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Sample records for cholorotoxin-conjugated iron oxide

  1. Rapid pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies using cholorotoxin-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles: a novel non-radioactive method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Jeung-Eun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of biocompatible nanoparticles for in vivo molecular imaging and targeted therapy. Many nanoparticles have undesirable tissue distribution or unacceptably low serum half-lives. Pharmacokinetic (PK and biodistribution studies can help inform decisions determining particle size, coatings, or other features early in nanoparticle development. Unfortunately, these studies are rarely done in a timely fashion because many nanotechnology labs lack the resources and expertise to synthesize radioactive nanoparticles and evaluate them in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this problem, we developed an economical, radioactivity-free method for assessing serum half-life and tissue distribution of nanoparticles in mice. Iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and polyethylene glycol that utilize chlorotoxin as a targeting molecule have a serum half-life of 7-8 hours and the particles remain stable for extended periods of time in physiologic fluids and in vivo. Nanoparticles preferentially distribute to spleen and liver, presumably due to reticuloendothelial uptake. Other organs have very low levels of nanoparticles, which is ideal for imaging most cancers in the future. No acute toxicity was attributed to the nanoparticles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report here a simple near-infrared fluorescence based methodology to assess PK properties of nanoparticles in order to integrate pharmacokinetic data into early nanoparticle design and synthesis. The nanoparticles tested demonstrate properties that are excellent for future clinical imaging strategies and potentially suitable for targeted therapy.

  2. Iron oxides photochemical dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was intended to study the light irradiation influence of diverse wave-lengths on iron oxides dissolution in aqueous solutions. The objectives of this work were: the exploration of photochemical processes with the aim of its eventual application in: a) decontamination and chemical cleaning under special conditions; b) materials for solar energy conversion. (Author)

  3. Iron oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  4. Oxidation of soot on iron oxide catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Waglöhner, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the rational development of an iron oxide based catalyst for soot oxidation. The approach of this development process comprises three research methods, namely mechanistic and kinetic experiments, kinetic and fluid dynamic modelling and structure-activity relations of different types of iron oxides. A combination of this enables the synthesis of an advanced catalytic material, which is transferred to a real DPF system and tested under real diesel exhaust conditions.

  5. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the surface area of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  6. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a~new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the type of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid-like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 °C to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  7. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taifeng Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women.

  8. Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji(r)í Hradil; Alexander Pisarev; Michal Babi(c); Daniel Horák

    2007-01-01

    Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation of Fe(Ⅱ) and Fe(Ⅲ) salts with ammonium hydroxide by two methods.Iron oxide was precipitated either in the presence of dextran solution, or the dextran solution was added after precipitation. In the second method,the iron oxide particle size and size distribution could be controlled depending on the concentration of dextran in the solution. The nanoparticles were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Optimal conditions for preparation of stable iron oxide colloid particles were determined. The dextran/iron oxide ratio 0-0.16 used in precipitation of iron salts can be recommended for synthesis of nanoparticles suitable for biomedical applications, as the colloid does not contain excess dextran and does not coagulate.

  9. Indium Sorption to Iron Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. J.; Sacco, S. A.; Hemond, H.; Hussain, F. A.; Runkel, R. L.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Kimball, B. A.; Shine, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics, and its use is growing rapidly as a semiconductive coating (as indium tin oxide) for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and flat panel displays. It also has uses in important energy technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic cells. Despite its rapid increase in use, very little is known about the environmental behavior of indium, and concerns are being raised over the potential health effects of this emerging metal contaminant. One source of indium to the environment is acid mine drainage from the mining of lead, zinc, and copper sulfides. In our previous studies of a stream in Colorado influenced by acid mine drainage from lead and zinc mining activities, indium concentrations were found to be 10,000 times those found in uncontaminated rivers. However, the speciation and mobility of indium could not be reliably modeled because sorption constants to environmental sorbents have not been determined. In this study, we generate sorption constants for indium to ferrihydrite in the laboratory over a range of pHs, sorbent to sorbate ratios, and ionic strengths. Ferrihydrite is one of the most important sorbents in natural systems, and sorption to amorphous iron oxides such as ferrihydrite is thought to be one of the main removal mechanisms of metals from the dissolved phase in aqueous environments. Because of its relatively low solubility, we also find that indium hydroxide precipitation can dominate indium's partitioning at micromolar concentrations of indium. This precipitation may be important in describing indium's behavior in our study stream in Colorado, where modeling sorption to iron-oxides does not explain the complete removal of indium from the dissolved phase when the pH of the system is artificially raised to above 8. This study contributes much-needed data about indium's aqueous behavior, in order to better understand its fate, transport, and impacts in the

  10. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.;

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  11. Tannin biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Becerra, R.; Rius, J. L.; Zorrilla, C.

    2010-08-01

    In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized with gallic acid and tannic acid are characterized using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Its size, form, and structure are compared with nanoparticles obtained previously using alfalfa biomass in order to find a simpler, consistent, and environmentally friendly method in the production of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  12. Carbon-Supported Iron Oxide Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaz, T.; Mørup, Steen; Koch, C. Bender

    1996-01-01

    A carbon black ws impregnated with 6 wt% iron using an aqueous solution of iron nitrate. The impregnated carbon was initially dried at 125 C. The effect of heating of the iron oxide phase was investigated at temperatures between 200 and 600 C using Mossbauer spectroscopy. All heat treatments were...... done in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Ferrihydrite is formed and is stable at and below a temperature of 300 C. At 600 C small particles of maghemite is the dominant iron oxide. A transformation reaction is suggested....

  13. Arsenic Adsorption Onto Iron Oxides Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aredes, S.; Klein, B.; Pawlik, M.

    2004-12-01

    The predominant form of arsenic in water is as an inorganic ion. Under different redox conditions arsenic in water is stable in the +5 and +3 oxidation states. Arsenic oxidation state governs its toxicity, chemical form and solubility in natural and disturbed environments. As (III) is found in anoxic environments such as ground water , it is toxic and the common species is the neutral form, H3AsO3. As (V) is found in aerobic conditions such as surface water, it is less toxic and the common species in water are: H2AsO4 - and HAsO4 {- 2}. The water pH determines the predominant arsenate or arsenite species, however, both forms of arsenic can be detected in natural water systems. Iron oxides minerals often form in natural waters and sediments at oxic-anoxic boundaries. Over time they undergo transformation to crystalline forms, such as goethite or hematite. Both As(V) and As(III) sorbs strongly to iron oxides, however the sorption behavior of arsenic is dependent on its oxidation state and the mineralogy of the iron oxides. Competition between arsenic and others ions, such fluoride, sulphate and phosphate also play a role. On the other hand, calcium may increase arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides. Electrokinetic studies and adsorption experiments were carried out in order to determine which conditions favour arsenic adsorption. Hematite, goethite and magnetite as iron based sorbents were used. Test were also conducted with a laterite soil rich in iron minerals. The focus of this study is to evaluate physical and chemical conditions which favour arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides minerals, the results contribute to an understanding of arsenic behaviour in natural and disturbed environments. Furthermore, results could contribute in developing an appropriate remediation technology for arsenic removal in water using iron oxides minerals.

  14. EXPLORING MICROBIAL IRON OXIDATION IN WETLAND SOILS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Den Oudsten, F.; Meima-Franke, M.; Vollrath, S.; Muyzer, G.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The release of oxygen by the roots of wetland plants creates suboxic conditions that may favour the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Given their importance in iron cycling, little is known about the diversity or distribution of these bacteria. This is largely due to the lack of efficient me

  15. Wet Chemistry of Spinel Iron oxide Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Jolivet, J.; Chanéac, C.; Prené, P.; Vayssières, L.; Tronc, E.

    1997-01-01

    Various properties of spinel iron oxide nanograins are reviewed, illustrating the broad possibilities of wet chemistry for tailoring materials for a wide range of utilizations, from catalysis and sensors to cast magnetic materials.

  16. The irony of iron -- biogenic iron oxides as an iron source to the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eEmerson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary productivity in at least a third of the sunlit open ocean is thought to be iron-limited. Primary sources of dissolved iron (dFe to the ocean are hydrothermal venting, flux from the sediments along continental margins, and airborne dust. This article provides a general review of sources of hydrothermal and sedimentary iron to the ocean, and speculates upon the role that iron-cycling microbes play in controlling iron dynamics from these sources. Special attention is paid to iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB that live by oxidizing iron and producing biogenic iron oxides as waste products. The presence and ubiquity of FeOB both at hydrothermal systems and in sediments is only beginning to be appreciated. The biogenic oxides they produce have unique properties that could contribute significantly to the dynamics of dFe in the ocean. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the ocean due to climate change and ocean acidification will undoubtedly impact the microbial iron cycle. A better understanding of the contemporary role of microbes in the iron cycle will help in predicting how these changes could ultimately influence marine primary productivity.

  17. Metal ion binding to iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthieu, M.; Juillot, F.; Hiemstra, T.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2006-06-01

    The biogeochemistry of trace elements (TE) is largely dependent upon their interaction with heterogeneous ligands including metal oxides and hydrous oxides of iron. The modeling of TE interactions with iron oxides has been pursued using a variety of chemical models. The objective of this work is to show that it is possible to model the adsorption of protons and TE on a crystallized oxide (i.e., goethite) and on an amorphous oxide (HFO) in an identical way. Here, we use the CD-MUSIC approach in combination with valuable and reliable surface spectroscopy information about the nature of surface complexes of the TE. The other objective of this work is to obtain generic parameters to describe the binding of the following elements (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) onto both iron oxides for the CD-MUSIC approach. The results show that a consistent description of proton and metal ion binding is possible for goethite and HFO with the same set of model parameters. In general a good prediction of almost all the collected experimental data sets corresponding to metal ion binding to HFO is obtained. Moreover, dominant surface species are in agreement with the recently published surface complexes derived from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data. Until more detailed information on the structure of the two iron oxides is available, the present option seems a reasonable approximation and can be used to describe complex geochemical systems. To improve our understanding and modeling of multi-component systems we need more data obtained at much lower metal ion to iron oxide ratios in order to be able to account eventually for sites that are not always characterized in spectroscopic studies.

  18. Water clustering on nanostructured iron oxide films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merte, Lindsay Richard; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, G.;

    2014-01-01

    , but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer...... islands form on the bare film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous...

  19. Relationship Between Iron Oxides and Surface Charge Characteristics in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOZONG-CHEN; WANGWEI-JUN

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between iron oxides and surface charge characteristics in variable charge soils (latosol and red earth) was studied in following three ways.(1)Remove free iron oxides (Fed) and amorphous iron oxides (Feo) from the soils with sodium dithionite and acid ammonium oxalate solution respectively.(2) Add 2% glucose (on the basis of air-dry soil weight) to soils and incubate under submerged condition to activate iron oxides,and then the mixtures are dehydrated and air-dried to age iron oxides.(3) Precipitate various crystalline forms of iron oxides onto kaolinite.The results showed that free iron oxides (Fed) were the chief carrier of variable positive charges.Of which crystalline iron oxides (Fed-Feo) presented mainly as discrete particles in the soils and could only play a role of the carrier of positive charges,and did little influence on negative charges.Whereas the amorphous iron oxides (Feo),which presented mainly fas a coating with a large specific surface area,not only had positive charges,but also blocked the negative charge sites in soils.Submerged incubation activated iron oxides in the soils,and increased the amount of amorphous iron oxides and the degree of activation of iron oxide,which resulted in the increase of positive and negative charges of soils.Dehydration and air-dry aged iron oxides in soils and decreased the amount of amorphous iron oxides and the degree of activation of iron oxide,and also led to the decrease of positive and negative charges.Both the submerged incubation and the dehydration and air-dry had no significant influence on net charges.Precipitation of iron oxides onto kaolinite markedly increased positive charges and decreased negative charges.Amorphous iron oxide having a larger surface area contributed more positive charge sites and blocked more negative charge sites in kaolinite than crystalline goethite.

  20. Defluoridation by Bacteriogenic Iron Oxides: Sorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K.; Ferris, F.

    2009-05-01

    At concentrations above 1 mg/L, fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis, a disease that causes mottling of the teeth, calcification of ligaments, crippling bone deformities and many other physiological disorders that can, ultimately, lead to death. Conservative estimates are that fluorosis afflicts tens of millions of people worldwide. As there is no treatment for fluorosis, prevention is the only means of controlling the disease. While numerous defluoridation techniques have been explored, no single method has been found to be both effective and inexpensive enough to implement widely. Our research began in India, with a large-scale geochemical study of the groundwater in a fluoride-contaminated region of Orissa. Having developed a better understanding of the geochemical relationships that exist between fluoride and other parameters present in an affected area, as well as the complex relationships that arise among those parameters that can impact the presence of fluoride, we began investigating certain remediation scenarios involving iron oxides. A common approach to remediation involves the partitioning of fluoride from groundwater by sorption onto a variety of materials, one of the most effective of which is iron oxide whose surface area acts as a scavenger for fluoride. In the presence of iron oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation rate of iron has been shown to be ˜6 times greater than in their absence; fluoride should, therefore, be removed from an aqueous environment by bacteriogenic iron oxides (BIOS) much more quickly than by abiotic iron oxides. Most recently, sorption studies have been conducted using both BIOS and synthetic hydrous ferric oxides in order to compare the behavior between biotic and abiotic sorbents. These studies have provided sorption isotherms that allow comparison of fluoride removed by sorption to BIOS versus synthetic iron oxides. Sorption affinity constants have also been determined, which allow for the

  1. The Iron-Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrazine by Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-07-17

    To assess the importance of iron to hydrazine stability, the study of hydrazine oxidation by nitric acid has been extended to investigate the iron-catalyzed oxidation. This report describes those results.

  2. Mixed iron-manganese oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Jriuan; Shafi, Kurikka V.P.M.; Ulman, Abraham; Loos, Katja; Yang, Nan-Loh; Cui, Min-Hui; Vogt, Thomas; Estournès, Claude; Locke, Dave C.

    2004-01-01

    Designing nanoparticles for practical applications requires knowledge and control of how their desired properties relate to their composition and structure. Here, we present a detailed systematic study of mixed iron-manganese oxide nanoparticles, showing that ultrasonication provides the high-energy

  3. Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-05-27

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications.

  4. 21 CFR 73.200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.200 Section 73.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of...

  5. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide

  6. Formation of iron oxides from acid mine drainage and magnetic separation of the heavy metals adsorbed iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Jin; Kim, Young Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    There are a few thousand abandoned metal mines in South Korea. The abandoned mines cause several environmental problems including releasing acid mine drainage (AMD), which contain a very high acidity and heavy metal ions such as Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, and As. Iron oxides can be formed from the AMD by increasing the solution pH and inducing precipitation. Current study focused on the formation of iron oxide in an AMD and used the oxide for adsorption of heavy metals. The heavy metal adsorbed iron oxide was separated with a superconducting magnet. The duration of iron oxide formation affected on the type of mineral and the degree of magnetization. The removal rate of heavy metal by the adsorption process with the formed iron oxide was highly dependent on the type of iron oxide and the solution pH. A high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system successfully separated the iron oxide and harmful heavy metals.

  7. Oxidation Potentials in Iron and Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, J. W.

    2013-11-01

    The state of oxidation of a pyrometallurgical process given by the partial pressure of oxygen and the temperature (the oxidation potential) is one of the important properties monitored and controlled in the smelting and refining of iron and the nonferrous metals. Solid electrolyte sensors based on ZrO2 and a reference electrode such as Cr/Cr2O3 to measure the oxygen pressure found early application in the steel industry, followed soon after in copper, nickel, lead, and zinc smelting. Similar devices are installed in automobile postcombustion/exhaust trains as part of emission control systems. The current discussion reviews this technology as applied in the primary steps of iron and steel making and refining.

  8. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Rane; V M S Verenkar; P Y Sawant

    2001-06-01

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical formulas of iron-oxyhydroxides as -FeOOH.0.3H2O; -FeOOH.0.2H2O and amorphous FeOOH. The thermal products of all these were -Fe2O3 excepting that of -FeOOH.0.3H2O which gave mainly -Fe2O3 and some admixture of -Fe2O3. The hydrazinated iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides, on the other hand, decomposed autocatalytically to mainly -Fe2O3. Hydrazine method modifies the thermal decomposition path of the hydroxides. The saturation magnetization, s, values were found to be in the range 60–71 emu g–1 which are close to the reported values for -Fe2O3. Mechanism of the -Fe2O3 formation by hydrazine method is discussed.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of iron, iron oxide and iron carbide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3) and iron carbide (Fe3C) nanoparticles of different geometrical shapes: cubes, spheres, rods and plates, have been prepared by thermal decomposition of a mixture containing the metal precursor Fe(CO)5 and the stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) at 300 °C in a sealed cell under inert atmosphere. The thermal decomposition process was performed for 4 or 24 h at ([PVP]/[Fe(CO)5]) (w/v) ratio of 1:1 or 1:5. Elemental iron nanospheres embedded within a mixture of amorphous and graphitic carbon coating were obtained by hydrogen reduction of the prepared iron oxide and iron carbide nanoparticles at 450 °C. The formation of the graphitic carbon phase at such a low temperature is unique and probably obtained by catalysis of the elemental iron nanoparticles. Changing the annealing time period and the ([PVP]/[Fe(CO)5]) ratio allowed control of the composition, size, size distribution, crystallinity, geometrical shape and magnetic properties of the different magnetic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Thermal decomposition at 300 °C of a mixture of PVP and Fe(CO)5 leads to the formation of magnetic nanoparticles of different phases and shapes. • Changing the annealing time period and the ([PVP]/[Fe(CO)5]) (w/v) ratio allowed control of the nanoparticles different properties. • H2 reduction of the former magnetic nanoparticles leads to the formation of almost pure Fe nanospheres phase

  10. Water Clustering on Nanostructured Iron Oxide Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merte, L. R.; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Laegsgaard, E.; Wendt, Stefen; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2014-06-30

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing molecule–molecule and molecule–surface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire´-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the are film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moire´ structure.

  11. Water clustering on nanostructured iron oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merte, Lindsay R.; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Lægsgaard, Erik; Wendt, Stefan; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2014-06-01

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing molecule-molecule and molecule-surface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moiré-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the bare film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moiré structure.

  12. Modified iron oxide nanomaterials: Functionalization and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Samira; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have aroused the interest of researchers of materials' chemistry due to its exceptional properties such as decent magnetic, electric, catalytic, biocompatibility, and low toxicity. However, these magnetic nanoparticles are predisposed towards aggregation and forming larger particles, due to its strong anisotropic dipolar interactions, particularly in the aqueous phase, consequently depriving them of dispersibility and particular properties, ultimately degrading their performance. Hence, this review focuses on modified magnetic nanoparticles that are stable, easily synthesized, possess a high surface area and could be facile-separated via magnetic forces, and are of low toxicity and costs for applications such as catalyst/catalyst support, food security, biomedical, and pollutant remediation.

  13. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  14. Ultrathin iron oxide films on Ru(0001)

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Física Aplicada. Fecha de lectura: 11-07-2014 In this dissertation the growth and properties of ultrathin iron oxides lms on ruthenium have been investigated by means of di raction, microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. The systems studied have been prepared in-situ using molecular beam epitaxy and oxygen-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We begin with the preparation of ultr...

  15. Mineral resource of the month: iron oxide pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses iron oxide pigments, which have been used as colorants since human began painting as they resist color change due to sunlight exposure, have good chemical resistance and are stable under normal ambient conditions. Cyprus, Italy and Spain are among the countries that are known for the production of iron oxide pigments. Granular forms of iron oxides and nano-sized materials are cited as developments in the synthetic iron oxide pigment industry which are being used in computer disk drives and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. The Sulfide Capacity of Iron Oxide-Rich Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, M.

    1988-03-01

    The relationship between the sulfide capacity of slags rich in iron oxide and the sulfur partition ratio between the metal and slag is strongly related to the slag's iron oxide concentration. For slags containing little or no lime, this relationship is linear for a constant concentration of iron oxide in the slag. The effect of silica on changes in the sulfide capacity of slags rich in iron oxide is similar to that of basic steel-making slags, particularly at low activity of silica in slag.

  17. Ferrous iron sorption by hydrous metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nano, Genevieve Villaseñor; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2006-05-15

    Ferrous iron is critical to a number of biogeochemical processes that occur in heterogeneous aquatic environments, including the abiotic reductive transformation of subsurface contaminants. The sorption of Fe(II) to ubiquitous soil minerals, particularly iron-free mineral phases, is not well understood. Colloidal TiO2, gamma-AlOOH, and gamma-Al2O2 were used as model hydrous oxides to investigate Fe(II) sorption to iron-free mineral surfaces. Rapid Fe(II) sorption during the first few hours is followed by a much slower uptake process that continues for extended periods (at least 30 days). For equivalent solution conditions, the extent of Fe(II) sorption decreases in the order TiO2 >gamma-Al2O3 >gamma-AlOOH. Short-term equilibrium sorption data measured over a wide range of conditions (pH, ionic strength, Fe(II)-to-sorbent ratio) are well described by the diffuse double layer model. Fe(II) sorption to TiO2 is best described by a single-site model that considers formation of two surface complexes, SOFe+ and SOFeOH0. For gamma-AlOOH and gamma-Al2O3, sorption data are best described by a two-site model that considers formation of SOFe+ complexes at weak- and strong-binding surface sites. Accurate description of sorption data for higher Fe(II) concentrations at alkaline pH conditions requires the inclusion of a Fe(II) surface precipitation reaction in the model formulation. The presence of common groundwater constituents (calcium, sulfate, bicarbonate, or fulvic acid) had no significant effect on Fe(II) sorption. These results demonstrate that iron-free soil minerals can exert a significant influence on Fe(II) sorption and speciation in heterogeneous aquatic systems. PMID:16337955

  18. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles against osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Sifeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China); Jia Jingfu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Guo Xiaokui [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Zhao Yaping [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Liu Boyu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Chen Desheng; Guo Yongyuan; Zhang Xianlong, E-mail: zhangxianlong20101@163.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China)

    2012-09-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassays and drug delivery. They are very promising in orthopaedic applications and several magnetic nanoparticles have been exploited for the treatment of orthopaedic disease. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to examine the interaction of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with human osteoblasts to evaluate the dose-related toxicity of the nanoparticles on osteoblasts. A transmission electron microscope was used to visualise the internalised magnetic nanoparticles in osteoblasts. The CCK-8 results revealed increased cell viability (107.5 % vitality compared with the control group) when co-cultured at a low concentration (20 {mu}g/mL) and decreased cell viability (59.5 % vitality in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 25.9 % in 500 {mu}g/mL) when co-cultured in high concentrations. The flow cytometric detection revealed similar results with 5.48 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 20 {mu}g/mL, 23.40 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 28.49 % in a concentration of 500 {mu}g/mL. The disrupted cytoskeleton of osteoblasts was also revealed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. We concluded that use of a low concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important to avoid damage to osteoblasts.

  19. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles against osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassays and drug delivery. They are very promising in orthopaedic applications and several magnetic nanoparticles have been exploited for the treatment of orthopaedic disease. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to examine the interaction of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with human osteoblasts to evaluate the dose-related toxicity of the nanoparticles on osteoblasts. A transmission electron microscope was used to visualise the internalised magnetic nanoparticles in osteoblasts. The CCK-8 results revealed increased cell viability (107.5 % vitality compared with the control group) when co-cultured at a low concentration (20 μg/mL) and decreased cell viability (59.5 % vitality in a concentration of 300 μg/mL and 25.9 % in 500 μg/mL) when co-cultured in high concentrations. The flow cytometric detection revealed similar results with 5.48 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 20 μg/mL, 23.40 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 300 μg/mL and 28.49 % in a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The disrupted cytoskeleton of osteoblasts was also revealed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. We concluded that use of a low concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important to avoid damage to osteoblasts.

  20. Synthesis and magnetic characterizations of uniform iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, FuYi, E-mail: fyjiang@ytu.edu.cn [School of Environment and Materials Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai, Peoples Republic of China (China); Li, XiaoYi [School of Environment and Materials Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai, Peoples Republic of China (China); Zhu, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China (China); Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China (China); Tang, ZiKang, E-mail: phzktang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China (China); Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China (China)

    2014-06-15

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles with a cubic shape were prepared by the decomposition of homemade iron oleate in 1-octadecene with the presence of oleic acid. The particle shape and size uniformity are sensitive to the quantity of oleic acid. XRD, HRTEM and SAED results indicated that the main phase content of as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles is Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with an inverse spinel structure. Magnetic measurements revealed that the as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles display a ferromagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 295 K. At low temperatures the magnetic anisotropy of the aligned nanoparticles caused the appearance of a hysteresis loop.

  1. Microbial Oxidation of Iron Sulfides in Anaerobic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaclavkova, Sarka

    Abstract (shortened): Iron sulfides (FeSx), representing 0.04-10 % of Danish dry soil weight, oxidize in a presence of oxygen, releasing sulfuric acid and free iron. Environmental impact of FeSx oxidation is commonly seen on agricultural sites cultivated by drainage as acid sulfate soil formation...

  2. Biogeochemistry of pyrite and iron sulfide oxidation in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippers, A.; Jørgensen, BB

    2002-01-01

    Pyrite (FeS2) and iron monosulfide (FeS) play a central role in the sulfur and iron cycles of marine sediments, They may be buried in the sediment or oxidized by O-2 after transport by bioturbation to the sediment surface. FeS2 and FeS may also be oxidized within the anoxic sediment in which NO3-...

  3. Microbially Induced Iron Oxidation: What, Where, How

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHIERMEYER,ELISA M.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; NORTHUP,DIANA E.

    2000-08-15

    From the results of the different bacterial cells seen, it is fairly certain that Gallionella is present because of the bean-shaped cells and twisted stalks found with the TEM. The authors cannot confirm, though, what other iron-oxidizing genera exist in the tubes, since the media was only preferential and not one that isolated a specific genus of bacteria. Based on the environment in which they live and the source of the water, they believe their cultures contain Gallionella, Leptothrix, and possibly Crenothrix and Sphaerotilus. They believe the genus Leptothrix rather than Sphaerotilus exist in the tubes because the water source was fresh, unlike the polluted water in which Sphaerotilus are usually found. The TEM preparations worked well. The cryogenic method rapidly froze the cells in place and allowed them to view their morphology. The FAA method, as stated previously, was the best of the three methods because it gave the best contrast. The gluteraldehyde samples did not come out as well. It is possible that the gluteraldehyde the authors prepared was still too concentrated and did not mix well. Although these bacteria were collected from springs and then cultured in an environment containing a presumably pure iron-bearing metal, it seems the tube already containing Manganese Gradient Medium could be used with a piece of metal containing these bacteria. A small piece of corroding metal could then be inserted into the test tube and cultured to study the bacteria.

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticle enhancement of radiation cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Courtney M.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Strawbridge, Rendall R.; Gladstone, David J.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been investigated as a promising means for inducing tumor cell-specific hyperthermia. Although the ability to generate and use nanoparticles that are biocompatible, tumor specific, and have the ability to produce adequate cytotoxic heat is very promising, significant preclinical and clinical development will be required for clinical efficacy. At this time it appears using IONP-induced hyperthermia as an adjunct to conventional cancer therapeutics, rather than as an independent treatment, will provide the initial IONP clinical treatment. Due to their high-Z characteristics, another option is to use intracellular IONPs to enhance radiation therapy without excitation with AMF (production of heat). To test this concept IONPs were added to cell culture media at a concentration of 0.2 mg Fe/mL and incubated with murine breast adenocarcinoma (MTG-B) cells for either 48 or 72 hours. Extracellular iron was then removed and all cells were irradiated at 4 Gy. Although samples incubated with IONPs for 48 hrs did not demonstrate enhanced post-irradiation cytotoxicity as compared to the non-IONP-containing cells, cells incubated with IONPs for 72 hours, which contained 40% more Fe than 48 hr incubated cells, showed a 25% decrease in clonogenic survival compared to their non-IONP-containing counterparts. These results suggest that a critical concentration of intracellular IONPs is necessary for enhancing radiation cytotoxicity.

  5. Iron oxidation and its impact on MR behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, S. R.; Root, T. W.; Ulicny, J. C.; Klingenberg, D. J.

    2009-02-01

    The oxidation of particles in MR fluids and its impact on rheology are investigated. The oxidation of iron spheres in an aliphatic oil follows a linear growth law, suggesting that the oxide forms a nonadherent layer. The magnetic field-induced yield stress decreases with increasing extent of oxidation. The rheological behavior is consistent with that predicted using a core-shell model.

  6. Washing effect on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Karina Mireles

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research on nanoparticles has occurred in the biomedical area, particularly in the area of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs; one such area of research is in their use as magnetically directed prodrugs. It has been reported that nanoscale materials exhibit properties different from those of materials in bulk or on a macro scale [1]. Further, an understanding of the batch-to-batch reproducibility and uniformity of the SPION surface is essential to ensure safe biological applications, as noted in the accompanying article [2], because the surface is the first layer that affects the biological response of the human body. Here, we consider a comparison of the surface chemistries of a batch of SPIONs, before and after the supposedly gentle process of dialysis in water.

  7. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark M.; True, Bradford G.

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  8. Bio-inspired Iron Catalysts for Hydrocarbon Oxidations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Jr., Lawrence [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-03-22

    Stereoselective oxidation of C–H and C=C bonds are catalyzed by nonheme iron enzymes. Inspired by these bioinorganic systems, our group has been exploring the use of nonheme iron complexes as catalysts for the oxidation of hydrocarbons using H2O2 as an environmentally friendly and atom-efficient oxidant in order to gain mechanistic insights into these novel transformations. In particular, we have focused on clarifying the nature of the high-valent iron oxidants likely to be involved in these transformations.

  9. Core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles as excellent MRI contrast enhancement agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurshid, Hafsa, E-mail: hkhurshi@udel.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 sharp lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Hadjipanayis, Costas G. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Chen, Hongwei [Department of Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Li, Wanfeng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 sharp lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mao, Hui [Department of Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Machaidze, Revaz [Department of Neurological Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Tzitzios, Vasilis [Institute of Materials Science, “Demokritos” 15310 Athens (Greece); Hadjipanayis, George C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 sharp lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We report the use of metallic iron-based nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. Core/shell structured iron-based nanoparticles prepared by thermally decomposing organo-metallic compounds of iron at high temperature in the presence of hydrophobic surfactants were coated and stabilized in the aqueous solvent using the newly developed polysiloxane PEO–b–PγMPS (poly(ethylene oxide)–block–poly (γ methacryloxypropyl trimethyl oxysilane)) diblock copolymers. Particles are well suspended in water and retain their core–shell morphology after coating with the copolymer. In comparison to the conventionally used iron-oxide nanoparticles, core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles offer a much stronger T{sub 2} shortening effect than that of iron-oxide with the same core size due to their better magnetic properties. -- Highlights: ► Core/shell Fe/Fe-oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by organo-metallic synthesis. ► Water dispersibility was obtained by coating particles with a polysiloxane diblock copolymer. ► In comparison to Fe-oxide, Fe/Fe-oxide nanoparticles offer a much stronger T{sub 2} shortening effect.

  10. Nitric Oxide Improves Internal Iron Availability in Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Magdalena; Beligni, María Verónica; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Iron deficiency impairs chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development. In leaves, most of the iron must cross several biological membranes to reach the chloroplast. The components involved in the complex internal iron transport are largely unknown. Nitric oxide (NO), a bioactive free radical, can react with transition metals to form metal-nitrosyl complexes. Sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize (Zea mays) plants growing with an iron concentration as low as 10 μm Fe-EDTA in the nutrient solution. S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, another NO donor, as well as gaseous NO supply in a translucent chamber were also able to revert the iron deficiency symptoms. A specific NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, blocked the effect of the NO donors. The effect of NO treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus of iron-deficient plants was also studied. Electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize plants revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. In contrast, in NO-treated maize plants, mesophyll chloroplast appeared completely developed. NO treatment did not increase iron content in plant organs, when expressed in a fresh matter basis, suggesting that root iron uptake was not enhanced. NO scavengers 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and methylene blue promoted interveinal chlorosis in iron-replete maize plants (growing in 250 μm Fe-EDTA). Even though results support a role for endogenous NO in iron nutrition, experiments did not establish an essential role. NO was also able to revert the chlorotic phenotype of the iron-inefficient maize mutants yellow stripe1 and yellow stripe3, both impaired in the iron uptake mechanisms. All together, these results support a biological action of NO on the availability and/or delivery of metabolically active iron within the plant. PMID:12481068

  11. Application of novel iron core/iron oxide shell nanoparticles to sentinel lymph node identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Aidan; Howard, Douglas; Henning, Anna M.; Nelson, Melanie R. M.; Tilley, Richard D.; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Current `gold standard' staging of breast cancer and melanoma relies on accurate in vivo identification of the sentinel lymph node. By replacing conventional tracers (dyes and radiocolloids) with magnetic nanoparticles and using a handheld magnetometer probe for in vivo identification, it is believed the accuracy of sentinel node identification in nonsuperficial cancers can be improved due to increased spatial resolution of magnetometer probes and additional anatomical information afforded by MRI road-mapping. By using novel iron core/iron oxide shell nanoparticles, the sensitivity of sentinel node mapping via MRI can be increased due to an increased magnetic saturation compared to traditional iron oxide nanoparticles. A series of in vitro magnetic phantoms (iron core vs. iron oxide nanoparticles) were prepared to simulate magnetic particle accumulation in the sentinel lymph node. A novel handheld magnetometer probe was used to measure the relative signals of each phantom, and determine if clinical application of iron core particles can improve in vivo detection of the sentinel node compared to traditional iron oxide nanoparticles. The findings indicate that novel iron core nanoparticles above a certain size possess high magnetic saturation, but can also be produced with low coercivity and high susceptibility. While some modification to the design of handheld magnetometer probes may be required for particles with large coercivity, use of iron core particles could improve MRI and magnetometer probe detection sensitivity by up to 330 %.

  12. Immobilisation of arsenic by iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, A.; Hohmann, C.; Winkler, E.; Muehe, M.; Morin, G.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is an environmental problem that affects about 1-2% of the world's population. As arsenic-contaminated water is also used for irrigating rice fields, the uptake of arsenic via rice is in some cases even higher than via drinking water. Arsenic is often of geogenic origin and in many cases bound to iron(III) minerals. Microbial iron(III) reduction leads to dissolution of Fe(III) minerals and thus the arsenic bound to these minerals is released to the environment. In turn, iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria have the potential to co-precipitate or sorb arsenic during iron(II) oxidation followed by iron(III) mineral formation. Here, we present work on arsenic co-precipitation and immobilization by anaerobic and aerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria. Co-precipitation batch experiments with pure cultures of nitrate-dependent, phototrophic, and microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are used to quantify the amount of arsenic that can be immobilized during microbial iron mineral precipitation. Iron and arsenic speciation and redox state are determined by X- ray diffraction and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption methods (EXAFS, XANES). Microcosm experiments are set-up either with liquid media or with rice paddy soil amended with arsenic. Rice paddy soil from arsenic contaminated rice fields in China that include a natural population of Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms is used as inoculum. Dissolved and solid-phase arsenic and iron are quantified, Arsenic speciation is determined and the iron minerals are identified. Additionally, Arsenic uptake into the rice plant is quantified and a gene expression pattern in rice (Oryza sativa cv Gladia) is determined by microarrays as a response to the presence of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria.

  13. Iron Oxide Nanocrystals for Magnetic Hyperthermia Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale L. Huber

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanocrystals have been investigated extensively in the past several years for several potential applications, such as information technology, MRI contrast agents, and for drug conjugation and delivery. A specific property of interest in biomedicine is magnetic hyperthermia—an increase in temperature resulting from the thermal energy released by magnetic nanocrystals in an external alternating magnetic field. Iron oxide nanocrystals of various sizes and morphologies were synthesized and tested for specific losses (heating power using frequencies of 111.1 kHz and 629.2 kHz, and corresponding magnetic field strengths of 9 and 25 mT. Polymorphous nanocrystals as well as spherical nanocrystals and nanowires in paramagnetic to ferromagnetic size range exhibited good heating power. A remarkable 30 °C temperature increase was observed in a nanowire sample at 111 kHz and magnetic field of 25 mT (19.6 kA/m, which is very close to the typical values of 100 kHz and 20 mT used in medical treatments.

  14. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Surface Functionalization Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Quanguo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs are a kind of novel functional materials, which have been widely used in the biotechnology and catalysis. This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in preparation, structure, and magnetic properties of naked and surface functionalized iron oxide NPs and their corresponding application briefly. In order to implement the practical application, the particles must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of iron oxide NPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The problems and major challenges, along with the directions for the synthesis and surface functionalization of iron oxide NPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and prospective in these research areas are also discussed.

  15. Synthesis and heating effect of iron/iron oxide composite and iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q.; Baker, I.; Loudis, J. A.; Liao, Y. F.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2007-02-01

    Fe/Fe oxide nanoparticles, in which the core consists of metallic Fe and the shell is composed of Fe oxides, were obtained by reduction of an aqueous solution of FeCl 3 within a NaBH 4 solution, or, using a water-in-oil micro-emulsion with CTAB as the surfactant. The reduction was performed either in an inert atmosphere or in air, and passivation with air was performed to produce the Fe/Fe 3O 4 core/shell composite. Phase identification and particle size were determined by X-ray diffraction and TEM. Thermal analysis was performed using a differential scanning calorimeter. The quasistatic magnetic properties were measured using a VSM, and the specific absorption rates (SARs) of both Fe oxide and Fe/Fe 3O 4 composite nanoparticles either dispersed in methanol or in an epoxy resin were measured by Luxtron fiber temperature sensors in an alternating magnetic field of 150 Oe at 250 kHz. It was found that the preparation conditions, including the concentrations of solutions, the mixing procedure and the heat treatment, influence the particle size, the crystal structure and consequently the magnetic properties of the particles. Compared with Fe oxides, the saturation magnetization (MS) of Fe/Fe 3O 4 particles (100-190 emu/g) can be twice as high, and the coercivity (H C) can be tunable from several Oe to several hundred Oe. Hence, the SAR of Fe/Fe 3O 4 composite nanoparticles can be much higher than that of Fe oxides, with a maximum SAR of 345 W/g. The heating behavior is related to the magnetic behavior of the nanoparticles.

  16. Selenium sorption and isotope fractionation: Iron(III) oxides versus iron(II) sulfides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, K.; Couture, R.-M.; Johnson, T.M.; Mason, P.R.D.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Sorption and reduction are important processes influencing the environmental mobility and cycling of Se. In this study, we determined the rates of reaction and isotopic fractionations of Se(IV) and Se(VI) during sorption to iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, hematite and goethite) and iron sulfides (

  17. Iron oxide-based nanomagnets in nanomedicine: fabrication and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Meng Lin; Hyung-Hwan Kim; Hyuck Kim; Mamoun Muhammed; Do Kyung Kim

    2010-01-01

    Iron oxide-based nanomagnets have attracted a great deal of attention in nanomedicine over the past decade. Down to the nanoscale, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can only be magnetized in the presence of an external magnetic field, which makes them capable of forming stable colloids in a physio-biological medium. Their superparamagnetic property, together with other intrinsic properties, such as low cytotoxicity, colloidal stability, and bioactive molecule conjugation capability, ...

  18. Multifunctional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Diagnostics, Therapy and Macromolecule Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of either metal (e.g. Au), or magnetic NP (e.g. iron oxide) with other fluorescent components such as quantum dots (QDs) or organic dyes have been emerging as versatile candidate systems for cancer diagnosis, therapy, and macromolecule delivery such as micro ribonucleic acid (microRNA). This review intends to highlight the recent advances in the synthesis and application of multifunctional NPs (mainly iron oxide) in theranostics,...

  19. Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bull,1 Seyed Yazdan Madani,1 Roosey Sheth,1 Amelia Seifalian,1 Mark Green,2 Alexander M Seifalian1,31UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, 2Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand Campus, London, UK; 3Royal Free London National Health Service Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored.Keywords: stem cells, nanoparticle, magnetic

  20. Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jií; Hradil

    2007-01-01

    [1]Anger,S.,Caldwell,K.,Mehnert,W.,& Muller,R.(1999).Coating of nanoparticles:Analysis of adsorption using sedimentation field-flow fractionation(SdFFF).Proceedings of International Symposium of Controlled Release of Bioactivated Materials,26,599-600.[2]Bonnemain,B.(1998).Superparamagnetic agents in magnetic resonance imaging:Physicochemical characteristics and clinical applications-A review.Journal of Drug Targeting,6(3),167-174.[3]Bootz,A.,Vogel,V.,Schubert,D.,& Kreuter,J.(2004).Comparison of scanning electron microscopy,dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation for the sizing of poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles.European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics,57(2),369-375.[4]Browarzik,D.(1997).Continuous kinetics of dextran degradation.Journal of Macromolecular Science Pure and Applied Chemistry,34(3),397-404.[5]Cabasso,I.,& Yuan,Y.(1996).Nanoparticles in polymer and polymer dendrimers.In J.Fendler & I.Dekany (Eds.),NATO ASI Series.Part 18Nanoparticles in Solids and Solutions (pp.131-153).[6]Chastellain,M.,Petri,A.,& Hofmann,H.(2004).Particle size investigation of a multistep synthesis of PVA coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles.Journal of Colloid Interface Science,278(2),353-360.[7]Chmela,E.,Tijssen,R.,Blom,M.T.,Gardeniers,H.J.G.E.,& van den Berg,A.(2002).A chip system for size separation of macromolecules and particles by hydrodynamic chromatography.Analytical Chemistry,74(14),3470-3475.[8]Confer,D.R.,& Logan,B.E.(1997).Molecular weight distribution of hydrolysis product during the biodegradation of model macromolecules in suspended and biofilm cultures.Ⅱ:Dextran and dextrin.Water Research,31(9),2137-2145.[9]Griffiths,C.H.,O'Horo,M.P.,& Smith,T.W.(1979).The structure,magnetic characterization and oxidation of colloidal iron dispersions.Journal of Applied Physics,50(11),7108-7115.[10]Gupta,A.K.,& Gupta,M.(2005).Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.Biomaterials,26

  1. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Loft, Steffen; Nyyssönen, Kristiina;

    2007-01-01

    The transition metal iron is catalytically highly active in vitro, and not surprisingly, body iron has been suggested to promote oxidative stress in vivo. In the current analysis we studied the association of serum ferritin concentration and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration...... with daily urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion, a marker of oxidative stress, in 48 mildly dyslipidemic men in East Finland. In multivariate linear regression analyses allowing for age, smoking, body mass index and physical exercise, serum ferritin concentration predicted the excretion rate at B = 0.......17 (95% CI 0.08-0.26, P = 0.001), and serum soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin concentration ratio (TfR/ferritin) predicted the excretion rate at B = - 0.13 (95% CI - 0.21 to - 0.05, P = 0.002). Our data suggest that body iron contributes to excess oxidative stress already at non-iron overload...

  2. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomainen, T.P.; Loft, Steffen Huitfeldt; Nyyssonen, K.;

    2007-01-01

    The transition metal iron is catalytically highly active in vitro, and not surprisingly, body iron has been suggested to promote oxidative stress in vivo. In the current analysis we studied the association of serum ferritin concentration and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration with...... daily urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion, a marker of oxidative stress, in 48 mildly dyslipidemic men in East Finland. In multivariate linear regression analyses allowing for age, smoking, body mass index and physical exercise, serum ferritin concentration predicted the excretion rate at B = 0.......17 (95% CI 0.08-0.26, P = 0.001), and serum soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin concentration ratio (TfR/ferritin) predicted the excretion rate at B = - 0.13 (95% CI - 0.21 to - 0.05, P = 0.002). Our data suggest that body iron contributes to excess oxidative stress already at non-iron overload...

  3. Iron release and oxidant damage in human myoblasts by divicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninfali, P; Perini, M P; Bresolin, N; Aluigi, G; Cambiaggi, C; Ferrali, M; Pompella, A

    2000-01-01

    Divicine is an aglycone derived from vicine, a glucosidic compound contained in fava beans (Vicia faba major or broad beans). In this study, we investigated the effect of divicine on cultured human myoblasts from normal subjects, in order to see if the drug may induce signs of oxidant stress in these cells. Myoblasts incubated 24 hours in the presence of 1 mM divicine, showed an increase of carbonyl groups and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) bound to cell proteins, as well as a significant release of iron and lactate dehydrogenase in the culture medium. Desferrioxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, significantly prevented protein oxidation and formation 4-HNE adducts. Our results can be interpreted as indicating that divicine autooxidizes both at extracellular level and into myoblasts thus inducing the release of free iron, which initiates oxidation of cellular proteins and lipids. DFO protects the cells by subtracting the free iron both at intracellular and extracellular level. PMID:10794072

  4. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    Full Text Available Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.;

    2002-01-01

    magnetite (Fe3O4). We observed that the nanoparticles were stable against further oxidation, and Mossbauer spectroscopy at high applied magnetic fields and low temperatures revealed a stable form of partly oxidized magnetite. The nanocrystalline structure of the oxide shell results in strong canting......We present studies of the structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. alpha-Fe nanoparticles were fabricated by sputtering and subsequently covered with a protective nanocrystalline oxide shell consisting of either maghaemite (gamma-Fe2O3) or partially oxidized...... of the spin structure in the oxide shell, which thereby modifies the magnetic properties of the core-shell nanoparticles....

  6. Heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of ofloxacin drug by iron alginate support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titouhi, Hana; Belgaied, Jamel-Eddine

    2016-08-01

    A new catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of ofloxacin antibiotic is presented in this work. The removal was achieved using a biodegradable sodium alginate-iron material. Several parameters were studied such as iron content, drying duration of the catalytic support, temperature, solid amount and initial drug concentration. The process showed a strong oxidative ability; at optimum conditions, a nearly complete removal of the drug (around 98%) has been reached after three h of treatment. A relatively low decrease of support activity (around 10%) has been observed after three successive oxidation runs and a low iron leaching has been detected (1.2% of the incorporated quantity). The removal of the substrate has been also examined in the absence of hydrogen peroxide in order to discriminate between the contributions of simple adsorption and oxidation processes in the drug disappearance. We also discussed the influence of the studied experimental parameters on the removal kinetic. PMID:26752017

  7. Biogeochemistry of Iron Oxidation in a Circumneutral Freshwater Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, O.; Homstrom, S.; Pena, J.; Zacharias, E.; Sposito, G.

    2007-12-01

    Iron(II) oxidation in natural waters at circumneutral pH, often regarded as an abiotic process, may be biologically- mediated when it occurs in iron-rich redox gradients. West Berry Creek, a small circumneutral tributary flowing through a mixed coniferous forest in Big Basin State Park, California, contains localized iron (hydr)oxide precipitates at points along its course where anoxic groundwater meets oxygenated creek water. These mixing zones establish redox gradients and iron-rich microbial mats that may create microenvironments that promote active biogeochemical cycling of Fe. Water sampling revealed strong correlations between the concentrations of aqueous inorganic species, suggesting a rock-weathering source for most of these solutes. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detected significant concentrations of organic exudates, including low molecular mass organic acids and siderophores, indicating active biogeochemical cycling of iron is occurring in the creek. X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis showed the iron precipitates to be amorphous minerals, such as ferrihydrite. Microbial biofilm communities are associated with the iron (hydr)oxide deposits. Clone libraries developed from 16s rDNA sequences revealed the presence of microorganisms related to the neutrophilic iron- oxidizing bacteria Gallionella and Siderooxidans; in addition, micrographs suggest the widespread presence of sheath-forming bacteria (e.g., Leptothrix). Sequences from these libraries also indicated the presence of significant populations of organisms related to bacteria in the genera Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, and Nitrospira. These geosymbiotic systems appear to be significant not only for the biogeochemical cycling of iron in the creek, but also for the cycling of organic species, inorganic nutrients, and trace metals.

  8. Oxidation of Silicon and Boron in Boron Containing Molten Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new process of directly smelting boron steel from boron-containing pig iron has been established. The starting material boron-containing pig iron was obtained from ludwigite ore, which is very abundant in the eastern area of Liaoning Province of China. The experiment was performed in a medium-frequency induction furnace, and Fe2O3 powder was used as the oxidizing agent. The effects of temperature, addition of Fe2O3, basicity, stirring, and composition of melt on the oxidation of silicon and boron were investigated respectively. The results showed that silicon and boron were oxidized simultaneously and their oxidation ratio exceeded 90% at 1 400 ℃. The favorable oxidation temperature of silicon was about 1 300-1 350 C. High oxygen potential of slag and strong stirring enhanced the oxidation of silicon and boron.

  9. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  10. A chameleon catalyst for nonheme iron-promoted olefin oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shyam R; Javadi, Maedeh Moshref; Feng, Yan; Hyun, Min Young; Oloo, Williamson N; Kim, Cheal; Que, Lawrence

    2014-11-18

    We report the chameleonic reactivity of two nonheme iron catalysts for olefin oxidation with H2O2 that switch from nearly exclusive cis-dihydroxylation of electron-poor olefins to the exclusive epoxidation of electron-rich olefins upon addition of acetic acid. This switching suggests a common precursor to the nucleophilic oxidant proposed to Fe(III)-η(2)-OOH and electrophilic oxidant proposed to Fe(V)(O)(OAc), and reversible coordination of acetic acid as a switching pathway.

  11. The Irony of Iron – Biogenic Iron Oxides as an Iron Source to the Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, David

    2016-01-01

    Primary productivity in at least a third of the sunlit open ocean is thought to be iron-limited. Primary sources of dissolved iron (dFe) to the ocean are hydrothermal venting, flux from the sediments along continental margins, and airborne dust. This article provides a general review of sources of hydrothermal and sedimentary iron to the ocean, and speculates upon the role that iron-cycling microbes play in controlling iron dynamics from these sources. Special attention is paid to iron-oxidiz...

  12. Progress in electrochemical synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira, E-mail: samira_bagheri@um.edu.my; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd

    2014-11-15

    Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles have been emerged as significant nanomaterials due to its extensive range of application in various fields. In this regard, synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with desirable properties and high potential applications are greatly demanded. Therefore, investigation on different iron oxide phases and their magnetic properties along with various commonly used synthetic techniques are remarked and thoroughly described in this review. Electrochemical synthesis as a newfound method with unique advantages is elaborated, followed by design approaches and key parameters to control the properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles. Additionally, since the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles is as important as its preparation, surface modification issue has been a serious challenge which is comprehensively discussed using different surfactants. Despite the advantages of the electrochemical synthesis method, this technique has been poorly studied and requires deep investigations on effectual parameters such as current density, pH, electrolyte concentration etc. - Highlights: • IONPs are applied in chemical industries, medicine, magnetic storage etc. • Electrochemical synthesis (EC) is convenient, eco-friendly, selective and low-cost. • EC key factors are current density, pH, electrolyte concentration, electrode type. • Organic, inorganic and biological materials can be used to modify IONPs’ surface. • The physicochemical properties of IONPs can be controlled by adding surfactants.

  13. Iron-oxidation processes in an electroflocculation (electrocoagulation) cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Moshe Ben, E-mail: mosheinspain@hotmail.com [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Calmano, Wolfgang [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany); Adin, Avner [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2009-11-15

    The processes of iron oxidation in an electroflocculation cell were investigated for a pH range of 5-9 and electric currents of 0.05-0.4 A (equivalent current densities of 8.6-69 A/m{sup 2}). At all pH values and electric currents investigated, it was demonstrated and proven that for all practical purposes, the form of iron that dissolves from the anode is Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous). The difference between the amount of theoretical dissolution as calculated by Faraday's law and the amount of observed dissolved iron ions may indicate two phenomena in electrochemical cells. The first is possible dissolution of the anode even without the operation of an electric current; this led to higher theoretical dissolution rates at lower pH. The second is the participation of some of the electrons of the electric current in reactions other than anode dissolution which led to lower theoretical dissolution rates at higher pH. Those other reactions did not lead to an increase in the local oxidation saturation level near the anode and did not affect iron-oxidation rates in the electroflocculation processes. The oxidation rates of the dissolved Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous) to Fe{sup 3+} (ferric) ions in electroflocculation processes were strongly dependent on the pH and were similar to the known oxidation rates of iron in non-electrochemical cells.

  14. Iron oxide and gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotman, Irena; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S.; Gutmanas, Elazar Y.

    2016-08-01

    Continuous research activities in the field of nanomedicine in the past decade have, to a great extent, been focused on nanoparticle technologies for cancer therapy. Gold and iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) are two of the most studied inorganic nanomaterials due to their unique optical and magnetic properties. Both types of NPs are emerging as promising systems for anti-tumor drug delivery and for nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy of cancer. In thermal therapy, localized heating inside tumors or in proximity of tumor cells can be induced, for example, with Au NPs by radiofrequency ablation heating or conversion of photon energy (photothermal therapy) and in iron oxide magnetic NPs by heat generation through relaxation in an alternating magnetic field (magnetic hyperthermia). Furthermore, the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles have led to their use as potent MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents. Surface modification/coating can produce NPs with tailored and desired properties, such as enhanced blood circulation time, stability, biocompatibility and water solubility. To target nanoparticles to specific tumor cells, NPs should be conjugated with targeting moieties on the surface which bind to receptors or other molecular structures on the cell surface. The article presents several approaches to enhancing the specificity of Au and iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor tissue by appropriate surface modification/functionalization, as well as the effect of these treatments on the saturation magnetization value of iron oxide NPs. The use of other nanoparticles and nanostructures in cancer treatment is also briefly reviewed.

  15. Microstructural effects on the oxidation of iron aluminide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Peter M.

    This work addresses the impact of processing and microstructure on the oxide chemistry and short-term isothermal oxidation rate, over the first 24h of oxidation, for the B2 iron aluminide, Fe-40Al. Research interests in iron-aluminum alloys, used for high temperature structural applications, are primarily concerned with the improvement of high temperature oxidation performance and mechanical properties. The oxidation performance of alloys with aluminum contents below 20at% is dependent upon processing and microstructure. Before this work, it was not established if there was any impact of material processing and microstructure on the oxidation performance of the high aluminum content Fe-40Al alloy. This study utilized eight industrial processes to produce six different material conditions. Among the characteristics of the microstructures produced were grain sizes from 2 to ≥500mum, oxygen contents from 0--2.6at%, and powder particle surface area-to-volume ratios from 0--0.6 m2/cm3. For the six materials tested, short-term (24h) isothermal oxidation rates were determined at 700, 750, and 800°C. The resultant rates were then used to determine the relationship between the oxidation rate constant and temperature. The chemistry, physical characteristics, and structure of the oxides formed were then characterized. It was concluded that microstructure has a limited impact on oxidation properties: no practical impact was observed on oxidation rate; an initial transient oxide layer formed independent of microstrucure; microstructure can be used to control the formation of oxide-metal interfacial voids, formed during the oxidation process; and oxide inclusion "pegs" serve to improve oxide adhesion. Additionally it was observed that contamination from hot pressing contributed to the formation of oxide nodules during oxidation. Overall the isothermal oxidation properties during the first 24h of exposure proved to be robust over many combinations of microstructures.

  16. A pentanuclear iron catalyst designed for water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Masaya; Kondo, Mio; Kuga, Reiko; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi; Hayami, Shinya; Praneeth, Vijayendran K. K.; Yoshida, Masaki; Yoneda, Ko; Kawata, Satoshi; Masaoka, Shigeyuki

    2016-02-01

    Although the oxidation of water is efficiently catalysed by the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II (refs 1 and 2), it remains one of the main bottlenecks when aiming for synthetic chemical fuel production powered by sunlight or electricity. Consequently, the development of active and stable water oxidation catalysts is crucial, with heterogeneous systems considered more suitable for practical use and their homogeneous counterparts more suitable for targeted, molecular-level design guided by mechanistic understanding. Research into the mechanism of water oxidation has resulted in a range of synthetic molecular catalysts, yet there remains much interest in systems that use abundant, inexpensive and environmentally benign metals such as iron (the most abundant transition metal in the Earth’s crust and found in natural and synthetic oxidation catalysts). Water oxidation catalysts based on mononuclear iron complexes have been explored, but they often deactivate rapidly and exhibit relatively low activities. Here we report a pentanuclear iron complex that efficiently and robustly catalyses water oxidation with a turnover frequency of 1,900 per second, which is about three orders of magnitude larger than that of other iron-based catalysts. Electrochemical analysis confirms the redox flexibility of the system, characterized by six different oxidation states between FeII5 and FeIII5; the FeIII5 state is active for oxidizing water. Quantum chemistry calculations indicate that the presence of adjacent active sites facilitates O-O bond formation with a reaction barrier of less than ten kilocalories per mole. Although the need for a high overpotential and the inability to operate in water-rich solutions limit the practicality of the present system, our findings clearly indicate that efficient water oxidation catalysts based on iron complexes can be created by ensuring that the system has redox flexibility and contains adjacent water-activation sites.

  17. Evidence of cell surface iron speciation of acidophilic iron-oxidizing microorganisms in indirect bioleaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhen-yuan; Liu, Hong-chang; Xia, Jin-lan; Yang, Yi; Zhen, Xiang-jun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2016-02-01

    While indirect model has been widely accepted in bioleaching, but the evidence of cell surface iron speciation has not been reported. In the present work the iron speciation on the cell surfaces of four typically acidophilic iron-oxidizing microorganism (mesophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270, moderately thermophilic Leptospirillum ferriphilum YSK and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans St, and extremely thermophilic Acidianus manzaensis YN25) grown on different energy substrates (chalcopyrite, pyrite, ferrous sulfate and elemental sulfur (S(0))) were studied in situ firstly by using synchrotron-based micro- X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Results showed that the cells grown on iron-containing substrates had apparently higher surface iron content than the cells grown on S(0). Both ferrous iron and ferric iron were detected on the cell surface of all tested AIOMs, and the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios of the same microorganism were affected by different energy substrates. The iron distribution and bonding state of single cell of A. manzaensis were then studied in situ by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy based on dual-energy contrast analysis and stack analysis. Results showed that the iron species distributed evenly on the cell surface and bonded with amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. PMID:26645388

  18. Memory Effects on Iron Oxide Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Cava, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In this Licentiate Thesis, the properties and effects of iron and iron oxide filled carbon nanotube (Fe-CNT) memories are investigated using experimental characterization and quantum physical theoretical models. Memory devices based on the simple assembly of Fe-CNTs between two metallic contacts are presented as a possible application involving the resistive switching phenomena of this material. It is known that the electrical conductivity of these nanotubes changes significantly when the mat...

  19. Methods of preparing deposits containing iron oxides for recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical industry is one of the largest sources of wastes. Some of them, however, owing to their content of metals such as zinc or iron, may become valuable secondary raw materials. In order to achieve that purpose, they require appropriate preparation. This article provides a discussion on the methods of preparation of scrap from steelworks, namely deposits containing iron oxides, enabling their recycling.

  20. Spectral properties of oxide crystals free of iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvapil, J.; Perner, B.; Kvapil, J.; Manek, B.; Kubelka, J.; Blazek, K. (Monokrystaly, Turnov (Czechoslovakia)); Austrata, R.; Schauer, P. (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Brno. Inst. of Scientific Instruments); Vitamvas, Z. (Technical Univ., Liberec (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-07-01

    Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and YAG crystals were purified from traces of iron by the growth in reducing atmosphere. Luminescence output of such materials was substantially increased, but some undesirable properties as transient colour centre formation in YAG:Nd and low damage threshold of ruby laser rods were observed. Minimum concentration of iron ions which drastically change spectral properties of oxide crystals seems to be

  1. Purification of Lysosomes Using Supraparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofe, Adam P; Pryor, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Lysosomes can be rapidly isolated from tissue culture cells using supraparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIONs). In this protocol, colloidal iron dextran (FeDex) particles, a type of SPION, are taken up by cultured mouse macrophage cells via the endocytic pathway. The SPIONs accumulate in lysosomes, the end point of the endocytic pathway, permitting the lysosomes to be isolated magnetically. The purified lysosomes are suitable for in vitro fusion assays or for proteomic analysis. PMID:27037068

  2. Gold-Iron Oxide Catalyst for CO Oxidation: Effect of Support Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Zhen Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gold-iron oxide (Au/FeOx is one of the highly active catalysts for CO oxidation, and is also a typical system for the study of the chemistry of gold catalysis. In this work, two different types of iron oxide supports, i.e., hydroxylated (Fe_OH and dehydrated iron oxide (Fe_O, have been used for the deposition of gold via a deposition-precipitation (DP method. The structure of iron oxide has been tuned by either selecting precipitated pH of 6.7–11.2 for Fe_OH or changing calcination temperature of from 200 to 600 °C for Fe_O. Then, 1 wt. % Au catalysts on these iron oxide supports were measured for low-temperature CO oxidation reaction. Both fresh and used samples have been characterized by multiple techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES and temperature-programmed reduction by hydrogen (H2-TPR. It has been demonstrated that the surface properties of the iron oxide support, as well as the metal-support interaction, plays crucial roles on the performance of Au/FeOx catalysts in CO oxidation.

  3. Magnetic iron oxide for contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this experimental work has been to study the biological fate and the contrast enhancing potential of a model preparation of magnetic iron oxide (MSM) after intravenous injection to rodents. This was achieved by: Studying in vitro contrast efficacy of various magnetic iron oxide preparations by relaxation analysis. Studying in vivo contrast efficacy of MSM by relaxation analysis and NMR imaging. Studying the biodistribution and bioelimination of MSM in independent experiments using relaxation analysis, radioactivity studies and histological techniques. Studying interactions of MSM with target cells and target organelles using ex vivo techniques. Based on the presented experimental study, the MSM model preparation of magnetic iron oxide seems to fulfill basic requirements of NMR contrast agents: efficient proton relaxation, specific in vivo distribution, and biological tolerance. 177 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangling Gu; Yancong Zhang; Hanwen Sun; Xinfeng Song; Chunhua Fu; Pingxuan Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) coated iron oxide nanoparticles have served as a feasible, robust, and functional platform for various biomedical applications. However, there is scarcely a systemic paper reviewed about such functionalising nanomaterials to date. In this review, the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, the mechanism of dopamine self-oxidation, the interaction between iron oxide and dopamine, and the functionality and the safety assessment of dopamine modified iron oxide n...

  5. Structural transformations of heat-treated bacterial iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bacterial siliceous iron oxide microtubule (diameter: ca. 1 μm, 15Fe2O3·8SiO2·P2O5·30H2O) produced by Leptothrix ochracea was heat treated in air and its structural transformation was investigated in detail by microscopy, diffractometry, and spectroscopy. Although the heat-treated bacterial iron oxide retained its original microtubular structure, its nanoscopic, middle-range, and local structures changed drastically. Upon heat treatment, nanosized pores were formed and their size changed depending on temperature. The Fe–O–Si linkages were gradually cleaved with increasing temperature, causing the progressive separation of Fe and Si ions into iron oxide and amorphous silicate phases, respectively. Concomitantly, global connectivity and local structure of FeO6 octahedra in the iron oxide nanoparticles systematically changed depending on temperature. These comprehensive investigations clearly revealed various structural changes of the bacterial iron oxide which is an important guideline for the future exploration of novel bio-inspired materials. - Highlights: • Structural transformation of a bacterial iron oxide microtubule was investigated. • Si–O–Fe was cleaved with increasing temperature to form α-Fe2O3/silicate composite. • Crystallization to 2Fh started at 500 °C to give α-Fe2O3 >700 °C. • FeO6 octahedra were highly distorted <500 °C. • Formation of face-sharing FeO6 was promoted >500 °C, releasing the local strain of FeO6

  6. Structural transformations of heat-treated bacterial iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hideki, E-mail: hideki-h@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); JST, CREST, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Fujii, Tatsuo [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Nakanishi, Koji [Office of Society-Academia Collaboration for Innovation, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Yogi, Chihiro [SR Center, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Peterlik, Herwig [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nakanishi, Makoto [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Takada, Jun [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); JST, CREST, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    A bacterial siliceous iron oxide microtubule (diameter: ca. 1 μm, 15Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}·8SiO{sub 2}·P{sub 2}O{sub 5}·30H{sub 2}O) produced by Leptothrix ochracea was heat treated in air and its structural transformation was investigated in detail by microscopy, diffractometry, and spectroscopy. Although the heat-treated bacterial iron oxide retained its original microtubular structure, its nanoscopic, middle-range, and local structures changed drastically. Upon heat treatment, nanosized pores were formed and their size changed depending on temperature. The Fe–O–Si linkages were gradually cleaved with increasing temperature, causing the progressive separation of Fe and Si ions into iron oxide and amorphous silicate phases, respectively. Concomitantly, global connectivity and local structure of FeO{sub 6} octahedra in the iron oxide nanoparticles systematically changed depending on temperature. These comprehensive investigations clearly revealed various structural changes of the bacterial iron oxide which is an important guideline for the future exploration of novel bio-inspired materials. - Highlights: • Structural transformation of a bacterial iron oxide microtubule was investigated. • Si–O–Fe was cleaved with increasing temperature to form α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/silicate composite. • Crystallization to 2Fh started at 500 °C to give α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} >700 °C. • FeO{sub 6} octahedra were highly distorted <500 °C. • Formation of face-sharing FeO{sub 6} was promoted >500 °C, releasing the local strain of FeO{sub 6}.

  7. Neutrophilic iron oxidizers adapted to highly oxic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    Rapid sand filtration is an economical way to treat anoxic groundwaters and involves aeration followed by particulate and soluble substrate removal via deep bed filtration. The anoxic source groundwater can contain several potential electron donors (CH4, Fe2+, Mn2+, NH4+ and assimilable organic...... indicate that neutrophilic iron oxidizers in highly oxic environments like drinking water treatment systems can be abundant (5 E+04 to 7 E+05 cells per gram of wet sand material). It was furthermore observed that the diversity of the cultivated dominant iron oxidizers differs substantially from those...

  8. Multifunctional iron oxide nanoparticles for diagnostics, therapy and macromolecule delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of either metal (e.g. Au), or magnetic NP (e.g. iron oxide) with other fluorescent components such as quantum dots (QDs) or organic dyes have been emerging as versatile candidate systems for cancer diagnosis, therapy, and macromolecule delivery such as micro ribonucleic acid (microRNA). This review intends to highlight the recent advances in the synthesis and application of multifunctional NPs (mainly iron oxide) in theranostics, an area used to combine therapeutics and diagnostics. The recent applications of NPs in miRNA delivery are also reviewed. PMID:24396508

  9. Iron oxides, dissolved silica, and regulation of marine phosphate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, N.; Reinhard, C.; Lyons, T.

    2008-12-01

    Phosphorous concentrations in iron oxide-rich sediments reflect orthophosphate levels in the water column from which iron oxides precipitated. Sediment P/Fe ratios are also strongly influenced by the concentrations of dissolved species that inhibit orthophosphate-to-ferrihydrite sorption, most notably silica. It may, therefore, be possible to use P/Fe ratios in iron oxide-rich sediments to estimate past dissolved P concentrations, if one considers the evolution of the silica cycle. A compilation of Fe and P data in iron oxide-rich sediments through time reveals an increase in P/Fe ratios after the Jurassic. We propose that this trend indicates evolution of the iron-oxide phosphate removal mechanism caused by decreasing levels of sorption inhibition by dissolved silica. The large difference in P/Fe ratios in Cenozoic versus older iron-oxide rich sediments can be linked with Si drawdown caused by the proliferation of siliceous plankton in the Cretaceous. There is also a late Mesozoic or Cenozoic increase in V/Fe ratios, which provides additional evidence for lower ferrihydrite anion sorption efficiency prior to diatom radiation. P/Fe ratios in iron oxide-rich sediments from the early and middle Phanerozoic are comparable to the ratios in iron formations previously presented as evidence for an early Precambrian phosphate crisis (Bjerrum and Canfield, 2002, Nature, 417:159-162). Given the compelling evidence for higher Si concentrations in the Precambrian compared to the Phanerozoic and dissolved P concentrations comparable to modern levels throughout the Phanerozoic, the presented trend of P/Fe ratios suggests dissolved P concentrations were higher in Precambrian than Phanerozoic oceans. High dissolved P levels in the Precambrian may have been linked to inhibited carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) formation as a result of persistently high levels of carbonate supersaturation. Carbonate ion substitution into CFA scales with the ambient carbonate ion activity and increases

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE RATES AND PRODUCTS OF FERROUS IRON OXIDATION IN ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED POND WATER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved ferrous iron and arsenic in the presence of insufficient oxygenated ground water is released into a pond. When the mixing of ferrous iron and oxygenated water within the pond occurs, the ferrous iron is oxidized and precipitated as an iron oxide. Groups of experiments...

  11. Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Attarad; Zafar, Hira; Zia, Muhammad; Ul Haq, Ihsan; Phull, Abdul Rehman; Ali, Joham Sarfraz; Hussain, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs. PMID:27578966

  12. Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Attarad; Zafar, Hira; Zia, Muhammad; ul Haq, Ihsan; Phull, Abdul Rehman; Ali, Joham Sarfraz; Hussain, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs. PMID:27578966

  13. Moessbauer study of function of magnesium in iron oxide catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJie-Xin; MaoLian-Sheng; 等

    1997-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been utilized for studying the action of Mg element in iron oxide catalysts used for the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to sytrene.The experimental results show that the presence of opportune amount of Mg can enhance the stability and dispersion of catalysts,i.e.Mg is an sueful structure promoter in this kind of catalysts.

  14. Identification of Spinel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by 57Fe NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangGap Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and studied monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of smaller than 10 nm to identify between the two spinel phases, magnetite and maghemite. It is shown that 57Fe NMR spectroscopy is a promising tool for distinguishing between the two phases.

  15. Benzene Removal by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, carbon nanotubes (CNTs impregnated with iron oxide nanoparticles were employed for the removal of benzene from water. The adsorbents were characterized using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, and thermogravimetric analysis. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive removal of benzene and the effect of parameters such as pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosage. The maximum removal of benzene was 61% with iron oxide impregnated CNTs at an adsorbent dosage 100 mg, shaking speed 200 rpm, contact time 2 hours, initial concentration 1 ppm, and pH 6. However, raw CNTs showed only 53% removal under same experimental conditions. Pseudo-first-order kinetic model was found well to describe the obtained data on benzene removal from water. Initial concentration was varied from 1 to 200 mg/L for isotherms study. Langmuir isotherm model was observed to best describe the adsorption data. The maximum adsorption capacities were 987.58 mg/g and 517.27 mg/g for iron oxide impregnated CNTs and raw CNTs, respectively. Experimental results revealed that impregnation with iron oxide nanoparticles significantly increased the removal efficiency of CNTs.

  16. Diverging geometric and magnetic size distributions of iron oxide nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luigjes, B.; Woudenberg, S.M.C.; de Groot, R.; Meeldijk, J.D.; Torres Galvis, H.M.; de Jong, K.P.; Philipse, A.P.; Erné, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    An important reason to prepare magnetic nanoparticles of uniform size and shape is to ensure uniform magnetic properties. However, here, we demonstrate that magnetic iron oxide crystals of 20 nm or less with a low polydispersity of the geometric size can nevertheless have a strikingly broad distribu

  17. Hybrid Adsorptive and Oxidative Removal of Natural Organic Matter Using Iron Oxide-Coated Pumice Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnaz Sule Kaplan Bekaroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to combine adsorptive and catalytic properties of iron oxide surfaces in a hybrid process using hydrogen peroxide and iron oxide-coated pumice particles to remove natural organic matter (NOM in water. Experiments were conducted in batch, completely mixed reactors using various original and coated pumice particles. The results showed that both adsorption and catalytic oxidation mechanisms played role in the removal of NOM. The hybrid process was found to be effective in removing NOM from water having a wide range of specific UV absorbance values. Iron oxide surfaces preferentially adsorbed UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Furthermore, the strong oxidants produced from reactions among iron oxide surfaces and hydrogen peroxide also preferentially oxidized UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Preloading of iron oxide surfaces with NOM slightly reduced the further NOM removal performance of the hybrid process. Overall, the results suggested that the tested hybrid process may be effective for removal of NOM and control disinfection by-product formation.

  18. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangling Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA coated iron oxide nanoparticles have served as a feasible, robust, and functional platform for various biomedical applications. However, there is scarcely a systemic paper reviewed about such functionalising nanomaterials to date. In this review, the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, the mechanism of dopamine self-oxidation, the interaction between iron oxide and dopamine, and the functionality and the safety assessment of dopamine modified iron oxide nanoparticles as well as the biomedical application of such nanoparticles are discussed. To enlighten the future research, the opportunities and the limitations of functionalising iron oxide nanoparticles coated with PDA are also analyzed.

  19. Gamma-ray synthesis of magnetic nanocarrier composed of gold and magnetic iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanocarrier consisting of iron oxide and gold was synthesized in an aqueous solution by using γ-ray irradiation. UV-vis absorption spectra showed surface plasmon resonance of nano-sized metallic gold. The surface of quasicore-shell structured magnetic iron oxide nanocarriers was almost covered with gold grains after having the gold grains grow over the iron oxides

  20. Iron oxide nanotubes synthesized via template-based electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin-Hee; Min, Seong-Gi; Malkinski, Leszek; Wiley, John B.

    2014-04-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in the development of synthetic methods for the preparation iron oxide nanostructures for applications in nanotechnology. While a variety of structures have been reported, only a few studies have focused on iron oxide nanotubes. Here, we present details on the synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanotubes along with a proposed mechanism for FeOOH tube formation. The FeOOH nanotubes, fabricated via a template-based electrodeposition method, are found to exhibit a unique inner-surface. Heat treatment of these tubes under oxidizing or reducing atmospheres can produce either hematite (α-Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4) structures, respectively. Hematite nanotubes are composed of small nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter and the magnetization curves and FC-ZFC curves show superparamagnetic properties without the Morin transition. In the case of magnetite nanotubes, which consist of slightly larger nanoparticles, magnetization curves show ferromagnetism with weak coercivity at room temperature, while FC-ZFC curves exhibit the Verwey transition at 125 K.Considerable effort has been invested in the development of synthetic methods for the preparation iron oxide nanostructures for applications in nanotechnology. While a variety of structures have been reported, only a few studies have focused on iron oxide nanotubes. Here, we present details on the synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanotubes along with a proposed mechanism for FeOOH tube formation. The FeOOH nanotubes, fabricated via a template-based electrodeposition method, are found to exhibit a unique inner-surface. Heat treatment of these tubes under oxidizing or reducing atmospheres can produce either hematite (α-Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4) structures, respectively. Hematite nanotubes are composed of small nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter and the magnetization curves and FC-ZFC curves show superparamagnetic properties without the Morin transition

  1. Oxidation of Dodecanoate Intercalated Iron(II)–Iron(III) Layered Double Hydroxide to Form 2D Iron(III) (Hydr)oxide Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Li‐Zhi; Ayala‐Luis, Karina B.; Fang, Liping;

    2013-01-01

    .00(OH)5.31(C12H23O2)0.66(SO4)0.51 and FeIII3O2.18(OH)3.13(C12H23O2)0.56(SO4)0.47, respectively. oxGRC12 has the same planar layer structure as GRC12, as revealed by identical powder X‐ray diffraction patterns. The electrostatic interactions between the interlayer dodecanoate (C12) anions and the iron...... between the alkyl chains of the intercalated dodecanoate anions play a crucial role in stabilizing the structure and hindering the collapse of the iron(II)–iron(III) (hydr)oxide structure during oxidation. This is the first report describing the formation of a stable planar layered octahedral iron...

  2. The Molecular Mechanism of Iron(III) Oxide Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, Johanna; Wu, Baohu; Drechsler, Markus; Rosenberg, Rose; Van Driessche, Alexander E S; Stawski, Tomasz M; Gebauer, Denis

    2016-08-18

    A molecular understanding of the formation of solid phases from solution would be beneficial for various scientific fields. However, nucleation pathways are still not fully understood, whereby the case of iron (oxyhydr)oxides poses a prime example. We show that in the prenucleation regime, thermodynamically stable solute species up to a few nanometers in size are observed, which meet the definition of prenucleation clusters. Nucleation then is not governed by a critical size, but rather by the dynamics of the clusters that are forming at the distinct nucleation stages, based on the chemistry of the linkages within the clusters. This resolves a longstanding debate in the field of iron oxide nucleation, and the results may generally apply to oxides forming via hydrolysis and condensation. The (molecular) understanding of the chemical basis of phase separation is paramount for, e.g., tailoring size, shape and structure of novel nanocrystalline materials. PMID:27466739

  3. Surface oxidation phenomena of boride coatings grown on iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very hard boride coatings are grown on various metals using thermochemical as well as chemical vapour deposition techniques. In this way many surface properties, and in particular the wear resistance, can be considerably improved. Usually, also the corrosion behaviour of the treated components is important. In particular, oxidizing atmospheres are involved in many applications where, therefore, coating-environment interactions can play a relevant role. In a previous work, the early stages of the oxidation of iron borides were studied by treating single phase compacted powders in flowing oxygen at low temperatures (300-450deg C). In the present paper, the attention is addressed to the oxidation of both single phase and polyphase boride coatings thermochemically grown on iron. The single phase boride coatings were constituted by Fe2B, while the polyphase coatings were constituted by an inner Fe2B layer and an outer FeB-base layer. All the boride layers displayed strong (002) preferred crystallographic orientations. (orig.)

  4. Oxidation, carburization and/or sulfidation resistant iron aluminide alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2003-08-19

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or Zro.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B. .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  5. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES ON DISACCHARIDE TEMPLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B ANILREDDY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report here the preparation of nanoparticles of iron oxide in the presence of polysaccharidetemplates. Interaction between iron sulfate and template has been carried out in aqueous phase,followed by the selective and controlled removal of the template to achieve narrow distribution ofparticle size. Particles of iron oxide obtained have been characterized for their stability in solventmedia, size, size distribution and crystallinity and it was found that when the negative value of thezeta potential increases, particle size decreases. A narrow particle size distribution with D100 = 275nm was obtained with chitosan and starch templates. SEM measurements further confirm the particlesize measurement. Diffuse reflectance UV–VIS spectra values show that the template is completelyremoved from the final iron oxide particles and powder XRD measurements show that the peaks ofthe diffractogram are in agreement with the theoretical data of hematite. The salient observations ofour study shows that there occurs a direct correlation between zeta potential, polydispersity index,band gap energy and particle size. The crystallite size of the particles was found to be 30–35 nm. Alarge negative zeta potential was found to be advantageous for achieving lower particle sizes, as theparticles remained discrete without agglomeration.

  6. RECYCLING BLENDS OF WASTE PLASTICS AND BIOMASS AS REDUCING AGENT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF METALLIC IRON FROM IRON OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES RANSFORD DANKWAH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies on the production of metallic iron from iron oxide using blends of palm nut shells (Elaes Guineanses and waste plastics as reducing agent have been performed through experiments conducted in a horizontal tube furnace. Composite pellets were formed from mixtures of iron oxide and carbonaceous materials consisting of chars of palm nut shells (PNS, high density polyethylene (HDPE and two blends of PNS with HDPE. Two sources of iron oxide were utilised in this investigation; reagent grade iron oxide (96.89 % Fe2O3 and EAF slag (47.1 % FeO. The iron oxide-carbonaceous material composites were heated rapidly at 1500°C in a continuous stream of argon and the off gas was analysed continuously using an infrared (IR gas analyser and a gas chromatographic (GC analyser. Elemental analyses of samples of the reduced metal were performed chemically for its carbon and oxygen contents using a LECO carbon/sulphur and oxygen/nitrogen analysers, respectively. The extent of reduction (after ten and fifteen minutes for reagent grade iron oxide and EAF slag, respectively and the level of carburisation were determined for each carbonaceous reductant. The results indicate that carburised metallic iron can be produced effectively from iron oxide using PNS, HDPE and blends of these carbonaceous materials as reductants. The extent of reduction improved significantly when PNS was blended with HDPE.

  7. High temperature oxidation of iron-chromium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Lars

    2003-06-15

    The high temperature oxidation of the ferritic alloy Fe78Cr22 has been investigated in the present work. The effect of small alloying additions of cerium and/or silicon was also investigated. The alloys were oxidized at 973, 1173 and 1373 K in either air or a hydrogen/argon mixture. The various reaction atmospheres contained between 0.02 and 50% water vapour. The oxide scales formed on the various alloys at 973 K consisted of thin chromia layers. The oxide scales grown on the alloys at 1173 K also consisted of a chromia layer. The microstructure of the chromia scales was found to depend on the reaction atmosphere. The chromia scales grown in hydrogen/argon atmospheres formed oxide whiskers and oxide ridges at the surface of the scales, while the chromia scales grown in air formed larger oxide grains near the surface. This difference in oxide microstructure was due to the vaporization of chromium species from the chromia scales grown in air. Two different growth mechanisms are proposed for the growth of oxide whiskers. The growth rate of the chromia scales was independent of the oxygen activity. This is explained by a growth mechanism of the chromia scales, where the growth is governed by the diffusion of interstitial chromium. The addition of silicon to the iron-chromium alloy resulted in the formation of silica particles beneath the chromia scale. The presence of silicon in the alloy was found to decrease the growth rate of the chromia scale. This is explained by a blocking mechanism, where the silica particles beneath the chromia scale partly block the outwards diffusion of chromium from the alloy to the chromia scale. The addition of cerium to the iron-chromium alloy improved the adhesion of the chromia scale to the alloy and decreased the growth rate of chromia. It was observed that the minimum concentration of cerium in the alloy should be 0.3 at.% in order to observe an effect of the cerium addition. The effect of cerium is explained by the &apos

  8. Concurrent repletion of iron and zinc reduces intestinal oxidative damage in iron-and zinc-deficient rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the interactions between iron and zinc during absorption in iron- and zinc-deficient rats,and their consequences on intestinal oxidant-antioxidant balance.METHODS: Twenty-four weanling Wistar-Kyoto rats fed an iron- and zinc-deficient diet (< 6.5 mg Fe and 4.0 mg Zn/kg diet) for 4 wk were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8, each) and orally gavaged with 4 mg iron, 3.3 mg zinc, or 4 mg iron + 3.3 mg zinc for 2wk. At the last day of repletion, 3 h before the animals were sacrificed, they received either 37 mBq of 55Fe or 65Zn, to study their localization in the intestine, using microautoradiography. Hemoglobin, iron and zinc content in plasma and liver were measured as indicators of iron and zinc status. Duodenal sections were used for immunochemical staining of ferritin and metallothionein.Duodenal homogenates (mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions), were used to assess aconitase activity,oxidative stress, functional integrity and the response of antioxidant enzymes.RESULTS: Concurrent repletion of iron- and zinc-deficient rats showed reduced localization of these minerals compared to rats that were teated with iron or zinc alone;these data provide evidence for antagonistic interactions.This resulted in reduced formation of lipid and protein oxidation products and better functional integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Further, combined repletion lowered iron-associated aconitase activity and ferritin expression,but significantly elevated metallothionein and glutathione levels in the intestinal mucosa. The mechanism of interactions during combined supplementation and its subsequent effects appeared to be due to through modulation of cytosolic aconitase, which in turn influenced the labile iron pool and metallothionein levels, and hence reduced intestinal oxidative damage.CONCLUSION: Concurrent administration of iron and zinc corrects iron and zinc deficiency, and also reduces the intestinal oxidative damage associated with iron

  9. Thermogravimetric Analysis of the Zinc Concentrates Oxidation Containing Various Iron Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecki S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of oxidation of zinc concentrates containing various iron compounds. Using the thermogravimetry and thermal analysis methods it was shown that the influence of the iron form affects the thermal oxidation process. They influence the rate of, oxidation of zinc sulphide and consequently the resulting rate of oxidation of the concentrate.

  10. Identification of iron oxide and hydroxide in soil clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, S. P.; Raj, D.

    1993-04-01

    Clay fractions of soils collected at different depths from the foothills of Karbi Anglong, Assam (India), have been analysed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Mössbauer data, recorded at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures, show the presence of iron oxide (α-Fe 2O 3, hematite) and iron oxyhydroxide (α-FeOOH, goethite) in the form of fine particles/Al-substituted. All samples exhibited strong superparamagnetism, characteristic of the fine size of the oxide particles and the effect of aluminum substitution. Both hematite and goethite are present in the lower horizon while only goethite occurs in the upper horizon. In addition, silicate clay minerals e.g. kaolinite and illite are also identified.

  11. Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neenu Singh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these nanoparticles. Besides focussing on cytotoxicity, the most commonly used determinant of toxicity as a result of exposure to SPION, this review also mentions the importance of studying the subtle cellular alterations in the form of DNA damage and oxidative stress. We review current studies and discuss how SPION, with or without different surface coating, may cause cellular perturbations including modulation of actin cytoskeleton, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis and altered cellular responses such as activation of signalling pathways and impairment of cell cycle regulation. The importance of protein–SPION interaction and various safety considerations relating to SPION exposure are also addressed.

  12. Reaction between sulfur dioxide and iron oxide cationic clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Shi; HE ShengGui; HE ShengGui; GE MaoFa; GE MaoFa

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity of sulfur dioxide (SO_2) molecules toward iron oxide cationic clusters (Fe_mO_n~+) is studied by a homemade time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled with a laser ablation/supersonic expansion cluster source and a fast flow reactor.The association products Fe_mO_nSO_2~+ can be observed for most of the clusters.The interesting result is that the cooperation effect of SO_2 and water is in favor of the adsorption of gas phase water on specific scale iron oxide clusters (Fe_2O_2~+ and Fe_3O_3~+).The reactivity information obtained may be useful to investigate atmospheric heterogeneous chemistry of related systems.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanagesan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the response of human breast cancer cells' exposure to nanoparticle, iron oxide (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple low temperature combustion method using Fe(NO33·9H2O as raw material. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the resultant powders are pure α-Fe2O3. Transmission electron microscopy study revealed the spherical shape of the primary particles, and the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles is in the range of 19 nm. The magnetic hysteresis loops demonstrated that the sample exposed ferromagnetic behaviors with a relatively low coercivity. The cytotoxicity of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was also evaluated on human breast cancer cells to address the current deficient knowledge of cellular response to nanoparticle exposure.

  14. Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, Roddie Reagan (Knoxville, TN); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Sikka, Vinod Kumar (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

  15. Synthesis of Iron Oxide Yellow from Spent Pickling Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a simple environment-friendly synthesis route of iron oxide yellow (α-FeOOH using spent pickling solutions as raw material. After abundant laboratory experiments, we finally pinned down the best procedure. The research showed that α-FeOOH nanometer material with average diameter of 50nm and average length of 400 nm was prepared at the optimal technique. And the FeOOH content of the sample was as high as 90%, which is higher than the 86% of GB/T1863-2008. The structure, morphology and size distribution of the product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission electron microscope (TEM, Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Malvern lazer particle analyzer, respectively. The test results show that all the indices of as-prepared iron oxide yellow are completely in conformity with and even better than national primes standard.

  16. Designing porous metallic glass compact enclosed with surface iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Young; Park, Hae Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongho [Graphene Research Institute (GRI) & HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Man, E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Global Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 129 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Buem, E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Porous metallic glass compact was developed using electro-discharge sintering process. • Uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. • Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. - Abstract: Porous metallic glass compact (PMGC) using electro-discharge sintering (EDS) process of gas atomized Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} metallic glass powder was developed. The formation of uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. This finding suggests that PMGC can be applied in the new area such as catalyst via hydrothermal technique and offer a promising guideline for using the metallic glasses as a potential functional application.

  17. Structure and growth of oxide on iron-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several oxides form during the initial stages of oxidation of iron-chromium alloys at 400 to 6000C in CO2-1%CO gas. The nature of the oxidation product depends upon crystallographic orientation and composition of the substrate, and can be explained by considering the maximum solubility of chromium in different oxide phases together with interfacial and strain energy factors. Kinetics of oxidation together with micrographic observations indicate that, as oxidation proceeds spinel oxide M3O4 nucleates at sites on the substrate surface associated with asperities. The spinel nuclei grow laterally and vertically until they coalesce and the scale subsequently thickens according to a parabolic rate law. The duplex structure of scales is interpreted in terms of an outward diffusion of cations together with simultaneous growth of an inner layer in the space created by this outward movement. Scale porosity provides a route for gas-phase transport of oxidant to support the growth of the inner layer. Regularly spaced lamellar voids which may form in the inner layer are believed to be associated with a cyclic vacancy condensation process. Enrichment of the inner layer in chromium is explained by analysis of the possible diffusion path networks in close-packed oxides. Some comments are made concerning possible practical applications of these data. (author)

  18. Reactive oxygen species-related activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohao Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides are among the most widely used engineered and naturally occurring nanostructures, and the increasing incidence of biological exposure to these nanostructures has raised concerns about their biotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced oxidative stress is one of the most accepted toxic mechanisms and, in the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the ROS-related activities of iron nanostructures. In this review, we summarize activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides in ROS-related redox processes, addressing in detail the known homogeneous and heterogeneous redox mechanisms involved in these processes, intrinsic ROS-related properties of iron nanostructures (chemical composition, particle size, and crystalline phase, and ROS-related bio-microenvironmental factors, including physiological pH and buffers, biogenic reducing agents, and other organic substances.

  19. Size dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Jhunu; Haik, Yousef. E-mail: haik@eng.fsu.edu; Chen, C.-J.Ching-Jen

    2003-02-01

    {gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles has been synthesized by a combination of chemical and ultrasonication procedure and further stabilized with surfactant. Their magnetic properties are compared with the different fractions (10-12, 20-30, 100-150 nm) of commercially available iron oxide. The sizes obtained from the scanning transmission electron micrographs are correlated with the magnetic properties of the particles.

  20. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahajuddin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wahajuddin,1,2 Sumit Arora21Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rae Bareli, IndiaAbstract: A targeted drug delivery system is the need of the hour. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the principle behind the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs as novel drug delivery vehicles. SPIONs are small synthetic γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite or Fe3O4 (magnetite particles with a core ranging between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. These magnetic particles are coated with certain biocompatible polymers, such as dextran or polyethylene glycol, which provide chemical handles for the conjugation of therapeutic agents and also improve their blood distribution profile. The current research on SPIONs is opening up wide horizons for their use as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging as well as for drug delivery vehicles. Delivery of anticancer drugs by coupling with functionalized SPIONs to their targeted site is one of the most pursued areas of research in the development of cancer treatment strategies. SPIONs have also demonstrated their efficiency as nonviral gene vectors that facilitate the introduction of plasmids into the nucleus at rates multifold those of routinely available standard technologies. SPION-induced hyperthermia has also been utilized for localized killing of cancerous cells. Despite their potential biomedical application, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and altered cellular responses are some SPION-related toxicological aspects which require due consideration. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of SPIONs with regard to their method of preparation, their utility as drug delivery vehicles, and some concerns which need to

  1. The combustion of titanium powder in air and iron oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert Alexander

    2000-01-01

    The quest for ever stronger and tougher steels has lead to an interest in the 'Acicular Ferrite' microstructure, its chaotic and disordered morphology imparting a high degree of toughness to the steel. To date, only complex and expensive materials and manufacturing processes have formed acicular ferrite within bulk cast steel. As such, the thrust of this research is to produce a cheap steel addition, an iron - titanium oxide metal-ceramic composite, that will facilitate the formation of acicu...

  2. Heterobifunctional PEG Ligands for Bioconjugation Reactions on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Bloemen; Thomas Van Stappen; Pieter Willot; Jeroen Lammertyn; Guy Koeckelberghs; Nick Geukens; Ann Gils; Thierry Verbiest

    2014-01-01

    Ever since iron oxide nanoparticles have been recognized as promising scaffolds for biomedical applications, their surface functionalization has become even more important. We report the synthesis of a novel polyethylene glycol-based ligand that combines multiple advantageous properties for these applications. The ligand is covalently bound to the surface via a siloxane group, while its polyethylene glycol backbone significantly improves the colloidal stability of the particle in complex envi...

  3. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brullot, W., E-mail: ward.brullot@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Reddy, N.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Wouters, J.; Valev, V.K.; Goderis, B. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Vermant, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Verbiest, T. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological characterization of ferrofluids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunable properties of versatile polyethylene glycol stabilized ferrofluids.

  4. Radiation defects and metal ions of iron group in oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of transition ion impurities (iron group) upon optical properties and radiation defect production has been studied for alkaline earth metal oxides. Basic physical and chemical properties of the latters have been compared to those of transition metal (iron group) oxides. Original results of magnesium oxide monocrystal growth have been obtained by the method of chemical transport reactions in a narrow gap for various cobalt, nickel and manganese ion concentrations. For transition metal ions the dependences of optical absorption, luminescence and ESR on ion concentration in magnesium oxide have been found. Basing on those dependences and in terms of the ligand field theory the crystal field parameters have been calculated for cobalt and nickel ions. Characteristics of electron and hole center creation in oxides of alkaline earth metals stated for various concentrations of transition metal ions are the following: the change of the ions' electron state, their participation in the radiation defect creation and decay, the interaction between transition metal ions and radiation defects

  5. Investigations on the Oxidation of Iron-chromium and Iron-vanadium Molten Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haijuan

    2010-01-01

    With the progress of high alloy steelmaking processes, it is essential to minimize the loss of valuable metals, like chromium and vanadium during the decarburization process, from both economic as well as environmental view points. One unique technique to realize this aim, used in the present work, is the decarburization of high alloy steel grades using oxygen with CO2 in order to reduce the partial pressure of oxygen. In the present work, the investigation on the oxidation of iron-chromium a...

  6. Iron-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in brackish coastal sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Matthias; Rasigraf, Olivia; Sapart, Célia J.; Jilbert, Tom; Mike S.M. Jetten; Röckmann, Thomas; van der Veen, Carina; Bândă, Narcisa; Kartal, Boran; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2015-01-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its biological conversion in marine sediments, largely controlled by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), is a crucial part of the global carbon cycle. However, little is known about the role of iron oxides as an oxidant for AOM. Here we provide the first field evidence for iron-dependent AOM in brackish coastal surface sediments and show that methane produced in Bothnian Sea sediments is oxidized in distinct zones of iron- and sulfate-dependent AOM. ...

  7. Evaluation of iron oxide nanoparticle biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanini, Amel; Schmitt, Alain; Kacem, Kamel; Chau, François; Ammar, Souad; Gavard, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting field of investigation for the development of new treatments for many human diseases. However, it is necessary to assess the biocompatibility of nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo before considering clinical applications. Our characterization of polyol-produced maghemite γ-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles showed high structural quality. The particles showed a homogeneous spherical size around 10 nm and could form aggregates depending on the dispersion conditions. Such nanoparticles were efficiently taken up in vitro by human endothelial cells, which represent the first biological barrier to nanoparticles in vivo. However, γ-Fe(2)O(3) can cause cell death within 24 hours of exposure, most likely through oxidative stress. Further in vivo exploration suggests that although γ-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles are rapidly cleared through the urine, they can lead to toxicity in the liver, kidneys and lungs, while the brain and heart remain unaffected. In conclusion, γ-Fe(2)O(3) could exhibit harmful properties and therefore surface coating, cellular targeting, and local exposure should be considered before developing clinical applications. PMID:21589646

  8. Statement on the validity and robustness of information provided on irradiated iron oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF notification concerning the use of an unauthorised irradiated colouring agent (brown iron oxide as coatings of food supplements, the European Commission asked EFSA to assess the scientific validity and robustness of three documents i two safety assessments from two pharmaceutical companies including information on the manufacturing process of iron oxides, and ii one safety assessment on gamma irradiated iron oxides in food supplements provided by a consultant. According to the supplier of iron oxides and hydroxides (E 172, the aim of the 60Co-gamma irradiation treatment was to eliminate microbiological contamination. Iron oxides and hydroxides (E 172 are authorised food additives in the EU. EFSA noted that the gamma irradiation of iron oxides (yellow, red, black and brown has not been previously evaluated by other Scientific Committees dealing with foodstuffs, pharmaceutical products or cosmetics and that the irradiation doses applied to iron oxides in this particular case are higher than the doses currently authorised in the EU for “other food and food ingredients”. EFSA also noted that some evidence is available in the literature demonstrating a reduction of iron(III to iron(II due to 60Co-gamma irradiation and, that the food additive black iron oxide, as authorised in the EU, contains iron in both (II and (III valence states. Therefore, an increase in the content of divalent iron would not be of safety concern per se. However, EFSA also notes that the information on irradiated iron oxides provided is very limited and insufficient to substantiate the claim that iron oxides are not expected to undergo any chemical transformation upon irradiation. In order to demonstrate the chemical stability of iron oxide during the 60Co-gamma irradiation treatment, EFSA recommends to carry out some further analyses.

  9. Evaluation of Characterization Techniques for Iron Pipe Corrosion Products and Iron Oxide Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borch, Thomas; Camper, Anne K.; Biederman, Joel A.; Butterfield, Phillip; Gerlach, Robin; Amonette, James E.

    2008-10-01

    A common problem faced by drinking water studies is that of properly characterizing the corrosion products (CP) in iron pipescor synthetic Fe (hydr)oxides used to simulate the iron pipe used in municipal drinking-water systems. The present work compares the relative applicability of a suite of imaging and analytical techniques for the characterization of CPs and synthetic Fe oxide thin films and provide an overview of the type of data that each instrument can provide as well as their limitations to help researchers and consultants choose the best technique for a given task. Crushed CP from a water distribution system and synthetic Fe oxide thin films formed on glass surfaces were chosen as test samples for this evaluation. The CP and synthetic Fe oxide thin films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), grazing incident diffractometry (GID), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller N2 adsorption and Fe concentration was determined by the ferrozine method. XRD and GID were found to be the most suitable techniques for identification of the mineralogical composition of CP and synthetic Fe oxide thin films, respectively. AFM and a combined ToF-SIMS-AFM approach proved excellent for roughness and depth profiling analysis of synthetic Fe oxide thin films, respectively. Corrosion products were difficult to study by AFM due to their surface roughness, while synthetic Fe oxide thin films resisted most spectroscopic methods due to their limited thickness (118 nm). XPS analysis is not recommended for mixtures of Fe (hydr)oxides due to their spectral similarities. SEM and TEM provided great detail on mineralogical morphology.

  10. Enhanced piezoelectric and mechanical properties of electroactive polyvinylidene fluoride/iron oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Zen-Wei; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Wu, Tzong-Ming, E-mail: tmwu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2015-01-15

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/iron oxide composites fabricated from monodispersed 6 nm iron oxide nanoparticles in the crystalline form of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and polyvinylidene fluoride in a mixed solvent system (THF/DMF) through the solution mixing technique. Structural analysis using transmission electron microscopy shows that the 6 nm iron oxide nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in PVDF matrix. The piezoelectric responses of PVDF/iron oxide composites are extensively increased about five times in magnitude with applied electrical field poling at 35 MV/m. Mechanical properties of the fabricated 2 wt% PVDF/iron oxide composites measured by dynamic mechanical analysis indicate significant enhancements in the storage modulus when compared to that of neat PVDF. The incorporation of 2 wt% iron oxide nanoparticles into the PVDF matrix improves the thermal stability about 28 °C as compared to that of PVDF. The effect of iron oxide on the isothermal degradation behavior of PVDF is also investigated. - Highlights: • A new PVDF/iron oxide composite were synthesized for electroactive usages. • Thermal properties of composite have improved as the contents of iron oxide increase. • Piezoelectric property of composite increases with increasing content of iron oxide. • Piezoelectric responses of composite enhance notably with applying electrical field.

  11. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM GROUNDWATER USING NATURALLY OCCURRING IRON OXIDES IN RURAL REGIONS OF MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have found that the iron oxide particles produced by grinding naturally occurring iron ores are very effective in removing arsenic from water. The arsenic adsorption isothermal of the particles h...

  12. Altering the structure and properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and graphene oxide/iron oxide composites by urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Samira; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Jaleh, Babak; Park, Soo Jin

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a simple microwave-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration on Fe2O3 nanoparticles and GO/Fe2O3 composite were examined. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe2O3 nanoparticles were uniformly developed on GO sheets. The results showed that urea affects both Fe2O3 morphology and particle size. In the absence of urea, the Fe2O3 nanostructures exhibited a rod-like morphology. However, increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. The Raman results of GO/Fe2O3 showed that the intensity ratio of D band to G band (ID/IG) was decreased by addition of urea, indicating that urea can preserve the GO sheets during synthesis of the composite from exposing more defects. The surface area and thermal stability of GO/Fe2O3 and Fe2O3 were compared using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that the increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe2O3 nanoparticles. However, the increase in urea concentration led to decreased thermal stability of the Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The magnetic properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer and results revealed that the magnetic properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles are affected by the morphology.

  13. Mercury removal in wastewater by iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, E.; Campillo, G. E.; Morales, G.; Hincapié, C.; Osorio, J.; Arnache, O.; Uribe, J. I.; Jaramillo, F.

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is one of the persistent pollutants in wastewater; it is becoming a severe environmental and public health problem, this is why nowadays its removal is an obligation. Iron oxide nanoparticles are receiving much attention due to their properties, such as: great biocompatibility, ease of separation, high relation of surface-area to volume, surface modifiability, reusability, excellent magnetic properties and relative low cost. In this experiment, Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized using iron salts and NaOH as precipitation agents, and Aloe Vera as stabilizing agent; then these nanoparticles were characterized by three different measurements: first, using a Zetasizer Nano ZS for their size estimation, secondly UV-visible spectroscopy which showed the existence of resonance of plasmon at λmax∼360 nm, and lastly by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine nanoparticles form. The results of this characterization showed that the obtained Iron oxides nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution (∼100nm). Mercury removal of 70% approximately was confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements.

  14. Investigation on steelmaking dust recycling and iron oxide red preparing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingfeng Fu; Qiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the physical and chemical properties of the steelmaking dust, wet sieve separation, XRD, SEM, EDS, and traditional chemical analysis were carried out to obtain the particle size distribution, mineralogy, morphology, and the chemical composition of the dust. The dust with a total Fe content of 64.08wt% has coarse metallic iron, magnetite and hematite grains, while fine clay minerals with a size of <38 μm are mainly iosiderite, calcium silicate, and calcite, which are conglomerated to each other.By following the procedures of wet magnetic separation, acid leaching, and oxidization calcination, magnetic materials were recycled and further prepared as iron oxide red with a productivity of 0.54 ton per unit ton of the dust. Middle iron concentrate with an Fe content of 65.92wt% can be reused as feeding material in the ironmaking industry. Additionally, washed water from acid leaching with an Fe3+ ion content of less than 5 g·L-1 was recovered as feeding water in the wet magnetic separation procedure.

  15. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside Abrogates Oxidative Stress-Induced Damage in Cardiac Iron Overload Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Puukila; Sean Bryan; Anna Laakso; Jessica Abdel-Malak; Carli Gurney; Adrian Agostino; Adriane Belló-Klein; Kailash Prasad; Neelam Khaper

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and ...

  16. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistyakova, Nataliya I., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Shapkin, Alexey A., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Sirazhdinov, Ruslan R., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Gubaidulina, Tatiana V., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Kiseleva, Tatiana Yu., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Kazakov, Alexander P., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-27

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the 'iron-polymer' interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data.

  17. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, Nataliya I.; Shapkin, Alexey A.; Sirazhdinov, Ruslan R.; Gubaidulina, Tatiana V.; Kiseleva, Tatiana Yu.; Kazakov, Alexander P.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.

    2014-10-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the "iron-polymer" interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data.

  18. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, non-irradiated iron oxide-dextran composite material. The biocompatibility of the iron oxide-dextran thin films was demonstrated by 3-(4.5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based colorimetric assay, using human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells. - Highlights: ► Hybrid, dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles and thin films. ► Laser immobilization. ► Biocompatibility of dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles.

  19. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predoi, D.; Ciobanu, C.S. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, P.O. Box MG 07, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Radu, M.; Costache, M.; Dinischiotu, A. [Molecular Biology Center, University of Bucharest, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 76201, Bucharest 5 (Romania); Popescu, C.; Axente, E.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiations Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Gyorgy, E., E-mail: egyorgy@cin2.es [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiations Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centre d' Investigacions en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (CSIC-CIN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, non-irradiated iron oxide-dextran composite material. The biocompatibility of the iron oxide-dextran thin films was demonstrated by 3-(4.5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based colorimetric assay, using human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid, dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles and thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser immobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biocompatibility of dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles.

  20. Chitosan-Iron Oxide Coated Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Hydrogel: A Robust and Soft Antimicrobial Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwar, Achyut; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Kotoky, Jibon; Chowdhury, Devasish

    2016-08-17

    We report a robust biofilm with antimicrobial properties fabricated from chitosan-iron oxide coated graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogel. For the first time, the coprecipitation method was used for the successful synthesis of iron oxide coated graphene oxide (GIO) nanomaterial. After this, films were fabricated by the gel-casting technique aided by the self-healing ability of the chitosan hydrogel network system. Both the nanomaterial and the nanocomposite films were characterized by techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Measurements of the thermodynamic stability and mechanical properties of the films indictaed a significant improvement in their thermal and mechanical properties. Moreover, the stress-strain profile indicated the tough nature of the nanocomposite hydrogel films. These improvements, therefore, indicated an effective interaction and good compatibility of the GIO nanomaterial with the chitosan hydrogel matrix. In addition, it was also possible to fabricate films with tunable surface properties such as hydrophobicity simply by varying the loading percentage of GIO nanomaterial in the hydrogel matrix. Fascinatingly, the chitosan-iron oxide coated graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogel films displayed significant antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and also against the opportunistic dermatophyte Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities of the films were tested by agar diffusion assay and antimicrobial testing based on direct contact. A comparison of the antimicrobial activity of the chitosan-GIO nanocomposite hydrogel films with those of individual chitosan-graphene oxide and chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite films demonstrated a higher antimicrobial activity for the former in both types of tests. In vitro hemolysis

  1. Iron oxide-based nanomagnets in nanomedicine: fabrication and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Meng Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide-based nanomagnets have attracted a great deal of attention in nanomedicine over the past decade. Down to the nanoscale, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can only be magnetized in the presence of an external magnetic field, which makes them capable of forming stable colloids in a physio-biological medium. Their superparamagnetic property, together with other intrinsic properties, such as low cytotoxicity, colloidal stability, and bioactive molecule conjugation capability, makes such nanomagnets ideal in both in-vitro and in-vivo biomedical applications. In this review, a chemical, physical, and biological synthetic approach to prepare iron oxide-based nanomagnets with different physicochemical properties was illustrated and compared. The growing interest in iron oxide-based nanomagnets with multifunctionalities was explored in cancer diagnostics and treatment, focusing on their combined roles in a magnetic resonance contrast agent, hyperthermia, and magnetic force assisted drug delivery. Iron oxides as magnetic carriers in gene therapy were reviewed with a focus on the sophisticated design and construction of magnetic vectors. Finally, the iron oxide-based nanomagnet also represents a very promising tool in particle/cell interfacing in controlling cellular functionalities, such as adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and cell patterning, in stem cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. Meng Meng Lin received a BSc in biotechnology at the University of Hong Kong, China in 2004 and an MSc in biomedical nanotechnology at Newcastle University, UK, in 2005. She is currently working toward her PhD at the Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, UK. She was a visiting student at the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, in 2006. Her research interests include nanoparticles preparation, cell/nanomaterials interface, and cancer-oriented drug delivery. Hyung-Hwan Kim received an MSc degree in

  2. Synthesis of Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticle with Amino Pyridine Moiety and Studies on Their Catalytic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Girija, D.; Naik, Halehatty S. Bhojya; Kumar, B. Vinay; Sudhamani, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of this paper is to study the synthesis of functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle and its reactivity towards chromene synthesis Study design: Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle study. Place and duration of study: Department of Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, between December 2009 and July 2010. Methodology: This paper describes synthesis of stable functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles ...

  3. Enriched iron(III-reducing bacterial communities are shaped by carbon substrate and iron oxide mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lentini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III oxides (e.g., goethite, hematite, which are poorly reduced by model dissimilatory Fe(III-reducing microorganisms. This begs the question, what processes and microbial groups are responsible for reduction of crystalline Fe(III oxides within sedimentary environments? Further, how do changes in Fe mineralogy shape oxide-hosted microbial populations? To address these questions, we conducted a large-scale cultivation effort using various Fe(III oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite and carbon substrates (glucose, lactate, acetate along a dilution gradient to enrich for microbial populations capable of reducing Fe oxides spanning a wide range of crystallinities and reduction potentials. While carbon source was the most important variable shaping community composition within Fe(III-reducing enrichments, both Fe oxide type and sediment dilution also had a substantial influence. For instance, with acetate as the carbon source, only ferrihydrite enrichments displayed a significant amount of Fe(III reduction and the well known dissimilatory metal reducer Geobacter sp. was the dominant organism enriched. In contrast, when glucose and lactate were provided, all three Fe oxides were reduced and reduction coincided with the presence of fermentative (e.g. Enterobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g. Desulfovibrio spp.. Thus, changes in Fe oxide structure and resource availability may shift Fe(III-reducing communities between dominantly metal-respiring to fermenting and/or sulfate-reducing organisms which are capable of reducing more recalcitrant Fe phases. These findings highlight the need for further targeted investigations into the composition and activity of speciation-directed metal-reducing populations within natural environments.

  4. Cellular level loading and heating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambur, Venkat S; Longmire, Ellen K; Bischof, John C

    2007-11-20

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) hold promise for a variety of biomedical applications due to their properties of visualization using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), heating with radio frequency (rf), and movement in an external magnetic field. In this study, the cellular loading (uptake) mechanism of dextran- and surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs by malignant prostate tumor cells (LNCaP-Pro5) has been studied, and the feasibility of traditional rf treatment and a new laser heating method was evaluated. The kinetics of cell loading was quantified using magnetophoresis and a colorimetric assay. The results showed that loading of surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs with LNCaP-Pro5 was saturable with time (at 24 h) and extracellular concentration (11 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL), indicating that the particles are taken up by an "adsorptive endocytosis" pathway. Dextran-coated NPs, however, were taken up less efficiently (1 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL). Loading did not saturate with concentration suggesting uptake by fluid-phase endocytosis. Magnetophoresis suggests that NP-loaded cells can be held using external magnetic fields in microcirculatory flow velocities in vivo or in an appropriately designed extracorporeal circuit. Loaded cells were heated using traditional rf (260A, 357 kHz) and a new laser method (532 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 0.03 J/pulse, 20 pulse/s). Iron oxide in water was found to absorb sufficiently strongly at 532 nm such that heating of individual NPs and thus loaded cells (1 pg Fe/cell) was effective (10 pg Fe/cell) and longer duration (30 min) when compared to laser to accomplish cell destruction (50% viability at 10 pg Fe/cell). Scaling calculations show that the pulsed laser method can lead to single-cell (loaded with NPs) treatments (200 degrees C temperature change at the surface of an individual NP) unlike traditional rf heating methods which can be used only for bulk tissue level treatments. In a mixture of normal and NP

  5. Hydrothermal treatment of electrochemically synthesized nanocrystalline magnetic iron oxide powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulićević Lj.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic iron oxide nano-powders were synthesised electrochemically, using a low-carbon steel electrode immersed in a NaCl aqueous solution, at constant temperature of the electrolyte, pH and current density. In the second step, portions of the starting admixture were boiled at ~360 K during two hours and autoclaved at various temperatures. Both the starting powder and the treated ones were examined by a standard XRD method, then uniaxially pressed into pellets under 400 MPa, and their electric and magnetic behavior during non isothermal heating was analyzed.

  6. Hydrothermal treatment of electrochemically synthesized nanocrystalline magnetic iron oxide powder

    OpenAIRE

    Vulićević Lj.; Ivanović N.; Maričić A.; Srećković M.; Vardić S.; Plazinić M.; Tomić Ž.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nano-powders were synthesised electrochemically, using a low-carbon steel electrode immersed in a NaCl aqueous solution, at constant temperature of the electrolyte, pH and current density. In the second step, portions of the starting admixture were boiled at ~360 K during two hours and autoclaved at various temperatures. Both the starting powder and the treated ones were examined by a standard XRD method, then uniaxially pressed into pellets under 400 MPa, and their electr...

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Holmium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bloemen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth atoms exhibit several interesting properties, for example, large magnetic moments and luminescence. Introducing these atoms into a different matrix can lead to a material that shows multiple interesting effects. Holmium atoms were incorporated into an iron oxide nanoparticle and the concentration of the dopant atom was changed in order to determine its influence on the host crystal. Its magnetic and magneto-optical properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry and Faraday rotation measurements. The luminescent characteristics of the material, in solution and incorporated in a polymer thin film, were probed by fluorescence experiments.

  8. Radiation-induced synthesis of gold, iron-oxide composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite nanoparticles consisting of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles were synthesized using gamma-rays or electron beam. Ionizing irradiation induces the generation of reducing species inside the aqueous solution, and gold ions are reduced to form metallic Au nanoparticles. The size of Au nanoparticles depended on the dose rate and the concentration of support iron oxide. The gold nanoparticles on iron oxide nanoparticles selectively adsorb biomolecules via Au-S bonding. By using magnetic property of the support iron oxide nanoparticles, the composite nanoparticles are expected as a new type of magnetic nanocarrier for biomedical applications. (author)

  9. Catalytic effect of free iron ions and heme-iron on chromophore oxidation of a polyene antibiotic amphotericin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernel, Grzegorz; Typek, Rafał; Klimek, Katarzyna; Czuryło, Aleksandra; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L.; Gagoś, Mariusz

    2016-05-01

    Owing to the presence of a chromophore in the amphotericin B (AmB) structure, the molecule can undergo the oxidation process. In this research, AmB chromophore oxidation was catalysed by iron ions (iron(III) chloride (FeCl3), pH 2.5) and by heme-iron (methemoglobin (HbFe(III)), and hemin (heme-Fe(III)) at pH 7.0). Additionally, we compared oxidation processes induced by the aforementioned oxidizing agents with autoxidation by dioxygen (O2) naturally occurring in a sample. The effects of the interaction of the oxidizing agents with AmB were analysed using molecular spectroscopies (electronic absorption (UV-Vis), fluorescence) and LC-MS. The use of a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) chelator facilitated unambiguous determination of the oxidative effect of free iron(III) ions (FeIII) in an acidic solution on the AmB molecules. Also, the changes in the spectra of fluorescence emission centred at ∼470 nm indicate iron-catalysed processes of AmB chromophore oxidation. Unexpectedly, we found a similar spectroscopic effect for AmB induced by methemoglobin and hemin at pH 7.0. Methemoglobin and hemin at a concentration of 8 × 10-7 M (physiological) significantly increases the rate of the processes of AmB chromophore oxidation relative to the process of autoxidation.

  10. Thermo-electric oxidization of iron in lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    Lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO{sub 3}) are a promising material for nonlinear-optical applications like frequency conversion to generate visible light, e.g., in laser displays, but their achievable output power is greatly limited by the ''optical damage'', i.e., light-induced refractive-index changes caused by excitation of electrons from iron impurities and the subsequent retrapping in unilluminated areas of the crystal. The resulting space-charge fields modify the refractive indices due to the electro-optic effect. By this ''photorefractive effect'' the phase-matching condition, i.e., the avoidance of destructive interference between light generated at different crystal positions due to the dispersion of the fundamental wave and the converted wave, is disturbed critically above a certain light intensity threshold. The influence of annealing treatments conducted in the presence of an externally applied electric field (''thermo-electric oxidization'') on the valence state of iron impurities and thereby on the optical damage is investigated. It is observed that for highly iron-doped LiNbO{sub 3} crystals this treatment leads to a nearly complete oxidization from Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} indicated by the disappearance of the absorption caused by Fe{sup 2+}. During the treatment an absorption front forms that moves through the crystal. The absorption in the visible as well as the electrical conductivity are decreased by up to five orders of magnitude due to this novel treatment. The ratio of the Fe{sup 2+} concentration to the total iron concentration - a measure for the strength of the oxidization - is in the order of 10{sup -6} for oxidized crystals whereas it is about 10{sup -1} for untreated samples. Birefringence changes are observed at the absorption front that are explained by the removal of hydrogen and lithium ions from the crystal that compensate for the charges of the also removed electrons from

  11. Thermo-electric oxidization of iron in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO3) are a promising material for nonlinear-optical applications like frequency conversion to generate visible light, e.g., in laser displays, but their achievable output power is greatly limited by the ''optical damage'', i.e., light-induced refractive-index changes caused by excitation of electrons from iron impurities and the subsequent retrapping in unilluminated areas of the crystal. The resulting space-charge fields modify the refractive indices due to the electro-optic effect. By this ''photorefractive effect'' the phase-matching condition, i.e., the avoidance of destructive interference between light generated at different crystal positions due to the dispersion of the fundamental wave and the converted wave, is disturbed critically above a certain light intensity threshold. The influence of annealing treatments conducted in the presence of an externally applied electric field (''thermo-electric oxidization'') on the valence state of iron impurities and thereby on the optical damage is investigated. It is observed that for highly iron-doped LiNbO3 crystals this treatment leads to a nearly complete oxidization from Fe2+ to Fe3+ indicated by the disappearance of the absorption caused by Fe2+. During the treatment an absorption front forms that moves through the crystal. The absorption in the visible as well as the electrical conductivity are decreased by up to five orders of magnitude due to this novel treatment. The ratio of the Fe2+ concentration to the total iron concentration - a measure for the strength of the oxidization - is in the order of 10-6 for oxidized crystals whereas it is about 10-1 for untreated samples. Birefringence changes are observed at the absorption front that are explained by the removal of hydrogen and lithium ions from the crystal that compensate for the charges of the also removed electrons from Fe2+. A microscopic shock-wave model is developed that explains the observed absorption front by a self

  12. Reactions of metal ions at surfaces of hydrous iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Cu, Ag and Cr concentrations in natural water may be lowered by mild chemical reduction involving ferric hydroxide-ferrous ion redox processes. V and Mo solubilities may be controlled by precipitation of ferrous vanadate or molybdate. Concentrations as low as 10-8.00 or 10-9.00 M are readily attainable for all these metals in oxygen-depleted systems that are relatively rich in Fe. Deposition of manganese oxides such as Mn3O4 can be catalyzed in oxygenated water by coupling to ferrous-ferric redox reactions. Once formed, these oxides may disproportionate, giving Mn4+ oxides. This reaction produces strongly oxidizing conditions at manganese oxide surfaces. The solubility of As is significantly influenced by ferric iron only at low pH. Spinel structures such as chromite or ferrites of Cu, Ni, and Zn, are very stable and if locally developed on ferric hydroxide surfaces could bring about solubilities much below 10-9.00 M for divalent metals near neutral pH. Solubilities calculated from thermodynamic data are shown graphically and compared with observed concentrations in some natural systems. ?? 1977.

  13. Neutrophilic Iron Oxidizing Bacteria: Occurrence and Relevance in Biological Drinking Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    Rapid sand filtration (RSF) is an economical way to treat anoxic groundwater around the world. It consists of groundwater aeration followed by passage through a sand filter. The oxidation and removal of ferrous iron, which is commonly found in anoxic groundwaters, is often believed to be a fully...... physicochemical process. However, persistently low temperatures in RSF across Denmark may negatively affect the kinetics of chemical oxidation. The slower chemical oxidation of ferrous iron may increase the chances for iron bioconversion by neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), which are found naturally......, neutrophilic iron oxidizers were present at the level of up to 7 105 cells per gram sediment. The spatial abundance and diversity of FeOB inferred by DGGE fingerprinting differed greatly both between and within individual sand filters. The results suggest a larger than assumed role of FeOB in iron removal...

  14. Molecular modeling studies of oleate adsorption on iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, Swagat S. [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Sinha, Nishant [Accelrys K.K, Bengaluru (India); Sahoo, Hrushikesh [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Das, Bisweswar, E-mail: bdas@immt.res.in [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Mishra, Barada Kanta [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Plane wave periodic DFT study of oleate-iron oxide interaction. • Magnetite-oleate complex is more stable than hematite and goethite. • Flotation recovery of magnetite is more compared to the other two oxides. - Abstract: Comparative studies of oleate interaction with hematite, magnetite and goethite using density functional calculations are presented. The approach is illustrated by carrying out geometric optimization of oleate on the stable and most exposed planes of hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Interaction energies for oleate-mineral surface have been determined, based on which, magnetite is found to be forming the most stable complex with oleate. Trend as obtained from the quantum chemical calculations has been validated by contact angle measurements and flotation studies on hematite, magnetite and goethite with sodium oleate at different pH and collector concentrations.

  15. Improved Aeration Process - Catalytic Role Of The Iron Oxides In Arsenic Oxidation And Coprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    Demands for a better drinking water quality, especially concerning arsenic, a compound with many adverse health effects, put a pressure on the utilities to ensure the best treatment technologies that meet nowadays and possible future quality standards. The aim of this paper is to introduce...... an improved aeration process that can also help in developing better arsenic removal treatment. The results present advantages of arsenic oxidation in an aeration process in the presence of ferrihydrite surface that have been shown to adsorb arsenic simultaneously to its oxidation. The presence...... of precipitated (ferrihydrite surface) and dissolved iron enhanced arsenic oxidation in comparison to solution with absence of precipitated iron in laboratory scale experiments. However, in the pilot scale studies the adsorption of arsenite on ferrihydrite was found to be the main process occurring during...

  16. Targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Hong Peng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Hong Peng1,4, Ximei Qian2,4, Hui Mao3,4, Andrew Y Wang5, Zhuo (Georgia Chen1,4, Shuming Nie2,4, Dong M Shin1,4*1Department of Medical Oncology/Hematology; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering; 3Department of Radiology; 4Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Ocean Nanotech, LLC, Fayetteville, AR, USAAbstract: Magnetic iron oxide (IO nanoparticles with a long blood retention time, biodegradability and low toxicity have emerged as one of the primary nanomaterials for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. IO nanoparticles have a large surface area and can be engineered to provide a large number of functional groups for cross-linking to tumor-targeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or small molecules for diagnostic imaging or delivery of therapeutic agents. IO nanoparticles possess unique paramagnetic properties, which generate significant susceptibility effects resulting in strong T2 and T*2 contrast, as well as T1 effects at very low concentrations for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is widely used for clinical oncology imaging. We review recent advances in the development of targeted IO nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, tumor imaging, MRI, therapy

  17. Thermal and magnetic properties of chitosan-iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula I P; Machado, Diana; Laia, César; Pereira, Laura C J; Coutinho, Joana T; Ferreira, Isabel M M; Novo, Carlos M M; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan is a biopolymer widely used for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, wound healing, and tissue engineering. Chitosan can be used as coating for other types of materials such as iron oxide nanoparticles, improving its biocompatibility while extending its range of applications. In this work iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) produced by chemical precipitation and thermal decomposition and coated with chitosan with different molecular weights were studied. Basic characterization on bare and chitosan-Fe3O4 NPs was performed demonstrating that chitosan does not affect the crystallinity, chemical composition, and superparamagnetic properties of the Fe3O4 NPs, and also the incorporation of Fe3O4 NPs into chitosan nanoparticles increases the later hydrodynamic diameter without compromising its physical and chemical properties. The nano-composite was tested for magnetic hyperthermia by applying an alternating current magnetic field to the samples demonstrating that the heating ability of the Fe3O4 NPs was not significantly affected by chitosan.

  18. Thermal and magnetic properties of chitosan-iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula I P; Machado, Diana; Laia, César; Pereira, Laura C J; Coutinho, Joana T; Ferreira, Isabel M M; Novo, Carlos M M; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan is a biopolymer widely used for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, wound healing, and tissue engineering. Chitosan can be used as coating for other types of materials such as iron oxide nanoparticles, improving its biocompatibility while extending its range of applications. In this work iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) produced by chemical precipitation and thermal decomposition and coated with chitosan with different molecular weights were studied. Basic characterization on bare and chitosan-Fe3O4 NPs was performed demonstrating that chitosan does not affect the crystallinity, chemical composition, and superparamagnetic properties of the Fe3O4 NPs, and also the incorporation of Fe3O4 NPs into chitosan nanoparticles increases the later hydrodynamic diameter without compromising its physical and chemical properties. The nano-composite was tested for magnetic hyperthermia by applying an alternating current magnetic field to the samples demonstrating that the heating ability of the Fe3O4 NPs was not significantly affected by chitosan. PMID:27261762

  19. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation of iron(II) in rapid sand filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van C.G.E.M.; Hiemstra, T.; Hofs, B.; Nederlof, M.M.; Paassen, van J.A.M.; Reijnen, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation may precipitate iron(II) as iron(III) hydroxides. In this paper we evaluate the conditions under which each of these processes is dominant in rapid sand filtration (RSF). It is demonstrated that in the presence of iron(III) hydroxide precipitates h

  20. Iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetically assisted patterned coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodi, Gianina; Hritcu, Doina, E-mail: dhritcu@ch.tuiasi.ro; Draganescu, Dan; Popa, Marcel I.

    2015-08-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles able to magnetically assemble during the curing stage of a polymeric support to create micro-scale surface protuberances in a controlled manner were prepared and characterized. The bare Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were obtained by two methods: co-precipitation from an aqueous solution containing Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions with a molar ratio of 2:1 and partial oxidation of ferrous ions in alkaline conditions. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurement. They were subsequently functionalized using oleic acid, sodium oleate, or non-ionic surfactant mixtures with various hydrophilic to lipophilic balance (HLB) values. Composite nanoparticle-polymer films prepared by spraying were deposited and cured by drying on glass slides under a static magnetic field in the range of 1.5–5.5 mT. Magnetic field generated surface roughness was evidenced by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The optimum hierarchical patterning was obtained with the nanoparticles produced by partial oxidation and functionalized with hydrophobic surfactants. Possible applications may include ice-phobic composite coatings. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanoparticles bearing variable hydrophobic functionality were synthesized. • Partial oxidation in alkaline solution is proved to be the optimum synthesis method. • Nanoparticle assembly in magnetic field produced films with hierarchical roughness. • Coating patterning is controlled by surfactant nature and magnetic field strength. • Possible applications in composite films with ice-phobic properties are suggested.

  1. Iron isotope fractionation during microbial dissimilatory iron oxide reduction in simulated Archaean seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percak-Dennett, E M; Beard, B L; Xu, H; Konishi, H; Johnson, C M; Roden, E E

    2011-05-01

    The largest Fe isotope excursion yet measured in marine sedimentary rocks occurs in shales, carbonates, and banded iron formations of Neoarchaean and Paleoproterozoic age. The results of field and laboratory studies suggest a potential role for microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in producing this excursion. However, most experimental studies of Fe isotope fractionation during DIR have been conducted in simple geochemical systems, using pure Fe(III) oxide substrates that are not direct analogues to phases likely to have been present in Precambrian marine environments. In this study, Fe isotope fractionation was investigated during microbial reduction of an amorphous Fe(III) oxide-silica coprecipitate in anoxic, high-silica, low-sulphate artificial Archaean seawater at 30 °C to determine if such conditions alter the extent of reduction or isotopic fractionations relative to those observed in simple systems. The Fe(III)-Si coprecipitate was highly reducible (c. 80% reduction) in the presence of excess acetate. The coprecipitate did not undergo phase conversion (e.g. to green rust, magnetite or siderite) during reduction. Iron isotope fractionations suggest that rapid and near-complete isotope exchange took place among all Fe(II) and Fe(III) components, in contrast to previous work on goethite and hematite, where exchange was limited to the outer few atom layers of the substrate. Large quantities of low-δ(56)Fe Fe(II) (aqueous and solid phase) were produced during reduction of the Fe(III)-Si coprecipitate. These findings shed new light on DIR as a mechanism for producing Fe isotope variations observed in Neoarchaean and Paleoproterozoic marine sedimentary rocks.

  2. [Neutrophilic lithotrophic iron-oxidizing prokaryotes and their role in the biogeochemical processes of the iron cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Biology of lithotrophic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing prokaryotes and their role in the processes of the biogeochemical cycle of iron are discussed. This group of microorganisms is phylogenetically, taxonomically, and physiologically heterogeneous, comprising three metabolically different groups: aerobes, nitrate-dependent anaerobes, and phototrophs; the latter two groups have been revealed relatively recently. Their taxonomy and metabolism are described. Materials on the structure and functioning of the electron transport chain in the course of Fe(II) oxidation by members of various physiological groups are discussed. Occurrence of iron oxidizers in freshwater and marine ecosystems, thermal springs, areas of hydrothermal activity, and underwater volcanic areas are considered. Molecular genetic techniques were used to determine the structure of iron-oxidizing microbial communities in various natural ecosystems. Analysis of stable isotope fractioning of 56/54Fe in pure cultures and model experiments revealed predominance of biological oxidation over abiotic ones in shallow aquatic habitats and mineral springs, which was especially pronounced under microaerobic conditions at the redox zone boundary. Discovery of anaerobic bacterial Fe(II) oxidation resulted in development of new hypotheses concerning the possible role of microorganisms and the mechanisms of formation of the major iron ore deposits in Precambrian and early Proterozoic epoch. Paleobiological data are presented on the microfossils and specific biomarkers retrieved from ancient ore samples and confirming involvement of anaerobic biogenic processes in their formation.

  3. Magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of nanocrystalline iron oxide aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpenter, E.E.; Long, J.W.; Rolison, D.R.;

    2006-01-01

    A sol-gel synthesis was used to produce iron oxide aerogels. These nanocrystalline aerogels have a pore-solid structure similar to silica aerogels but are composed entirely of iron oxides. Mössbauer experiments and x-ray diffraction showed that the as-prepared aerogel is an amorphous or poorly...

  4. HREM investigation of the constitution and the crystallography of thin thermal oxide layers on iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graat, P.C.J.; Brongers, M.P.H.; Zandbergen, H.W.;

    1997-01-01

    Oxide layers formed at 573 K in O2 at atmospheric pressure, both on a clean iron surface and on an iron surface covered with an etching induced (hydro)oxide film, were investigated with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM). Cross-sections of oxidised samples were prepared by a ...

  5. Genome Sequence of the Acidophilic Iron Oxidizer Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum Strain T23T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja; Johnson, D. Barrie; Daniel, Rolf; Schlömann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Extremely acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria have largely been characterized for the phyla Proteobacteria and Nitrospira. Here, we report the draft genome of an iron-oxidizing and -reducing heterotrophic mesophile of the Actinobacteria, Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum, which was isolated from an abandoned pyrite mine. The genome sequence comprises 3.08 Mb. PMID:25931604

  6. Iron catalyzed oxidation chemistry : from C-H bond activation to DNA cleavag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Tieme Adriaan van den

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic iron complex Fe(N4Py) can be employed as a catalyst in the aerobic oxidation of DNA. The resulting oxidized DNA strand is rather unstable and results in cleavage of the DNA strand into two pieces. As for now, it was only possible with Fe(N4Py) or other synthetic iron complexes as catal

  7. Identification of Iron Oxides Qualitatively/Quantitatively Formed during the High Temperature Oxidation of Superalloys in Air and Steam Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Siddique; N.Hussain; M.Shafi

    2009-01-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopy has been used to study the morphology of iron oxides formed during the oxidation of superalloys, such as SS-304L (1.4306S), Incoloy-800H, Incoloy-825, UBHA-25L, Sanicro-28 and Inconel-690, at 1200℃ exposed in air and steam environments for 400 h. The basic aim was to identify and compare the iron oxides qualitatively and quantitatively, formed during the oxidation of these alloys in two environments. The behaviour of alloy UBHA-25L in high temperature oxidation in both environments indicates that it has good oxidation resistance especially in steam, whereas Sanicro-28 has excellent corrosion resistance in steam environment. In air oxidation of lnconel-690 no iron oxide, with established Mossbauer parameters, was detected.

  8. Investigating the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles in in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Sarieh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ghasempour, Roghayeh; Alipour, Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, iron oxide nanorods find a lot of applications including drug delivery, cell separation, hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging. In this study the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanorods was evaluated based on mouse fibroblast cell behavior and wistar rat's liver and kidney function. At first for modification, nanorods were added to Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) which contained a lot of sources of vitamins, amino acids, proteins in Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS). The MTT assay was employed for evaluating the toxic effects of 200 and 400 μg/mL modified and non-modified iron oxide nanorods on L929 mouse fibroblast cells in a 24h period. Changes in cell granularity and size as well as cell cycle were investigated using flow cytometry. Moreover liver and kidney function test and serum iron level measurement were performed 24h after the injection of modified iron oxide nanorods via the tail peripheral vein of wistar rats. Results indicated that greater concentration of modified iron oxide nanorods had no significant effect on cell viability while greater concentration of non-modified iron oxide nanorods significantly decreased cell viability. Modified iron oxide nanorods did not have significant effects on cell cycle. The results of liver and kidney function tests did not differ significantly while a significant increase in serum iron level was observed. After H&E staining of slices, there were no changes on morphology of rat's kidney and liver cells. This study suggests that short-time use of 200 and 400 μg/mL iron oxide nanorods are probably safe. Further studies are needed for investigation of toxic effects of different concentrations, coatings, and exposure time periods of iron oxide nanorods. PMID:26279467

  9. Neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria: occurrence and relevance in biological drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    Rapid sand filtration (RSF) is an economical way to treat anoxic groundwater around the world. It consists of groundwater aeration followed by passage through a sand filter. The oxidation and removal of ferrous iron, which is commonly found in anoxic groundwaters, is often believed to be a fully...... physicochemical process. However, persistently low temperatures in RSF across Denmark may negatively affect the kinetics of chemical oxidation. The slower chemical oxidation of ferrous iron may increase the chances for iron bioconversion by neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), which are found naturally......, neutrophilic iron oxidizers were present at the level of up to 7 × 105 cells g_1 sediment. The spatial abundance and diversity of FeOB inferred by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting differed greatly both between andwithin individual sand filters. The results suggest a larger than assumed...

  10. Preparation of iron oxide-entrapped chitosan nanoparticles for stem cell labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaleawlert-Umpon, Saowaluk; Mayen, Varissaporn; Manotham, Krissanapong; Pimpha, Nuttaporn

    2010-01-01

    This study intended to prepare iron oxide nanoparticle-entrapped chitosan (CS) nanoparticles for stem cell labeling. The nanoparticles were synthesized by polymerizing iron oxide nanoparticle-associated methacrylic acid monomer in the presence of CS. TEM revealed that the well-defined iron oxide nanoparticles were successfully encapsulated inside the CS nanoparticles. The effect of CS at different [NH(2)]/[COOH] molar ratios on particle size, surface charge, thermal stability and magnetic properties was determined systematically. Internalization and localization of the coated nanoparticles were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The Kusa O cell line was chosen as a stem cell model. Interestingly, the uptake of iron oxide-entrapped CS nanoparticles was remarkably enhanced under magnetization and the nanoparticles were mostly located inside cellular compartments. It can be concluded that the iron oxide-entrapped CS nanoparticles have a strong potential for stem cell labeling. PMID:20537238

  11. Processing, Microstructure, and Oxidation Behavior of Iron Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeji; Noh, Yoonsook; Choi, Hyelim; Hong, Kicheol; Kwon, Kyungjung; Choe, Heeman

    2016-09-01

    With its historically long popularity in major structural applications, the use of iron (Fe) has also recently begun to be explored as an advanced functional material. For this purpose, it is more advantageous to use Fe as a porous structure, simply because it can provide a greater surface area and a higher reaction rate. This study uses a freeze-casting method, which consists of simple and low-cost processing steps, to produce Fe foam with a mean pore size of 10 μm. We examine the influences of various parameters ( i.e., mold bottom temperature, powder content, and sintering time) on the processing of Fe foam, along with its oxidation kinetics at 823 K (550 °C) with various heat-treatment times. We confirm that Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 oxide layers are successfully formed on the surface of Fe foam. With the Fe oxide layers as an active anode material, the Fe foam can potentially be used as a three-dimensional anode current collector for an advanced lithium-ion battery.

  12. Processing, Microstructure, and Oxidation Behavior of Iron Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeji; Noh, Yoonsook; Choi, Hyelim; Hong, Kicheol; Kwon, Kyungjung; Choe, Heeman

    2016-06-01

    With its historically long popularity in major structural applications, the use of iron (Fe) has also recently begun to be explored as an advanced functional material. For this purpose, it is more advantageous to use Fe as a porous structure, simply because it can provide a greater surface area and a higher reaction rate. This study uses a freeze-casting method, which consists of simple and low-cost processing steps, to produce Fe foam with a mean pore size of 10 μm. We examine the influences of various parameters (i.e., mold bottom temperature, powder content, and sintering time) on the processing of Fe foam, along with its oxidation kinetics at 823 K (550 °C) with various heat-treatment times. We confirm that Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 oxide layers are successfully formed on the surface of Fe foam. With the Fe oxide layers as an active anode material, the Fe foam can potentially be used as a three-dimensional anode current collector for an advanced lithium-ion battery.

  13. Dielectrical and structural characterization of iron oxide added to hydroxyapatite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C C Silva; F P Filho; M F P Graça; M A Valente; A S B Sombra

    2008-08-01

    In this work we report preparation, structural and dielectric analyses of iron oxide added in hydroxyapatite bioceramic (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 – HAP). Hydroxyapatite is the main mineral constituent of teeth and bones with excellent biocompatibility with hard and muscle tissues. The samples were prepared through a calcination procedure associated with dry high-energy ball milling process with different iron concentrations (1, 2.5 and 5 wt%). The dielectric analyses were made measuring the sample impedance in the frequency range 1 kHz–10 MHz, at room temperature. The relative permittivity of the ceramics, at 10 MHz, are between 7.13 ± 0.07 (1 wt%) and 6.20 ± 0.11 (5 wt%) while e″ are between 0.0795 ± 0.008 (1 wt%) and 0.067 ± 0.012 (5 wt%). These characteristics were related to the sample microstructures studied by X-ray diffraction and SEM.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and mechanistic insights of mycogenic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, Arpit; Jain, Navin; Manju Barathi L [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Centre for Biotechnology, Department of Biological Sciences (India); Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed [Jimma University, Department of Applied Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences (Ethiopia); Yun, Yeoung-Sang [Chonbuk National University, Division of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Panwar, Jitendra, E-mail: drjitendrapanwar@yahoo.co.in [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Centre for Biotechnology, Department of Biological Sciences (India)

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, extracellular synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) was achieved using Aspergillus japonicus isolate AJP01. The isolate demonstrated its ability to hydrolyze the precursor salt solution, a mixture of iron cyanide complexes, under ambient conditions. Hydrolysis of these complexes released ferric and ferrous ions, which underwent protein-mediated coprecipitation and controlled nucleation resulting in the formation of IONPs. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction pattern, energy dispersive spectroscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the mycosynthesis of IONPs. The synthesized particles were cubic in shape with a size range of 60–70 nm with crystal structure corresponding to magnetite. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the absence of IONPs on fungal biomass surface, indicating the extracellular nature of synthesis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of proteins on as-synthesised IONPs, which may confer their stability. Preliminary investigation indicated the role of proteins in the synthesis and stabilization of IONPs. On the basis of present findings, a probable mechanism for synthesis of IONPs is suggested. The simplicity and versatility of the present approach can be utilized for the synthesis of other nanomaterials.

  15. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pöttler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5 were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEONLA-BSA, or with dextran (SEONDEX. Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEONLA-BSA, SEONDEX or SEONLA. Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system.

  16. SURFACE-MODIFICATION OF FINE RED IRON OXIDE PIGMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuilin Zheng; Qinghui Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Surface-modification of fine red iron oxide pigment was carried out in an aqueous solution of sodium polyacrylate. The sedimentation time of modified samples in water increased from 1.05 to 264.4 hours while the particle size (d50) decreased from 1.09 to 0.85 μm, and the tinting strength increased from 100 to 115. The surface-modification as well as the dispersing and stabilizing mechanisms in aqueous solution of the samples were studied by means of IR,Thermal analysis and Zeta potential. The results showed that the modifier molecules acted on the surface of the particles by chemical and physical adsorption, and after the particles were dispersed in aqueous solution, endowing the particle surface with a relatively high negative Zeta potential, thus enhancing electrostatic and steric repulsion between particles for their effective stabilization.

  17. Ca alginate as scaffold for iron oxide nanoparticles synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Finotelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanotechnology has developed to a stage that makes it possible to process magnetic nanoparticles for the site-specific delivery of drugs. To this end, it has been proposed as biomaterial for drug delivery system in which the drug release rates would be activated by a magnetic external stimuli. Alginate has been used extensively in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries for their gel forming properties in the presence of multivalent cations. In this study, we produced iron oxide nanoparticles by coprecipitation of Fe(III and Fe(II. The nanoparticles were entrapped in Ca alginate beads before and after alginate gelation. XRD analysis showed that particles should be associated to magnetite or maghemite with crystal size of 9.5 and 4.3 nm, respectively. Studies using Mössbauer spectroscopy corroborate the superparamagnetic behavior. The combination of magnetic properties and the biocompatibility of alginate suggest that this biomaterial may be used as biomimetic system.

  18. Transformation of iron oxides on PI electrospun membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penggang; Lv, Fengzhu; Liu, Leipeng; Ding, Ling; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-09-01

    Iron oxides/PI fiber membranes, especially magnetic PI membranes, are important flexible porous materials available application in the field of wave absorption, magnetic recording, membrane separation and catalysts. Therefore, α-Fe2O3 loaded PI composite fibers were prepared by electrospinning of poly(amic acid) PAA solution followed by loading Fe3+ on the PAA membrane by ion-exchange and then imidization. Then the α-Fe2O3 on PI membrane were reduced by H2 to give magnetic PI membranes. The content of α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 on PI can be controlled by adjustment the ion-exchange time. The saturation magnetization of the composite membranes can reach up to 4 emu/g and the final composite membranes have magnetic response ability.

  19. Iron oxide nanoparticles in different modifications for antimicrobial phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Kozina, Kristina V.; Shelest, Nikita A.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of microorganisms to combined action of blue light and iron oxide nanoparticles. Two strains of Staphylococcus aureus - methicillin-sensitive and meticillin-resistant were used. As a blue light source LED with spectral maximum at 405 nm was taken. The light exposure was ranged from 5 to 30 min. The Fe2O3 (diameter ˜27 nm), Fe3O4 nanoparticles (diameter ˜19 nm), and composite Fe2O3/TiO2 nanoparticles (diameter ˜100 nm) were synthesized. It was shown that irradiation by blue light caused from 20% to 88% decrease in the number of microorganisms treated with nanoparticles. Morphological changes in bacterial cells after phototreatment were analyzed using scanning electron microscope.

  20. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized inside highly ordered mesoporous silica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Bhaumik; S Samanta; N K Mal

    2005-11-01

    Nanosized iron oxide, a moderately large band-gap semiconductor and an essential component of optoelectrical and magnetic devices, has been prepared successfully inside the restricted internal pores of mesoporous silica material through in-situ reduction during impregnation. The samples were characterized by powder XRD, TEM, SEM/EDS, N2 adsorption, FT-IR and UV–visible spectroscopies. Characterization data indicated well-dispersed isolated nanoclusters of (Fe2O3),` within the internal surface of 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica structure. No occluded Fe/Fe2O3 crystallites were observed at the external surface of the mesoporous silica nanocomposites. Inorganic mesoporous host, such as hydrophilic silica in the pore walls, directs a physical constraint necessary to prevent the creation of large Fe2O3 agglomerates and enables the formation of nanosized Fe2O3 particles inside the mesopore.

  1. In vivo tracing of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Jing-liang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a great progress has beenmade in the management of central nervous system disease such asbrain trauma by transplantationof bonemarrow stromal cells.1 Fluorescence microscopy of host brain sections can trace and show the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs labeled with green fluorescent protein. However, in clinic we need a noninvasive approach. In vivo monitoring of magnetically labeled stem cells by routine MRI has been widely applied abroad,2,3 but according to our knowledge, there are no reports that have ever described the in vivo tracing of BMSCs labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO and transplanted for brain injuries by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI at home or abroad.

  2. Synthesis of Monodisperse Iron Oxide Nanoparticles without Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles could be successfully synthesized with two kinds of precipitants through a precipitation method. As-prepared nanoparticles in the size around 10 nm with regular spherical-like shape were achieved by adjusting pH values. NaOH and NH3·H2O were used as two precipitants for comparison. The average size of nanoparticles with NH3·H2O precipitant got smaller and represented better dispersibility, while nanoparticles with NaOH precipitant represented better magnetic property. This work provided a simple method without using any organic solvents, organic metal salts, or surfactants which could easily obtain monodisperse nanoparticles with tunable morphology.

  3. Heterobifunctional PEG ligands for bioconjugation reactions on iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bloemen

    Full Text Available Ever since iron oxide nanoparticles have been recognized as promising scaffolds for biomedical applications, their surface functionalization has become even more important. We report the synthesis of a novel polyethylene glycol-based ligand that combines multiple advantageous properties for these applications. The ligand is covalently bound to the surface via a siloxane group, while its polyethylene glycol backbone significantly improves the colloidal stability of the particle in complex environments. End-capping the molecule with a carboxylic acid introduces a variety of coupling chemistry possibilities. In this study an antibody targeting plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was coupled to the surface and its presence and binding activity was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance experiments. The results indicate that the ligand has high potential towards biomedical applications where colloidal stability and advanced functionality is crucial.

  4. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Mengmeng; Ma, Chuanxin; Hao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Rui, Yukui; Tang, Xinlian; Zhao, Qi; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Zetian; Hou, Tianqi; Zhu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer. PMID:27375665

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at

  6. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis and magnetic studies of iron oxide/MCM-41 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A quick and facile route for the synthesis of iron oxide/MCM-41 nanocomposite. → Magnetic nanoparticles were stabilized inside the pores of mesoporous silica MCM-41. → The pore size of MCM-41 dictates the properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. → The procedure provides a narrow size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles were stabilized within the pores of mesoporous silica MCM-41 amino-functionalized by a sonochemical method. Formation of iron oxide nanoparticles inside the mesoporous channels of amino-functionalized MCM-41 was realized by wet impregnation using iron nitrate, followed by calcinations at 550 deg. C in air. The effect of functionalization level on structural and magnetic properties of obtained nanocomposites was studied. The resulting materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (HRTEM and SAED), vibrating sample and superconducting quantum interface magnetometers (VSM and SQUID) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms measurements. The HRTEM images reveal that the most of the iron oxide nanoparticles were dispersed inside the mesopores of silica matrix and the pore diameter of the amino-functionalized MCM-41 matrix dictates the particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles. The obtained material possesses mesoporous structure and interesting magnetic properties. Saturation magnetization value of magnetic iron oxide nanopatricles stabilized in MCM-41 amino-functionalized by in situ sonochemical synthesis was 1.84 emu g-1. An important finding is that obtained magnetic nanocomposite materials exhibit enhanced magnetic properties than those of iron oxide/MCM-41 nanocomposite obtained by conventional method. The described method is providing a rather short preparation time and a narrow size distribution of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  7. Biotic and abiotic oxidation and reduction of iron at circumneutral pH are inseparable processes under natural conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, Danny; Heim, Christine; Polerecky, L.; Thiel, Volker; de Beer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction of iron can occur through abiotic (chemical) and biotic (microbial) processes. Abiotic iron oxidation is a function of pH and O2 concentration. Biotic iron oxidation is carried out by a diverse group of bacteria, using O2 or NO3 as terminal electron acceptors. At circumneutra

  8. Effectiveness of antioxidants in preventing oxidation of palm oil enriched with heme iron: A model for iron fortification in baked products

    OpenAIRE

    Alemán Ezcaray, Mercedes; Nuchi, C. D.; Bou Novensà, Ricard; Tres Oliver, Alba; Polo Pozo, Francisco Javier; Guardiola Ibarz, Francesc; Codony Salcedo, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Bakery products such as biscuits, cookies, and pastries represent a good medium for iron fortification in food products, since they are consumed by a large proportion of the population at risk of developing iron deficiency anemia, mainly children. The drawback, however, is that iron fortification can promote oxidation. To assess the extent of this, palm oil added with heme iron and different antioxidants was used as a model for evaluating the oxidative stability of some bakery products, such ...

  9. Oxidation of H2S by iron oxides in unsaturated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Yabusaki, Steven B; Engelhard, Mark H; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V; Thornton, Edward C

    2003-05-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gas-phase H2S can immobilize certain redox-sensitive contaminants (e.g., Cr, U, Tc) in vadose zone environments. A key issue for effective and efficient delivery of H2S in these environments is the reactivity of the gas with indigenous iron oxides. To elucidate the factors that control the transport of H2S in the vadose zone, laboratory column experiments were conducted to identify reaction mechanisms and measure rates of H2S oxidation by iron oxide-coated sands using several carrier gas compositions (N2, air, and O2) and flow rates. Most experiments were conducted using ferrihydrite-coated sand. Additional studies were conducted with goethite- and hematite-coated sand and a natural sediment. Selective extractions were conducted at the end of each column experiment to determine the mass balance of the reaction products. XPS was used to confirm the presence of the reaction products. For column experiments in which ferrihydrite-coated sand was the substrate and N2 was the carrier gas, the major H2S oxidation products were FeS and elemental sulfur (mostly S8(0), represented as S(0) for simplicity) at ratios that were consistent with the stoichiometry of the postulated reactions. When air or O2 were used as the carrier gas, S(0) became the dominant reaction product along with FeS2 and smaller amounts of FeS, sulfate, and thiosulfate. A mathematical model of reactive transport was used to test the hypothesis that S(0) forming on the iron oxide surfaces reduces access of H2S to the reactive surface. Several conceptual models were assessed in the context of the postulated reactions with the final model based on a linear surface poisoning model and fitted reaction rates. These results indicate that carrier gas selection is a critical consideration with significant tradeoffs for remediation objectives.

  10. Promotion of Iron Oxide Reduction and Extracellular Electron Transfer in Shewanella oneidensis by DMSO

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Yuan Cheng; Bing-Bing Li; Dao-Bo Li; Jie-Jie Chen; Wen-Wei Li; Zhong-Hua Tong; Chao Wu; Han-Qing Yu

    2013-01-01

    The dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, known for its capacity of reducing iron and manganese oxides, has great environmental impacts. The iron oxides reducing process is affected by the coexistence of alternative electron acceptors in the environment, while investigation into it is limited so far. In this work, the impact of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), a ubiquitous chemical in marine environment, on the reduction of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) by S. oneidensis M...

  11. Deposition and Characterization of Sisal Fiber Composite Prepare By Iron Oxide Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Jehan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide synthesized through sintering route. The present research work deals with ferrite composite prepared using chemical reactions. Ferric nitrates and ammonium chloride doped with sisal fiber has been prepared. The comparative studies of ferric oxide were examined through few characterizations. The structural behavior of iron oxide was studied in XRD, FT/IR, TEM and SEM. This behavior showed ferrite nature of the sample.

  12. Deposition and Characterization of Sisal Fiber Composite Prepare By Iron Oxide Synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Asif Jehan; Dr. Shirish Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide synthesized through sintering route. The present research work deals with ferrite composite prepared using chemical reactions. Ferric nitrates and ammonium chloride doped with sisal fiber has been prepared. The comparative studies of ferric oxide were examined through few characterizations. The structural behavior of iron oxide was studied in XRD, FT/IR, TEM and SEM. This behavior showed ferrite nature of the sample.

  13. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Zhang; Xinxin Yu; Hongrui Hu; Yang Li; Mingzai Wu; Zhongzhu Wang; Guang Li; Zhaoqi Sun; Changle Chen

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4·7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide ...

  14. Capacity of human monocytes to phagocytose approved iron oxide MR contrast agents in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Stephan; Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Daldrup-Link, Heike E. [Technical University Munich, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Munich (Germany); Bonaterra, Gabriel [Ruprecht-Karls-University, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Heidelberg (Germany); Rudelius, Martina [Technical University Munich, Department of Pathology, Munich (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate the capacity of human monocytes to phagocytose various approved iron oxide based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents and to optimize in vitro labeling of these cells. Human monocytes were incubated with two superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) as well as two ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO) at varying iron oxide concentrations and incubation times. Iron uptake in monocytes was proven by histology, quantified by atomic emission absorption spectrometry and depicted with T2* weighted fast field echo (FFE) MR images at 1.5 T. Additionally, induction of apoptosis in iron oxide labeled monocytes was determined by YO-PRO-1 staining. Cellular iron uptake was significantly (P<0.01) higher after incubation with SPIO compared with USPIO. For SPIO, the iron oxide uptake was significantly (P<0.01) higher after incubation with the ionic Ferucarbotran as compared with the non-ionic Ferumoxides. Efficient cell labeling was achieved after incubation with Ferucarbotran at concentrations {>=}500 {mu}g Fe/ml and incubation times {>=}1 h, resulting in a maximal iron oxide uptake of up to 50 pg Fe/cell without impairment of cell viability. In vitro labeling of human monocytes for MR imaging is most effectively obtained with the approved SPIO Ferucarbotran. Potential subsequent in vivo cell tracking applications comprise, e.g. specific targeting of inflammatory processes. (orig.)

  15. Capacity of human monocytes to phagocytose approved iron oxide MR contrast agents in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the capacity of human monocytes to phagocytose various approved iron oxide based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents and to optimize in vitro labeling of these cells. Human monocytes were incubated with two superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) as well as two ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO) at varying iron oxide concentrations and incubation times. Iron uptake in monocytes was proven by histology, quantified by atomic emission absorption spectrometry and depicted with T2* weighted fast field echo (FFE) MR images at 1.5 T. Additionally, induction of apoptosis in iron oxide labeled monocytes was determined by YO-PRO-1 staining. Cellular iron uptake was significantly (P<0.01) higher after incubation with SPIO compared with USPIO. For SPIO, the iron oxide uptake was significantly (P<0.01) higher after incubation with the ionic Ferucarbotran as compared with the non-ionic Ferumoxides. Efficient cell labeling was achieved after incubation with Ferucarbotran at concentrations ≥500 μg Fe/ml and incubation times ≥1 h, resulting in a maximal iron oxide uptake of up to 50 pg Fe/cell without impairment of cell viability. In vitro labeling of human monocytes for MR imaging is most effectively obtained with the approved SPIO Ferucarbotran. Potential subsequent in vivo cell tracking applications comprise, e.g. specific targeting of inflammatory processes. (orig.)

  16. Involvement of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase in sulfur oxidation of an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Satoshi; Kikumoto, Mei; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Kamimura, Kazuo

    2004-12-01

    The effects of cyanide, azide, and 2-n-Heptyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline-N-oxide (HQNO) on the oxidation of ferrous ion or elemental sulfur with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1 cells grown in iron- or sulfur-medium were examined. The iron oxidation of both iron- and sulfur-grown cells was strongly inhibited by cyanide and azide, but not by HQNO. Sulfur oxidation was relatively resistant to cyanide and azide, and inhibited by HQNO. Higher sulfide oxidation, ubiquinol dehydrogenase activity, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) activity were observed in sulfur-grown cells more than in iron-grown cells. Sulfide oxidation in the presence of ubiquinone with the membrane fraction was inhibited by HQNO, but not by cyanide, azide, antimycin A, and myxothiazol. The transcription of three genes, encoding an aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase (coxB), a bd-type ubiquinol oxidase (cydA), and an sqr, were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The transcriptional levels of coxB and cydA genes were similar in sulfur- and iron-grown cells, but that of sqr was 3-fold higher in sulfur-grown cells than in iron-grown cells. A model is proposed for the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds in A. ferrooxidans NASF-1 cells. PMID:15618623

  17. Quantitative analysis of iron oxides using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a systematic approach based on the application of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) was taken, in order to quantitatively analyze the corrosion products formed in the secondary cycle of pressurized water reactors (PWR). Binary mixtures of iron oxides were prepared with known compositions containing pure commercial magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and hematite (α-Fe2O3) for calibration purposes. Calcium oxide (lime) was added to all samples as a standard reference in obtaining the calibration curves. Using regression analysis, relationships were developed for intensity versus concentration for absorption bands corresponding to each of the phases in their corresponding FTIR spectrum. Correlation coefficients, R2, of 0.82, 0.87, and 0.86 were obtained for maghemite-magnetite, hematite-magnetite, and hematite-maghemite systems, respectively. The calibration curves generated were used to quantify phases in multi-component unknown field samples that were obtained from different components (moisture separators, condensers, and high- and low- pressure heaters) of the two units (units 1 and 2) of the secondary cycle of the Comanche Peak PWR

  18. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe3O4)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe3O4 and CA-Fe3O4/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe3O4, CA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe3O4) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe3O4) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe2O3/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL-1, sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml-1 cm-2, and reproducibility more than 11 times.

  19. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Andreu, G.L. [Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Departamento de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Inada, N.M.; Vercesi, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curti, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21{+-}4 to 130{+-}7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H{sup +} leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria. (orig.)

  20. Concentration-dependent toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by increased oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naqvi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Saba Naqvi1, Mohammad Samim2, MZ Abdin3, Farhan Jalees Ahmed4, AN Maitra5, CK Prashant6, Amit K Dinda61Faculty of Engineering and Interdisciplinary Sciences, 2Department of Chemistry, 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, 6Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles with unique magnetic properties have a high potential for use in several biomedical, bioengineering and in vivo applications, including tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassay, drug delivery, detoxification of biologic fluids, cell sorting, and hyperthermia. Although various surface modifications are being done for making these nonbiodegradable nanoparticles more biocompatible, their toxic potential is still a major concern. The current in vitro study of the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of mean diameter 30 nm coated with Tween 80 and murine macrophage (J774 cells was undertaken to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent toxic potential, as well as investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity. A 15–30 nm size range of spherical nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. MTT assay showed >95% viability of cells in lower concentrations (25–200 µg/mL and up to three hours of exposure, whereas at higher concentrations (300–500 µg/mL and prolonged (six hours exposure viability reduced to 55%–65%. Necrosis-apoptosis assay by propidium iodide and Hoechst-33342 staining revealed loss of the majority of the cells by apoptosis. H2DCFDDA assay to quantify generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS indicated that exposure to a higher concentration of nanoparticles resulted in enhanced ROS generation, leading to cell injury and death. The cell membrane injury

  1. Catalytic performance of cerium iron complex oxides for partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kongzhai; WANG Hua; WEI Yonggang; LIU Mingchun

    2008-01-01

    The cerium iron complex oxides oxygen carder was prepared by the co-precipitation method. The reactions between methane and lattice oxygen from the complex oxides were investigated in a fixed micro-reactor system. The reduced oxygen carrier could be re-oxidized by air and its initial state could be restored. The characterizations of the oxygen carriers were studied using XRD, O2-TPD, and H2-TPR. The results showed that the bulk lattice oxygen of CeO2-Fe2O3 was found to be suitable for the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas. There were two kinds of oxygen species on the oxygen carder: the stronger oxygen species that was responsible for the complete oxidation of methane, and the weaker oxygen species (bulk lattice oxygen) that was responsible for the selective oxidation of methane to CO and H2 at a higher temperature. Then, the lost bulk lattice oxygen could be selectively supplemented by air re-oxidation at an appropriate reaction con-dition. CeFeO3 appeared on the oxygen carrier after 10 successive redox cycles, however, it was not bad for the selectivity of CO and H2.

  2. Cobalt, nickel/iron, and titanium oxide electrodes for water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selloni, Annabella

    2014-03-01

    Water splitting on metal oxide surfaces has attracted enormous interest for more than forty years. While a great deal of work has focused on titanium dioxide (TiO2) , recently cobalt and mixed Ni-Fe oxides have also emerged as promising electrocatalysts for water oxidation due to their low cost and high activity. In this talk I shall discuss various aspects of water oxidation on cobalt (hydro-)oxides, pure and mixed nickel and iron (hydro-)oxides, and TiO2\\ surfaces. Using DFT +U calculations, I shall examine the composition and structure of cobalt and Ni-Fe oxides under electrochemical conditions, and present studies of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on the relevant stable compounds. I shall also present hybrid functional calculations of the first proton-coupled-electron transfer at the water/TiO2 interface in the presence of a photoexcited hole. Our results provide evidence that the proton and electron transfers are not concerted but rather represent two sequential processes. They also suggest that the OER is faster at higher pH, as indeed observed experimentally. This work was supported by DoE-BES, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences under Award DE-FG02-12ER16286.

  3. Application of Iron Oxide as a pH-dependent Indicator for Improving the Nutritional Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Acid food indicators can be used as pH indicators for evaluating the quality and freshness of fermented products during the full course of distribution. Iron oxide particles are hardly suspended in water, but partially or completely agglomerated. The agglomeration degree of the iron oxide particles depends on the pH. The pH-dependent particle agglomeration or dispersion can be useful for monitoring the acidity of food. The zeta potential of iron oxide showed a decreasing trend as the pH increased from 2 to 8, while the point of zero charge (PZC) was observed around at pH 6.0-7.0. These results suggested that the size of the iron oxide particles was affected by the change in pH levels. As a result, the particle sizes of iron oxide were smaller at lower pH than at neutral pH. In addition, agglomeration of the iron oxide particles increased as the pH increased from 2 to 7. In the time-dependent aggregation test, the average particle size was 730.4 nm and 1,340.3 nm at pH 2 and 7, respectively. These properties of iron oxide particles can be used to develop an ideal acid indicator for food pH and to monitor food quality, besides a colorant or nutrient for nutrition enhancement and sensory promotion in food industry. PMID:27482521

  4. Evaluation of the properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Mussatti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane (PU/Fe2O3. The iron oxide used in this study was a residue derived from the steel pickling process of a Brazilian steel rolling industry. Polymeric composites with different iron oxide volume fractions (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% were prepared through the casting process followed by compression molding at room temperature. The composites were analyzed by FTIR, XRD and densities, tensile strength, Young's modulus, electrical and thermal conductivities measurements. By increasing the iron oxide content, the apparent density, tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical conductivity values of the composites were also increased. The iron oxide additions did not change significantly the value of thermal conductivity (from 0.191 W.mK-1 for PU up to 0.340 W.mK-1 for PU enriched with 12.5% v/v of iron oxide. Thus, even at the higher iron oxide concentration, the compounds as well as the pure polyurethane can be classified as thermal insulators.

  5. Evaluation of the Properties of Iron Oxide-Filled Castor Oil Polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Mussatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane (PU/Fe2O3. The iron oxide used in this study was a residue derived from the steel pickling process of a Brazilian steel rolling industry. Polymeric composites with different iron oxide volume fractions (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% were prepared through the casting process followed by compression molding at room temperature. The composites were analyzed by FTIR, XRD and densities, tensile strength, Young's modulus, electrical and thermal conductivities measurements. By increasing the iron oxide content, the apparent density, tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical conductivity values of the composites were also increased. The iron oxide additions did not change significantly the value of thermal conductivity (from 0.191 W.mK-1 for PU up to 0.340 W.mK-1 for PU enriched with 12.5% v/v of iron oxide. Thus, even at the higher iron oxide concentration, the compounds as well as the pure polyurethane can be classified as thermal insulators.

  6. Inhibitory Effect Evaluation of Glycerol-Iron Oxide Thin Films on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Popa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of glycerol- iron oxide thin films on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Our results suggest that glycerol-iron oxide thin films could be used in the future for various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The glycerol-iron oxide thin films have been deposited by spin coating method on a silicon (111 substrate. The structural properties have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM. The XRD investigations of the prepared thin films demonstrate that the crystal structure of glycerol-iron oxide nanoparticles was not changed after spin coating deposition. On the other hand, the SEM micrographs suggest that the size of the glycerol-iron oxide microspheres increased with the increase of glycerol exhibiting narrow size distributions. The qualitative depth profile of glycerol-iron oxide thin films was identified by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. The GDOES spectra revealed the presence of the main elements: Fe, O, C, H, and Si. The antimicrobial activity of glycerol-iron oxide thin films was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition. After 18 hours of incubation at 37°C, the diameters of the zones of complete inhibition have been measured obtaining values around 25 mm.

  7. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  8. Recent progress in magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials as promising photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Changzhong Jiang, Affc; Roy, Vellaisamy A. L.

    2014-11-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic pollutants is a challenging tasks in ecological and environmental protection. Recent research shows that the magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite photocatalytic system can effectively break through the bottleneck of single-component semiconductor oxides with low activity under visible light and the challenging recycling of the photocatalyst from the final products. With high reactivity in visible light, magnetic iron oxide-semiconductors can be exploited as an important magnetic recovery photocatalyst (MRP) with a bright future. On this regard, various composite structures, the charge-transfer mechanism and outstanding properties of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are sketched. The latest synthesis methods and recent progress in the photocatalytic applications of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are reviewed. The problems and challenges still need to be resolved and development strategies are discussed.

  9. Influence of Fe(2+)-catalysed iron oxide recrystallization on metal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Drew E; Gorski, Christopher A; Scherer, Michelle M

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has indicated that iron (oxyhydr-)oxides are capable of structurally incorporating and releasing metals and nutrients as a result of Fe2+-induced iron oxide recrystallization. In the present paper, we briefly review the current literature examining the mechanisms by which iron oxides recrystallize and summarize how recrystallization affects metal incorporation and release. We also provide new experimental evidence for the Fe2+-induced release of structural manganese from manganese-doped goethite. Currently, the exact mechanism(s) for Fe2+-induced recrystallization remain elusive, although they are likely to be both oxide-and metal-dependent. We conclude by discussing some future research directions for Fe2+-catalysed iron oxide recrystallization.

  10. Gold catalysts supported on nanosized iron oxide for low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Yi; Huang, Zuming; Guo, Huishan; Wu, Feng; Li, Jinjun

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize synthesis of gold catalyst supported on nanosized iron oxide and to evaluate the activity in oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared from a colloidal dispersion of hydrous iron oxide through a dispersion-precipitation method. Gold was adsorbed onto nanosized iron oxide under self-generated basic conditions. Characterization results indicate that the iron oxide consisted of hematite/maghemite composite with primary particle sizes of 6-8 nm. Gold was highly dispersed on the surface of the support. The catalysts showed good activity in the oxidation of airborne carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The optimal pH for their synthesis was ∼7. The catalytic performance could be enhanced by extending the adsorption time of gold species on the support within 21 h. The optimized catalyst was capable of achieving complete oxidation of 1% carbon monoxide at -20 °C and 33% conversion of 450 ppm formaldehyde at ambient temperature. The catalyst may be applicable to indoor air purification.

  11. Evaluation of the properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Mussatti; Claudia Merlini; Guilherme Mariz de Oliveira Barra; Saulo Güths; Antonio Pedro Novaes de Oliveira; Cristina Siligardi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane (PU/Fe2O3). The iron oxide used in this study was a residue derived from the steel pickling process of a Brazilian steel rolling industry. Polymeric composites with different iron oxide volume fractions (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5%) were prepared through the casting process followed by compression molding at room temperature. The composites were ana...

  12. An evaluation of iron oxide nanofluids in enhanced oil recovery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Beh Hoe; Khalid, M. Hanafi M.; Matraji, Herman Hari; Chuan, Lee Kean; Soleimani, Hassan

    2014-10-01

    This paper evaluates the oil recover efficiency of Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) nanofluids in EOR. Iron Oxide nanoparticles were synthesized at two different temperatures via sol-gel method. TEM results show that the Fe2O3 prepared at 300°C and 600°C were ranged from 10-25nm and 30-90nm, respectively. Results showed that the nanofluid composed of Iron Oxide nanoparticles prepared at 300°C gives 10% increase in the oil recovery in comparison with Fe2O3 nanoparticles calcined at 600°C.

  13. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano

  14. Iron overload by Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles is a High Risk Factor in Cirrhosis by a Systems Toxicology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yushuang; Zhao, Mengzhu; Yang, Fang; Mao, Yang; Xie, Hang; Zhou, Qibing

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent have been widely used in magnetic resonance imaging for tumor diagnosis and theranostics. However, there has been safety concern of SPIONs with cirrhosis related to excess iron-induced oxidative stress. In this study, the impact of iron overload by SPIONs was assessed on a mouse cirrhosis model. A single dose of SPION injection at 0.5 or 5 mg Fe/kg in the cirrhosis group induced a septic shock response at 24 h with elevated serum levels of liver and kidney function markers and extended impacts over 14 days including high levels of serum cholesterols and persistent low serum iron level. In contrast, full restoration of liver functions was found in the normal group with the same dosages over time. Analysis with PCR array of the toxicity pathways revealed the high dose of SPIONs induced significant expression changes of a distinct subset of genes in the cirrhosis liver. All these results suggested that excess iron of the high dose of SPIONs might be a risk factor for cirrhosis because of the marked impacts of elevated lipid metabolism, disruption of iron homeostasis and possibly, aggravated loss of liver functions. PMID:27357559

  15. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shichuan; Zhang, Tonglai; Tang, Runze; Qiu, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Caiqin [Shandong Special Industry Group Co., Ltd, Shandong 255201 (China); Zhou, Zunning [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-04-01

    A series of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle clusters with different structure guide agents were synthesized by a modified solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analyses (TG), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is found that the superparamagnetic nanoparticles guided by NaCit (sodium citrate) have high saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 69.641 emu/g and low retentivity (M{sub r}) of 0.8 emu/g. Guiding to form superparamagnetic clusters with size range of 80–110 nm, the adherent small-molecule citrate groups on the surface prevent the prefabricated ferrite crystals growing further. In contrast, the primary small crystal guided and stabilized by the PVP long-chain molecules assemble freely to larger ones and stop growing in size range of 100–150 nm, which has saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 97.979 emu/g and retentivity (M{sub r}) of 46.323 emu/g. The relevant formation mechanisms of the two types of samples are proposed at the end. The superparamagnetic ferrite clusters guided by sodium citrate are expected to be used for movement controlling of passive interference particles to avoid aggregation and the sample guided by PVP will be a candidate of nanometer wave absorbing material. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of two kinds of monodisperse iron oxide nano-particle clusters was performed via a modified one-step solvothermal method in this work. • The NaCit and PVP as different guiding agents are used to control the formation and aggregation of nano-crystals during reacting and the ripening processes. • The superparamagnetic NaCit–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} samples have high saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 69.641 emu/g and low retentivity (M{sub r}) of 0.8 emu/g. • The relevant formation mechanisms of the two types of samples are proposed.

  16. Removal of iron and arsenic (III) from drinking water using iron oxide-coated sand and limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Rashmi R.; Umlong, Iohborlang M.; Das, Bodhaditya; Borah, Kusum; Thakur, Ashim J.; Raul, Prasanta K.; Banerjee, Saumen; Singh, Lokendra

    2014-06-01

    A method for removal of iron and arsenic (III) from contaminated water using iron oxide-coated sand and limestone has been developed for drinking water. For the intended use, sand was coated with ferric chloride and used as filtering media. Limestone was added onto the coated sand and the effect of limestone addition on removal efficiency of iron and arsenic was monitored. Both batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the efficiency of coated sand and limestone as filtering media. Maximum removal of iron (99.8 %) was obtained with coated sand at a dose of 5 g/100 ml and by adding 0.2 g/100 ml of limestone at pH 7.3. Arsenic (III) removal efficiency increased with the increased dose of coated sand and was best removed at pH 7.12. The maximum adsorption capacity for arsenic (III) obtained from Langmuir model was found to be 0.075 mg/g and the kinetics data followed pseudo-first order better than pseudo-second order. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and FT-IR study proved the removal of iron and arsenic. Column experiment showed removal of iron and arsenic (III) to <0.3 mg/l and 10 μg/l, respectively, from an initial concentration of 20 mg/l (iron) and 200 μg/l (arsenic).

  17. High Temperature Corrosion of Fe-C-S Cast Irons in Oxidizing and Sulfidizing Atmospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thuan-Dinh NGUYEN; Dong-Bok LEE

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of spheroidal graphite and flake graphite cast irons was studied in oxidizing and sulfidizing atmospheres between 600 and 800℃ for 50 h. The corrosion rate in the sulfidizing atmosphere was faster than that in air above 700℃, due to the formation of the Feo.975S sulfide. The corrosion rate of the spheroidal graphite cast iron was similar to that of the flake graphite cast iron.

  18. Sulfur Versus Iron Oxidation in an Iron-Thiolate Model Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A McDonald; M Bukowski; E Farquhar; T Jackson; K Koehntop; M Seo; R De Hont; A Stubna; J Halfen; E Munck

    2011-12-31

    In the absence of base, the reaction of [Fe{sup II}(TMCS)]PF{sub 6} (1, TMCS = 1-(2-mercaptoethyl)-4,8,11-trimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) with peracid in methanol at -20 C did not yield the oxoiron(IV) complex (2, [Fe{sup IV}(O)(TMCS)]PF{sub 6}), as previously observed in the presence of strong base (KO{sup t}Bu). Instead, the addition of 1 equiv of peracid resulted in 50% consumption of 1. The addition of a second equivalent of peracid resulted in the complete consumption of 1 and the formation of a new species 3, as monitored by UV-vis, ESI-MS, and Moessbauer spectroscopies. ESI-MS showed 3 to be formulated as [Fe{sup II}(TMCS) + 2O]{sup +}, while EXAFS analysis suggested that 3 was an O-bound iron(II)-sulfinate complex (Fe-O = 1.95 {angstrom}, Fe-S = 3.26 {angstrom}). The addition of a third equivalent of peracid resulted in the formation of yet another compound, 4, which showed electronic absorption properties typical of an oxoiron(IV) species. Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed 4 to be a novel iron(IV) compound, different from 2, and EXAFS (Fe{double_bond}O = 1.64 {angstrom}) and resonance Raman ({nu}{sub Fe{double_bond}O} = 831 cm{sup -1}) showed that indeed an oxoiron(IV) unit had been generated in 4. Furthermore, both infrared and Raman spectroscopy gave indications that 4 contains a metal-bound sulfinate moiety ({nu}{sub s}(SO{sub 2}) {approx} 1000 cm{sup -1}, {nu}{sub as}(SO{sub 2}) {approx} 1150 cm{sup -1}). Investigations into the reactivity of 1 and 2 toward H{sup +} and oxygen atom transfer reagents have led to a mechanism for sulfur oxidation in which 2 could form even in the absence of base but is rapidly protonated to yield an oxoiron(IV) species with an uncoordinated thiol moiety that acts as both oxidant and substrate in the conversion of 2 to 3.

  19. Ultrafast electron and energy transfer in dye-sensitized iron oxide and oxyhydroxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Katz, Jordan E.; Huse, Nils;

    2013-01-01

    An emerging area in chemical science is the study of solid-phase redox reactions using ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. We have used molecules of the photoactive dye 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) anchored to the surface of iron(iii) oxide nanoparticles to create iron(ii) surface atoms via...

  20. Surface characterisation of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser pyrolysis and coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmen Bautista, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bomati-Miguel, Oscar [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Puerto Morales, Maria del [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Serna, Carlos J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: sabino@icmm.csic.es

    2005-05-15

    The favoured mechanism of adsorption of dextran on the surface of maghemite nanoparticles (5 nm) prepared by laser pyrolysis seems to be the collective hydrogen bonding between dextran hydroxyl groups and iron oxide particle surface. After heating, the formation of a surface complex between the polysaccharide oxygen atoms and the surface iron atoms gave rise to a stronger bonding.

  1. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöttler, Marina; Staicu, Andreas; Zaloga, Jan; Unterweger, Harald; Weigel, Bianca; Schreiber, Eveline; Hofmann, Simone; Wiest, Irmi; Jeschke, Udo; Alexiou, Christoph; Janko, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5) were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA) only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEON(LA-BSA)), or with dextran (SEON(DEX)). Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEON(LA-BSA), SEON(DEX) or SEON(LA). Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system. PMID:26540051

  2. Hydrogen Reduction of Zinc and Iron Oxides Containing Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Rogério Navarro C.; de Albuquerque Brocchi, Eduardo; de Oliveira, Pamela Fernandes; Motta, Marcelo Senna

    2013-10-01

    Zinc is a metal of significant technological importance and its production from secondary sources has motivated the development of alternative processes, such as the chemical treatment of electrical arc furnace (EAF) dust. Currently, the extraction of zinc from the mentioned residue using a carbon-containing reducing agent is in the process of being established commercially and technically. In the current study, the possibility of reducing zinc from an EAF dust sample through a H2 constant flux in a horizontal oven is studied. The reduction of a synthetic oxide mixture of analogous composition is also investigated. The results indicated that the reduction process is thermodynamically viable for temperatures higher than 1123 K (850 °C), and all zinc metal produced is transferred to the gas stream, enabling its complete separation from iron. The same reaction in the presence of zinc crystals was considered for synthesizing FeZn alloys. However, for the experimental conditions employed, although ZnO reduction was indeed thermodynamically hindered because of the presence of zinc crystals (the metal's partial pressure was enhanced), the zinc metal's escape within the gaseous phase could not be effectively avoided.

  3. Ultrafast optical modification of exchange interactions in iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylovskiy, R. V.; Hendry, E.; Secchi, A.; Mentink, J. H.; Eckstein, M.; Wu, A.; Pisarev, R. V.; Kruglyak, V. V.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Rasing, Th.; Kimel, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Ultrafast non-thermal manipulation of magnetization by light relies on either indirect coupling of the electric field component of the light with spins via spin-orbit interaction or direct coupling between the magnetic field component and spins. Here we propose a scenario for coupling between the electric field of light and spins via optical modification of the exchange interaction, one of the strongest quantum effects with strength of 103 Tesla. We demonstrate that this isotropic opto-magnetic effect, which can be called inverse magneto-refraction, is allowed in a material of any symmetry. Its existence is corroborated by the experimental observation of terahertz emission by spin resonances optically excited in a broad class of iron oxides with a canted spin configuration. From its strength we estimate that a sub-picosecond modification of the exchange interaction by laser pulses with fluence of about 1 mJ cm-2 acts as a pulsed effective magnetic field of 0.01 Tesla.

  4. Magnetic hyperthermia in phosphate coated iron oxide nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Muthukumaran, T.; Philip, John

    2016-06-01

    We study the magnetic field induced hyperthermia in water based phosphate coated Fe3O4 nanofluids, synthesized by a co-precipitation method using ferrous and ferric salt solutions, ammonia and orthophosphoric acid. The specific absorption rate (SAR) values were measured at a fixed frequency of 126 kHz and at extremely low field amplitudes. The SAR values were determined from the initial rate of temperature rise curves under non-adiabatic conditions. It was observed that the SAR initially increases with sample concentration, attains a maximum at an optimum concentration and beyond which SAR decreases. The decrease in SAR values beyond the optimum concentration was attributed to the enhancement of dipolar interaction and agglomeration of the particles. The system independent intrinsic loss power (ILP) values, obtained by normalizing the SAR values with respect to field amplitude and frequency, were found to vary between 158-125 nHm2 kg-1, which were the highest benchmark values reported in the biologically safe experimental limit of 1.03-0.92×108 Am-1 s-1. The very high value of ILP observed in the bio-compatible phosphate coated iron oxide nanofluids may find practical applications for these nanoparticles in tumor targeted hyperthermia treatment.

  5. Leaching of pyrite by acidophilic heterotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria in pure and mixed cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelar-Nicolau, P.; Johnson, D.B. [Univ. of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    1999-02-01

    Seven strains of heterotrophic iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria were examined to determine their abilities to promote oxidative dissolution of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) when they were grown in pure cultures and in mixed cultures with sulfur-oxidizing Thiobacillus spp. Only one of the isolates (strain T-24) oxidized pyrite when it was grown in pyrite-basal salts medium. However, when pyrite-containing cultures were supplemented with 0.02% (wt/vol) yeast extract, most of the isolates oxidized pyrite, and one (strain T-24) promoted rates of mineral dissolution similar to the rates observed with the iron-oxidizing autotroph Thiobacillus ferroxidans. Pyrite oxidation by another isolate (strain T-21) occurred in cultures containing between 0.005 and 0.05% (wt/vol) yeast extract but was completely inhibited in cultures containing 0.5% yeast extract. Ferrous iron was also needed for mineral dissolution by the iron-oxidizing heterotrophs, indicating that these organisms oxidize pyrite via the indirect mechanism. Mixed cultures of three isolates (strains T-21, T-232, and T-24) and the sulfur-oxidizing autotroph Thiobacillus thiooxidans promoted pyrite dissolution; since neither strains T-21 and T-23 nor T. thiooxidans could oxidize this mineral in yeast extract-free media, this was a novel example of bacterial synergism. Mixed cultures of strains T-21 and T-23 and the sulfur-oxidizing mixotroph Thiobacillus acidophilus also oxidized pyrite but to a lesser extent than did mixed cultures containing T. thiooxidans. Pyrite leaching by strain T -23 grown in an organic compound-rich medium and incubated either shaken or unshaken was also assessed. The potential environmental significance of iron-oxidizing heterotrophs in accelerating pyrite oxidation is discussed.

  6. Unusual phase transition in a natural heterostructure of iron pnictides and vanadium oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Jong Mok; Baek, S.-H.; Eom, Man Jin; Hoch, C.; Kremer, R. K.; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chang, Chun-Fu; Ko, Kyung-Tae; Park, Sang-Youn; Ji, Sung Dae; Büchner, B.; Park, Jae-Hoon; Shim, J. H.; Mazin, I. I.; Kim, Jun Sung

    We report the unusual phase transition in Sr2VO3FeAs single crystal, where the Mott-insulating vanadium oxides and the high-Tc superconducting iron pnictides form a natural heterostructure. Clear evidence of the phase transition at T0 = 155 K was observed in the iron pnictide layer, not in the vanadium oxide layer, using bulk and NMR measurements. Neither magnetic ordering with sufficient spin moment nor symmetry change in the crystal structure has been detected at T0. At Tmag ~ 45 K, far below T0, magnetic transition occurs in the iron pnictide layer, while the vanadium oxide layer remains nonmagnetic at low temperatures. The complex evolution of various phases in Sr2VO3FeAs is drastically distinct from the phase transitions found in other iron pnictides or vanadium oxides, highlighting the importance of the additional interlayer coupling between the layers. Equal contribution, corresponding author.

  7. Magnetothermal release of payload from iron oxide/silica drug delivery agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, T. T.; Knoppe, S.; Bloemen, M.; Brullot, W.; Strobbe, R.; Locquet, J.-P.; Verbiest, T.

    2016-10-01

    The release of covalently bound Rhodamine B from iron oxide/mesoporous silica core/shell nanoparticles under magnetically induced heating was studied. The system acts as a model to study drug delivery and payload release under magnetothermal heating.

  8. Iron homeostatis and oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lung injury caused by both inhaled dusts and infectious agents depends on increased availability of iron and metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. Because inhaled particles, such as silica, and certain infections can cause secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosi...

  9. Colloidosome-based synthesis of a multifunctional nanostructure of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yue

    2010-03-16

    Nanoparticles that self-assemble on a liquid-liquid interface serve as the building block for making heterodimeric nanostructures. Specifically, hollow iron oxide nanoparticles within hexane form colloidosomes in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate, and iron oxide exposed to the aqueous phase catalyzes the reduction of silver ions to afford a heterodimer of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, and SQUID were used to characterize the heterodimers. Interestingly, the formation of silver nanoparticles helps the removal of spinglass layer on the hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. This work demonstrates a powerful yet convenient strategy for producing sophisticated, multifunctional nanostructures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. One-pot size and shape controlled synthesis of DMSO capped iron oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debanjan Guin; Sunkara V Manorama; S Radha; A K Nigam

    2006-11-01

    We report here the capping of iron oxide nanoparticles with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to make chloroform soluble iron oxide nanoparticles. Size and shape of the capped iron oxide nanoparticles are well controlled by simply varying the reaction parameters. The synthesized nanocrystallites were characterized by thermal analysis (TG–DTA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for evaluating phase, structure and morphology. 1H NMR spectra of the synthesized samples confirm DMSO, and the capping of DMSO on the ferrite samples. Shift of the S=O stretching frequency in Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra indicates that the bonding between DMSO and ferrite is through an oxygen moiety. The magnetic measurements of all the synthesized samples were investigated with a SQUID magnetometer which shows that the magnetic properties are strongly dependent on the size as well as shape of the iron oxide.

  11. Formation of biomineral iron oxides compounds in a Fe hyperaccumulator plant: Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, V; Rufo, L; Juárez, B H; Menéndez, N; García-Hernández, M; Salas-Colera, E; Espinosa, A

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed work of composition and location of naturally formed iron biominerals in plant cells tissues grown in iron rich environments as Imperata cylindrica. This perennial grass grows on the Tinto River banks (Iberian Pyritic Belt) in an extreme acidic ecosystem (pH∼2.3) with high concentration of dissolved iron, sulphate and heavy metals. Iron biominerals were found at the cellular level in tissues of root, stem and leaf both in collected and laboratory-cultivated plants. Iron accumulated in this plant as a mix of iron compounds (mainly as jarosite, ferrihydrite, hematite and spinel phases) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), magnetometry (SQUID), electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX; TEM-EDX; HRSTEM). A low fraction of phosphorous was detected in this iron hyperaccumulator plant. Root and rhizomes tissues present a high proportion of ferromagnetic iron oxide compounds. Iron oxides-rich zones are localized in electron dense intra and inter-cellular aggregates that appear as dark deposits covering the inner membrane and organelles of the cell. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of accumulation, transport, distribution of iron in Imperata cylindrica. PMID:26592710

  12. Influence of Iron Oxide Particles on the Strength of Ball-Milled Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D R; Syn, C K; Sherby, O D

    2005-12-07

    Detailed microstructural and mechanical property studies of ball-milled iron, in the powder and consolidated states, are reviewed and assessed. The analyses cover three and one-half orders of magnitude of grain size (from 6 nm to 20 mm) and focus on the influence of oxide particles on the strength. The study includes the early work of Koch and Yang, Kimura and Takaki and continues with the more recent work of Umemoto et al and Belyakov, Sakai et al. It is shown that the major contributors to strength are the nanooxide particles. These particles are created by adiabatic shear banding during ball-milling leading to a bimodal distribution of particles. The predicted strength from particles, {sigma}{sub p}, is given by {sigma}{sub p} = B {center_dot} (D*{sub S}){sup -1/2} where D*{sub S} is the surface-to-surface interparticle spacing, and B = 395 MPa {center_dot} {micro}m{sup -1/2}. A model is proposed that accounts for the influence of the bimodal particle size distribution on strength.

  13. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Predoi, Daniela; Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Mihaela RADU; COSTACHE, MARIETA; Dinischiotu, Anca; Gyorgy, Eniko

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, n...

  14. Iron oxides and quality of organic matter in sugarcane harvesting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Mazza Barbieri; José Marques Júnior; Diego Silva Siqueira; Daniel De Bortoli Teixeira; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Gener Tadeu Pereira; Newton La Scala Junior

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in working conditions, sustainable production, and competitiveness have led to substantial changes in sugarcane harvesting systems. Such changes have altered a number of soil properties, including iron oxides and organic matter, as well as some chemical properties, such as the maximum P adsorption capacity of the soil. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between iron oxides and the quality of organic matter in sugarcane harvesting systems. For that purpose,...

  15. Iron-oxidizing microbial ecosystems thrived in late Paleoproterozoic redox-stratified oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah; Rouxel, Olivier; Bekker, Andrey; Shapiro, Russell; Fralick, Phil; Knudsen, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a geochemical and petrographic study of the 1.89 billion year old Gunflint and Biwabik iron formations, with the goal of determining the importance of microbial iron-oxidation in the formation of iron- and microfossil-rich stromatolites. We used redox-sensitive tracers, such as iron isotopes and rare earth elements, to decipher whether these ancient microbial ecosystems harbored cyanobacteria or Fe-oxidizing bacteria as primary producers. Iron-rich stromatolites contain non-significant or positive Ce anomalies, which contrast with shallow water deposits having negative Ce anomalies. This trend in Ce anomalies indicates that the stromatolites formed in low oxygen conditions, which is the ideal setting for the proliferation of Fe-oxidizing bacterial ecosystems. The stromatolites yield a large range of δ 56Fe values, from -0.66 to +0.82‰, but contain predominantly positive values indicating the prevalence of partial Fe-oxidation. Based on modern analogues, Fe-oxides precipitated in cyanobacterial mats are expected to record an isotopic signature of quantitative oxidation, which in marine settings will yield negative δ 56Fe values. The stromatolite iron isotope data, therefore, provide evidence for the presence of Fe-oxidizing bacteria. The stromatolites can be traced for a distance of over 100 km in these iron formations, indicating that they record a pervasive rather than localized ecosystem. Their preservation in late Paleoproterozoic successions deposited along the margins of the Superior craton suggests that there was a global expansion of iron-oxidizing bacterial communities at shallow-water redox boundaries in late Paleoproterozoic oceans.

  16. Photoinitiated coupling of unmodified monosaccharides to iron oxide nanoparticles for sensing proteins and bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li-Hong; Dietsch, Hervé; Schurtenberger, Peter; Yan, Mingdi

    2009-01-01

    We report a versatile approach for the immobilization of unmodified monosaccharides onto iron oxide nanoparticles. Covalent coupling of the carbohydrate onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces was accomplished by the CH insertion reaction of photochemically activated phosphate-functionalized perfluorophenylazides (PFPAs), and the resulting glyconanoparticles were characterized by IR, TGA, and TEM. The surface-bound d-mannose showed the recognition ability towards Concanavalin A and Escherichia ...

  17. Tunable room-temperature ferromagnet using an iron-oxide and graphene oxide nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Aigu L.

    2015-06-23

    Magnetic materials have found wide application ranging from electronics and memories to medicine. Essential to these advances is the control of the magnetic order. To date, most room-temperature applications have a fixed magnetic moment whose orientation is manipulated for functionality. Here we demonstrate an iron-oxide and graphene oxide nanocomposite based device that acts as a tunable ferromagnet at room temperature. Not only can we tune its transition temperature in a wide range of temperatures around room temperature, but the magnetization can also be tuned from zero to 0.011 A m2/kg through an initialization process with two readily accessible knobs (magnetic field and electric current), after which the system retains its magnetic properties semi-permanently until the next initialization process. We construct a theoretical model to illustrate that this tunability originates from an indirect exchange interaction mediated by spin-imbalanced electrons inside the nanocomposite. © 2015 Scientific Reports.

  18. Long circulating reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient tumor targeting and multimodality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Shi, Sixiang; Feng, Liangzhu; Chen, Feng; Graves, Stephen A.; Ehlerding, Emily B.; Goel, Shreya; Sun, Haiyan; England, Christopher G.; Nickles, Robert J.; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Taihong; Cai, Weibo

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modification is one of the most widely used approaches to improve the solubility of inorganic nanoparticles, prevent their aggregation and prolong their in vivo blood circulation half-life. Herein, we developed double-PEGylated biocompatible reduced graphene oxide nanosheets anchored with iron oxide nanoparticles (RGO-IONP-1stPEG-2ndPEG). The nanoconjugates exhibited a prolonged blood circulation half-life (~27.7 h) and remarkable tumor accumulation (>11 %ID g-1) via an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Due to the strong near-infrared absorbance and superparamagnetism of RGO-IONP-1stPEG-2ndPEG, multimodality imaging combining positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging was successfully achieved. The promising results suggest the great potential of these nanoconjugates for multi-dimensional and more accurate tumor diagnosis and therapy in the future.

  19. Isolation of microorganisms involved in reduction of crystalline iron(III oxides in natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki eHori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of crystalline Fe(III oxides is one of the most important electron sinks for organic compound oxidation in natural environments. Yet a limited number of isolates makes it difficult to understand physiology and ecological impact of the microorganisms involved. Here, two-staged cultivation was implemented to selectively enrich and isolate crystalline iron(III reducers in soils and sediments. Firstly, iron reducers were enriched and other untargeted eutrophs were depleted by two-year successive culture on a crystalline ferric iron oxide (i.e., goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, or magnetite as electron acceptor. Fifty-eight out of 136 incubation conditions allowed the continued existence of microorganisms as confirmed by PCR amplification. High-throughput Illumina sequencing based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures on each of the ferric iron oxides contained bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria (mainly Geobacteraceae, followed by Firmicutes and Chloroflexi, which also comprised most of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs identified. The Venn diagrams indicated that the core OTUs enriched with all of the iron oxides were dominant in the Geobacteraceae. Secondly, 38 enrichment cultures including novel microorganisms were transferred to soluble-iron(III media in order to stimulate proliferation of the enriched iron reducers. Through extinction dilution-culture and single colony isolation, six strains within the Deltaproteobacteria were finally obtained; five strains belonged to the genus Geobacter and one strain to Pelobacter. These isolates had 94.8–98.1% sequence similarities of 16S rRNA genes to cultured relatives. All the isolates were able to grow on acetate and ferric iron but their physiological characteristics differed considerably in terms of growth rate. The results demonstrate the successful enrichment and isolation of novel iron(III reducers that were able to thrive by reducing highly

  20. Adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) polymers on zinc, zinc oxide, iron, and iron oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Susan; Simon, Frank; Baumann, Giesela; Hietschold, Michael; Seifert, Andreas; Spange, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    The adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide) (PVFA) and the statistic copolymers poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) onto zinc and iron metal particles as well as their oxides was investigated. The adsorbates were characterized by means of XPS, DRIFT spectroscopy, wet chemical analysis, and solvatochromic probes. Dicyano-bis-(1,10-phenanthroline)-iron(II) (1), 3-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-7-phenyl-benzo-[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-2,6-dione (2), and 4-tert-butyl-2-(dicyano-methylene)-5-[4-(diethylamino)-benzylidene]-Δ(3)-thiazoline (3) as solvatochromic probes were coadsorbed onto zinc oxide to measure various effects of surface polarity. The experimental findings showed that the adsorption mechanism of PVFA and PVFA-co-PVAm strongly depends on the degree of hydrolysis of PVFA and pH values and also on the kind of metal or metal oxide surfaces that were employed as adsorbents. The adsorption mechanism of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc oxide and iron oxide surfaces is mainly affected by electrostatic interactions. Particularly in the region of pH 5, the adsorption of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc and iron metal particles is additionally influenced by redox processes, dissolution, and complexation reactions.

  1. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis and surface coating techniques for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are the most popular magnetic nanoparticles used in biomedical applications due to their low cost, low toxicity, and unique magnetic property. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, including magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), usually exhibit a superparamagnetic property as their size goes smaller than 20 nm, which are often denoted as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and utilized for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapy, and etc. This review article gives a brief introduction on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in terms of their fundamentals of magnetism, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and drug delivery, as well as the synthesis approaches, surface coating, and application examples from recent key literatures. Because the quality and surface chemistry play important roles in biomedical applications, our review focuses on the synthesis approaches and surface modifications of iron oxide nanoparticles. We aim to provide a detailed introduction to readers who are new to this field, helping them to choose suitable synthesis methods and to optimize the surface chemistry of iron oxide nanoparticles for their interests. (topical review — magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  2. Dominance of Ferritrophicum populations at an AMD site with rapid iron oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grettenberger, C.; Pearce, A.; Bibby, K. J.; Burgos, W.; Jones, D. S.; Macalady, J.

    2015-12-01

    Acid mine drainage is a major environmental problem affecting watersheds across the globe. Bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and thus remove iron from the system. Iron-oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable across sites. At Scalp Level Run in Summerset County PA, iron-oxidation rates are five to eight times faster than other coal-associated AMD sites. We examined the microbial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique microbial community may be responsible for the observed rapid iron-oxidation rates. Using MiSeq sequence tags, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we found that Scalp Level Run sediments host microbial populations closely related to the betaproteobacterium Ferritrophicum radicicola, an iron-oxidizing species isolated from an acid mine drainage wetland in Virginia. Ferritrophicum spp. was not found at the four other coal-associated AMD sites in the study and is uncommon in the published literature. The influence of Ferritrophicum spp. populations in biogeochemical cycling, specifically their role in determining the iron-oxidation rate at Scalp Level Run is unknown. Therefore, we employed metagenomic sequencing to examine the metabolic potential of the microbial community at Scalp Level Run.

  3. Cytotoxic Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells by MTT Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Mohseni Kouchesfehani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide range of applications, there is a serious lack of information on the impact of the nanoparticles on human health and the environment. The present study was done to determine the range of dangerous concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticle and their effects on mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods: Iron oxide nanoparticles with less than 20 nanometers diameter were encapsulated by a PEG-phospholipid. The suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was prepared using the culture media and cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Results: MTT assay was used to examine the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticle s. Royan B1 cells were treated with medium containing different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60µg/ml of the iron oxide nanoparticle. Cell viability was determined at 12 and 24 hours after treatment which showed significant decreases when concentration and time period increased. Conclusion: The main mechanism of nanoparticles action is still unknown, but in vivo and in vitro studies in different environments suggest that they are capable of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, they may have an effect on the concentration of intracellular calcium, activation of transcription factors, and changes in cytokine. The results of this study show that the higher concentration and duration of treatment of cells with iron oxide nanoparticles increase the rate of cell death.

  4. Iron oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Compère

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered as a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemental composition of the mineral concretions associated with these bacteria have been investigated by using LM, ESEM, TEM STEM and EDX microanalyses. The nature of the iron oxides in shrimps obtained from the Rainbow vent field has also been determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This multidisciplinary approach has revealed that the three layers of mineral crust in the Rimicaris exoculata shrimps consist of large concretions formed by aggregated nanoparticles of two-line ferrihydrite and include other minor elements as Si, Ca, Mg, S and P, probably present as silicates cations, sulphates or phosphates respectively that may contribute to stabilise the ferrihydrite form of iron oxides. TEM-observations on the bacteria have revealed their close interactions with these minerals. Abiotic and biotic precipitation could occur within the gill chamber of Rimicaris exoculata, suggesting the biologically-mediated formation of the iron oxide deposits. The difference of the bacterial density in the three-mineral crust layers could be correlated to the importance of the iron oxide concretions and suggest that the first mineral particles precipitates on the lower layer which could be considered as the most likely location of iron-oxidizing bacteria.

  5. Vapour phase approach for iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis from solid precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mandeep; Ulbrich, Pavel; Prokopec, Vadym [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Pavel [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Šantavá, Eva [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Štěpánek, František, E-mail: Frantisek.Stepanek@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-04-15

    A new non-solution mediated approach to the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles directly from solid FeCl{sub 2} salt precursors has been developed. The method is rapid, simple and scalable. The structural properties and the phase of the resulting iron oxide particles has been determined by a range of methods including XRD, FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the phase is shown to be maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The magnetic properties of the iron oxide particles have been measured using SQUID, confirming superparamagnetic behaviour of the powder and a saturation magnetization of 53.0 emu g{sup −1} at 300 K. Aqueous dispersions at increasing concentrations were prepared and their heating rate under a 400 kHz alternating magnetic field measured. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the iron oxide was found to be 84.8 W g{sup −1}, which makes the material suitable for the formulation of ferrofluids or ferrogels with RF heating properties. - Graphical Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles obtained by a novel vapour phase approach. Highlights: ► Novel vapour phase (non-solvent) approach for iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis. ► Attractive alternative approach to the present co-precipitation method. ► Better magnetic properties with high coercivity of nanoparticles. ► A high specific absorption rate (SAR) for hyperthermia applications.

  6. Selective catalytic oxidation of H2S over iron oxide supported on alumina-intercalated Laponite clay catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The catalytic reaction and deactivation mechanisms for H2S selective oxidation over Fe/Al-Lap catalysts are shown in the illustration. The catalytic reaction follows Mars–van Krevelen mechanism. Moreover, the interaction between iron oxide and alumina, the strong acidity of the catalysts and the well dispersion of iron oxide improve the catalytic performance efficiently. Meanwhile, the catalyst deactivation is mainly due to the formation of Fe2(SO4)3 and elemental sulfur deposits on the surface. -- Highlights: • Fe/Al-Lap catalysts with mesoporous structure were synthesized. • Iron oxide mainly exists in form of isolate Fe3+ in an oxidic environment. •Fe/Al-Lap catalysts show high catalytic activities at low temperature. •The high catalytic activities are ascribed to the interaction between iron oxide and alumina. •The formed Fe2(SO4)3 and elemental sulfur deposits on surface cause catalyst deactivation. -- Abstract: A series of iron oxide supported on alumina-intercalated clay catalysts (named Fe/Al-Lap catalysts) with mesoporous structure and high specific surface area were prepared. The structural and chemical properties were studied by nitrogen sorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) techniques. It was realized that iron oxide mainly existed in the form of isolated Fe3+ in an oxidic environment. Fe/Al-Lap catalysts showed high catalytic activities in the temperature range of 120–200 °C without the presence of excessive O2. This can be attributed to the interaction between iron oxide and alumina, which improve the redox property of Fe3+ efficiently. In addition, the strong acidity of catalysts and good dispersion of iron oxide were also beneficial to oxidation reaction. Among them, 7% Fe

  7. Selective catalytic oxidation of NO over iron and manganese oxides supported on mesoporous silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfeng Zhang; Yan Huang; Xia Chen

    2008-01-01

    The selective catalytic oxidation (SCO)of NO was studied on a catalyst consisting of iron-manganese oxide supported on mesoporous silica (MPS) with different Mn/Fe ratios.Effects of the amount of manganese and iron,oxygen,and calcination temperature on NO conversion were also investigated.It was found that the Mn-Fe/MPS catalyst with a Mn/Fe molar ratio of l showed the highest activity at the calcination temperature of 400℃.The results showed that over this catalyst,NO conversion reached 70%under the condition of 280℃ and a space velocity of 5000 h-1.SO2 and H2O had no adverse impact on the reaction activity when the SCO reaction temperature was above 240℃.In addition,the SCO activity was suppressed gradually in the presence of SO2 and H2O below 240℃.and such an effect was reversible after heating treatment.

  8. Thin film lubrication of hexadecane confined by iron and iron oxide surfaces: A crucial role of surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ta, D. T.; Tieu, A. K.; Zhu, H. T., E-mail: hongtao@uow.edu.au; Kosasih, B. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfield Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2015-10-28

    A comparative analysis of thin film lubrication of hexadecane between different iron and its oxide surfaces has been carried out using classical molecular dynamic simulation. An ab initio force-field, COMPASS, was applied for n-hexadecane using explicit atom model. An effective potential derived from density functional theory calculation was utilized for the interfacial interaction between hexadecane and the tribo-surfaces. A quantitative surface parameterization was introduced to investigate the influence of surface properties on the structure, rheological properties, and tribological performance of the lubricant. The results show that although the wall-fluid attraction of hexadecane on pure iron surfaces is significantly stronger than its oxides, there is a considerable reduction of shear stress of confined n-hexadecane film between Fe(100) and Fe(110) surfaces compared with FeO(110), FeO(111), Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001), and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(012). It was found that, in thin film lubrication of hexadecane between smooth iron and iron oxide surfaces, the surface corrugation plays a role more important than the wall-fluid adhesion strength.

  9. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  10. Iron-sulfur Proteins Are the Major Source of Protein-bound Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes Formed in Escherichia coli Cells under Nitric Oxide Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Aaron P.; Duan, Xuewu; Huang, Hao; Ding, Huangen

    2011-01-01

    Protein-bound dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) have been observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells under nitric oxide (NO) stress. The identity of proteins that bind DNICs, however, still remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that iron-sulfur proteins are the major source of protein-bound DNICs formed in Escherichia coli cells under NO stress. Expression of recombinant iron-sulfur proteins, but not the proteins without iron-sulfur clusters, almost doubles the amount of protein-bound DNICs ...

  11. Solvent Extraction-spectrophotometric Determination of Iron(III) with Mixture of Dibenzoylmethane and Tri-n-octylphosphine Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 穣一; Ueda, Joichi; Kosumi, Shiro

    1999-01-01

    A method for the spectrophotometric determination of iron(III) utilising the synergistic extraction with dibenzoylmethane(DBM) and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide(TOPO) is described. Iron(III) can be extracted

  12. Magnetic field calculations for iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ricardo; Mendez Rojas, Miguel; Dies Suarez, Pilar; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The susceptibility effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) functionalized with triethylenglycol (TREG) and Polyethylen Glycol (PEG) has been studied, those nanoparticles have the necessary properties to be used in the clinic as contrast media in imaging by MRI[1-3]. We are considering the behavior of the magnetic field as plane wave to explain the electrical and magnetic field produced by SPIONs. Images were acquired on a 1.5T imager Philips, using mFFE Sequence. Three glass capillary tubes with a) TREG (10nm) concentration of 300 μg/ml, and PEGCOOH 6000(10nm) with 300 μg/ml, and 2% agarosa. Magnetic field simulations were calculated in Matlab. The plane wave that comes in contact with a sphere of radius a, an propagation constant k1, and it is in an homogeneous space k2. We consider that the electric field is linearly polarized on x-direction, with a propagation on z-positive-axis. The secondary induced field can be explained from the interior of the sphere and valid exterior points. The referred waves are transmitted and reflected, this is valid only when the wavelength is smaller than the radius of the sphere. The obtained vibrational mode is an answer of the electrical oscillation and this is projection of the disturbed magnetic field. TREG-SPIONs produce more serious susceptibility artefacts compared to PEG-SPIONs. This study is promissory due to the concordance of the results of the simulations and the inhomogeneities showed in the MR images.

  13. Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles: current state and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of applications for superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as contrast media for MRI has emerged over the last 15 years. SPIO particles can be manufactured with different particle sizes and surface coatings. Large SPIO particles (50-150 nm) predominantly produce a signal decrease or T2-shortening and are used as contrast media for MRI of the liver and spleen. They have a high accuracy, especially in detecting liver metastases (approved for clinical use: AMI-25 (Endorem or Ferridex), SHU-555A (Resovist)). Smaller particles (about 20 nm in diameter) show a different organ distribution and have a potential for improving noninvasive lymph node assessment or characterizing vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (in clinical trials: AMI-227 [Sinerem or Combidex]). Particles with an optimized T1-relaxivity and prolonged intravascular circulation time can be used as blood pool contrast media for MR angiography. The currently investigated indications are MR angiography of the trunk, peripheral vessels, and coronary arteries (e.g., SHU-555C (Supravist), VSOP-C184). Other applications of small SPIO particles include MRI of the bone marrow and the determination of perfusion parameters in tumors or other tissues like the myocardium. SPIO particles with a modified coat can be used in socalled molecular imaging, such as receptor-directed imaging, cell labeling for in-vivo monitoring of cell migration, e.g., stem cell labeling, and labeling of gene constructs for localization in genetic therapy. In tumor therapy SPIO particles can serve as mediators for hyperthermia. SPIO is a powerful MR contrast medium with manifold applications ranging from diagnostic imaging to molecular medicine. (orig.)

  14. The responses of immune cells to iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaolin; Sherwood, Jennifer A; Lackey, Kimberly H; Qin, Ying; Bao, Yuping

    2016-04-01

    Immune cells play an important role in recognizing and removing foreign objects, such as nanoparticles. Among various parameters, surface coatings of nanoparticles are the first contact with biological system, which critically affect nanoparticle interactions. Here, surface coating effects on nanoparticle cellular uptake, toxicity and ability to trigger immune response were evaluated on a human monocyte cell line using iron oxide nanoparticles. The cells were treated with nanoparticles of three types of coatings (negatively charged polyacrylic acid, positively charged polyethylenimine and neutral polyethylene glycol). The cells were treated at various nanoparticle concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 50 μg ml(-1) or 2, 4, 8, 12, 20 μg cm(-2)) with 6 h incubation or treated at a nanoparticle concentration of 50 μg ml(-1) (20 μg cm(-2)) at different incubation times (6, 12, 24, 48 or 72 h). Cell viability over 80% was observed for all nanoparticle treatment experiments, regardless of surface coatings, nanoparticle concentrations and incubation times. The much lower cell viability for cells treated with free ligands (e.g. ~10% for polyethylenimine) suggested that the surface coatings were tightly attached to the nanoparticle surfaces. The immune responses of cells to nanoparticles were evaluated by quantifying the expression of toll-like receptor 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and toll-like receptor 2 were not significant in any case of the surface coatings, nanoparticle concentrations and incubation times. These results provide useful information to select nanoparticle surface coatings for biological and biomedical applications. PMID:26817529

  15. Iron oxidation and biomineralization by Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, a deep-sea microaerophilic lithoautotroph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. S.; Emerson, D.; Fakra, S.; Edwards, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The ocean crust contains a large reservoir of reduced iron, available for microbial energy generation. Some of this ferrous iron is mobilized by fluids in hydrothermal fields at seamounts and mid-ocean ridges. A microaerophilic iron oxidizer, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans has been identified (by molecular methods and microscopy) at various sites, and appears to be a key iron-oxidizing bacterium (FeOB) in the deep sea. Originally isolated from microbial mats near vents at the Loihi Seamount in Hawaii, Mariprofundus is distinctive because it forms an extracellular iron-mineralized stalk-like structure. We aim to understand its metabolism and mineral formation using a multidisciplinary approach, including electron microscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, time-lapse light microscopic imaging of live cells, and genomic and biochemical analyses. Microscopy and spectroscopy work shows that as the cells grow, they excretes iron and organic-rich fibrils that make up the stalk, at a rate of ~2 microns/hr. Stalk growth appears to be parallel to the direction of Fe and oxygen gradients. The Mariprofundus genome contains several terminal oxidases/peroxidases, including two cbb3-type cytochrome oxidases with a high affinity for oxygen, consistent with the microaerophilic lifestyle of these organisms. However, we have not identified genes for metabolisms other than aerobic iron oxidation, nor have we found any genes similar to known or suspected iron oxidases, though the genome (2.87 Mb) is rich in cytochromes (32 of 2922 genes). Thus, we are performing experiments to extract and analyze proteins from both cultured and environmental samples in order to find ones that will oxidize iron. UV-Vis spectra of extracts suggest that c-type cytochromes are particularly abundant, so these are candidates for further investigation. In combination with the microscopy and spectroscopy studies, these are the first steps towards understanding the complete pathway of iron from uptake through mineral

  16. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6 h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A·)/ascorbate (AH−) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A·/AH− ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR·) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8 h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21 h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6 h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8 h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR· generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR· generation rate after 6 h

  17. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloni, Natacha E; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-12-01

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A)/ascorbate (AH(-)) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A/AH(-) ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR generation rate after 6h of Fe overload

  18. N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide for detection of iron(III) by photoluminescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Javad; Manteghian, Mehrdad; Badiei, Alireza; Ueda, Hiroshi; Javanbakht, Mehran

    2016-02-01

    An N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide nanolayer was synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Detection of iron(III) based on photoluminescence spectroscopy was investigated. The N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide was shown to specifically interact with iron (III), compared with other cationic trace elements including potassium (I), sodium (I), calcium (II), chromium (III), zinc (II), cobalt (II), copper (II), magnesium (II), manganese (II), and molybdenum (VI). The quenching effect of iron (III) on the luminescence emission of N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide layer was used to detect iron (III). The limit of detection (2.8 × 10(-6)  M) and limit of quantitation (2.9 × 10(-5)  M) were obtained under optimal conditions. PMID:26016610

  19. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua, E-mail: chia@ukm.edu.my; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  20. N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide for detection of iron(III) by photoluminescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Javad; Manteghian, Mehrdad; Badiei, Alireza; Ueda, Hiroshi; Javanbakht, Mehran

    2016-02-01

    An N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide nanolayer was synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Detection of iron(III) based on photoluminescence spectroscopy was investigated. The N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide was shown to specifically interact with iron (III), compared with other cationic trace elements including potassium (I), sodium (I), calcium (II), chromium (III), zinc (II), cobalt (II), copper (II), magnesium (II), manganese (II), and molybdenum (VI). The quenching effect of iron (III) on the luminescence emission of N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide layer was used to detect iron (III). The limit of detection (2.8 × 10(-6)  M) and limit of quantitation (2.9 × 10(-5)  M) were obtained under optimal conditions.

  1. Mutual effects of nitric oxide and iron on the growth of marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Experiments on the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and iron on the growth of marine microalgae Skeletonema costatum were conducted.The results are as follows: exogenous NO could increase the growth rate of marine algae and raise the biomass remarkably under iron-deficient conditions. But it was a complicated process that the phytoplankton growth was influenced by NO and iron, which was controlled by the NO concentration, the nutrition level of the culture medium and the iron concentration, etc. Meanwhile, the iron concentration in the medium also has a direct influence on the growth and NO release capacity of the algae. Therefore, the effects of NO and iron on the growth of marine phytoplankton were mutual.

  2. Microbial iron oxidation in the Arctic tundra and its implications for biogeochemical cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, David; Scott, Jarrod J; Benes, Joshua; Bowden, William B

    2015-12-01

    The role that neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria play in the Arctic tundra is unknown. This study surveyed chemosynthetic iron-oxidizing communities at the North Slope of Alaska near Toolik Field Station (TFS) at Toolik Lake (lat 68.63, long -149.60). Microbial iron mats were common in submerged habitats with stationary or slowly flowing water, and their greatest areal extent is in coating plant stems and sediments in wet sedge meadows. Some Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) produce easily recognized sheath or stalk morphotypes that were present and dominant in all the mats we observed. The cool water temperatures (9 to 11°C) and reduced pH (5.0 to 6.6) at all sites kinetically favor microbial iron oxidation. A microbial survey of five sites based on 16S rRNA genes found a predominance of Proteobacteria, with Betaproteobacteria and members of the family Comamonadaceae being the most prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs). In relative abundance, clades of lithotrophic FeOB composed 5 to 10% of the communities. OTUs related to cyanobacteria and chloroplasts accounted for 3 to 25% of the communities. Oxygen profiles showed evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis at the surface of some mats, indicating the coexistence of photosynthetic and FeOB populations. The relative abundance of OTUs belonging to putative Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) averaged around 11% in the sampled iron mats. Mats incubated anaerobically with 10 mM acetate rapidly initiated Fe reduction, indicating that active iron cycling is likely. The prevalence of iron mats on the tundra might impact the carbon cycle through lithoautotrophic chemosynthesis, anaerobic respiration of organic carbon coupled to iron reduction, and the suppression of methanogenesis, and it potentially influences phosphorus dynamics through the adsorption of phosphorus to iron oxides. PMID:26386054

  3. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin R.; Fiskal, Annika; Sommer, Stefan; Hensen, Christian; Lomnitz, Ulrike; Wuttig, Kathrin; Göttlicher, Jörg; Kossel, Elke; Steininger, Ralph; Canfield, Donald E.

    2016-11-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface. Even in the anoxic water of oxygen minimum zones, where iron solubility should be enhanced, most of the iron is rapidly re-precipitated. To constrain the mechanism(s) of iron removal in anoxic ocean regions we explored the sediment and water in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru. During our sampling campaign the water column featured two distinct redox boundaries separating oxic from nitrate-reducing (i.e., nitrogenous) water and nitrogenous from weakly sulfidic water. The sulfidic water mass in contact with the shelf sediment contained elevated iron concentrations >300 nM. At the boundary between sulfidic and nitrogenous conditions, iron concentrations dropped sharply to biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon.

  4. Water oxidation catalysis with nonheme iron complexes under acidic and basic conditions: homogeneous or heterogeneous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dachao; Mandal, Sukanta; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo; Llobet, Antoni; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-08-19

    Thermal water oxidation by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) was catalyzed by nonheme iron complexes, such as Fe(BQEN)(OTf)2 (1) and Fe(BQCN)(OTf)2 (2) (BQEN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)ethane-1,2-diamine, BQCN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)cyclohexanediamine, OTf = CF3SO3(-)) in a nonbuffered aqueous solution; turnover numbers of 80 ± 10 and 20 ± 5 were obtained in the O2 evolution reaction by 1 and 2, respectively. The ligand dissociation of the iron complexes was observed under acidic conditions, and the dissociated ligands were oxidized by CAN to yield CO2. We also observed that 1 was converted to an iron(IV)-oxo complex during the water oxidation in competition with the ligand oxidation. In addition, oxygen exchange between the iron(IV)-oxo complex and H2(18)O was found to occur at a much faster rate than the oxygen evolution. These results indicate that the iron complexes act as the true homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation by CAN at low pHs. In contrast, light-driven water oxidation using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) as a photosensitizer and S2O8(2-) as a sacrificial electron acceptor was catalyzed by iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from the iron complexes under basic conditions as the result of the ligand dissociation. In a buffer solution (initial pH 9.0) formation of the iron hydroxide nanoparticles with a size of around 100 nm at the end of the reaction was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) in situ and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. We thus conclude that the water oxidation by CAN was catalyzed by short-lived homogeneous iron complexes under acidic conditions, whereas iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from iron complexes act as a heterogeneous catalyst in the light-driven water oxidation reaction under basic conditions.

  5. Discovery of Fe7O9: a new iron oxide with a complex monoclinic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Bykova, Elena; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V; McCammon, Catherine; Kupenko, Ilya; Ismailova, Leyla; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxides are fundamentally important compounds for basic and applied sciences as well as in numerous industrial applications. In this work we report the synthesis and investigation of a new binary iron oxide with the hitherto unknown stoichiometry of Fe7O9. This new oxide was synthesized at high-pressure high-temperature (HP-HT) conditions, and its black single crystals were successfully recovered at ambient conditions. By means of single crystal X-ray diffraction we determined that Fe7O9 adopts a monoclinic C2/m lattice with the most distorted crystal structure among the binary iron oxides known to date. The synthesis of Fe7O9 opens a new portal to exotic iron-rich (M,Fe)7O9 oxides with unusual stoichiometry and distorted crystal structures. Moreover, the crystal structure and phase relations of such new iron oxide groups may provide new insight into the cycling of volatiles in the Earth's interior. PMID:27605075

  6. Non-heme iron catalysts for the benzylic oxidation : a parallel ligand screening approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopstra, M; Hage, R; Kellogg, R.M.; Feringa, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Ethylbenzene and 4-ethylanisole were used as model substrates for benzylic oxidation with H2O2 or O-2 using a range of non-heme iron catalysts following a parallel ligand screening approach. Effective oxidation was found for Fe complexes based on tetra- and pentadentate nitrogen ligands affording th

  7. Iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon in lithium-ion batteries, medical, catalytic, and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuček, Jiří; Kemp, Kingsley Christian; Kim, Kwang Soo; Zbořil, Radek

    2014-08-26

    Owing to the three different orbital hybridizations carbon can adopt, the existence of various carbon nanoallotropes differing also in dimensionality has been already affirmed with other structures predicted and expected to emerge in the future. Despite numerous unique features and applications of 2D graphene, 1D carbon nanotubes, or 0D fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and carbon quantum dots, which have been already heavily explored, any of the existing carbon allotropes do not offer competitive magnetic properties. For challenging applications, carbon nanoallotropes are functionalized with magnetic species, especially of iron oxide nature, due to their interesting magnetic properties (superparamagnetism and strong magnetic response under external magnetic fields), easy availability, biocompatibility, and low cost. In addition, combination of iron oxides (magnetite, maghemite, hematite) and carbon nanostructures brings enhanced electrochemical performance and (photo)catalytic capability due to synergetic and cooperative effects. This work aims at reviewing these advanced applications of iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon composites where iron oxides play a diverse role. Various architectures of carbon/iron oxide nanocomposites, their synthetic procedures, physicochemical properties, and applications are discussed in details. A special attention is devoted to hybrids of carbon nanotubes and rare forms (mesoporous carbon, nanofoam) with magnetic iron oxide carriers for advanced environmental technologies. The review also covers the huge application potential of graphene/iron oxide nanocomposites in the field of energy storage, biomedicine, and remediation of environment. Among various discussed medical applications, magnetic composites of zero-dimensional fullerenes and carbon dots are emphasized as promising candidates for complex theranostics and dual magneto-fluorescence imaging.

  8. Iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon in lithium-ion batteries, medical, catalytic, and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuček, Jiří; Kemp, Kingsley Christian; Kim, Kwang Soo; Zbořil, Radek

    2014-08-26

    Owing to the three different orbital hybridizations carbon can adopt, the existence of various carbon nanoallotropes differing also in dimensionality has been already affirmed with other structures predicted and expected to emerge in the future. Despite numerous unique features and applications of 2D graphene, 1D carbon nanotubes, or 0D fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and carbon quantum dots, which have been already heavily explored, any of the existing carbon allotropes do not offer competitive magnetic properties. For challenging applications, carbon nanoallotropes are functionalized with magnetic species, especially of iron oxide nature, due to their interesting magnetic properties (superparamagnetism and strong magnetic response under external magnetic fields), easy availability, biocompatibility, and low cost. In addition, combination of iron oxides (magnetite, maghemite, hematite) and carbon nanostructures brings enhanced electrochemical performance and (photo)catalytic capability due to synergetic and cooperative effects. This work aims at reviewing these advanced applications of iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon composites where iron oxides play a diverse role. Various architectures of carbon/iron oxide nanocomposites, their synthetic procedures, physicochemical properties, and applications are discussed in details. A special attention is devoted to hybrids of carbon nanotubes and rare forms (mesoporous carbon, nanofoam) with magnetic iron oxide carriers for advanced environmental technologies. The review also covers the huge application potential of graphene/iron oxide nanocomposites in the field of energy storage, biomedicine, and remediation of environment. Among various discussed medical applications, magnetic composites of zero-dimensional fullerenes and carbon dots are emphasized as promising candidates for complex theranostics and dual magneto-fluorescence imaging. PMID:25000534

  9. DLVO and XDLVO calculations for bacteriophage MS2 adhesion to iron oxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ann; Kim, Song-Bae

    2015-10-01

    In this study, batch experiments were performed to examine the adhesion of bacteriophage MS2 to three iron oxide particles (IOP1, IOP2 and IOP3) with different particle properties. The characteristics of MS2 and iron oxides were analyzed using various techniques to construct the classical DLVO and XDLVO potential energy profiles between MS2 and iron oxides. X-ray diffractometry peaks indicated that IOP1 was mainly composed of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), but also contained some goethite (α-FeOOH). IOP2 was composed of hematite (α-Fe2O3) and IOP3 was composed of iron (Fe), magnetite (Fe3O4) and iron oxide (FeO). Transmission electron microscope images showed that the primary particle size of IOP1 (γ-Fe2O3) was 12.3±4.1nm. IOP2 and IOP3 had primary particle sizes of 167±35nm and 484±192nm, respectively. A surface angle analyzer demonstrated that water contact angles of IOP1, IOP2, IOP3 and MS2 were 44.83, 64.00, 34.33 and 33.00°, respectively. A vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the magnetic saturations of IOP1, IOP2 and IOP3 were 176.87, 17.02 and 946.85kA/m, respectively. Surface potentials measured in artificial ground water (AGW; 0.075mM CaCl2, 0.082mM MgCl2, 0.051mM KCl, and 1.5mM NaHCO3; pH7.6) indicated that iron oxides and MS2 were negatively charged in AGW (IOP1=-0.0185V; IOP2=-0.0194V; IOP3=-0.0301V; MS2=-0.0245V). Batch experiments demonstrated that MS2 adhesion to iron oxides was favorable in the order of IOP1>IOP2>IOP3. This tendency was well predicted by the classical DLVO model. In the DLVO calculations, both the sphere-plate and sphere-sphere geometries predicted the same trend of MS2 adhesion to iron oxides. Additionally, noticeable differences were not found between the DLVO and XDLVO interaction energy profiles, indicating that hydrophobic interactions did not play a major role; electrostatic interactions, however, did influence MS2 adhesion to iron oxides. Furthermore, the aggregation of iron oxides was investigated with a modified XDLVO

  10. In-Situ Incubation of Iron-Sulfide Mineral in Seawater Reveals Colonization by Iron-Oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and Zetaproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, R. A.; Ramírez, G. A.; Sylvan, J. B.; Edwards, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfide mineral precipitation occurs at mid-ocean ridge (MOR) spreading centers, both in the form of plume particles and massive sulfide structures. A common constituent of MOR sulfide mineral is pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS). This mineral was chosen as a substrate for in-situ incubation studies in the shallow waters of Catalina Islands, CA to investigate the colonization of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria largely dominated the bacterial community on pyrrhotite samples incubated in the water column. Pyrrhotite samples incubated at the sediment/water column interface showed more even dominance by Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Cultivations that originated from these pyrrhotite samples resulted in the enrichment of Zetaproteobacteria with either twisted-stalks (Mariprofundus) or sheath structures. Additionally, a candidate novel Gammaproteobacterium was isolated and shown to grow autotrophically via the oxidation of iron.

  11. In-situ determination of the oxidation state of iron in Fe-bearing silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtial, P.; Wilke, M.; Potuzak, M.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2005-12-01

    Terrestrial lavas commonly contain up to 10 wt% of iron. Furthermore, rocks returned from the Moon indicate lunar lava containing up to 25 wt% of iron and planetary scientists estimated that the martian mantle has about 18 wt% of iron. An experimental challenge in dealing with Fe-bearing silicate melts is that the oxidation state, controlling the proportions of ferric and ferrous iron, is a function of composition, oxygen fugacity and temperature and may vary significantly. Further complications concerning iron originate from its potential to be either four-, six- or even five-fold coordinated in both valence states. Therefore, the oxidation state of iron was determined in air for various Fe-bearing silicate melts. Investigated samples were Na-disilicate (NS), one atmosphere anorthite-diopside eutectic (AD) and haplogranitic (HPG8) melts containing up to 20, 20 and 10 wt% of iron, respectively. XANES spectra at the Fe K-edge were collected for all the melts at beamline A1, HASYLAB, Hamburg, using a Si(111) 4-crystal monochromator. Spectra were collected for temperatures up to 1573 K using a Pt-Rh loop as heating device. The Fe oxidation state was determined from the centroid position of the pre-edge feature using the calibration of Wilke et al. (2004). XANES results suggest that oxidation state of iron does not change within error for NS melts with addition of Fe, while AD and HPG8 melts become more oxidised with increasing iron content. Furthermore, NS melts are well more oxidised than AD and HPG8 melts that exhibit relatively similar oxidation states for identical iron contents. The oxidation state of iron for NS melts appears to be slightly temperature-dependent within the temperature range investigated (1073-1573 K). However, this trend is stronger for AD and HPG8 melts. Assuming that glass reflects a picture of the homogeneous equilibria of the melt, the present in-situ Fe-oxidation states determined for these melts were compared to those obtained on quenched

  12. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henych, Jiří; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Janoš, Pavel; Kuráň, Pavel; Štastný, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Titania-iron mixed oxides with various Ti:Fe ratio were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium(IV) oxysulphate and iron(III) sulphate with urea as a precipitating agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, XRF analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). These oxides were used for degradation of organophosporus pesticide parathion methyl. The highest degradation efficiency approaching degraded on the surfaces of pure oxides. In general, the highest degradation rate exhibited samples consisted of the iron or titanium oxide containing a moderate amount of the admixture. However, distinct correlations between the degradation rate and the sorbent composition were not identified.

  13. Pollution Control Meets Sustainability: Structure-Activity Studies on New Iron Oxide-Based CO Oxidation Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Roland; Bauer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    A new class of catalysts for the oxidation of CO based on iron oxide as a biocompatible, earth-abundant and non-toxic metal is presented. The catalytic activities achieved with these catalysts provide promising milestones towards the substitution of noble metals in CO oxidation catalysts. The catalysts can be obtained by using iron core-shell nanoparticle precursors. The metal used for the shell material determines whether the iron core is integrated in or isolated from the support. The active iron site is effectively integrated into the γ-Al2 O3 support if an aluminum shell is present in the core-shell precursor. When the metal used for the shell is different from the support, an isolated structure is formed. Using this directed synthesis approach, different iron oxide species can be obtained and their structural differences are linked to distinct catalytic activities, as demonstrated by combined in-depth analytical studies using XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), UV/Vis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The key species responsible for high catalytic activity is identified as isolated tetrahedrally coordinated Fe(III) centers, whereas aggregation leads to a reduction in activity. PMID:27440425

  14. Conductive iron oxide minerals accelerate syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic benzoate degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Paddy soil contaminated with benzoate incubated with hematite and magnetite. • Iron oxides addition enhanced methanogenic benzoate degradation by 25–53%. • The facilitated syntrophy might involve direct interspecies electron transfer. • Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that conductive iron oxide minerals can facilitate syntrophic metabolism of the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, such as ethanol, propionate and butyrate, in natural and engineered microbial ecosystems. This enhanced syntrophy involves direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) powered by microorganisms exchanging metabolic electrons through electrically conductive minerals. Here, we evaluated the possibility that conductive iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) can stimulate the methanogenic degradation of benzoate, which is a common intermediate in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. The results showed that 89–94% of the electrons released from benzoate oxidation were recovered in CH4 production, and acetate was identified as the only carbon-bearing intermediate during benzoate degradation. Compared with the iron-free controls, the rates of methanogenic benzoate degradation were enhanced by 25% and 53% in the presence of hematite and magnetite, respectively. This stimulatory effect probably resulted from DIET-mediated methanogenesis in which electrons transfer between syntrophic partners via conductive iron minerals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved in the functioning of syntrophic DIET. Considering the ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within soils and sediments, the findings of this study will increase the current understanding of the natural biological attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic environments

  15. Role of manganese in protection against oxidative stress under iron starvation in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Manish Singh; Srivastava, Meenakshi; Verma, Ekta; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2015-06-01

    The cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was grown in presence and absence of iron to decipher the role of manganese in protection against the oxidative stress under iron starvation and growth, manganese uptake kinetics, antioxidative enzymes, lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, thiol content, total peroxide, proline and NADH content was investigated. Manganese supported the growth of cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120 under iron deprived conditions where maximum uptake rate of manganese was observed with lower K(m) and higher V(max) values. Antioxidative enzymes were also found to be elevated in iron-starved conditions. Estimation of lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage depicted the role of manganese in stabilizing the integrity of the membrane which was considered as the prime target of oxygen free radicals in oxidative stress. The levels of total peroxide, thiol, proline and NADH content, which are the representative of oxidative stress response in Anabaena 7120, were also showed increasing trends in iron starvation. Hence, the results discerned, clearly suggested the role of manganese in protection against the oxidative stress in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120 under iron starvation either due to its antioxidative properties or involvement as cofactor in a number of antioxidative enzymes.

  16. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as radiosensitizer via enhanced reactive oxygen species formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Stefanie; Sommer, Anja [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Distel, Luitpold V.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitaetsstrasse 27, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Neuhuber, Winfried [Department of Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy I, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Krankenhausstr. 9, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Kryschi, Carola, E-mail: kryschi@chemie.uni-erlangen.de [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasmall citrate-coated SPIONs with {gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPIONs uptaken by MCF-7 cells increase the ROS production for about 240%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SPION induced ROS production is due to released iron ions and catalytically active surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Released iron ions and SPION surfaces initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray irradiation of internalized SPIONs leads to an increase of catalytically active surfaces. -- Abstract: Internalization of citrate-coated and uncoated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Cytotoxicity studies employing metabolic and trypan blue assays manifested their excellent biocompatibility. The production of reactive oxygen species in iron oxide nanoparticle loaded MCF-7 cells was explained to originate from both, the release of iron ions and their catalytically active surfaces. Both initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Additional oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells was attributed to the increase of catalytically active iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces.

  17. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beam, Jake; Bernstein, Hans C.; Jay, Z.; Kozubal, Mark; Jennings, Ryan; Tringe, Susannah G.; Inskeep, William P.

    2016-02-15

    Iron oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous geobiological features on Earth and occur in extant acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA, and form as a result of microbial processes. The relative contribution of different organisms to the development of these mat ecosystems is of specific interest. We hypothesized that chemolithoautotrophic organisms contribute to the early development and production of Fe(III)-oxide mats, which could support later-colonizing heterotrophic microorganisms. Sterile glass slides were incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs in YNP, and spatiotemporal changes in Fe(III)-oxide accretion and abundance of relevant community members were measured. Lithoautotrophic Hydrogenobaculum spp. were first colonizers and the most abundant taxa identified during early successional stages (7 – 40 days). Populations of M. yellowstonensis colonized after ~ 7 days, corresponding to visible Fe(III)-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized after 30 days, and emerge as the dominant functional guild in mature iron oxide mats (1 – 2 cm thick) that form after 70 – 120 days. First-order rate constants of iron oxide accretion ranged from 0.05 – 0.046 day-1, and reflected the absolute amount of iron accreted. Micro- and macroscale microterracettes were identified during iron oxide mat development, and suggest that the mass transfer of oxygen limits microbial growth. This was also demonstrated using microelectrode measurements of oxygen as a function of mat depth, which showed steep gradients in oxygen from the aqueous mat interface to ~ 1 mm. The formation and succession of amorphous Fe(III)-oxide mat communities follows a predictable pattern of distinct stages and growth. The successional stages and microbial signatures observed in these extant Fe(III)-oxide mat communities may be relevant to other past or present Fe(III)-oxide mineralizing systems.

  18. Bacteria-mediated precursor-dependent biosynthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide and iron sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharde, Atul A; Parikh, Rasesh Y; Baidakova, Maria; Jouen, Samuel; Hannoyer, Baetrice; Enoki, Toshiaki; Prasad, B L V; Shouche, Yogesh S; Ogale, Satish; Sastry, Murali

    2008-06-01

    The bacterium Actinobacter sp. has been shown to be capable of extracellularly synthesizing iron based magnetic nanoparticles, namely maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) and greigite (Fe3S4) under ambient conditions depending on the nature of precursors used. More precisely, the bacterium synthesized maghemite when reacted with ferric chloride and iron sulfide when exposed to the aqueous solution of ferric chloride-ferrous sulfate. Challenging the bacterium with different metal ions resulted in induction of different proteins, which bring about the specific biochemical transformations in each case leading to the observed products. Maghemite and iron sulfide nanoparticles show superparamagnetic characteristics as expected. Compared to the earlier reports of magnetite and greigite synthesis by magnetotactic bacteria and iron reducing bacteria, which take place strictly under anaerobic conditions, the present procedure offers significant advancement since the reaction occurs under aerobic condition. Moreover, reaction end products can be tuned by the choice of precursors used. PMID:18454562

  19. Ceruloplasmin Oxidation, a Feature of Parkinson's Disease CSF, Inhibits Ferroxidase Activity and Promotes Cellular Iron Retention

    KAUST Repository

    Olivieri, S.

    2011-12-14

    Parkinson\\'s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by oxidative stress and CNS iron deposition. Ceruloplasmin is an extracellular ferroxidase that regulates cellular iron loading and export, and hence protects tissues from oxidative damage. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we investigated ceruloplasmin patterns in the CSF of human Parkinson\\'s disease patients. Parkinson\\'s disease ceruloplasmin profiles proved more acidic than those found in healthy controls and in other human neurological diseases (peripheral neuropathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer\\'s disease); degrees of acidity correlated with patients\\' pathological grading. Applying an unsupervised pattern recognition procedure to the two-dimensional electrophoresis images, we identified representative pathological clusters. In vitro oxidation of CSF in two-dimensional electrophoresis generated a ceruloplasmin shift resembling that observed in Parkinson\\'s disease and co-occurred with an increase in protein carbonylation. Likewise, increased protein carbonylation was observed in Parkinson\\'s disease CSF, and the same modification was directly identified in these samples on ceruloplasmin. These results indicate that ceruloplasmin oxidation contributes to pattern modification in Parkinson\\'s disease. From the functional point of view, ceruloplasmin oxidation caused a decrease in ferroxidase activity, which in turn promotes intracellular iron retention in neuronal cell lines as well as in primary neurons, which are more sensitive to iron accumulation. Accordingly, the presence of oxidized ceruloplasmin in Parkinson\\'s disease CSF might be used as a marker for oxidative damage and might provide new insights into the underlying pathological mechanisms.

  20. Doxorubicin loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic drug targeting is a drug delivery system that can be used in locoregional cancer treatment. Coated magnetic particles, called carriers, are very useful for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs. Magnetic carriers were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron oxide followed by coating with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, TEM, TGA, FTIR and VSM techniques. The magnetic core of the carriers was magnetite (Fe3O4), with average size of 10 nm. The room temperature VSM measurements showed that magnetic particles were superparamagnetic. The amount of PVA bound to the iron oxide nanoparticles were estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the attachment of PVA to the iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Doxorubicin (DOX) drug loading and release profiles of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed that up to 45% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h, the drug release followed the Fickian diffusion-controlled process. The binding of DOX to the PVA was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The present findings show that DOX loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery.

  1. Preparation and characterization of thermosensitive PNIPAA-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengmao; Zhang, Linna; He, Benfang; Wu, Zhishen

    2008-08-01

    A new and facile approach was established to fabricate thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAA) coated iron oxide nanoparticles in a non-aqueous medium. The morphology and structure of the nanoparticle-doped composite were analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The thermosensitivity of the composite was also investigated. Results indicated that the oil-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated with PNIPAA, composed of an inorganic iron oxide core and biocompatible PNIPAA shell, were dispersed well in water and had a sphere-like shape. The PNIPAA-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with such a kind of core-shell structure showed excellent thermosensitivity. Namely, the aqueous suspension of PNIPAA-coated iron oxide nanoparticles dramatically changed from transparent to opaque as the temperature increased from room temperature to 38 °C, showing potential as optical transmittance switch materials and their significance in the fields of protein adsorption and purification controlled release, and drug delivery.

  2. Doxorubicin loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayal, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ramanujan, R.V., E-mail: ramanujan@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2010-04-06

    Magnetic drug targeting is a drug delivery system that can be used in locoregional cancer treatment. Coated magnetic particles, called carriers, are very useful for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs. Magnetic carriers were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron oxide followed by coating with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, TEM, TGA, FTIR and VSM techniques. The magnetic core of the carriers was magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), with average size of 10 nm. The room temperature VSM measurements showed that magnetic particles were superparamagnetic. The amount of PVA bound to the iron oxide nanoparticles were estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the attachment of PVA to the iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Doxorubicin (DOX) drug loading and release profiles of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed that up to 45% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h, the drug release followed the Fickian diffusion-controlled process. The binding of DOX to the PVA was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The present findings show that DOX loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery.

  3. Deposition of Biogenic Iron Minerals in a Methane Oxidizing Microbial Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wrede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The syntrophic community between anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria forms thick, black layers within multi-layered microbial mats in chimney-like carbonate concretions of methane seeps located in the Black Sea Crimean shelf. The microbial consortium conducts anaerobic oxidation of methane, which leads to the formation of mainly two biomineral by-products, calcium carbonates and iron sulfides, building up these chimneys. Iron sulfides are generated by the microbial reduction of oxidized sulfur compounds in the microbial mats. Here we show that sulfate reducing bacteria deposit biogenic iron sulfides extra- and intracellularly, the latter in magnetosome-like chains. These chains appear to be stable after cell lysis and tend to attach to cell debris within the microbial mat. The particles may be important nuclei for larger iron sulfide mineral aggregates.

  4. Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Nano Iron Oxide/Iron-Coated Activated Carbon, Anthracite, Cellulose Fiber, and Silica, with Arsenic Adsorption Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was completed within a few minutes. The method used no additional fuel and nitrate, which is present in the precursor itself, to drive the reaction. The obtained samples were then characterized with X-ray mapping, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS, selected area diffraction pattern (SAED, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectroscopy. The size of the iron oxide/iron nanoparticle-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica samples were found to be in the nano range (50–400 nm. The iron oxide/iron nanoparticles mostly crystallized into cubic symmetry which was confirmed by SAED. The XRD pattern indicated that iron oxide/iron nano particles existed in four major phases. That is, γ-Fe2O3, α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe. These iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica samples were tested for arsenic adsorption through batch experiments, revealing that few samples had significant arsenic adsorption.

  5. Toxicity and Biodistribution of Activated and Non-activated Intravenous Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, JA; Ogden, JA; Strawbridge, RR; Pierce, ZE; Hoopes, PJ

    2009-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in medical treatment has prompted the question of their safety. In this study, the pathophysiology and biodistribution of three different concentrations of intravenously-delivered dextran-coated Fe3O4 iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) were evaluated in mice. Some groups of mice were exposed to an AC magnetic field (AMF) at levels comparable with those proposed for cancer treatments. Iron biodistribution analysis for both AMF and non-AMF treated mice was performed for al...

  6. Characterization of iron oxides in mineral dust aerosols : implications for light absorption (art. no. D21207)

    OpenAIRE

    Lafon, S.; I. N. Sokolik; Rajot, Jean-Louis; Caquineau, Sandrine; Gaudichet, A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on measurements that were specifically designed to determine iron oxides in mineral dust aerosols needed for improved optical modeling. Atmospheric dust samples as well as samples generated in a wind tunnel from soils were analyzed by a number of analytical techniques for their total and free iron content ( bulk and size resolved), hematite and goethite, mineralogy, and size distribution. These samples are representative of several important dust sources in East Asia and northern Af...

  7. Characterization of iron oxides in mineral dust aerosols: Implications for light absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Lafon, Sandra; Sokolik, Irina N.; Rajot, Jean-Louis; Caquineau, Sandrine; Gaudichet, Annie

    2006-01-01

    We report on measurements that were specifically designed to determine iron oxides in mineral dust aerosols needed for improved optical modeling. Atmospheric dust samples as well as samples generated in a wind tunnel from soils were analyzed by a number of analytical techniques for their total and free iron content (bulk and size resolved), hematite and goethite, mineralogy, and size distribution. These samples are representative of several important dust sources in East Asia and northern Afr...

  8. Iron homeostasis and oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roggli Victor L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung injury caused by both inhaled dusts and infectious agents depends on increased availability of iron and metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. Because inhaled particles, such as silica, and certain infections can cause secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP, we tested the hypothesis that idiopathic PAP is associated with an altered iron homeostasis in the human lung. Methods Healthy volunteers (n = 20 and patients with idiopathic PAP (n = 20 underwent bronchoalveolar lavage and measurements were made of total protein, iron, tranferrin, transferrin receptor, lactoferrin, and ferritin. Histochemical staining for iron and ferritin was done in the cell pellets from control subjects and PAP patients, and in lung specimens of patients without cardiopulmonary disease and with PAP. Lavage concentrations of urate, glutathione, and ascorbate were also measured as indices of oxidative stress. Results Lavage concentrations of iron, transferrin, transferrin receptor, lactoferrin, and ferritin were significantly elevated in PAP patients relative to healthy volunteers. The cells of PAP patients had accumulated significant iron and ferritin, as well as considerable amounts of extracellular ferritin. Immunohistochemistry for ferritin in lung tissue revealed comparable amounts of this metal-storage protein in the lower respiratory tract of PAP patients both intracellularly and extracellularly. Lavage concentrations of ascorbate, glutathione, and urate were significantly lower in the lavage fluid of the PAP patients. Conclusion Iron homeostasis is altered in the lungs of patients with idiopathic PAP, as large amounts of catalytically-active iron and low molecular weight anti-oxidant depletion are present. These findings suggest a metal-catalyzed oxidative stress in the maintenance of this disease.

  9. Effect of Calcium Oxide Additive on the Performance of Iron Oxide Sorbent for High-Temperature Coal Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Fan; Kechang Xie; Ju Shangguan; Fang Shen; Chunhu Li

    2007-01-01

    The effect of calcium oxide additive in iron oxide sorbent for hot gas desulfurization was investigated by XRD and TPR techniques. XRD characterization showed that CaO was highly dispersed after the calcination of sorbents. Calcium sulfate formed in the desulfurization was decomposed and regenerated to CaO by reacting with CO before the next sulfidation process. Calcium participated in every sulfidation/regeneration cycle and contributed to the enhancement of sulfur capacity. The TPR results showed that the reduction temperature of the sorbent increased with the increase of the content of calcium. Calcium played a role of retarding reduction. Therefore, the addition of calcium oxide additive will benefit the utilization of iron oxide sorbent in strongly reducing atmospheres.

  10. Nitric oxide formation in an iron oxide pellet rotary kiln furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R A

    1998-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the effects of heat and mass transfer on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in a rotary kiln furnace for iron oxide pellet induration. The modeled kiln has a length-to-diameter ratio of approximately seven. The principal mechanism of heat transfer is radiation from the flame, which was described by the net radiation method. The well known Zeldovich mechanism was used to predict thermal NOx generation. Temperature fluctuations in the vicinity of the flame were estimated with a clipped Gaussian probability density function. The thermal energy and mass balance model equations were solved numerically. The model is capable of predicting temperature profiles and NOx production rates in agreement with observed plant performance. The model was used to explore the effects of process changes on the total NOx formation in the kiln. It was concluded that the gas temperature as well as the partial pressure of oxygen in the process gases controls the rate of NOx formation. Lowering the temperature of the kiln gases by increasing the secondary air flow rates requires simultaneously decreasing the pellet production rate in order to maintain the pellet temperatures needed for blast furnace conditions. PMID:15655997

  11. Effect of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, E; Carrier, J; Cullen, J; Tischler, M; Allard, J P

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of intraperitoneal iron dextran (100 mg/100 g body weight) on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium. In both colitis and healthy animals, disease activity index, crypt and inflammatory scores, colon length, plasma and colonic lipid peroxides, and plasma vitamins E, C, and retinol were assessed. The results showed that iron-supplemented groups had moderate iron deposition in the colonic submucosa and lamina propria. In the colitis group supplemented with iron, colon length was significantly shorter; disease activity index, crypt, and inflammatory scores and colonic lipid peroxides were significantly higher; and plasma alpha-tocopherol was significantly lower compared to the colitis group without iron supplementation. There was no intestinal inflammation and no significant increase in colonic lipid peroxides in healthy rats supplemented with iron. In conclusion, iron injection resulted in an increased oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with colitis but not in healthy rats. PMID:11341654

  12. Magnetic Field Gradient Differentiation of Pedogenic Iron Oxide Minerals From Chinese Loess and Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, L.; Roth, A.; Singer, M. J.; Verosub, K.

    2003-12-01

    The correlation between paleosols and enhanced magnetic susceptibility on the Chinese Loess Plateau is by now well established. However, scant effort has focussed on the interpretation of paleoclimate via the specific iron oxide mineral assemblages contributing to the enhanced magnetic susceptibility signal. This paper focuses on the separation and identification of the pedogenic (minerals from selected loess and paleosol layers of the Loess Plateau. Heretofore, it has been difficult if not impossible to isolate mixed iron oxide mineral phases due to their very similar physical and magnetic properties. Chinese loess and paleosol samples were chosen to illustrate the utility of the technique to natural soil systems. In the following method, initial size separation of mineral particles at 0.5 micron or less by gravity and centrifugation reduces the problem of overlapping magnetic susceptibilities due to mixed grain sizes. The submicron mineral fraction is then subjected to a series of high field gradient (HFG) magnetic separations utilizing a new design. Although HFG magnetic separation methods have been used before, the new design is able to differentiate submicron iron oxide mineral phases from bulk earth material. The design includes a Franz Isodynamic Separator fitted with a custom-made flow cell. A recirculating liquid is used to suspend the mineral particles between the poles of the electromagnet. By varying the strength of the field gradient, recirculation time, and flow velocity, step-wise separation of ferrimagnetic from antiferromagnetic minerals is possible. Because of the tendency for particles to aggregate during recirculation, some mixing of the oxide mineralogy has been unavoidable. Although theoretical arguments favor a narrow grain size distribution (about 50-100 nm) for stable single domain magnetite, in soil environments, and particularly for nanoscale materials, discrete particles are the exception rather than the rule. Therefore it is likely that

  13. Advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloys for LWR fuel cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, K. A.; Zinkle, S. J.; Snead, L. L.

    2014-05-01

    Application of advanced oxidation-resistant iron alloys as light water reactor fuel cladding is proposed. The motivations are based on specific limitations associated with zirconium alloys, currently used as fuel cladding, under design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident scenarios. Using a simplified methodology, gains in safety margins under severe accidents upon transition to advanced oxidation-resistant iron alloys as fuel cladding are showcased. Oxidation behavior, mechanical properties, and irradiation effects of advanced iron alloys are briefly reviewed and compared to zirconium alloys as well as historic austenitic stainless steel cladding materials. Neutronic characteristics of iron-alloy-clad fuel bundles are determined and fed into a simple economic model to estimate the impact on nuclear electricity production cost. Prior experience with steel cladding is combined with the current understanding of the mechanical properties and irradiation behavior of advanced iron alloys to identify a combination of cladding thickness reduction and fuel enrichment increase (∼0.5%) as an efficient route to offset any penalties in cycle length, due to higher neutron absorption in the iron alloy cladding, with modest impact on the economics.

  14. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongrac IM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Igor M Pongrac,1 Ivan Pavičić,2 Mirta Milić,2 Lada Brkič Ahmed,1 Michal Babič,3 Daniel Horák,3 Ivana Vinković Vrček,2 Srećko Gajović1 1School of Medicine, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb, 2Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia; 3Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Biocompatibility, safety, and risk assessments of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are of the highest priority in researching their application in biomedicine. One improvement in the biological properties of SPIONs may be achieved by different functionalization and surface modifications. This study aims to investigate how a different surface functionalization of SPIONs – uncoated, coated with D-mannose, or coated with poly-L-lysine – affects biocompatibility. We sought to investigate murine neural stem cells (NSCs as important model system for regenerative medicine. To reveal the possible mechanism of toxicity of SPIONs on NSCs, levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell-membrane potential, DNA damage, and activities of SOD and GPx were examined. Even in cases where reactive oxygen species levels were significantly lowered in NSCs exposed to SPIONs, we found depleted intracellular glutathione levels, altered activities of SOD and GPx, hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, dissipated cell-membrane potential, and increased DNA damage, irrespective of the surface coating applied for SPION stabilization. Although surface coating should prevent the toxic effects of SPIONs, our results showed that all of the tested SPION types affected the NSCs similarly, indicating that mitochondrial homeostasis is their major cellular target. Despite the claimed biomedical benefits of SPIONs, the refined determination of their effects on various cellular functions

  15. Synthesis and Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Iron Oxide Glycerol Nanoparticles Obtained by Coprecipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Liliana Iconaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The glycerol iron oxide nanoparticles (GIO-NPs were obtained by an adapted coprecipitation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD studies demonstrate that GIO-NPs were indexed into the spinel cubic lattice with a lattice parameter of 0.835 nm. The refinement of XRD spectra indicated that no other phases except maghemite were detected. The adsorption of glycerol on iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. On the other hand, this work implicated the use of GIO-NPs in antibacterial studies. The results indicate that, in the case of P. aeruginosa  1397 biofilms, at concentrations from 0.01 mg/mL to 0.625 mg/mL, the glycerol iron oxide inhibits the ability of this strain to develop biofilms on the inert substratum.

  16. Defective iron-oxide nanoparticles synthesised by high temperature plasma processing: a magnetic characterisation versus temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, C.; Joseph, B.; Orpe, PB; Saini, NL; Mukherjee, S.; Dziedzic-Kocurek, K.; Stanek, J.; Di Gioacchino, D.; Marcelli, A.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic properties and phase compositions of iron-oxide nanoparticles synthesised by a high temperature arc plasma route have been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and high harmonic magnetic AC susceptibility measurements, and correlated with morphological and structural properties for different synthesis conditions. The Mössbauer spectra precisely determined the presence of different iron-oxide fractions in the investigated nanoparticles, while the high harmonic magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed the occurrence of metastable magnetic phases evolving in temperature and time. This study illustrates magnetic properties and dynamics of the magnetic configurations of iron-oxide nanoparticles grown by high temperature plasma, a process less explored so far but extremely useful for synthesising large numbers of nanoparticles for industrial applications.

  17. Tunability of Size and Magnetic Moment of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Forced Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Sutens

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To utilize iron oxide nanoparticles in biomedical applications, a sufficient magnetic moment is crucial. Since this magnetic moment is directly proportional to the size of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles, synthesis methods of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with tunable size are desirable. However, most existing protocols are plagued by several drawbacks. Presented here is a one-pot synthesis method resulting in monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a controllable size and magnetic moment using cost-effective reagents. The obtained nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR measurements. Furthermore, the influence of the size on the magnetic moment of the nanoparticles is analyzed by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. To emphasize the potential use in biomedical applications, magnetic heating experiments were performed.

  18. The association between low-grade inflammation, iron status and nucleic acid oxidation in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Andersen, Jon T;

    2011-01-01

    nucleic acid oxidation and various iron status markers and especially a close relationship between nucleic acid oxidation and ferritin. This study shows no association between low-grade inflammation and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation in a population of elderly Italian people. The results...... suggest that low-grade inflammation only has a negligible impact on whole body nucleic acid oxidation, whereas iron status seems to be of great importance.......This study applied a case-control approach to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation, defined by high values within the normal range of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation. No differences in excretion of urinary...

  19. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henych, Jiří, E-mail: henych@iic.cas.cz [Department of Material Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš [Department of Material Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Janoš, Pavel; Kuráň, Pavel; Štastný, Martin [Faculty of the Environment, J.E. Purkyně University, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • Ti–Fe mixed oxides were synthesized via low-temperature one-pot method. • Mixed oxides were used for degradation of parathion methyl. • Pure reference oxide samples showed no degradation ability. • Mixed oxides reached 70% degree of conversion of parathion methyl. - Abstract: Titania-iron mixed oxides with various Ti:Fe ratio were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium(IV) oxysulphate and iron(III) sulphate with urea as a precipitating agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, XRF analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). These oxides were used for degradation of organophosporus pesticide parathion methyl. The highest degradation efficiency approaching <70% was found for the samples with Ti:Fe ratio 0.25:1 and 1:0.25. Contrary, parathion methyl was not degraded on the surfaces of pure oxides. In general, the highest degradation rate exhibited samples consisted of the iron or titanium oxide containing a moderate amount of the admixture. However, distinct correlations between the degradation rate and the sorbent composition were not identified.

  20. The life cycle of iron Fe(III) oxide: impact of fungi and bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Steeve

    2014-05-01

    Iron oxides are ubiquitous reactive constituents of soils, sediments and aquifers. They exhibit vast surface areas which bind a large array of trace metals, nutrients and organic molecules hence controlling their mobility/reactivity in the subsurface. In this context, understanding the "life cycle" of iron oxide in soils is paramount to many biogeochemical processes. Soils environments are notorious for their extreme heterogeneity and variability of chemical, physical conditions and biological agents at play. Here, we present studies investigating the role of two biological agents driving iron oxide dynamics in soils, root-associated fungi (mycorrhiza) and bacteria. Mycorrhiza filaments (hypha) grow preferentially around, and on the surface of nutrient-rich minerals, making mineral-fungi contact zones, hot-spots of chemical alteration in soils. However, because of the microscopic nature of hyphae (only ~ 5 µm wide for up to 1 mm long) and their tendency to strongly adhere to mineral surface, in situ observations of this interfacial micro-environment are scarce. In a microcosm, ectomycorrhiza (Paxillus involutus) was grown symbiotically with a pine tree (Pinus sylvestris) in the presence of freshly-cleaved biotite under humid, yet undersaturated, conditions typical of soils. Using spatially-resolved ion milling technique (FIB), transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy (TEM/STEM-EDS), synchrotron based X-ray microscopy (STXM), we were able to quantify the speciation of Fe at the biotite-hypha interface. The results shows that substantial oxidation of biotite structural-Fe(II) into Fe(III) subdomains occurs at the contact zone between mycorrhiza and biotite. Once formed, iron(III) oxides can reductively dissolve under suboxic conditions via several abiotic and microbial pathways. In particular, they serve as terminal electron acceptors for the oxidation of organic matter by iron reducing bacteria. We aimed here to understand the role of Fe(III) mineral

  1. Methyl red removal from water by iron based metal-organic frameworks loaded onto iron oxide nanoparticle adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadfarnia, S., E-mail: sdadfarnia@yazd.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd 89195-741 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haji Shabani, A.M.; Moradi, S.E. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd 89195-741 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emami, S. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe)). • Studying the capability of (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe)) for the removal of methyl red. • Studying the adsorption kinetic of MR on (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe)). • Studying the adsorption thermodynamic of MR on (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe)). • Introduction of a sorbent with high capacity for MR removal. - Abstract: The objective followed by this research is the synthesis of iron based metal organic framework loaded on iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe)) and the study of its capability for the removal of methyl red. Effective parameters in the selection of a new adsorbent, i.e. adsorption capacity, thermodynamics, and kinetics were investigated. All the studies were carried out in batch experiments. Removal of methyl red from aqueous solutions varied with the amount of adsorbent, methyl red contact time, initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage, and solution pH. The capability of the synthesized adsorbent in the removal of methyl red was compared with the metal organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)) and iron oxide nanoparticles. The results show that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe) nanocomposite exhibits an enhanced adsorption capacity.

  2. Magnetic filtration of an iron oxide aerosol by means of magnetizable grates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Alvaro; J.M. Rodríguez; Paulo A. Augusto; A.M. Estévez

    2007-01-01

    The cleaning of gases with low concentrations of small ferromagnetic or paramagnetic particles is a difficult task for conventional filtration. A new alternative procedure, magnetic filtration, is used in this work.Iron oxide aerosol was generated by elutriation of iron oxide particles from a fluidized bed consisting of a mixture of Geldart-C iron oxide powder and large spherical Geldart-B sand particles. The aerosol was filtered by means of a magnetic filter which consisted of one, two or three iron grates staggered to each other. The experimental installation contained also an isokinetic sampling system and a Microtrac SRA 150 Particle Analyser.A theoretical expression for filtration efficiency was deduced from a previous model taking into account the different forces acting on the iron oxide particles. Experimental filtration efficiency matches quite well calculated theoretical efficiency. It was found that an increase in particle size,in the number of grates or in the applied magnetic field produced higher filtration efficiencies up to 100% in some cases. In all filtration experiments pressure drop through the magnetic filter was very small.

  3. AbstractApplication of Fenton-like process using iron nano oxides for pyrene removal from contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jorfi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Fenton oxidation using iron nano oxides under defined optimum conditions and neutral pH, can be a suitable alternative to conventional Fenton for remediation of soils contaminated with pyrene.

  4. Laser sintering of magnesia with nanoparticles of iron oxide and aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Roy, T.K. Das; Castillo, G.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66451 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66451 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser sintered MgO pellets with nanoparticles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Characterized these pellets by XRD, SEM and XPS. • Spinel formations were observed in both cases. • Changes in morphology and structure were analyzed. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 20–40 nm) and aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 50 nm) were mixed in different concentrations (3, 5 and 7 wt%) in a magnesium oxide (MgO) matrix. The mixture pellet was irradiated with 532 nm output from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using different laser fluence and translation speed for sintering. The refractory samples obtained were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples irradiated at translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm{sup 2} with a concentration of 5 and 7 wt% of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} presented the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel-type phase. With the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, at a translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm{sup 2}, there were the formations of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. The changes in morphologies and microstructure due to laser irradiation were analyzed.

  5. Synthesis, purification and assembly of gold and iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Penghe

    , 6 & 7), nanoparticles were assembled into three different hierachical structures through both template-assisted and template-free approaches. In the template-assisted assembly, gold nanorods were aligned into ordered 1D linear pattern by using soft biological filamentous, namely bacteria flagella, as templates. Two different ways of assembling nanorods onto flagella were investigated. In another study, a highly commercialized polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), was discovered for the first time to be able to self-assemble into branched hollow fibers. Based on this discovery, two approaches (one through direct deposition of silica onto the PVP aggregate and the other through co-assembly of PVP covered gold nanoparticles with free PVP molecules) by which the self-assembly behavior of PVP could be exploited to template the formation of branched hollow inorganic fibers were demonstrated. In the template-free assembly, a general method for assembling nanoparticle into clusters (NPCs) in an oil-in-water emulsion system was investigated. Detailed studies on the mechanism of formation of NPCs structure, optimized conditions, scalable production and surface chemistry manipulation were carried out. Besides, comparison of the properties of individual and clustered iron oxide nanoparticles was conducted. It was discovered that due to their collective properties, NPCs are more responsive to an external magnetic field and can potentially serve as better contrast enhancement agents than individually dispersed magnetic NPs in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

  6. Arsenic bioremediation by biogenic iron oxides and sulfides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omoregie, E.; Couture, R.-M.; Van Cappellen, P.; Corkhill, C.L.; Charnock, J.M.; Polya, D.A.; Vaughan, D; Vanbroekhoven, K.; Lloyd, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Microcosms containing sediment from an aquifer in Cambodia with naturally elevated levels of arsenic in the associated groundwater were used to evaluate the effectiveness of microbially mediated production of iron minerals for in situ As remediation. The microcosms were first incubated without amend

  7. Two-component magnetic structure of iron oxide nanoparticles mineralized in Listeria innocua protein cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usselman, Robert J.; Klem, Michael T.; Russek, Stephen E.; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor; Goldfarb, Ron B.

    2010-06-01

    Magnetometry was used to determine the magnetic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles formed within Listeria innocua protein cage. The electron magnetic resonance spectrum shows the presence of at least two magnetization components. The magnetization curves are explained by a sum of two Langevin functions in which each filled protein cage contains both a large magnetic iron oxide core plus an amorphous surface consisting of small noncoupled iron oxide spin clusters. This model qualitatively explains the observed decrease in the temperature dependent saturation moment and removes an unrealistic temperature dependent increase in the particle moment often observed in nanoparticle magnetization measurements.

  8. Phase change induced by polypyrrole in iron-oxide polypyrrole nanocomposite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Komilla Suri; S Annapoorni; R P Tandon

    2001-12-01

    Nanocomposites of polypyrrole and iron oxide were prepared using simultaneous gelation and polymerization processes. Varied amounts of pyrrole monomer were added to a solution containing iron nitrate as precursor and 2-methoxy ethanol as solvent. The presence of oxide and polypyrrole was confirmed by using X-ray and FTIR techniques. Some of these nanocomposites exhibited magnetic behaviour. SEM studies of powders indicated presence of nanosized particles. Electrical conductivity studies of powders showed a slight variation in conductivity for lower concentration of pyrrole, with a sudden increase in conductivity at 15% of pyrrole concentration. A transition from a nonmagnetic to magnetic phase was also observed at the same concentration.

  9. Iron catalyzed oxidation chemistry: from C-H bond activation to DNA cleavag

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Tieme Adriaan van den

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic iron complex Fe(N4Py) can be employed as a catalyst in the aerobic oxidation of DNA. The resulting oxidized DNA strand is rather unstable and results in cleavage of the DNA strand into two pieces. As for now, it was only possible with Fe(N4Py) or other synthetic iron complexes as catalyst to cut only one DNA strand at the same time. The covalent linking of two Fe(N4Py) complexes together results in a new dinuclear complex, which is capable of addressing both DNA stands at the sa...

  10. Textural and Mineralogical Characteristics of Microbial Fossils in Modern and Ancient Iron (oxyhydr)oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. L.; Chan, M. A.; McPherson, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation contains extensive alkaline saline lacustrine deposits rich in diagenetic iron (oxyhydr)oxides that are well exposed on the Colorado Plateau of the southwestern USA. These early diagenetic iron (oxyhydr)oxide minerals are associated with preserved diatoms and other algal forms, identified via scanning electron microscope (SEM) in thin sections of representative samples. The minerals are also associated with macroscopic bioturbation features (e.g., charophytes, burrows and fossilized dinosaur bones). Algal forms with cellular elaboration are identified by HF dissolution of bioturbation structures and examination with SEM. Collectively, these features suggest biomediated textures are preserved in early diagenetic iron (oxyhydr)oxides, and can persist for tens of millions of years. Modern microbially precipitated iron (oxyhydr)oxides and ~100ka tufa terraces from a cold spring system along Ten Mile Graben in southern Utah, USA are compared with the Morrison examples to identify modern microbial fossils and document any differences and preservation changes during diagenesis over geologic time. Two distinct suites of elements (1. C, Fe, As and 2. C, S, Se) are associated with microbial fossils in both the modern and ancient tufas, as well as the ancient Morrison specimens. The occurrence of these distinctive trace element configurations in the iron (oxyhydr)oxide minerals suggest the suites could be potential markers for biosignatures. The presence of ferrihydrite in ~100ka fossil microbial mats suggests this thermodynamically unstable mineral may also be used as a biomarker. Diagnostic trace element suites and unusual mineral phases warrant further study for their potential as biomarkers. These terrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxide examples will: 1) document specific biomediated textures and what their origins might be (related to different processes or species), 2) show how they might persist or respond to

  11. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M; Arruda, Sandra F; Dourado, Lívia P S; da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  12. Risk of Oxidative Damage to Bone from Increased Iron Stores During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron stores are increased secondary to neocytolysis of red blood cells and a high dietary intake of iron during space flight. This raises concerns about the risk of excess iron causing oxidative damage in many tissues, including bone. Biomarkers of iron status, oxidative damage, and bone resorption during space flight were analyzed for 23 (16 M/7 F) International Space Station crewmembers as part of the Nutrition SMO project. Up to 5 in-flight blood samples and 24-h urine pools were collected over the course of the 4-6 month missions. Serum iron increased slightly during space flight and was decreased at landing (P serum ferritin early in flight (217% in women and 68% in men, P serum ferritin. A greater area under the curve for ferritin during flight was correlated with greater changes in bone mineral density of several bone regions after flight (1). In a separate study (2), a ground-based investigation was conducted that examined the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in several physiological systems in 12-wk male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were acclimated to an adequate iron diet (45 mg iron (ferric citrate)/kg diet) for 3 wk and then assigned to one of four groups: adequate iron (Fe) diet/no radiation, adequate Fe diet/ radiation, moderately high Fe diet (650 mg Fe (ferric citrate)/kg diet)/no radiation, and moderately high Fe diet/radiation. Animals remained on the assigned diet for 4 wk. Starting on day 14 of experimental diet treatment, animals were exposed to a fractionated dose (0.375 Gy) of Cs-137 every other day (3 Gy total dose). On day 29 (24 h after last radiation exposure), animals were euthanized. Oxidative stress markers in the liver, bone, eyes, and serum were assessed. There was evidence that the iron diet contributed to DNA damage as well as radiation exposure in the liver, eyes, and bone. Together, the results suggest that increased iron stores do constitute a risk factor for oxidative

  13. Synthesis of nanocrystalline iron oxide ultrathin films by thermal decomposition of iron nitropruside: Structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhar, Sanjib Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Vivekananda College, Thakurpukur, Kolkata 700063 (India); Mukherjee, Nillohit; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Adhikary, Bibhutosh [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Mondal, Anup, E-mail: anupmondal2000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Ultrathin films of nanocrystalline {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been deposited on glass substrates from an inorganic precursor, iron nitropruside. This is a novel route of synthesis for iron oxide thin films on glass substrates, by annealing the precursor thin film in air at 650 {sup o}C for 15 min. The films were characterized using TG-DTA analysis, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible, FESEM, AFM and Raman measurements. X-ray diffraction and Raman analyses revealed that the deposited films contain {alpha}-phase of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite). The synthetic route described here provides a very simple and cost-effective method to deposit {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films on glass substrates with band gap energy of about 2.75 eV. The deposited films were found to show catalytic effect for the photo-degradation of phenol.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of the partial oxidation of coke oven gas for indirect reduction of iron oxides in a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The partial oxidation of a COG (coke oven gas) in a blast furnace is examined in this work using thermodynamic analysis. LTIR and HTIR (Low-temperature and high-temperature indirect reduction) of iron oxides in a blast furnace are also studied. The influences of the reaction temperature, M/H (methane-to-hematite) ratio, and O/F (oxygen-to-fuel) ratio on CH4 conversion and iron oxide reduction are examined. Within the investigated ranges of the parameters, a higher reaction temperature is conducive to CH4 conversion, while at least 97.64% of Fe2O3 is reduced. In LTIR, Fe3O4 is the prime product, with a high level of solid carbon formation. The entire LTIR reaction is characterized by exothermic behavior, so that no additional heat is required to trigger COG partial oxidation and IR. In HTIR, increasing the reaction temperature facilitates CO-based IR and suppresses H2-based IR. A higher temperature produces more Fe, so as to enhance the iron oxide reduction reactions; meanwhile, the FeO reduction is governed by H2 and CH4. When the reaction temperature is higher than 800 °C and the M/H ratio is lower than unity, a heat supply is required to drive HTIR. The O/F ratio in LTIR and HTIR should be controlled below 2 to retard carbon formation and drive iron oxide reduction. - Highlights: • Direct partial oxidation of coke oven gas in blast furnace is analyzed thermodynamically. • A higher reaction temperature is conducive to CH4 conversion and syngas production. • At least 97.64% of Fe2O3 is converted. • The low-temperature indirect reduction is characterized by exothermic behavior. • The oxygen-to-fuel molar ratio in indirect reduction should be controlled below 2

  15. Microbial iron mats at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and evidence that Zetaproteobacteria may be restricted to iron-oxidizing marine systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod J Scott

    Full Text Available Chemolithoautotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria play an essential role in the global iron cycle. Thus far, the majority of marine iron-oxidizing bacteria have been identified as Zetaproteobacteria, a novel class within the phylum Proteobacteria. Marine iron-oxidizing microbial communities have been found associated with volcanically active seamounts, crustal spreading centers, and coastal waters. However, little is known about the presence and diversity of iron-oxidizing communities at hydrothermal systems along the slow crustal spreading center of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. From October to November 2012, samples were collected from rust-colored mats at three well-known hydrothermal vent systems on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Rainbow, Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse, and Snake Pit using the ROV Jason II. The goal of these efforts was to determine if iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria were present at sites proximal to black smoker vent fields. Small, diffuse flow venting areas with high iron(II concentrations and rust-colored microbial mats were observed at all three sites proximal to black smoker chimneys. A novel, syringe-based precision sampler was used to collect discrete microbial iron mat samples at the three sites. The presence of Zetaproteobacteria was confirmed using a combination of 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and single-cell sorting, while light micros-copy revealed a variety of iron-oxyhydroxide structures, indicating that active iron-oxidizing communities exist along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Sequencing analysis suggests that these iron mats contain cosmopolitan representatives of Zetaproteobacteria, but also exhibit diversity that may be uncommon at other iron-rich marine sites studied to date. A meta-analysis of publically available data encompassing a variety of aquatic habitats indicates that Zetaproteobacteria are rare if an iron source is not readily available. This work adds to the growing understanding of Zetaproteobacteria ecology and suggests

  16. Sorption of ferric iron from ferrioxamine B to synthetic and biogenic layer type manganese oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Owen W.; Bargar, John R.; Sposito, Garrison

    2008-07-01

    Siderophores are biogenic chelating agents produced in terrestrial and marine environments that increase the bioavailability of ferric iron. Recent work has suggested that both aqueous and solid-phase Mn(III) may affect siderophore-mediated iron transport, but scant information appears to be available about the potential roles of layer type manganese oxides, which are relatively abundant in soils and the oligotrophic marine water column. To probe the effects of layer type manganese oxides on the stability of aqueous Fe-siderophore complexes, we studied the sorption of ferrioxamine B [Fe(III)HDFOB +, an Fe(III) chelate of the trihydroxamate siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB)] to two synthetic birnessites [layer type Mn(III,IV) oxides] and a biogenic birnessite produced by Pseudomonas putida GB-1. We found that all of these predominantly Mn(IV) oxides greatly reduced the aqueous concentration of Fe(III)HDFOB + at pH 8. Analysis of Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra indicated that a dominant fraction of Fe(III) associated with the Mn(IV) oxides is not complexed by DFOB as in solution, but instead Fe(III) is specifically adsorbed to the mineral structure at multiple sites, thus indicating that the Mn(IV) oxides displaced Fe(III) from the siderophore complex. These results indicate that layer type manganese oxides, including biogenic minerals, may sequester iron from soluble ferric complexes. We conclude that the sorption of iron-siderophore complexes may play a significant role in the bioavailability and biogeochemical cycling of iron in marine and terrestrial environments.

  17. Fossilization of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria at Hydrothermal Vents: a Useful Biosignature on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveille, R. J.; Lui, S.

    2009-05-01

    Iron oxidizing bacteria are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments on Earth, where they often display distinctive cell morphologies and are commonly encrusted by minerals, especially bacteriogenic iron oxides and silica. Putative microfossils of iron oxidizing bacteria have been found in jaspers as old as 490Ma and microbial iron oxidation may be an ancient metabolic pathway. In order to investigate the usefulness of mineralized iron oxidizing bacteria as a biosignature, we have examined mineral samples collected from relict hydrothermal systems along Explorer Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean. In addition, microaerophilic, neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria, isolated from Pacific hydrothermal vents, were grown in a Fe-enriched seawater medium at constant pH (6.5) and oxygen concentration (5 percent) in a controlled bioreactor system. Both natural samples and experimental products were examined with a combination of variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission gun SEM, and in some cases by preparing samples with a focused ion beam (FIB) milling system. Natural seafloor samples display abundant filamentous forms often resembling, in both size and shape, the twisted stalks of Gallionella and the elongated filaments of Leptothrix. Generally, these filamentous features are 1-5 microns in diameter and up to several microns in length. Some samples consist entirely of low- density, porous masses of silica encrusted filamentous forms. Presumably, these masses were formed by a rapid precipitation by the influx of silica-rich fluids into a microbial mat dominated by bacteria with filamentous morphologies. The presence of rare, amorphous (unmineralized) filamentous matter rich in C and Fe suggests that these bacteria were iron oxidizers. There is no evidence that sulfur oxidizers were present. Filamentous features sectioned by FIB milling show internal material within semi-hollow tubular-like features. Silica encrustations also show pseudo

  18. Chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite based electrochemical aptasensor for determination of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal; Thakur, Himkusha; Bharti, Anu; Kaur, Navpreet

    2016-10-01

    An electrochemical aptasensor based on chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (CHIT-IO) film deposited on fluorine tin Oxide (FTO) was developed for the detection of malathion. Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by Transmission electron microscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The biotinylated DNA aptamer sequence specific to the malathion was immobilized onto the iron oxide doped-chitosan/FTO electrode by using streptavidin as linking molecule. Various characterization studies like Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Electrochemical studies were performed to attest the successful fabrication of bioelectrodes. Experimental parameters like aptamer concentration, response time, stability of electrode and reusability studies were optimized. Aptamer immobilized chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (APT/SA/CHIT-IO/FTO) bioelectrodes exhibited LOD of about 0.001 ng/mL within 15 min and spike-in studies revealed about 80-92% recovery of malathion from the lettuce leaves and soil sample. PMID:27639149

  19. Chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite based electrochemical aptasensor for determination of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal; Thakur, Himkusha; Bharti, Anu; Kaur, Navpreet

    2016-10-01

    An electrochemical aptasensor based on chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (CHIT-IO) film deposited on fluorine tin Oxide (FTO) was developed for the detection of malathion. Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by Transmission electron microscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The biotinylated DNA aptamer sequence specific to the malathion was immobilized onto the iron oxide doped-chitosan/FTO electrode by using streptavidin as linking molecule. Various characterization studies like Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Electrochemical studies were performed to attest the successful fabrication of bioelectrodes. Experimental parameters like aptamer concentration, response time, stability of electrode and reusability studies were optimized. Aptamer immobilized chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (APT/SA/CHIT-IO/FTO) bioelectrodes exhibited LOD of about 0.001 ng/mL within 15 min and spike-in studies revealed about 80-92% recovery of malathion from the lettuce leaves and soil sample.

  20. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. PMID:26593529

  1. Hydrogen production by ethanol partial oxidation over nano-iron oxide catalysts produced by chemical vapour synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Wael Ahmed Abou Taleb Sayed

    2011-01-13

    This work presents the experimental results of the synthesis of unsupported and supported SiC iron oxide nanoparticles and their catalytic activity towards ethanol partial oxidation. For comparison, further unsupported iron oxide phases were investigated towards the ethanol partial oxidation. These {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {alpha}/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase catalysts were prepared by the CVS method using Fe(CO){sub 5} as precursor, supplied by another author. The {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC nanoparticles were prepared by the CVS method using a home made hot wall reactor technique at atmospheric pressure. Ferrocene and tetramethylsilane were used as precursor for the production process. Process parameters of precursor evaporation temperature, precursor concentration, gas mixture velocity and gas mixture dilution were investigated and optimised to produce particle sizes in a range of 10 nm. For Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiC catalyst series production, a new hot wall reactor setup was used. The particles were produced by simultaneous thermal decomposition of ferrocene and tetramethylsilane in one reactor from both sides. The production parameters of inlet tube distance inside the reactor, precursor evaporation temperature and carrier gas flow were investigated to produce a series of samples with different iron oxide content. The prepared catalysts composition, physical and chemical properties were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, BET surface area, FTIR, XPS and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The catalytic activity for the ethanol gas-phase oxidation was investigated in a temperature range from 260 C to 290 C. The product distributions obtained over all catalysts were analysed with mass spectrometry analysis tool. The activity of bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC nanoparticles was compared with prepared nano-iron oxide phase catalysts. The reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature and O{sub 2}/ethanol ratio were investigated. The catalysts

  2. Kinetic studies on the oxidation of oxyhemoglobin by biologically active iron thiosemicarbazone complexes: relevance to iron-chelator-induced methemoglobinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Maram T; Rodríguez, Carlos; Richardson, Des R; Martínez, Manuel; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2014-03-01

    The oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin has been found to be facilitated by low molecular weight iron(III) thiosemicarbazone complexes. This deleterious reaction, which produces hemoglobin protein units unable to bind dioxygen and occurs during the administration of iron chelators such as the well-known 3-aminopyridine-2-pyridinecarbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP; Triapine), has been observed in the reaction with Fe(III) complexes of some members of the 3-AP structurally-related thiosemicarbazone ligands derived from di-2-pyridyl ketone (HDpxxT series). We have studied the kinetics of this oxidation reaction in vitro using human hemoglobin and found that the reaction proceeds with two distinct time-resolved steps. These have been associated with sequential oxidation of the two different oxyheme cofactors in the α and β protein chains. Unexpected steric and hydrogen-bonding effects on the Fe(III) complexes appear to be the responsible for the observed differences in the reaction rate across the series of HDpxxT ligand complexes used in this study. PMID:24317633

  3. Effect of adsorbed polyaniline on the thermal stability of iron and arsenic oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernandes de Farias

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron and arsenic oxide grains are coated with the conducting organic polymer polyaniline. The obtained samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, SEM, conducting measurements and thermogravimetry. The thermal stability of both oxides are increased. For As2O3 the sublimation temperature is increased from 165ºC in the pure oxide to 206ºC in the polymer modified sample. The pure Fe3O4 sample exhibits sublimation at 780ºC whereas the polyaniline coated oxide is stable until at least 1000ºC.

  4. Early diagenetic quartz formation at a deep iron oxidation front in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific - A modern analogue for banded iron/chert formations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Patrick; Chapligin, Bernhard; Picard, Aude; Meyer, Hanno; Fischer, Cornelius; Rettenwander, Daniel; Amthauer, Georg; Vogt, Christoph; Aiello, Ivano W.

    2014-07-01

    The mechanisms of early diagenetic quartz formation under low-temperature conditions are still poorly understood. In this study we investigated lithified cherts consisting of microcrystalline quartz recovered near the base of a 420 m thick Miocene-Holocene sequence of nannofossil and diatom ooze at a drill site in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1226). Precipitation seems still ongoing based on a sharp depletion in dissolved silica at the depth of the cherts. Also, palaeo-temperatures reconstructed from δ18O values in the cherts are in the range of adjacent porewater temperatures. Opal-A dissolution appears to control silica concentration throughout the sequence, while the solution remains oversaturated with respect to quartz. However, at the depth of the sharp depletion in dissolved silica, quartz is still saturated while the more soluble silica phases are strongly undersaturated. Hence, precipitation of quartz was initiated by an auxiliary process. A process, previously observed to assist in the nucleation of quartz is the adsorption of silica on freshly precipitated iron oxides. Indeed, a deep iron oxidation front is present at 400 m below seafloor, which is caused by upward diffusing nitrate from an oxic seawater aquifer in the underlying oceanic crust. Sequential iron extraction showed a higher content of the adsorbed iron hydroxide fraction in the chert than in the adjacent nannofossil and diatom ooze. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that iron in the cherts predominantly occurs in illite and amorphous iron oxide, whereas iron in the nannofossil and diatom ooze occurs mainly in smectite. Mössbauer spectroscopy also indicated the presence of illite that is to 97% oxidized. Two possible mechanisms may be operative during early diagenetic chert formation at iron oxidation fronts: (1) silica precipitation is catalysed by adsorption to freshly precipitated iron oxide surfaces, and (2) porewater silica

  5. Prebiotic Oxidative Polymerization of 2,3 Dimercaptopropanol on the Surface of Iron(III) Hydroxide Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation of 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanol by ferric ions on the surface of iron (III) hydroxide oxide yielded polydisulfide polymers. This polymerization occured readily at low dithiol concentration under mild aqueous conditions. Polydisulfide polymers up to the 15-mer were synthesized from 1 mM dithiol in 5 ml water reacted with iron (III) hydroxide oxide (20 mg, 160 micro mole Fe) for 3 days under anaerobic conditions at 40 C and pH 4. About 91% of the dithiol was converted to short soluble oligomers and 9% to insoluble larger oligomers that were isolated with the mineral phase. Reactions at higher dithiol concentrations with the same ratio of dithiol to mineral gave a higher yield of the larger insoluble oligomers. The relationship of these results to prebiotic polymer synthesis will be discussed.

  6. Prebiotic Polymerization: Oxidative Polymerization of 2,3 Dimercapto-1- Propanol on the Surface of Iron(III) Hydroxide Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    The oxidation of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol by ferric ions on the surface of iron(III) hydroxide oxide (Fe(OH)O) yielded polydisulfide oligomers. This polymerization occurred readily at low dithiol concentration under mild aqueous conditions. Polydisulfide polymers up to the 15-mer were synthesized from 1 mM dithiol in 5 ml water reacted with iron(III) hydroxide oxide (20 mg, 160 micromole Fe) for 3 days under anaerobic conditions at 40 C and pH 4. About 91% of the dithiol was converted to short soluble oligomers and 9% to insoluble larger oligomers that were isolated with the FE(OH)O phase. Reactions carried out at the same ratio of dithiol to FE(OH)O but at higher dithiol concentrations gave higher yields of the larger insoluble oligomers. The relationship of these results to prebiotic polymer synthesis is discussed.

  7. Prebiotic polymerization: Oxidative polymerization of 2, 3-dimercapto-1-propanol on the surface of iron(III) hydroxide oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    The oxidation of 2, 3-dimercapto-1-propanol by ferric ions on the surface of iron(III) hydroxide oxide (Fe(OH)O) yielded polydisulfide oligomers. This polymerization occurred readily at low dithiol concentration under mild aqueous conditions. Polydisulfide polymers up to the 15-mer were synthesized from 1 mM dithiol in 5 ml water reacted with iron(III) hydroxide oxide (20 mg, 160 micromole Fe) for 3 days under anaerobic conditions at 40 C and pH 4. About 91% of the dithiol was converted to short soluble oligomers and 9% to insoluble larger oligomers that were isolated with the Fe(OH)O phase. Reactions carried out at the same ratio of dithiol to Fe(OH)O but at higher dithiol concentrations gave higher yields of the larger insoluble oligomers. The relationship of these results to prebiotic polymer synthesis is discussed.

  8. Degradation of Phenol with Fenton-like Treatment by Using Heterogeneous Catalyst (Modified Iron Oxide) and Hydrogen Peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethite, hematite, magnetite and synthesized iron oxide are used as catalysts for Fenton-type oxidation of phenol. The synthesized iron oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The catalytic activity of these materials is classified according to the observed rate of phenol oxidation. The effectiveness of the catalysts followed the sequence: ferrous ion > synthesized iron oxide >> magnetite hematite > goethite. According to these results, the most effective iron oxide catalyst had the structure similar to natural hematite. The surface oxidation state of the catalyst was between magnetite and hematite (+2.5 ∼ +3.0). Phenol degraded completely in 40 min at neutral pH (pH = 7). Soluble ferric and ferrous ions were not detected in the filtrate from Fenton reaction solution by AAS. The formation of hydroxyl radicals was confirmed by EPR

  9. Hexadecylamine adsorption at the iron oxide-oil interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary H; Welbourn, Rebecca J L; Charlton, Timothy; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Casford, M T; Clarke, Stuart M

    2013-11-12

    The adsorption behavior of a model additive, hexadecylamine, onto an iron surface from hexadecane oil has been characterized using polarized neutron reflectometry, sum-frequency generation spectroscopy, solution depletion isotherm, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The amine showed a strong affinity for the metal surface, forming a dense monolayer at relatively low concentrations; a layer thickness of 16 (±3) Å at low concentrations, increasing to 20 (±3) Å at greater amine concentrations, was determined from the neutron data. These thicknesses suggest that the molecules in the layer are tilted. Adsorption was also indicated by sum-frequency generation spectroscopy and XPS, the latter indicating that the most dominant amine-surface interaction was via electron donation from the nitrogen lone pair to the positively charged iron ions. Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy was used to determine the alkyl chain conformation order and orientation on the surface. PMID:24106786

  10. What Oxidation State of Iron Determines the Amethyst Colour?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedushenko, S. K. [Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Makhina, I. B.; Mar' in, A. A.; Mukhanov, V. A. [Russian Research Institute for Synthesis of Materials (Russian Federation); Perfiliev, Yu. D. [Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-15

    A colourless quartz crystal doped with {sup 57}Fe{sup 3+} was obtained by hydrothermal synthesis in an NH{sub 4}F solution. The crystal was transformed into violet amethyst by gamma-irradiation. The change in colour was accompanied by changes in the Moessbauer spectrum that can be interpreted as the conversion of trivalent iron into the tetravalent state: Fe{sup 3+{yields}F}e{sup 4+}.

  11. Formation of iron sulfide nodules during anaerobic oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    van Dongen, B. E.; Organic Geochemistry Unit, Bristol Biogeochemistry Research Centre, School of Chemistry, Cantock’s Close, Bristol University, Bristol BS8 1TS, United Kingdom; Roberts, A. P.; National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.; Schouten, S.; Department of Marine Biogeochemistry, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands; Jiang, W-T; Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, PR China; Florindo, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Pancost, R. D.; Organic Geochemistry Unit, Bristol Biogeochemistry Research Centre, School of Chemistry, Cantock’s Close, Bristol University, Bristol BS8 1TS, United Kingdom

    2007-01-01

    The biomarker compositions of iron sulfide nodules (ISNs; upper Pliocene Valle Ricca section near Rome, Italy) that contain the ferrimagnetic mineral greigite (Fe3S4) were examined. In addition to the presence of specific terrestrial and marine biomarkers, consistent with formation in coastal marine sediments, these ISNs contain compounds thought to originate from sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). These compounds include a variety of low-molecular-weight and branched alkanols and seve...

  12. High temperature oxidation behavior of ODS iron-base alloys for nuclear energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhou, Z.; Liao, L.; Chen, W.; Ge, C. [Univ. of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron based alloys are considered as promising high temperature structural material for advanced nuclear energy systems due to its higher creep strength and radiation damage resistance than conventional commercial steels. In this study, the oxidation behavior of ODS iron based alloys with different Cr content (12-18%) was investigated by exposing samples at high temperature of 700℃ and 1000℃ in atmosphere environment, the exposure time is up to 500 h. Results showed that 14Cr and 18Cr ODS alloys exhibited better oxidation resistance than 12Cr ODS alloys. For the same chromium content, the oxidation resistance of ODS alloys are better than that of non-ODS alloys. (author)

  13. Widespread Iron Oxidizing Bacterial Communities in a late Paleoproterozoic Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, N.; Rouxel, O.; Bekker, A.

    2007-12-01

    Discovery of exceptionally well-preserved microfossils in the Gunflint Iron Formation provided the first evidence for diverse and abundant life in the Precambrian oceans. However, whether the Gunflint microbial communities were dominated by cyanobacteria or represent an archaic, lithotrophic ecosystem is a matter of longstanding debate. Here, we present Fe isotope and rare earth element (REE) data for microfossiliferous stromatolites that are consistent with the Gunflint biota being an iron-oxidizing bacterial community. The lack of or positive Ce anomalies in REE data indicate that the benthic community grew below a redoxcline and positive iron isotope compositions reveal that the microbial community only oxidized a fraction of the dissolved iron load. This depositional setting and Fe isotope evidence for incomplete iron oxidation are inconsistent with a cyanobacterial interpretation and provide strong support that the Gunflint biota was indeed a microaerophilic lithotrophic microbial ecosystem. An apparently restricted temporal distribution of the Gunflint biota coupled with a widespread spatial distribution signals a significant ecosystem evolutionary event in the late Paleoproterozoic when the ocean was redox-stratified and Fe-rich anoxic waters impinged onto the shallow shelf.

  14. Hydrous iron oxide modified diatomite as an active filtration medium for phosphate capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lin, Yan; Wu, Deyi; Kong, Hainan

    2016-02-01

    A simple method to functionalize diatomite with hydrous iron oxide was attempted and its performance as a new active filtration material to remove and recover phosphate from water was investigated under varying solution conditions. The Langmuir phosphate adsorption capacity increased from 0.6 mgP/g for raw diatomite to 4.89, 14.71, 25.02 mgP/g for hydrous iron oxide modified diatomite (HIOMD), depending on the amount of iron loaded. Loading of hydrous iron oxide caused the increase in true and bulk density and a decline in filtration rate, but to a lesser extent. It was shown that the HIOMD product with suitable iron content could retain a good filtration performance with a greatly increased adsorption capacity for phosphate. The phosphate adsorption increased by decreasing pH and by increasing ionic strength at high pH levels. The adsorption process was interpreted by ligand exchange. Coexisting oxyanions of sulfate, nitrate, citrate, carbonate, silicate and humic acid showed different effects on phosphate fixation but it was presumed that their influence at their concentrations and pH levels commonly encountered in effluent or natural waters was limited, i.e., HIOMD had a reasonably good selectivity. Results in repeated adsorption, desorption and regeneration experiment showed that the adsorbed phosphate could be recovered and the material could be reused after regeneration. The column test showed that HIOMD could be potentially utilized as an adsorption filtration medium for phosphate removal and recovery from water.

  15. Reaction modelling of Iron Oxide Bromination in the UT-3 thermochemical cycle for Hydrogen production from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis modelling of the iron oxide bromination had been carried out using experiment data from the iron oxide bromination in the UT-3 thermochemical cycle. Iron oxide in the form of pellets were made of the calcination of the mixture of iron oxide, silica, graphite and cellulose at 1473 K. Thermobalance reactor was used to study the kinetic reactions of the iron oxide bromination at a temperature of 473 K for 2 - 6 hours. The data collected from the experiments were used as input for the common models. However, none of these models could not explain the result of the experiments. A new model, a combination of two kinetic reactions : exposed particle and coated particle was created and worked successfully

  16. Magnetically controllable Pickering emulsion prepared by a reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Yang, Hongta; Petit, Camille; Lee, Wei-der

    2015-01-15

    Pickering emulsions stabilized by graphene oxide (GO) have attracted much attention owing to the unique 2-D structure and amphiphilic surface properties of GO. On the other hand, investigations on reduced GO (RGO) to prepare Pickering emulsions are still limited, especially for water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. Considering growing interests for directing Pickering emulsions to a specific location, it is necessary to embed Pickering emulsions with responsiveness upon external driving forces such as magnetic fields. To that end, we developed magnetically responsive RGO (denoted as "MRGO") and used MRGO to prepare W/O Pickering emulsions. MRGO was synthesized by decorating iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of RGO and characterized by SEM, EDS, TEM, FT-IR, Raman, XRD and SQUID. MRGO Pickering emulsion (MRGO-PE) was prepared by suspending MRGO sheets in dodecane and mixing with water vigorously. The amount of MRGO added to prepare MRGO-PE is related to the size distribution of the droplets of MRGO-PE and the relationship can be well-described using a mass balance model. The motion of droplets of MRGO-PE under an external magnetic field is demonstrated. We also investigated the adsorptive property of MRGO-PE by evaluating the removal of Nile Red dye from dodecane. The results shows that the dye removal by MRGO-PE is not just achieved by MRGO layer of MRGO-PE but also by water encapsulated by MRGO. Owing to their magnetic property, MRGO-PE can be utilized as a magnetically-controlled carrier which can preserve and transport to specific locations certain compounds. PMID:25454454

  17. Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene in the presence of iron chlorideionic liquid catalyst and ultrasound waves

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Sadat Seyedi; Manouchehr Bahmaei; Amir Farshi

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene refinery in Tehran with sulfur content of 0/293% with iron chloride - hydrogen peroxide and ultrasonic liquid catalysts in the presence of acetic acid - formic acid and an oxidizinghydrogen peroxide has been studied. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, reaction time, mole ratio of moles of sulfur oxidation (no/ ns),mole ratio of moles of acid per mol of sulfur (nacid/ ns (on the desulfurization of kerosene checked(the molar ratio of o...

  18. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as long wavelength photoinitiators for free radical polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Yar, Yasemin; Acar, Funda Havva Yağcı; Dadashi-Silab, Sajjad; Yagci, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) capped with lauric acid agents were synthesized and their photocatalytic activity was investigated in free radical photopolymerization of vinyl monomers. These NPs were able to release charge carriers (electron-hole pairs) upon photoexcitation through which the capping agents or an additional amine co-initiator acting as the hole acceptor underwent oxidation to eventually form the initiating radicals. In lauric acid coated Fe3O4 NPs, electron transfer foll...

  19. Nanostructures design by plasma afterglow-assisted oxidation of iron-copper thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, A.; Boileau, A.; Gries, T.; Ghanbaja, J.; Mangin, D.; Hussein, K.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Belmonte, T.

    2016-05-01

    Oxidizing thin films made of Fe-Cu alloy with an Ar-O2 micro-afterglow operated at atmospheric pressure shows remarkable growth processes. The presence of iron in copper up to about 50% leads to the synthesis of CuO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanotowers and nanowires). Nanotowers show the presence of an amorphous phase trapped between crystalline domains. Beyond 50%, Fe2O3 iron nanoblades are also found. CuO nanowires as small as 5 nm in diameter can be synthesized. Thanks to the presence of patterned domains induced by buckling, it was possible to show that the stress level decreases when the iron content in the alloy increases. Iron blades grow from the inner Fe2O3 layer through the overlying CuO if it is thin enough.

  20. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrac, Igor M; Pavičić, Ivan; Milić, Mirta; Brkić Ahmed, Lada; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Gajović, Srećko

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility, safety, and risk assessments of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are of the highest priority in researching their application in biomedicine. One improvement in the biological properties of SPIONs may be achieved by different functionalization and surface modifications. This study aims to investigate how a different surface functionalization of SPIONs - uncoated, coated with d-mannose, or coated with poly-l-lysine - affects biocompatibility. We sought to investigate murine neural stem cells (NSCs) as important model system for regenerative medicine. To reveal the possible mechanism of toxicity of SPIONs on NSCs, levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell-membrane potential, DNA damage, and activities of SOD and GPx were examined. Even in cases where reactive oxygen species levels were significantly lowered in NSCs exposed to SPIONs, we found depleted intracellular glutathione levels, altered activities of SOD and GPx, hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, dissipated cell-membrane potential, and increased DNA damage, irrespective of the surface coating applied for SPION stabilization. Although surface coating should prevent the toxic effects of SPIONs, our results showed that all of the tested SPION types affected the NSCs similarly, indicating that mitochondrial homeostasis is their major cellular target. Despite the claimed biomedical benefits of SPIONs, the refined determination of their effects on various cellular functions presented in this work highlights the need for further safety evaluations. This investigation helps to fill the knowledge gaps on the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the biocompatibility and safety of novel nanoparticles. PMID:27217748

  1. Exacerbation of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats by polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Patere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that excessive intake of vegetable oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load precipitate alcohol-induced liver damage was investigated in a rat model. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying this synergism, the serum levels of iron, total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase in liver of rats treated with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron per se and in combination were examined. Alcohol was fed to the rats at a level of 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained between 150-350 mg/dl by using head space gas chromatography, polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 15% of diet and carbonyl iron 1.5-2% of diet per se and in combination to different groups for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was elevated and serum total protein, which was decreased significantly in rats fed with a combination of alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. It was also associated with increased lipid peroxidation and disruption of antioxidant defense in combination fed rats as compared to rats fed with alcohol or polyunsaturated fatty acids or iron. The present study revealed significant exacerbation of the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron.

  2. Current status of superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agents for liver magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2015-12-21

    Five types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), i.e. Ferumoxides (Feridex(®) IV, Berlex Laboratories), Ferucarbotran (Resovist(®), Bayer Healthcare), Ferumoxtran-10 (AMI-227 or Code-7227, Combidex(®), AMAG Pharma; Sinerem(®), Guerbet), NC100150 (Clariscan(®), Nycomed,) and (VSOP C184, Ferropharm) have been designed and clinically tested as magnetic resonance contrast agents. However, until now Resovist(®) is current available in only a few countries. The other four agents have been stopped for further development or withdrawn from the market. Another SPIO agent Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)) is approved for the treatment of iron deficiency in adult chronic kidney disease patients. Ferumoxytol is comprised of iron oxide particles surrounded by a carbohydrate coat, and it is being explored as a potential imaging approach for evaluating lymph nodes and certain liver tumors. PMID:26715826

  3. Iron Oxide Arrays Prepared from Ferrocene- and Silsesquioxane-Containing Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raita Goseki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of iron oxides as precursors of iron clusters were prepared by oxygen plasma treatment of block copolymer microphase-separated nanostructures in thin films. Block copolymers composed of ferrocene-containing and silsesquioxane-containing polymethacrylate (PMAPOSS-b-PMAHFC were successfully prepared, with different molecular weights and compositions and narrow molecular weight distributions, by living anionic polymerization. The formed microphase-separated nanostructures in the bulk were characterized by wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Thin films were prepared from a solution of PMAPOSS-b-PMAHFC in tetrahydrofuran by spin coating onto silicon wafers. Fingerprint-type line nanostructures were formed in the PMAPOSS-b-PMAHFCs thin films after solvent annealing with carbon disulfide. Oxygen plasma treatment provided the final line arrays of iron oxides based on the formed nanostructural patterns.

  4. Preparation of iron oxide nanoparticles from FeCl3 solid powder using microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nashaat; Husein, Maen

    2006-05-01

    Nanoparticles of iron oxide were prepared by subjecting iron chloride powder to (w/o) microemulsions consisting of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT), isooctane and water. FeCl3 was first dissolved in the water pools of the microemulsion, and then reacted with NaOH added as an aqueous solution to form iron oxide. The amount of NaOH solution was limited so that single microemulsion phase is obtained. This technique serves as an in-situ nanoparticle preparation technique aimed at minimizing particle aggregation associated with particle transportation to required sites. In this study, the effects of AOT concentration and water to AOT mole ratio on the nanoparticle size were investigated. UV/Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure the particle size distribution.

  5. H{sub 2} from biosyngas via iron reduction and oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straus, J.; Terry, P. [H Power Corp., Belleville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The production of hydrogen from the steam-oxidation of iron is a long-known phenomenon. The rise in interest in the production and storage of hydrogen justifies the examination of this process (and of the reverse process, the reduction of iron oxide) for commercial use. Under NREL subcontract ZAR-4-13294-02, a process simulation program was developed and used as a design tool to analyze various configurations of the iron-hydrogen purification/storage scheme. Specifically, analyses were performed to determine the effectiveness of this scheme in conjunction with biomass-derived gasified fuel streams (biosyngas). The results of the computer simulations led to a selection of a two-stage iron oxide reduction process incorporating interstage water and CO{sub 2} removal. Thermal analysis shows that the iron-hydrogen process would yield essentially the same quantity of clean hydrogen per unit of biomass as the conventional route. The iron-hydrogen process benefits from the excellent match potentially achievable between the otherwise-unusable energy fraction in the off-gas of the reduction reactor and the parasitic thermal, mechanical and electrical energy needs of some typical gasifier systems. The program simulations and economic analysis suggest that clean hydrogen from biomass feedstock could cost about 20% less via the iron-hydrogen method than by conventional methods of purification (using the same feedstock). Cost analyses show that lower capital costs would be incurred in generating clean hydrogen by utilizing this approach, especially in response to the fluctuating demand profile of a utility.

  6. LA-ICP-MS Allows Quantitative Microscopy of Europium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and is a Possible Alternative to Ambiguous Prussian Blue Iron Staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Müller, Larissa; Wagner, Susanne; Kobayashi, Yuske; Kratz, Harald; Ebert, Monika; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2016-05-01

    The development of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications requires accurate histological evaluation. Prussian blue iron staining is widely used but may be unspecific when tissues contain substantial endogenous iron. Here we tested whether microscopy by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is sensitive enough to analyze accumulation of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) doped with europium in tissue sections. For synthesis of VSOP, a fraction of Fe3+ (5 wt%) was replaced by Eu3+, resulting in particles with 0.66 mol% europium relative to iron (Eu-VSOP) but with otherwise similar properties as VSOP. Eu-VSOP or VSOP was intravenously injected into ApoE-/- mice on Western cholesterol diet and accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques of these animals. Prussian blue staining was positive for ApoE-/- mice with particle injection but also for controls. LA-ICP-MS microscopy resulted in sensitive and specific detection of the europium of Eu-VSOP in liver and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, calibration with Eu-VSOP allowed calculation of iron and particle concentrations in tissue sections. The combination of europium-doped iron oxide particles and LA-ICP-MS microscopy provides a new tool for specific and quantitative analysis of particle distribution at the tissue level and allows correlation with other elements such as endogenous iron.

  7. Antibacterial Efficacy of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles against Biofilms on Different Biomaterial Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Thukkaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm growth on the implant surface is the number one cause of the failure of the implants. Biofilms on implant surfaces are hard to eliminate by antibiotics due to the protection offered by the exopolymeric substances that embed the organisms in a matrix, impenetrable for most antibiotics and immune cells. Application of metals in nanoscale is considered to resolve biofilm formation. Here we studied the effect of iron-oxide nanoparticles over biofilm formation on different biomaterial surfaces and pluronic coated surfaces. Bacterial adhesion for 30 min showed significant reduction in bacterial adhesion on pluronic coated surfaces compared to other surfaces. Subsequently, bacteria were allowed to grow for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of iron-oxide nanoparticles. A significant reduction in biofilm growth was observed in the presence of the highest concentration of iron-oxide nanoparticles on pluronic coated surfaces compared to other surfaces. Therefore, combination of polymer brush coating and iron-oxide nanoparticles could show a significant reduction in biofilm formation.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of PEG-iron oxide core-shell composite nanoparticles for thermal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wydra, Robert J.; Kruse, Anastasia M. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Bae, Younsoo [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Anderson, Kimberly W. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hilt, J. Zach, E-mail: hilt@engr.uky.edu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In this study, core-shell nanoparticles were developed to achieve thermal therapy that can ablate cancer cells in a remotely controlled manner. The core-shell nanoparticles were prepared using atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to coat iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based polymer shell. The iron oxide core allows for the remote heating of the particles in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The coating of iron oxide with PEG was verified through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. A thermoablation (55 °C) study was performed on A549 lung carcinoma cells exposed to nanoparticles and over a 10 min AMF exposure. The successful thermoablation of A549 demonstrates the potential use of polymer coated particles for thermal therapy. - Highlights: • Utilized atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to coat iron oxide nanoparticles with PEG • Investigated the surface coating by surface characterization methods • Demonstrated the potential use of nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications.

  9. Expeditious organic–free assembly: morphologically controlled synthesis of iron oxides using microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave hydrothermal method is developed for the synthesis of iron oxides, α-Fe2O3, β-FeOOH, and the junction of α-Fe2O3–β-FeOOH. This method is absolutely organic-free, and various structures could be obtained simply by changing th...

  10. Chemical Insight into the Adsorption of Chromium(III) on Iron Oxide/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatte, Shani; Datt, Ashish; Burns, Eric A; Larsen, Sarah C

    2015-07-14

    Magnetic iron oxide/mesoporous silica nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles embedded within mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and modified with aminopropyl functional groups were prepared for application to Cr(III) adsorption followed by magnetic recovery of the nanocomposite materials from aqueous solution. The composite materials were extensively characterized using physicochemical techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, and zeta potential measurements. For aqueous Cr(III) at pH 5.4, the iron oxide/mesoporous silica nanocomposite exhibited a superior equilibrium adsorption capacity of 0.71 mmol/g, relative to 0.17 mmol/g for unmodified mesoporous silica. The aminopropyl-functionalized iron oxide/mesoporous silica nanocomposites displayed an equilibrium adsorption capacity of 2.08 mmol/g, the highest adsorption capacity for Cr(III) of all the materials evaluated in this study. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments provided insight into the chemical nature of the adsorbed chromium species. PMID:26134074

  11. Synthesis of porous superparamagnetic iron oxides from colloidal nanoparticles: Effect of calcination temperature and atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Wei; Xu, Jing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Zheng, Wenping; Wu, Feng; Li, Jinjun, E-mail: ljjcbacademy@163.com

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructured iron oxides with superparamagnetism were synthesized from colloidal particles of hydrous iron oxide. The synthesis procedure involved preparation of acetone-nanoparticle composite and calcination of the composite in air or nitrogen. The effects of calcination temperature and atmosphere on the properties of the products were investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption, thermal analysis and vibrating-sample magnetometry were applied to characterize the materials. The products calcined in flowing air are composed of nanoparticles, while those calcined in flowing nitrogen contain nanosheets. The former has larger specific surface areas, whereas the latter has stronger saturation magnetization in external magnetic field. Increasing calcination temperature reduced the specific surface area of the product, whereas enhanced its saturation magnetization. Furthermore, the iron oxides with superparamagnetism showed good affinity to arsenite, and therefore they could be potential adsorbents for arsenic remediation in water. - Highlights: • Nanostructured superparamagnetic iron oxides were synthesized from colloidal nanoparticles. • Calcination in air led to formation of nanoparticles. • Calcination in nitrogen led to formation of nanosheets. • The superparamagnetic materials had high adsorption capabilities for arsenite.

  12. Synthesis of pseudopolyrotaxanes-coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as new MRI contrast agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, F.; Panahifar, A.; Adeli, M.; Amiri, H.; Lascialfari, A.; Orsini, F.; Doschak, M.R.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized and coated with pseudopolyrotaxanes (PPRs) and proposed as a novel hybrid nanostructure for medical imaging and drug delivery. PPRs were prepared by addition of alpha-cyclodextrin rings to functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG) c

  13. In-Situ Regeneration of Saturated Granular Activated Carbon by an Iron Oxide Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) can remove trace organic pollutants and natural organic matter (NOM) from industrial and municipal waters. This paper evaluates an iron nanocatalyst approach, based on Fenton-like oxidation reactions, to regenerate spent GAC within a packed bed con...

  14. Integrity of 111In-radiolabeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Iron-oxide nanoparticles can act as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while radiolabeling the same platform with nuclear medicine isotopes allows imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), modalities that offer better quantification. For successful translation of these multifunctional imaging platforms to clinical use, it is imperative to evaluate the degree to which the association between radioactive label and iron oxide core remains intact in vivo. Methods: We prepared iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by oleic acid and phospholipids which were further radiolabeled with 59Fe, 14C-oleic acid, and 111In. Results: Mouse biodistributions showed 111In preferentially localized in reticuloendothelial organs, liver, spleen and bone. However, there were greater levels of 59Fe than 111In in liver and spleen, but lower levels of 14C. Conclusions: While there is some degree of dissociation between the 111In labeled component of the nanoparticle and the iron oxide core, there is extensive dissociation of the oleic acid component

  15. Spectral characteristics of the iron oxides with application to the Martian bright region mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, D. M.; Burns, R. G.; Mee Burns, V.

    1982-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of eight polymorphs of FeOOH and Fe2O3 are determined in order to clarify the nature and significance of the iron oxide mineralogy on Mars. The effect of other components that might interfere with iron oxide absorption features is qualitatively constrained through the use of the Kebulka-Munk theory. It is found that the effect of temperature complicates the identification of a given Fe(3+) phase based on the position of the 6A1-4T1 absorption feature. While the Fe(3+) crystal field transitions are spin forbidden, most of the iron oxide polymorphs exhibit anomalously intense crystal field absorption features due to magnetic coupling between adjacent FeO6 octahedra. It is suggested that the resulting deviations from observed remotely sensed reflectance spectra of Mars may provide a basis for the exclusion of many iron oxide phases as significant components of the Martian Fe(3+) mineralogy. A comparison of these results with the visible region spectra of Martian bright regions indicates that the predominant Fe(3+)-bearing phase may be a magnetically disordered material, such as amorphous gels, some ferric sulphates, and other minerals in which Fe(3+) ions in the crystal structure are not magnetically coupled.

  16. Characterization of Iron Oxide Generated in Ruthner Plant of Pickling Unit in Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.C.Amiri

    2003-01-01

    Reducing the chloride content in regenerated iron oxides (RIO) from steel-pickling acid waste economically treated by Ruthner process is the most critical issue for the development of RIO as a useful raw material resource. In this paper, the results of a new method for characterization and modification of RIO produced in Mobarakeh Steel Complex were reported.

  17. The Importance of Microbial Iron Sulfide Oxidation for Nitrate Depletion in Anoxic Danish Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaclavkova, Sarka; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Jørgensen, Christian Juncher;

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3 −) reduction processes are important for depleting the NO3 − load from agricultural source areas before the discharge water reaches surface waters or groundwater aquifers. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate the co-occurrence of microbial iron sulfide oxidation by NO3 − (MISON...

  18. Toxicity assessment of iron oxide nanoparticles in zebrafish (Danio rerio early life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Zhu

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles have been explored recently for their beneficial applications in many biomedical areas, in environmental remediation, and in various industrial applications. However, potential risks have also been identified with the release of nanoparticles into the environment. To study the ecological effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, we used early life stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio to examine such effects on embryonic development in this species. The results showed that ≥10 mg/L of iron oxide nanoparticles instigated developmental toxicity in these embryos, causing mortality, hatching delay, and malformation. Moreover, an early life stage test using zebrafish embryos/larvae is also discussed and recommended in this study as an effective protocol for assessing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. This study is one of the first on developmental toxicity in fish caused by iron oxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments. The results will contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology.

  19. Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (Pi test): a review of its development and methodological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Menon, R.G.; Chien, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (FeO paper) has been used to study the availability of phosphorus (P) to plants and algae, P desorption kinetics and P dynamics in the field. Since its initial development a number of differences in the method of preparation of the paper and its application have b

  20. Magnetic coupling among spinel iron oxide microparticles by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tronc, E.; Bonnin, D.

    1985-01-01

    Mössbauer spectra of hydrous spinel iron oxide colloids and their evolution with thermal treatment have been interpreted using a modified Weiss local field model. It is found that inter-particle interactions overcome the single particle anisotropy energy. Existence of a crystalline texture within aggregates is suggested.

  1. Mineralized iron oxidizing bacteria from hydrothermal vents: targeting biosignatures on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveille, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Putative hydrothermal systems have been identified on Mars based on orbital imagery and rover-based analyses. Based on Earth analogs, hydrothermal systems on Mars would be highly attractive for their potential for preserving organic and inorganic biosignatures. For example, iron oxidizing bacteria are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial hydrothermal systems, where they often display distinctive cell morphologies and are commonly encrusted by minerals, especially bacteriogenic iron oxides and silica. Microfossils of iron oxidizing bacteria have been found in ancient Si-Fe deposits and iron oxidation may be an ancient and widespread metabolic pathway. In order to investigate mineralized iron oxidizing bacteria as a biosignature, we have examined samples collected from extinct hydrothermal vents along Explorer Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean. In addition, microaerophilic iron oxidizing bacteria, isolated from active Pacific hydrothermal vents, were grown in a Fe-enriched seawater medium at constant pH (6.5) and O2 concentration (5%) in a controlled bioreactor system. Samples and experimental products were examined with a combination of variable-pressure and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in some cases by preparing samples with a focused ion beam (FIB) milling system. Light-toned seafloor samples display abundant filamentous forms resembling, in both size and shape (1-5 microns in diameter and up to several microns in length), the twisted stalks of Gallionella and the elongated filaments of Leptothrix. Some samples consist entirely of low-density masses of silica (>90% Si) encrusted filamentous forms. The presence of unmineralized filamentous matter rich in C and Fe suggests that these are the remains of iron oxidizing bacteria. Mineralized filaments sectioned by FIB show variable internal material within semi-hollow, tubular-like features. Silica encrustations also show pseudo-concentric growth bands. In the bioreactor runs, abundant microbial growth and

  2. Conductive iron oxide minerals accelerate syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic benzoate degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Li; Tang, Jia; Wang, Yueqiang; Hu, Min; Zhou, Shungui, E-mail: sgzhou@soil.gd.cn

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Paddy soil contaminated with benzoate incubated with hematite and magnetite. • Iron oxides addition enhanced methanogenic benzoate degradation by 25–53%. • The facilitated syntrophy might involve direct interspecies electron transfer. • Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that conductive iron oxide minerals can facilitate syntrophic metabolism of the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, such as ethanol, propionate and butyrate, in natural and engineered microbial ecosystems. This enhanced syntrophy involves direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) powered by microorganisms exchanging metabolic electrons through electrically conductive minerals. Here, we evaluated the possibility that conductive iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) can stimulate the methanogenic degradation of benzoate, which is a common intermediate in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. The results showed that 89–94% of the electrons released from benzoate oxidation were recovered in CH{sub 4} production, and acetate was identified as the only carbon-bearing intermediate during benzoate degradation. Compared with the iron-free controls, the rates of methanogenic benzoate degradation were enhanced by 25% and 53% in the presence of hematite and magnetite, respectively. This stimulatory effect probably resulted from DIET-mediated methanogenesis in which electrons transfer between syntrophic partners via conductive iron minerals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved in the functioning of syntrophic DIET. Considering the ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within soils and sediments, the findings of this study will increase the current understanding of the natural biological attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic environments.

  3. What's the real role of iron-oxides in the optical properties of dust aerosols?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxides compounds constitute an important component of mineral dust aerosol. Several previous studies have shown that these minerals are strong absorbers at visible wavelengths and thus that they play a critical role in the overall climate forcing caused by dust aerosol. When compiling a database of complex refractive indices of possible mineral species of iron-oxides to study their optical properties, we found that uniformly continuous optical constants for a single type of iron-oxides in the wavelength range between 0.2 and 50 μm is very scarce and that the use of hematite to represent all molecular or mineral iron-oxides types is a popular hypothesis. However, the crucial problem is that three continuous datasets for complex refractive indices of hematite are employed in climate models, but there are significant differences between them. Thus, the real role of iron-oxides in the optical properties of dust aerosols becomes a key scientific question, and we address this problem by considering different refractive indices, size distributions, and more logical weight fractions and mixing states of hematite. Based on the microscopic observations, a semi-external mixture that employs an external mixture between Fe-aggregates and other minerals and partly internal mixing between iron-oxides and aluminosilicate particles is advised as the optimal approximation. The simulations demonstrate that hematite with a spectral refractive indices from Longtin et al. (1988 shows approximately equal absorbing capacity to the mineral illite over the whole wavelength region from 0.55 to 2.5 μm, and only enhances the optical absorption of aerosol mixture at λ < 0.55 μm. Using the dataset from Querry (1985 may overestimate the optical absorption of hematite at both visible and near-infrared wavelengths. More laboratory measurements of the refractive index of iron-oxides, especially for hematite and goethite in the visible spectrum, should therefore be taken

  4. Synthesis and characterization of L-carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmus, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Kavas, H. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Sozeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Alpsoy, L. [Department of Biology, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Celik, S.U. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, M.S. [Department of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology, SE16440 Kista-Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) in the presence of L-carnosine. > FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. > Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. > The synthesized amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles might be applied to cell separation, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy. - Abstract: L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of iron oxide in the presence of L-carnosine. Crystalline phase was identified as magnetite with an average crystallite size of 8 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size estimated from TEM by log-normal fitting was {approx}11 nm. FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. CCIO NPs showed superparamagnetic charactersitic at room temperature. The magnetic core size of superparamagnetic CCIO NPs was found slightly smaller than the size obtained from TEM, due to the presence of magnetically dead layer. Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The low value of saturation magnetization compared to the bulk magnetite has been explained by spin canting. LDH activity tests showed slight cytotoxicity of high dose of CCIO NPs. The ac conductivity of CCIO NPs was found to be greater than that of carnosine and the effective conduction mechanism was found as correlated barrier hopping (CBH). dc activation energy of the

  5. Study of iron oxide nanoparticles in soil for remediation of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, Heather J., E-mail: heather.shipley@utsa.edu; Engates, Karen E.; Guettner, Allison M. [University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

    2011-06-15

    There is a growing interest in the use of nanoparticles for environmental applications due to their unique physical and chemical properties. One possible application is the removal of contaminants from water. In this study, the use of iron oxide nanoparticles (19.3 nm magnetite and 37.0 nm hematite) were examined to remove arsenate and arsenite through column studies. The columns contained 1.5 or 15 wt% iron oxide nanoparticles and soil. Arsenic experiments were conducted with 1.5 wt% iron oxides at 1.5 and 6 mL/h with initial arsenate and arsenite concentrations of 100 {mu}g/L. Arsenic release occurred after 400 PV, and 100% release was reached. A long-term study was conducted with 15 wt% magnetite nanoparticles in soil at 0.3 mL/h with an initial arsenate concentration of 100 {mu}g/L. A negligible arsenate concentration occurred for 3559.6 pore volumes (PVs) (132.1 d). Eventually, the arsenate concentration reached about 20% after 9884.1 PV (207.9 d). A retardation factor of about 6742 was calculated indicating strong adsorption of arsenic to the magnetite nanoparticles in the column. Also, increased adsorption was observed after flow interruption. Other experiments showed that arsenic and 12 other metals (V, Cr, Co, Mn, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, Sb, Tl, Th, U) could be simultaneously removed by the iron oxide nanoparticles in soil. Effluent concentrations were less than 10% for six out of the 12 metals. Desorption experiment showed partial irreversible sorption of arsenic to the iron oxide nanoparticle surface. Strong adsorption, large retardation factor, and resistant desorption suggest that magnetite and hematite nanoparticles have the potential to be used to remove arsenic in sandy soil possibly through in situ techniques.

  6. Biocompatibility of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with osteoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Si-Feng Shi,1 Jing-Fu Jia,2 Xiao-Kui Guo,3 Ya-Ping Zhao,2 De-Sheng Chen,1 Yong-Yuan Guo,1 Tao Cheng,1 Xian-Long Zhang11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, 2School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Bone disorders (including osteoporosis, loosening of a prosthesis, and bone infections are of great concern to the medical community and are difficult to cure. Therapies are available to treat such diseases, but all have drawbacks and are not specifically targeted to the site of disease. Chitosan is widely used in the biomedical community, including for orthopedic applications. The aim of the present study was to coat chitosan onto iron oxide nanoparticles and to determine its effect on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts.Methods: Nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, zeta potential, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Uptake of nanoparticles by osteoblasts was studied by transmission electron microscopy and Prussian blue staining. Viability and proliferation of osteoblasts were measured in the presence of uncoated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles or those coated with chitosan. Lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein synthesis, and extracellular calcium deposition was studied in the presence of the nanoparticles.Results: Chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles enhanced osteoblast proliferation, decreased cell membrane damage, and promoted cell differentiation, as indicated by an increase in alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposition. Chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed good compatibility with osteoblasts.Conclusion: Further research is necessary to optimize magnetic nanoparticles for the treatment of bone disease

  7. Development of a new aluminium matrix composite reinforced with iron oxide (Fe3O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bayraktar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to develop new aluminium matrix (intermetallic composites reinforced with iron oxide (Fe3O4 that will be used in aeronautical engineering or in electronic industry. Different parameters such as sintering time and temperature, reinforcement, compact pressure were evaluated. The final purpose of this project is going on to improve conductivity and magnetic permeability of this new composite.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, a new alternative materials “aluminium–iron oxide (Fe3O4, naturally as the mineral magnetite powder composite” has been developed by using a microwave (in the laboratory scale sintering programme with various aspect ratios, that iron oxide (Fe3O4 particle sizes and aluminium powders together were prepared. This paper contains partially preliminary results of our going-on research project.Findings: Green density increased regularly depending on the compact pressure and percentage of the iron oxide (Fe3O4. Micro and macro porosity was not found due to very clean microwave sintering. Density after microwave sintering was higher than that of traditional sintering in an electrical oven.Research limitations/implications: This project is going on and magnetic permeability and conductivity of this composite will be improved.Practical implications: This composite is new and clean and thanks to the new microwave sintering basically will be used in aeronautical engineering. Microwave heating results in lower energy costs and decreased processing times for many industrial processes.Originality/value: Originality of this paper is to use a new reinforcement in the aluminium matrix composite; Fe3O4-iron oxide. A new method - microwave sintering- has been carried out on this composite.

  8. Efficient oxidative dechlorination and aromatic ring cleavage of chlorinated phenols catalyzed by iron sulfophthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, A.; Meunier, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination du CNRS, Toulouse (France); Seris, J.L. [Elf-Aquitaine, Artix (France)

    1995-05-26

    An efficient method has been developed for the catalytic oxidation of pollutants that are not easily degraded. The products of the hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) oxidation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) catalyzed by the iron complex 2,9,16,23-tetrasulfophthalocyanine (FePcS) were observed to be chloromaleic, chlorofumaric, maleic, and fumaric acids from dechlorination and aromatic cycle cleavage, as well as additional products that resulted from oxidative coupling. Quantitative analysis of the TCP oxidation reaction revealed that up to two chloride ions were released per TCP molecule. This chemical system, consisting of an environmentally safe oxidant (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and an easily accessible catalyst (FePcS), can perform several key steps in the oxidative mineralization of TCP, a paradigm of recalcitrant pollutants. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Investigation on the Thermal Crack Evolution and Oxidation Effect of Compacted Graphite Iron Under Thermal Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaosong; Zhang, Weizheng; Guo, Bingbin

    2015-09-01

    For a better understanding of the thermal fatigue behavior in compacted graphite cast iron (CGI), the cyclic thermal shock test is carried out through alternating induction heating and water quenching. The optical and scanning electron microscopy observations are used to examine the cracks and oxidation behavior on the cross section and heating surface of the material specimen, respectively. The results show that the thermal cracks in CGI initiate at the graphite phases mostly, and the multi-sourced thermal cracks would result in stable cracks morphology finally through crack shielding effect. In the oxidation analysis, it is found that the oxidation of graphite is selective, and the graphite is the potential channels for oxygen diffusion from the outside into the matrix, resulting in local oxidation of matrix around graphite and continuous oxygen diffusion paths in the microstructure. Thermal cracks nucleate from the oxidation holes at graphite caused by decarburization, and they prefer to propagate and coalesce by penetrating the oxide bridges.

  10. Role of iron oxide catalysts in selective catalytic reduction of NOx and soot from vehicular emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with Iron containing catalysts i.e Iron oxide Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) Iron potassium oxide Fe/sub 1.9/K/sub 0.1/O/sub 3/, copper iron oxide Cu/sub 0.9/K/sub 0.1/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, nickel iron oxide Ni Fe/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and Nickel potassium iron oxide Ni/sub 0.95/K/sub 0.05/ Fe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ catalyst were synthesized by using PVA technique. By X-ray Diffraction technique these catalysts were characterized to ensure the formation of crystalline structure. Energy Dispersive X-rays analysis (EDX) was used for the confirmation of presence of different metals and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for Surface Morphology. Then the catalytic investigations of the prepared catalyst were carried out for their activity measurement toward simultaneous conversion of NOx and Soot from an engine exhaust. Some Iron containing oxide catalysts were partially modified by alkali metal potassium and were used for NOx -Soot reaction in a model exhaust gas. Fe/sub 1.9 K /sub 0.1/O/sub 3/ show high catalytic performance for N/sub 2/ formation in the prepared catalyst. Further studies have shown that Fe/sub 1.9/ K/sub 0.1/ O/sub 3/ was deactivated in a substantial way after about 20 Temperature. Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR) experiments due to agglomeration of the promoter potassium. Experiments carried out over the aged Fe/sub 1.9/K/sub 0.1/O/sub 3/ catalyst have shown that NOx-soot reaction was suppressed at higher oxygen concentration, since O/sub 2/-soot conversion was kindly favored. More over nitrite species formed at the catalyst surface might play an important role in NOx-soot conversion. (author)

  11. Magnetization and Mössbauer study of partially oxidized iron cluster films deposited on HOPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, Nils; Kamali, Saeed; Andersson, Mats; Johansson, Christer; Rosén, Arne

    2014-10-01

    Iron clusters produced in a laser vaporization source were deposited to form cluster-assembled thin films with different thicknesses on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates. The development of oxidation of the clusters with time, up to three years, was investigated by magnetic measurements using an alternating gradient magnetometer. Furthermore, to receive information about the oxidation states, clusters of 57Fe were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The magnetic analysis shows a time evolution of the saturation magnetization, remanence, and coercivity, determined from the hysteresis curves characteristic of a progressing oxidation. The different thicknesses of the iron cluster films as well as a protective layer of vanadium influence the magnetic properties when the samples are subjected to oxidation with time. While the saturation magnetization and remanence decrease and reach half the initial values for almost all the samples after three years, the coercivity increases for all samples and is more substantial for the thickest sample with a vanadium protective layer. This value is three folded after three years. Furthermore, based on a core-shell model and using the saturation magnetization values we have been able to quantitatively calculate the amount of the increase of Fe-oxide as a function of time. The Mössbauer spectroscopy shows peaks corresponding to iron metal and maghemite.

  12. Oligomerization of Glycine and Alanine Catalyzed by Iron Oxides: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Uma; Bhushan, Brij; Bhattacharjee, G.; Kamaluddin

    2012-02-01

    Iron oxide minerals are probable constituents of the sediments present in geothermal regions of the primitive earth. They might have adsorbed different organic monomers (amino acids, nucleotides etc.) and catalyzed polymerization processes leading to the formation of the first living cell. In the present work we tested the catalytic activity of three forms of iron oxides (Goethite, Akaganeite and Hematite) in the intermolecular condensation of each of the amino acids glycine and L-alanine. The effect of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide on the oligomerization has also been studied. Oligomerization studies were performed for 35 days at three different temperatures 50, 90 and 120°C without applying drying/wetting cycling. The products formed were characterized by HPLC and ESI-MS techniques. All three forms of iron oxides catalyzed peptide bond formation (23.2% of gly2 and 10.65% of ala2). The reaction was monitored every 7 days. Formation of peptides was observed to start after 7 days at 50°C. Maximum yield of peptides was found after 35 days at 90°C. Reaction at 120°C favors formation of diketopiperazine derivatives. It is also important to note that after 35 days of reaction, goethite produced dimer and trimer with the highest yield among the oxides tested. We suggest that the activity of goethite could probably be due to its high surface area and surface acidity.

  13. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Moessbauer studies of pretreated ultrafine iron oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenshi Huang; Davis, B.H. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research); Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Inst. for Mining and Minerals Research)

    1992-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates that a 24 hour-pretreatment in CO at 260{degrees}C and 8 atm. in a tetralin solvent almost completely converts uftrafine iron oxide (about 3 nm) to iron carbide. However, pretreatment in hydrogen under the same conditions resulted in reduction of about 33% of the iron to metallic Fe; the remainder was Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Exposure of the CO pretreated catalyst to a 1:1 HDCO synthesis gas resulted in the gradual reoxidation of the carbides to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. During the first 2 hours of exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreated sample to synthesis gas,.the metallic Fe was converted to iron carbides. Further exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreatment sample to synthesis gas did not result in a composition change of the catalyst. Therefore, it is concluded that iron carbides with different oxidation characteristics were formed in these two cases.

  14. Role of iron oxide impurities in electrocatalysis by multiwall carbon nanotubes: An investigation using a novel magnetically modified ITO electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanchan M Samant; Vrushali S Joshi; Kashinath R Patil; Santosh K Haram

    2014-04-01

    The role of iron oxide impurities in the electrocatalytic properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) prepared by catalytic chemical vapour decomposition method (CCVD) is studied in detail. A novel magnetically modified electrodes have been developed by which MWCNTs were immobilized on indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, without any chemical binders. The electro-catalytic oxidation of dopamine, and reduction of hydrogen peroxide have been studied by cyclic voltammetry on magnetically modified electrodes with (i) MWCNTs with occluded iron oxide impurities (Fe-MWCNTs), (ii) MWCNTs grown on iron oxide nanoparticle particulate films (Io-MWCNTs) and (iii) pristine iron oxide nanoparticle particulate film (Io-NPs). A shift towards less positive potentials for the oxidation of dopamine was observed which is in the order of Fe-MWCNTs < Io-MWCNTs < Io-NPs. Similarly, trend towards less negative potentials for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide was observed. Thus, the electrocatalytic activities displayed by MWCNTs have been attributed to the iron oxide impurities associated with it. The systematic variation was related to the nature of interaction of iron oxide nanoparticles with MWCNT surface.

  15. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4.7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  16. On the kinetics of the initial oxidation of iron and iron nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graat, P.C.J.; Somers, Marcel A.J.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    concentration in the surface region; subsequent annealing at 573 K led to restoration of the N concentration. Oxidation in pure O2 (generally pO2 1•10 4 Pa) was performed at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 600 K. The oxidised samples were investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS...... the oxide film. For sputter-cleaned + annealed epsilon Fe2N1-x this lead to a nitrogen concentration larger than the maximum solubility of nitrogen in epsilon Fe2N1-x. The excess nitrogen at the metal-oxide interface, which is negatively charged as was indicated by the corresponding XPS N 1s peak, lead......The initial oxidation of alfa-Fe and epsilon Fe2N1-x was investigated. Prior to oxidation the sample surfaces were either sputter cleaned with Ar+ ions or sputter cleaned followed by annealing. It was shown that the sputter cleaning pretreatment of epsilon Fe2N1-x led to a reduction of the N...

  17. Antibacterial activity of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Raid A., E-mail: raidismail@yahoo.com [Laser Physics Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Sulaiman, Ghassan M. [Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Abdulrahman, Safa A. [Laser Physics Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Marzoog, Thorria R. [Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, (50–110 nm) magnetic iron oxide (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of iron target in dimethylformamide (DMF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The structural properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV–VIS absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of laser fluence on the characteristics of these nanoparticles was studied. Antibacterial activities of iron oxide nanoparticles were tested against Gram-positive; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The results showed a noteworthy inhibition on both bacterial strains. The preparation conditions were found to affect significantly the antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were used to capture rapidly S. aureus bacteria under the magnetic field effect. - Highlights: • Synthesis magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation • Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria • Captured magnetic nanoparticles by S. aureus bacteria under effect of magnetic field.

  18. Adsorption of zinc ions from water using zeolite/iron oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fungaro, D.A.; Graciano, J.E.A. [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics of zeolites synthesized from fly ash were combined in a composite with the magnetic properties of iron oxides to produce adsorbents which were magnetic materials. Such zeolite/iron oxide magnetic composites were prepared with weight ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1. The experimental data for the equilibrium adsorption isotherms of Zn{sup 2+} ions onto the composites were modelled using the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The presence of iron oxide had no significant effect on the adsorption capacities of the magnetic composites. The experimental data were also employed to determine the kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process. The adsorption of Zn{sup 2+} ions was found to follow pseudo-second-order type kinetics. Although intra-particle diffusion occurred in the adsorption processes, it could not be accepted as the primary rate-determining step. The evaluated thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of Zn{sup 2+} ions onto zeolite/iron composites was spontaneous and endothermic.

  19. In situ synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanocomposites using iron oxide nanofluids at ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Lubna; Mahto, Neha; Nayar, Suprabha

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a simple method for the room temperature synthesis of magnetite/hydroxyapatite composite nanocomposites using ferrofluids. The in situ synthesis of magnetic-hydroxyapatite results in a homogenous distribution of the two phases as seen both in transmission electron micrographs and assembled to a micron range in the confocal micrographs. The selected area diffraction pattern analysis shows the presence of both phases of iron oxide and hydroxyapatite. To the dialyzed ferrofluid, the constituents of hydroxyapatite synthesis was added, the presence of the superparamagnetic iron oxide particles imparts directionality to the hydroxyapatite crystal growth. Electron probe microanalysis confirms the co-existence of both iron and calcium atoms. Vibrating Sample magnetometer data shows magnetization three times more than the parent ferrofluid, the local concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles affects the strength of dipolar interparticle interactions changing the energy barrier for determining the collective magnetic behavior of the sample. The limitations inherent to the use of external magnetic fields which can be circumvented by the introduction of internal magnets located in the proximity of the target by a minimal surgery or by using a superparamagnetic scaffold under the influence of externally applied magnetic field inspires us to increase the magnetization of our samples. The composite in addition shows anti-bacterial properties against the two gram (-ve) bacteria tested. This work is significant as magnetite-hydroxyapatite composites are attracting a lot of attention as adsorbents, catalysts, hyperthermia agents and even as regenerative medicine. PMID:25589209

  20. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles of narrow size distribution on polysaccharide templates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Nidhin; R Indumathy; K J Sreeram; Balachandran Unni Nair

    2008-02-01

    We report here the preparation of nanoparticles of iron oxide in the presence of polysaccharide templates. Interaction between iron (II) sulfate and template has been carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the selective and controlled removal of the template to achieve narrow distribution of particle size. Particles of iron oxide obtained have been characterized for their stability in solvent media, size, size distribution and crystallinity and found that when the negative value of the zeta potential increases, particle size decreases. A narrow particle size distribution with 100 = 275 nm was obtained with chitosan and starch templates. SEM measurements further confirm the particle size measurement. Diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectra values show that the template is completely removed from the final iron oxide particles and powder XRD measurements show that the peaks of the diffractogram are in agreement with the theoretical data of hematite. The salient observations of our study shows that there occurs a direct correlation between zeta potential, polydispersity index, bandgap energy and particle size. The crystallite size of the particles was found to be 30–35 nm. A large negative zeta potential was found to be advantageous for achieving lower particle sizes, owing to the particles remaining discrete without agglomeration.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of poly(2-hydroxyethyl aspartamide)-hexadecylamine-iron oxide for MR imaging of lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dae Chul; Lee, Ha Young; Son, Yeo Won; Yuk, Soon Hong; Choi, Youn Woong; Kwak, Byung Kook; Shin, Byung Cheol; Cho, Cheong-Weon; Cho, Sun Hang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize biocompatible poly(2-hydroxyethyl aspartamide)-C16-iron oxide (PHEA-C16-iron oxide) nanoparticles and to evaluate their efficacy as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of lymph nodes. The PHEA-C16-iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The core size of the PHEA-C16-iron oxide nanoparticles was about 5 to 7 nm, and the overall size of the nanoparticles was around 20, 60, and 150 nm in aqueous solution. The size of the nanoparticles was controlled by the amount of C16. The 3.0-T MRI signal intensity of a rabbit lymph node was effectively reduced after intravenous administration of PHEA-C16-iron oxide with the size of 20 nm. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity tests revealed the high biocompatibility of PHEA-C16-iron oxide nanoparticles. Therefore, PHEA-C16-iron oxide nanoparticles with 20-nm size can be potentially useful as T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agents for the detection of lymph nodes.

  2. Ceramide-induced intracellular oxidant formation, iron signaling, and apoptosis in endothelial cells: protective role of endogenous nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Kalivendi, Shasi V; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha; Joseph, Joy; Kalyanaraman, B

    2004-07-01

    Sphingolipid ceramide (N-acetylsphingosine), a bioactive second messenger lipid, was shown to activate reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial oxidative damage, and apoptosis in neuronal and vascular cells. The proapoptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, hypoxia, and chemotherapeutic drugs were attributed to increased ceramide formation. Here we investigated the protective role of nitric oxide (.NO) during hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-mediated transferrin receptor (TfR)-dependent iron signaling and apoptosis in C(2)-ceramide (C(2)-cer)-treated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Addition of C(2)-cer (5-20 microm) to BAECs enhanced .NO generation. However, at higher concentrations of C(2)-cer (> or =20 microm), .NO generation did not increase proportionately. C(2)-cer (20-50 microm) also resulted in H(2)O(2)-mediated dichlorodihydrofluorescein oxidation, reduced glutathione depletion, aconitase inactivation, TfR overexpression, TfR-dependent uptake of (55)Fe, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation. N(w)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a nonspecific inhibitor of nitricoxide synthases, augmented these effects in BAECs at much lower (i.e. nonapoptotic) concentrations of C(2)-cer. The 26 S proteasomal activity in BAECs was slightly elevated at lower concentrations of C(2)-cer (10 microm). Intracellular scavengers of H(2)O(2), cell-permeable iron chelators, anti-TfR receptor antibody, or mitochondria-targeted antioxidant greatly abrogated C(2)-cer- and/or l-NAME-induced oxidative damage, iron signaling, and apoptosis. We conclude that C(2)-cer-induced H(2)O(2) and TfR-dependent iron signaling are responsible for its prooxidant and proapoptotic effects and that .NO exerts an antioxidative and cytoprotective role.

  3. Grafting of diazonium salts on oxides surface: formation of aryl-O bonds on iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brymora, Katarzyna [LUNAM Université du Maine, IMMM UMR CNRS 6283 (France); Fouineau, Jonathan; Eddarir, Asma; Chau, François [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS CNRS UMR 7086 (France); Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc [LUNAM Université du Maine, IMMM UMR CNRS 6283 (France); Pinson, Jean; Ammar, Souad [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS CNRS UMR 7086 (France); Calvayrac, Florent, E-mail: florent.calvayrac@univ-lemans.fr [LUNAM Université du Maine, IMMM UMR CNRS 6283 (France)

    2015-11-15

    Combining ab initio modeling and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, we characterized the nature of the chemical linkage of aminoalkyl arenediazonium salt on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles. We established that it is built through a metal–oxygen–carbon bonding and not a metal–carbon one, as usually suggested and commonly observed in previously studied metal- or carbon-based surfaces.

  4. Effect of iron oxide content on the crystallisation of a diopside glass–ceramic glaze

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Maximina; Rincón López, Jesús María; Acosta, Anselmo

    2002-01-01

    The effect of iron oxide content on the crystallisation of a diopside glass–ceramic glaze was investigated using a glass–ceramic frit in the K2O–ZnO–MgO–CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 system and a granite waste glass. Measurements by X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX microanalysis showed that the distribution of Fe3+ ions among different crystalline phases such as franklinite (ZnFe2O4) and hematite Fe2O3 depends on the iron content in the original diopside mixtu...

  5. Morphology, chemical compositions and size distribution of rare earth oxides in pure iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The pure iron was melted and deoxidized by metallic Al and rare earth elements La, Ce and Y respectively at 1600℃ in avertical resistance furnace. The morphology, chemical composition and size distribution of the inclusions in deoxidized liquid ironhave been investigated by using of SEM and image-analysis techniques. The investigated results show that the deoxidation productsin molten iron are complex inclusions of rare earth oxide or Al2O3 combined with FeO finely distributed. The proper holding timeand rapid cooling rate can make inclusions finer. La, Y and Al are more effective than Ce for obtaining finely distributed inclusions.

  6. The influence of thermal annealing on structure and oxidation of iron nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied in order to study the phase composition of iron nanowires and its changes, caused by annealing in a neutral atmosphere at several temperatures ranging from 200°C to 800°C. As-prepared nanowires were manufactured via a simple chemical reduction in an external magnetic field. Both experimental techniques proved formation of the surface layer covered by crystalline iron oxides, with phase composition dependent on the annealing temperature (Ta. At higher Ta, hematite was the dominant phase in the nanowires.

  7. Investigation of Iron Oxide Morphology in a Cyclic Redox Water Splitting Process for Hydrogen Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Bobek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar fuels generation research program is focused on hydrogen production by means of reactive metal water splitting in a cyclic iron-based redox process. Iron-based oxides are explored as an intermediary reactive material to dissociate water molecules at significantly reduced thermal energies. With a goal of studying the resulting oxide chemistry and morphology, chemical assistance via CO is used to complete the redox cycle. In order to exploit the unique characteristics of highly reactive materials at the solar reactor scale, a monolithic laboratory scale reactor has been designed to explore the redox cycle at temperatures ranging from 675 to 875 K. Using high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, the oxide morphology and the oxide state are quantified, including spatial distributions. These images show the change of the oxide layers directly after oxidation and after reduction. The findings show a significant non-stoichiometric O/Fe gradient in the atomic ratio following oxidation, which is consistent with a previous kinetics model, and a relatively constant, non-stoichiometric O/Fe atomic ratio following reduction.

  8. Electrochemical reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by single sheet iron oxide coated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Zhi; Hansen, Hans Christian B; Bjerrum, Morten Jannik

    2016-04-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are substantial hazard to the environment and to the supply of clean drinking water. We report here the successful reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by use of iron oxide coated electrodes, and demonstrate that single sheet iron oxides formed from layered iron(II)-iron(III) hydroxides have unusual electrocatalytic reactivity. Electrodes were produced by coating of single sheet iron oxides on indium tin oxide electrodes. A reduction current density of 10 to 30μAcm(-2) was observed in stirred aqueous solution at pH 7 with concentrations of 25 to 400μM of the nitroaromatic compound at a potential of -0.7V vs. SHE. Fast mass transfer favors the initial reduction of the nitroaromatic compound which is well explained by a diffusion layer model. Reduction was found to comprise two consecutive reactions: a fast four-electron first-order reduction of the nitro-group to the hydroxylamine-intermediate (rate constant=0.28h(-1)) followed by a slower two-electron zero-order reduction resulting in the final amino product (rate constant=6.9μM h(-1)). The zero-order of the latter reduction was attributed to saturation of the electrode surface with hydroxylamine-intermediates which have a more negative half-wave potential than the parent compound. For reduction of nitroaromatic compounds, the SSI electrode is found superior to metal electrodes due to low cost and high stability, and superior to carbon-based electrodes in terms of high coulombic efficiency and low over potential. PMID:26716570

  9. Two kinds of ferritin protect ixodid ticks from iron overload and consequent oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galay, Remil Linggatong; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Bacolod, Eugene T; Maeda, Hiroki; Kusakisako, Kodai; Koyama, Jiro; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tanaka, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous parasites that have successfully developed counteractive means against their hosts' immune and hemostatic mechanisms, but their ability to cope with potentially toxic molecules in the blood remains unclear. Iron is important in various physiological processes but can be toxic to living cells when in excess. We previously reported that the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis has an intracellular (HlFER1) and a secretory (HlFER2) ferritin, and both are crucial in successful blood feeding and reproduction. Ferritin gene silencing by RNA interference caused reduced feeding capacity, low body weight and high mortality after blood meal, decreased fecundity and morphological abnormalities in the midgut cells. Similar findings were also previously reported after silencing of ferritin genes in another hard tick, Ixodes ricinus. Here we demonstrated the role of ferritin in protecting the hard ticks from oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative stress in Hlfer-silenced ticks was performed after blood feeding or injection of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) through detection of the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein oxidation product, protein carbonyl. FAC injection in Hlfer-silenced ticks resulted in high mortality. Higher levels of MDA and protein carbonyl were detected in Hlfer-silenced ticks compared to Luciferase-injected (control) ticks both after blood feeding and FAC injection. Ferric iron accumulation demonstrated by increased staining on native HlFER was observed from 72 h after iron injection in both the whole tick and the midgut. Furthermore, weak iron staining was observed after Hlfer knockdown. Taken together, these results show that tick ferritins are crucial antioxidant molecules that protect the hard tick from iron-mediated oxidative stress during blood feeding.

  10. Two kinds of ferritin protect ixodid ticks from iron overload and consequent oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remil Linggatong Galay

    Full Text Available Ticks are obligate hematophagous parasites that have successfully developed counteractive means against their hosts' immune and hemostatic mechanisms, but their ability to cope with potentially toxic molecules in the blood remains unclear. Iron is important in various physiological processes but can be toxic to living cells when in excess. We previously reported that the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis has an intracellular (HlFER1 and a secretory (HlFER2 ferritin, and both are crucial in successful blood feeding and reproduction. Ferritin gene silencing by RNA interference caused reduced feeding capacity, low body weight and high mortality after blood meal, decreased fecundity and morphological abnormalities in the midgut cells. Similar findings were also previously reported after silencing of ferritin genes in another hard tick, Ixodes ricinus. Here we demonstrated the role of ferritin in protecting the hard ticks from oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative stress in Hlfer-silenced ticks was performed after blood feeding or injection of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC through detection of the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein oxidation product, protein carbonyl. FAC injection in Hlfer-silenced ticks resulted in high mortality. Higher levels of MDA and protein carbonyl were detected in Hlfer-silenced ticks compared to Luciferase-injected (control ticks both after blood feeding and FAC injection. Ferric iron accumulation demonstrated by increased staining on native HlFER was observed from 72 h after iron injection in both the whole tick and the midgut. Furthermore, weak iron staining was observed after Hlfer knockdown. Taken together, these results show that tick ferritins are crucial antioxidant molecules that protect the hard tick from iron-mediated oxidative stress during blood feeding.

  11. Magnetic mineralogy of Jurassic argillite specimens from Eastern Paris Basin (France): coexisting iron-sulphides and iron-oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, L.; Bouchez, J.L.; Siqueira, R. [Universite Paul-Sabatier, Lab. des Mecanismes et Transferts en Geologie (LMTG - UMR 5563 CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Esteban, L. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Geraud, Y. [Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre de Strasbourg (EOST), 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2005-07-01

    Core-specimens belonging to the top and basal parts of the Callovo-Oxfordian dark-grey clay-rich sediment (Cox) of Eastern Paris Basin that were drilled by Andra (the French radioactive waste management agency), were subjected to a thorough magnetic mineralogy study and SEM observations, in order to characterize the nature and origin of the ferromagnetic fraction. Specimens from the top part of the Cox, best represented by T1-337, have large magnetic variabilities while those from the base, typified by T1-455, have very constant properties. Susceptibility magnitudes that vary from 12 to 94 {mu}SI (T1-337) and from 116 to 133 {mu}SI (T1-455), call for a dominant paramagnetic fraction mainly due to the iron-bearing clay fraction (smectite, illite) that make up to 45% of the rock-volume. The ferromagnetic contributions to susceptibility range from {approx}25% in T1-337 to {approx}12% in T1-455 and result from the addition of two main ferromagnetic fractions, or phases, as evidenced from coercivity spectra obtained after progressive AF-demagnetization of both the natural and the induced remanence. A soft fraction systematically appears in-between 4 and 8 mT, and a hard one in-between 10 and 22 mT. Interestingly, the natural remanence of the soft fraction keeps the memory of the (sub) present magnetic north, allowing core-reorientation, while the hard fraction has a random NRM vector. The soft magnetic fraction is argued to equate with the ubiquitous early diagenetic iron-sulphides, as observed in SEM, and that form various arrangements of framboidal aggregates of micron-size pyrite grains to which greigite is likely associated. Likewise, the hard fraction is equated with the less abundant Ti-Fe-oxide clastic grains, consistent with the random nature of the NRM. Hence, the coexistence in the same sediment of iron-sulphides and iron-oxides, classical environmental markers of redox conditions, is here related to distinct origins rather than to changing conditions during

  12. Mechanism of Electron Beam Induced Oxide Layer Thickening on Iron–Iron Oxide Core–Shell Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You

    2015-04-16

    Materials exposed to radiation show structural changes and damages, especially in the nanoscale range. The characterizing equipment involving electron beam (e-beam) radiation for a nanosize imaging process, such as a transmission electron microscope, is no exception, in which the most prominent behavior of native oxide layer thickening has been widely studied. In this paper, we describe the physics behind the growth mechanism of the oxide layer in a core–shell iron/iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) under the impact of e-beam radiation. The particles studied were synthesized via a cluster deposition system. Due to the impact of the e-beam, these particles were observed to grow inward and outward resulting in a total increase of NP size. The theory is connected with experimental evidence to reveal the oxide layer thickening of the NP, which is favored and enhanced by vacancy formation, surface oxidation, and diffusion/void nucleation under the impact of a 200 keV e-beam.

  13. New surface radiolabeling schemes of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for biodistribution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Palko, Heather A.; Malfatti, Mike; Smith, Catherine; Sonnett, James; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Gu, Baohua; Roeder, Ryan K.; Wang, Wei; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-04-01

    Nanomaterial based drug delivery systems allow for the independent tuning of the surface chemical and physical properties that affect their biodistribution in vivo and the therapeutic payloads that they are intended to deliver. Additionally, the added therapeutic and diagnostic value of their inherent material properties often provides extra functionality. Iron based nanomaterials with their magnetic properties and easily tailorable surface chemistry are of particular interest as model systems. In this study the core radius of the iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) was 14.08 +/- 3.92 nm while the hydrodynamic radius of the NPs, as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), was between 90-110 nm. In this study, different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable in solution. The NPs were functionalized with polycarboxylate or polyamine surface functional groups. Polycarboxylate functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of -35 mV and polyamine functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of +40 mV. The polycarboxylate functionalized NPs were chosen for in vivo biodistribution studies and hence were radiolabeled with 14C, with a final activity of 0.097 nCi mg-1 of NPs. In chronic studies, the biodistribution profile is tracked using low level radiolabeled proxies of the nanoparticles of interest. Conventionally, these radiolabeled proxies are chemically similar but not chemically identical to the non-radiolabeled NPs of interest. This study is novel as different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable, possess a hydrodynamic radius of S1) High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) image of iron oxide nanoparticles, (S2) Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurement of magnetization of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, (S3) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra of Fe-Si-COO- synthesised using Grignard reagents (S4) FT-IR spectra of iron oxide nanoparticles

  14. Zeta-Fe2O3 – A new stable polymorph in iron(III) oxide family

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Tuček; Libor Machala; Shigeaki Ono; Asuka Namai; Marie Yoshikiyo; Kenta Imoto; Hiroko Tokoro; Shin-ichi Ohkoshi; Radek Zbořil

    2015-01-01

    Iron(III) oxide shows a polymorphism, characteristic of existence of phases with the same chemical composition but distinct crystal structures and, hence, physical properties. Four crystalline phases of iron(III) oxide have previously been identified: α-Fe2O3 (hematite), β-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite), and ε-Fe2O3. All four iron(III) oxide phases easily undergo various phase transformations in response to heating or pressure treatment, usually forming hexagonal α-Fe2O3, which is the most thermo...

  15. Magnetism in iron implanted oxides: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission Mössbauer spectroscopy on 57Fe fed by 57Mn ions implanted in the metal oxides ZnO, MgO and Al2O3 has been performed. The implanted ions occupy different lattice sites and charge states. A magnetic part of the spectra in each oxide can be assigned to Fe3 +  ions in a paramagnetic state with unusually long relaxation time observable to temperatures up to several hundreds Kelvin. Earlier expectations that the magnetic spectra could correspond to an ordered magnetic state could not be confirmed. A clear decision for paramagnetism and against an ordered magnetic state was achieved by applying a strong magnetic field of 0.6 Tesla. The relaxation times deduced were compared to spin–lattice relaxation times from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  16. Preparation and properties of magnetic iron oxide nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoliang Lv; Yao Xu; Dong Wu; Yuhan Sun

    2008-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanotubes were prepared by reducing synthesized hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanotubes in 5% H2+95% Ar atmosphere,and then maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanotubes were obtained by re-oxidizing the Fe3O4 nanotubes.The nanotube structure was kept from collapsing or sintering throughout the high temperature reducing and re-oxidizing processes.The coercivities of the Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 nanotubes synthesized were found to be 340.22 Oe and 342.23 Oe,respectively,both higher than other nanostructures with the same phase and of similar size.Both adsorbed phosphate and the nanotube structure are considered responsible for this high coercivity.

  17. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on iron oxide magnetic nano-particles and their surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide magnetic nano-particles (MNPs) have been prepared in aqueous solution by a modified co-precipitation method. Surface modifications have been carried out using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), triethoxysilane (TES) and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). The uncoated and coated particle products have been characterized with transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle sizes were determined from TEM images and found to have mean diameters of 13, 16 and 14 nm for Fe3O4, TES/Fe3O4 and APTMS/Fe3O4, respectively. IR and Raman spectroscopy has been applied to study the effect of thermal annealing on the uncoated and coated particles. The results have shown that magnetite nano-particles are converted to maghemite at 109 °C and then to hematite by 500 °C. In contrast, the study of the effect of thermal annealing of micro-crystalline magnetite by IR spectroscopy revealed that the conversion to hematite began by 300 °C and that no maghemite could be identified as an intermediate phase. IR spectra and TGA measurements revealed that the Si–H and 3-aminopropyl functional groups in TES and APTMS coated magnetite nano-particles decomposed below 500 °C while the silica layer around the iron oxide core remained unchanged. The molecular ratio of APTMS coating to iron oxide core was determined to be 1:7 from the TGA data. Raman scattering signals have indicated that MNPs could be converted to maghemite and then to hematite using increasing power of laser irradiation in a manner similar to that observed for thermal annealing. - Highlights: ► A modified co-precipitation method to prepare dispersive iron oxide magnetic nano-particles. ► Coating the nano-particle with different silicas. ► Estimating the numbers of iron oxide and 3-aminopropylsilica in the coated particles. ► Silica coating may help to protect iron oxide nano-particles from

  18. Preparation and characterization of nanomaterials based on bifacial carbon nanotubes and iron oxides: Application in catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafour-Hadj-Ziane A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of magnetic particles technology for the development of new nanomaterials has received considerable attention in recent years. In this context, the objective of this study is firstly, to prepare new catalytic materials that gather the strong adsorption capacities of carbon nanotubes and magnetic properties of iron, it concerns nanocomposites based on a mixture of carbon nanotubes in a very small amounts and iron oxide. Secondly we want to appear their capacities in catalytic oxidation reactions of phenol. Synthesis under the optimal conditions was carried out at different pH. And the characterization of this new nanomaterial reveals a good specific surface area BET, the identification of carbon nanotubes within the matrix was performed by infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The use of this new material as a catalytic support in catalytic oxidation reactions of phenol indicates the high selectivity of this latter and a yield better than this obtained with iron oxide supported by activated carbon. The good catalyst regeneration of the new catalysis and the improvement in their properties are the interesting parameters for the new type nanomaterials.

  19. Iron-oxide colloidal nanoclusters: from fundamental physical properties to diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Athanasia; Brintakis, Konstantinos; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Angelakeris, Mavroeidis; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Ranella, Anthi; Manna, Liberato; Lappas, Alexandros

    2014-03-01

    Research on magnetic nanocrystals attracts wide-spread interest because of their challenging fundamental properties, but it is also driven by problems of practical importance to the society, ranging from electronics (e.g. magnetic recording) to biomedicine. In that respect, iron oxides are model functional materials as they adopt a variety of oxidation states and coordinations that facilitate their use. We show that a promising way to engineer further their technological potential in diagnosis and therapy is the assembly of primary nanocrystals into larger colloidal entities, possibly with increased structural complexity. In this context, elevated-temperature nanochemistry (c.f. based on a polyol approach) permitted us to develop size-tunable, low-cytotoxicity iron-oxide nanoclusters, entailing iso-oriented nanocrystals, with enhanced magnetization. Experimental (magnetometry, electron microscopy, Mössbauer and NMR spectroscopies) results supported by Monte Carlo simulations are reviewed to show that such assemblies of surface-functionalized iron oxide nanocrystals have a strong potential for innovation. The clusters' optimized magnetic anisotropy (including microscopic surface spin disorder) and weak ferrimagnetism at room temperature, while they do not undermine colloidal stability, endow them a profound advantage as efficient MRI contrast agents and hyperthermic mediators with important biomedical potential.

  20. Strain induced anomalous red shift in mesoscopic iron oxide prepared by a novel technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Narayanan; D Sakthi Kumar; Yasuhiko Yoshida; M R Anantharaman

    2008-10-01

    Nano magnetic oxides are promising candidates for high density magnetic storage and other applications. Nonspherical mesoscopic iron oxide particles are also candidate materials for studying the shape, size and strain induced modifications of various physical properties viz. optical, magnetic and structural. Spherical and nonspherical iron oxides having an aspect ratio, ∼2, are synthesized by employing starch and ethylene glycol and starch and water, respectively by a novel technique. Their optical, structural, thermal and magnetic properties are evaluated. A red shift of 0.24 eV is observed in the case of nonspherical particles when compared to spherical ones. The red shift is attributed to strain induced changes in internal pressure inside the elongated iron oxide particles. Pressure induced effects are due to the increased overlap of wave functions. Magnetic measurements reveal that particles are superparamagnetic. The marked increase in coercivity in the case of elongated particles is a clear evidence for shape induced anisotropy. The decreased specific saturation magnetization of the samples is explained on the basis of weight percentage of starch, a nonmagnetic component and is verified by TGA and FTIR studies. This technique can be modified for tailoring the aspect ratio and these particles are promising candidates for drug delivery and contrast enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Manganese oxide shuttling in pre-GOE oceans - evidence from molybdenum and iron isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Wille, Martin; Gantert, Niklas; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Schoenberg, Ronny

    2016-10-01

    The local occurrence of oxygen-rich shallow marine water environments has been suggested to significantly predate atmospheric oxygenation, which occurred during the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) ca. 2.4 billion years ago. However, the potential influence of such 'oxygen oases' on the mobility, distribution and isotopic composition of redox sensitive elements remains poorly understood. Here, we provide new molybdenum and iron isotopic data from shallow marine carbonate and silicate iron formations of the Koegas Subgroup, South Africa, that confirm local ocean redox stratification prior to the GOE. Mn concentrations correlate negatively with both δ98 Mo and δ56 Fe values, which highlights the substantial role of particulate manganese for the cycling of Mo and Fe in the Paleoproterozoic oceans. Based on these trends we propose that pore water molybdate was recharged (1) by the diffusional transport of seawater molybdate with high δ98 Mo and (2) by the re-liberation of adsorbed molybdate with low δ98 Mo during Mn oxide dissolution within the sediment. The relative contribution of isotopically light Mo is highest close to a Mn chemocline, where the flux of Mn oxides is largest, causing the negative correlation of Mn concentrations and δ98 Mo values in the Koegas sediments. The negative correlation between δ56 Fe values and Mn concentrations is likely related to Fe isotope fractionation during Fe(II) oxidation by Mn oxides, resulting in lower δ56 Fe values in the uppermost water column close to a Mn chemocline. We argue that the preservation of these signals within Paleoproterozoic sediments implies the existence of vertically extended chemoclines with a smoother gradient, probably as a result of low atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Furthermore, we suggest that abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) by a Mn oxide particle shuttle might have promoted the deposition of the Koegas iron formations.

  2. Effects of Iron and Aluminum Oxides and Kaolinite on Adsorpion and Activities on Invertase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGQIAOYUN; JIANGMINGHUA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the influences of synthetic bayerite,non-crystalline aluminum oxide(N-AlOH) ,geoethite,non-crystalline iron oxide (N-FeOH) and kaolinite on the adsorption,activity,kinetics and thermal stability of invertase.Adsorption of invertase on iron,aluminum oxides fitted Langmuir equation,The amount of invertase held on the minerals followed the sequence kaolinite>goethite>N-AlOH>bayerite>N-FeOH.No correlation was found between enzyme adsorption and the specific surface area of minerals exmined.The differences in the surface structure of minerals and the arrangement of enzymatic molecules on mineral surfaces led to the different capacities of minerals for enzyme adsorption. The adsorption of invertase on bayerite,N-AlOH,goethite ,H-FeOH and kaolinite was differently affected by pH.The order for the activity of invertase adsorbed on minerals was N-FeOH>N-AlOH>bayerite> goethite> kalinite.The inhibition effect of minerals on enzyme activity was kaolinite> crystalline oxides> non -crystalline oxides.The pH optimum of iron oxide-and aluminum oxide-invertase complexes was sililar to that of free enzyme(pH4.0),whereas the pH optimum of kaolinite-invertase complex was one pH unit highr than that of free enzyme.The affinity to substrate and the maximum reaction velocity as well as the thermal stability of combined inverthase were lower than those of the free enzyme.

  3. Reduction of iron oxides during the pyrometallurgical processing of red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopov, N. A.; Korneev, V. P.; Averin, V. V.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Zinoveev, D. V.; Dyubanov, V. G.

    2013-01-01

    The results of experiments on the use of red mud in traditional pyrometallurgical processes and plants are presented. The red muds of the Ural Aluminum Plant (UAZ, Kamensk-Ural'skii) and the Alyum Plant (Tul'chiya) are shown to have similar phase and chemical compositions. The morphology of the iron oxides in red mud samples taken from mud storage is studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is found that the metallic (cast iron) and slag phases that form during the pyrometallurgical processing of red mud by melting with a carbon reducer in the temperature range 1200-1500°C are clearly separated. Cast iron can be used in steelmaking, and the slag can be used for hydrometallurgical processing and extraction of nonferrous metals and for the building industry after correcting its composition.

  4. Electrode reactions of iron oxide-hydroxide colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Leila; Kissner, Reinhard

    2014-11-01

    Small-sized FeO(OH) colloids stabilised by sugars, commercially available for the clinical treatment of iron deficiency, show two waves during cathodic polarographic sweeps, or two current maxima with stationary electrodes, in neutral to slightly alkaline aqueous medium. Similar signals are observed with Fe(III) in alkaline media, pH > 12, containing citrate in excess. Voltammetric and polarographic responses reveal a strong influence of fast adsorption processes on gold and mercury. Visible spontaneous accumulation was also observed on platinum. The voltammetric signal at more positive potential is caused by Fe(III)→Fe(II) reduction, while the one at more negative potential has previously been assigned to Fe(II)→Fe(0) reduction. However, the involvement of adsorption phenomena leads us to the conclusion that the second cathodic current is caused again by Fe(III)→Fe(II), of species deeper inside the particles than those causing the first wave. This is further supported by X-ray photoelectron spectra obtained after FeO(OH) particle adsorption and reduction on a gold electrode surface. The same analysis suggests that sucrose stabilising the colloid is still bound to the adsorbed material, despite dilution and rinsing. PMID:25188440

  5. Biomolecular crystals for material applications and a mechanistic study of an iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Joshua Charles

    The three projects within this work address the difficulties of controlling biomolecular crystal formats (i.e. size and shape), producing 3-D ordered composite materials from biomolecular crystal templates, and understanding the mechanism of a practical iron oxide synthesis. The unifying thread consistent throughout these three topics is the development of methods to manipulate nanomaterials using a bottom-up approach. Biomolecular crystals are nanometer to millimeter sized crystals that have well ordered mesoporous solvent channels. The overall physical dimensions of these crystals are highly dependent on crystallization conditions. The controlled growth of micro- and nanoprotein crystals was studied to provide new pathways for creating smaller crystalline protein materials. This method produced tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals (250--100,000 nm) with near monodisperse size distributions (membranes or templates. In this work, the porous structure of larger cowpea mosaic virus crystals was used to template metal nanoparticle growth within the body centered cubic crystalline network. The final composite material was found to have long range ordering of palladium and platinum nonocrystal aggregates (10nm) with symmetry consistent to the virus template. Nanoparticle synthesis itself is an immense field of study with an array of diverse applications. The final piece of this work investigates the mechanism behind a previously developed iron oxide synthesis to gain more understanding and direction to future synthesis strategies. The particle growth mechanism was found to proceed by the formation of a solvated iron(III)oleate complex followed by a reduction of iron (III) to iron (II). This unstable iron(II) nucleates to form a wustite (FeO) core which serves as an epitaxial surface for the magnetite (Fe3O4) shell growth. This method produces spherical particles (6-60nm) with relative size distributions of less than 15%.

  6. Amoxicillin Oxidative Degradation Synthesized by Nano Zero Valent Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yazdanbakhsh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most important groups of pharmaceuticals that benefits humans and animals. However, antibiotics excertion in wastewaters and environment have emerged as a serious risk to the biotic environment, and their toxic effects can harm the organisms. Iron-based metallic nanoparticles have received special attention in regard with remediation of groundwater contaminants. In the typical nZVI-based bimetallic particle system, Fe acts as the reducing agent. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the synthesis and characteristics of nZVI in regard with degrading AMX. Methods: In this study, nZVI nanoparticles were synthesized using the liquid-phase reduction method by EDTA as a stabilizer material. Structure and properties of nanoparticles were characterized by BET, SEM, XRD and EDX analysis. A multi-variate analysis was applied using a response surface methodology (RSM in order to develop a quadratic model as a functional relationship between AMX removal efficiency and independent variables ( initial pH values, dosage of nZVI, contact time and amoxicillin concentration. The four independent variables of solution pH (2–10, AMX concentration (5-45mg/l, contact time (5-85 min and nanoparticles dose (0.25 – 1.25 g were transformed to the coded values. Results: The study results demonstrated that more than 69 % of AMX was removed by nZVI. The optimal AMX removal conditions using nZVI were found as 1.25 g of nZVI, pH 4, contact time of 80 min and concentration of 30 mg/l. Conclusions: The ability of nZVI in degradation of AMX revealed that these materials can serve as a potential nano material with respect to the environmental remediation.

  7. Briquetting of self-reducing blendings of waste iron oxides mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derungs, P.; Brouhon, J.M.; Harp, G. [ProfilARBED, Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2002-07-01

    Protection of the environment increasingly requires the reuse of by-products from the steel industry. The objectives of the project were to develop technologies to manufacture self-reducing briquettes out of waste iron oxides and to recycle them in an electric arc furnace or a cupola furnace. CRM has investigated and determinated the optimal characteristics (binder, size, grain size, compositions and activator for the reduction reaction) for briquettes containing mixtures of mill scales, mill sludges, electric arc furnace (EAF) dust and coal as reduction agent. The goal to obtain briquettes, in which iron oxides are totally reduced when these briquettes are loaded with the scrap into an electric are furnace, was achieved. Trials at ProfilARBED have shown that it is possible to recycle mill and EAF by-products conditioned in self-reducing briquettes in an electric arc furnace without influence on the performance and on the environment. The iron content of the slag does not increase as the iron of the by-products is almost completely reduced. Zinc is completely removed and the concentration in the EAF dust increases. BFI has investigated the best recycling method for sludge and dust of the blast furnace (BF) and basic oxygen furnace (BOF), by laboratory testing and industrial trials in a cupola furnace. Self-reducing briquettes have been produced and reduced. The best conditions to achieve the required briquetting strength have been determinated. 29 refs., 74 figs., 38 tabs.

  8. Briquetting of self-reducing blendings of waste iron oxide mixtures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derungs, P.; Brouhon, J.M.; Harp, G. [ProfilARBED, Esch-sur Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2002-07-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop technologies to manufacture self-reducing briquettes out of waste iron oxides and to recycle them in an electric arc furnace or a cupola furnace. CRM has investigated and determined the optimal characteristics (binder, size, grain size, compositions and activator for the reduction reaction) for briquettes containing mixtures of mill scales, mill sludges, electric arc furnace (EAF) dust and coal as reduction agent. The goal of obtaining briquettes, in which iron oxides are totally reduced when these briquettes are loaded with the scrap into an electric arc furnace, was achieved. Trials at ProfilARBED have shown that it is possible to recycle mill and EAF by-products conditioned in self-reducing briquettes in an electric arc furnace without influence on the performance and on the environment. The iron content of the slag does not increase as the iron of the by-product is almost completely reduced. Zinc is completely removed and the concentration in the EAF dust increases. BFI has investigated the best recycling method for sludge and dust of the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace, by laboratory testing and industrial trials in a cupola furnace. Self-reducing briquettes have been produced and reduced. The best conditions for achieving the required briquetting have been determined.

  9. Biological Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Cellular and Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Christian Glüer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles (SPIO are used in different ways as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI: Particles with high nonspecific uptake are required for unspecific labeling of phagocytic cells whereas those that target specific molecules need to have very low unspecific cellular uptake. We compared iron-oxide particles with different core materials (magnetite, maghemite, different coatings (none, dextran, carboxydextran, polystyrene and different hydrodynamic diameters (20–850 nm for internalization kinetics, release of internalized particles, toxicity, localization of particles and ability to generate contrast in MRI. Particle uptake was investigated with U118 glioma cells und human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC, which exhibit different phagocytic properties. In both cell types, the contrast agents Resovist, B102, non-coated Fe3O4 particles and microspheres were better internalized than dextran-coated Nanomag particles. SPIO uptake into the cells increased with particle/iron concentrations. Maximum intracellular accumulation of iron particles was observed between 24 h to 36 h of exposure. Most particles were retained in the cells for at least two weeks, were deeply internalized, and only few remained adsorbed at the cell surface. Internalized particles clustered in the cytosol of the cells. Furthermore, all particles showed a low toxicity. By MRI, monolayers consisting of 5000 Resovist-labeled cells could easily be visualized. Thus, for unspecific cell labeling, Resovist and microspheres show the highest potential, whereas Nanomag particles are promising contrast agents for target-specific labeling.

  10. Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Stefanou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of amorphous and crystalline iron (Fe and aluminum (Al oxides and oxy-hydroxides as well as clay on soil penetration resistance of five Greek soils, as a function of soil water suction was studied for the whole range of soil moisture. The soils tested were of loamy texture and were collected from cultivated and non-cultivated areas of north and central Greece (Macedonia and Thessaly. The study aimed at understanding the role of the above mentioned soil components on penetration resistance. The findings showed that the increase of iron and aluminum oxides and oxy-hydroxides content resulted in an increase of soil penetration resistance and the relationships between them were significant. Crystalline iron forms found to have a more profound effect on penetration resistance as compared to amorphous iron forms. Finally, positive and significant relationships were also found between penetration resistance and clay content. However, it is not entirely clear which of the two soil components plays the most important role in penetration resistance changes in soils.

  11. Determination of anisotropy constants of protein encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongyan [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Klem, Michael T.; Sebby, Karl B.; Singel, David J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Young, Mark [Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Douglas, Trevor [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Idzerda, Yves U. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)], E-mail: Idzerda@montana.edu

    2009-02-15

    Angle-dependent electron magnetic resonance was performed on 4.9, 8.0, and 19 nm iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated within protein capsids and suspended in water. Measurements were taken at liquid nitrogen temperature after cooling in a 1 T field to partially align the particles. The angle dependence of the shifts in the resonance field for the iron oxide nanoparticles (synthesized within Listeria-Dps, horse spleen ferritin, and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) all show evidence of a uniaxial anisotropy. Using a Boltzmann distribution for the particles' easy-axis direction, we are able to use the resonance field shifts to extract a value for the anisotropy energy, showing that the anisotropy energy density increases with decreasing particle size. This suggests that surface anisotropy plays a significant role in magnetic nanoparticles of this size.

  12. Cellular uptake of folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Kyoungja [Nano-Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kjwoo@kist.re.kr; Moon, Jihyung [Nano-Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-Dong, Sungbook-Ku, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu-Sil [Division of Molecular Imaging, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-Dong, Sungbook-Ku, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon-Ha [Institute for Radiological Imaging Science, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 344-2, Shinyong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    We prepared five folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (F{sub 5}-Liposuperparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles(SPIONs), 5.5 and 11 nm) and investigated their cellular uptake with KB cells, which is one of the representative folate-receptor over-expressing human epidermoid carcinoma cells, using MRI. The cellular uptake tests with the respective 5.5 and 11 nm F{sub 5}-LipoSPIONs at a fixed particle concentration showed appreciable amount of receptor-mediated uptakes and the specificity was higher in 5.5 nm SPIONs, due to its higher folic acid (FA) density, without inhibition. However, the numbers of the particles taken up under FA inhibition were similar, irrespective of their sizes.

  13. A novel nanostructured iron oxide-gold bioelectrode for hydrogen peroxide sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles covalently linked to a gold electrode have been used for immobilizing catalase (CAT) enzyme to sense the presence of various concentrations of H2O2. These nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 30 nm were synthesized by thermal co-precipitation of ferric and ferrous chlorides. SEM and XRD have been used for morphological and structural characterization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. CAT enzyme was linked covalently to the surface of iron oxide using carbodiimide in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 4 deg. C. The enzyme-iron oxide link was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Sensing studies carried out using cyclic voltammetry showed a linear response of the CAT/nano Fe3O4/Au bioelectrode towards H2O2 between 1.5 and 13.5 μM with a very sharp response time of 2 s.

  14. Facile one-step solvothermal synthesis of iron oxide/polypyrrole nanocomposites and their magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Lai, Xiaoyong

    2013-02-01

    Iron oxide/polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposites (NCs) were prepared by a facile one-step solvothermal process using FeCl3 x 6H2O and pyrrole as starting materials. The resultant products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID). TEM image suggested the mesoporosity of the iron oxide/polypyrrole nanocomposites and pyrrole is found to play an important role in controlling the final morphology and porosity of the products. Magnetic hysteresis measurement reveals that nanocomposite shows a superparamagnetic behavior, and possesses a larger saturation magnetization strength (M(s)) of about 15.06 emu/g at room temperature, which allows its application in adsorption or separation as magnetically recyclable materials. PMID:23646672

  15. Design of iron oxide-based nanoparticles for MRI and magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Andujar, Cristina; Walter, Aurelie; Cotin, Geoffrey; Bordeianu, Catalina; Mertz, Damien; Felder-Flesch, Delphine; Begin-Colin, Sylvie

    2016-07-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are widely used for biological applications thanks to their outstanding balance between magnetic properties, surface-to-volume ratio suitable for efficient functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Their development for MRI or magnetic particle hyperthermia concentrates much of the attention as these nanomaterials are already used within the health system as contrast agents and heating mediators. As such, the constant improvement and development for better and more reliable materials is of key importance. On this basis, this review aims to cover the rational design of iron oxide nanoparticles to be used as MRI contrast agents or heating mediators in magnetic hyperthermia, and reviews the state of the art of their use as nanomedicine tools. PMID:27389703

  16. Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles and their conjuntion with water soluble polymers for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Thanh Huong; Lam Thi Kieu Giang; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Le Quoc Minh [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: nthuong@ims.vast.ac.vn

    2009-09-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with suitable bio-compatible substances have been used in biomedicine, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tissue engineering, and hyperthermia and drug delivery. In this study, we describe the synthesis of SPION and its surface modification for in-vitro experiments. The particle diameter and structure were estimated by FESEM, TEM, XRD analyses. The saturation magnetization was characterized. SPION with a mean size of 12 nm have been prepared under N{sub 2} atmosphere, with support of natural polymeric starch, by controlling chemical coprecipitation of magnetite phase from aqueous solutions containing suitable salts ratios of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The surface of SPION-nanoparticles was treated with a coordinatable agent for higher dispersion ability in water and remaining the superparamagnetic behavior. The prepared iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with starch, dextran, PEG or MPEG to extend the application potential in the quite different engineering field of nano biomedicine.

  17. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Multimodal Imaging and Therapy of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Kyu Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION have emerged as an MRI contrast agent for tumor imaging due to their efficacy and safety. Their utility has been proven in clinical applications with a series of marketed SPION-based contrast agents. Extensive research has been performed to study various strategies that could improve SPION by tailoring the surface chemistry and by applying additional therapeutic functionality. Research into the dual-modal contrast uses of SPION has developed because these applications can save time and effort by reducing the number of imaging sessions. In addition to multimodal strategies, efforts have been made to develop multifunctional nanoparticles that carry both diagnostic and therapeutic cargos specifically for cancer. This review provides an overview of recent advances in multimodality imaging agents and focuses on iron oxide based nanoparticles and their theranostic applications for cancer. Furthermore, we discuss the physiochemical properties and compare different synthesis methods of SPION for the development of multimodal contrast agents.

  18. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a bilayer of oleic acid for magnetic hyperthermia and MRI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula I. P.; Laia, César A. T.; Carvalho, Alexandra; Pereira, Laura C. J.; Coutinho, Joana T.; Ferreira, Isabel M. M.; Novo, Carlos M. M.; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4, IONPs) are promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their colloidal stability in physiological conditions hinders their application requiring the use of biocompatible surfactant agents. The present investigation focuses on obtaining highly stable IONPs, stabilized by the presence of an oleic acid bilayer. Critical aspects such as oleic acid concentration and pH were optimized to ensure maximum stability. NPs composed of an iron oxide core with an average diameter of 9 nm measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) form agglomerates with an hydrodynamic diameter of around 170 nm when dispersed in water in the presence of an oleic acid bilayer, remaining stable (zeta potential of -120 mV). Magnetic hyperthermia and the relaxivities measurements show high efficiency at neutral pH which enables their use for both magnetic hyperthermia and MRI.

  19. High-performance iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging - guided hyperthermia (hMPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lisa M.; Situ, Shu F.; Griswold, Mark A.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows the direct and quantitative mapping of iron oxide nanoparticles. In MPI, the development of tailored iron oxide nanoparticle tracers is paramount to achieving high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. To date, most MPI tracers being developed for potential clinical applications are based on spherical undoped magnetite nanoparticles. For the first time, we report on the systematic investigation of the effects of changes in chemical composition and shape anisotropy on the MPI performance of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. We observed a 2-fold enhancement in MPI signal through selective doping of magnetite nanoparticles with zinc. Moreover, we demonstrated focused magnetic hyperthermia heating by adapting the field gradient used in MPI. By saturating the iron oxide nanoparticles outside of a field free region (FFR) with an external static field, we can selectively heat a target region in our test sample. By comparing zinc-doped magnetite cubic nanoparticles with undoped spherical nanoparticles, we could show a 5-fold improvement in the specific absorption rate (SAR) in magnetic hyperthermia while providing good MPI signal, thereby demonstrating the potential for high-performance focused hyperthermia therapy through an MPI-guided approach (hMPI).Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows the direct and quantitative mapping of iron oxide nanoparticles. In MPI, the development of tailored iron oxide nanoparticle tracers is paramount to achieving high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. To date, most MPI tracers being developed for potential clinical applications are based on spherical undoped magnetite nanoparticles. For the first time, we report on the systematic investigation of the effects of changes in chemical composition and shape anisotropy on the MPI performance of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. We observed a 2-fold enhancement in MPI signal

  20. Manipulating the dimensional assembly pattern and crystalline structures of iron oxide nanostructures with a functional polyolefin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingliang; Yuan, Tingting; Wang, Yiran; Guleria, Abhishant; Wei, Suying; Zhang, Guoqi; Sun, Luyi; Liu, Jingjing; Yu, Jingfang; Young, David P.; Lin, Hongfei; Khasanov, Airat; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-01-01

    Controlled crystalline structures (α- and γ-phase) and assembly patterns (1-D, 2-D and 3-D) were achieved in the synthesized iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) using polymeric surfactant-polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) with different concentrations. In addition, the change of the crystalline structure from the α- and γ-phase also led to the significantly increased saturation magnetization and coercivity.Controlled crystalline structures (α- and γ-phase) and assembly patterns (1-D, 2-D and 3-D) were achieved in the synthesized iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) using polymeric surfactant-polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) with different concentrations. In addition, the change of the crystalline structure from the α- and γ-phase also led to the significantly increased saturation magnetization and coercivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07213a

  1. Characterization of a calcium phospho-silicated apatite with iron oxide inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desport, Barthélémy; Carpena, Joëlle; Lacout, Jean-Louis; Borschneck, Daniel; Gattacceca, Jérôme

    2011-02-01

    An iron oxide containing calcium phosphate-silicate hydroxyapatite was synthesized by calcination at 900 °C of a sample obtained by precipitation in basic aqueous solution of Ca, P, Si, Fe and Mg containing acidic solution made from dissolution of natural minerals. XRD and FTIR were used for crystallographic characterization of the main apatitic phase. Its composition was determined using ICP-AES. EDX coupled with SEM and TEM evidenced the heterogeneity of this compound and the existence of iron-magnesium oxide. Magnetic analyses highlighted that this phase was non-stoichiometric magnesioferrite (Mg 1.2Fe 1.8O 3.9) spherical nanoparticles. Those analyses also put into evidence the role of calcination in synthesis. Carbonates detected by FTIR and estimated by SEM-EDX in non-calcinated sample were removed from apatitic structure, and crystallization of apatite was enhanced during heating. Moreover, there was phase segregation that led to magnesioferrite formation.

  2. Fluorophore-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticle labeling and analysis of engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Dustin J; Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A;

    2008-01-01

    or in vivo. Transplantation of purified primary human cord blood lineage-depleted and CD34(+) cells into immunodeficient mice allowed detection of labeled human HSC in the recipient bones. Flow cytometry was used to precisely quantitate the cell populations that had sequestered the nanoparticles......The use of nanometer-sized iron oxide particles combined with molecular imaging techniques enables dynamic studies of homing and trafficking of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Identifying clinically applicable strategies for loading nanoparticles into primitive HSC requires strictly defined...... culture conditions to maintain viability without inducing terminal differentiation. In the current study, fluorescent molecules were covalently linked to dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Feridex) to characterize human HSC labeling to monitor the engraftment process. Conjugating fluorophores...

  3. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of mesoporous iron-titanium mixed oxide for catalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed phase of mesoporous iron-titanium mixed oxide (ITMO) has been successfully synthesized by simple sol-gel technique by taking iron (II) sulphate and Ti-isopropoxide as the precursors and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as the surfactant. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectra (UV-vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), N2 adsorption-desorptions isotherm, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and gas chromatography (GC). Low-angle XRD (LAXRD) as well as surface area analysis confirms the mesoporosity nature of the catalysts. The phase and crystallinity were revealed by XRD study. The crystallinity of the catalysts increased with increase in calcinations temperature. Catalysts screening were performed for oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone.

  4. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of mesoporous iron-titanium mixed oxide for catalytic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, K.M., E-mail: paridakulamani@yahoo.com [Colloids and Materials Chemistry Department, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Pradhan, Gajendra Kumar [Colloids and Materials Chemistry Department, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India)

    2010-10-01

    A mixed phase of mesoporous iron-titanium mixed oxide (ITMO) has been successfully synthesized by simple sol-gel technique by taking iron (II) sulphate and Ti-isopropoxide as the precursors and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as the surfactant. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectra (UV-vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorptions isotherm, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and gas chromatography (GC). Low-angle XRD (LAXRD) as well as surface area analysis confirms the mesoporosity nature of the catalysts. The phase and crystallinity were revealed by XRD study. The crystallinity of the catalysts increased with increase in calcinations temperature. Catalysts screening were performed for oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone.

  5. Investigation of structure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline iron oxide powders for use in magnetic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukashova, N.V.; Savchenko, A.G. [National University of Science and Technology ’’MISIS’’, 4, Leninsky pr., Moscow (Russian Federation); Yagodkin, Yu.D., E-mail: yag52@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology ’’MISIS’’, 4, Leninsky pr., Moscow (Russian Federation); Muradova, A.G.; Yurtov, E.V. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Miusskaya sq., 9, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The iron oxide nanopowders were obtained by chemical methods. • The particles of the nanopowders had different size. • The structure and magnetic behavior of the powders depend on nanoparticle size. -- Abstract: Iron oxide nanopowders with particles of different size, obtained by co-precipitation and sonochemical methods, were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The average size of nanoparticles obtained by a co-precipitation method, was about 10 nm. The main phase component of such nanoparticles was maghemite phase γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It was shown, that these nanoparticles were superparamagnetic. In contrast, the nanoparticles obtained by sonochemical method, consisted of larger particles with an average size of around 25 nm. Their main phase component was magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. This powder clearly showed hard magnetic properties.

  6. T1-MRI Fluorescent Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Microwave Assisted Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riju Bhavesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles have long been studied as a T2 contrast agent in MRI due to their superparamagnetic behavior. T1-based positive contrast, being much more favorable for clinical application due to brighter and more accurate signaling is, however, still limited to gadolinium- or manganese-based imaging tools. Though being the only available commercial positive-contrast agents, they lack an efficient argument when it comes to biological toxicity and their circulatory half-life in blood. The need arises to design a biocompatible contrast agent with a scope for easy surface functionalization for long circulation in blood and/or targeted imaging. We hereby propose an extremely fast microwave synthesis for fluorescein-labeled extremely-small iron oxide nanoparticles (fdIONP, in a single step, as a viable tool for cell labeling and T1-MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of such an approach through high-quality magnetic resonance angiographic images of mice.

  7. Toxicity, toxicokinetics and biodistribution of dextran stabilized Iron oxide Nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remya, N S; Syama, S; Sabareeswaran, A; Mohanan, P V

    2016-09-10

    Advancement in the field of nanoscience and technology has alarmingly raised the call for comprehending the potential health effects caused by deliberate or unintentional exposure to nanoparticles. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have an increasing number of biomedical applications and hence a complete toxicological profile of the nanomaterial is therefore a mandatory requirement prior to its intended usage to ensure safety and to minimize potential health hazards upon its exposure. The present study elucidates the toxicity of in house synthesized Dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (DINP) in a regulatory perspective through various routes of exposure, its associated molecular, immune, genotoxic, carcinogenic effects and bio distribution profile. Synthesized ferrite nanomaterials were successfully coated with dextran (behavior changes or visible pathological lesions. Furthermore no anticipated health hazards are likely to be associated with the use of DINP and could be concluded that the synthesized DINP is nontoxic/safe to be used for biomedical applications. PMID:27451271

  8. Uptake of dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Mark; Hohnholt, Michaela C.; Thiel, Karsten; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Grunwald, Ingo; Rezwan, Kurosch; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NP) are currently considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the brain. However, little is known on the accumulation and biocompatibility of such particles in brain cells. We have synthesized and characterized dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated Fe-NP and have investigated their uptake by cultured brain astrocytes. DMSA-coated Fe-NP that were dispersed in physiological medium had an average hydrodynamic diameter of about 60 nm. Incubation of cultured astrocytes with these Fe-NP caused a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of cellular iron, but did not lead within 6 h to any cell toxicity. After 4 h of incubation with 100-4000 µM iron supplied as Fe-NP, the cellular iron content reached levels between 200 and 2000 nmol mg - 1 protein. The cellular iron content after exposure of astrocytes to Fe-NP at 4 °C was drastically lowered compared to cells that had been incubated at 37 °C. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of Fe-NP-containing vesicles in cells that were incubated with Fe-NP at 37 °C, but not in cells exposed to the nanoparticles at 4 °C. These data demonstrate that cultured astrocytes efficiently take up DMSA-coated Fe-NP in a process that appears to be saturable and strongly depends on the incubation temperature.

  9. Uptake of dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geppert, Mark; Hohnholt, Michaela C; Dringen, Ralf [Center for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, PO Box 330440, D-28334 Bremen (Germany); Thiel, Karsten; Grunwald, Ingo [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials, Wiener Strasse 12, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Nuernberger, Sylvia [Department of Traumatology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Rezwan, Kurosch, E-mail: ralf.dringen@uni-bremen.de [Advanced Ceramics, University of Bremen, Am Biologischen Garten 2, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2011-04-08

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NP) are currently considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the brain. However, little is known on the accumulation and biocompatibility of such particles in brain cells. We have synthesized and characterized dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated Fe-NP and have investigated their uptake by cultured brain astrocytes. DMSA-coated Fe-NP that were dispersed in physiological medium had an average hydrodynamic diameter of about 60 nm. Incubation of cultured astrocytes with these Fe-NP caused a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of cellular iron, but did not lead within 6 h to any cell toxicity. After 4 h of incubation with 100-4000 {mu}M iron supplied as Fe-NP, the cellular iron content reached levels between 200 and 2000 nmol mg{sup -1} protein. The cellular iron content after exposure of astrocytes to Fe-NP at 4 deg. C was drastically lowered compared to cells that had been incubated at 37 deg. C. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of Fe-NP-containing vesicles in cells that were incubated with Fe-NP at 37 deg. C, but not in cells exposed to the nanoparticles at 4 deg. C. These data demonstrate that cultured astrocytes efficiently take up DMSA-coated Fe-NP in a process that appears to be saturable and strongly depends on the incubation temperature.

  10. Uptake of dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NP) are currently considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the brain. However, little is known on the accumulation and biocompatibility of such particles in brain cells. We have synthesized and characterized dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated Fe-NP and have investigated their uptake by cultured brain astrocytes. DMSA-coated Fe-NP that were dispersed in physiological medium had an average hydrodynamic diameter of about 60 nm. Incubation of cultured astrocytes with these Fe-NP caused a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of cellular iron, but did not lead within 6 h to any cell toxicity. After 4 h of incubation with 100-4000 μM iron supplied as Fe-NP, the cellular iron content reached levels between 200 and 2000 nmol mg-1 protein. The cellular iron content after exposure of astrocytes to Fe-NP at 4 deg. C was drastically lowered compared to cells that had been incubated at 37 deg. C. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of Fe-NP-containing vesicles in cells that were incubated with Fe-NP at 37 deg. C, but not in cells exposed to the nanoparticles at 4 deg. C. These data demonstrate that cultured astrocytes efficiently take up DMSA-coated Fe-NP in a process that appears to be saturable and strongly depends on the incubation temperature.

  11. Oxidation of pyrite and iron sulfide by manganese dioxide in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippers, A.; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    Oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) under anaerobic conditions in marine sediments is experimentally shown for the first time. In slurry experiments with (FeS2)-Fe-55 and a MnO2 rich marine sediment an oxidation of (FeS2)-Fe-55 was detected which decreased with depth and decreasing concentration of MnO2...... in the sediment. FeS2 and iron sulfide (FeS) were oxidized chemically at pH 8 by MnO2 but not by nitrate or amorphic Fe(III) oxide. Elemental sulfur and sulfate were the only products of FeS oxidation, whereas FeS2 was oxidized to a variety of sulfur compounds, mainly sulfate plus intermediates...... such as thiosulfate, trithionate, tetrathionate. and pentathionate. Thiosulfate was oxidized by MnO2 to tetrathionate while other intermediates were oxidized to sulfate. The reaction products indicate that FeS2 was oxidized via the "Thiosulfatemechanism" and FeS via the "Polysulfide-mechanism" (Schippers and Sand...

  12. Synthesis and Application of Carbon–Iron Oxide Microspheres’ Black Pigments in Electrophoretic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xianwei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon–iron oxide microspheres’ black pigments (CIOMBs had been prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of aqueous solutions containing ferrous chloride and glucose. Due to the presence of carbon, CIOMBs not only exhibited remarkably acid resistance, but also could be well dispersed in both polar solvents and nonpolar solvent. Finally, dispersions of hollow CIOMBs in tetrachloroethylene had successfully been applied in electrophoretic displays.

  13. Silicon isotopic fractionation during adsorption of aqueous monosilicic acid onto iron oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Delstanche, Séverine; Opfergelt, Sophie; Cardinal, Damien; Elsass, Francoise; André, Luc; Delvaux, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The quantification of silicon isotopic fractionation by biotic and abiotic processes contributes to the understanding of the Si continental cycle. In soils, light Si isotopes are selectively taken up by plants, and concentrate in secondary clay-sized minerals. Si an readily be retrieved from soil solution through the specific adsorption of monosilicic acid () by iron oxides. Here, we report on the Si-isotopic fractionation during adsorption on synthesized ferrihydrite and goethite in batch ex...

  14. Size-dependant heating rates of iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales-Weimuller, Marcela; Zeisberger, Matthias; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2009-01-01

    Using the thermal decomposition of organometallics method we have synthesized high-quality, iron oxide nanoparticles of tailorable size up to ~15nm and transferred them to a water phase by coating with a biocompatible polymer. The magnetic behavior of these particles was measured and fit to a log-normal distribution using the Chantrell method and their polydispersity was confirmed to be very narrow. By performing calorimetry measurements with these monodisperse particles we have unambiguously...

  15. Biologically Inspired Design of Biocompatible Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Demirer, Gözde S.; Okur, Aysu C; Kızılel, Seda

    2015-01-01

    During the last couple of decades considerable research efforts have been directed towards the synthesis and coating of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) for biomedical applications. To address the current limitations, recent studies have focused on the design of new generation nanoparticle systems whose internalization and targeting capabilities have been improved through surface modifications. This review covers the most recent challenges and advances in the development of IONPs with enhance...

  16. Improved functionalization of oleic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Maarten; Brullot, Ward; Luong, Thien Tai; Geukens, Nick; Gils, Ann; Verbiest, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can provide multiple benefits for biomedical applications in aqueous environments such as magnetic separation or magnetic resonance imaging. To increase the colloidal stability and allow subsequent reactions, the introduction of hydrophilic functional groups onto the particles’ surface is essential. During this process, the original coating is exchanged by preferably covalently bonded ligands such as trialkoxysilanes. The duration of the silane excha...

  17. Radial Combustion Propagation in Iron(III) Oxide/Aluminum Thermite Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Durães, Luísa; Campos, José; Portugal, António

    2006-01-01

    The self-sustained thermite reaction between iron oxide (Fe2O3) and aluminum is a classical source of energy. In this work the radial combustion propagation on thin circular samples of stoichiometric and over aluminized Fe2O3/Al thermite mixtures is studied. The radial geometry allows an easy detection of sample heterogeneities and the observation of the combustion behavior in their vicinity. The influence of factors like reactant mixtures stoichiometry, samples green density and system geome...

  18. Shape and size controlled synthesis of uniform iron oxide nanocrystals through new non-hydrolytic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlu; Lee, Seung Soo; Wu, Jiewei; Hinton, Carl H; Fortner, John D

    2016-08-12

    New, non-hydrolytic routes to synthesize highly crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (8-40 nm, magnetite) are described in this report whereby particle size and morphology were precisely controlled through reactant (precursor, e.g. (FeO(OH)) ratios, co-surfactant and organic additive, and/or reaction time. Particle size, with high monodispersivity (materials synthesized/purified in organic solvents are broadly water dispersible through a variety of phase (aqueous) transfer method(s). PMID:27354334

  19. Lactate Oxidation Coupled to Iron or Electrode Reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    KAUST Repository

    Call, D. F.

    2011-10-14

    Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA completely oxidized lactate and reduced iron or an electrode, producing pyruvate and acetate intermediates. Compared to the current produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, G. sulfurreducens PCA produced 10-times-higher current levels in lactate-fed microbial electrolysis cells. The kinetic and comparative analyses reported here suggest a prominent role of G. sulfurreducens strains in metaland electrode-reducing communities supplied with lactate. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Binding to Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle—Covalent Versus Adsorptive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Ralf P.; Zaloga, Jan; Schreiber, Eveline; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Tombácz, Etelka; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are frequently used to develop vehicles for drug delivery, hyperthermia, and photodynamic therapy and as tools used for magnetic separation and purification of proteins or for biomolecular imaging. Depending on the application, there are various possible covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of particles, each of them shows different advantages and disadvantages for drug release and activity at the desired location.

  1. Polymer/Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Composites—A Straight Forward and Scalable Synthesis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Sommertune; Abhilash Sugunan; Anwar Ahniyaz; Rebecca Stjernberg Bejhed; Anna Sarwe; Christer Johansson; Christoph Balceris; Frank Ludwig; Oliver Posth; Andrea Fornara

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle systems can be divided into single-core nanoparticles (with only one magnetic core per particle) and magnetic multi-core nanoparticles (with several magnetic cores per particle). Here, we report multi-core nanoparticle synthesis based on a controlled precipitation process within a well-defined oil in water emulsion to trap the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in a range of polymer matrices of choice, such as poly(styrene), poly(lactid acid), poly(methyl...

  2. Surfactant free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for stable ferrofluids in physiological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, K; Straßer, M; Granath, T; Dembski, S; Sextl, G

    2015-02-18

    A process is reported to obtain a nanoparticle sol from co-precipitated iron oxide particles without using any surfactant. The sol - a true ferrofluid - is not only stable over a wide range of pH but also in physiological solutions. This is a decisive step towards biomedical applications where nanoparticle agglomeration could so far only be prevented by using unwanted surfactants. PMID:25580829

  3. Enhanced bio-compatibility of ferrofluids of self-assembled superparamagnetic iron oxide-silica core-shell nanoparticles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narayanan, T.N; Mary, A; Swalih, P.K.A; Kumar, D.S.; Makarov, D.; Albrecht, M.; Puthumana, J.; Anas, A; Anantharaman, A

    -interacting, monodispersed and hence the synthesis of such nanostructures has great relevance in the realm of nanoscience. Silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles based ferrofluids were prepared using polyethylene glycol as carrier fluid by employing a...

  4. Correction: Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Correction for `Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents' by Roxanne Hachani et al., Nanoscale, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03867g.

  5. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob P. Beam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA, and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. The overall goal of this study was to determine the contribution of different community members to the assembly and succession of acidic high-temperature Fe(III-oxide mat ecosystems. Spatial and temporal changes in Fe(III-oxide accretion and the abundance of relevant community members were monitored over 70 days using sterile glass microscope slides incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs (pH = 3 - 3.5; temperature = 68 - 75 °C in YNP. Hydrogenobaculum spp. were the most abundant taxon identified during early successional stages (4 - 40 d, and have been shown to oxidize arsenite, sulfide, and hydrogen coupled to oxygen reduction. Iron-oxidizing populations of Metallosphaera yellowstonensis were detected within 4 d, and reached steady-state levels within 14 - 30 d, corresponding to visible Fe(III-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized near 30 d, and emerged as the dominant functional guild after 70 d and in mature Fe(III-oxide mats (1 - 2 cm thick. First-order rate constants of Fe(III-oxide accretion ranged from 0.046 - 0.05 d-1, and in situ microelectrode measurements showed that the oxidation of Fe(II is limited by the diffusion of O2 into the Fe(III-oxide mat. The formation of microterracettes also implicated O2 as a major variable controlling microbial growth and subsequent mat morphology. The assembly and succession of Fe(III-oxide mat communities follows a repeatable pattern of colonization by lithoautotrophic organisms, and the subsequent growth of diverse organoheterotrophs. The unique geochemical signatures and micromorphology of extant biomineralized Fe(III-oxide mats are useful for understanding other Fe(II-oxidizing systems.

  6. Iron-Mediated Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization in Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis: Protective Effects of Quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron, in its free ferrous states, can catalyze Fenton reaction to produce OH∙, which is recognized as a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD. As a result of continuous decomposition of iron-containing compounds, lysosomes contain a pool of redox-active iron. To investigate the important role of intralysosomal iron in alcoholic liver injury and the potential protection of quercetin, male C57BL/6J mice fed by Lieber De Carli diets containing ethanol (30% of total calories were cotreated by quercetin or deferoxamine (DFO for 15 weeks and ethanol-incubated mice primary hepatocytes were pretreated with FeCl3, DFO, and bafilomycin A1 at their optimal concentrations and exposure times. Chronic ethanol consumption caused an evident increase in lysosomal redox-active iron accompanying sustained oxidative damage. Iron-mediated ROS could trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP and subsequent mitochondria apoptosis. The hepatotoxicity was attenuated by reducing lysosomal iron while being exacerbated by escalating lysosomal iron. Quercetin substantially alleviated the alcoholic liver oxidative damage and apoptosis by decreasing lysosome iron and ameliorating iron-mediated LMP, which provided a new prospective of the use of quercetin against ALD.

  7. Growth and Dissolution of Iron and Manganese Oxide Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot T. Martin

    2008-12-22

    Growth and dissolution of Fe and Mn oxide films are key regulators of the fate and transport of heavy metals in the environment, especially during changing seasonal conditions of pH and dissolved oxygen. The Fe and Mn are present at much higher concentrations than the heavy metals, and, when Fe and Mn precipitate as oxide films, heavy metals surface adsorb or co-precipitate and are thus essentially immobilized. Conversely, when the Fe and Mn oxide films dissolve, the heavy metals are released to aqueous solution and are thus mobilized for transport. Therefore, understanding the dynamics and properties of Fe and Mn oxide films and thus on the uptake and release of heavy metals is critically important to any attempt to develop mechanistic, quantitative models of the fate, transport, and bioavailablity of heavy metals. A primary capability developed in our earlier work was the ability to grow manganese oxide (MnO{sub x}) films on rhodochrosite (MnCO{sub 3}) substrate in presence of dissolved oxygen under mild alkaline conditions. The morphology of the films was characterized using contact-mode atomic force microscopy. The initial growth began by heteroepitaxial nucleation. The resulting films had maximum heights of 1.5 to 2 nm as a result of thermodynamic constraints. Over the three past years, we have investigated the effects of MnO{sub x} growth on the interactions of MnCO{sub 3} with charged ions and microorganisms, as regulated by the surface electrical properties of the mineral. In 2006, we demonstrated that MnO{sub x} growth could induce interfacial repulsion and surface adhesion on the otherwise neutral MnCO{sub 3} substrate under environmental conditions. Using force-volume microscopy (FVM), we measured the interfacial and adhesive forces on a MnO{sub x}/MnCO{sub 3} surface with a negatively charged silicon nitride tip in a 10-mM NaNO3 solution at pH 7.4. The interfacial force and surface adhesion of MnOx were approximately 40 pN and 600 pN, respectively

  8. Magnetic Properties of Iron Oxide Minerals in Atmospheric Dust and Source Sediments from Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, B. M.; Yauk, K.; Till, J. L.; Berquo, T. S.; Banerjee, S. K.; Reynolds, R. L.; Goldstein, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric dust contains iron oxide minerals that can play important roles in various physical and biological processes affecting atmospheric and surface temperatures, marine phytoplankton productivity, and human health. Iron oxide minerals in dust deposited on mountain snow cover are especially important because these minerals absorb solar and IR radiation leading to changes in albedo and affecting the timing and rate of spring and summer snowpack melting. As part of an ongoing project to study physical and chemical properties of dust from sources to sinks in the western US, we will describe one approach to characterize iron oxide mineralogy using magnetic property measurements and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic property measurements over a wide range of temperatures (2-300 K) and magnetic fields (0-5 T) are particularly sensitive to composition, particle size (from nanometer to micrometer), and concentration of iron oxide and oxyhydroxide minerals. The high sensitivity of magnetic measurements to target minerals allows the measurement of bulk samples preventing any aliasing of composition or grain size resulting from attempts at prior magnetic separation. In addition, different magnetic measurement protocols can isolate different particle-size assemblages and different compositions in multicomponent mixtures and help to identify dust-source areas. These techniques have been applied to dust deposited on snow (DOS) cover of the San Juan Mountains, Colorado (collected 2005-2010) and Wasatch Mountains, Utah (collected 2010) and possible dust-source sediments from the North American Great Basin and Colorado Plateau deserts. Results show that all samples contain a high coercivity phase consistent with hematite and/or goethite as the dominate ferric oxide mineral plus minor amounts of magnetite (hematite concentration ( x2 difference) but with similar spreads in magnetite concentrations (0.05-0.2%) within each group. Preliminary Mössbauer spectroscopy at 300 K for

  9. Isolation of iron-oxidizing bacteria from corroded concretes of sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T; Negishi, A; Komoto, H; Oshima, Y; Kamimura, K; Sugio, T

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-six strains of iron-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from corroded concrete samples obtained at eight sewage treatment plants in Japan. All of the strains isolated grew autotrophically in ferrous sulfate (3.0%), elemental sulfur (1.0%) and FeS (1.0%) media (pH 1.5). Washed intact cells of the 36 isolates had activities to oxidize both ferrous iron and elemental sulfur. Strain SNA-5, a representative of the isolated strains, was a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.6x0.9-1.5 microm). The mean G+C content of its DNA was 55.9 mol%. The pH and temperature optima for growth were 1.5 and 30 degrees C, and the bacterium had activity to assimilate 14CO2 into the cells when ferrous iron or elemental sulfur was used as a sole source of energy. These results suggest that SNA-5 is Thiobacillus ferrooxidans strain. The pHs and numbers of iron-oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete samples obtained by boring to depths of 0-1, 1-3, and 3-5 cm below the concrete surface were respectively 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0, and 1.2 x 10(8), 5 x 10(7), and 5 x 10(6) cells/g concrete. The degree of corrosion in the sample obtained nearest to the surface was more severe than in the deeper samples. The findings indicated that the levels of acidification and corrosion of the concrete structure corresponded with the number of iron-oxidizing bacteria in a concrete sample. Sulfuric acid produced by the chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus thiooxidansis known to induce concrete corrosion. Since not only T. thiooxidans but also T. ferrooxidans can oxidize reduced sulfur compounds and produce sulfuric acid, the results strongly suggest that T. ferrooxidans as well as T. thiooxidans is involved in concrete corrosion.

  10. Obtainment of stabilized zirconia with Mg O and doped with iron oxide by Pechini process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, it is shown that the polymeric precursor is an efficient preparation method for Zr O 2 powder with high specific surface area and reactivity. Through this preparations rate it was possible to get better sintering results when compared with the conventional process (oxides mixes), without contamination due to the milling process. Considering this process and the iron oxides effect, it was possible to get 98% of the theoretical density. Density was measured by mercuric picnometry. The specific surface area and phase compositions were measured by BET and X-ray diffraction, respectively. (author)

  11. Reduction and Immobilization of Potassium Permanganate on Iron Oxide Catalyst by Fluidized-Bed Crystallization Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-Xia Li; Yao-Hui Huaug; Teng-Chien Chen; Yu-Jen Shih; Hui Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A manganese immobilization technology in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) was developed by using a waste iron oxide (i.e., BT-3) as catalyst which is a by-product from the fluidized-bed Fenton reaction (FBR-Fenton). It was found that BT-3 could easily reduce potassium permanganate (KMnO4) to MnO2. Furthermore, MnO2 could accumulate on the surface of BT-3 catalyst to form a new Fe-Mn oxide. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the KMnO4-reduction mechanism, including the effect ...

  12. Iron Phosphate Coating:A Novel Approach to Controlling Pyrite Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGXIAO; V.P.EVANGELOU

    1997-01-01

    A novel coating technique was develped for controlling pyrite oxidation .The technique involved leaching pyrite particles with a solution containing low concentrations of phosphate and hydrogen peroxide.During the leaching rpocess,the iron released from pyrite by hydrogen proxide was precipitated by phosphate as a ferric phosphate coating .This coating was shown to be able to effectively prevent pyirte from oxidation and it could be established at the expense of only surface portions of pyrite.The emergence of this technique could provide a unique potential route for abating acid mine draingage and reclaiming sulfide-containing degraded mining land.

  13. Unraveling the stratification of an iron-oxidizing microbial mat by metatranscriptomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Quaiser

    Full Text Available A metatranscriptomic approach was used to study community gene expression in a naturally occurring iron-rich microbial mat. Total microbial community RNA was reversely transcribed and sequenced by pyrosequencing. Characterization of expressed gene sequences provided accurate and detailed information of the composition of the transcriptionally active community and revealed phylogenetic and functional stratifications within the mat. Comparison of 16S rRNA reads and delineation of OTUs showed significantly lower values of metatranscriptomic-based richness and diversity in the upper parts of the mat than in the deeper regions. Taxonomic affiliation of rRNA sequences and mRNA genome recruitments indicated that iron-oxidizing bacteria affiliated to the genus Leptothrix, dominated the community in the upper layers of the mat. Surprisingly, type I methanotrophs contributed to the majority of the sequences in the deep layers of the mat. Analysis of mRNA expression patterns showed that genes encoding the three subunits of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoCAB were the most highly expressed in our dataset. These results provide strong hints that iron-oxidation and methane-oxidation occur simultaneously in microbial mats and that both groups of microorganisms are major players in the functioning of this ecosystem.

  14. Magnetic Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Doxorubicine Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Akhtar, Muhammad Saeed; Shaari, Amiruddin; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Masood, Misbah; Saeed, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study emphasizes the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and impact of hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coating concentration as well as anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) loading on saturation magnetization for target drug delivery applications. Iron oxide nanoparticles particles were synthesized by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method. The coating of polyvinyl alcohol along with doxorubicin loading was carried out by the physical immobilization method. X-ray diffraction confirmed the magnetite (Fe3O4) structure of particles that remained unchanged before and after polyvinyl alcohol coating and drug loading. Microstructure and morphological analysis was carried out by transmission electron microscopy revealing the formation of nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm with slight variation after coating and drug loading. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive, and Fourier transform infrared spectra further confirmed the conjugation of polymer and doxorubicin with iron oxide nanoparticles. The room temperature superparamagnetic behavior of polymer-coated and drug-loaded magnetite nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization after coating evaluated that a sufficient amount of polyvinyl alcohol would be 3 wt. % regarding the externally controlled movement of IONPs in blood under the influence of applied magnetic field for in-vivo target drug delivery. PMID:27348436

  15. Effect of coating thickness of iron oxide nanoparticles on their relaxivity in the MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajesmaeelzadeh, Farzaneh; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Grüttner, Cordula; Daha, Fariba Johari; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Iron oxide nanoparticles have found prevalent applications in various fields including drug delivery, cell separation and as contrast agents. Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles allow researchers and clinicians to enhance the tissue contrast of an area of interest by increasing the relaxation rate of water. In this study, we evaluate the dependency of hydrodynamic size of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) on their relativities with 3 Tesla clinical MRI. Materials and Methods: We used three groups of nanoparticles with nominal sizes 20, 50 and 100 nm with a core size of 8.86 nm, 8.69 nm and 10.4 nm that they were covered with PEG 300 and 600 Da. A clinical magnetic resonance scanner determines the T1 and T2 relaxation times for various concentrations of PEG-coated nanoparticles. Results: The size measurement by photon correlation spectroscopy showed the hydrodynamic sizes of MNPs with nominal 20, 50 and 100 nm with 70, 82 and 116 nm for particles with PEG 600 coating and 74, 93 and 100 nm for particles with PEG 300 coating, respectively. We foud that the relaxivity decreased with increasing overall particle size (via coating thickness). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that by increasing the size of the nanoparticles, r2/r1 increases linearly. Conclusion: According to the data obtained from this study it can be concluded that increments in coating thickness have more influence on relaxivities compared to the changes in core size of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:27081461

  16. Iron oxides and quality of organic matter in sugarcane harvesting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Mazza Barbieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in working conditions, sustainable production, and competitiveness have led to substantial changes in sugarcane harvesting systems. Such changes have altered a number of soil properties, including iron oxides and organic matter, as well as some chemical properties, such as the maximum P adsorption capacity of the soil. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between iron oxides and the quality of organic matter in sugarcane harvesting systems. For that purpose, two 1 ha plots in mechanically and manually harvested fields were used to obtain soil samples from the 0.00-0.25 m soil layer at 126 different points. The mineralogical, chemical, and physical results were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses, such as the mean comparison test, as well as to multivariate statistical and principal component analyses. Multivariate tests allowed soil properties to be classified in two different groups according to the harvesting method: manual harvest with the burning of residual cane, and mechanical harvest without burning. The mechanical harvesting system was found to enhance pedoenvironmental conditions, leading to changes in the crystallinity of iron oxides, an increase in the humification of organic matter, and a relative decrease in phosphorus adsorption in this area compared to the manual harvesting system.

  17. Chondroitin sulfate-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential carriers of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Neha; Anwar, Mohammed; Asfer, Mohammed; Mehdi, Syed Hassan; Rizvi, Mohammed Moshahid Alam; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2016-10-20

    Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, was used to prepare CS-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which were further employed for loading a water-soluble chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX). CS-capped SPIONs have potential biomedical application in cancer targeting. The optimized formulation had a hydrodynamic size of 91.2±0.8nm (PDI; 0.228±0.004) and zeta potential of -49.1±1.66mV. DOX was loaded onto the formulation up to 2% (w/w) by physical interaction with CS. TEM showed nano-sized particles having a core-shell structure. XRD confirmed crystal phase of iron oxide. FT-IR conceived the interaction of iron oxide with CS as bidentate chelation and also confirmed DOX loading. Vibration sample magnetometry confirmed super-paramagnetic nature of nanoparticles, with saturation magnetization of 0.238emug(-1). In vitro release profile at pH 7.4 showed that 96.67% of DOX was released within 24h (first order kinetics). MTT assay in MCF7 cells showed significantly higher (p<0.0001) cytotoxicity for DOX in SPIONs than DOX solution (IC50 values 6.294±0.4169 and 11.316±0.1102μgmL(-1), respectively). PMID:27474599

  18. Use of iron oxide magnetic nanosorbents for Cr (VI removal from aqueous solutions: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Ilankoon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper focuses on the use of iron oxide nanosorbents for the removal of hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI], from aqueous media. Cr(VI is a well-known toxic heavy metal, which can cause severe damages to the human health even with the presence of trace levels. Chromium continuously enters into water streams from different sources. Several methods are available for Cr(VI removal and some of them are well established in industrial scale whilst some are still in laboratory scale. Reduction followed by chemical precipitation, adsorption, electro-kinetic remediation, membrane separation processes and bioremediation are some of the removal techniques. Each method is associated with both advantages and disadvantages. Currently, the use of nanosorbents for the aqueous chromium removal is popular among researchers and iron oxide nanoparticles are the most frequently used nanosorbents. This review paper summarizes the performance of different iron oxide nanosorbents studied on the last decade. The direct comparison of these results is difficult due to different experimental conditions used in each study. Adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics models are also discussed in this review paper. The effect of solution pH, temperature, initial Cr(VI concentration, adsorbent dosage and other coexisting ions are also briefly discussed. From the results it is evident that, more attention needs to be paid on the industrial application of the technologies which were successful in the laboratory scale.

  19. Phase analysis of iron-oxides by 57Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many attempts have been made so far to develop processes and techniques for a synthesis of nanosize powders with specific functional properties. The chemical methods including precipitation techniques, sol.gel processes, and inverse-micelle methods have been used to successfully synthesize narrowly distributed nanosize powders. However, since these processes are based on chemical-media, the resulting powders often undergo a surface contamination or agglomeration of the particles. On the other hand, the dry methods represented by a gas condensation process have been developed to obtain high purity nanosize powders, in which it is expected to suppress an agglomeration of the particles. In the present study, nanosize iron-oxide powders were synthesized by gas-phased method such as the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE). These are known as one-step synthetic technique with high efficiency and high production rate compared with other wet processes involving several treatment steps. Especially, we focus on the phase variation and characterization using Moessbauer spectroscopy of the nanopowders produced under various ambient gas conditions. As for the iron-oxide nanopowers, a mixed gas of Ar/O2 was used as an ambient gas. The phase analysis for the produced iron-oxide powders was systemically investigated by using Moessbauer spectra and the results show that classified phases of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 can be controlled by regulating the oxygen concentration in the mixed gas during the PWE process

  20. Boronic acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle as a novel tool for adsorption of sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of boronic acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles has been reported. Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by simple co-precipitation from Fe2+ and Fe3+ solution. m-Aminophenyl boronic acid was attached to iron oxide particles through 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde through C=N bond. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction have shown the formation of inverse spinel phase magnetite of both as prepared and functionalized magnetite particles. FTIR shows attachment of boronic acid-imine onto iron oxide surface through enediol group. Transmission electron microscopy shows well dispersion of boronic acid functionalized particles of size 8 ± 2 nm. Vibration sample magnetometry shows both the particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature having saturation magnetization (Ms) 52 emu/g. In this work the affinity of these boronic acid functionalized particles towards sugar binding was studied taking dextrose sugar as a model. The influence of pH and sugar concentration has been extensively investigated. The results show that such boronic acid modified superparamagnetic particles are efficient support for sugar separation having maximum sugar loading capacity (60 μg/50 μl) at pH 8.

  1. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Mediated Gene Therapy for Cancer An In Vitro Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of using TRAIL gene to treat breast cancer mediated with a novel carrier - magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (polyMAG-1000) coated with PEI. The magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were used as gene carrier to transfect TRAIL gene into MCF-7 cells. The polyMAG-1000 without TRAIL gene was transfected into the tumor cells as negative control. TRAIL gene transfection with liposome as carrier served as positive control. The apoptosis of cells was detected with TUNEL method. The apoptosis ratio of tumor cells was measured with flow cytometry (FCM). It was found that the apoptosis occurred in the tumor cells after transfection of TRAIL gene mediated by both polyMAG-1000 and liposome. The apoptosis ratio in the group with polyMAG-1000 as gene carrier was (25.11±2.85) %, whereas it was (5.06±1.05) % in the control group with polyMAG-1000 (P<0.01). The apoptosis ratio was as low as (18.31±2.44) % in the group with liposome as gene carrier (P<0.05, as compared with the group with polyMAG-1000 as gene carrier). It is suggested that TRAIL gene may induce apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with PEI may be a potential gene carrier with high transfection efficacy for cancer gene therapy.

  2. Low-Field Emission from Iron Oxide-Filled Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Yang; YU Li-Gang; WANG Ming-Sheng; ZHANG Qi-Feng; WU Jin-Lei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) filled with iron oxide have been fabricated by a one-step route based on the pyrolysis of ferrocene under a well-chosen synthesis condition.The MWCNT arrays were observed with a scanning electron microscope, with which an energy dispersive x-ray spectrum (EDXS) was also acquired, and they are analysed by x-ray diffraction.Furthermore, individual MWCNTs were studied by using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and the EDXS in a transmission electron microscopy observation.All the observation and analysis confirmed that the MWCNTs were filled with iron oxide.Field emission from these arrays of iron oxide-filled MWCNTs was measured and the turn-on field was determined to range from 0.83-1.01 V/μm, appearing to be much lower than those of arrays of pure MWCNTs and arrays of nitrogen-doped MWCNTs fabricated in similar ways.The possible reasons of the observed low-field emission are discussed.

  3. Structural and mechanical study of the sintering effect in hydroxyapatite doped with iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, F.P.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Federal University of Ceara, Campus do Pici, 714 Block, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Graca, M.P.F.; Valente, M.A. [Physics Department (I3N), Aveiro University (Portugal); Sombra, A.S.B. [Telecommunications and Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory (LOCEM), Department of Physics, Federal University of Ceara-Campus do Pici, Postal Code 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)], E-mail: sombra@ufc.br; Silva, C.C. [Physics Department (I3N), Aveiro University (Portugal); Telecommunications and Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory (LOCEM), Department of Physics, Federal University of Ceara-Campus do Pici, Postal Code 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2008-10-01

    Calcium phosphates are very important for applications in medicine due to their properties such as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In order to improve their properties, substitution of calcium with other ions has been proposed. Partial substitution of calcium by different ions has been made as a way to improve the properties of the calcium phosphates and also to allow new applications of apatites in medicine. In this work, hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}-HAP], prepared by high-energy dry milling (20 h), was mixed with different amounts of iron oxide (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 wt%). The mixtures were calcinated at 900 deg. C for 5 h with a heating rate of 3 deg. C/min in an attempt to introduce the iron oxide in the HAP structure. Small discs (12.5 mm o) were uniaxially pressed under a load of 2 t for 2 min. The pellets were sintered at 1000, 1200 and 1300 deg. C for 5 h in air. The main purpose of this work is to study why the iron oxide concentration and the heat treatment of the samples change the microhardness of the obtained ceramics. The sintered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vickers Microhardness and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  4. Magnetically stimulated ciprofloxacin release from polymeric microspheres entrapping iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirivisoot S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirinrath Sirivisoot,1 Benjamin S Harrison2 1Biological Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: To extend the external control capability of drug release, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs encapsulated into polymeric microspheres were used as magnetic media to stimulate drug release using an alternating magnetic field. Chemically synthesized iron oxide NPs, maghemite or hematite, and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin were encapsulated together within polycaprolactone microspheres. The polycaprolactone microspheres entrapping ciprofloxacin and magnetic NPs could be triggered for immediate drug release by magnetic stimulation at a maximum value of 40%. Moreover, the microspheres were cytocompatible with fibroblasts in vitro with a cell viability percentage of more than 100% relative to a nontreated control after 24 hours of culture. Macrophage cell cultures showed no signs of increased inflammatory responses after in vitro incubation for 56 hours. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus with the magnetic microspheres under an alternating (isolating magnetic field increased bacterial inhibition further after 2 days and 5 days in a broth inhibition assay. The findings of the present study indicate that iron oxide NPs, maghemite and hematite, can be used as media for stimulation by an external magnetic energy to activate immediate drug release. Keywords: antibacterial, maghemite, hematite, Staphylococcus aureus

  5. Controllable Synthesis of Mesoporous Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Assemblies for Chemoselective Catalytic Reduction of Nitroarenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadas, Ioannis T; Fountoulaki, Stella; Lykakis, Ioannis N; Armatas, Gerasimos S

    2016-03-18

    Iron(III) oxide is a low-cost material with applications ranging from electronics to magnetism, and catalysis. Recent efforts have targeted new nanostructured forms of Fe2O3 with high surface area-to-volume ratio and large pore volume. Herein, the synthesis of 3D mesoporous networks consisting of 4-5 nm γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles by a polymer-assisted aggregating self-assembly method is reported. Iron oxide assemblies obtained from the hybrid networks after heat treatment have an open-pore structure with high surface area (up to 167 m(2)g(-1)) and uniform pores (ca. 6.3 nm). The constituent iron oxide nanocrystals can undergo controllable phase transition from γ-Fe2O3 to α-Fe2O3 and to Fe3O4 under different annealing conditions while maintaining the 3D structure and open porosity. These new ensemble structures exhibit high catalytic activity and stability for the selective reduction of aryl and alkyl nitro compounds to the corresponding aryl amines and oximes, even in large-scale synthesis. PMID:26880681

  6. Magnetic Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Doxorubicine Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    Full Text Available The current study emphasizes the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs and impact of hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA coating concentration as well as anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX loading on saturation magnetization for target drug delivery applications. Iron oxide nanoparticles particles were synthesized by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method. The coating of polyvinyl alcohol along with doxorubicin loading was carried out by the physical immobilization method. X-ray diffraction confirmed the magnetite (Fe3O4 structure of particles that remained unchanged before and after polyvinyl alcohol coating and drug loading. Microstructure and morphological analysis was carried out by transmission electron microscopy revealing the formation of nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm with slight variation after coating and drug loading. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive, and Fourier transform infrared spectra further confirmed the conjugation of polymer and doxorubicin with iron oxide nanoparticles. The room temperature superparamagnetic behavior of polymer-coated and drug-loaded magnetite nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization after coating evaluated that a sufficient amount of polyvinyl alcohol would be 3 wt. % regarding the externally controlled movement of IONPs in blood under the influence of applied magnetic field for in-vivo target drug delivery.

  7. Assembly of linear nano-chains from iron oxide nanospheres with asymmetric surface chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pubudu M Peiris

    Full Text Available Besides the multifunctionality, another equally important aspect of nanoparticles is their engineerability to control the geometrical and chemical properties during fabrication. In this work, we exploited this aspect to define asymmetric surface chemistry of an iron oxide nanosphere by controlling the topology of ligand expression on its surface resulting in a particle with two faces, one displaying only amines and the other only thiols. Specifically, amine-functionalized iron oxide nanospheres were attached on a solid support via a crosslinker containing a disulfide bridge. Liberation of the nanosphere using thiolytic cleavage created thiols on the portion of the particle's surface that interacted with the solid support. Employing a solid-phase strategy and a step-by-step addition of particles, the two unique faces on the same nanosphere served as fittings to assemble them into linear nano-chains. Assembly of chains with various lengths and aspect ratios was controlled by the size and number of the added nanospheres. The characteristics of those chains showed a high degree of uniformity indicating the exceptional control of the synthetic process. Notably, one of the unique properties of the iron oxide nano-chains was an increased magnetic relaxivity, indicating their potential use as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Fluctuations in late Neoproterozoic atmospheric oxidation — Cr isotope chemostratigraphy and iron speciation of the late Ediacaran lower Arroyo del Soldado Group (Uruguay)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Gaucher, Claudio; Stolper, Daniel;

    2013-01-01

    .0‰) in iron-rich cherts and banded iron formation horizons within the Arroyo del Soldado Group (Ediacaran; Uruguay) that can be explained by rapid, effective oxidation of Fe(II)-rich surface waters. These fluctuations are correlated with variations in ratios of highly reactive iron (FeHR) to total iron (Fetot...

  9. Iron(III) Fluorinated Porphyrins: Greener Chemistry from Synthesis to Oxidative Catalysis Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Susana L H; Silva, André M N; Medforth, Craig J; Freire, Cristina

    2016-04-12

    Iron(III) fluorinated porphyrins play a central role in the biomimetics of heme enzymes and enable cleaner routes to the oxidation of organic compounds. The present work reports significant improvements in the eco-compatibility of the synthesis of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-pentafluorophenylporphyrin (H₂TPFPP) and the corresponding iron complex [Fe(TPFPP)Cl], and the use of [Fe(TPFPP)Cl] as an oxidation catalyst in green conditions. The preparations of H₂TPFPP and [Fe(TPFPP)Cl] typically use toxic solvents and can be made significantly greener and simpler using microwave heating and optimization of the reaction conditions. In the optimized procedure it was possible to eliminate nitrobenzene from the porphyrin synthesis and replace DMF by acetonitrile in the metalation reaction, concomitant with a significant reduction of reaction time and simplification of the purification procedure. The Fe(III)porphyrin is then tested as catalyst in the selective oxidation of aromatics at room temperature using a green oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) and green solvent (ethanol). Efficient epoxidation of indene and selective oxidation of 3,5-dimethylphenol and naphthalene to the corresponding quinones is observed.

  10. Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene in the presence of iron chlorideionic liquid catalyst and ultrasound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Seyedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene refinery in Tehran with sulfur content of 0/293% with iron chloride - hydrogen peroxide and ultrasonic liquid catalysts in the presence of acetic acid - formic acid and an oxidizinghydrogen peroxide has been studied. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, reaction time, mole ratio of moles of sulfur oxidation (no/ ns,mole ratio of moles of acid per mol of sulfur (nacid/ ns (on the desulfurization of kerosene checked(the molar ratio of oxidant to 15-40 and 20-80 mole ratio of sulfur to sulfur acidThe results showed that the optimal conditions for the removal of sulfur from iron chloride catalyst system kerosene by 93% and sulfur content of residual 128 ppm is obtained. The effect of ultrasonic waves on system performance oxidationwas studied, the results showed that the percentage of desulfurization systems, oxidation of acetic acid- hydrogen peroxide in combination with ultrasound (96% and without ultrasound was 93%, which indicates improved performance oxidation The presence of ultrasound.

  11. Toxicity assessment and comparison between two types of iron oxide nanoparticles in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taze, Chrysa; Panetas, Ioannis; Kalogiannis, Stavros; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Gallios, George P; Kastrinaki, Georgia; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Václavíková, Miroslava; Ivanicova, Lucia; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their increased application and production, are being released into the environment with unpredictable impact on the physiology of marine organisms, as well as on entire ecosystems and upcoming effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the oxidative responses of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to iron oxide NPs and to iron oxide NPs incorporated into zeolite for 1, 3 and 7 days. Our results showed that both effectors induced changes on animal physiology by causing oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels compared to control animals. This was shown by the significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and DNA damage. In addition an increase in prooxidant levels as measured by the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay was observed in exposed mussels' hemolymph. The results show that ROS, DNA damage, protein and lipid oxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and PAB could constitute, after further investigation, reliable biomarkers for the evaluation of pollution or other environmental stressors. In addition, more studies are needed in order to ensure the safety of these NPs on various biomedical applications, since it is critical to design NPs that they meet the demands of application without causing cellular toxicity.

  12. Iron(III Fluorinated Porphyrins: Greener Chemistry from Synthesis to Oxidative Catalysis Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana L. H. Rebelo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(III fluorinated porphyrins play a central role in the biomimetics of heme enzymes and enable cleaner routes to the oxidation of organic compounds. The present work reports significant improvements in the eco-compatibility of the synthesis of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-pentafluorophenylporphyrin (H2TPFPP and the corresponding iron complex [Fe(TPFPPCl], and the use of [Fe(TPFPPCl] as an oxidation catalyst in green conditions. The preparations of H2TPFPP and [Fe(TPFPPCl] typically use toxic solvents and can be made significantly greener and simpler using microwave heating and optimization of the reaction conditions. In the optimized procedure it was possible to eliminate nitrobenzene from the porphyrin synthesis and replace DMF by acetonitrile in the metalation reaction, concomitant with a significant reduction of reaction time and simplification of the purification procedure. The Fe(IIIporphyrin is then tested as catalyst in the selective oxidation of aromatics at room temperature using a green oxidant (hydrogen peroxide and green solvent (ethanol. Efficient epoxidation of indene and selective oxidation of 3,5-dimethylphenol and naphthalene to the corresponding quinones is observed.

  13. The efficiency of magnetic carbon activated by iron oxide nanoparticles in removing of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Salehe Salehnia; Behnam Barikbin; Hadighe Dorri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Copper ions, due to forming complexes with organic and mineral compounds, can have worrying effects on health and environment. In the present study, the effect of powdered magnetic carbon activated by iron-oxide nanoparticles in removing of CU (V; II) from aqueous solutions was assessed. Materials and Methods: This experimental study aimed at determining the effect of powdered magnetic carbon activated  by iron-oxide nanoparticles  parameters including PH, co...

  14. Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDI-MS) of Lipids with Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Coated Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Kusano, Maiko; Kawabata, Shin-ichirou; Tamura, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Daigou; Murouchi, Masato; Kawasaki, Hideya; ARAKAWA, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticle (NP)-coated target plates were employed for the direct detection and analysis of low molecular weight lipids by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS). We have demonstrated that the use of the iron oxide NP-coated target provides a simple, direct, and rapid detection method for lipid standards and epidermal surface lipids without any cumbersome sample pretreatment as well as mass spectra that are free of background matrix peaks. Lipid standards (1-ste...

  15. Studies on Electrical and Sensing Properties of Polyaniline / Iron Oxide (-Fe2O3 Nanocomposites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeer Husain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline iron oxide nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ polymerization method. These nanocomposites were characterized by employing Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM,Thermal study by (TGA.The dc conductivity of prepared nanocomposites was measured as a function of temperature which shows the strong interaction between Polyaniline and iron oxide nanoparticles and exhibits semiconducting behavior.Finally, the sensing properties of these nanocomposites are also studied at room temperature.

  16. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlisin,; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw...

  17. Investigation of antioxidant property of iron oxide particles by 1'-1'diphenylpicryl-hydrazyle (DPPH) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S. [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028 (India)], E-mail: paul.tezu@gmail.com; Saikia, J.P. [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028 (India); Samdarshi, S.K. [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028 (India)], E-mail: drsksamdarshi@rediffmail.com; Konwar, B.K. [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028 (India)

    2009-11-15

    We investigated the antioxidant properties of iron oxide particles. Particles of different sizes were synthesized and their antioxidant potency was investigated by using an in vitro system. The antioxidant capacity assay was done via a modified DPPH method for insoluble solid materials. The percentages of DPPH scavenging were calculated for iron oxide particles. The particles were found to show antioxidant potency. The DPPH scavenging increases with decrease in particle size.

  18. Investigation of antioxidant property of iron oxide particlesby 1‧-1‧diphenylpicryl-hydrazyle (DPPH) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; Saikia, J. P.; Samdarshi, S. K.; Konwar, B. K.

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the antioxidant properties of iron oxide particles. Particles of different sizes were synthesized and their antioxidant potency was investigated by using an in vitro system. The antioxidant capacity assay was done via a modified DPPH method for insoluble solid materials. The percentages of DPPH scavenging were calculated for iron oxide particles. The particles were found to show antioxidant potency. The DPPH scavenging increases with decrease in particle size.

  19. Investigation of antioxidant property of iron oxide particles by 1'-1'diphenylpicryl-hydrazyle (DPPH) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the antioxidant properties of iron oxide particles. Particles of different sizes were synthesized and their antioxidant potency was investigated by using an in vitro system. The antioxidant capacity assay was done via a modified DPPH method for insoluble solid materials. The percentages of DPPH scavenging were calculated for iron oxide particles. The particles were found to show antioxidant potency. The DPPH scavenging increases with decrease in particle size.

  20. Diversity of iron oxidizers in wetland soils revealed by novel 16S rRNA primers targeting Gallionella-related bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Muyzer, G.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Laanbroek, R.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are important catalysts of iron cycling in wetland environments. However, little is known about their diversity and distribution in various environments. The aim of this study was to develop a PCR-DGGE assay enabling the detection of neutrophilic iron oxid

  1. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as recommended by an obstetrician or other health care provider. Infants and toddlers Iron deficiency anemia in infancy can lead to delayed psychological development, social withdrawal, and less ability to pay attention. By age 6 to 9 months, full-term infants could ...

  2. Lead and Cadmium Adsorption onto Iron Oxides and Manganese Oxides in the Natural Surface Coatings Collected on Natural Substances in the Songhua River of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG De-ming; ZHAO Xing-min; HUA Xiu-yi; ZHANG Jing-jing; WU Shi-ming

    2007-01-01

    Natural surface coatings collected from natural substances(NSCsNS) were employed to study the roles of the main chemical components (iron oxides, manganese oxides, and other components) in controlling the adsorption of lead(Pb) and cadmium(Cd) in aquatic environments. The selective chemical extraction followed by the adsorption of Pb and Cd experiments and statistical analysis, were used to investigate the adsorption property of each component.Hydroxylamine hydrochloride was used to remove manganese oxides selectively, and sodium dithionite was used to extract iron oxides and manganese oxides. The result indicated that iron oxides and manganese oxides played an important role in the adsorption of Pb and Cd on NSCsNS, and the relative contribution was about two-thirds. The contribution of manganese oxides was the greatest, with a lesser role indicated for other components. The adsorption ability of manganese oxides for Pb and Cd was greater than that of iron oxides or other components for Pb and Cd. The Pb adsorption observed in each component was greater than Cd adsorption.

  3. Catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons by dinuclear iron complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our efforts during the past eight months were directed towards characterizing synthetic complexes that model the electronic and reactivity properties of the active site of methane monooxygenase (MMO), a metalloenzyme found in methanotrophic bacteria responsible for the biological oxidation of methane to methanol. We have investigated the structural/electronic and reactivity properties of a series of dinuclear model complexes that can function as oxygen atom transfer catalysts. In particular, our studies focused on [Fe2+2(H2Hbab)2(N-MeIM)], its DMF solvated form, [Fe2+2(H2Hbab)2(DMF)2(N-MeIM)], and the mixed valent species [[Fe2+2(H2Hbab)2(DMF)4]+, (H4Hbab = 1,2-bis(2-hydroxybenzamido) benzene). We have also examined [Fe3+2(H2Hbab)2(DMF)4]2, [Fe3+2(H2Hbab)2(OMe)2], and μ-oxo[Fe3+2(H2Hbab)2(DMF)2], which are unable to act as oxygen atom transfer catalysts

  4. Fixation of Selenium by Clay Minerals and Iron Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamdy, A. A.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1977-01-01

    In studying Se fixation, soil components capable of retaining Se were investigated. The importance of Fe hydrous oxides in the fixation of Se was established. The clay minerals common to soils, such as kaolinite, montmorillonite and vermiculite, all exhibited Se fixation, but greater fixation...... occurred with the 1:1 than the 2:1 clay type. Experiments with finely ground minerals showed that the pH of the systems greatly influenced the rate of fixation, reaching a maximum between pH 3 and 5 and decreasing rapidly as the pH increased. With the Fe2O3 system fixed Se was slightly reduced as the p......H was increased to over 8. The extractability of Se from the clay minerals indicated that 1:1 clay type minerals fix selenite more indissolubly than 2:1 clays and that selenite was adsorbed on the clays mainly by a surface exchange reaction. The major part of the selenite added to the Fe2O3 system was found...

  5. Nanocomposites of cellulose/iron oxide: influence of synthesis conditions on their morphological behavior and thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocomposites of cellulose/iron oxide have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method using cellulose solution and Fe(NO3)3·9H2O at 180 °C. The cellulose solution was obtained by the dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose in NaOH/urea aqueous solution, which is a good system to dissolve cellulose and favors the synthesis of iron oxide without needing any template or other reagents. The phases, microstructure, and morphologies of nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS). The effects of the heating time, heating temperature, cellulose concentration, and ferric nitrate concentration on the morphological behavior of products were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the cellulose concentration played an important role in both the phase and shape of iron oxide in nanocomposites. Moreover, the nanocomposites synthesized by using different cellulose concentrations displayed different thermal stabilities. - Highlights: ► Nanocomposites of cellulose/iron oxide have been prepared by hydrothermal method. ► The cellulose concentration played an important role in the phase of iron oxide. ► The cellulose concentration played an important role in the shape of iron oxide. ► The samples displayed different thermal stabilities.

  6. Cobalamin Protection against Oxidative Stress in the Acidophilic Iron-oxidizing Bacterium Leptospirillum group II CF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Paz Levicán

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Leptospirillum are aerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the phylum Nitrospira. They are important members of microbial communities that catalyze the biomining of sulfidic ores, thereby solubilizing metal ions. These microorganisms live under extremely acidic and metal-loaded environments and thus must tolerate high concentrations of reactive oxygen species. Cobalamin (vitamin B12 is a cobalt-containing tetrapyrrole cofactor involved in intramolecular rearrangement reactions and has recently been suggested to be an intracellular antioxidant. In this work, we investigated the effect of the exogenous addition of cobalamin on oxidative stress parameters in Leptospirillum group II strain CF-1. Our results revealed that the external supplementation of cobalamin reduces the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the damage to biomolecules, and also stimulates the growth and survival of cells exposed to oxidative stress exerted by ferric ion, hydrogen peroxide, chromate and diamide. Furthermore, exposure of strain CF-1 to oxidative stress elicitors resulted in the transcriptional activation of the cbiA gene encoding CbiA of the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway. Altogether, these data suggest that cobalamin plays an important role in redox protection of Leptospirillum strain CF-1, supporting survival of this microorganism under extremely oxidative environmental conditions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of cobalamin against oxidative stress may help to develop strategies to make biomining processes more effective.

  7. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning. PMID:25860433

  8. Iron oxides as pedoenvironmental indicators: state of the art, answers and questions (Philippe Duchaufour Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    The colour and magnetic properties of soils largely reflect the content and mineralogy of their iron oxides, which in turn relate to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil environment. For more than 50 years, soil mineralogists and chemists have collected data for iron oxides in soils formed in widely different environments and tried to understand the complex nature of the different suites and formation pathways for these minerals via laboratory experiments. The discovery of ferrihydrite —the poorly crystalline precursor of most Fe oxides— in 1971, and the recognition of its common presence in soils, raised interest in deciphering the environmental factors that affect its transformation into goethite and hematite, the two most abundant crystalline iron oxides in soil. Field observations were consistent with laboratory experiments in which temperature, water activity, pH, foreign ions and organic matter were found to play a key role in the crystallization of ferrihydrite. Thus, the hematite/(hematite + goethite) ratio increased with increasing temperature and also with the likelihood of seasonal soil drying. Exploiting this ratio as a (pedo)environment indicator is, however, not devoid of problems derived from insufficient knowledge of the interactions between the influential chemical variables, difficulties in quantifying the two minerals and changes brought about by reductive dissolution. Soil formation usually leads to magnetic enhancement as a result of the production of magnetite and/or maghemite, which are ferrimagnetic iron oxides, and, possibly, an ordered ferrimagnetic ferrihydrite, as suggested by recent laboratory experiments. The concentration of pedogenic ferrimagnets as estimated via proxies such as magnetic susceptibility or frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility has been found to relate to climate variables [particularly (paleo)rainfall] in many studies reported over the last 30 years. However, extracting accurate

  9. Ultrafast pump-probe dynamics of iron oxide based earth pigments for applications to ancient pottery manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafana, Tana E.; Brown, William; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate that ultrafast pump-probe microscopy provides unique dynamics for natural iron oxide and iron hydroxide earth pigments, despite their chemical similarity. First, we conducted a pump-probe spectroscopy study on heat-treated hematite (the pure red iron oxide mineral) and found the pump-probe dynamics to be temperature dependent. Second, we investigated pottery fired under known conditions and observed firing dependent pump-probe dynamics. Finally, we imaged a New World potshard from the North Carolina Museum of Art. Our results indicate that pump-probe microscopy could be a useful tool in elucidating pottery manufacture.

  10. Toxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Wu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Xinying Wu1, Yanbin Tan1, Hui Mao2, Minming Zhang11Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; 2Department of Radiology, Center for Systems Imaging, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USAAbstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs have been employed for hyperthermia treatments, stem cell therapies, cell labeling, and imaging modalities. The biocompatibility and cytotoxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles when used in biomedical applications, however, are an ongoing concern. Endothelial cells have a critical role in this research dealing with tumors, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. However, there is little information dealing with the biologic effects of IONPs on the endothelial cell. This paper deals with the influence of dextran and citric acid coated IONPs on the behavior and function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. After exposing endothelial cells to IONPs, dose-dependent effects on HUVECs viability, cytoskeleton and function were determined. Both citric acid and dextran coated particles appeared to be largely internalized by HUVECs through endocytosis and contribute to eventual cell death possibly by apoptosis. Cytoskeletal structures were greatly disrupted, as evidenced by diminished vinculin spots, and disorganized actin fiber and tubulin networks. The capacity of HUVECs to form a vascular network on Matrigel™ diminished after exposure to IONPs. Cell migration/invasion were inhibited significantly even at very low iron concentrations (0.1 mM. The results of this study indicate the great importance of thoroughly understanding nanoparticle-cell interactions, and the potential to exploit this understanding in tumor therapy applications involving IONPs as thermo/chemoembolization agents.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, cytotoxicity, in vitro test, cytoskeleton, human umbilical vein endothelial cell

  11. Reoxidation of Reduced Uranium with Iron(III) (Hydr)Oxides under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricansG20 the effects of iron(III) (hydr)oxides (hematite, goethite, and ferrihydrite) on microbial reduction and reoxidation of uranium (U) were evaluated under lactate-limited sulfate-reducing conditions. With lactate present, G20 reduced U(VI) in both 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonate (PIPES) and bicarbonate buffer. Once lactate was depleted, however, microbially reduced U served as an electron donor to reduce Fe(III) present in iron(III) (hydr)oxides. With the same initial amount of Fe(III) (10 mmol/L) for each iron(III) (hydr)oxide,reoxidation of U(IV) was greater with hematite than with goethite or ferrihydrite. As the initial mass loading of hematite increased from 0 to 20 mmol of Fe(III)/L, the rate and extent of U(IV) reoxidation increased. Subsequent addition of hematite [15 mmol of Fe(III)/L] to stationary-phase cultures containing microbially reduced U(IV) also resulted in rapid reoxidation to U(VI). Analysis by U L3-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) of microbially reduced U particles yielded spectra similar to that of natural uraninite. Observations by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis confirmed that precipitated U associated with cells was uraninite with particle diameters of 3-5 nm. By the same techniques, iron sulfide precipitates were found to have a variable Fe and S stoichiometry and were not associated with cells

  12. Reoxidation of Reduced Uranium with Iron(III) (Hydr)Oxides under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sani, Rajesh K.; Peyton, Brent M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Amonette, James E.

    2005-03-04

    In cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricansG20 the effects of iron(III) (hydr)oxides (hematite, goethite, and ferrihydrite) on microbial reduction and reoxidation of uranium (U) were evaluated under lactate-limited sulfate-reducing conditions. With lactate present, G20 reduced U(VI) in both 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonate (PIPES) and bicarbonate buffer. Once lactate was depleted, however, microbially reduced U served as an electron donor to reduce Fe(III) present in iron(III) (hydr)oxides. With the same initial amount of Fe(III) (10 mmol/L) for each iron(III) (hydr)oxide,reoxidation of U(IV) was greater with hematite than with goethite or ferrihydrite. As the initial mass loading of hematite increased from 0 to 20 mmol of Fe(III)/L, the rate and extent of U(IV) reoxidation increased. Subsequent addition of hematite [15 mmol of Fe(III)/L] to stationary-phase cultures containing microbially reduced U(IV) also resulted in rapid reoxidation to U(VI). Analysis by U L3-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) of microbially reduced U particles yielded spectra similar to that of natural uraninite. Observations by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis confirmed that precipitated U associated with cells was uraninite with particle diameters of 3-5 nm. By the same techniques, iron sulfide precipitates were found to have a variable Fe and S stoichiometry and were not associated with cells.

  13. Effect of emulsifier type, pH and iron on oxidative stability of 5% fish oil‐in‐water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The effect of using different emulsifiers on lipid oxidation in 5% w/w fish oil‐in‐water emulsions was investigated. Emulsifiers included two of milk protein origin (whey protein isolate (Whey) or sodium caseinate (Cas)), soy lecithin (Lec) or emulsifiers high in milk phospholipid (20 or 75...... iron) or 42 days (without added iron). Physical parameters and oxidative stability of the emulsions were investigated by analysis of particle size, zeta potential, primary and secondary oxidation products. Increase in emulsifier concentration generally increased the oxidative stability. Type of...... study was that the oxidative stability of 5% o/w emulsions depended on both emulsifier type, concentration, pH and iron content. An analogous conclusion is most likely also valid in more complex food emulsions with similar or higher lipid contents such as milk drink, dressing, etc. Hence, in such foods...

  14. Oxidative diversification of amino acids and peptides by small-molecule iron catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberger, Thomas J.; Rogness, Donald C.; Kohrt, Jeffrey T.; Stepan, Antonia F.; White, M. Christina

    2016-09-01

    Secondary metabolites synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases display diverse and complex topologies and possess a range of biological activities. Much of this diversity derives from a synthetic strategy that entails pre- and post-assembly oxidation of both the chiral amino acid building blocks and the assembled peptide scaffolds. The vancomycin biosynthetic pathway is an excellent example of the range of oxidative transformations that can be performed by the iron-containing enzymes involved in its biosynthesis. However, because of the challenges associated with using such oxidative enzymes to carry out chemical transformations in vitro, chemical syntheses guided by these principles have not been fully realized in the laboratory. Here we report that two small-molecule iron catalysts are capable of facilitating the targeted C-H oxidative modification of amino acids and peptides with preservation of α-centre chirality. Oxidation of proline to 5-hydroxyproline furnishes a versatile intermediate that can be transformed to rigid arylated derivatives or flexible linear carboxylic acids, alcohols, olefins and amines in both monomer and peptide settings. The value of this C-H oxidation strategy is demonstrated in its capacity for generating diversity: four ‘chiral pool’ amino acids are transformed to twenty-one chiral unnatural amino acids representing seven distinct functional group arrays; late-stage C-H functionalizations of a single proline-containing tripeptide furnish eight tripeptides, each having different unnatural amino acids. Additionally, a macrocyclic peptide containing a proline turn element is transformed via late-stage C-H oxidation to one containing a linear unnatural amino acid.

  15. Probing the Interfacial Interaction in Layered-Carbon-Stabilized Iron Oxide Nanostructures: A Soft X-ray Spectroscopic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jinyin; Zhao, Guanqi; Gao, Yongjun; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Ma, Ding; Sun, Xu-Hui; Zhong, Jun

    2015-04-22

    We have stabilized the iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes on layered carbon materials (Fe-oxide/C) that show excellent catalytic performance. From the characterization of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy (XMCD), a strong interfacial interaction in the Fe-oxide/C hybrids has been observed between the small iron oxide NPs and layered carbon in contrast to the weak interaction in the large iron oxide NPs. The interfacial interaction between the NPs and layered carbon is found to link with the improved catalytic performance. In addition, the Fe L-edge XMCD spectra show that the large iron oxide NPs are mainly γ-Fe2O3 with a strong ferromagnetic property, whereas the small iron oxide NPs with strong interfacial interaction are mainly α-Fe2O3 or amorphous Fe2O3 with a nonmagnetic property. The results strongly suggest that the interfacial interaction plays a key role for the catalytic performance, and the experimental findings may provide guidance toward rational design of high-performance catalysts. PMID:25839786

  16. Probing the Interfacial Interaction in Layered-Carbon-Stabilized Iron Oxide Nanostructures: A Soft X-ray Spectroscopic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jinyin; Zhao, Guanqi; Gao, Yongjun; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Ma, Ding; Sun, Xu-Hui; Zhong, Jun

    2015-04-22

    We have stabilized the iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes on layered carbon materials (Fe-oxide/C) that show excellent catalytic performance. From the characterization of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy (XMCD), a strong interfacial interaction in the Fe-oxide/C hybrids has been observed between the small iron oxide NPs and layered carbon in contrast to the weak interaction in the large iron oxide NPs. The interfacial interaction between the NPs and layered carbon is found to link with the improved catalytic performance. In addition, the Fe L-edge XMCD spectra show that the large iron oxide NPs are mainly γ-Fe2O3 with a strong ferromagnetic property, whereas the small iron oxide NPs with strong interfacial interaction are mainly α-Fe2O3 or amorphous Fe2O3 with a nonmagnetic property. The results strongly suggest that the interfacial interaction plays a key role for the catalytic performance, and the experimental findings may provide guidance toward rational design of high-performance catalysts.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans CCM 4253 cultures having lost the ability to couple anaerobic elemental sulfur oxidation with ferric iron reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Jiri; Sedo, Ondrej; Potesil, David; Janiczek, Oldrich; Zdrahal, Zbynek; Mandl, Martin

    2016-09-01

    In extremely acidic environments, ferric iron can be a thermodynamically favorable electron acceptor during elemental sulfur oxidation by some Acidithiobacillus spp. under anoxic conditions. Quantitative 2D-PAGE proteomic analysis of a resting cell suspension of a sulfur-grown Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans CCM 4253 subculture that had lost its iron-reducing activity revealed 147 protein spots that were downregulated relative to an iron-reducing resting cell suspension of the antecedent sulfur-oxidizing culture and 111 that were upregulated. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of strongly downregulated spots identified several physiologically important proteins that apparently play roles in ferrous iron oxidation, including the outer membrane cytochrome Cyc2 and rusticyanin. Other strongly repressed proteins were associated with sulfur metabolism, including heterodisulfide reductase, thiosulfate:quinone oxidoreductase and sulfide:quinone reductase. Transcript-level analyses revealed additional downregulation of other respiratory genes. Components of the iron-oxidizing system thus apparently play central roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation coupled with ferric iron reduction in the studied microbial strain. PMID:27394989

  18. Toxicity and biodistribution of activated and non-activated intravenous iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, J. A.; Ogden, J. A.; Strawbridge, R. R.; Pierce, Z. E.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2009-02-01

    The use of nanoparticles in medical treatment has prompted the question of their safety. In this study, the pathophysiology and biodistribution of three different concentrations of intravenously-delivered dextran-coated Fe3O4 iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) were evaluated in mice. Some groups of mice were exposed to an AC magnetic field (AMF) at levels comparable with those proposed for cancer treatments. Iron biodistribution analysis for both AMF and non-AMF treated mice was performed for all three concentrations used (.6 mg Fe/mouse, 1.8 mg Fe/mouse, and 5.6 mg Fe/mouse). Blood urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total serum protein, and creatinine were also assessed at 4 hours, 7 days, and 14 days post-injection. Histological analysis of lung, spleen, heart, liver, and kidney tissue was conducted at 7 and 14 days post-injection. Prussian blue and H&E stains were used to histomorphometrically assess iron content in the tissues studied. Preliminary results demonstrate small temporary elevation in liver enzymes and hepatocyte vacuolization at all iron concentrations studied. Liver and spleen were the primary sites of IONP deposition. None of the animals demonstrated systemic or local toxicity or illness, with or without AMF activation.

  19. In vivo imaging and quantification of iron oxide nanoparticle uptake and biodistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, P. Jacks; Petryk, Alicia A.; Gimi, Barjor; Giustini, Andrew J.; Weaver, John B.; Bischof, John; Chamberlain, Ryan; Garwood, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have allowed for the effective use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) for cancer imaging and therapy. When activated by an alternating magnetic field (AMF), intra-tumoral IONPs have been effective at controlling tumor growth in rodent models. To accurately plan and assess IONP-based therapies in clinical patients, noninvasive and quantitative imaging technique for the assessment of IONP uptake and biodistribution will be necessary. Proven techniques such as confocal, light and electron microscopy, histochemical iron staining, ICP-MS, fluorescent labeled mNPs and magnetic spectroscopy of Brownian motion (MSB), are being used to assess and quantify IONPs in vitro and in ex vivo tissues. However, a proven noninvasive in vivo IONP imaging technique has not yet been developed. In this study we have demonstrated the shortcomings of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for effectively observing and quantifying iron /IONP concentrations in the clinical setting. Despite the poor outcomes of CT and standard MR sequences in the therapeutic concentration range, ultra-short T2 MRI methods such as, Sweep Imaging With Fourier Transformation (SWIFT), provide a positive iron contrast enhancement and a reduced signal to noise ratio. Ongoing software development and phantom and in vivo studies, will further optimize this technique, providing accurate, clinically-relevant IONP biodistribution information.

  20. NMR relaxation study of water dynamics in superparamagnetic iron-oxide-loaded vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Hsieh, Chu-Jung; Lin, Chao-Min; Hwang, Dennis W.

    2013-02-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have been introduced as contrast agents for clinical applications in magnetic resonance imaging. Recently, SPIO has been also used for tracking cells. However, NMR relaxation of water molecules behaves differently in a SPIO solution and SPIO-loaded cells. In this study, we used water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions to mimic cellular environments. The MR relaxation induced by the SPIO-loaded vesicles and SPIO solution indicates that T2* is sensitive to the iron concentration alone, and the behavior was very similar in both SPIO-loaded vesicles and SPIO solution. However, T2 relaxation of water in SPIO-loaded vesicles was faster than that in a SPIO solution. In addition, the contribution of water inside and outside the vesicles was clarified by replacing H2O with D2O, and water inside the vesicles was found to cause a nonlinear iron concentration dependency. The studied dilution revealed that vesicle aggregation undergoes a structural transition upon dilution by a certain amount of water. R2* relaxation is sensitive to this structural change and shows an obvious nonlinear iron concentration dependency when the SPIO loading is sufficiently high. Random walk simulations demonstrated that in the assumed model, the vesicles aggregate structures causing the differences between R2* and R2 relaxation of water in vesicles in the presence of SPIO particles.