While many studies analyse assessment tools and sustainability frameworks, only a few focus on developer practices. We describe how energy issues are integrated into urban development, focusing on three projects located in Paris. We compar...

  19. Urban development and stream ecosystem health—Science capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Pamela A.; Szabo, Zoltan; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-29

    Urban development creates multiple stressors that can degrade stream ecosystems by changing stream hydrology, water quality, and physical habitat. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow variability resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic biota. Understanding how algal, invertebrate, and fish communities respond to these physical and chemical stressors can provide important clues as to how streams should be managed to protect stream ecosystems as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized. The U.S. Geological Survey continues to lead monitoring efforts and scientific studies on the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in metropolitan areas across the United States.

  20. Macroscopic anomalies before the September 2010 M = 7.1 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, N. E.; Ulusoy, Ü.

    2013-01-01

    Previous published work after the Kobe and İzmit earthquakes (1995 and 1999, respectively) demonstrated some reported meteorological and animal behaviour precursors were valid. Predictions were freshly tested for the Christchurch earthquake (M = 7.1, 4 September 2010). An internet survey with nearly 400 valid replies showed relative numbers of reports in precursor categories the day before the quake, were statistically significantly different from those in the preceding three days (excess meteorological events and animal behaviour). The day before the quake, there was also altered relative precursor class occurrence within 56 km compared with further away. Both these confirmed the earlier published work. Owners were woken up by unique pet behaviour 12 times as often in the hour before the quake compared with other hours immediately before (statistically highly significant). Lost and Found pet reports were double normal the week before, and 4.5 times normal both the day before the quake, and 9 days before. (Results were again statistically significant). Unique animal behaviour before the quake was often repeated before the numerous aftershocks. These pet owners claimed an approximate 80% prediction reliability. However, a preliminary telephone survey suggested that animals showing any precursor response are a minority. Some precursors seem real, but usefulness seemed mostly restricted to 7 cases where owners were in, or near, a place of safety through disruptive pet behaviour, and one in which owners were diverted by a pet from being struck by falling fixtures. For a later 22 February 2011 M = 6.3 quake no reports of escape through warning by pets were recorded, which raises serious questions whether such prediction is practically useful, because lives claimed saved are extremely low compared with fatalities. It is shown the lost-pet statistics dates, correspond to ionospheric anomalies recorded using the GPS satellite system and geomagnetic disturbance data, and

  1. Land use planning for sustainable development of peri-urban zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović-Miljković Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that growth of urban population has impacts on land use and that managing urban population change is one of the most important contemporary challenges, this paper deals with the sustainable development of peri-urban zones which represent important an environment where employment opportunities are developed and resources exploited (particularly agricultural resources and environment where important recreational and leisure activities could be pursued. Within the review of current concepts and planning practices, the concepts of multifunctional agriculture and multifunctional landscapes in peri-urban zones are pointed out, as well as EU Developing Periurban Projects. The paper particularly focuses on the current situation in Serbia, where there is no specific legal basis for the planning of peri-urban areas, although there are positive examples of strategies, regulations and planning documents which treat agriculture and greenery in peri-urban zones in a sustainable manner.

  2. Reframing Floods: Consequences for Urban Riverfront Developments in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, J.F.B.M.; Needham, D.B.; Smits, A.J.M.; Brinkhof, T.

    2010-01-01

    Many historical cities are built alongside rivers. Floodplains were attractive sites for urban expansion. However, the flood events since the 1990's have shown that many urban settlements are under flood risk. This research investigates how flood management and land use planning policies have change

  3. Satellite estimates of urban development for hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Drews, Martin

    We investigate the applicability of medium resolution Landsat satellite imagery for mapping temporal changes in urban land cover in European cities for direct use in urban flood models. The overarching aim is to provide accurate and costand resource-efficient quantification of temporal changes...

  4. Ecological problems of development of the urban settlement in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Mammadov Malikmamed Khanoglan ogli

    2015-01-01

    The article studies the status of ecological system of large cities in Azerbaijan, analyzes and evaluates the factors affecting the urban environment. Observance of hygiene and sanitary conditions for the improvement of quality of the urban environment, comfortable life of people has been determined as a key criterion in the article.

  5. Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Steinwand, D.

    2005-01-01

    Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of urbanization and associated land use and land cover change in the Tampa Bay area. To reduce processing time and complete the modeling process within an acceptable period, the model is recoded and ported to a Beowulf cluster. The parallel-processing computer system accomplishes the massive amount of computation the modeling simulation requires. SLEUTH calibration process for the Tampa Bay urban growth simulation spends only 10 h CPU time. The model predicts future land use/cover change trends for Tampa Bay from 1992 to 2025. Urban extent is predicted to double in the Tampa Bay watershed between 1992 and 2025. Results show an upward trend of urbanization at the expense of a decline of 58% and 80% in agriculture and forested lands, respectively. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Urban development and influential factors on urban form of towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period of socialism and transition: Case study of Banjaluka and Trebinje

    OpenAIRE

    Milojević Brankica

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the history, the urban development of towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina has been strongly influenced by different social systems that were transponed into the urban space giving it general characteristics common for the most cities. The character of the urban form of cities also pointed to the influence of various individual factors which can be generally classified into three groups: the natural characteristics of the urban space, created physical...

  7. Construction and harmonious development of urban-rural comparing financial systems based on comparative advantages theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There exist differences between urban-rural financial systems. Generally, the development of urban financial industry has absolute advantages compared with rural financial industry. According to the Matthew Effect, the financial resources will flow into cities for higher benefit, so rural areas are unable to obtain absolute advantages. However, relative advantage theory of the comparative advantage theory provides an important way to observe respective advantage of both city and country. Therefore, there are comparative advantages for the development of financial industry in both urban and rural areas, The respective comparative advantages of urban-rural financial systems will supply greater efficiency than that in current dual pattern condition. Closely connected with China's financial development and reform and the fact of the recreation of urban-rural financial system, this paper tries to explain the comparative advantage of the urban-rural financial systems. The analysis of the comparative advantage between urban and rural finance is the clue for the boundary between urban-rural financial systems. This paper analyzes the current situation of urban.-rural financial system. Then it proposes some views and suggestions on how to develop and maintain these two systems as well as how to promote their coordinative development.

  8. Environmentally Sustainable Development of Urban Settlements in India: A Framework for Development of Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvojit Sarkar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous efforts worldwide at various scales (global/national/regional/local in the field of development of sustainable development indicators, focusing on either one or all of its various dimensions, following the Rio Summit in 1992. However, India has fallen behind in the area of development of Sustainable Development Indicators and none of the Indian cities figure in the review of the IISD Compendium, the most comprehensive database to date to keep track of Indicators efforts. A review of the initiatives by several international agencies and countries in formulation of the sustainability indicators though provide necessary guidance, the final framework needs to address the urban sustainability issues in the Indian context. The objective of this paper is to develop a set of indicators at macro and micro level for environmentally sustainable development of the urban settlements in India. It involves recommending an approach, a methodology and a structural framework for deriving the indicators set at various levels focusing on resource dynamics of urban settlements. Domain based classification has been followed wherein domains have been identified based on essential natural and built in resources. Further, for each domain environmental sustainability determinants have been recognised and based on them multilevel indicators have been identified with a goal of greater livability and quality of life. A way forward has been given for the evaluation of indicators for formulation of policies at national level and action plan at local level with stakeholder’s participation.

  9. Adaptive urban development : a symbiosis between cities on land and water in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Rutger de

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive urban development is the design, construction and continuing evolution of urban areas to anticipate and react to changes in the environment and society. These changes include both processes within the city itself and external developments. It is expected that until 2100 a total of 5 billion

  10. Does Financial Development Increase Energy Consumption? Role of Industrialization and Urbanization in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Shahbaz; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship among energy consumption, financial development, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia from 1971-2008. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests are employed for the analysis. The result confirms the existence of long-run relationship between energy consumption, economic growth, financial development, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia. Moreover, financial dev...

  11. Shanghai Pudong: urban development in an era of global-local interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The emerging of large-scale urban (re)development projects presents a complex situation for local urban managers to deal with. They involve various local-global actors, public-private sectors and flow of finance and know-how from far beyond local city boundaries. Developing projects as such can be p

  12. Civic initiatives in urban development : self-governance versus self-organisation in planning practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, Ward

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses two distinct interpretations of self-organisation with regard to civic initiatives in urban development. One concerns urban developments in which citizens deliberately organise themselves in order to realise a collective ambition. This interpretation of self-organisation resonat

  13. Institutional entrepreneurship in sustainable urban development: Dutch successes as inspiration for transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolthuis, R.K.; Hooimeijer, F.; Bossink, B.; Mulder, G.; Brouwer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development is a wicked problem. On the basis of three case studies, we conclude that institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in sustainable urban development. The question we address is how institutional entrepreneurs do this. We theorize and find six tactics that entre

  14. Developing a Framework for Qualitative Evaluation of Urban Interventions in Iranian Historical Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Arjomand Kermani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iranian historic city cores are important parts of modern cities because of their valuable monuments and morphology but are also significant because of their population density, location and the major governmental functions they house. Since 1920, modernisation policies and urban development trends in Iran have justified spatial transformation and redevelopment and the demolition and destruction of traditional urban fabrics as a way to provide contemporary requirements and hygiene improvements for the residents. As the UNESCO recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape argues, historic urban cores can only sustain their role in the daily life of the city by getting prepared for and participating in this transformation process.Disagreement over the value of historic urban cores on the one hand and inevitable modification of urban areas in a developing country like Iran on the other, creates a problematic condition for the preservation of the historic environment. The Valletta Principles for the Safeguarding and Management of Historic Cities, Towns and Urban Areas states that historic towns and urban areas require an integrated approach including their “protection, conservation, enhancement and management as well as their coherent development and their harmonious adaptation to contemporary life”. In order to support the process of reaching a balance between these spatial targets in Iran, this research discusses the relation between urban transformation projects and their heritage context. In doing so it connects international literature on urban quality and traditional Iranian urban forms to contemporary Iranian urban design practice.To achieve this integration between urban heritage and spatial development, a framework of quality attributes has been developed to evaluate urban interventions in a heritage context. The three main pillars of this framework have been extracted from and inspired by international literature and guidelines. Place

  15. New Development of Urban-Rural Spatial Planning in China: A Case Study on Provincial Urban System Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From a governmental perspective, after a thorough analysis on provincial urban system planning, this paper summarizes the new cognitions and consensuses of provincial urban system planning guided by the Scientific View of Development. It points out that there have been explicit definitions in related laws and regulations on the responsible main body, the review and approval procedure, and the planning content. The paper generalizes three "musts" in planning content, three "musts" in planning administration by superior government, and three "controls" by the government at provincial level.

  16. A porous urban fabric: the structures and scales of London's peri-urban development from 1880 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanani, A. N.; Vaughan, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how the fringes of cities develop spatially at both the local scale and in relation to the wider urban area that they are linked to. Through an analysis of Greater London over a period of 150 years the changing structure of the street network of Surbiton and South Norwood on the south-western and south-central (respectively) edge is studied. The period covers their transformation from being relatively independent settlements to forming parts of the urban f...

  17. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF URBAN TOURISM IN ALBANIA - THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF URBAN TOURISM IN COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ALBANIA DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fioralba VELA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main objective is to introduce the role of urban tourism as a potential form of tourism in the competitive development of the Albanian destination and the role of urban tourism to the community of the Albanian urban areas and the problems related to this development. For the purpose of the study, it’s needed to define the criteria of the study and the organization of the Albanian cities that offers the greatest possibilities to develop the urban tourism as a competitive form of tourism development. These criteria are: the evidence of the heritage historical patrimony, the evidence of the culinary patrimony, the evidence of the technical patrimony, the evidence of the hospitality patrimony, the evidence of the transport’s situation, the evidence of the cultural patrimony, the evidence of leisure structures, various services. The analyses used enable the author to come on interesting conclusions.

  18. Evolution of Spatial Pattern of China’s Urbanization and Its Impacts on Regional Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with the remarkable economic growth,China has been experiencing a rapid urbanization in the past 60 years.However,the development of urbanization was not coordinated with regional development and the distributions of population and economy were discrete.With the method of centroid analysis,this paper demonstrates the spatial pattern of China’s urbanization and its evolution thereof from 1952 to 2005.Two indices are set up to represent the coupling states of three centroids,by which the impacts of urbanization on regional development are analyzed.In the end,from the angle of spatial pattern,this paper summarizes the characteristics of China’s urbanization,its evolution and its interaction with economic development,and then gives several suggestions on the population policy for the balanced regional development in the country.

  19. An Integrated Modelling Framework to Assess Flood Risk under Urban Development and Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Urich, Christian; Sto Domingo, Nina;

    to the hazard and thus have large impacts on flood risk. Different urban socio-economic development scenarios, rainfall inputs and options for the mitigation of flood risk, quickly lead to a large number of scenarios that need to be considered in the planning of the development of a city. This calls......Flood risk in cities is strongly affected by the development of the city itself. Many studies focus on changes in the flood hazard as a result of, for example, changed degrees of sealing in the catchment or climatic changes. However, urban developments in flood prone areas can affect the exposure...... that combines a model for the socio-economic development of cities (DANCE4WATER) with an urban flood model. The urban flood model is a 1D-2D spatially distributed hydrologic and hydraulic model that, for a given urban layout, simulates flow in the sewer system and the surface flow in the catchment (MIKE FLOOD...

  20. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  1. Study on Balanced Development of Industrialization,Urbanization and Agricultural Modernization in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article expounds the connotation of balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization",and points out the problems thwarting balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization" in Henan Province as follows:the level of industrialization is not high;the general level of urbanization is low;the agricultural foundation is weak and there are many institutional barriers.The goal of balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization" in Henan Province is to take a road of industrialization and urbanization,not at the expense of agriculture and food.Based on this,the measures are put forward for balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization " in Henan Province as follows:keep to the new road of industrialization with characteristics of Henan Province,promote the development of industry and accelerate the transformation of pattern;keep to the road of new urbanization with characteristics of Henan Province,and promote the rapid change in urban development pattern;adhere to the road of agricultural modernization with characteristics of Henan Province,and promote the rapid change in pattern of agricultural development.

  2. A discussion on indicators and criteria for sustainable urban infrastructure development

    OpenAIRE

    Danko, Cristina Carvalho; Lourenço, Júlia

    2007-01-01

    Infrastructure systems are at the core of urban sustainability issues. As population growth in urban centres continues to increase, infrastructure requires both development and rehabilitation. Unsurprisingly, this challenge is more evident in urban centres across the world and Portugal is not exception. To address this issue, the technical proposal of the Portuguese Program of the Policies for Land-Use Planning (PNPOT), and according to the Council of Ministers Resolution of Ap...

  3. The deployment of urban logistics solutions from research, development and pilot results

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu; Bruno Faivre d'Arcier; Josep-Maria Salanova Grau; Tiphaine Hervé; Fernando Zubillaga; Zeljko Jeftic; Jean-Baptiste Thebaud; Georgia Aifandopoulou

    2013-01-01

    The deployment of urban logistics solutions is one of the main pending questions in the field of urban goods transport research and practice. Indeed, although several solutions and projects have been tested in the last years, only few of them reach an operational phase and remain viable in time. Through the example of a recently finished demonstration project, this paper presents the main issues related to the deployment of urban logistics solutions form research and development results. More...

  4. Effects of Compact Urban Development on Air Pollution: Empirical Evidence from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hee-Sun; Choi, Mack

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of compact urban development on air pollution, taking into account both the spatial distribution of pollutants resulting from an increase in inner urban densities and the dispersion of pollutants associated with an increase in outer green open spaces. The empirical analysis is based upon a panel data model covering 17 cities in Korea from 1996–2009; this approach is used because urban air pollution is influenced by spatial and temporal changes. Measuring ...

  5. Cellular automata and urban development simulation : a transition rules creation process based on statistical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Valentine; Antoni, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    National audience Nowadays land use evolution study has become a major stake in urban planning. The main focus is to understand the way in which land use evolves across time and to understand processes that take place. This understanding would allow to plan urban developments based on a knowledge as complete as possible covering as many fields as possible (i.e. urban planning, politics, sociology, etc.). Simulation tools can be used to merge and display different points of view and stakes ...

  6. Facilitating Sustainable Development of Urban Landscape by Involvement of Local Territorial Communities in Vilnius City

    OpenAIRE

    Jakaitis, Jonas; Stauskis, Gintaras

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses importance of territorialcommunities in the process of urban development of a modern cityfrom the aspect of facilitating public involvement for improvingaesthetic, functional and ecologic quality of urban landscape. Moresustainable qualities of urban environment are achieved by directinvolvement of the local territorial communities into programming,planning, constructing, managing and further modifying theelements of landscape system. The topic is disclosed by the analysi...

  7. Developing the desert:the pace and process of urban growth in Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, Ahmed K.; Blackburn, George Alan; Whyatt, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that Dubai is a rapidly developing urban area which has grown to support a large human population within a hyperarid environment. However, no publicly accessible information exists concerning the rate or form of the urbanization process in Dubai. Therefore, this investigation used a time series of remotely sensed data to quantify land cover change in Dubai emirate between 1972 and 2011. A hybrid classification method accurately discriminated urban and other land c...

  8. Challenges for Sustainable Development: Rapid Urbanization, Poverty and Capabilities in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, haider

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the causes and consequences -- in particular, the policy implications -- of the ongoing urbanization in Bangladesh. Like many other Asian developing countries, a rapidly increasing share of the population of Bangladesh migrates to urban centers in search for employment opportunities outside agriculture in industrial enterprises or the services sector. For the first time in its history, the urban population is growing faster than the rural...

  9. Economic appraisal and agro-biodiversity development of urban agriculture in Hue city, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hankeová, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    Home gardens play an important role in household strategies as they contribute to their livelihood sustainability. They are a typical example of farming systems documented in urban or peri-urban areas. Vietnam has been witnessing fast economic development during the last twenty years and its cities now experience huge migration of population at rural-urban gradient. Together with personal income growth and increasing number of tourists, there is a growing demand for food, both in terms of qua...

  10. Developing Scientific Index System of Urban Master Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Master plan is the fundamental basis for urban construction and administration, an important public policy of the govern-ments, as well as an overall, comprehen-sive, and strategic task related to politics, economy,

  11. [Social urban development and poverty control as health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, A

    2001-03-01

    The Salomon Neumann Medal of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention bears the inscription. "Medicine is a Social Science". This provocative statement is most topical. It compels us to actively promote health by healthier living and environmental conditions apart from medical prevention. A core of this sphere of action is the reduction of social inequalities. Several recent congresses and publications have clearly shown that this subject remains one of the biggest challenges facing health promotion. German law has set the signs for reducing socially rooted inequalities for chances of health. This article postulates the thesis that health promotion can find allies for a healthy public policy in programmes planning for healthy urban development and for combatting poverty. The specific approaches for combatting social inequalities in the health sphere are reported and examples are given how such a health promotion policy may be translated into reality on a communal level. Finally, spotlight is on the dilemma of combatting inequality of chance due to differences in social status. PMID:11329919

  12. The Film Industry and Urban Development in Metropolitan Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Frank

    2012-01-01

    Due north of Culver City and southwest of Hollywood, lies Century City, an icon of midcentury modernism and urban planning (see Figure 2.1). Midcentury modernism in Los Angeles is most closely associated with sleek glass houses in the Hollywood Hills, while Los Angeles midcentury planning evokes images of freeways and the urban renewal scheme that leveled downtown’s Bunker Hill. Absent the freeway building or single - family homes associated with postwar Los Angeles, Century City reconceive...

  13. Correlation between Urban Land Change Process and Socioeconomic Development since the 1980s in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Shucheng; Pu Lijie; Peng Buzhuo

    2007-01-01

    Studying the process and characteristics of urban land change in different phases of urbanization and different economic development is much important for understanding urban land change and management at a macro level. Taking the example of Jiangsu Province, the present paper studied the correlation between urban land change process and socioeconomic development from 1981 to 2003 on the basis of statistical data. The results showed the following three aspects. First, urban land area has changed periodically and the research duration can be divided into two periods: from 1981 to 1994 and from 1995 to 2003. In each period, the changing trend is the same, i.e. slow at first and then quick. Studying from the comprehensive change status, the characteristic of fluctuant change is significant with three acute change pinnacles in 1988, 1991 and 2002 which were corresponded to turning point years of economic development phases of Jiangsu Province respectively. Second, the synchronization between urban land change and urbanization level change is not strict. With the evolution of urbanization phases, the change pace of urbanization level increased remarkably, but urban land change rate did not increase significantly accordingly. Third, the area of urban land has exponentially increased with the increase of per capita GDP. In different economic development levels classified by per capital GDP, land resource cost for economic development is different, respectively 29.01 hm2, 26.34 hm2, 26.22 hm2, and 11.14 hm2 for the increase of 100 million RMB GDP when the per capita GDP is under 1000, 1000-2000, 2000-5000 and over 5000 RMB.

  14. Public Policy Literacy Development in Basic Course Teaching of Urban Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Lan; Duan; Degang; Li; Min

    2015-01-01

    Given the context that the disciplinary attribute of urban planning is changing from technicality to public policy and based on a case study on the reform practice of the basic course teaching of urban planning in Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, this paper discusses how to scientif ically and skillfully introduce the primary content of public policy into the pre-professional courses to develop students’ public policy literacy and to enforce the students’ cognition of urban planning, so as to bring the planning professional education back to the essence of urban planning.

  15. Geological environment conflicts of Kunming Basin and its urban sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua FAN; Bingfei SHI

    2006-01-01

    Kunming Basin locates middle of Yunnan altiplano and has a particularity in geography, topographic and geological environment. With the urban dilation quickly, add the reason of the unreasonable city layout, conflicts between environment and urban resources consumption become shrill increasingly. It is human being activities that lead to vulnerability and depravation of geological environment in local. Take a few examples on geological environment to expatiate relationship between urban construction and geological environment carrying capacity, and find a way how to make a better plan for urban sustainable development to achieve new balance between man and nature in local.

  16. Managing Urban Disaster Risk: Analysis and Adaptation Frameworks for Integrated Settlement Development Programming for the Urban Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Wamsler, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The damage caused by the dramatic worldwide increase in ‘natural’ disasters is staggering, with the poor in developing countries being most at risk. Disasters make their already precarious living conditions worse, creating a vicious circle of poverty from which they find it hard to escape. To achieve sustainable poverty reduction, more and more attention has thus been given to the need to reduce disaster risk through development work. Despite related efforts, organisations working in urban se...

  17. A Short Term Seismic Hazard Assessment in Christchurch, New Zealand, After the M 7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield Earthquake: An Application of a Smoothing Kernel and Rate-and-State Friction Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Han Chan; Yih-Min Wu; and Ting-Li Lin

    2012-01-01

    The Mw 6.3, 21 February 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand, earthquake is regarded as an aftershock of the M 7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield earthquake. However, it caused severe damage in the downtown Christchurch. Such a circumstance points out the importance of an aftershock sequence in seismic hazard evaluation and suggests the re-evaluation of a seismic hazard immediately after a large earthquake occurrence. For this purpose, we propose a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), which ...

  18. Empirical Analysis on the Rural Urbanization Development in Luoyang City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Development status of rural urbanization in Luoyang City is introduced.A total of 6 indices are selected,such as total households in townships,total population in townships,total grain output,financial budget income,balance of savings deposits at the end of the year,and per capita net income of farmers.According to the data in 2009 Luoyang Statistical Yearbook,cluster analysis of 53 designated towns is carried out.Result shows that 53 designated towns are divided into 4 types according to the economic strength.Problems in the development of rural urbanization in Luoyang City are analyzed,such as imperfect management system,lack of effective economic measures,irrational town layout,unbalanced regional development,inadequate urban infrastructure,limited population absorption,lack of main industry in small towns,insufficient development capital,serious environmental pollution,and great pressure on environmental protection of towns.Countermeasures for the development of rural urbanization in Luoyang City are put forward.For instance,judging from the dynamic mechanism,Luoyang City should gradually change its dynamic mechanism of urbanization into socialist market system.Judging from the scale of town,Luoyang City should actively develop the central city and cultivate strong counties and key towns.Judging from the function of town,Luoyang should select a special urban development mode with its own characteristics for its development of rural urbanization.

  19. System Variable Analysis on Development Stages of Urban Agriculture in Large Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; ZHANG; Fengjun; LU; Runlian; MIAO; Yan; JIN

    2014-01-01

    China’s urban agricultural development takes on stage evolution,and functional structure,customer structure,industrial organization,innovation activity,spatial form and industrial value of each stage has significant difference. Using the system variable analysis method,this paper established the urban agricultural development system including six types of functional variables. On the basis of summarizing stage characteristics,it analyzed reasons for stage characteristics focusing on four key variables,i. e. cost,efficiency,connection,and risk. Finally,it came up with recommendations for promoting China’s urban agricultural development with the aid of stage development rules.

  20. Coupling Modelling of Urban Development and Flood Risk – An Attempt for a Combined Software Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Löwe, Roland; Sto Domingo, Nina; Urich, Christian; Mark, Ole; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a setup that couples the urban development model DANCE4WATER with the 1D-2D hydraulic model MIKE FLOOD. The setup makes it possible to assess the impact of urban development and infrastructural change scenarios on flood risk in an automated manner. In addition, it permits us to use the results of the hydraulic simulation to condition DANCE4WATER and to account for flood risk in the simulated urban development. In an Australian case study, we demonstrate that future flood ris...

  1. Urban Integrated Transportation Planning Based on Transit Oriented Development and its Research Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Huapu

    2005-01-01

    Satisfying the increasing traffic demand with the least amount of resource and environmental costs, the sustainable development object of urban traffic system determines that from long-term viewpoint, it is necessary to establish urban integrated traffic planning system with public transport as it is.The planning idea of Transit Oriented Development ( TOD ) is an important method to realize urban integrated traffic planning system. Research and practice reveal that harmony and integration is the key method to solve urban traffic problems. The integration of traffic system and land-use is the basic problem. Urban traffic development strategy with TOD provides ideas and ways to harmonize the traffic and land-use systems, which brings out a series of new research subjects and challenges in the field of traffic planning.

  2. Controlling Urban Sprawl with Integrated Approach of Space-Transport Development Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwati, L.; Verhaeghe, R.; Pel, A.J.; Van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sprawl phenomenon has been a huge issue since 20th century characterized by a rapid and unbalanced settlement development with transportation network particularly in a suburban area. The improvement of public transport system is a major requirement to minimize urban sprawl. Academic researcher

  3. Development of Low-carbon Forest Tourism with Emphasis on Construction of Urban Forest Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly points out that the urban forest tourism has so many advantages and it will hopefully become the support industry of low-carbon forestry, and the development of urban forestparks in low-carbon economy is extraordinarily important, especially when faced with some serious traditional problems. A series of proposals about revolutionary measures are put forwards.

  4. Low-cost housing developments in South Africa miss the opportunities for household level urban greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chackleton, C.; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Kaoma, M.; Chishaleshale, M.; Shackleton, S.; Gambiza, J.; Gumbo, D.

    2014-01-01

    Most developing countries of the world are experiencing large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Many new migrants end up in low-cost or informal areas and slums with attendant environmental concerns. One dimension of improved urban sustainability is the provision of green spaces and trees.

  5. US Urban Teachers' Perspectives of Culturally Competent Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Murphy, Anne; Blum, Barbara; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities related to food choices, nutrition behaviours and smoking habits in urban communities in the United States signal the importance of health education (HE) in schools, yet educators in urban communities face unique cultural challenges often unaddressed in professional development (PD). The purpose of this study was to use a…

  6. Opening the Black Box: Influential Elements of an Effective Urban Professional Development School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymans, Juliana; Tindle, Kathleen; Freund, Maxine; Ortiz, Deanna; Harris, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The George Washington University's Urban Initiative Professional Development School (UI-PDS) partnership used interviews, surveys, focus groups, and observations to research its effectiveness in preparing urban educators. The research conducted with UI-PDS preservice teachers and first year graduates, indicates they were well equipped to meet the…

  7. Urbanism, Ecology and Sustainable development: The social production of the spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review over social concepts as urbanism, ecology and production and their interrelationship are exposed. The importance over theoretical themes as sustainable development, and politics and spaces also are presented. Different problems that involve the urbanism as extension, services to provide, social fragmentation, planning, infrastructures, administration, rest areas, violence, commercial areas, neighborhood, architecture and impacts of immigrants are described

  8. Management of urban development: Example of the transformation of two Dutch former port areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoek, M.; Wigmans, G.

    2011-01-01

    The more traditional approach of developing cities through government lead town planning has been gradually shifting to a more entrepreneurial approach of strategic management of both public and private initiatives in the urban environment. This approach combines aspects of governance, urban plannin

  9. DEVELOPING A CRITERIA FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATION OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS IN IRAN: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE AND ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Maghsoodi Tilaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the conceptual requirements in preparing an evaluation framework for the urban development plans in Iran as well as modifies the evaluation criteria proposed in previous studies. Although applying a highly refined evaluation framework for assessing the quality of urban development plans can increase the efficiency of the development process, employing an unmodified framework in a specific urban context may negatively affect the development process because of exclusive conditions. An evaluation framework based on the worldwide experiences cannot normally be employed in the evaluation of the urban development plans of Iran. Hence, this research contributes to the advancement of a more adaptable evaluation framework for evaluation in four parts. These parts include (i the examination of the urban development process of Iran; (ii the extraction of a general evaluation framework from different studies and worldwide experiences; (iii the analysis of the effective elements for the urban development plans of Iran through SWOT analysis; and (iv the generation of an evaluation framework based on a preliminary analysis of the specific situation of the urban development plans of Iran.

  10. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-01-01

    designers, industrial designers, and so on. How must urban development and construction change and evolve to automatically embed sustainability in the way we design, build, operate, maintain and renew/recycle cities? One of the findings of this paper is that embedding zero-waste requires strong industry leadership, new policies and effective education curricula, as well as raising awareness (through research and education and refocusing research agendas to bring about attitudinal change and the reduction of wasteful consumption.

  11. Biogeochemistry and community ecology in a spring-fed urban river following a major earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Naomi S; Clough, Tim J; Condron, Leo M; Baisden, W Troy; Harding, Jon S; Dong, Y; Lewis, G D; Lear, Gavin

    2013-11-01

    In February 2011 a MW 6.3 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand inundated urban waterways with sediment from liquefaction and triggered sewage spills. The impacts of, and recovery from, this natural disaster on the stream biogeochemistry and biology were assessed over six months along a longitudinal impact gradient in an urban river. The impact of liquefaction was masked by earthquake triggered sewage spills (~20,000 m(3) day(-1) entering the river for one month). Within 10 days of the earthquake dissolved oxygen in the lowest reaches was urban natural disasters.

  12. Towards the Development of an Integrated Sustainability and Resilience Benefits Assessment Framework of Urban Green Growth Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Stelios Grafakos; Alberto Gianoli; Alexandra Tsatsou

    2016-01-01

    Considering the current emerging demographic, urbanization and climatic trends, integrating sustainability and resilience principles into urban development becomes a key priority for decision-makers worldwide. Local and national governments, project developers and other urban stakeholders dealing with the complexities of urban development need projects with clear structure and outcomes in order to inform decision-making and ensure sources of financing. The need for developing an integrated as...

  13. URBAN REGENERATION PROCESS - THE CASE OF GENOA, AN EXAMPLE OF INTEGRATED URBAN DEVELOPMENT APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Galdini, Rossana

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of Urban Regeneration in Europe and examines the factors influencing this process as well as its implementation. Foundamental changes in the economy, technology, demography and politics are reshaping the environment for cities in Europe. These changes have induced a logic of competion in a dynamic and complex context. In the attempt to become and remain an attractive place for inhabitants, city users, businessmen and visitors, cities invent their own strategies...

  14. Om SIDAs rapport: "Towards an urban world - urbanization and development assistance"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Byerne i ulandene har et dårligt ry. De er centre for prostitution, kriminalitet og arbejdsløshed. Befolkningerne lever i armod i elendige endeløse slumområder uden udsigt til forbedrede levevilkår. Byernes infrastruktur er mangelfuld, nedslidt og fungere stort set kun i de nedarvede koloniale de...... udkommet rapport: Towards an Urban World af den svenske bistandsorganisation Sida.   Udgivelsesdato: 1996...

  15. Subsurface Zoning For Urban Development Under For Different Geological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyanova, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    The main criteria for assessment of urban territory for sustainability for underground construction occurred at a certain depth of continuous soil and rock strata of permanent thickness high bearing capacity. Distinguishing areas depending on the distribution, depth of occurrence and thickness of such rock strata is the first stage of territory zoning according to the geological conditions favorable for subsurface construction. The hydrogeological conditions, as well as the development of natural and techno natural hazards, are assessed at the next stage. In this paper, the method and technique of compiling the map of subsurface zoning according to the geological conditions is discussed for two cities with difference geological conditions: Moscow (Russia) and Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Vertical zoning of cities subsurface is controlled by three basic levels: up to a depth of 10 m, foundations of the most of the buildings are situated; up to a depth of 20 m, the highway tunnels are located, collectors of deep subsurface communication lines, and foundations of large multi-purpose complexes; up to a depth of 40 m, deep highway tunnels are located, and foundations of individual unique buildings. In Moscow, the mid- and upper Jurassic clay layer and the Carboniferous carbonate-terrigenous complex are the most continuously stretching stratigraphic and lithological rock strata of permanent thickness. The location of modern and buried ancient erosional channels is one of the chief factors controlling the geological conditions in Moscow. The degree of territory favorable for subsurface construction depends on the depth of the thickness of the Jurassic clay horizon. Tashkent city is located in a high seismic zone and therefore the geological conditions of underground space are defined first by the modern tectonic movements and secondly is defined by distribution of loess soils with up to the depth of 70 m. Hydrogeology is important factor for sustainability of constructions.

  16. Digital tools for urban development project: GIS application to PTAL assess and land valuation and traffic simulation for piazza renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhen; Camolese, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing density and expansion of urban areas make cities as complexes with massive activities. The new input of the upgrating urban functions brings uncertainty to the transformation of downtown. Previous to the urban design, to visualize and assess the land value, and evaluate the possible density of the urban development supported by the public transport, a GIS platform is required. During the project of urban renewal design for the 13 km2 area of downtown Ba...

  17. The assessment of pollutants emissions within sustainable urban freight transport development: The case of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Marko S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of pollutant emissions is a prerequisite for planning and development of sustainable urban transport systems. Majority of extant studies on sustainable urban transport is focused on pollution caused by urban passenger transport, with marked paucity of literature on the impact of urban freight transport. To partly bridge this gap, the paper objective is the impact assessment of selected regulative measures, i.e. fleet renewal on freight transport emissions. We used the case of Novi Sad to estimate the potential impact of selected restrictive measures on the external freight transport air pollution. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on impact of urban freight transport on the air pollution in the cities in the Balkan region. Several research findings are of interest. Firstly, the analysis of particular gas emissions reveals expected overall positive effects of the fleet renewal in most of cases. Still, the total amount of same emissions hardly increase, so this particular measure is not enough to reach the ambitious EU strategy goals concerned with sustainable urban freight transport. Further, some negative impacts of restrictive measures on gas emissions were also recorded and discussed. The observed complex impact of restrictive measures on urban freight air pollution indicates that urban freight transport planning and modeling requires a comprehensive database, clear goals and higher priority of environmental criterion in traffic planning. Our results and recommendations may be useful for scholars, urban transport planners, policy makers and practitioners.

  18. Investment Constraints in Urban Regeneration: Property Developers and Local Authorities Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nurulanis Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban decay is a phenomenon created due to the expansion of urban population, the restructuring of industrial, social composition as well as the deterioration of urban areas. Consequently this will increase issues of crime, mass unemployment, low quality in urban services, social problems etc. Thus urban regeneration is a tool used to overcome all these issues in order to create quality of urban living, diversify and vibrant cities. However, the involvement of investment in urban regeneration is still infancy in Malaysia as compared to other countries such as Australia, UK, Hong Kong, and etc. This is due to the perception of investors towards the profit generation and the risk involve. The objective of this paper is to determine the constraints involved in urban regeneration investment from the perspectives of the property developer companies and the local authorities. The method used is an exploratory with primary data collection through a questionnaire survey. The findings revealed that the main constraints is in regards of the land issues as well as high cost of investment, however, the benefits gain should also be considered as this create a livable urban living.

  19. Institution-led Urbanization:The “Third Leapfrog” of Town Development in Sunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on a review on the history of urbanization in Sunan, the paper argues that Sunan has entered a new development phase of institution-led urbanization. After 30-year development since the opening and reform, there has been a remarkable development of small towns in Sunan. Some towns and townships are transforming into medium and small-sized cities and the urban-rural relationship has also fundamentally changed. In the new development phase, neither the existing administrative and fiscal systems, nor the actual institutions and policies relative to urbanization are efficient enough for further promoting the socio-economic development of this area, so institutional innovations are quite necessary. At the end, the paper puts forward certain suggestions on improving and reforming related institutions and policies for town development in Sunan.

  20. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkáč, Štefan

    2015-11-01

    To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual "energy circles". This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  1. [Spatial population distribution and development: notes on urban settlements in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, R

    1982-04-01

    The relationship between population distribution and development trends is analyzed, with attention to the planning of spatial redistribution policies. Some shortcomings in the investigation of the causes and consequences of urbanization are discussed. The second part of the article "refers to some spatial demographic and socio-economic expressions of the urbanization process in Latin America, the population concentration trends and their relationships with changes in agrarian structure and industrialization, social stratification patterns and forms of urban space organization.... The paper concludes with some critical notes on the theses related to 'optimum' size of urban centres and to 'balanced development' of urban systems, on which some policy proposals have been based." (summary in ENG) PMID:12264230

  2. A rejuvenated approach to urban development and inequality: Young people's perceptions and experiences in Rio de Janeiro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bos; R. Jaffe

    2015-01-01

    Studies of urban development, and specifically studies of urban inequality, have tended to neglect the role of young people. While development studies more broadly have begun to take young people's experiences, perceptions and practices into account, research on urban development and inequality has

  3. Interdependence of regional and urban planning in the regional development of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Braco Mušič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the signi. cance of Slovene's concept of polycentric spatial development, and on the problems (more or less planned development of transport infrastructure, after the critical introduction of interdependence of regional and urban planning in general theory and Slovene's practice of regional and urban development. Within this context the emphasis is on existing and future system of motorways and greater role of public transport.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasitoses in urban and rural children of a developing country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AKM Mamunur Rashid; AKM Saifur Rashid; Abdur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare intestinal parasitoses between urban and rural children in developing countries and its related factors. Methods:Children of 1-6 years old in the urban and rural areas who had not taken antihelmenthic drugs in the last 6 months were randomly selected. Various factors were taken as variables in a preformed questionnaire. Results:Among the total 52 children, 24 were in urban and 28 were in rural group. Male/female ratio of the rural group was 1:1 and that of the urban group was 1.4:1. Average income was 12 000 taka and 4 000 taka per month in urban and rural areas, respectively. None of the rural group used sanitary latrine, whereas every one in urban group used sanitary latrine. Majority (71%) of the mothers in rural group were below the primary level of education. Majority (75%) of fathers were educated above higher secondary level in urban group. In the rural group 18 (64%) fathers had not received any education. Enterobius vermicularis was observed only in 1 (4%) stool samples of urban children but in rural group it was found in 7 (25%) of the stool samples. Enterobius vermicularis was the main parasite isolated from both groups. Exclusive breast feeding practice of less than 6 months was observed in 20 (83%) children of urban group but in rural group that of less than one year was found in 22 (78%) children. Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infestation is mostly found in rural children. Urban children almost have no intestinal parasitoses. It has the relation with the poor sanitation, low standard of living, less parental income and education, and early weaning. Unnecessary universal deworming of the urban and rural children in developing countries should be discouraged in order to use the money economically and effectively. It can be carried out in rural children and their living standard should be improved.

  5. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World: Beyond Megacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pojani, D.; Stead, D.

    2015-01-01

    Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable

  6. CONTEMPORARY FORMAT OF TARGET-ORIENTED URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalya Yurevna

    2012-10-01

    In the context accepted by the authors, attainment of the above objective will involve fulfillment of each of the aforementioned requirements. They are to assure the concentration of resources and comprehensive satisfaction of the needs of the urban population in terms of the most popular items of real estate within a particular time span.

  7. A Sensitivity Model (SM) approach to analyze urban development in Taiwan based on sustainability indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability indicators have been widely developed to monitor and assess sustainable development. They are expected to guide political decision-making based on their capability to represent states and trends of development. However, using indicators to assess the sustainability of urban strategies and policies has limitations - as they neither reflect the systemic interactions among them, nor provide normative indications in what direction they should be developed. This paper uses a semi-quantitative systematic model tool (Sensitivity Model Tools, SM) to analyze the role of urban development in Taiwan's sustainability. The results indicate that the natural environment in urban area is one of the most critical components and the urban economic production plays a highly active role in affecting Taiwan's sustainable development. The semi-quantitative simulation model integrates sustainability indicators and urban development policy to provide decision-makers with information about the impacts of their decisions on urban development. The system approach incorporated by this paper can be seen as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a sustainability assessment. The participatory process of expert participants for providing judgments on the relations between indicator variables is also discussed

  8. Professional development strategies for teaching urban biology teachers to use concept maps effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.

    Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.

  9. Environmental influence of Wuhan urban agglomeration development and strategies of environmental protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qun; LIU Ying-tao; MAO Han-ying

    2006-01-01

    In Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA), the population growth and concentration, the industrial development and urban sprawl have been affecting the environment fundamentally. Comparing with Yangtze delta metropolitan region, the level of urbanization and industrialization of WUA has lagged behind for about 10 years; but the problems in environmental protection and rehabilitation are commonly serious. In the future, WUA should avoid unnecessary mistakes and seek a win-win strategy for economy and environment in its large-scale development stage. Based on the analysis of the changing of main environmental pollutants and the coupled curves in past decades, the paper discussed the important links among the urban environmental pollutions, industry growth and urban sprawl in WUA. It is concluded that the integration of economic and environmental policies in urban development is more required and significant at the large urban agglomeration region. Four proactive and long-term strategies need to be adopted to provide prior guidance and better protection for the development of WUA.

  10. Cooperative Game Among Cities in Urban Agglomerations and Economical Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shah Weidong

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses redounded profits of cooperation and non-cooperation among cities in urban agglomerations based on game theory. It discusses the problems of economical development among cities with feeble cooperation, and deduces the conclusion that only cooperation of cities produces the maximum profits and realizes Pareto efficiency for cities and urban agglomerations. The paper states that cooperation is the cornerstone of economic sustainable development in urban agglomerations in profits produced by cooperation among cities.Some suggestions to accelerate cooperation among cities are proposed.

  11. Evolving partnerships in the collection of urban solid waste in the developing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Post

    2004-01-01

    -Post, Johan. (2004) Evolving Partnerships in the Collection of Urban Solid Waste in the Developing World, in: Baud, Isa., Johan. Post and Christine Furedy (2004) Solid Waste Management and Recycling; Actors, Partnerships and Policies in Hyderabad, India

  12. Contracting communities: Conceptualizing Community Benefits Agreements to improve citizen involvement in urban development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen-Jansen, Leonie; Veen, van der Menno

    2016-01-01

    Contractual agreements are becoming increasingly important for city governments seeking to manage urban development. Contractual governance involves direct relations between the local state and different public and private actors and citizens. Although abundant literature exists on public–private pa

  13. Geo-technologies for spatial knowledge: challenges for inclusive and sustainable urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pfeffer; J. Martinez; D. O'Sullivan; D. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Critical to governance for sustainable and inclusive urban development is access to, and management of, relevant contextual spatial knowledge. Digital geo-technologies such as geographical information systems, online applications and spatial simulation models are increasingly becoming embedded in ur

  14. Assessment and analysis of indices of urban sustainable development in small cities (case study of Soran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Irandegani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available density and villagers migrate to the cities attention and emphasis was planning to strengthen and grow small towns. The study by researchers in different countries shows that small towns are one of the most successful examples of settlement in the area of sustainable development. Soran and the social and physical areas of urban sustainability indicators in urban areas is presented. The research method of this study is survey method and the data has been obtained from the questionnaire. The results of findings show that in terms of urban sustainability indices, the city of Soran has not a desirable situation in relation to the medium of urban system but it is in the same state in terms of more social, economic and physical indices in relation to urban system of country which it is noticeable clearly.

  15. Electricity (in)accessibility to the urban poor in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Rozita; Wang, Xiao; Mendoza, Juan Carlos;

    2015-01-01

    this into account, the Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD) initiated the Urban Peri-Urban Energy Access (UPEA) project in 2006. The objective was to understand the barriers to energy access in the context of the urban poor in seven countries. Barriers from both the supply and demand sides...... for energy were investigated. Factors such as a lack of institutional coordination, weak alignment between energy policies and urban planning, and insufficient financial and social incentives seem to play key roles in constraining access to electricity for the urban poor. Overcoming these barriers...... will require innovative solutions in policies, decision-making, financing, multi-stakeholder dialogues, social inclusion, international cooperation and knowledge sharing regarding good practices....

  16. Uncertainty evaluation of the coordinated development of urban human settlement environment and economy in Changsha city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Ying

    2011-01-01

    The coordinated development of human settlement environment and economy is of vital significance to urban sustainable development and urban ecosystem health.Urban human settlement and economic systems exist in urban ecosystems,which are a structural complexity.Therefore the research is being challenged by some uncertain factors between human settlements and economic systems.However most of the researches were focused on its determinate objective aspects and qualitative analyses while less concern on the quantitative evaluation of coordinated development of urban human settlement environment and economy,especially little on its uncertain aspect.At present,the urgent task is to study the coordinated development of urban settlement environment and economy in terms of the effect of uncertainty.This study analyzed the uncertain characteristics,which would be confronted at different stages,such as confirming the index categories,their bound values,and their construction rate,etc.According to the actual urban conditions,many construction principles based on uncertainties are put forward and an indicating system for human settlement and economic evaluation is established.Moreover,the application of fuzzy mathematics presents a new method and a calculation model for the comprehensive assessment of the coordinated development of urban human settlement environment and economy.The application of the method and model in Changsha city of China showed that the assessment results can reflect not only the overall coordination degree of the city,but also the mode of interactive mechanism between urban economic system and human settlement environment.

  17. Approaching integrated urban-rural development in China: The changing institutional roles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuheng; Hu, Zhichao; Liu, Yansui

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the twenty-first century, the Chinese government has been undertaking a series of rural-favored policies and measures to promote comprehensive development in rural China. The fundamental purpose is to accomplish integrated urban-rural development (IURD) given the ever enlarging urban-rural inequalities during the post-reform era. Considering the long time biased policies against the countryside, the paper aims to examine the institutional roles in approaching the IURD. IURD at prov...

  18. Gap between Urban and Rural Economic Development in Less Developed Areas——A Case of Northern Jiangsu Area,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking northern Jiangsu area as an example,economic disparity between urban and rural areas is described according to the data in 2000-2009 Jiangsu Statistical Yearbook.Result shows that there are significant differences in the rural and urban economic development in less developed areas,which are mainly reflected in the differences in per capita income,living standard,and Engel coefficient.Reasons for urban and rural economic disparity in less developed areas are analyzed.The asymmetry and immobility of rural and urban resources have objectively caused the income gap between urban and rural residents;urban industrial development,which is faster than agricultural development,has widened the income gap between urban and rural residents;and the differences in comparative labor productivity in rural and urban areas have enlarged their income gap.Countermeasures to minimize the urban and rural economic development gap are put forward,such as deepening the reform,realizing the free flow of economic resources between urban and rural areas,developing rural areas through urban development,exerting the function of urban areas in the coordinated development of urban and rural areas,paying attention to the agriculture and rural areas,and improving the comparative labor productivity of agriculture.

  19. STUDY ON URBAN LAND SAVING IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPED COASTAL REGION OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the initial period of industrialization a great deal of land is needed for Chinese industry development as well as land resource per person of China is much lower than the average value in the world, thus it is necessary to save land in Chinese urban construction. This paper mainly discussed the features of urban land use in economic developed coastal cities: one is that the index of urban land per person in middle-small cities was higher than in large cities; another is that urban land has not been used highly and strongly; the third is that the industrial land occupied an irrationally large percentage of whole urban land; the final is that rural enterprises took up a quantity of land. Thereafter, this paper put forward five land-saving measures: first, to adopt the idea of saving land; next, to adjust the land-use structure when redeveloping the old city and alternate some land use when adjusting the industry structure of the city; the third, to develop the system of payment for using land and the management of urban planning; finally to enhance the effective regional plan and the urban landuse plan.

  20. The People Know Best: Developing Civic Participation in Urban Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Evenhouse, Erin L

    2009-01-01

    Urban planning impacts a broad public, but does not engage the public broadly. Drawing on planning and feminist theory, philosophy and case study, this paper discusses promoting participatory practices in planning for equity, better policy, and the public good. The public interest is promoted through building relationships and social networks as well as education and community organizing of all, but especially marginalized and oppressed groups. Collaboration empowers individuals and broadens ...

  1. How does imperviousness develop and affect runoff generation in an urbanizing watershed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness associated with urbanization remains one of the biggest challenges in sustainable urban design. The replacement of forests, marshlands, buffers, and wetlands with impervious surfaces, strongly influences hydrological processes in urbanizing areas. This study analyzed the contribution of four constructed surfaces types – roofs, yards, roads, and an international airport – to surface runoff within a 21 km2 watershed, and presents the development over five decades (1977−2030. The land-cover model, used to assess watershed imperviousness in 2030, utilized coefficients between impervious areas generating surface runoff and the floor area, developed during the study. The conducted imperviousness analysis allowed the evaluation of land-use development impacts on the stream network, and the identification of hydrologically active areas for urban planning and stormwater management. Research revealed the importance of yard imperviousness related to suburban residential housing for stormwater runoff generation, and the impacts of transport-related imperviousness on stormwater runoff.

  2. Development Mechanism of Urban System in Rapidly Changing Period in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Guoqing

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the socio-economic development mechanism of China's urban system in terms of spatial structure and its change. Totally 246 cities from 340 designated cities in 1985, and 488 from 640 designated cities in 1995 are selected as sample cities. And 22 attributes concerning urban features are analyzed to clarify the socio-economic characteristics and their changes in the urban system. Finally, the primary development factors are verified with the relationship of spatial structure and socio-economic characteristics. In conclusion, the socio-economic changes occurred more extremely than spatial structure changes. Furthermore, foreign investment became a major power for the development of China's urban system in the period of 1985-1995.

  3. Influence of new town development on the urban heat island - The case of the Bundang area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Young-bae

    2005-01-01

    Five new towns have been developed around the Seoul metropolitan area since 1996. However, these new towns generate lots of traffic and related problems in the areas including those new towns and Seoul as a result of increases in population and a lack of ecological-self-sufficiency. Currently, construction of another new town is under deliberation, and what should be a major consider is the notion that the new town be located within a wide, green zone. Many studies have revealed that green space can play an important role in improving urban eco-meteorological capability and air quality. In order to analyze the urban heat island which will be created by the new urban development, and to investigate the local thermal environment and its negative effects caused by a change of land use type and urbanization, Landsat TM images were used for extraction of urban surface temperature according to changes of land use over the last 15 years. These data are analyzed together with digital land use and topographic information. As a study result, it was found the urban heat island of the study area from 1985 to 1999 rapidly developed which showed a difference of mean temperature above + 2.0. Before the Bundang new town construction the temperature of the residential area was the same as a forest, but during the new town construction in 1991 analysis revealed the creation of an urban heat island. The temperature of a forest whose size is over 50% of the investigation area was lowest, and thus the presence of a forest is believed to have a direct cooling effect on the urban environment and its surroundings.The mean temperature of the residential and commercial areas in the study was found to be + 4.5 higher than the forest, and therefore this part of land use is believed to be the main factor causing the temperature increase of the urban heat island.

  4. Approach to defining the urban development borders of an area on the example of Kuzbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoylova Nadezhda Aleksandrovna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ON THE EXAMPLE OF KUZBASS The contemporary urban planning problems are of multifaceted character and are directly relevant to fundamental aspects of the development of the society - social sphere, economy, land and property relations, material environment and its safety, preservation of historical and cultural heritage, ecology. In spacial planning aspect urban planning is, first of all, planning and design, including scientifically justified legal regulation, spatial organization of territorial objects (of a country and its regions, settlements, components of planning structure: planning centers, axes, zones, etc., separate land plots, i.d. forecast of their future state - use, development or reconstruction. All these should be included into town planning documentation. The author specified the range of problematic urban planning issues, which refer to urban border areas. The methods, mechanisms and measures to define urban border areas including several interdependent urban and rural settlements situated in different city regions are offered using the example of Kuzbass. The backgrounds for the creation of BIM system for planning, design, construction and further management and operation of infrastructure objects are created within the formed urban border areas of coal mining.

  5. Analyzing of urban green spaces development process with emphasis on sustainable principles (Case study: Mashhad metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ebrahimpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces are an important element in structure of cities. From these spaces can be named as the urban breathing lungs that they have various functions such as: City beautification, environmental modulators and leisure. Public land uses in many cities especially urban green spaces aren’t successful due to some factors such as: high population density, imbalance in land use location, neglect to redial access for providing services and etc. Today, it isn’t enough that we increase service centers also effort to achieve the standard and urban per capita because it is possible that all citizen haven’t appropriate access to land use (parks & urban green space due to imbalance of their location. Due to urbanism phenomenon grow sharply, so analyzing of appropriate location and its geographical distribution is very useful in development and future of cities. In this research has been studied urban green space development process. This study is applied and the research method is" descriptive – analytical". Also data collected is documents. The findings show, the process of green space growth is well but don’t adapt with global standards. So, should be attempted in this issue

  6. Research on Urban Agricultural Scientific Development Path of the Construction of Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehui; WU

    2014-01-01

    The significance of developing characteristic agriculture in Central Economic Zone was elaborated from four aspects of three modernizations coordinated development,guaranteeing city supply of agricultural products,creating more jobs for farmers,making agriculture more significant. The existing problems in urban agriculture development were analyzed,such as understanding deviation,extensive development,market confusion,short industrial chain,low degree of specialization,harsh environment. Several corresponding countermeasures were put forward,including giving full play to the role of government’s macro-control; perfecting compensation mechanism of urban agriculture,developing characteristic agriculture,promoting deep processing of agricultural products; advancing scientific innovation,improving production efficiency;operating sustainable ecological agricultural development road; relying on traffic advantage,promoting industrialization operation and urban agricultural logistics development.

  7. Comparative Research on the Reform and Exploration of Balancing Urban-Rural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Balancing urban and rural comprehensive reform is the major reform and developmental strategy of China. On the basis of the concept and theory of balancing rural and urban reform, the two national pilot cities Chengdu, Chongqing and several provincial pilot cities including Ningbo, Yangzhou, Shaoxing and Zigong are compared. The experiences and connotation of balancing urban and rural areas are concluded from the following four aspects. Firstly, scientific plan is a prerequisite; secondly, promoting "three collections" is the core; thirdly, developing people’s livelihood is the basis; fourthly, organization security is the key.

  8. Developing Rural Central Towns:A Logical Necessity of Urbanization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    There are a great number of small towns that distribute widely in China.How to develop a group of medium-and small-sized cities through central town development has turned into a strategic issue in the urbanization process of China.The paper analyzes the development goal of medium-and small-sized cities and the advantages and limitation for current central town development.It is stressed that developing central towns is a necessary process for China’s urbanization.

  9. [Health promotion policy and urban planning: joint efforts for the development of healthy cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Francisco, Lauro Luiz; Mattos, Thiago Pedrosa

    2016-06-01

    The National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) defines strategies for devising inter-sectoral public policies that ensure the development of healthy cities. Urban planning constitutes a tool to improve the quality of life and enhance health promotion. Using the studies and cooperation actions conducted by the Urban Research Laboratory (LABINUR/FEC-Unicamp) as a reference, this article describes relevant aspects of the PNPS that have an interface with urban planning policies in Brazil. An increase in interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral measures related to the new PNPS after the passing of Ordinance 2.446/14 was identified, which include: mobility and accessibility; safe development (sanitation, housing and transport); healthy eating with social inclusion and reduction of poverty (community vegetable gardens); corporal activities and physical exercise and the enhancement of urban spaces. The conclusion drawn is that social participation, inter-sectoral activities and the role of the university are important aspects for the promotion of healthy cities.

  10. Port, city, territory: economic development and urban quality in the case study of Salerno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Annunziata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities are the collective expression of a society and in seaside cities this phenomenon acquires peculiar values, since maritime communities share a unitary identity in the remarkable link with maritime essence, ships and navigation. Maritime urban landscape may be really perceived only from the sea and during navigation, through a dynamic perception able to give its complexity back. Architecture in seaside cities is rooted in the sea itself, which shapes the urban landscape, fosters the cultural evolution, affects social dynamics and makes economy be on the move. The ever rising sea trades, brought about markets’ globalization, fostered port’s development, which, if well run, is still today able to provide new opportunities for sea towns. The approach to an urban planning focused on a “from the sea” perspective suggests to deal with both the port and urban dimensions. Through this kind of approach, the Port may acquire a new leading role in the renewal of urban coastal areas, becoming, thus, the driving force of its (selfdevelopment and, at the same time, of the local urban sustainable development. Rather than being univocal, the relationship between city and port constitutes a quite complex continuous process, which calls for physical and cultural changes, often difficult to deal with and fulfill; a process in which different subjects and resources, often at odds, are involved. In this study approach we will focus on Salerno, where, through the cultural continuity of maritime tradition, the rise of port activities has been matched with an urban vision designed to reshape the urban waterfront (Fig.1. Salerno has identified policies and methods designed to undertake a renewal — along with Administration, Port Authority and Private Citizens — by sharing actions and projects to make waterfront more suitable and “tantalizing”, to improve the quality of urban life and, simultaneously, to take advantage of the potential of these

  11. Translating measures of sustainable development to urban districts of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2010-01-01

    overviews on the current baselines as well as stages in a transition process. The Dutch tool DPL (Dutch acronym for Duurzaamheid Prestatie voor een Locatie, ‘Sustainability-Profile for locations’) is a tool for mapping sustainability profiles of urban districts through a set of environmental, social......) sustainable build environment, there are numerous decision makers whose decision has an impact on the bigger whole, and which can promote or hinder a transition on city as well as society level. In a management perspective it seems useful for a local authority to generate holistic or at least multi sector...

  12. Sustainable Urban Development – Compact Cities or Consumer Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability in urban planning has a long history and it has been a widespread solution to build high and compact in order to minimise the need for transportation, land use and heating. Recent research, however, points towards the need for a supplementary approach, which includes the consumer...... behaviour of the household. This approach necessarily has to work from below and include the citizens, as it is their daily practices that have to be challenged. This article reviews selected literature and studies on whether compact cities leads to more sustainable cities, and it use lifestyle...

  13. Developing an Agent-Based Model to Simulate Urban Land-Use Expansion (Case Study: Qazvin)

    OpenAIRE

    F. Nourian; A. A. Alesheikh; F. Hosseinali

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionUrban land-use expansion is a challenging issue in developing countries. Increases in population as well as the immigration from the villages to the cities are the two major factors for that phenomenon. Those factors have reduced the influence of efforts that try to limit the cities’ boundaries. Thus, spatial planners always look for the models that simulate the expansion of urban land-uses and enable them to prevent unbalanced expansions of cities and guide the...

  14. Development of a new 1D urban canopy model: coherences between surface parameterizations

    OpenAIRE

    BLOND, Nadège; Mauree, Dasaraden; Kohler, Manon; Clappier, Alain

    2015-01-01

    A 1-D Canopy Interface Model (CIM) was developed in order to better simulate the effect of urban obstacles on the atmosphere in the boundary layer. The model solves the Navier-Stokes equations on a high-resolved gridded vertical column. The effect of the surface is simulated testing a set of theories and urban parameterizations. The final proposition guarantees its coherence with past theories in any atmospheric stability and terrain configuration. Obstacle characteristics are computed using...

  15. Development of an operational modeling system for urban heat islands: an application to Athens, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Giannaros; Melas, D.; I. A. Daglis; Keramitsoglou, I.

    2014-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect is one prominent form of localized anthropogenic climate modification. It represents a significant urban climate problem since it occurs in the layer of the atmosphere where almost all daily human activities take place. This paper presents the development of a high-resolution modeling system that could be used for simulating the UHI effect in the context of operational weather forecasting activities. The modeling system is built around a st...

  16. Private Sector-led Urban Development Projects. Management, Partnerships and Effects in the Netherlands and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Heurkens, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Central to this research lays the concept of private sector-led urban development projects (Heurkens, 2010). Such projects involve project developers taking a leading role and local authorities adopting a facilitating role, in managing the development of an urban area, based on a clear public-private role division. Such a development strategy is quite common in Anglo-Saxon urban development practices, but is less known in Continental European practices. Nonetheless, since the beginning of the...

  17. Accessing resources for identity development by urban students and teachers: foregrounding context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehmann, April Lynn

    2009-03-01

    Many attempt to address the documented achievement gap between urban and suburban students by offering special programs to enrich urban students' academic experiences and proficiencies. Such was the case in the study described by DeGennaro and Brown in which urban students participated in an after-school technology course intended to address the "digital divide" by giving these youth supported experiences as technology users. However, also like the initial situation described in this study, instructional design that does not capitalize on what we know about urban education or informal learning contexts can actually further damage urban youths' identities as learners by positioning them as powerless and passive recipients instead of meaningful contributors to their own learning. The analysis presented in this forum is intended to further the conversation begun by DeGennaro and Brown by explicitly complexifying our consideration of context (activity structures and setting) so as to support the development of contexts that afford rich learning potential for both the urban students and their learning facilitators, positioned in the role of teachers. Carefully constructed contexts can afford participants as learners (urban students and teachers) opportunities to access rich identity resources (not typically available in traditional school contexts) including, but not limited to, the opportunity to exercise agency that allows participants to reorganize their learning context and enacted culture as needed.

  18. Towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Urban Areas: Case Study on Bucharest as Tourist Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Zamfir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The issues of tourism sustainability and urban development have become major priorities for public policy makers across the globe. Today, maybe more than ever, there is a need for managing sustainable tourism development, and this cannot be attained without taking into account environmental problems and their global dimension. Various problems and requirements of society and of the development of urban areas may be solved by transforming the cities into attractive tourist destinations. Therefore, this study explores how sustainable tourism development in urban areas can be basically achieved and managed. The paper discloses some success factors for managing sustainable tourism development in urban areas and emphasizes a case study regarding Bucharest, the capital of Romania, as a tourist destination. The originality and value of this study consist of identifying the main ways of developing sustainable tourism in Bucharest based upon empirical research conducted with the aid of a survey. The findings of this study may be helpful for upcoming research in the area of managing sustainable urban tourism development.

  19. Identifying Potential Areas for Future Urban Development Using Gis-Based Multi Criteria Evaluation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Khalid Sabbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia likes other Asian countries has experienced rapid urbanization due to economic development, industrialization, massive migrations as well as natural population growth. This expansion particularly the unplanned has impacted negatively on farming activities and creates huge pressure arable agriculture areas. Thus, identification of potential sites for future urban development should become important issues in ensuring sustainable development. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to use GIS based multi criteria evaluation technique to identify potential areas for urban development at Balik Pulau, Penang. The study quantified spatial and temporal dynamics of land use/cover changes and identified potential areas for future development. The results indicated that large proportions of agriculture areas had been converted to built-up areas.. Urban areas increased from 1793.2 ha in 1992 to 3235.4 ha in 2002 and became 3987.8 ha in 2010. On the other hand agricultural land decreased from 6171.3ha (53.8% in 1992 to 3883 ha (35. % in 2010. The study, then, produced map showing potential sites for future urban development. The findings also indicated built-up areas would continue to encroach into flat available agricultural land which will be diminished if no restriction imposed. Thus, the information obtained from this study is useful for planners and decision makers in controlling agriculture areas and guiding new development properly.

  20. Informality in the context of the urban spatial development of Dar es Salaam - A structural analysis of the development of the urban space

    OpenAIRE

    Stender, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with examining the relation between the growing informal economy, expanding informal settlements in Dar es Salaam and examines the overall spatial development of the city. Fieldwork has been conducted as the point of departure of understanding the processes and structures influencing the urban development and the aspects of the informal economy and informal settlements. The fieldwork included semi-structured interviews with trade union officials, sporadic and structure...

  1. Urban metabolism: Measuring the city's contribution to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban metabolism refers to the assessment of the amount of resources produced and consumed by urban ecosystems. It has become an important tool to understand how the development of one city causes impacts to the local and regional environment and to support a more sustainable urban design and planning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to measure the changes in material and energy use occurred in the city of Curitiba (Brazil) between the years of 2000 and 2010. Results reveal better living conditions and socioeconomic improvements derived from higher resource throughput but without complete disregard to environmental issues. Food intake, water consumption and air emissions remained at similar levels; energy use, construction materials and recycled waste were increased. The paper helps illustrate why it seems more adequate to assess the contribution a city makes to sustainable development than to evaluate if one single city is sustainable or not. - Highlights: • We assessed the urban metabolism of Curitiba (Brazil) in 2000 and 2010. • Living conditions improved due to higher material and energy use. • Socioeconomic expansion demands special attention to environmental changes. • One city cannot be sustainable by itself, as it depends on external resources. • Urban metabolism helps measuring a city's contribution to sustainable development. - The urban metabolism of Curitiba (Brazil) reveals improvement in living conditions due to increased material and energy use, but without disregard to the environment

  2. Global urban development programmes and local realities in the Caricom-Caribbean: mismatches in needs and approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Verrest; S. Moorcroft; A. Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the relationship between urban governance and urban development has been an area of growing academic and theoretical discussions. To improve urban living conditions, multilateral agencies within the United Nations have been at the forefront in integrating a ‘good governance’ age

  3. Recommendations for Development of Rural Labor Service Economy from the Perspective of Urban and Rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Rural labor service economy is a method turning rural surplus human resources to economic resources,to realize increase of social wealth. Developing the rural labor service economy has profound influence on promoting transfer and employment of rural surplus labor,and speeding up industrialization and urbanization. Rural labor service economy is a huge and complex systematic project for promoting urban and rural integrated development and increasing farmers’ income. This paper firstly analyzed importance and urgency of accelerating the development of rural labor service economy. From the perspective of urban and rural integration,it came up with pertinent recommendations,including establishing security mechanism and improving rural labor security mechanism,creating preferential conditions and encouraging farmers to return to hometown,exploring potential and promoting nearby labor transfer to promote rapid economic development,improving public employment service system,and cultivating and developing labor market. It is expected to provide certain references.

  4. Air Quality and Air Pollution Management in Urban Areas in Less Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.

    2007-01-01

    The working group will address the complexity of air pollution management in the growing urban sphere in the less developed countries, and will discus and evaluate how Danish and Scandinavian research institutions, universities and private companies can initiate a more progressive role...... in development aid and capacity development in relation to air pollution. For further information on the actions objective, activities and dissemination plan...

  5. Inclusive Urban Development and China's New Urbanization Approaches%城市包容性发展与中国新型城市化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋玲; 祝影; 叶明确; 石灵云

    2012-01-01

    论文基于包容性发展及城市化战略转型的背景,探讨包容性发展主旋律下中国新型城市化问题。论文系统梳理了国内外相关研究成果,探究了我国城市选择包容性发展的根源,并在此基础上从发展理念、空间形态、社会整合、经济融合、制度重构等几方面提出中国城市包容性发展战略及城市化路径选择。%Based on the background of inclusive urban development and urbanization strategy transformation,this paper discusses new urbanization approaches within the framework of dominantly inclusive urban development.Starting with a systematic review to relevant researches home and abroad,this paper explores the reasons why China adopts an inclusive urban development strategy.It then proposes inclusive urban development strategies and urbanization route alternatives with regards to development principles,physical manifestations,social integrations,economic integrations and system reconstructions.

  6. Development and Analysis of a Scale for Meauring Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Urban Schools (SEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Mary; Kokan, Julie; Annis, Kathy; Baker, Mark; Phillips, Maggie; Head, Catherine; Hearrington, Doug; Yanosky, Daniel; Holbein, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Research in teacher self-efficacy has a long history that can be traced back to Bandura (1986) and has been shown to be linked to teacher performance. This article presents evidence for teacher self-efficacy in urban schools, a construct that is separate from but related to the more general construct of teacher self-efficacy. An instrument was developed and validated by a team of university faculty, urban teachers, and school administrators. The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Urban Schools (SEUS) is a 15-item instrument designed to address factors that are important for success in teaching in an urban environment, including working effectively with English language learners, students with disabilities, economically disadvantaged students, cultural diversity, literacy, technology, differentiation, and assessment data. The present study analyzes SEUS on multiple levels, using the Rasch partial credit model. PMID:26771568

  7. Development of human comfort criteria for environmental conditions in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger

    2011-01-01

    . The work presented in this paper is the first step in identifying and understanding the different factors affecting the human perception of urban space quality. For this purpose the registration of urban space conditions has been conducted on different locations in the city of Copenhagen. Furthermore......, selected tests on human perception of climatic conditions have been performed in the newly developed Climatic Wind Tunnel facility (CWT), jointly operated by DTU and FORCE Technology in Lyngby, Denmark. The conducted work is related to a Ph.D. project on the integration of numerical simulation methods...... will be studied, based on full-scale registration of urban environment parameters. The collected data and observations will be used to review existing criteria allowing assessing urban space quality for city life. The overall aim of our research is to create a holistic method to determines and describe the value...

  8. Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the relationship among energy consumption, financial development, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia from 1971 to 2008. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests is employed for the analysis. The result confirms the existence of long-run relationship among energy consumption, economic growth, financial development, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia. Long-run bidirectional causalities are found between financial development and energy consumption, financial development and industrialization, and industrialization and energy consumption. Hence, sound and developed financial system that can attract investors, boost the stock market and improve the efficiency of economic activities should be encouraged in the country. Nevertheless, promoting industrialization and urbanization can never be left out from the process of development. We add light to policy makers with the role of financial development, industrialization and urbanization in the process of economic development. - Highlights: ► We find the existence of long-run relationship among variables. ► Financial development is positively related to energy consumption. ► Bidirectional causal relationship between financial development and energy consumption. ► Sound and developed financial system should be encouraged.

  9. Geochemical Indicators of Urban Development in Tributaries and Springs along the Bull Creek Watershed, Austin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senison, J. J.; Banner, J. L.; Reyes, D.; Sharp, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization can cause significant changes to both flow and water quality in streams and tributaries. In the Austin, Texas, area, previous studies have demonstrated that streamwater strontium isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr) correlate with measures of urbanization when comparing non-urbanized streams to their urban counterparts. The inclusion of municipal water into natural surface water is inferred from the mean 87Sr/86Sr value found in urbanized streams, which falls between the high value in treated municipal water and the lower values found in local surface streams sourcing from non-urbanized catchments. Fluoride is added to municipal tap water in the treatment process, and a correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and fluoride is observed in streamwater sampled from the watersheds around Austin. These relationships represent some of the principal findings reported in Christian et al. (2011). Current research is testing the hypothesis that municipal water influx in urban areas is a primary modifier of stream- and spring-water chemistry in a single watershed that contains a strong gradient in land use. We compare 87Sr/86Sr and other chemical constituents with potential contributing endmembers, such as municipal tap water and wastewater, local soil and rock leachates, and land use within the Bull Creek watershed. As a consequence of the history of land development, some Bull Creek tributaries are sourced and flow almost entirely in fully-developed areas, whereas others are located in protected natural areas. Thirteen tributaries were monitored and classified as either urbanized or non-urbanized based upon land use within the tributary catchment. Springs in the Bull Creek watershed were also sampled and are similarly classified. The Bull Creek watershed is composed of Lower Cretaceous limestone with significantly lower 87Sr/86Sr than that of municipal water taken from the Lower Colorado River, which is underlain in part by Precambrian rocks upstream of Austin. There are

  10. Criteria for evaluation and guidelines for land use planning in terms of sustainable urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ostojić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable spatial development is a generally accepted objective and principle in spatial planning. It is implemented mainly by regulations in the sectors for management of natural resources, but not comprehensively in implementing regulations for urban space management. One of the most important instruments of spatial planning at local level is land use, for which there is no comprehensive framework of implementing measures for achieving sustainable spatial objectives in urban areas. In accordance with the review and critical analysis of literature, there are four measures presented in the paper: protection of natural resources and reduction of environmental-climate risks, compact urban structure, mixed-use and accessibility of urban functions. The review and analysis have shown that the listed measures enable sustainable development of urban areas, but only if they are planned and implemented in accordance with supporting physical, social and economic elements of urban space. In the conclusion, indicators which can assess the level of sustainability in land use design are presented and guidelines for restructuring land use in existing settlement areas are described.

  11. Effects of urban development on ant communities: implications for ecosystem services and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Monte P; Manley, Patricia N; Murphy, Dennis D

    2009-02-01

    Research that connects the effects of urbanization on biodiversity and ecosystem services is lacking. Ants perform multifarious ecological functions that stabilize ecosystems and contribute to a number of ecosystem services. We studied responses of ant communities to urbanization in the Lake Tahoe basin by sampling sites along a gradient of urban land development. We sampled ant communities, measured vegetation characteristics, quantified human activities, and evaluated ant-community responses by grouping ants into service-providing units (SPUs), defined as a group of organisms and their populations that perform specific ecosystem services, to provide an understanding of urbanization impacts on biodiversity and their delivery of ecosystem services. Species richness and abundance peaked at intermediate levels of urban development, as did the richness of 3 types of ant SPUs (aerators, decomposers, and compilers). With increasing land development aerator and decomposer ants significantly declined in abundance, whereas compiler ants significantly increased in abundance. Competing models demonstrated that precipitation was frequently among the strongest influences on ant community structure; however, urban development and human activities also had a strong, negative influence on ants, appearing in most models with DeltaAIC(c) < 2 for species richness and abundance patterns of SPUs and generalists. Response diversity was observed within SPUs, which suggests that the corresponding ecosystem services were maintained until development reached 30-40%. Our data provide evidence that ecosystem functions, such as water infiltration and soil productivity, may be diminished at sites subject to greater levels of urbanization and that conserving ant communities and the ecosystem services they provide could be an important target in land-use planning and conservation efforts. PMID:18778268

  12. Urban ecology in a developing world: why advanced socioecological theory needs Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Melissa R; Bunn, David N; Pickett, Steward Ta; Twine, Wayne

    2013-12-01

    Socioecological theory, developed through the study of urban environments, has recently led to a proliferation of research focusing on comparative analyses of cities. This research emphasis has been concentrated in the more developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere (often referred to as the "Global North"), yet urbanization is now occurring mostly in the developing world, with the fastest rates of growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Countries like South Africa are experiencing a variety of land-cover changes that may challenge current assumptions about the differences between urban and rural environments and about the connectivity of these dynamic socioecological systems. Furthermore, questions concerning ecosystem services, landscape preferences, and conservation - when analyzed through rural livelihood frameworks - may provide insights into the social and ecological resilience of human settlements. Increasing research on urban development processes occurring in Africa, and on patterns of kinship and migration in the less developed countries of the "Global South", will advance a more comprehensive worldview of how future urbanization will influence the progress of sustainable societies.

  13. Evaluation of Plan Implementation: Peri-urban Development and the Shanghai Master Plan 1999-2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghuan He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s China has experienced unprecedented urbanisation as a result of a series of reforms promoting rapid economic development. Shanghai, like the other big cities along China’s coastline, has witnessed extraordinary growth in its economy and population with industrial development and rural-to-urban migration generating extensive urban expansion. Shanghai’s GDP growth rate has been over 10 per cent for more than 15 years. Its population in 2013 was estimated at 23.47 million, which is double its size in 1979. The urban area enlarged by four times from 644 to 2,860 km2 between 1977 and 2010.Such demanding growth and dramatic changes present big challenges for urban planning practice in Shanghai. Plans have not kept up with development and the mismatch between the proposals in plans and the actual spatial development has gradually increased, reaching a critical level since 2000. The mismatch in the periurban areas is more notable than that in the existing urban area, but there has not been a systematic review of the relationship between plan and implementation. Indeed, there are few studies on the evaluation of plan implementation in China generally. Although many plans at numerous spatial levels are successively prepared and revised, only few of them have been evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and implementation. This particularly demanding context for planning where spatial development becomes increasingly unpredictable and more difficult to influence presents an opportunity to investigate the role of plans under conditions of rapid urbanisation. The research project asks to what extent have spatial plans influenced the actual spatial development in the peri-urban areas of Shanghai? The research pays particular attention to the role of the Shanghai Master Plan 1999-2020 (Plan 1999. By answering the main research question this study seeks to contribute to a better understanding of present planning practice in Shanghai from

  14. Strategic Planning and Urban Development by Using the SWOT Analysis. The Case of Urmia City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMID MOBARAKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A strategic planning is an important tool to guide the urban planning. It will help maintain a focused, long-term vision of the urban mission and purpose, and aid decisions about the urban development. In reality review and understanding of urban development, its strengths and weaknesses are of major importance in the strategic planning. Today, awareness of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats are a necessity for urban development plans and programs. Urmia City, despite being rich in natural and human resources, it faces difficulties in terms of unsustainable development due to the lack of proper utilization of resources and environmental degradation of agricultural land suitable for industrial and residential land uses. The aim of the current research is to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in Urmia city. This study is applied and it utilizes both descriptive and analytical methods, but also the AHP and SWOT methods. The result of the study indicates that, for the development of Urmia City, the overcoming strategy has the maximum score (4.07, whereas the negatives control strategy has the minimum score (1.77. Therefore, Urmia City should make the maximum use of strengths and opportunities in order to reduce weaknesses and threats.

  15. Planning for sustainability in China's urban development: status and challenges for Dongtan eco-city project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization in China, the country faces significant challenges in sustainable urban development and actively explores novel ways to expand urban areas while conserving natural resources. Radical changes in city planning are being made to switch to sustainable development, with new cities being designed to be ecologically friendly guided by principles like carbon neutrality and self-sufficiency. This paper introduces the development of the Dongtan eco-city project on Chongming Island, Shanghai and describes how it addresses issues including energy, water, waste, transportation, ecosystem, and social and economic development in its design. The lessons and challenges of eco-city development based on the Dongtan experience are also discussed. If the vision of a zero-carbon emissions sustainable city is successfully realized, Dongtan will serve as a model for developing similar cities across China and the rest of the developing world. Currently, the development of this project is behind schedule and whether the eco-city plan will materialize or not is in question. Even though the project remains mostly on the drawing boards, the planning and preliminary development of Dongtan eco-city have generated significant enthusiasm for green buildings and influenced plans for other sustainable urban development projects in China. PMID:20082005

  16. The Role and Importance of Local Economic Development in Urban Development: A Case of Harare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Mandisvika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the role and importance of Local Economic Development as a means of enhancing urban development paying particular attention to the regulators of Local Economic Development in Harare. Local Economic Development is a process which encourages partners from the community, public sector, private sector and non-governmental sectors to work collectively to create better conditions for economic growth and employment generation with the aim of improving the locality economic future and the quality of life for all citizens. The study was premised on the theory of competitive advantage which puts up that prosperity and wealth creation is determined by microeconomic factors and that prosperity means increasing the standards of living for the local people and ultimately their quality of life. Primary data for the research was gathered through observation and key informant interviews. Data on key stakeholders understanding on the concept of Local Economic Development, how it is being practised and how the current regulatory framework enhance or impinge on local people’s participation in Local Economic Development was collected. Secondary data was also collected from Harare’s 2014 budget, census and existing forward plans. The study revealed that the practice of Local Economic Development in Harare is biased towards the setting aside of land zoned for industrial and commercial uses and implementation of development control parameters. Small to Medium Enterprises and the informal sector have also been identified as the major forms of Local Economic Development that citizens are involved in. However, the study revealed that proper policy frameworks which guide practice of Local Economic Development initiatives were missing

  17. Policy directions in urban health in developing countries--the slum improvement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, T; Stephens, C

    1992-07-01

    The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented. PMID:1509300

  18. The Morphology of Urban Agglomerations for Developing Countries: A Case Study with China

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two well-accepted empirical propositions regarding the distribution of population in cities, namely, Gibrat's law and Zipf's law, are rigorously examined using the Chinese census data. Our findings are quite in contrast with the most of the previous studies performed exclusively for developed countries. This motivates us to build a general environment to explain the morphology of urban agglomerations both in developed and developing countries. A dynamic process of job creation generates a particular distribution for the urban agglomerations and introduction of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in this abstract environment shows that the empirical observations are in good agreement with the proposed model.

  19. An Integrated Modelling Framework to Assess Flood Risk under Urban Development and Changing Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Löwe, Roland; Urich, Christian; Sto Domingo, Nina; Mark, Ole; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Flood risk in cities is strongly affected by the development of the city itself. Many studies focus on changes in the flood hazard as a result of, for example, changed degrees of sealing in the catchment or climatic changes. However, urban developments in flood prone areas can affect the exposure to the hazard and thus have large impacts on flood risk. Different urban socio-economic development scenarios, rainfall inputs and options for the mitigation of flood risk, quickly lead to a large nu...

  20. Trends in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with urban development in northern West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Igor; Miles, Victoria V.; Davy, Richard; Miles, Martin W.; Kurchatova, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves of northern West Siberia has promoted rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development leaves significant footprints on the sensitive northern environment, which is already stressed by the global warming. This study reports the region-wide changes in the vegetation cover as well as the corresponding changes in and around 28 selected urbanized areas. The study utilizes the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from high-resolution (250 m) MODIS data acquired for summer months (June through August) over 15 years (2000-2014). The results reveal the increase of NDVI (or "greening") over the northern (tundra and tundra-forest) part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern, forested part shows the widespread decrease of NDVI (or "browning"). These region-wide patterns are, however, highly fragmented. The statistically significant NDVI trends occupy only a small fraction of the region. Urbanization destroys the vegetation cover within the developed areas and at about 5-10 km distance around them. The studied urbanized areas have the NDVI values by 15 to 45 % lower than the corresponding areas at 20-40 km distance. The largest NDVI reduction is typical for the newly developed areas, whereas the older areas show recovery of the vegetation cover. The study reveals a robust indication of the accelerated greening near the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the wider browning trends at their background. Literature discussion suggests that the observed urban greening could be associated not only with special tending of the within-city green areas but also with the urban heat islands and succession of more productive shrub and tree species growing on warmer sandy soils.

  1. Sustainable development of Shandong peninsula Peninsula urban agglomeration: a scenario analysis based on water shortage and water environment changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China has experienced a rapid urbanization since late 1970s. The great increase of urban population has resulted in various environmental changes, of which urban water shortage and water environment problems have occurred in most cities, especially in the rapidly developing urban agglomerations in the eastern coastal region. This research, taking Shandong Peninsula Urban Agglomeration (SPUA) as a case study area, analyzes the urbanization expansion in the last decades, discusses the water shortage and water environment changes following the rapid economic development and urbanization such as groundwater sinking in the urban and plain area, sea water and salt-water intrusion in the coastal cities, water pollution overspreading and "water ecosystem degradation, and puts forwards some strategies for sustainability in populous regions with severe water shortage. Some countermeasures for sustainable development of SPUA are put forward, such as modern water resources inter-city networks to regulate water resource between cities, adjusting urbanization policy and urban scale planning to promote the development of small towns and medium sized cities, optimizing urban industry structure by restricting high water consumption enterprises and stimulating the growth of tertiary industry, improving water use efficient to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge, introducing economic means to water pricing and water management system. and restoring ecological conditions to strengthen the natural water-making capacity.

  2. Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

    2012-01-01

    Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n = 1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low

  3. Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

    2012-01-01

    Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n = 1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low

  4. Urban Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazel, Anthony J.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This section on Urban Climates provides a basic understanding of what comprises the urban climate and what factors control the overall development of the urban climate. We also discuss in this section, methods for evaluating urban climate characteristics and forcing functions as well as how the urban heat island effect comes into play as a dynamic influence on urban climatology. Additionally, we examine and discuss the major radiation and energy balance of city (i.e., shortwave and longwave radiation, albedo, net all-wave radiation, total energy balance, and sensible latent, and storage heat) and the interactions of these energy balances with the lower atmosphere. The use of remote sensing to measure urban surface temperatures as a driving force in the development of the urban heat island effect is presented. We also discuss how the overall moisture, precipitation, humidity, and air movement in cities (i,e,, wind speeds and wind direction) and wind environment of the city affects urban climatology.

  5. Managing Urban Trees and Their Soil Envelopes in a Contiguously Developed City Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C. Y.

    2001-12-01

    Urban Hong Kong is covered by high building, road, and population densities. Its urban morphology is inherently not conducive to extensive or high-grade greening. Recent renewal of old areas has squeezed out some limited interstitial plantable space, although in new development areas modest spaces have been earmarked for greenery. The study aims at evaluating the major constraints to urban trees and their companion urban soil envelopes and at providing specific recommendations to improve tree management in the city. The analysis covers the above-ground confinements that dampen tree performance, the less tangible but rather difficult institutional restrictions that impose a somewhat unnecessary lid on tree planting, the multiplicity of players and stakeholders involved in urban-tree management that militates against coordination and cooperation, the widespread occupation of underground space by utility lines often to the exclusion of trees, and the extremely poor quality of urban soils that are often used without amelioration to support tree growth. The management recommendations furnish practical suggestions and hints to improve the short- and long-term welfare of trees in terms of quality, quantity, and spatial distribution. The conclusion enumerates some concrete measures for consideration by decision-makers to upgrade the city's greenery to close the gap between science and policy.

  6. Rural-urban Migration, Rural Household Income and Sustainable Development in Rural Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qi; Yang Chunyue; Li Juan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the rela-tionships among rural-urban migration, rural household income and sustainable development in rural areas of China. The typical case study is done and 288 questionnaires are collected from five villages in Hebei and Guangxi provinces, China. The migration and remittance status, household income and sustainable devel-opment of rural areas are analyzed on the basis of questionnaires. Rural-urban migration is becoming a part of routine life in rural areas. And remittance is an important component in rural house-hold income. Rural-urban migration increases the arable land area per labor, which releases the tight human-land relationship in villages. In total, the migration increases the rural household in-come and accelerates the sustainable development of rural areas.

  7. Balancing Local Government Capacity for a Sustainable Peri-Urban Development: The Case of Karawang Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Novianty

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Sebagai suatu wilayah yang berdekatan dengan Wilayah Metropolitan Jakarta, Kabupaten Karawang menghadapi perubahan karakteristik dari perdesaan menjadi perkotaan. Sebagai wilayah peri-urban yang baru dari Wilayah Metropolitan Jakarta, Pemerintah Kabupaten Karawang membutuhkan kemampuan yang besar untuk melindungi wilayah ini dan mendukung pengembangan ekonomi dan pertumbuhan perkotaan di Wilayah Metropolitan Jakarta. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi usaha-usaha pemerintah dalam beradaptasi dengan perubahan karakteristik tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bagaimana program-program pemerintah menggambarkan usaha pemerintah dalam mencapai keberlanjutan wilayah mereka. Sebagai mesin pertumbuhan wilayah metropolitan Jakarta, Kabupaten Karawang perlu memperkuat kapasitas lokal mereka untuk melindungi dan melestarikan wilayah mereka. Fokus pembangunan adalah peningkatan kemampuan institusional yang dibagi menjadi tiga modal yakni modal intelektual, modal sosial dan modal politik. Keseimbangan dalam pengimplementasian modal-modal tersebut akan menghasilkan suatu wilayah peri-urban yang berkelanjutan.Kata kunci. Wilayah Metropolitan Jakarta, Kabupaten Karawang, kemampuan lokal, peri-urbanisasiAbstract. As an adjacent region of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA, Karawang Regency is facing the change from rural to urban characteristics. As a new peri-urban area of the Greater JMA (GJMA, Karawang Regency needs a strong capacity to protect the area while at the same time supporting the economic development and urban growth of the GJMA. This research is an attempt to identify government efforts in adapting to the characteristics change. It shows how local government programs exemplify local government efforts in achieving sustainability in the region. Metropolitan expansion is transforming the peri-urban area of Karawang Regency. As a growth machine for the JMA, Karawang Regency needs to strengthen its local capacity in order to

  8. Examining Urban Students' Constructions of a STEM/Career Development Intervention over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Barnett, Michael; Mark, Sheron; Depot, Mark; Lovering, Meghan; Lee, Youjin; Hu, Qin; Kim, James; Backus, Faedra; Dillon-Lieberman, Kristin; DeBay, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Using consensual qualitative research, the study examines urban high school students' reactions to a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) enrichment/career development program, their resources and barriers, their perspectives on the impact of race and gender on their career development, and their overall views of work and their…

  9. Manage Data - Manage Hazards: Development of Urban Hazard Information Infrastructure for the City of Windhoek, Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merson, Maura Ewa; Montoya, Lorena; Paresi, Chris; Gomez, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work aims at developing guidelines and methods for establishing urban hazard information infrastructure (UHII) for the City of Windhoek (CoW) in Namibia, to set up an institutional and technical framework for spatial data exchange and sharing in development control and hazard management. An ana

  10. Manage data – manage hazards – development of urban hazard information infrastructure for Windhoek (Namibia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebska, Maura; Montoya, Lorena; Paresi, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This work aims at developing guidelines and methods for establishing Urban Hazard Information infrastructure (UHII) for the City of Windhoek (CoW) in Namibia, in order to set up an institutional and technical framework for spatial data exchange and sharing in development control and hazard managemen

  11. Integrated GIS-Based Site Selection of Hillside Development for Future Growth of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmed Chandio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a challenging issue for developing countries, like Malaysia. Penang Island is one of the states of Malaysia selected as a study area where limited flat land exists. As a result, this would create urban environmental problems, such as unstable slopes and landslides due to uneven topography. The purpose of this study was to develop land suitability model for hillside development. Hence, this research aims land suitability analysis modelling for hillside development by using integrated GIS (Geographic Information System based MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making approach. The hill land portion of Penang Island was selected for hillside site development using GIS and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process as a MCDM method for sustainable hillside development. This study found that 15% of land was highly suitable, 27% moderately suitable, 41% less suitable, and 17% not suitable. Therefore, this research can be consistently used by the concerned authorities for sustainable hillside urban planning and development. This approach can be used as a policy tool in decision making of urban planning and development.

  12. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  13. Method for predicting future developments of traffic noise in urban areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Hout, D. van den; Janssen, S.; Kugler, U.; MacA, V.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise in urban areas in Europe is a major environmental stressor. In this study we present a method for predicting how environmental noise can be expected to develop in the future. In the project HEIMTSA scenarios were developed for all relevant environmental stressors to health, for all sou

  14. Decision-making on olympic urban development - multi-actor decision support tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    Subject of study is the possible organisation of the Olympic Games of 2028 in the Netherlands, as seen from an urban development viewpoint. The project focuses on the decision-making process in the initiative phase. Aim of the project is the development of a decision support tool for the complex, in

  15. An Integrated Modelling Framework to Assess Flood Risk under Urban Development and Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flood risk in cities is strongly affected by the development of the city itself. Many studies focus on changes in the flood hazard as a result of, for example, changed degrees of sealing in the catchment or climatic changes. However, urban developments in flood prone areas can affect the exposure...

  16. Effects of the "Positive Action" Program on Indicators of Positive Youth Development among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Bavarian, Niloofar; Day, Joseph; Silverthorn, Naida; Flay, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of "Positive Action," a school-based social-emotional and character development intervention, on indicators of positive youth development (PYD) among a sample of low-income, ethnic minority youth attending 14 urban schools. The study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design at the school…

  17. Local Institutional Development and Organizational Change for Advancing Sustainable Urban Water Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebekah R.

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the local institutional and organizational development insights from a five-year ongoing interdisciplinary research project focused on advancing the implementation of sustainable urban water management. While it is broadly acknowledged that the inertia associated with administrative systems is possibly the most significant obstacle to advancing sustainable urban water management, contemporary research still largely prioritizes investigations at the technological level. This research is explicitly concerned with critically informing the design of methodologies for mobilizing and overcoming the administrative inertia of traditional urban water management practice. The results of fourteen in-depth case studies of local government organizations across Metropolitan Sydney primarily reveal that (i) the political institutionalization of environmental concern and (ii) the commitment to local leadership and organizational learning are key corporate attributes for enabling sustainable management. A typology of five organizational development phases has been proposed as both a heuristic and capacity benchmarking tool for urban water strategists, policy makers, and decision makers that are focused on improving the level of local implementation of sustainable urban water management activity. While this investigation has focused on local government, these findings do provide guideposts for assessing the development needs of future capacity building programs across a range of different institutional contexts.

  18. Urban Turism in the city of Växjö : Current development and future limits

    OpenAIRE

    Lösche, Max

    2010-01-01

    This essay discusses the development of urban tourism in the Swedish city of Växjö. It targets current development measures and possible future threats the tourism planners might encounter. As the concept of urban tourism is relatively new, there are plenty of opportunities, as well as obstacles to consider. The essay discusses factors that makes cities attractive to visitors and later on applies these factors to the case study of Växjö, alongside with an analysis of current measures and idea...

  19. Planning and Monitoring of Urban Development: The Role of the Housing Price Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Deutsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the real estate market in Slovenia and selected Slovenian city municipalities is analyzed with the goal of establishing whether or not it is possible to use the Housing Price Index as an indicator of urban development. The analysis shows that the real estate market in the Slovenian city municipalities has in recent decades been subject to a number of changes with a long-term effect. The analysis further proves that under certain conditions the Housing Price Index can serve as one of the indicators policy makers could use in planning and monitoring of urban development.

  20. Research on Urban Road Traffic Congestion Charging Based on Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sun

    Traffic congestion is a major problem which bothers our urban traffic sustainable development at present. Congestion charging is an effective measure to alleviate urban traffic congestion. The paper first probes into several key issues such as the goal, the pricing, the scope, the method and the redistribution of congestion charging from theoretical angle. Then it introduces congestion charging practice in Singapore and London and draws conclusion and suggestion that traffic congestion charging should take scientific plan, support of public, public transportation development as the premise.

  1. Does the Nomination Scheme of the City Manager Matter for Urban Development Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Garmann, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the causal effect of a change in the nomination scheme of the city manager from appointment by the local council to election by the citizens on urban development policies. Using the fact that the timing of the reform was as good as random in municipalities of the German state Hesse, I can utilize a difference-in-difference framework to estimate this causal effect. I find that when the city manager is elected by the voters, there is significantly less urban development than...

  2. Assessment of urban sustainable development using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gaochang

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable development index evaluation system is the foundation of the study on the realization of sustainable development, and it is also an important part to turn sustainable development into operation from philosophical idea. With the rapid economic development, problems of environmental protection appear, and the sustainable development strategy attracts more and more attention of academia and government. However, because sustainable development is a complicated and dynamic process, there is no unified index system to evaluate it at present. Based on the theories on cities and sustainable development and certain principles and guidelines, this paper filters sustainable development index, quantizes some key indexes, designs the index system made up of economy, society, environment and resources and system harmony, and comprehensively evaluates the status quo of the sustainable development of a certain area.

  3. The Urban Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Threat to Human Security and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediel Hove

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban centres have existed and have been evolving for many centuries across the world. However, the accelerated growth of urbanisation is a relatively recent phenomenon. The enormous size of urban populations and more significantly, the rapidity with which urban areas have been and are growing in many developing countries have severe social, economic and physical repercussions. This paper argues that the accelerated growth of urbanisation has amplified the demand for key services. However, the provision of shelter and basic services such as water and sanitation, education, public health, employment and transport has not kept pace with this increasing demand. Furthermore, accelerated and poorly managed urbanisation has resulted in various types of atmospheric, land and water pollution thereby jeopardising human security. This paper offers the conclusion that the increased environmental, social and economic problems associated with rapid urbanisation pose a threat to sustainable development, human security and, crucially, peace.

  4. Analysis of the Prescriptions for Energy Quality Buildings in Three Parisian Urban Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Tardieu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Paris (France, urban projects currently cover 10% of the territory. In the context of rising energy costs and the fight against climate change, reducing energy consumption in buildings and transportation is an unavoidable issue for these urban projects. While many studies analyse assessment tools and sustainability frameworks, only a few focus on developer practices. We describe how energy issues are integrated into urban development, focusing on three projects located in Paris. We compare environmental specifications made within these three projects to ensure high energy quality of the planned buildings. We observed that the way of prescribing energy performances varies from project to project. Differences in priorities from one engineering firm to another lead to a high variability of parameters identified to ensure high building energy performances.&

  5. Tows Matrix Analysis on Developing Urban Agriculture in the Pearl River Delta Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the profile of Pearl River Delta area, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of developing urban agricultural in Pearl River Delta area are analyzed by using the SWOT analysis. The strengths are analyzed from three aspects, covering natural resources, geographic advantages and technological advantages; the weaknesses are analyzed from the terms of land resources, labor cost, industrial scale and quality of personnel involved; opportunities are analyzed from the aspects of potential clients, favorable policies and markets; the threats are analyzed from two aspects, including concept factor and income gap between urban and rural areas. on the basis of the above analyses, the countermeasures and suggestions on the development of urban agriculture in the Pearl River Delta area are put forward.

  6. Research on the Balanced Development of China’s Urbanization and Industrialization in Eastern,Central,Western and Northeastern Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the relationship between urbanization development and industrialization development since the opening up and reform of China,the quantitative analysis of I/U and N/U is conducted.The results show that the overall level of China’s urbanization lags behind that of the industrialization,and this phenomenon of lag tends to dwindle.In 2003,the relationship between China’s urbanization and industrialization was most balanced,but after 2003,the phenomenon of urbanization lagging behind industrialization tends to distend gradually again;being that the development of urbanization is influenced by natural basis and policy,different regions have different cases.In the eastern and central region,the urbanization lags behind industrialization;in the northeastern region,the urbanization preponderate over industrialization;in the western region,the level of urbanization is not high,but it develops along with the industrialization in tandem.The regional difference of urbanization and industrialization requires that different should implement different policies.The eastern region still has great developmental space,and it should implement the strategy of urbanization as soon as possible;on the basis of expanding the current urban scale and improving quality,the central region should quicken the development of central cities;the western region should choose the path of concentrated-type urbanization;the three northeastern provinces should give priority to improving the quality of local industrialization vigorously and promoting the rapid upgrade of industrial structure,so as to propel the balanced development of urbanization and industrialization.

  7. Evaluation of Research Project on Integrated Management and Services of Urban Development Records, Archives, and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the project "Research in integrated management and services of urban development records, archives, and information" in progress, this paper analyzes "why", "what", and "how" issues of relevant integration research about integrated management and services of urban development records, archives, and information based on a survey of literature at home and abroad. By a comparative study of current integration research status and features, the author gives a critical analysis of the strengths and weakness of the project and provides recommendations for future research.Cross disciplinary studies indicate that ideals of integration can add values to collaboration, innovation,and optimum in managing evidence, information, memory, and knowledge of built environment cross-culture, cross-discipline, cross-domain, and cross institution for enhancing competitiveness and productivity of business. Cross cultural studies indicate that integrated records, archives, and information management as a whole into capital construction project management process, organizational information resources management systems, and the construction of digital urban development archival repository through service-control, process-control, and product-control are fundamental to guarantee the characteristics and quality of records and records system to support evidence-based e-government,e-business, and the sustainability development of digital city. Present studies on integrated management and services of urban development records, archives, and information have limitations on too much emphasis on integration for collaboration and optimum but not enough studies on integration for innovation and broader use.

  8. The population conundrums and some implications for urban development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrić Jasna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Population development may reveal either a potential or constraint on functional labour markets and spatial development of the territory in concern. The first results of the 2011 Census in Serbia depict a rather bleak demographic situation, which is only the continuation of population trends from the late 20th and beginning of the 21st century, substantially fuelled by dynamic political and socioeconomic processes featuring Serbia in the past few decades. The focus is on demographic changes in relation to three correlated aspects: 1 intensive ageing process; 2 depopulation and negative natural growth; and 3 migratory movements - population exodus. This paper addresses in particular the spatial consequences and institutional aspects of recent demographic changes and their reflection on urban areas in Serbia. In the past, population movements from rural to urban areas used to colour much of the migratory balance map of the country, however this situation changed due to exhaustion of the ‘traditional’ demographic reservoirs. Still, urban primacy of the capital city Belgrade has been even intensified with the recent demographic movements, or more precisely, a tissue of the two largest cities in relative proximity - Belgrade and Novi Sad is hypertrophied in a demographic sense. Other urban settlements in Serbia, especially the smaller towns, which are numerous but demographically shrinking, have not been empowered enough to substantiate better links with smaller and larger settlements within urban-rural interface, and their role has been challenged in that respect. Demographic changes, which affect urban growth or decline, are largely to do with border effects, economic and social gaps, educational opportunities, and search of certain ‘urban lifestyles’. The latter is particularly stressed regarding the process of ‘second demographic transition’ which encompassed Serbia and is manifested by changes in the family domain, viz. partnership

  9. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-01-01

    Beyond energy efficiency, there are now urgent challenges around the supply of resources, materials, energy, food and water. After debating energy efficiency for the last decade, the focus has shifted to include further resources and material efficiency. In this context, urban farming has emerged as a valid urban design strategy, where food is produced and consumed locally within city boundaries, turning disused sites and underutilized public space into productive urban landscapes and communi...

  10. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López; Jerónimo Puertas; Jose Anta; Alfredo Jácome; José Manuel Álvarez-Campana

    2014-01-01

    The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmenta...

  11. SimBethel: Designing a serious game on flood risk management and housing/urban development for the most urbanized islands of the California delta

    OpenAIRE

    Hasman, R.; Klerk, W.J.; Schoemaker, M.A.; Smits, E.

    2013-01-01

    Master project report. A serious game on flood risk management and housing/urban development for the most urbanised island of the California coast. In the California Delta the flood protection for most islands is not up to the required standards. This is also the case for Bethel Island, one of the most urbanized islands in this region. The Bethel Island Improvement District (BIMID), the local agency concerned with maintaining and upgrading levees is seriously hampered by money shortage and a ...

  12. Renewable energy and sustainable urban development in hot arid regions - case of Egypt : development concepts and implementation strategies for new settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Abd-Elaal; Mohammad Refaat Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to make a connection between the hot arid regions urban development and renewable energy e.g. photovoltaics (PV), to delineate urban integrated renewable energy e.g. Urban Integrated Photovoltaics (UIPV) as a new approach for building new sustainable settlements in hot arid regions. The study assumes that applying this approach can play a major role in developing communities of the hot arid regions. Furthermore, the study claimed that developing arid re...

  13. Trajnostni prostorski razvoj in novejši procesi v prostorskem razvoju Ljubljane = Sustainable spatial development and new trends in urban development of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Rebernik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to identify, analyse and evaluate the basic processes in spatialdevelopment in Ljubljana. In the first part of the paper the main theoretical and planningconcepts of sustainable urban development as well as goals and aims of Slovene spatial policyregarding urban development are presented. Characteristics and processes of recent urbandevelopment of Ljubljana are presented in five themes: inner urban development, derelicturban areas, areas of dispersed urbanisation, functional transformation and mixed urbanland use and residential areas.

  14. Acoustic Design in Urban Development : analysis of urban soundscapes and acoustic ecology research in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Pontén, Emeli

    2010-01-01

    The world is urbanizing rapidly with more than half of the global population now living in cities. Improving urban environments for the well-being of the increasing number of urban citizens is becoming one of the most important challenges of the 21st century. Even though it is common that city planners have visions of a ’good urban milieu’, those visions are concerning visual aesthetics or practical matters. The qualitative perspective of sound, such as sonic diversity and acoustic ecology ar...

  15. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.;

    2007-01-01

    This report is concerned with the relations between lifestyles of urban populations on one hand and protection of biodiversity in urban areas on the other. Urban areas are of importance for the general protection of biodiversity. In the surroundings of cities and within urban sprawls there can...... biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...... the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...

  16. Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

    2011-12-01

    open space remains to accommodate the expected population growth. Redevelopment conserved more naturally vegetated open space. The redevelopment scenario also permits the lowest increase in energy demand because buildings taken out in the process are reconfigured to higher levels of energy efficiency. However, redevelopment requires substantial increases in residential densities to confine the spatial footprint of the expected future urban growth. These three urban growth scenario footprints differ in their impact to natural vegetation and open space. To incorporate the influence of climate change on remaining natural ecosystems in this urbanizing landscape, we projected the stability of existing, mapped, vegetation types in the region under future climates by examining where projected ranges of the dominant plant species comprising each California Wildlife Habitat Relationship type will all remain together, and where they will begin to dis-associate due to biogeographic response to changing climate. This permits identification of stable and unstable zones of vegetation. The combination of climate stable, high conservation priority and likelihood of urban development provides a way to prioritize conservation land acquisitions.

  17. Status of The General Atomics Low Speed Urban Maglev Technology Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurol, S; Baldi, R; Bever, D; Post, R

    2004-06-16

    This paper presents the status of General Atomics Urban Maglev Program. The development provides an innovative approach for low speed transportation suitable for very challenging urban environments. Permanent magnets arranged in a 'Halbach' array configuration produce a relatively stiff magnetic suspension operating with an air gap of 25 mm. The project has progressed from design and prototype hardware testing, to the construction of a 120-meter full-scale test track, located in San Diego, California. Dynamic testing of the levitation, propulsion and guidance systems is being performed.

  18. Analysis on the Chinese Urban Sustainable Development Demands for the Management Plan of Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵历男

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes the demands of the sustainable development and Chinese urban environmental protection for the management plan of intelligent transportation systems. The article also comments on how to work out the management plan of intelligent transportation systems with China's own characteristics.

  19. Dogs in the Hall: A Case Study of Affective Skill Development in an Urban Veterinary Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…

  20. Who makes the (new) metropolis? Cross-border coalition and urban development in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Savini

    2012-01-01

    In fragmented agglomerations, urban development in peripheral areas tends to express the hegemony of the core city over its suburbs. However, this paper demonstrates that, despite deep-rooted political conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation can still take place in the context of cross-border developm

  1. Ex Post Evaluation of Thirty Years of Compact Urban Development in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, K.T.; Van Wee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the wide array of academic research, the impacts of compact urban development are not very well understood. What is lacking are, firstly, the insights into how a region or country would have appeared under policy regimes other than those realised and, secondly, a broad evaluation of relevant

  2. Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

  3. Chinese-Peruvian Forum on Urban Culture Development Held in Lima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Chinese-Peruvian Forum on Urban Culture Development jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Peruvian-Chinese Cultural Institute was held in Lima, capital of Peru, on May 22. A 32-member delegation led by Jing Dunquan, CPAFFC Vice Pres- ident,

  4. African American Males and Literacy Development in Contexts That Are Characteristically Urban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the literacy development of African American males in contexts that are characteristically urban has been a challenging task for educators across the P-12 spectrum. Frames that have been traditionally used to improve the reading achievement of African American males have not reversed trends in reading achievement that find many of these…

  5. Fashionably traditional : the development of Moroccan urban dress in the last five decades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Maria Angela

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the research has been to find out why Moroccan urban dress is one of the rare ‘traditional’ clothing styles that developed into a fashion industry whereas the majority of local clothing styles has either disappeared or stopped to evolve. Five phenomena in Moroccan society are believ

  6. Agricultural land for urban development : The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuc, Nguyen Quang; Westen, A. C M van; Zoomers, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam's progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted considerab

  7. Agricultural land for urban development: The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, C.P.; Westen, A.C.M. van; Zoomers, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam’s progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted considerab

  8. The political economy of urban climate adaptation and development planning in Surat, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Chu

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues for a political economic approach to understanding climate change adaptation and development planning in an urban context. Based on field research conducted in Surat, India, across a period of two years, I illustrate how climate adaptation is rooted in preexisting and contextually

  9. Urban Farming as a Civic Virtue Development in the Environmental Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetiyo, Wibowo Heru; Budimansyah, Dasim; Roslidah, Navila

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe the impact of urban farming carried out by Bandung Berkebun community as an attempt to develop the civic virtue in the environmental field. Research method used is a case study with qualitative approach. The results show that this program has educational, economic, social, and ecological impact to the society. This…

  10. The relevancy of Masdar City for low carbon urban development in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Moxnes, Irmelin Aamodt

    2015-01-01

    Masdar City has gained much attention for its carbon neutral and zero waste image. The thesis suggests that the carbon neutrality concept should be reconsidered as a worldwide development goal. Other more realistic and direct concepts, as low carbon development, should be used instead. The thesis studies the relevancy of Masdar City for low carbon urban development in Norway. This is conducted by studying the city planning and metabolism measures. Original goals are compared with current...

  11. Close-to-nature Design and Management:Developing Effective and Harmonious Urban Forest in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGCheng

    2004-01-01

    The plantation occupies great proportion in urban forest in many cities in China. The design and management for urban forest supplements each other. The design decides the orientation of management, while the management also affects the landscape effects and ecological benefits of the design in reverse. There are many issues on design and management of urban forest. For example, some designs only emphasize the visual impression while ignoring the ecological benefits, the problems of simplifying the forest layer structure and purifying its species composition are ubiquitous, It is short of comprehensive analysis of local environment conditions, the phenomena are very outstanding in learning foreign or other city's model by copying mechanically. The management model is not only monotonous, but also behind the step of urban development and the human demand for returning to nature. These unreasonable designs and managements are one of the main reasons for lower ecological benefits, and also caused some other bad aftereffects, such as lower biodiversity and high cost of management, etc. So the thought of close-to-nature design and management in urban forest is proposed and its feasibility and methods are discussed in the paper.

  12. An analysis of urban development and its environmental impact on the Tampa Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Su, J.

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization has transformed natural landscapes into anthropogenic impervious surfaces. Urban land use has become a major driving force for land cover and land use change in the Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida. This study investigates urban land use change and its impact on the watershed. The spatial and temporal changes, as well as the development density of urban land use are determined by analyzing the impervious surface distribution using Landsat satellite imagery. Population distribution and density are extracted from the 2000 census data. Non-point source pollution parameters used for measuring water quality are analyzed for the sub-drainage basins of Hillsborough County. The relationships between 2002 urban land use, population distribution and their environmental influences are explored using regression analysis against various non-point source pollutant loadings in these sub-drainage basins. The results suggest that strong associations existed between most pollutant loadings and the extent of impervious surface within each sub-drainage basin in 2002. Population density also exhibits apparent correlations with loading rates of several pollutants. Spatial variations of selected non-point source pollutant loadings are also assessed. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sustainable urban transport development : a dynamic optimisation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidgeest, Marcus Henricus Petrus

    2005-01-01

    Current transport systems and transport planning methods and models are not necessarily compatible with the requirements of sustainable transport development. Adequate transport systems can only be obtained by use of a sustainable transport paradigm and accompanying analytical framework. Therefore,

  14. Assesment of urban sustainable development: example of Rezekne city

    OpenAIRE

    Litavniece, Lienīte

    2015-01-01

    Since 90s of the 20th century sustainable development has become a global issue which is receiving increasing attention. Successful sustainable development is only possible from the bottom to the top, which means that the human and environmental mutual relations must be taken into account not only on a global scale as a whole, but also focus on the much smaller territorial units.The role of the city as the administrative territorial unit has significantly increased in recent years, the acknow...

  15. Real Estate Industry and Finance for (towards) Urban Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tamburini Gualtiero

    2007-01-01

    In 1997/98, real estate prices in Italy began to rise rapidly. However, far from being just an Italian phenomenon, similar rises in price concerned almost all developed countries. The drastic decrease in real interest rates and the considerable liquidity available have been identified as the main causes behind this trend. Despite this increment in prices, other concomitant developments have drastically changed the real estate markets in general, and the real estate services industry in partic...

  16. Building Sustainable Regions of Urban Innovation and Industry Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-ling Li

    2013-01-01

    Cities are the center of population aggregation and human economic activities. They are important drivers of economic and social development, and are also a basic element in creating a country’s competitiveness. Building sustainable cities and promoting the region’s economic prosperity is a fundamental goal of local governments. As economic development gradually becomes driven by knowledge and innovation, the economic functions of key cities also transform to become a gathering place for reso...

  17. Development of a Participatory Method for Capturing Preferences of Andean Smallholders Regarding Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Haller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the tropical Andes, uncontrolled urban growth and the loss of agricultural land severely affect periurban smallholders who depend on the lease of farmland. In this context, the hinterland of Huancayo, Peru, represents a case in point, given that the urbanization of irrigated land resources on the valley floor endangers agricultural production during the dry season and thus forces agriculturalists to adapt their land use—a problem largely attributed to policy failures. If smallholder farmers had been policy-makers in the past, what type of urban growth would have taken place? Which future settlement structure would they prefer? To answer these questions, an easy-to-use and practice-oriented method for visualizing smallholder views on urbanization and landscape change was developed and tested. A combination of photomontage-based visualization exercises and interviews revealed that the interviewees mostly agreed that agricultural areas should remain between a mix of low and high buildings along the existing road. Hence, to a certain degree, their perception toward dispersed urban development seems not to be as negative as one could suppose. Additionally, some peasants argue that urban expansion should be on the steep and nonirrigated slopes adjacent to the city in order to conserve the fertile and irrigated land on the valley floor. Finally, the results of this study point to the potential of landscape visualizations for enabling mountain smallholders to participate in periurban land use planning and lead to the conclusion that photomontages, visualization exercises, and interviews should increasingly be used to improve understanding of smallholders' views, for this method includes an important emotional component that is rarely considered by planners and policy-makers.

  18. Building knowledge city in transformation era : Knowledge-based urban development in Beijing in the context of globalisation and decentralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Lu, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This study examines knowledge-based urban development in Beijing with the objective of revealing the impact of the 'synergetic' forces of globalisation and local government intervention on knowledge-based urban development in the context of the coexisting processes of globalisation and decentralisat

  19. Developing a strategic human resources plan for the Urban Angel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare a significant portion of the budget is related to human resources. However, many healthcare organizations have yet to develop and implement a focused organizational strategy that ensures all human resources are managed in a way that best supports the successful achievement of corporate strategies. St. Michael's Hospital, in Toronto, Ontario, recognized the benefits of a strategic human resources management plan. During an eight-month planning process, St. Michael's Hospital undertook the planning for and development of a strategic human resources management plan. Key learnings are outlined in this paper.

  20. Sustainable urban development of metropolitan Johannesburg: The lessons learned from international practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosha A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of an overview of programmes supporting sustainable planning and management in the City of Johannesburg one of the most important social and economic hubs of the transitional Republic of South Africa. Following from this is an analysis of the experience identified as most appropriate for Johannesburg City and its metropolitan region (Gauteng. This case study is used to highlight efforts and lessons learned from the international project "Designing, Implementing and Measuring Sustainable Urban Development" (DIMSUD which have intended to contribute to new solutions for sustainable urban development through a collaborative multi-disciplinary, and participatory approach combining research, urban design, and capacity building. DIMSUD (http://sustainability.ethz.ch is carried out jointly by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden, University of Botswana, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa and the Catholic University of Santiago de Chile. Another partner was the United Nations University (UNU at Tokyo. The project has enabled a global overview of core problems, providing a synthesis of realizable strategies and offering both a scientific forum and an "urban field laboratory" for joint learning. The strategies developed will not only help improve the conditions in the case study cities (Gaborone Johannesburg, Santiago de Chile, but will also provide working examples so that other cities can learn from and adapt and adopt appropriate "best practices".

  1. Development of integrated catchment and water quality model for urban rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛重华; 尹海龙; 解铭

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an urban river water quality model which considers the physical-biochemical processes within rivers and the incorporated urban catchment rainfall-runoff process developed with the time–area method. Unlike other models that simulate the hydrological and receiving water quality processes in the rural areas of the watershed scale, the model developed here is typically efficient for simulating the water quality response to nonpoint loadings from urban drainage systems, where the hydrological process is disturbed by artificially pumped discharge in wet-weather periods. This model is employed to assess the river water quality restoration in Nanfei River in Hefei City, China, where the model is calibrated against the measured data (i.e., the COD, the BOD5, the NH3-N, and the DO) in 2010, and the model parameters are suggested. It is shown that the nonpoint pollutants from the urban catchments contribute 34%-47% of the total pollutant inputs (i.e., the COD, the BOD5, and the NH3-N), despite their low flow component of 13.4%. Apart from the improvement of the wastewater treatment plant effluent (i.e., Grade IV of the Surface Water Quality Standard), a nonpoint loading reduction of 27.2%, 25.1%, and 35.3% of the COD, the BOD5, and the NH3-N are anticipated to meet the designated surface water quality standards of Grade V.

  2. URBAN POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTEMPORARY URBANISATION PROCESSES AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUES OF POLISH CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy J. PARYSEK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The great dynamics and wide range of contemporary Polish processes of urbanisation as well as problems of city development and operation require setting objectives, formulating rules and implementing urban policy. Its aim should be to support municipalities in their attempt to solve primary problems. What makes such a policy necessary is the fact that, while cities play a crucial role in global socio-economic development, they also experience financial, demographic, social, environmental, housing and other problems most severely. Therefore in many cases cities cannot be generators of development and cannot be responsible for the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy, as stipulated by the European Union. The aim of this paper is to present the principles of urban policy which could be implemented in Poland taking into account both, the existing situation and the position of the European Union on this matter. It is assumed that urban policy will be implemented at two levels: supra-local (the European Union, state and regional and local. The first of these levels will apply to all European cities, Polish cities and those of a particular region, while the other, to a particular city and its spatial components. The policy principles will result from EU documents for which urban policy is a component of regional policy. Primarily, it is the Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities and the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion: Turning territorial diversity into strength.

  3. Connecting cities and their environments: Harnessing the water-energy-food nexus for sustainable urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of years of development have made the production and consumption of water, energy, and food for urban environments more complex. While the rise of cities has fostered social and economic progress, the accompanying environmental pressures threaten to undermine these benefits. The compounding effects of climate change, habitat loss, pollution, overexploitation (in addition to financial constraints make the individual management of these three vital resources incompatible with rapidly growing populations and resource-intensive lifestyles. Nexus thinking is a critical tool to capture opportunities for urban sustainability in both industrialised and developing cities. A nexus approach to water, energy, and food security recognises that conventional decisionmaking, strictly confined within distinct sectors, limits the sustainability of urban development. Important nexus considerations include the need to collaborate with a wide spectrum of stakeholders, and to “re-integrate” urban systems. This means recognising the opportunities coming from the interconnected nature of cities and metropolitan regions, including links with rural environments and wider biophysical dynamics.

  4. Development of a VESL Curriculum for Urban Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derge, William; Kudirka, Joi

    The curriculum developed by the Fairfax County (Virginia) Department of Manpower Services in Vocational English as a Second Language (VESL) program is a response to the needs of Southeast Asian refugees for language and cross-cultural skills and to employers' needs for support services. The core curriculum, emphasizing fluency and listening…

  5. Beyond fragmentation : new concepts for urban-rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, M.C.; Teunissen, A.T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Dutch spatial policy has typically been characterised by striving for developing town and country as separate spatial entities. Spatial fragmentation has always been an anathema for planners. Leading plan concepts like the compact city and the Green Heart reflect the idea of separate cities surround

  6. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  7. Assessing the role of urban developments on storm runoff response through multi-scale catchment experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Owen, Gareth; Geris, Josie; Soulsby, Chris; Quinn, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality issues with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). In particular for mixed rural and urban catchments where the spatio-temporal variability of hydrological responses is high, there remains a key research challenge in evaluating the timing and magnitude of storage and flow pathways at multiple scales. This is of crucial importance for appropriate catchment management, for example to aid the design of Green Infrastructure (GI) to mitigate the risk of flooding, among other multiple benefits. The aim of this work was to (i) explore spatio-temporal storm runoff generation characteristics in multi-scale catchment experiments that contain rural and urban land use zones, and (ii) assess the (preliminary) impact of Sustainable Drainage (SuDs) as GI on high flow and flood characteristics. Our key research catchment, the Ouseburn in Northern England (55km2), has rural headwaters (15%) and an urban zone (45%) concentrated in the lower catchment area. There is an intermediate and increasingly expanding peri-urban zone (currently 40%), which is defined here as areas where rural and urban features coexist, alongside GIs. Such a structure is typical for most catchments with urban developments. We monitored spatial precipitation and multiscale nested (five gauges) runoff response, in addition to the storage dynamics in GIs for a period of 6 years (2007-2013). For a range of events, we examined the multiscale nested runoff characteristics (lag time and magnitude) of the rural and urban flow components, assessed how these integrated with changing land use and increasing scale, and discussed the implications for flood management in the catchment. The analyses indicated three distinctly different

  8. Data and Information Management: Essential Basis for Sustainable Urban Management and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerders, P.; Kokke, E.

    2011-08-01

    Management of the urban environment and urban development require well organized data and information as a basis for decision making, planning and policy development. Such data and information needs to be up-to-date, reliable and complete, and moreover be available at the time of need. The latter is especially relevant in the case of disasters such as fires, flooding, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Current and future impacts of the on-going climate changes increase the need for geo-referenced data and information on environment, biodiversity and public health, in support of preparation, protection, mitigation and reconstruction. It is important that urban authorities devote more attention and resources to data and information management in order to be able to cope with the present and future challenges of ever growing cities with increasing impacts on their surroundings, and moreover to deal with the impacts of environment and biodiversity on the cities, their population and economies. SOD, Woerden has a long and successful track record of certified training and education in the field of data and information management for authorities, including urban government. The courses provided by SOD cover a wide range of subjects from metadata and digitizing, to enterprise content management and geo-information management. While focused on the Netherlands, SOD also has initiated similar training opportunities in Belgium and Surinam, and efforts are under way in other countries. P. Geerders Consultancy has considerable experience as a consultant and trainer in the field of methods and technologies for the provision of information in support of decision-making, planning and policy development related to integrated management and sustainable development of natural resources. Besides in various countries of Europe, he has worked in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Since several years, P. Geerders works as a freelance teacher with SOD. The paper presents a vision on

  9. A novel method for feasibility testing urban sustainable development policies

    OpenAIRE

    O’Doherty Travis; Fitzgerald Brian G.; Moles Richard; O’Regan Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Policy making to promote more sustainable development is a complex task due in part to the large number of both stakeholders and potential policies. Policy feasibility testing provides a guide to the viability and practicality of policy implementation and forms an important part of an evidence based policy making process. An extensive literature review has identified no standardized approach to feasibility testing. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by...

  10. Developing URBAN RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    ZAMFIR Andreea

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the public authorities support for the development of renewable energy projects, with an eye to reveal a change of paradigm, in the sense that their role is currently reconsidered and intensified. Therefore, this study reveals firstly the responsibility of the public authorities in the field of renewable energy, and secondly, the main aspects of the public policy in the field of renewable energy, together with its opportunities, challenges and possible solutions. Third...

  11. Urban Tourism Development Mechanisms Based on Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bagherinia; Nader Zali

    2013-01-01

    Information for tourism and transportation industries is as vital as blood for the human life. According to tourism experts, Iran ranks among ten top countries with the most touristy attractions. Iran’s share from the income of international tourism markets was about 1 unit from a total of 700 units in the year 2000. A major problem on the way of tourism development is the weakness of information systems and their supporters. This has led to providing insufficient information on t...

  12. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBANIZATION PROCESS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Xiu-zhen; SHANG Jin-cheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in China, expounded its functions and regional characteristics, and discussed the targets of SEA in the process of urbanization,and the main assessment indicators, procedures, techniques and methodologies of SEA. It concluded that SEA could be improved by the following recommendations: incorporating SEA in decision-making process, selecting experimental units for SEA trial run, and developing strategic evaluation tools and techniques. SEA can provide appropriate and up-to-date information on the impact of human activity on environment in the process of urbanization, and develop a plan of action targeting implementation of intervention for the rehabilitation and preservation of the ecological stability of a city. Therefore, SEA can be a supporting tool for decision-making toward achieving sustainable development.

  13. Development of urban solar infrastructure to support low-carbon mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provision of an adequate network of urban infrastructures is essential to create clean and energy-efficient urban mobility systems. However, the urban infrastructure to support sustainable mobility can produce a substantial environmental burden if no life cycle environmental criteria are applied in its design and management. This paper demonstrates the potential to support energy-efficient and CO2-free pedestrian and electric bike (e-bike) mobility through the ecological design (eco-design) of urban elements. An eco-design approach is applied to reconceptualize a conventional pergola toward an eco-product (solar pergola). The solar pergola generates surplus photovoltaic electricity that provides a multifunctional character. According to the end-use of this energy, different scenarios are analyzed for robust decision-making. The deployment of solar pergolas can contribute to save from 2,080 kg to over 47,185 kg of CO2 eq. and from 350,390 MJ to over 692,760 MJ eq. in 10 years, depending on the geographic emplacement (solar radiation and electricity grid system). These savings are equivalent to charging 2–9 e-bikes per day using clean energy. Instead of maximizing infrastructure deployment to shift to environmentally friendly modes of mobility, the implementation of multifunctional urban elements represents a key area of action in the context of smart city development. -- Highlights: •Infrastructure eco-design is key to mitigate environmental impacts of urban mobility. •Solar pergolas can support pedestrian and e-bike mobility with no environmental cost. •Over 47 tons of CO2 and 692 GJ can be avoided in 10 years per implemented pergola. •Each pergola can support daily charging of 2–9 e-bikes by supplying clean energy. •Multifunctional infrastructure is key to support sustainable multimodal mobility

  14. The response of runoff generation to urban development: modelling and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mingfu; Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2014-05-01

    The urbanisation process strongly changes natural catchment by increasing the impervious coverage and by creating a need for efficient drainage systems, resulting in a significant change of catchment hydrology from extreme floods to low flows. Thus, it is becoming important to quantify the impacts of urbanisation on runoff generation and to investigate the possibility of restoring pre-development flows in urban catchments for integrated urban stormwater management. Urban hydrological modelling emphasising on urbanisation effects has received substantial attention. However, the lack of good quality monitoring data in a same developing catchment limits model calibration for many of previous studies. In this concern, this study aims to describe and better understand the effects of urbanisation on catchment hydrology through modelling of a series of scenarios in a developing urban catchment of Saunalahdenranta (SR). The catchment is located at Espoo, southern Finland and has an area of about 13.2 ha. The catchment was developed rapidly from a rural area to a residential area during 2001-2006. Hydrological data were measured in two minutes intervals during the development period, when the imperviousness of the catchment changed from 1.5% to 37%. Precipitation-runoff relationship is simulated using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) that is firstly parameterised, calibrated, and validated for the scenario of highly developed residential catchment in 2006. The hydrological impacts of spatial resolution and model parameters, such as the delineation of subcatchment, flow width as well as Manning's roughness are evaluated and discussed. The calibrated model is then used to investigate, how the hydrological response to urbanisation was changing in the scenarios for the previous years (2001-2005) with different levels of urban development (represented by impervious surfaces). The predictions for the several scenarios provide a quantification of the hydrological impacts of

  15. Development and evaluation of instructivist and constructivist approaches to early science teaching in Chinese urban kindergartens

    OpenAIRE

    Jun ZHANG; 張俊

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood has been proven critical for science learning and development, but there is a dearth of empirical research comparing the effects of different teaching approaches in the Chinese context. This study had three main objectives: (1) to observe early science teaching systematically in urban kindergartens in Mainland China; (2) to develop three different teaching approaches (constructivist, instructivist and combined) for a science curriculum for 5-year-olds based on these observatio...

  16. Development of an Obstacle Detection System for Human Supervisory Control of a UAV in Urban Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Culhane, Andrew Alan

    2007-01-01

    In order to operate UAVs under human supervisory control in more complex arenas such as urban environments, an obstacle detection system is a requirement to achieve safe navigation. The development of a system capable of meeting these requirements is presented. The first stage of development was sensor selection and initial testing. After this, the sensor was combined with a servomotor to allow it to rotate and provide obstacle detection coverage in front, below, and to both sides of the U...

  17. A Study of Urban Quality of Life in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Lotfi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The rapid growth of urbanization has led to degradation of quality of life in many developing countries. The qualitative approach towards development concepts provided background for studying the object of quality of life. This concept was declared by Raymond Bauer in 1966 in response to the increase of urban crisis. Today, quality of life refers to the capacity of a place for living life. Approach: The present study aims to analyze quality of life by concentrating on the socio-economic, physical-environmental and mental indexes. The indexes were selected with respect to their importance by conducting a careful examination. The comparative analysis was applied based on hierarchical weighting. Observation and completing questionnaire have been two important tools in this research. Results: The results revealed that there are significant socio-economic gap among the different neighborhoods of the town. The mean of urban quality of life is 8.517 which show a moderate level of quality of life according to the research classification. Conclusion: The research came to conclusion that the different neighborhoods of the town showed different level of quality of life which it leads to socio-economic disparities among the urban zones. So the priority of planning should concentrate on the areas where deprivation decreased the level of quality of life.

  18. Effects of Compact Urban Development on Air Pollution: Empirical Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Cho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of compact urban development on air pollution, taking into account both the spatial distribution of pollutants resulting from an increase in inner urban densities and the dispersion of pollutants associated with an increase in outer green open spaces. The empirical analysis is based upon a panel data model covering 17 cities in Korea from 1996–2009; this approach is used because urban air pollution is influenced by spatial and temporal changes. Measuring the air pollution level by distance from city centers demonstrates that the spatial concentration of emission sources does not necessarily increase air pollution levels. The two-way fixed effects model, which is employed to control both individual (regional and time effects, shows that SO2 decreases as the proportion of green area increases, while a rise in net density leads to an increase of NO2. Both effects are observed in the case of CO dispersion by green area as well as emission source concentration by high densities. Therefore, there is no clear impact of compact urban development on air quality, which is instead related to pollutant-specific characteristics and the emission source.

  19. Surface Heat Island in Shanghai and Its Relationship with Urban Development from 1989 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous expansion of impervious artificial surfaces in cities has significantly influenced the urban thermal environment. This paper examines the spatiotemporal variation of the diurnal surface urban heat island (SUHI in Shanghai from 1989 to 2013, a period during which the city has experienced drastic development changes. A remote sensing approach was taken to derive the spatial patterns of Shanghai’s land surface temperature (LST from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM images and Operational Land Imager (OLI data. The LST pattern was further classified into five LST classes to look at the relative SUHI intensity level across the whole city. Spatial analyses, namely, spatial association and centroid movement analysis, were conducted to reveal the trends of LST changes at both local and holistic scales. To understand the potential drivers for the present spatiotemporal variation of SUHI, different indicators including land use change, population density, night light data, and vegetation were analyzed and compared with LST changes. Based on the quantitative analysis and the socioeconomic context of Shanghai, “heating up” regions were identified, possible reasons for such SUHI variation were summarized, and districts that are most vulnerable to extreme heat conditions were projected. In terms of implication for urban development, planning and design recommendations were suggested to improve the urban thermal environment in Shanghai.

  20. Development and Application of Urban Landslide Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Reflecting Social and Economic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  1. Monitoring the Impact of Urban Physical Development Plans On Old Sites of Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Meshkini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The interventional plans are one of the most influential policies which affected the socio-economic and physical fabric of the old parts of the Iranian cities. While the foundation of old areas of many cities are based on the socio-historical values which has unique compatibility with the cultural background, the new urban development plans notably comprehensive and detailed, have not been integrated to such values. Approach: This study investigated the impact of urban development plans on the historic structure of Sanandaj city in Kurdistan province by using a descriptive-analytical method. Results: The results revealed several different and negative consequences, which included disintegration of the neighborhood organization, erosion of old urban fabric and the decline of identity and attachment to the traditional environment. Conclusion: The prevailed interventional policy imposed a modern circulation network into the old sites which now is criticized as copy of Hussmannian style. The internal parts of the city have experienced physical transition along with urban sprawl during the last 40 years which led to disintegration of social and spatial fabric of the city.

  2. Urban Tourism Development Mechanisms Based on Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherinia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information for tourism and transportation industries is as vital as blood for the human life. According to tourism experts, Iran ranks among ten top countries with the most touristy attractions. Iran’s share from the income of international tourism markets was about 1 unit from a total of 700 units in the year 2000. A major problem on the way of tourism development is the weakness of information systems and their supporters. This has led to providing insufficient information on the attractions and capabilities and service preparation, much lower than expected level. This is while for tourism planning and dynamism exact and updated information system is needed; IT is very effective in this respect. IT can play a great role in managing, planning, and marketing for tourism development. Emphasizing IT usage in tourism, some main applications of this technology like fast, cheap, and on time informing of electronic systems for service provision such as computer reservation systems (CRSs, global distribution systems (GDSs and Internet have been regarded in this paper.

  3. Investment Constraints in Urban Regeneration: Property Developers and Local Authorities Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Nurulanis Ahmad; Baharum Zarita Ahmad; Senawi Asma; Salleh Nor Aini

    2016-01-01

    Urban decay is a phenomenon created due to the expansion of urban population, the restructuring of industrial, social composition as well as the deterioration of urban areas. Consequently this will increase issues of crime, mass unemployment, low quality in urban services, social problems etc. Thus urban regeneration is a tool used to overcome all these issues in order to create quality of urban living, diversify and vibrant cities. However, the involvement of investment in urban regeneration...

  4. Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    Full Text Available Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n = 1912 from 1280 rural households. Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities, are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and

  5. A Short Term Seismic Hazard Assessment in Christchurch, New Zealand, After the M 7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield Earthquake: An Application of a Smoothing Kernel and Rate-and-State Friction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Han Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mw 6.3, 21 February 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand, earthquake is regarded as an aftershock of the M 7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield earthquake. However, it caused severe damage in the downtown Christchurch. Such a circumstance points out the importance of an aftershock sequence in seismic hazard evaluation and suggests the re-evaluation of a seismic hazard immediately after a large earthquake occurrence. For this purpose, we propose a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA, which takes the disturbance of a short-term seismicity rate into account and can be easily applied in comparison with the classical PSHA. In our approach, the treatment of the background seismicity rate is the same as in the zoneless approach, which considers a bandwidth function as a smoothing Kernel in neighboring region of earthquakes. The rate-and-state friction model imparted by the Coulomb stress change of large earthquakes is used to calculate the fault-interaction-based disturbance in seismicity rate for PSHA. We apply this approach to evaluate the seismic hazard in Christchurch after the occurrence of the M 7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield earthquake. Results show an increase of seismic hazards due to the stress increase in the region around the rupture plane, which extended to Christchurch. This provides a suitable basis for the application of a time-dependent PSHA using updating earthquake information.

  6. Advanced seasonal reproductive development in a male urban bird is reflected in earlier plasma luteinizing hormone rise but not energetic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Behbahaninia, Hirbod; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Meddle, Simone L; Waites, Kyle; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Urban animals inhabit an environment considerably different than do their non-urban conspecifics, and to persist urban animals must adjust to these novel environments. The timing of seasonal reproductive development (i.e., growth of gonads and secondary sex organs) is a fundamental determinant of the breeding period and is frequently advanced in urban bird populations. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which birds adjust the timing of reproductive development to urban areas remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we compared the timing of vernal reproductive development in free-ranging urban and non-urban male Abert's Towhees, Melozone aberti, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, and tested the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that earlier reproductive development is due to improved energetic status and/or earlier increase in endocrine activity of the reproductive system. We found that urban birds initiated testicular development earlier than non-urban birds, but this disparity was not associated with differences in body condition, fat stores, or innate immune performance. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that energetic constraints are responsible for delayed reproductive development of non-urban relative to urban male Abert's Towhees. Urban birds did, however, increase their plasma luteinizing hormone, but not plasma testosterone, earlier than non-urban birds. These findings suggest that adjustment to urban areas by Abert's Towhees involves increases in the endocrine activity of the anterior pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus earlier than non-urban towhees.

  7. Approaching Integrated Urban-Rural Development in China: The Changing Institutional Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of institutional change on the implementation of China’s integrated urban-rural development strategy in the period 1981–2010. The findings indicate that governmental investment in rural areas and the development of non-agricultural industries in the countryside in fact contributed positively to the integration of urban-rural development in the period studied. The household registration system, however, was found to have acted as an obstacle to integration due to its exclusion of rural immigrants from welfare benefits. The reform of the agricultural production price system was not found to have exerted an impact, since low agricultural incomes compelled peasants to undertake non-agricultural work in towns and cities. A robustness check performed as part of the study proved the reliability of these findings.

  8. A relationship between red tide outbreaks and urban development along the coasts of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXiaonan; WANGWei

    2004-01-01

    Red tides are one of the main coastal catastrophic events in Guangdong Province of southern China. The comparison between the number of red tide events and the development indexes of cities along the coasts of the province shows that the regional differences in red tide outbreaks has close relations with the coastal urban developments. The cause for an initiation of red tide blooms may be natural factors, while wastewater caused by the fast development of population, industry and aquiculture of the coastal cities enhanced the blooms. It may explain why the two periods of frequent outbreaks of the red tides over the last two decades matched the urban developments in the coastal areas of Guangdong not only spatially but also temporally. The red tides in the first period were restricted only to the coasts of middle Guangdong, where urbanization process was at a higher speed than the other coastal areas of the province. In the second period, fast development of the coastal cities in eastern Guangdong led to an increase in the occurrence of red tides in local sea areas of the same coasts.

  9. Spatial Expansion of Development Zones and Urban Spatial Restructuring: A Case Study on Suzhou, Wuxi, and Changzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>As we know, the rapid development of the development zones has changed both the structure of the urban economy and the spatial form of the city. The regional expansion and restructuring caused by

  10. Airborne volatile organic compounds in urban and industrial locations in four developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duc Hoai; Walgraeve, Christophe; Amare, Abebech Nuguse; Barai, Krishna Rani; Parao, Amelia Estigoy; Demeestere, Kristof; van Langenhove, Herman

    2015-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent an important class of air pollutants, however their concentration levels in developing countries have scarcely been reported in literature. Therefore, concentration levels of 60 VOCs were determined at 27 urban and industrial locations in seven different cities in Ethiopia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Bangladesh between 2011 and 2014. Active sampling using Tenax TA as a sorbent was employed followed by TD-GC-MS analysis using internal standard calibration. It was found that TVOCs concentration levels in Dhaka, Bangladesh (arithmetic mean: 343 and 399 μg/m3 for urban and industrial campaign, respectively) were more than 10 times higher when compared to TVOCs levels observed in Mekelle, Ethiopia. ∑BTEX concentration at street sites ranges from 36 μg/m3 in Mekelle, to 100 and 250 μg/m3 in Hanoi, Vietnam and Dhaka, Bangladesh, respectively. The indoor to outdoor concentration ratios were found to be dependent on the country, type of environment, VOC compound and outdoor reference location. The highest Ozone Formation Potential (OFP, 2150 μg/m3), calculated from the same set of seven aromatic VOCs, was obtained at the street site in Dhaka. This OFP value is a factor three and four times higher than the OFP value observed at the street sites in Hanoi, and Manila, respectively. Finally, the Cumulative Cancer Risk (CCR) calculated for four carcinogenic VOCs ranged from 97 × 10-6 in urban Mekelle to 299 × 10-6 in urban Dhaka. This work provides for the first time comparisons of CCR in urban and industrial environments in the selected developing countries.

  11. Changing tune in Woodstock: Creative industries and local urban development in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Wenz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the new millennium, a plethora of works has been published on the making of the ‘creative city’ and the urban impact of the creative economy. So far, however, limited recognition has been given to how the development of cultural industries and the creative economy as a whole influences urban transformation in the rapidly urbanising Global South, especially in Africa. In Cape Town, a steadily growing number of creative industries and ‘culturepreneurs’ (Lange 2005 are carving out new spaces from the city’s highly contested urban setting. Over the past five years, the mixed-use, inner-city fringe area of Woodstock has seen the incessant arrival of creatives from various sectors. Travelling alongside is a property sector geared towards catering specifically for the creative industries’ spatial demands by turning old industrial structures – the remains of Woodstock’s former capacity as national hub for clothing, food processing and other light manufacturing – into creative centres hosting international film studios, leading galleries and designer ‘theatre retail spaces’. After setting the stage through a comprehensive introduction to the rise of the creative economy in South Africa and Cape Town, this article tunes into the current local development of Woodstock, based on extensive field research in the area. It traces ways and forms of conflict but also new social interfaces between the new creative tenants and the old established community, on the one hand pointing to problematic issues like lingering gentrification, sociospatial polarisation and lopsided cultural representation while also trying to flesh out some of the opportunities for finding the right frequency of engagement between creative industries and spaces of vernacular creativity within Cape Town’s post-apartheid urban realm. Keywords: Creative economy, creative city, Global South, urban regeneration, gentrification, vernacular

  12. A Study on Correlation Between Car Use Tax and Urban Space Development:Based on Bid Rent Function of Urban Land-use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the model of the bid rent function in a mono-centric city,this paper,by introducing the concept of opportunity cost and extending partial equilibrium analysis to general equilibrium analysis,conducts a theoretical analysis on the possibility that the typical car use taxes including fuel consumption tax,traffic congestion tax,and parking tax can affect the urban space development through their impact on transport cost and the rent bid under certain conditions.Some conclusions drawn from the comparison might be useful when it comes to the practical problems of urban space development.

  13. Effects of land policy on hybrid rural-urban development patterns and resilience: A case study of the territorial development in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongwinriyaphanich, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to provide planners and policy makers with a better understanding about potential impacts of land policy on the shaping of hybrid rural-urban development patterns and their effects on resilience enhancement of urban systems. It examines the impacts of diverse development policies a

  14. Factors affecting the initial literacy development of urban and rural learners in the Iganga district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kirunda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The initial motivation for the study was data from the Ministry of Education in Uganda that suggests that in terms of academic performance, urban learners continually outperform rural schools at primary and secondary school levels (Ministry of Education 2002. At present all government examinations are written in English. However, the language in education policy in Uganda differentially stipulates the use English as medium of instruction in urban schools and the use of the mother tongue in rural schools (cf. Kyeyune 2004. Other factors which mitigate against rural learners’ successful academic performance are untrained educators, poor infrastructure and school management practices in rural schools, poverty, lack of supportive academic discourse practices, and a general lack of enthusiasm among rural parents (most of whom have very little formal education  for their children’s education. Using data from observations of selected urban and rural homes and schools in The Iganga district and field notes in the form of diary entries, the study draws on New Literacy Studies (NLS particularly the notion of literacy as social practice (Street 2001; Gee 2000; Baynham 2000, 2001, to explore the differential effect of urban and rural-based acculturation processes on the initial literacy development of learners. Finally, since 88% of Ugandans live in rural areas (Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2002, the pedagogical implications for primary schools are discussed and suggestions are made on how to establish an inclusive education system.

  15. Development of urban bird indicators using data from monitoring schemes in two large European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrando, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird monitoring projects have provided valuable data for developing biological indicators to evaluate the state of natural and agricultural habitats. However, fewer advances have been made in urban environments. In this study we used bird monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 in two cities with different climates (Brussels and Barcelona, to generate two multi–species urban indicators to evaluate temporal trends on abundance of urban avifauna. To do this we used two different conceptual approaches, one based on a list of widespread species in European cities (WSEC and another based exclusively on species widespread at city level (WCS regardless of the birds occurring in other cities. The two indicators gave a similar general pattern, although we found a 3% difference in the mean annual change in both cities, thus suggesting that the values provided by urban indicators may differ depending on the conceptual approach and, hence, by the species list used to generate them. However, both indicators may have their own value and could be treated as complementary indices.

  16. L.A.U.D.E: Learning Automata for Urban Development Exploration. The Case Study of Rome Urban System

    OpenAIRE

    Rabino, Giovanni A.; Papini, Lorenzo; Silvana T. Lombardo; Colonna, Antonio; Stefano, Vittorio Di

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with urban cellular automata. It is organized in two parts. The first one is concerning theory, methodology and operational aspects of the application of cellular automata to the simulation of dynamics of urban systems. Starting with a review of the literature on this research field (Batty, Cecchini, Couclelis, White et al.) we present: ? as to theoretical foundation of the approach, a clarification on the distinction between global and local description (the traditional mode...

  17. Using Repeated LIDAR to Characterize Topographic Changes in Riparian Areas and Stream Channel Morphology in Areas Undergoing Urban Development: An Accuracy Assessment Guide for Local Watershed Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban development and the corresponding increases in impervious surfaces associated with that development have long been known to have adverse impacts upon urban riparian systems, water quality and quantity, groundwater recharge, streamflow, and aquatic ecosystem integrity. The ...

  18. Accounting for uncertainty in evaluating water quality impacts of urban development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of urban development plans causes land use change, which can have significant environmental impacts. In light of this, environmental concerns should be considered sufficiently at an early stage of the planning process. However, uncertainties existing in urban development plans hamper the application of strategic environmental assessment, which is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of policies, plans and programs. This study develops an integrated assessment method based on accounting uncertainty of environmental impacts. And the proposed method consists of four main steps: (1) designing scenarios of economic scale and industrial structure, (2) sampling for possible land use layouts, (3) evaluating each sample's environmental impact, and (4) identifying environmentally sensitive industries. In doing so, uncertainties of environmental impacts can be accounted. Then environmental risk, overall environmental pressure and potential extreme environmental impact of urban development plans can be analyzed, and environmentally sensitive factors can be identified, especially under considerations of uncertainties. It can help decision-makers enhance environmental consideration and take measures in the early stage of decision-making.

  19. Exploring Social Sustainability : Learning from Perspectives on Urban Development and Companies and Products

    OpenAIRE

    Weingaertner, Carina; Moberg, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    There is a fragmented approach to social sustainability in the literature, and this paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the meanings and interpretations of that concept while reviewing and discussing the social dimension of sustainability from the perspectives of two fields: urban development as well as companies and products. The analysis identifies commonalities and differences in the understanding of the conceptualization of social sustainability and helps to identify cor...

  20. City marketing - a significant planning tool for urban development in a globalised economy

    OpenAIRE

    Liouris, Christos; Deffner, Alex

    2005-01-01

    In our days it is a fact that what is projected as the 'image' of a city, can be more important than the reality of the city itself, in shaping visitors', investors', and even its own inhabitants' opinion of it. Marketing techniques are often used to help a city's transformation into a post-industrial centre of tourism, culture and redevelopment. In addition, urban tourism is playing an increasingly important role in deciding economic development strategies by the local governance authorities...

  1. Conceptual and Management Considerations for the Development of Urban Tree Plantings

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, James R.; Kjelgren, Roger

    1989-01-01

    The development of successful urban tree plantings has at least four critical components: 1) expectations and goals appropriate for cities, 2) an analysis of site-specific environmental conditions, 3) selection of taxa responsive to that set of site conditions and 4) a regular program of management. The issues involved that are both conceptual (such as our attitudes towards trees) and technical (such as the size of a planting space or the level of summer irrigation).

  2. The Urbis Project: Identification and Characterization of Potential Urban Development Areas as a Web-Based Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzke, Nina; Kada, Martin; Kastler, Thomas; Xu, Shaojuan; de Lange, Norbert; Ehlers, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Urban sprawl and the related landscape fragmentation is a Europe-wide challenge in the context of sustainable urban planning. The URBan land recycling Information services for Sustainable cities (URBIS) project aims for the development, implementation, and validation of web-based information services for urban vacant land in European functional urban areas in order to provide end-users with site specific characteristics and to facilitate the identification and evaluation of potential development areas. The URBIS services are developed based on open geospatial data. In particular, the Copernicus Urban Atlas thematic layers serve as the main data source for an initial inventory of sites. In combination with remotely sensed data like SPOT5 images and ancillary datasets like OpenStreetMap, detailed site specific information is extracted. Services are defined for three main categories: i) baseline services, which comprise an initial inventory and typology of urban land, ii) update services, which provide a regular inventory update as well as an analysis of urban land use dynamics and changes, and iii) thematic services, which deliver specific information tailored to end-users' needs.

  3. Planning, Why Bother?! Does Urban Planning Really Matter for Economic Development?-Case of the Municipality of Shkodra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAMUR KUÇI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The entry point of this research is that the economic performance of the city is, to a certain extent, influenced by the performance of the urban planning system. In the case of the Municipality of Shkodra, Economic development is seen as the purpose that Urban Planning should serve at. Statutory planning is not responding adequately to the urban dynamics especially to the need for the local governments to take actions to cope with the challenges as sustainable development, equity and problems related to the urban poor. Local economic development is about local people working together to achieve sustainable economic growth that brings economic benefits and quality of life improvements for all in the community. Planning local economic development is seen as a set of actions planned to reach the objective (LED therefore some how the two concepts Urban Planning and Economic Development are not independent and, depending on what angle you look at, they form part of each other. The low performance of the urban planning system is accentuated by the fact that the existing planning has never stimulated any opportunity of entering in partnership for stimulating a better environment for business and unemployment reduction. Finally the research advocates for an urban planning system that would be inspiring instead of obtrusive, should aim at guiding instead of seeking to stubbornly control the development.

  4. Monitoring trends of urban development and environmental impact of Beijing, 1999-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high rates of environmental change and accelerated species loss in the urban development process should be quantified to rebalance the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In this study, an emergy-based environmental impact assessment model is designed according to the framework of the Eco-Indicator 99 for monitoring the negative effects on human well-being and ecosystem integrity in the urban development system of Beijing from 1999 to 2006. The environmental impact assessment model is based on the sustainability promotion perspective, and emphasizes the determinants of human health and ecosystem integrity in the urban development process. It is vital that the links among human health, ecosystem integrity and urban sustainability are therefore considered especially from the perspective of a supply-side environmental cost evaluation (including ecological service supply, ecological and economic losses and investment for treatment). Results suggest that: (1) out of all the pollutants, ecological services were mainly used to dilute sulfur dioxide and NH3-N; (2) nitrogen dioxide and greenhouse gases released by the urban system contribute heavily to both ecological and economic losses evaluated in emergy terms; and (3) emissions impact, mainly from airborne pollutants, with small contribution from waterborne emissions, generally increases from 1999 to 2006, undermining the sustainability of Beijing. The emergy synthesis proves to be very appropriate to account for large-scale and indirect costs generated by pollution as side effects of economic activity. Such knowledge is a necessary pre-requisite to perform a reliable cost-benefit evaluation of urban sustainability strategies, and provide guidance for policy decision making to maximize benefits and minimize negative impacts. - Research highlights: → We design an emergy-based environmental impact assessment model. → It takes dilution effects into account to monitor the negative effects to human

  5. Analysing the Sustainability of Urban Development: A review on the Potential Use of Volunteered Geographic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N.; Ujang, U.; Desa, G.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-10-01

    The challenges of how to ensure sustainable urban development are currently one of the important agenda among governments around the world. The stakeholders require the latest and high volume of geographic information for the decision making process to efficiently respond to challenges, improve service delivery to citizens, and plan a successful future of the city. However, it is time-consuming and costly to get the available information and some of the information is not up-to-date. Recently, GeoWeb 2.0 technological advances have increased the number of volunteers from non-professional citizen to contribute to the collection, sharing, and distribution of geographic information. The information known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has generated another approach of spatial data sources that can give up-to-date, huge volume of data, and available geographic information in a low cost for various applications. With this in mind, this paper presents a review of literature based on the potential use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in measuring sustainability of urban development. The review highlighted that social, economic, and environment as three pertinent pillars relating to the use of VGI for measurement sustainable urban development.

  6. Development of methodological and technical tools in the design of urban spaces in order to promote sustainable development of cities

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis develops methodological and technical tools aiding in the design of urban environments from the architectural, microclimatic and acoustic points of view. Cette thèse de doctorat élabore des outils méthodologiques et techniques d'aide à la conception d'ambiances urbaines de qualité, du point de vue architectural, microclimatique et acoustique.

  7. Effects of the Development of Township Enterprises on the Urban-Rural Dual Economic Structure Based on Cointegration Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The gross output value of township enterprises(XGDP)is used as a variable of township enterprises development.And CXEY is a variable of urban-rural dual economic structure.According to the 1986-2006 Statistical Yearbook of Chinese Township Enterprises and the 2006 China Statistical Yearbook,effects of the development of township enterprises on the urban-rural dual economic structure are studied by the cointegration analysis.Result shows that without considering other influencing factors,township enterprise development in the years 1979-2005 is the key factor to improve the dual economic structure in urban and rural areas in China.

  8. A conceptual framework for addressing complexity and unfolding transition dynamics when developing sustainable adaptation strategies in urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten; Jensen, M. B.;

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a successful and sustainable adaptation to climate change we need to transform the way we think about change. Much water management research has focused on technical innovation with a range of new solutions developed to achieve a 'more sustainable and integrated urban water management ...... to create the basis for managing and catalysing the technical and organizational innovation necessary for a sustainable transition towards climate change adaptation in urban areas.......To achieve a successful and sustainable adaptation to climate change we need to transform the way we think about change. Much water management research has focused on technical innovation with a range of new solutions developed to achieve a 'more sustainable and integrated urban water management...... addressing the complexity characterizing urban water management in the context of climate change. In this paper the framework is used to organize a research process aiming at understanding and unfolding urban dynamics for sustainable transition. The final goal is to enable local authorities and utilities...

  9. [Analysis on barriers of urban sustainable development based on DEMATEL: a case of Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Rong; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Ren, Wan-Xia; Dong, Hui-Juan

    2012-10-01

    To scientifically identify the key barriers which the urban sustainable development is facing and to analyze the interrelationships among the barriers are of significance to promote urban sustainable development. Through literature review, site investigation and structural interview, 21 factors affecting the Shenyang City's sustainable development were recognized, and based on questionnaire survey and statistics analysis, 12 main factors were screened. Further, by employing decision-making and trial evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method, the interrelationships among these factors were analyzed. The key factors affecting the Shenyang's sustainable development included the lack of leaders' attention, the economy-oriented governmental performance evaluation system, the lower public awareness on sustainable development, and the lack of academic understanding on regional eco-carrying capacity and related key projects. It was suggested that the local government should pay more attention on sustainable development, increase propaganda activities, reform governmental performance evaluation system, establish a reward-punishment system for promoting sustainable development and an effective monitoring mechanism, and enhance the implementation of related regulations, the local enterprises should establish research and development funds to support the researches of key technologies and introduce key projects, and general publics should improve their awareness on sustainable development and actively participate in related activities.

  10. Urban Dipoles in Greece: Economic Development Opportunities for Larissa-Volos Dipole in Thessaly Region

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    The article attempts to illustrate the significance of the existence of co-operation and in tandem development of an urban dipole, as well as the impact of such a dipole development on each of the two cities and on the greater region they belong. For this reason, the article focuses on a specific case of two medium size cities in Greece, Larissa and Volos, which activate in the same region by taking development actions complementary to one another. The aim of the article is to define the pros...

  11. Identification of pollutant sources in a rapidly developing urban river catchment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingshui; Yin, Hailong; Jomma, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael; Zhou, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Rapid economic development and urbanization worldwide cause serious ecological and environmental problems. A typical region that is in transition and requires systemic research for effective intervention is the rapidly developing city of Hefei in central P. R. China. In order to investigate the sources of pollutants over a one-year period in Nanfei River catchment that drains the city of Hefei, discharges were measured and water samples were taken and measured along the 14km river section at 10 sites for 4 times from 2013 to 2014. Overflow concentrations of combined sewer and separate storm drains were also measured by selecting 15 rain events in 4 typical drainage systems. Loads and budgets of water and different pollutant sources i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, urban drainage overflow, unknown wastewater were calculated. The water balance demonstrated that >70% of the discharge originated from WWTP effluent. Lack of clean upstream inflow thereby is threatening ecological safety and water quality. Furthermore, mass fluxes calculations revealed that >40% of the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) loads were from urban drainage overflow because of a large amount of discharge of untreated wastewater in pumping stations during rain events. WWTP effluent was the predominant source of the total nitrogen loads (>60%) and ammonia loads (>45%). However, the total phosphorous loads from three different sources are similar (˜1/3). Thus, our research provided a basis for appropriate and prior mitigation strategies (state-of-art of WWTP upgrade, sewer systems modification, storm water regulation and storage capacity improvement, etc.) for different precedence-controlled pollutants with the limited infrastructure investments in these rapidly developing urban regions.

  12. SimBethel: Designing a serious game on flood risk management and housing/urban development for the most urbanized islands of the California delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasman, R.; Klerk, W.J.; Schoemaker, M.A.; Smits, E.

    2013-01-01

    Master project report. A serious game on flood risk management and housing/urban development for the most urbanised island of the California coast. In the California Delta the flood protection for most islands is not up to the required standards. This is also the case for Bethel Island, one of the m

  13. Understanding energy consumption pattern of households in different urban development forms: A comparative study in Bandung City, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permana, A.S. [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)], E-mail: st103981@ait.ac.th; Perera, R. [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)], E-mail: ranjithp@ait.ac.th; Kumar, S. [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)], E-mail: kumar@ait.ac.th

    2008-11-15

    Urban development traditionally takes different physical and spatial forms. Taking development control and geographical location as common denominators, there are among others, three generic urban development forms in the cities of developing countries, namely controlled residential cum commercial areas, unplanned peri-urban areas, and planned satellite towns. This study attempts to analyze and compare the quantity of energy consumed for transport, non-cooking and cooking purposes at household level within those three forms of urban development, and for this purpose. Bandung City, Indonesia was selected as the study area. Data on present households' energy consumption were acquired through questionnaire. The results show two major findings in relation with household's energy consumption. Firstly, the unplanned area outweighs planned and controlled areas in terms of energy consumption per unit of income. Secondly, the lower income people spend a higher percentage of income on energy expenses than higher income people.

  14. Understanding energy consumption pattern of households in different urban development forms. A comparative study in Bandung City, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permana, A.S.; Perera, R.; Kumar, S. [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    Urban development traditionally takes different physical and spatial forms. Taking development control and geographical location as common denominators, there are among others, three generic urban development forms in the cities of developing countries, namely controlled residential cum commercial areas, unplanned peri-urban areas, and planned satellite towns. This study attempts to analyze and compare the quantity of energy consumed for transport, non-cooking and cooking purposes at household level within those three forms of urban development, and for this purpose. Bandung City, Indonesia was selected as the study area. Data on present households' energy consumption were acquired through questionnaire. The results show two major findings in relation with household's energy consumption. Firstly, the unplanned area outweighs planned and controlled areas in terms of energy consumption per unit of income. Secondly, the lower income people spend a higher percentage of income on energy expenses than higher income people. (author)

  15. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2013-01-01

    air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The existing method in acquiring city geometries data via ground or space measurement inspection...... resolution of less than 2 km. Furthermore in urban areas, the pollutant dispersion movements are trapped between buildings initiating it to move vertically causing visualization complications which imply the limitations of existing visualization scheme that is based on two-dimensional (2D) framework...... commonly available on the web, by having a unified data model shows the advantages in easy data acquisition, 3D visualization of air pollution dispersion and improves visual analysis of air quality monitoring in urban areas....

  16. Urbanization in developing countries: an overview of the economic and policy issues in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, C

    1995-12-01

    Cedric Pugh argues that past efforts to tackle rapid urbanization and its related problems and constraints have been inadequate, and that the rate and scale of likely urbanization over the next couple of decades pose challenges which require very different and innovative approaches. The bulk of his paper describes the evolution of policy over the past 30 years within the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the UN Development Program, and the UN Center for Human Settlements, the leading international lending and development agencies concerned with Third World economic and urban policy issues. Pugh argues that these institutions have learned much from their own experience and that far more flexible and realistic policy changes have been adopted since the late 1980s. They move away from orthodox neoliberalism and give greater attention to social programs, and emphasize public-private partnerships and the creation of an enabling environment rather than direct state involvement. Pugh criticizes a considerable number of academic writers for being unduly ideologically driven in advocating statism along socialist lines or a quasi-Western welfare state. He declares himself an advocate of the New Political Economy, discusses this school of thought, and considers experiences in the Asian NICs, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. PMID:12319994

  17. The Dublin Dashboard: Design and Development of a Real-Time Analytical Urban Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, G.; Kitchin, R.

    2016-09-01

    As many cities increase in size across multiple dimensions such as population, economic output and physical size, new methods for understanding and managing cities are required. Data produced by and about urban environments offer insight into what is happening in cities. Real-time data from sensors within the city record current transport and environmental conditions such as noise levels, water levels, journey times and public transport delays. Similarly administrative data such as demographics, employment statistics, property prices and crime rates all provide insight into how a city is evolving. Traditionally, these data were maintained separately and managed by individual city departments. Advances in technology and a move to open-government have placed many of these data in the public domain. Urban dashboards have emerged as a technique to visualise these data in an accessible way. This paper describes the implementation of one such dashboard, the Dublin Dashboard, an interactive website which collects, analyses and visualises data from a variety of sources about Dublin in Ireland through a series of interactive maps, graphs and applications. This paper describes the approach, the data and the technology used to develop the Dublin Dashboard and acts as a guideline for developing urban dashboards in other cities.

  18. Enhanced Effects of Flood Disasters Due to Hillside Development in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsien Teng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Taiwan government has established a number of flood control facilities such as dikes, pumping stations and drainage systems to effectively reduce downstream flooding. However, with continued development and urbanization of catchment areas, the original designs of most flood control facilities have become outdated. Hillside lands in the upper and middle reaches of river basins have undergone urban development through unsound engineering practices, paving the way for heavy downstream flooding. Therefore, proper river basin management should include both upstream and downstream sides. The main purpose of the paper is to simulate non-urban inundation areas with various degrees of development (0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 60%, over two different return periods of 25 years and 200 years, for intensive rainfall events in the Shi-Chi District, Taiwan. Through hydrological analysis and numerical simulations of inundation, quantitative data on inundation potential have been established based on the land development conditions along the hillsides on the upper and middle reaches of the Keelung River Basin. The simulated results show that the increase in the extent of land development in the upper reaches causes an increase in the area and depth of inundation, resulting in an increased risk of flooding in downstream areas. If the land-use policy makers in the upper reaches of the river basin’s hillsides do not properly manage the land development, the risk of flooding in downstream areas will increase. In such an event, the policy makers should first review the situation to understand the problem with the consideration of this study. Thus, proper development and flood mitigation in hillsides can be established.

  19. Perspective loads of transformer substations at development of urban power supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Guseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In work the system approach to formation of the urban power supply system is given. The hierarchical structure of the construction, voltage levels and load densities is considered. The mathematical and geometrical modeling of service areas for transformer substations of diff erent voltage is fulfi lled. Determination of perspective loads of transformer substations is given. The method of graphic placement of transformer substations in the city territory for new substations at existing structure of networks is off ered. The calculation program Microsoft EXCEL and the graphic program AutoCad are used for realization of method. The method allows fi nding a rational decision for the development of urban power supply system on the beginning design stages in conditions of the information uncertainty.

  20. Program to develop and codify urban nuclear weapon effects. Final report September 1982-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northrop, J.A.; Freeman, B.E.; Duff, R.E.

    1983-06-24

    A program is developed which, if implemented, would assess those effects of a detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon located in a highly built-up urban area which are unique to the environment, and consider possible techniques for damage limitation. It is assumed that the weapon is of low-yield, that its hiding place can be located, and that there is sufficient time before its detonation for the application of mitigation techniques. A series of radiation-hydrodynamic, hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and fallout calculations are defined which would provide insight into the modification to classic nuclear phenomenology produced by unique urban hiding locations, possible mitigating of the blast and thermal threats by materials deliberately placed around the weapon, and changes in the propagation of blast, fallout, and thermal radiation due to surrounding buildings. It is anticipated that, were such a theoretical study program to be implemented, it would provide useful guidance to nuclear emergency response planners.

  1. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  2. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Hager

    Full Text Available Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22% species (34 total carcasses recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52. These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird

  3. Coulomb stress change sensitivity due to variability in mainshock source models and receiving fault parameters: A case study of the 2010-2011 Christchurch, New Zealand, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhongwen; Jin, Bikai; Wei, Shengji; Graves, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Strong aftershocks following major earthquakes present significant challenges for infrastructure recovery as well as for emergency rescue efforts. A tragic instance of this is the 22 February 2011 Mw 6.3 Christchurch aftershock in New Zealand, which caused more than 100 deaths while the 2010 Mw 7.1 Canterbury mainshock did not cause a single fatality (Figure 1). Therefore, substantial efforts have been directed toward understanding the generation mechanisms of aftershocks as well as mitigating hazards due to aftershocks. Among these efforts are the prediction of strong aftershocks, earthquake early warning, and aftershock probability assessment. Zhang et al. (1999) reported a successful case of strong aftershock prediction with precursory data such as changes in seismicity pattern, variation of b-value, and geomagnetic anomalies. However, official reports of such successful predictions in geophysical journals are extremely rare, implying that deterministic prediction of potentially damaging aftershocks is not necessarily more scientifically feasible than prediction of mainshocks.

  4. The effects of spatially varying earthquake impacts on mood and anxiety symptom treatments among long-term Christchurch residents following the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquakes, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Daniel; Kingham, Simon; Wilson, Thomas M; Ardagh, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of disruptions to different community environments, community resilience and cumulated felt earthquake intensities on yearly mood and anxiety symptom treatments from the New Zealand Ministry of Health's administrative databases between September 2009 and August 2012. The sample includes 172,284 long-term residents from different Christchurch communities. Living in a better physical environment was associated with lower mood and anxiety treatment rates after the beginning of the Canterbury earthquake sequence whereas an inverse effect could be found for social community environment and community resilience. These results may be confounded by pre-existing patterns, as well as intensified treatment-seeking behaviour and intervention programmes in severely affected areas. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that adverse mental health outcomes can be found in communities with worse physical but stronger social environments or community resilience post-disaster. Also, they do not necessarily follow felt intensities since cumulative earthquake intensity did not show a significant effect.

  5. Sustainable Urban Development and Land Use Change—A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a sustainability assessment method for the rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta in China addressing the role of land use pattern. We first calculated the sustainability component scores of 16 cities in the area in 2000 and 2005. The results showed that socioeconomic and environmental conditions improved while the performance of resource-use degraded from 2000 to 2005. We then made a spatial analysis of land use change (LUC using geographic information systems during 1990–2000. We found that diverse spatiotemporal transformation occurred among the cities and identified urban development cluster patterns and profiles based on development density. Finally, we examined the impact of LUC on sustainable urban development (SUD. Using regression techniques, we demonstrated that urbanization, infrastructure development, industrial structure and income significantly affected environmental performance and resource-use. These results suggest a moderate pace of LUC with steady economic growth being key to SUD.

  6. Object-Oriented Image Processing Of An High Resolution Satellite Imagery With Perspectives For Urban Growth, Planning And Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz Shaik Mohammed1

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of urban areas by urban planners relies on detailed and updated knowledge of their nature and distribution. Manual photo-interpretation of aerial photographs is efficient, but is time consuming. Image segmentation and object-oriented classifications provide a tool to automatically delineate and label urban areas. Here single pixels are not classified but objects created in multi-resolution segmentation process, which allows use of, spectral responses but also texture, context and information from other object layers. This paper presents a methodology allowing to derive meaningful area-wide spatial information for city development and management from high resolution imagery. Finally, the urban land cover classification is used to compute a spatial distribution of built-up densities within the city and to map homogeneous zones or structures of urban morphology

  7. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  8. Early pest development and loss of biological control are associated with urban warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Emily K; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2014-11-01

    Climate warming is predicted to cause many changes in ectotherm communities, one of which is phenological mismatch, wherein one species' development advances relative to an associated species or community. Phenological mismatches already lead to loss of pollination services, and we predict that they also cause loss of biological control. Here, we provide evidence that a pest develops earlier due to urban warming but that phenology of its parasitoid community does not similarly advance. This mismatch is associated with greater egg production that likely leads to more pests on trees.

  9. Research on Spatial Development of Xi’an Modern Urban Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan

    2015-01-01

    As the Westernization Movement developing in the 1860s, China began to introduce and learn western science and technology to develop modern military industry and civilian industry. In modern history, Xi ’an went through the Xi 'an capi⁃tal’s industrial embryonic form in the late Qing dynasty and urban industrialization construction during the period of the Repub⁃lic of China so that it converted gradually from a trade city for Chinese traditional handicrafts under the background of the feudal society to a city in the industrial society where machine were used for production.

  10. CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Turkekul, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption, real output (GDP), the square of real output (GDP(2)), trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in the USA for the period 1960-2010. The bounds testing for cointegration indicates that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. In the long run, energy consumption and urbanization increase environmental degradation while financial development has no effect on it, and trade leads to environmental improvements. In addition, this study does not support the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for the USA because real output leads to environmental improvements while GDP(2) increases the levels of gas emissions. The results from the Granger causality test show that there is bidirectional causality between CO2 and GDP, CO2 and energy consumption, CO2 and urbanization, GDP and urbanization, and GDP and trade openness while no causality is determined between CO2 and trade openness, and gas emissions and financial development. In addition, we have enough evidence to support one-way causality running from GDP to energy consumption, from financial development to output, and from urbanization to financial development. In light of the long-run estimates and the Granger causality analysis, the US government should take into account the importance of trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in controlling for the levels of GDP and pollution. Moreover, it should be noted that the development of efficient energy policies likely contributes to lower CO2 emissions without harming real output.

  11. Impact of a Fragmented Regulatory Environment on Sustainable Urban Development Design Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Anne London

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The building project development approval process is increasingly complex and fraught with conflict due to the rise of the sustainable urban development movement and inclusive decision making. Coupled with this, government decision-making decentralization has resulted in a fragmented and over-regulated compliance system. Problems arising from the process include wasted resources, excessive time delays, increased holding and litigation costs, inadequate planning coordination, high levels of advocacy costs and a divisive politicized approval process. In Australia, despite attempts by government and industry associations, numerous problems are still unresolved. Design managers increasingly assume a liaison role during the approval phase. There is a long tradition of planning theory literature which provides context for understanding the knowledge-power-participation relationship for this paper. This study investigated the policy, process and practice conflicts during the approval stage in achieving sustainable urban developments. Three regional local government areas within one state jurisdiction and observations from detailed structured focus group interviews involving 23 stakeholders, proposers and assessors were analysed to explore this conflictual environment. As a result of regulatory fragmentation and excessive consultation, various persuasion tactics have been developed by all stakeholders of which `reciprocity' and `authority' were identified as the most common. Two challenges for design managers were thus identified: first, the emergence of the role of a by default central informal arbitrator across conflicting planning instruments; and, second, as a navigator through a set of persuasion tactics. An inclusive knowledge-based design management framework for sustainable urban development is proposed considering Habermas' communicative planning theory, Foucaltian governance and discursive powers thesis and Cialdini's persuasion theory, as

  12. LAI based trees selection for mid latitude urban developments: A microclimatic study in Cairo, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Mohamad [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Department of Architecture, Military Technical College, Cairo (Egypt); Sharples, Stephen [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Yahiya, Mahmoud [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mechanical Engineering Branch, Military Technical College, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-02-15

    To study the leaf area index, LAI, based thermal performance in distinguishing trees for Cairo's urban developments, ENVI-met plants database was used as platform for a foliage modeling parameter, the leaf area density, LAD. Two Egyptian trees; Ficus elastica, and Peltophorum pterocarpum were simulated in 2 urban sites with one having no trees, whilst the second is having Ficus nitida trees. Trees LAD values were calculated using flat leaves' trees LAI definition to produce maximum ground solid shadow at peak time. An empirical value of 1 for LAI is applied to numerically introduce LAD values for ENVI-met. Basically, different meteorological records showed improvements for pedestrian comfort and ambient microclimate of the building using F. elastica. About 40-50% interception of direct radiation, reductions in surfaces' fluxes around trees and in radiant temperature T{sub mrt} in comparison to base cases gave preferability to F. elastica. The lack of soil water prevented evapotranspiration to take place effectively and the reduced wind speeds concluded negligible air temperature differences from both base cases except slightly appeared with the F. elastica. Results show that a flat leaves tree if does not validate LAI of 1, the ground shading would not fulfill about 50% direct radiation interception and this value can be used as a reference for urban trees selection. Further simulations were held to investigate LAI value of maximum direct radiation interception. Performing additional simulations, F. elastica of LAI of 3 intercepted almost 84% of direct radiation and revealed implications about urban trees in practice and its actual LAI. (author)

  13. Microzonation in Urban Areas, Basic Element for Land-Use Planning, Risk Management and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;

  14. A new approach to the Iranian urban planning, using neo-traditional development

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimpour Masoumi, Houshmand

    2012-01-01

    In order to find the possible uses of the traditional urbanism in solving the modern urban problems, some of the contemporary urban problems that were likely to be partly or completely solved were targeted in chapter 1. The two research questions that were going to be answered were 1) which characteristics of the traditional Iranian urbanism can we use to solve some of the modern urban problems of the country? and 2) How can the effective traditional city characteristics be app...

  15. Ecological Aspect of Dam Design for Flood Regulation and Sustainable Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badenko Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many floodplains are excluded from urban development because the floods cause considerable damage to people’s lives and properties. This requires the development of new approaches to flood management and mitigation for support sustainable urban development. In present study as the measures for mitigation of flash floods, the regulation of river flow by the system of detention reservoirs for flood diversion with dams, which do not need any operation management, are analyzed concerning of Far East region of Russia. The main objective of this paper is to develop a method for analysis how the dam site selection meets the environmental criterion. The method to justify a selection of self-regulated flood dam parameters, primarily a height of a dam and its location on a water stream, providing minimization of impact on the environment have been developed. The result for Selemdzha river basin in Far East monsoon region of Russian Federation is analyzed. The result shows the robustness of the method.

  16. Land Recycling: from Science to Practice - A Sustainable Development of Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Member States (MS) of the European Union have experience significant urban sprawl in the last 3 decades. The urban sprawl was driven mainly by internal (MS or EU) or external migration but also by EU policies (including funds and projects) and by changes in life style (e.g. moving away from cities; second homes). This presentation will aim at showing a number of EU wide analysis on: aging population, depopulation of some of the EU regions; agricultural production and scenarios projections of thereof. Various EU funded projects and programs have analyzed ways how future cities and how EU future land use could developed. Number of those solutions where further investigated with case studies/small scale implementations. However, in recent years the 2012 EU road map to resource efficiency and UN Sustainable Development Goals have called respectively for 'no net land take by 2050' and land neutrality. Thus, the process of implementing innovative solutions for land use has started and some of the cities and regions are well ahead in moving towards XXI century society. In order to streamline/share knowledge and steer EU wide discussion on this the European Commission in its road map to resource efficiency announced a Communication on land as a resource. This presentation will attempt to synthesize current discussion on the topic of 'land as a resource' and include examples of implemented innovative solutions for aging population, land recycling for urban developments and green spaces within the current EU policy context. Finally, some appreciation of the adopted UN Sustainable Development Goals regarding land and soil from the EU perspective will be given.

  17. Development of a fast, urban chemistry metamodel for inclusion in global models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Cohen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating the urban concentration, surface deposition, and net export flux of these species. A polynomial chaos expansion and the probabilistic collocation method have been used to develop the metamodel, and its coefficients, so that it is applicable under a broad range of present-day and future conditions. The inputs upon which this metamodel have been formed are based on a combination of physical properties (average temperature, diurnal temperature range, date, and latitude, anthropogenic properties (patterns and amounts of emissions, and the nature of the surrounding environment (background concentrations of species. The metamodel development involved using probability distribution functions (PDFs of the inputs to run a detailed parent chemical and physical model, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx, thousands of times. Outputs from these runs were used in turn to both determine the coefficients of and test the precision of the metamodel, as compared with the detailed parent model. It was determined that the deviations between the metamodel and the parent mode for many important species (O3, CO, NOx, and black carbon (BC were found to have a weighted RMS error less than 10% in all cases, with many of the specific cases having a weighted RMS error less than 1%. Some of the other important species (VOCs, PAN, OC, and sulfate aerosol usually have their weighted RMS error less than 10% as well, except for a small number of cases. In these cases, the complexity and non-linearity of the physical, chemical, and meteorological processing is too large for the third order metamodel to give an accurate fit. Finally, sensitivity tests have been performed, to observe the response of the 16 metamodels (4 different

  18. Development of a fast, urban chemistry metamodel for inclusion in global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2011-08-01

    A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating the urban concentration, surface deposition, and net export flux of these species. A polynomial chaos expansion and the probabilistic collocation method have been used to develop the metamodel, and its coefficients, so that it is applicable under a broad range of present-day and future conditions. The inputs upon which this metamodel have been formed are based on a combination of physical properties (average temperature, diurnal temperature range, date, and latitude), anthropogenic properties (patterns and amounts of emissions), and the nature of the surrounding environment (background concentrations of species). The metamodel development involved using probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the inputs to run a detailed parent chemical and physical model, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), thousands of times. Outputs from these runs were used in turn to both determine the coefficients of and test the precision of the metamodel, as compared with the detailed parent model. It was determined that the deviations between the metamodel and the parent mode for many important species (O3, CO, NOx, and black carbon (BC)) were found to have a weighted RMS error less than 10 % in all cases, with many of the specific cases having a weighted RMS error less than 1 %. Some of the other important species (VOCs, PAN, OC, and sulfate aerosol) usually have their weighted RMS error less than 10 % as well, except for a small number of cases. In these cases, the complexity and non-linearity of the physical, chemical, and meteorological processing is too large for the third order metamodel to give an accurate fit. Finally, sensitivity tests have been performed, to observe the response of the 16 metamodels (4 different meteorologies and 4 different

  19. Development of a fast, urban chemistry metamodel for inclusion in global models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Cohen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating the urban concentration, surface deposition, and net export flux of these species. A polynomial chaos expansion and the probabilistic collocation method have been used to develop the metamodel, and its coefficients, so that it is applicable under a broad range of present-day and future conditions. The inputs upon which this metamodel have been formed are based on a combination of physical properties (average temperature, diurnal temperature range, date, and latitude, anthropogenic properties (patterns and amounts of emissions, and the nature of the surrounding environment (background concentrations of species. The metamodel development involved using probability distribution functions (PDFs of the inputs to run a detailed parent chemical and physical model, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx, thousands of times. Outputs from these runs were used in turn to both determine the coefficients of and test the precision of the metamodel, as compared with the detailed parent model. It was determined that the deviations between the metamodel and the parent mode for many important species (O3, CO, NOx, and black carbon (BC were found to have a weighted RMS error less than 10 % in all cases, with many of the specific cases having a weighted RMS error less than 1 %. Some of the other important species (VOCs, PAN, OC, and sulfate aerosol usually have their weighted RMS error less than 10 % as well, except for a small number of cases. In these cases, the complexity and non-linearity of the physical, chemical, and meteorological processing is too large for the third order metamodel to give an accurate fit. Finally, sensitivity tests have been performed, to observe the response of the 16 metamodels (4

  20. Developing an Agent-Based Model to Simulate Urban Land-Use Expansion (Case Study: Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nourian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionUrban land-use expansion is a challenging issue in developing countries. Increases in population as well as the immigration from the villages to the cities are the two major factors for that phenomenon. Those factors have reduced the influence of efforts that try to limit the cities’ boundaries. Thus, spatial planners always look for the models that simulate the expansion of urban land-uses and enable them to prevent unbalanced expansions of cities and guide the developments to the desired areas. Several models have been developed and evaluated for simulating urban land-use expansions. Despite the variety of the models, most of them have focused on simulating urban land-use expansions just around a city. Thus, the regional models that consider wider area are of primary importance.2- Theoretical basesIn this study a new agent-based model has been developed and implemented to simulate urban land-use expansion in Qazvin and Alborz regions of Qazvin state which have an area of 1620 square kilometers. In this model, land-use developers have been treated as agents that move in the landscape explicitly and assess the state of parcels for development. So, the environment of the model is raster. The agents are developed into five groups which have different aims. The agents may fall in competition to develop the same parcels. Moreover, due to the spatial essence of the problem, GIS were used to prepare the environment of agents’ movement and search and to aggregate and analyze the results.Two main steps can be recognized in this model: the Searching step and the Development step:Searching step: The agents are created and distributed in the districts. The selection of districts is probabilistic and is based on the primary probability of selection, assumed for districts. When agents go to the districts, at first they move randomly to the neighborhood of pre-developed areas. Wherever the agent starts its activities, it

  1. Cultural Development and Urban Planning%略论城市文化发展与城市规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任致远

    2012-01-01

      This article focuses on the interaction of urban cultural development and urban planning, because urban space is the container of urban culture and urban planning is intel ectual outcome of urban culture. Thus, urban planning plays an important role in the cultural development through protection of historic heritage, cultural expression of spatial elements, characteristic urban landscape and public cultural utilities. As a central mission of urban planning, cultural development should be definitively involved in the entire plan of the city and pushed by an active planning process.%  论述了我国城市文化发展与城市规划的关系。城市文化是以城市空间为载体的文化,城市规划是城市文化发展的智慧结晶。分析了城市规划中的城市文化发展内容:一是历史文化遗产的保护和利用。二是城市空间要素组合的文化表达。三是城市景观风貌和个性特色。四是城市发展建设的思想文化理念。五是城市公共文化事业的发展。指出发展城市文化是城市规划的使命,期待通过城市规划为城市文化的发展繁荣给力,开创城市文化复兴的生动局面。

  2. Estimation and Dynamic Judgment of Urban-rural Coordinated Development:A Case Study of Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Using AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process)and GCA(Grey Comprehensive Analysis),this article measures the degree of urban-rural coordinated development of Chongqing City,and establishes GARCH model to analyze its dynamic feature.The results show that urban-rural coordination degree of Chongqing City tended to decline year by year in the period 1985-2010 on the whole;after it became a municipality directly under the Central Government,the average annual rate of decline reached 1.78%.Further,from GARCH modeling analysis,there is no"clustering"in urban-rural coordination degree of Chongqing City,and the impact of fluctuation state in the past on the future will gradually intensify.There is no "leverage effect"in urban-rural coordination degree of Chongqing City,and if the government does not exert"external force",urban-rural coordination degree will decline year by year.But in the long run,urban-rural coordination degree will gradually converge to the equilibrium level.Based on this,we propose to strengthen institutional innovation and help propel coordinated urban and rural development,in terms of employment,social security,finance,land management and use.

  3. Ancient water and sanitation systems - applicability for the contemporary urban developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T; Roma, E; Foxon, K M; Templeton, M R; Buckley, C A

    2013-01-01

    The idea of implementing ancient water and wastewater technologies in the developing world is a persuasive one, since ancient systems had many features which would constitute sustainable and decentralised water and sanitation (WATSAN) provision in contemporary terminology. Latest figures indicate 2.6 billion people do not use improved sanitation and 1.1 billion practise open defecation, thus there is a huge need for sustainable and cost-effective WATSAN facilities, particularly in cities of the developing world. The objective of this study was to discuss and evaluate the applicability of selected ancient WATSAN systems for the contemporary developing world. Selected WATSAN systems in ancient Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Yucatan peninsula are briefly introduced and then discussed in the context of the developing world. One relevant aspect is that public latrines and baths were not only a part of daily life in ancient Rome but also a focal point for socialising. As such they would appear to represent a model of how to promote use and acceptance of modern community toilets and ablution blocks. Although public or community toilets are not classified as improved sanitation by WHO/UNICEF, this is a debatable premise since examples such as Durban, South Africa, illustrate how community toilets continue to represent a WATSAN solution for urban areas with high population density. Meanwhile, given the need for dry sanitation technologies, toilets based on the production of enriched Terra Preta soil have potential applications in urban and rural agriculture and warrant further investigation.

  4. Ancient water and sanitation systems - applicability for the contemporary urban developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T; Roma, E; Foxon, K M; Templeton, M R; Buckley, C A

    2013-01-01

    The idea of implementing ancient water and wastewater technologies in the developing world is a persuasive one, since ancient systems had many features which would constitute sustainable and decentralised water and sanitation (WATSAN) provision in contemporary terminology. Latest figures indicate 2.6 billion people do not use improved sanitation and 1.1 billion practise open defecation, thus there is a huge need for sustainable and cost-effective WATSAN facilities, particularly in cities of the developing world. The objective of this study was to discuss and evaluate the applicability of selected ancient WATSAN systems for the contemporary developing world. Selected WATSAN systems in ancient Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Yucatan peninsula are briefly introduced and then discussed in the context of the developing world. One relevant aspect is that public latrines and baths were not only a part of daily life in ancient Rome but also a focal point for socialising. As such they would appear to represent a model of how to promote use and acceptance of modern community toilets and ablution blocks. Although public or community toilets are not classified as improved sanitation by WHO/UNICEF, this is a debatable premise since examples such as Durban, South Africa, illustrate how community toilets continue to represent a WATSAN solution for urban areas with high population density. Meanwhile, given the need for dry sanitation technologies, toilets based on the production of enriched Terra Preta soil have potential applications in urban and rural agriculture and warrant further investigation. PMID:23416582

  5. Exploring the development of classroom group identities in an urban high school chemistry class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Stefania

    A key to achieving academic success in science is providing students with meaningful experiences and skills to negotiate how these experiences affect them and the society in which they live. Although students strive for academic success, a challenge that faces many urban science students and their teachers is finding ways to promote student engagement in the science classroom. In order to support students in urban settings and to better identify the ways in which students may better learn science concepts and develop a sense of belonging or affiliation to science, this qualitative research study explores the development of a classroom group identity (CGI) based on the frameworks of social identity theory, interaction ritual chain theory, and communities of practice. The interactions and experiences of eighteen student participants in a Bronx high school chemistry class were studied over the course of a full school year. Using a conceptual lens of classroom group identity, a model construct and definition were built identifying four stages of CGI development. At the culmination of the study, a positive change in perceptions, attitudes, leadership skills, and classroom behaviors in learning science was primarily observed by two students developing a CGI. The study has implications for the teaching and learning of high school sciences.

  6. Mitigating the effects of landscape development on streams in urbanizing watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dianna M.; Jarnagin, S. Taylor; Loperfido, John V.; Van Ness, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This collaborative study examined urbanization and impacts on area streams while using the best available sediment and erosion control (S&EC) practices in developing watersheds in Maryland, United States. During conversion of the agricultural and forested watersheds to urban land use, land surface topography was graded and vegetation was removed creating a high potential for sediment generation and release during storm events. The currently best available S&EC facilities were used during the development process to mitigate storm runoff water quality, quantity, and timing before entering area streams. Detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to visualize changing land use and S&EC practices, five temporal collections of LiDAR (light detection and ranging) imagery were used to map the changing landscape topography, and streamflow, physical geomorphology, and habitat data were used to assess the ability of the S&EC facilities to protect receiving streams during development. Despite the use of the best available S&EC facilities, receiving streams experienced altered flow, geomorphology, and decreased biotic community health. These impacts on small streams during watershed development affect sediment and nutrient loads to larger downstream aquatic ecosystems such as the Chesapeake Bay.

  7. Urbane Projekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Juel

    2013-01-01

    the city for long periods. Project dynamic in three cases A ’network model’ has been constructed based on the theoretical framework: place, discourse and planning, and in addition to these concepts it also contains representations, narratives and power as aspects of urban projects. With the understanding......This PhD thesis is about urban projects as part of strategic urban transformation. It is the result of a collaboration between Aalborg Municipality, Technical and Environmental Department, and Aalborg University, Department of Architecture, Design and Media Technology. The starting point has been...... a deep interest in the constant change and development of the city and a similar won- der towards the changing rationales and discourses present in the urban projects undertaken. The thesis focuses on the changing urban planning perspectives on the city and on urban projects as complex networks...

  8. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    . Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...... and cultural festivals, both practices indicate that design is implemented as means of creating affective spaces in the city. Both cases show how immaterial production of affects and emotions in the city can be seen in relation to economic potential and urban development. Finally, I will discuss whether urban......Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  9. Development of suburb farm landscape in the process of urban-rural overall planning from the perspective of ecological economics: a case study of Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Dan; Wang Xiaohong

    2009-01-01

    With the accelerating development of Chinese urbanization and the widening gap between rural and urban areas, urban-rural overall planning is to be an inevitable choice for economic and social development.However, the specific patterns and methods in urban-rural overall planning are greatly different.From the persperctive of ecological economy, taking the main physical and biological pattern of the farmland as research objects, this paper analyzes the components and characteristics of farm landscape, the relationship between farm landscape exploitation and rural tourism, and the role of farm landscape exploitation in planning urban and rural development.It expatiates on the pattern, method and principle of farm landscape development.Furthermore, based on the actual development case, this paper explores how to make high-grade tourism products with scientific and reasonable farm landscape development method, how to increase peasant income, how to improve urban and rural ecological economic environment, so as to promote urban-rural overall planning.

  10. Crossing the river by feeling the stones : Approaches to Sustainable Urban Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, HONGLING

    2014-01-01

    China already has the highest numbe of,and largest cities in its history. According to recent statistics, Chinese cities were home to 52.6% of China’s total population at the end of 2012. If the current trend holds, it is predicted that by 2025 the Chinese urban population will be over 1 billion including eight megacities, each with a population of over 10 million. Urbanisation is part of a central strategy of the Chinese Government to aid development and gradually raise welfare standards. Me...

  11. Strategy research on new urban space development and new deepwater terminal in Hengsha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Qifan; Ren Guohua

    2014-01-01

    From a strategic perspective,the paper presents a forward-looking thinking supported by interdisci-plinary of modern logistics,estuary and coast,environment and ecology,economic management and mathe-matical statistics. It leads to a reasonable solution to space expansion by reclamation. Construction of new deep-water terminal is the best usage of land resources and can strengthen the status of Shanghai as an international shipping center,thus support the preparation and strategic decision of future urban development of Shanghai.

  12. The organization of mineral exploitation and the relationship to urban structures and local business development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores relations between mining and urban structures as these are decisive for involving the local workforce and developing local businesses. A major challenge for Greenland is the on-going decoupling between existing settlements and the main export industry based on marine living res...... also for the surrounding community. The paper explores if a different and long-term organisation of exploitation of mineral resources with establishment of flexible settlements creates an attractive and sustainable alternative with a reasonable population and economic diversity....

  13. Income Gap Between Urban and Rural Residents in Guangxi on the Impact of Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The gap between urban and rural incomes in Guangxi is increasing year by year in a rising tendency,which resulted in agricultural development impact cannot be ignored.Such impact on agricultural development was analyzed from three aspects:agricultural development fund,farmland and food problems and labor force flow.The following problems were found:capitals flew to non-agricultural industry,which resulted in deficiency of agricultural development fund;farmland reduced and the problem of food supply was highlighted;labor force in rural areas emigrated,the price of agricultural products rose up.Related policies were offered:to strengthen the financial support;to speed up utilization of abundant labor force;to motivate farmers’ enthusiasm in food production;to increase investment in farmers’ endowment insurance and retirement pension in rural areas.

  14. Urban sustainable energy development: A case study of the city of Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Iraklis

    This study explores the role of cities in sustainable energy development through a governance-informed analysis. Despite the leading position of municipalities in energy sustainability, cities have been mostly conceptualized as sites where energy development is shaped by external policy scales, i.e. the national level. A growing body of research, however, critiques this analytical perspective, and seeks to better understand the type of factors and dynamics that influence energy sustainability within a multi-level policy context for urban energy. Given that particular circumstances are applicable across cities, a context-specific analysis can provide insight regarding how sustainable energy development takes place in urban areas. In applying such an analytical perspective on urban energy sustainability, this study undertakes a qualitative case study analysis for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by looking at four key local policy initiatives relevant to building energy efficiency and solar electricity development at the municipal government and city-wide level. The evaluation of the initiatives suggests that renewable electricity use has increased substantially in the city over the last years but the installed capacity of local renewable electricity systems, including solar photovoltaics, is low. On the other hand, although the city has made little progress in meeting its building energy efficiency targets, more comprehensive action is taken in this area. The study finds that the above outcomes have been shaped mainly by four factors. The first is the city government's incremental policy approach aiming to develop a facilitative context for local action. The second is the role that a diverse set of stakeholders have in local sustainable energy development. The third is the constraints that systemic policy barriers create for solar power development. The fourth is the ways through which the relevant multi-level policy environment structures the city

  15. Utility assessment of human development indicators: Case of Kolkata Urban agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya Chakraborty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to establish a set of variables to find out the extent and levels of inequality in Human Development Indicators (HDIs driven development based on a geographic delineation of Kolkata Urban Agglomeration (KUA. The study is based on the geographic delineation of the region of KUA. Given this background, it assesses health, education and economic scenario of the study area by variables of rates of mortality, literacy and working population, respectively. For the purpose of analysis, initially percentage distributions of variables over the study area have been computed and subsequently, assessed through Gini's Coefficient, which is an indicator of inequality in distribution over a geographic space. Then reviews of variations by virtue of spatial aggregation and disaggregation in the form of agglomerations of core vis-'-vis periphery, east bank versus west bank differentials have been presented. The analysis is supplemented by correlation studies. United Nations Development Program (UNDP supports the fact that inequalities in development can be better addressed through assessment of qualitative indicators of Human Development Index. This very concept is also reflected in recent urban development researches conducted by organizations like Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER, 2010, National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER, 2009 and London School of Economics (LSE, 2009. The organizations suggest that the holistic objective of India's metropolitan development can be best approached if objectives of minimization of income based inequalities proceed in its multiple dimensions like Human Development Indicators (HDIs. The present paper attempts to meet such goals in the perspective of KUA.

  16. The Web 2.0 concept of urban disaster information in Taipei city: Mobile application development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuan-Fan; Chan, Chun-Hsiang; Wang, Han; Pan, Yun-Xing; Lin, Gine-Jie

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, due to the global warming and global climate anomaly, more and more disasters appear such as flood and debris flow. The disasters always cause loss of life and property. However, the cross-aged invention, smart phone, makes our life more conveniently for delivering lots of information instantly. This study uses Eclipse as the development platform, and designs the urban disaster information mobile Application (APP) which is for debris flow and flood in Taipei city area. In this study, an urban disaster information APP, Taipei Let You Know, has successfully developed under android development environment, combined disaster indicators and the warming value of disaster. In order to ameliorate official information delay problem, this APP not only shows official information, but also offers a WEB 2.0 platform for public users to upload all disaster information instantly. As the result, the losses of life and property can decrease, and the disaster information delivery can be faster and more accurate by utilizing this APP in the future.

  17. Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries: Characteristics, potential and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder co-perative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of peri-urban dairy production is fuelled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators for such systems are indicated. (author)

  18. Development of 1D and 2D coupled model to simulate urban inundation: An application to Beijing Olympic Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI WeiFeng; CHEN QiuWen; MAO JingQiao

    2009-01-01

    Urban inundation due to anomalous storms is a serious problem for many cities worldwide. Therefore, it is important to accurately simulate urban hydrological processes and efficiently predict the potential risks of urban floods for the improvement of drainage designs and implementation of emergency ac-tions. However, the complexity of urban landforma and the diversity of hydraulic infrastructure pose particular challenges for the simulation and risk assessment of urban drainage processes. This study developed a methodology to comprehensively simulate inundation processes by dynamically coupling 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models. By allowing the simultaneous solution of the processes of rainfall and runoff, urban drainage, and flooding, this method can be used to estimate the potential inundation risks of any designed drainage system. Furthermore, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based platform was fully integrated with the model engine to effectively illustrate the context of the problem. The developed model was then demonstrated on the Beijing 2008 Olympic Village under the conditions of the 5-year and 50-year design storms. The sewer discharge, channel discharge, and flood propaga-tion (inundation initiation, extent, depths, and duration) were numerically validated and analyzed. The results identified the potential inundation risks. From the study, it is found that the coupled GIS and 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models have the potential to simulate urban inundation processes, and hence efficiently predict flood risks and support cost-effective drainage design and management. It also im-plies promising prospects about the wide availability of high quality digital data, GIS techniques, and well-developed monitoring infrastructure to develop online urban inundation forecasts.

  19. Rural-urban relations in the context of sustainable development : case study: Cuejdiu Valley Basin, Neamt County

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiurca, Ana-Andreea; Lamasanu, Andreea; Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2012-01-01

    International audience Rural and urban development in sustainable context is a complex process that requires an improvement of the existing situation and a removing of the dysfunctions. Over time, the rural area was not addressed as much as urban area, rural analysis is often fragmentary explained and incomplete argued. The system of values owned by rural area is overshadowed by an economic, social and cultural subordination to the city. The connection that is established is a support for ...

  20. Good practices of interdisciplinary international cooperation between universities and local development on social suffering in urban spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article describes areas of application of good practices which emerged from international and interdisciplinary research on social suffering in urban spaces and on change agentry with intercultural sensitivity, which is at the basis of a new concept of co-operation for local development. Three examples of possible good practices are illustrated: 1) Pilot action-research project by UNAN of Managua on community health and quality of the life in Managua’s Barrio Carlos Fonseca, a urban plac...