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Sample records for choline reverses lead-induced

  1. Efficacy of the chelating agent CaEDTA in reversing lead-induced changes in behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory-Slechta, D A; Weiss, B

    1989-01-01

    The chelating agent CaEDTA has been reported to reverse the deficits in intellectual function and performance associated with Pb (lead) exposure in children. However, such studies have not included rigorous controls for the intervention procedures per se. The experiments reported here examined reversibility of performance changes in a rat model based on behavior sensitive to low-level Pb exposure. Rats were exposed to 50 ppm sodium or Pb acetate in drinking water from weaning. Performance maintained under a Fixed-Interval schedule of food reinforcement began at 55 days of age. Following the onset of the characteristic increase in short interresponse times (IRTs) associated with low-level Pb exposure after 35 experimental sessions, Pb treatment was terminated. Animals within both the control and Pb groups were then matched on the basis of performance indices and injected daily for 5 days with either saline, 75 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg CaEDTA. Subsequent changes in F1 performance were monitored for 35-60 sessions. No consistent effects of CaEDTA were detected in control animals. CaEDTA treatment failed to reverse the behavioral effects in Pb-exposed animals. If anything, it tended to further increase the proportion of short IRTs. These data suggest that better controlled clinical studies are warranted to evaluate the efficacy of CaEDTA in reversing Pb-induced behavioral effects before its application for these purposes becomes widespread.

  2. Choline or methionine reverses impaired secretion of VLDL by hepatocytes from choline-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Z.; Vance, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Male rats fed a choline-deficient (CD) diet for three days accumulated triacylglycerol (TG) in the liver. Hepatocytes from these rats were cultured and maintained in a medium + choline. The rate of secretion of TG was reduced by 50% in the CD cells. Correspondingly, [ 3 H]oleate and [ 3 H]glycerol were incorporated at a 2-fold higher rate into TG secreted by choline-supplemented cells compared to CD cells. Isolation of lipoprotein fractions by ultracentrifugation showed that the reduced secretion of TG by CD hepatocytes was mainly due to an impaired secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into secreted apoB/sub H/, apoB/sub L/ and apoE was markedly reduced in CD cells compared to choline-supplemented cells. Secretion of high density lipoprotein was not reduced in the CD hepatocytes. Normal secretion of VLDL was resumed upon addition of methionine to the CD cells

  3. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

  4. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  5. Contents of lecithin and choline in crude drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Kikuoka, M; Nishi, H; Kokusenya, Y; Miyamoto, T; Matsuo, M; Sato, T

    1994-01-01

    The determination of lecithin and choline in crude drugs was established by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detector (ECD) and enzyme reaction. Lecithin in crude drugs extracted with a mixture of chloroform-methanol (2:1) at room temperature was hydrolyzed by phospholipase D. The hydrolyzate was injected to HPLC, and choline was separated from impurities by reverse phase column. The choline was converted to betaine and hydrogen peroxide by passing through column packed with immobilized choline oxidase. This hydrogen peroxide was detected by ECD. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from lecithin was proportional to the concentration of lecithin from 0.10 to 1.52 microgram/ml. Choline in crude drugs was extracted with ethanol under reflux and determined under the same HPLC conditions as lecithin. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from choline was proportional to the concentration of choline from 0.01 to 0.45 microgram/ml. The contents of lecithin and choline in 31 kinds of crude drugs were determined by these established methods. The results showed that Cervi Parvum Cornu, Kokurozin, Foenigraeci Semen and Psoraleae Semen contained more lecithin than other crude drugs, while Angelicae Radix, Foenigraeci Semen, Psoraleae Semen, and especially Hippocampus were found to contain more choline than other crude drugs.

  6. Combinational chelation therapy abrogates lead-induced neurodegeneration in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Saxena, Geetu; Mehta, Ashish; Mishra, Deepshikha; Flora, Swaran J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous and potent neurotoxicant causes oxidative stress which leads to numerous neurobehavioral and physiological alterations. The ability of lead to bind sulfhydryl groups or compete with calcium could be one of the reasons for its debilitating effects. In the present study, we addressed: i) if chelation therapy could circumvent the altered oxidative stress and prevent neuronal apoptosis in chronic lead-intoxicated rats, ii) whether chelation therapy could reverse biochemical and behavioral changes, and iii) if mono or combinational therapy with captopril (an antioxidant) and thiol chelating agents (DMSA/MiADMSA) is more effective than individual thiol chelator in lead-exposed rats. Results indicated that lead caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and intracellular free calcium levels along with altered behavioral abnormalities in locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, learning, and memory that were supported by changes in neurotransmitter levels. A fall in membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and DNA damage indicated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Most of these alterations showed significant recovery following combined therapy with captopril with MiADMSA and to a smaller extend with captopril + DMSA over monotherapy with these chelators. It could be concluded from our present results that co-administration of a potent antioxidant (like captopril) might be a better treatment protocol than monotherapy to counter lead-induced oxidative stress. The major highlight of the work is an interesting experimental evidence of the efficacy of combinational therapy using an antioxidant with a thiol chelator in reversing neurological dystrophy caused due to chronic lead exposure in rats.

  7. Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a function of choline supply in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Glenn, Melissa J; Mellott, Tiffany J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Meck, Warren H; Williams, Christina L

    2008-10-27

    Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity involved in cognitive function. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP) diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then returned to a control diet (1.1 g choline chloride/kg). At 70 days of age, we found that DEF and SUP rats required fewer choices to locate 8 baited arms of a 12-arm radial maze than CON rats. When switched to a choline-deficient diet (0 g/kg), SUP rats showed impaired performance while CON and DEF rats were unaffected. In contrast, when switched to a choline-supplemented diet (5.0 g/kg), DEF rats' performance was significantly impaired while CON and SUP rats were less affected. These changes in performance were reversible when the rats were switched back to a control diet. In a second experiment, DEF, CON, and SUP rats were either maintained on a control diet, or the choline-supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, DEF rats were significantly impaired by choline supplementation on a matching-to-place water-maze task, which was also accompanied by a decrease in dentate cell proliferation in DEF rats only. IGF-1 levels were elevated by both prenatal and adult choline supplementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the in utero availability of an essential nutrient, choline, causes differential behavioral and neuroplastic sensitivity to the adult choline supply.

  8. Behavioural effects of chronic manipulations of dietary choline in senescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundaro, A; Paschero, A

    1990-01-01

    1. Senescent rats were maintained on choline-deficient and choline-enriched diets. The modifications in rat behaviour caused by the chronic manipulations of dietary choline were studied in two schedules of operant conditioning. 2. In the "periodic conditioning" test, the schedule of reinforcement, in a 100 min trial, was changed from a fixed ratio to a fixed interval schedule. In the "reversal" test the contingency for food delivery was switched four times from one lever to the other in a two lever Skinner box. 3. In the "periodic conditioning" test, the choline enriched group (430 mg/Kg/day) showed the same reduction of responses/reinforcement as controls, from the beginning to the end of trial; in the same group the time course reduction of responses/reinforcement became significant earlier than in the control group. The deficient-choline group in the last 40 min of "periodic conditioning" trial gave a reduction of responses/reinforcement greater than controls and one rat in the group did not learn the change of experimental schedule and extinguished its operant behaviour. 4. In the "reversal" test, the choline-enriched diet (320 mg/Kg/day) improved the reinforced responses in the IV reversal; one rat of the deficient-choline group could not learn the new operant schedule since the first reversal and continued to respond on the same lever during the whole of the test.

  9. Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaprasad, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Varalakshmi, P. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras (Taramani), Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2002-08-01

    The deleterious effect of lead has been attributed to lead-induced oxidative stress with the consequence of lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate the combined effect of DL-{alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. The increase in peroxidated lipids in lead-poisoned rats was accompanied by alterations in antioxidant defence systems. Lead acetate (Pb, 0.2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks to induce lead toxicity. LA (25 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) and DMSA (20 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) were administered individually and also in combination during the sixth week. Nephrotoxic damage was evident from decreases in the activities of {gamma}-glutamyl transferase and N-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, which were reversed upon combined treatment with LA and DMSA. Rats subjected to lead intoxication showed a decline in the thiol capacity of the cell, accompanied by high malondialdehyde levels along with lowered activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione metabolizing enzymes (glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase). Supplementation with LA as a sole agent showed considerable changes over oxidative stress parameters. The study has highlighted the combined effect of both drugs as being more effective in reversing oxidative damage by bringing about an improvement in the reductive status of the cell. (orig.)

  10. A brief history of choline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    In 1850, Theodore Gobley, working in Paris, described a substance “lecithine”, which he named after the Greek “lekithos” for egg yolk. Adolph Strecker noted in 1862 that when lecithin from bile was heated, it generated a new nitrogenous chemical that he named “choline”. Three years later, Oscar Liebreich identified a new substance, “neurine”, in the brain. After a period of confusion, neurine and choline were found to be the same molecule, and the name choline was adapted. Lecithin was eventually characterized chemically as being phosphatidylcholine. In 1954, Eugene Kennedy described the cytidine 5-dihphosphocholine pathway by which choline is incorporated into phosphatidylcholine. A second route, the phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase pathway, was identified by Jon Bremer and David Greenberg in 1960. The role of choline as part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine was established by Otto Loewi and Henry Dale. Working in the 1930s at the University of Toronto, Charles Best showed that choline prevented fatty liver in dogs and rats. The importance of choline as an essential nutrient for human health was determined in the 1990s through controlled feeding studies in humans. Recently, an understanding of the role of genetic variation in setting the dietary requirement for choline in people is being unraveled. PMID:23183298

  11. Glioprotective Effects of Ashwagandha Leaf Extract against Lead Induced Toxicity

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    Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25 μM to 400 μM concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment with Ashwagandha extract to lead nitrate exposed cells (200 μM resulted in normalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression as well as heat shock protein (HSP70, mortalin, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM expression. Further, the cytoprotective efficacy of Ashwagandha extract was studied in vivo. Administration of Ashwagandha extract provided significant protection to lead induced altered antioxidant defense that may significantly compromise normal cellular function. Ashwagandha also provided a significant protection to lipid peroxidation (LPx levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD but not reduced glutathione (GSH contents in brain tissue as well as peripheral organs, liver and kidney, suggesting its ability to act as a free radical scavenger protecting cells against toxic insult. These results, thus, suggest that Ashwagandha water extract may have the potential therapeutic implication against lead poisoning.

  12. Lead induced oxidative stress: beneficial effects of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipti, P; Yogesh, B; Kain, A K; Pauline, T; Anju, B; Sairam, M; Singh, B; Mongia, S S; Kumar, G Ilavazhagan Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral administration of Kombucha tea (K-tea) on lead induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1 mL of 3.8% lead acetate solution daily alone or in combination with K-tea orally for 45 d, and the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Oral administration of lead acetate to rats enhanced lipid peroxidation and release of creatine phosphokinase and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GPx). Lead treatment did not alter humoral immunity, but inhibited DTH response when compared to the control. Lead administration also increased DNA fragmentation in liver. Oral administration of Kombucha tea to rats exposed to lead decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage with a concomitant increase in the reduced glutathione level and GPx activity. Kombucha tea supplementation relieved the lead induced immunosuppression to appreciable levels. The results suggest that K-tea has potent antioxidant and immunomodulating properties.

  13. Choline Alleviates Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Duodenal Motility Disorder in Infant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Wu, Yang; Guo, Yonggao; Tang, Qingya; Lu, Ting; Cai, Wei; Huang, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been found to influence duodenal motility in animals. Choline is an essential nutrient, and its deficiency is related to PN-associated organ diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the role of choline supplementation in an infant rat model of PN-associated duodenal motility disorder. Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed chow and water (controls), PN solution (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) (PN + choline). Rats underwent jugular vein cannulation for infusion of PN solution or 0.9% saline (controls) for 7 days. Duodenal oxidative stress status, concentrations of plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assayed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of c-Kit proto-oncogene protein (c-Kit) and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) together with the electrophysiological features of slow waves in the duodenum were also evaluated. Rats on PN showed increased reactive oxygen species; decreased total antioxidant capacity in the duodenum; reduced plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine; and enhanced serum TNF-α concentrations, which were reversed by choline intervention. In addition, PN reduced mRNA and protein expression of mSCF and c-Kit, which were inversed under choline administration. Moreover, choline attenuated depolarized resting membrane potential and declined the frequency and amplitude of slow waves in duodenal smooth muscles of infant rats induced by PN, respectively. The addition of choline to PN may alleviate the progression of duodenal motor disorder through protecting smooth muscle cells from injury, promoting mSCF/c-Kit signaling, and attenuating impairment of interstitial cells of Cajal in the duodenum during PN feeding. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  14. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. Genetic Variation in Choline-Metabolizing Enzymes Alters Choline Metabolism in Young Women Consuming Choline Intakes Meeting Current Recommendations

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    Ariel B. Ganz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in choline metabolizing genes are associated with disease risk and greater susceptibility to organ dysfunction under conditions of dietary choline restriction. However, the underlying metabolic signatures of these variants are not well characterized and it is unknown whether genotypic differences persist at recommended choline intakes. Thus, we sought to determine if common genetic risk factors alter choline dynamics in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant women consuming choline intakes meeting and exceeding current recommendations. Women (n = 75 consumed 480 or 930 mg choline/day (22% as a metabolic tracer, choline-d9 for 10–12 weeks in a controlled feeding study. Genotyping was performed for eight variant SNPs and genetic differences in metabolic flux and partitioning of plasma choline metabolites were evaluated using stable isotope methodology. CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs9001, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946, FMO3 rs2266782, SLC44A1 rs7873937, and SLC44A1 rs3199966 altered the use of choline as a methyl donor; CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 altered the partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP-choline pathway; and CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946 and SLC44A1 rs7873937 altered the distribution of dietary choline between the CDP-choline and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT denovo pathway. Such metabolic differences may contribute to disease pathogenesis and prognosis over the long-term.

  17. Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline

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    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline.

  18. Relationship Between Organophosphate Toxicity and Choline Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    Results from studies on the actions of the organophosphates on the central nervus system have suggested that these compounds, through an action on...Grganophosphates alter the disposition and metabolism of choline and choline-containing compounds in the nervous system , the relationshi ý of these changes to...mechanisms regulating the metabolism of choline, as well as the specific interactions of the organophospha:es with biochemical systems , may differ

  19. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  20. Choline Theft-An Inside Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ortiz, Marina; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-09-13

    Choline is a crucial methyl donor necessary for epigenetic regulation. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Romano et al. (2017) demonstrate that choline-utilizing gut bacteria compete with their host for this essential resource, calling for a systematic consideration of gut microbial composition for personalized diet recommendations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Factors influencing erythrocyte choline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B L; Jenden, D J; Tang, C; Read, S

    1989-01-01

    Choline concentrations in human erythrocytes increase after freezing and thawing, during incubation in Krebs-phosphate for 30 min or on storage at 0 degrees C for 3-24 hr. The increase is prevented by protein precipitation by 10% perchloric acid, 10% zinc hydroxide, 10% sodium tungstate or boiling in water. It is not prevented by EDTA (10 mM) and is increased by oleate (5 mM). We suggest that the increase is due to the action of phospholipase D on erythrocyte phospholipids.

  2. Characterization and detection of a widely distributed gene cluster that predicts anaerobic choline utilization by human gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-del Campo, Ana; Bodea, Smaranda; Hamer, Hilary A; Marks, Jonathan A; Haiser, Henry J; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Balskus, Emily P

    2015-04-14

    Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the human gut microbiota's effects on health and disease has been complicated by difficulties in linking metabolic functions associated with the gut community as a whole to individual microorganisms and activities. Anaerobic microbial choline metabolism, a disease-associated metabolic pathway, exemplifies this challenge, as the specific human gut microorganisms responsible for this transformation have not yet been clearly identified. In this study, we established the link between a bacterial gene cluster, the choline utilization (cut) cluster, and anaerobic choline metabolism in human gut isolates by combining transcriptional, biochemical, bioinformatic, and cultivation-based approaches. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and in vitro biochemical characterization of two cut gene products linked the entire cluster to growth on choline and supported a model for this pathway. Analyses of sequenced bacterial genomes revealed that the cut cluster is present in many human gut bacteria, is predictive of choline utilization in sequenced isolates, and is widely but discontinuously distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. Given that bacterial phylogeny is a poor marker for choline utilization, we were prompted to develop a degenerate PCR-based method for detecting the key functional gene choline TMA-lyase (cutC) in genomic and metagenomic DNA. Using this tool, we found that new choline-metabolizing gut isolates universally possessed cutC. We also demonstrated that this gene is widespread in stool metagenomic data sets. Overall, this work represents a crucial step toward understanding anaerobic choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and underscores the importance of examining this microbial community from a function-oriented perspective. Anaerobic choline utilization is a bacterial metabolic activity that occurs in the human gut and is linked to multiple diseases. While bacterial genes responsible for

  3. The effect of cytidine-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) on brain lipid changes during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Medio, G.E.; Trovarelli, G.; Piccinin, G.L.; Porcellati, G.

    1984-01-01

    Lipid synthesis has been tested in vivo in different brain areas of 12-month-old male rats. Cortex, striatum, brainstem, and subcortex of brain have been examined. The cerebellum was discarded. Mixtures of (2- 3 H)glycerol and (Me- 14 C)choline were injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain as lipid precursors, and their incorporation into total lipid, water-soluble intermediates and choline-containing phospholipids was examined 1 hr after isotope injection. In another series of experiments cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) was injected intraventricularly to the aged rats 10 min before sacrifice with a simultaneous injection, and radioactivity assays were performed as above. Distribution of radioactivity content of CDP-choline among brain areas 10 min after its administration showed a noticeable enrichment of the nucleotide and water-soluble-related compounds in the examined areas, but to a lesser degree in the cerebral cortex. The incorporation of labelled glycerol, which is severely depressed in aged rats in all four areas [Gaiti et al, 1982, 1983], was increased only in the cortex, and apparently decreased in the other areas. This last result is probably due to a dilution effect brought about by the administered cold CDP-choline upon the ( 14 C)-containing water-soluble metabolites. As a consequence, the ( 3 H)/( 14 C) ratio in total lipid and in isolated phosphatidylcholine and choline plasmalogen increased after CDP-choline treatment

  4. The efflux of choline from nerve cells: mediation by ionic gradients and functional exchange of choline from glia to neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Ferret, B.; Massarelli, R.; Mykita, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between ions and the efflux of choline, and suggests the possibility of a balance effect for choline fluxes which is produced and maintained by ioinic gradients. It is also suggested that glial cells may actively exchange choline with neurons during nerve actively exchange choline with neurons during nerve activity, and that they may function as a choline reservoir for neuronal needs. The study shows that neurons and glial cells spontaneously discharge choline into the incubation medium. The exiting choline is essentially of free origin, as can be seen in an illustration provided. Neurons and glial cells had been prelabelled with ( 14 C) choline overnight, and labelled for 15 min with tritium-choline. The higher amount of tritium-choline exiting the cells indicates that it is the freshly labelled choline which is preferentially released. The remaining of ( 14 C) - choline exiting the cells corresponds to the free choline of phospholipid origin which amounts to about one third of the total free choline content

  5. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term total parenteral nutrition: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, A L; Sohel, M; Brown, M; Jenden, D J; Ahn, C; Roch, M; Brawley, T L

    2001-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that choline deficiency, manifested in low plasma-free choline concentration and hepatic injury, may develop in patients who require long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Preliminary studies have suggested lecithin or choline supplementation might lead to improved visual memory in the elderly and reverse abnormal neuropsychological development in children. We sought to determine if choline-supplemented TPN would lead to improvement in neuropsychological test scores in a group of adult, choline-deficient outpatients receiving TPN. Eleven subjects (8 males, 3 females) who received nightly TPN for more than 80% of their nutritional needs for at least 12 weeks before entry in the study were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included active drug abuse, mental retardation, cerebral vascular accident, head trauma, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, (prothrombin time [PT] >2x control), or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Patients were randomly assigned to receive their usual TPN regimen (n = 6, aged 34.0 +/- 12.6 years) over a 12-hour nightly infusion or their usual TPN regimen plus choline chloride (2 g) (n = 5, aged 37.3 +/- 7.3 years). The following neuropsychological tests were administered at baseline and after 24 weeks of choline supplementation (or placebo): Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R, intellectual functioning), Weschler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R, two subtests, verbal and visual memory), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (visuospatial functioning and perceptual organization), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (verbal fluency), Grooved Pegboard (manual dexterity and motor speed), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, rote verbal learning ability), and Trail Making Parts A & B (visual scanning, psychomotor speed and set shifting). Scores were reported in terms of standard scores including z scores and percentile ranks. Mean absolute changes in raw scores were compared between groups

  6. Protective Effect of Morocco Carob Honey Against Lead-Induced Anemia and Hepato-Renal Toxicity

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    Aicha Fassi Fihri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Natural honey has many biological activities including protective effect against toxic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carob honey against lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity and lead-induced anemia in rabbits. Methods: Twenty four male rabbits were allocated into four groups six rabbits each; group 1: control group, received distilled water (0.1 ml / kg.b.wt /daily; group 2: received oral lead acetate (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily; group 3: treated with oral honey (1g /kg.b.wt/daily and oral lead (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily, and group 4: received oral honey (1 g/kg.b.wt/daily. Honey and lead were given daily during 24 days of experimentation. Laboratory tests and histopathological evaluations of kidneys were done. Results: Oral administration of lead induced hepatic and kidney injury and caused anemia during three weeks of the exposure. Treatment with honey prevented hepato-renal lead toxicity and ameliorated lead-induced anemia when honey was given to animals during lead exposure. Conclusion: It might be concluded that honey has a protective effect against lead-induced blood, hepatic and renal toxic effects.

  7. Protective Effect of Morocco Carob Honey Against Lead-Induced Anemia and Hepato-Renal Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihri, Aicha Fassi; Al-Waili, Noori S; El-Haskoury, Redouan; Bakour, Meryem; Amarti, Afaf; Ansari, Mohammad J; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2016-01-01

    Natural honey has many biological activities including protective effect against toxic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carob honey against lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity and lead-induced anemia in rabbits. Twenty four male rabbits were allocated into four groups six rabbits each; group 1: control group, received distilled water (0.1 ml / kg.b.wt /daily); group 2: received oral lead acetate (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily); group 3: treated with oral honey (1g /kg.b.wt/daily) and oral lead (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily), and group 4: received oral honey (1 g/kg.b.wt/daily). Honey and lead were given daily during 24 days of experimentation. Laboratory tests and histopathological evaluations of kidneys were done. Oral administration of lead induced hepatic and kidney injury and caused anemia during three weeks of the exposure. Treatment with honey prevented hepato-renal lead toxicity and ameliorated lead-induced anemia when honey was given to animals during lead exposure. It might be concluded that honey has a protective effect against lead-induced blood, hepatic and renal toxic effects. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Protective Effect of Morocco Carob Honey Against Lead-Induced Anemia and Hepato-Renal Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Aicha Fassi Fihri; Noori S. Al-Waili; Redouan El-Haskoury; Meryem Bakour; Afaf Amarti; Mohammad J. Ansari; Badiaa Lyoussi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Natural honey has many biological activities including protective effect against toxic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carob honey against lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity and lead-induced anemia in rabbits. Methods: Twenty four male rabbits were allocated into four groups six rabbits each; group 1: control group, received distilled water (0.1 ml / kg.b.wt /daily); group 2: received oral lead acetate (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily); group 3: tr...

  9. Lead-induced DNA damage in Vicia faba root cells: Potential involvement of oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Jean, Séverine; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Genotoxic effects of lead (0–20 µM) were investigated in whole-plant roots of Vicia faba L., grown hydroponically under controlled conditions. Lead-induced DNA damage in V. faba roots was evaluated by use of the comet assay, which allowed the detection of DNA strand-breakage and with the V. faba micronucleus test, which revealed chromosome aberrations. The results clearly indicate that lead induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependant manner with a maximum effect at 10 µM. In addition, at th...

  10. Metalloproteinase Inhibition Protects against Reductions in Circulating Adrenomedullin during Lead-induced Acute Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Regina A; Mendes, Gabryella; Possomato-Vieira, Jose S; Gonçalves-Rizzi, Victor Hugo; Kushima, Hélio; Delella, Flavia K; Dias-Junior, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    Intoxication with lead (Pb) results in increased blood pressure by mechanisms involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Recent findings have revealed that MMP type two (MMP-2) seems to cleave vasoactive peptides. This study examined whether MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels/activities increase after acute intoxication with low lead concentrations and whether these changes were associated with increases in blood pressure and circulating endothelin-1 or with reductions in circulating adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Here, we expand previous findings and examine whether doxycycline (a MMPs inhibitor) affects these alterations. Wistar rats received intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1st dose 8 μg/100 g of lead (or sodium) acetate, a subsequent dose of 0.1 μg/100 g to cover daily loss and treatment with doxycycline (30 mg/kg/day) or water by gavage for 7 days. Similar whole-blood lead levels (9 μg/dL) were found in lead-exposed rats treated with either doxycycline or water. Lead-induced increases in systolic blood pressure (from 143 ± 2 to 167 ± 3 mmHg) and gelatin zymography of plasma samples showed that lead increased MMP-9 (but not MMP-2) levels. Both lead-induced increased MMP-9 activity and hypertension were blunted by doxycycline. Doxycycline also prevented lead-induced reductions in circulating adrenomedullin. No significant changes in plasma levels of endothelin-1 or CGRP were found. Lead-induced decreases in nitric oxide markers and antioxidant status were not prevented by doxycycline. In conclusion, acute lead exposure increases blood pressure and MMP-9 activity, which were blunted by doxycycline. These findings suggest that MMP-9 may contribute with lead-induced hypertension by cleaving the vasodilatory peptide adrenomedullin, thereby inhibiting adrenomedullin-dependent lowering of blood pressure. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. Choline and Working Memory Training Improve Cognitive Deficits Caused by Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylyn Waddell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many behaviors in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and also improves working memory function in normal rats. We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with choline in the postnatal period will improve working memory during adolescence in normal and ethanol-exposed animals, and that working memory engagement during adolescence will transfer to other cognitive domains and have lasting effects on executive function in adulthood. Male and female offspring of rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (ET; 3% v/v or control dams given a non-ethanol liquid diet (CT were injected with choline (Cho; 100 mg/kg or saline (Sal once per day from postnatal day (P 16–P30. Animals were trained/tested on a working memory test in adolescence and then underwent attentional set shifting and reversal learning in young adulthood. In adolescence, ET rats required more training to reach criterion than CT-Sal. Choline improved working memory performance for both CT and ET animals. In young adulthood, ET animals also performed poorly on the set shifting and reversal tasks. Deficits were more robust in ET male rats than female ET rats, but Cho improved performance in both sexes. ET male rats given a combination of Cho and working memory training in adolescence required significantly fewer trials to achieve criterion than any other ET group, suggesting that early interventions can cause a persistent improvement.

  12. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  13. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  14. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  15. A comparison of choline:urea and choline:oxalic acid deep eutectic solvents at 338 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Moura, Leila M.; Turner, Adam H.; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata; Callear, Samantha K.; McCune, Jade A.; Scherman, Oren A.; Holbrey, John D.

    2018-05-01

    1:2 choline chloride:urea and 1:1 choline chloride:oxalic acid deep eutectic solvents are compared at 338 K using liquid-phase neutron diffraction with H/D isotopic substitution to obtain differential neutron scattering cross sections and fitting of models to the experimental data using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. In comparison to the previously reported study of choline chloride:urea at 303 K, we observed significant weakening and lengthening of choline-OH⋯Cl- and choline-OH⋯hydrogen-bond acceptor correlations.

  16. Choline acetyltransferase expression during periods of behavioral activity and across natural sleep-wake states in the basal forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M A; McCarley, R W; Shiromani, P J

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined whether the expression of the messenger RNA encoding the protein responsible for acetylcholine synthesis is associated with sleep-wakefulness. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were analysed using a semi-quantitative assay in which reverse transcription was coupled to complementary DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction. To examine the relationship between steady-state messenger RNA and behavioral activity, rats were killed during the day (4.00 p.m.) or night (4.00 a.m.), and tissue from the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal bands of Broca was analysed. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were higher during the day than during the night. The second study examined more closely the association between choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels and individual bouts of wakefulness, slow-wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were low during wakefulness, intermediate in slow-wave sleep and high during rapid eye movement sleep. In contrast, protein activity, measured at a projection site of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, was higher during wakefulness than during sleep. These findings suggest that choline acetyltransferase protein and messenger RNA levels exhibit an inverse relationship during sleep and wakefulness. The increased messenger RNA expression during sleep is consistent with a restorative function of sleep.

  17. New approaches to the synthesis of diclofenac choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dąbrowska-Maś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The process described herein proceeds to obtaining diclofenac choline from choline bicarbonate and diclofenac acid in mild conditions, using non-toxic solvent, with the same impurity profile deriving from diclofenac particle as for diclofenac sodium EP. The substance is also substantially free from impurities deriving from choline and free from inorganic by-products, what means that the quality may be accepted for use as an active substance in medicine.

  18. Formulation and utilization of choline based samples for dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2013-01-01

    their performance to more traditional sample formulations. Choline yields stable samples with exceptional polarization performance while simultaneously offering the capability to easily remove the choline after dissolution, perform experiments with the hyperpolarized choline, or anything in between....

  19. Choline transport via choline transporter-like protein 1 in conditionally immortalized rat syncytiotrophoblast cell lines TR-TBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N-Y; Choi, H-M; Kang, Y-S

    2009-04-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for phospholipids and acetylcholine biosynthesis in normal development of fetus. In the present study, we investigated the functional characteristics of choline transport system and inhibitory effect of cationic drugs on choline transport in rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT). Choline transport was weakly Na(+) dependent and significantly influenced by extracellular pH and by membrane depolarization. The transport process of choline is saturable with Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) of 68microM and 130microM in TR-TBT 18d-1 and TR-TBT 18d-2 respectively. Choline uptake in the cells was inhibited by unlabeled choline and hemicholinium-3 as well as various organic cations including guanidine, amiloride and acetylcholine. However, the prototypical organic cation tetraethylammonium and cimetidine showed very little inhibitory effect of choline uptake in TR-TBT cells. RT-PCR revealed that choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) are expressed in TR-TBT cells. The transport properties of choline in TR-TBT cells were similar or identical to that of CTL1 but not OCT2. CTL1 was also detected in human placenta. In addition, several cationic drugs such as diphenhydramine and verapamil competitively inhibited choline uptake in TR-TBT 18d-1 with K(i) of 115microM and 55microM, respectively. Our results suggest that choline transport system, which has intermediate affinity and weakly Na(+) dependent, in TR-TBT seems to occur through a CTL1 and this system may have relevance with the uptake of pharmacologically important organic cation drugs.

  20. Lack of beneficial effect of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel James Offor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various diseases including testicular toxicity. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated a beneficial role of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats. Materials and Method: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats received deionised water (10 ml/kg, group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Absolute and relative weights of testis, epididymal sperm reserve, testicular sperm count, percent sperm motility and percent sperm viability were monitored. Results: AC failed to show any significant beneficial effect in ameliorating lead induced testicular toxicity. Conclusions: There seem to be a poor adsorption on lead onto AC in vivo.

  1. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline...

  2. Plasma immune protein analysis in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: Evidence for altered expressions of immune factors associated with a choline-supplemented diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Huynh, Truong-Giang; Liu, Ping-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to unravel the regulatory roles of choline in activating immune responses and disease resistance of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish were fed a choline-supplemented diet at 1 g kg -1 of feed for 30 days. Fish fed a fish meal basal diet without choline-supplement served as controls. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. Meanwhile, plasma proteomics of fish in each group were also evaluated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrophotometry (MS/MS), then a Western blot analysis or real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm differential expressions of immune-enhancing proteins. Results showed that choline significantly increased survival of E. coioides 48 days after being injected with V. alginolyticus. From maps of plasma proteins, a comparative analysis between the control and choline groups revealed that 111 spots matched, with 26 altered expression spots in the choline group. Of these 26 spots, 16 were upregulated and 10 downregulated. After protein identification by reverse-phase nano-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization MS/MS analysis, eight of 26 proteins were found to be immune-related proteins, all of which were upregulated, including complement 3 (C3), alpha-2-macroglobulin-P-like isoform (A2M), fibrinogen beta chain precursor (FBG), and immunoglobulin heavy constant mu (Ighm) proteins. Expression of the A2M protein and A2M enzyme activity in plasma of fish fed choline significantly increased compared to the control group. Additionally, A2M messenger (m)RNA transcripts were also upregulated in the liver and kidneys. Significantly higher C3 expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels were detected in the liver of fish in the choline group. Moreover, FBG gene expressions in the liver and kidneys significantly increased, while Ighm increased in the

  3. Effect of hypoxia on the uptake of [methyl-3H]choline, [1-14C] acetate and [18F]FDG in cultured prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toshihiko; Bansal, Aditya; DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Choline, acetate and glucose ([2- 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose, [ 18 F]FDG) analogs are under investigation as positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the imaging of prostate cancer; however, their response to tumor hypoxia has not been clarified. Methods: The uptake of [methyl- 3 H]choline, [1- 14 C]acetate and [ 18 F]FDG was monitored in androgen-independent PC-3 cells and androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells under aerobic or anoxic conditions. The effect of androgen depletion was also examined. Results: PC-3 cells exhibited aerobic choline and acetate uptake five to six times higher than FDG uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed choline uptake 2.2-fold higher than acetate uptake and 10-fold higher than FDG uptake. After 4 h of anoxia, PC-3 cells showed an 85% increase in FDG uptake, a 15% decrease in choline uptake and a 36% increase in acetate uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed a 212% increase in FDG uptake, a 28% decrease in choline uptake and no change in acetate uptake. Androgen depletion resulted in a marked decrease in the uptake of all tracers in LNCaP cells but no changes in PC-3 cells. Conclusion: In aerobic conditions, both PC-3 and LNCaP cells exhibited an order of uptake preference as follows: choline>acetate>FDG. In hypoxic cells, the order is reversed, reflecting diverse biochemical responses to hypoxia. These findings may help to explain PET imaging findings of the diverse responses of these tracers in different stages and locations of prostate cancer. Androgen depletion markedly suppressed the uptake of all three tracers in LNCaP cells, which suggests the potential for underestimation of the disease state when PET imaging is performed subsequent to antiandrogen therapy

  4. CDP-choline modulates matrix metalloproteinases in rat sciatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Elif Basaran; Bekar, Ahmet; Turkyilmaz, Mesut; Gumus, Abdullah; Kafa, Ilker Mustafa; Cansev, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    CDP-choline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine) improves functional recovery, promotes nerve regeneration, and decreases perineural scarring in rat peripheral nerve injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of CDP-choline with regard to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the rat-transected sciatic nerve injury model. Male Wistar rats were randomized into Sham, Saline, and CDP-choline groups. Rats in Sham group received Sham surgery, whereas rats in Saline and CDP-choline groups underwent right sciatic nerve transection followed by immediate primary saturation and injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% NaCl (1 mL/kg) and CDP-choline (600 μg/kg), respectively. Sciatic nerve samples were obtained 1, 3, and 7 d after the surgery and analyzed for levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-3, and axonal regeneration. CDP-choline treatment decreased the levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas increasing levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 significantly on the third and seventh day after injury compared to Saline group. In addition, CDP-choline administration resulted in new axon formation and formation and advancement of myelination on newly formed islets (compartments) of axonal regrowth. Our data show, for the first time, that CDP-choline modulates MMP activity and promotes the expression of TIMPs to stimulate axonal regeneration. These data help to explain one mechanism by which CDP-choline provides neuroprotection in peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P < 0.05) increased in ginger extract treated rat groups. In addition, histological studies showed lesser renal changes in lead plus ginger extract treated rat groups than that of lead alone treated rat groups. These results indicate that ginger extract alleviated lead toxic effects by enhancing the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase.

  6. Thymoquinone ameliorates lead-induced brain damage in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radad, Khaled; Hassanein, Khaled; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; Moldzio, Rudolf; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of thymoquinone, the major active ingredient of Nigella sativa seeds, against lead-induced brain damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. In which, 40 rats were divided into four groups (10 rats each). The first group served as control. The second, third and fourth groups received lead acetate, lead acetate and thymoquinone, and thymoquinone only, respectively, for one month. Lead acetate was given in drinking water at a concentration of 0.5 g/l (500 ppm). Thymoquinone was given daily at a dose of 20mg/kg b.w. in corn oil by gastric tube. Control and thymoquinone-treated rats showed normal brain histology. Treatment of rats with lead acetate was shown to produce degeneration of endothelial lining of brain blood vessels with peri-vascular cuffing of mononuclear cells consistent to lymphocytes, congestion of choroid plexus blood vessels, ischemic brain infarction, chromatolysis and neuronal degeneration, microglial reaction and neuronophagia, degeneration of hippocampal and cerebellar neurons, and axonal demyelination. On the other hand, co-administration of thymoquinone with lead acetate markedly decreased the incidence of lead acetate-induced pathological lesions. Thus the current study shed some light on the beneficial effects of thymoquinone against neurotoxic effects of lead in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Proanthocyanidins Attenuation of Chronic Lead-Induced Liver Oxidative Damage in Kunming Mice via the Nrf2/ARE Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Long

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is harmful for human health and animals. Proanthocyanidins (PCs, a natural antioxidant, possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against lead-induced liver damage have not been clarified. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PCs on the hepatotoxicity of male Kunming mice induced by chronic lead exposure. A total of 70 healthy male Kunming mice were averagely divided into four groups: control group, i.e., the group exposed to lead, the group treated with PCs, and the group co-treated with lead and PCs. The mice exposed to lead were given water containing 0.2% lead acetate. Mice treated in the PCs and PCs lead co-treated groups were given PC (100 mg/kg in 0.9% saline by oral gavage. Lead exposure caused a significant elevation in the liver function parameters, lead level, lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The induction of oxidative stress and histological alterations in the liver were minimized by co-treatment with PCs. Meanwhile, the number of Transferase-Mediated Deoxyuridine Triphosphate-Biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL-positive cells was significantly reduced in the PCs/lead co-treated group compared to the lead group. In addition, the lead group showed an increase in the expression level of Bax, while the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased. Furthermore, the lead group showed an increase in the expression level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-related genes and protein (GRP78 and CHOP. Co-treated with PCs significantly reversed these expressions in the liver. PCs were, therefore, demonstrated to have protective, antioxidant, and anti-ER stress and anti-apoptotic activities in liver damage caused by chronic lead exposure in the Kunming mouse. This may be due to the ability of PCs to enhance the ability of liver tissue to protect against oxidative stress via the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, resulting in decreasing ER stress

  8. Reverse Algols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reverse Algols, binary systems with a semidetached configuration in which the more massive component is in contact with the critical equipotential surface, are examined. Observational evidence for reverse Algols is presented and the parameters of seven reverse Algols are listed. The evolution of Algols and reverse Algols is discussed. It is suggested that, because reverse Algols represent the premass-reversal semidetached phase of close binary evolution, the evolutionary time scale between regular and reverse Algols is the ratio of the number of confirmed systems of these two Algol types.

  9. Different behaviors of single and multi wall carbon nanotubes for studying electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of choline oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjadi, Sharareh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Rahimi, Parvaneh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In the presence of a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), Choline oxidase (ChOx) as a model enzyme was uniformly immobilized on either single or multi wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs or MWCNTs) covered on glassy carbon (GC) electrode, and the electron transfer and electroanalytical response of enzyme toward choline was evaluated. → ChOx on RTIL/MWCNTs/GC electrode showed higher electrical conductivity, better reversibility of redox reaction and higher electron transfer rate indicating more facile and rapid rate of electron transfer. → On the other hand, RTIL/SWCNTs/GC electrode showed higher amount of enzyme loading, higher enzyme-substrate affinity, lower detection limit, better sensitivity and wider linear range. → Consequently, MWCNTs are preferable for kinetic study of ChOx, while SWCNTs are more convenient for biosensing applications. - Abstract: This work presents a detailed comparison between single and multi wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) in an effort to understand which could be a better supporting material for studying the electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of enzymes. Choline oxidase (ChOx) was chosen as a model enzyme for evaluation of the electrodes' performance. The enzyme was adsorbed on either SWCNT or MWCNT modified electrode, in the presence of a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), and its electron transfer and electroanalytical response toward choline was investigated. RTIL/MWCNTs/GC electrode was uniformly covered by ChOx. Besides, higher electrical conductivity, better reversibility of the ChOx redox reaction and higher electron transfer rate of the enzyme indicated more facile and rapid rate of electron transfer. On the other hand, RTIL/SWCNTs/GC electrodes showed higher amount of enzyme loading, higher enzyme-substrate affinity, lower detection limit, better sensitivity and wider linear range. Consequently, MWCNTs are preferable for kinetic study of ChOx, while SWCNTs are more convenient

  10. Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the analysis of the concept of reverse logistics and actual reverse processes which are implemented in mining industry and finding solutions for the optimization of reverse logistics in this sphere. The objective of this paper was the assessment of the development of reverse logistics in mining industry on the example of potash production. The theoretical part was based on reverse logistics and mining waste related literature and provided foundations for further...

  11. Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a function of choline supply in utero

    OpenAIRE

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J.E.; Glenn, Melissa J.; Mellott, Tiffany J.; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity involved in cognitive function. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP) diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then re...

  12. The nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of the dietary requirement for choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Karen D; Zeisel, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Advances in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics have been instrumental in demonstrating that nutrient requirements vary among individuals. This is exemplified by studies of the nutrient choline, in which gender, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, estrogen status, and gut microbiome composition have been shown to influence its optimal intake level. Choline is an essential nutrient with a wide range of biological functions, and current studies are aimed at refining our understanding of its requirements and, importantly, on defining the molecular mechanisms that mediate its effects in instances of suboptimal dietary intake. This chapter introduces the reader to challenges in developing individual nutrition recommendations, the biological function of choline, current and future research paradigms to fully understand the consequences of inadequate choline nutrition, and some forward thinking about the potential for individualized nutrition recommendations to become a tangible application for improved health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lead phytotoxicity in soils and nutrient solutions is related to lead induced phosphorus deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheyns, Karlien; Peeters, Sofie; Delcourt, Dorien; Smolders, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study was set up to relate lead (Pb) bioavailability with its toxicity to plants in soils. Tomato and barley seedlings were grown in six different PbCl 2 spiked soils (pH: 4.7–7.4; eCEC: 4.2–41.7 cmol c /kg). Soils were leached and pH corrected after spiking to exclude confounding factors. Plant growth was halved at 1600–6500 mg Pb/kg soil for tomato and at 1900–8300 mg Pb/kg soil for barley. These soil Pb threshold were unrelated to soil pH, organic carbon, texture or eCEC and neither soil solution Pb nor Pb 2+ ion activity adequately explained Pb toxicity among soils. Shoot phosphorus (P) concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tomato grown in hydroponics at either varying P supply or at increasing Pb (equal initial P) illustrated that shoot P explained growth response in both scenarios. The results suggest that Pb toxicity is partially related to Pb induced P deficiency, likely due to lead phosphate precipitation. - Highlights: ► Tomato and barley shoot growth was affected by Pb toxicity in six different soils. ► Soil properties did not explain differences in plant Pb toxicity among soils. ► Neither soil solution Pb nor Pb 2+ ion activity explained Pb toxicity among soils. ► Shoot phosphorus concentration decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. ► Lead induced a P deficiency in plants, likely due to lead phosphate precipitation. - Soil properties did not explain differences in plant lead toxicity among different soils. Shoot phosphorus concentration decreased with increasing soil lead concentrations.

  14. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    many applications, one of which is desalination of seawater. The inaugural Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to van 't Hoff for his seminal work in this area. The present article explains the principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis. Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis. As the name suggests, reverse osmosis is the ...

  15. Multilayer Choline Phosphate Molecule Modified Surface with Enhanced Cell Adhesion but Resistance to Protein Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyu; Yang, Ming; Liu, Botao; Li, Zhiqiang; Tan, Hong; Li, Jianshu

    2017-08-22

    Choline phosphate (CP), which is a new zwitterionic molecule, and has the reverse order of phosphate choline (PC) and could bind to the cell membrane though the unique CP-PC interaction. Here we modified a glass surface with multilayer CP molecules using surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and the ring-opening method. Polymeric brushes of (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) were synthesized by SI-ATRP from the glass surface. Then the grafted PDMAEMA brushes were used to introduce CP groups to fabricate the multilayer CP molecule modified surface. The protein adsorption experiment and cell culture test were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the modified surfaces by using human umbilical veinendothelial cells (HUVECs). The protein adsorption results demonstrated that the multilayer CP molecule decorated surface could prevent the adsorption of fibrinogen and serum protein. The adhesion and proliferation of cells were improved significantly on the multilayer CP molecule modified surface. Therefore, the biocompatibility of the material surface could be improved by the modified multilayer CP molecule, which exhibits great potential for biomedical applications, e.g., scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  16. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.

    1984-01-01

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  17. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  18. Biocompatible choline based ionic salts: Solubility in short-chain alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Joana M.; Paninho, Ana B.; Môlho, Marta F.; Nunes, Ana V.M.; Rocha, Angelo; Lourenço, Nuno M.T.; Najdanovic-Visak, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biocompatible ionic liquids based on choline esters were synthesized in this work. • Solubility of choline and choline esters based ionic salt in alcohols were measured. • Activity coefficients were calculated. • Experimental data were correlated by means of the semi-empirical Grant equation. -- Abstract: In this work, we report data on solubility of choline chloride and choline acetate in short-chain linear alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol) at various temperatures. Furthermore, we synthesize two choline derivatives: hydrogen choline chloride glutarate ([CholGlut][Cl]) and hydrogen choline chloride succinate ([CholSucc][Cl]). Their characterization and solubility in short-chain alcohols as a function of temperature are also included. Activity coefficients were calculated and their comparisons with ideal solutions were discussed. The experimental data were correlated successfully by means of the semi-empirical Grant equation

  19. Potential role of NADPH-oxidase in early steps of lead-induced oxidative burst in Vicia faba roots

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Perchet, Geoffrey; Silvestre, Jérôme; Cecchi, Marie; Guiresse, Agnès Maritchù; Pinelli, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidative burst induced by lead in Vicia faba excised roots was investigated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Results showed that lead triggered a rapid and dose-dependent increase in chemiluminescence production. In this study, specific inhibitors of putative reactive oxygen species (ROS) sources were used to determine the mechanism of lead-induced ROS generation. This generation was sensitive to dephenylene iodonium (DPI), quinacrine and imidazole, some inhibitors of ...

  20. Distinct choline metabolic profiles are associated with differences in gene expression for basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer xenograft models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moestue, Siver A; Borgan, Eldrid; Huuse, Else M; Lindholm, Evita M; Sitter, Beathe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Engebraaten, Olav; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Gribbestad, Ingrid S

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of choline-containing compounds are frequently observed in breast carcinomas, and may serve as biomarkers for both diagnostic and treatment monitoring purposes. However, underlying mechanisms for the abnormal choline metabolism are poorly understood. The concentrations of choline-derived metabolites were determined in xenografted primary human breast carcinomas, representing basal-like and luminal-like subtypes. Quantification of metabolites in fresh frozen tissue was performed using high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR MAS MRS). The expression of genes involved in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) metabolism was retrieved from whole genome expression microarray analyses. The metabolite profiles from xenografts were compared with profiles from human breast cancer, sampled from patients with estrogen/progesterone receptor positive (ER+/PgR+) or triple negative (ER-/PgR-/HER2-) breast cancer. In basal-like xenografts, glycerophosphocholine (GPC) concentrations were higher than phosphocholine (PCho) concentrations, whereas this pattern was reversed in luminal-like xenografts. These differences may be explained by lower choline kinase (CHKA, CHKB) expression as well as higher PtdCho degradation mediated by higher expression of phospholipase A2 group 4A (PLA2G4A) and phospholipase B1 (PLB1) in the basal-like model. The glycine concentration was higher in the basal-like model. Although glycine could be derived from energy metabolism pathways, the gene expression data suggested a metabolic shift from PtdCho synthesis to glycine formation in basal-like xenografts. In agreement with results from the xenograft models, tissue samples from triple negative breast carcinomas had higher GPC/PCho ratio than samples from ER+/PgR+ carcinomas, suggesting that the choline metabolism in the experimental models is representative for luminal-like and basal-like human breast cancer. The differences in choline metabolite

  1. The role of PGC-1α and MRP1 in lead-induced mitochondrial toxicity in testicular Sertoli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen; Liu, Xi; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yan; Du, Chuang; Xu, Siyuan; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Chunhong; Yang, Chengfeng

    2016-01-01

    The lead-induced toxic effect on mitochondria in Sertoli cells is not well studied and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we reported the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in lead acetate-induced mitochondrial toxicity in mouse testicular Sertoli cells TM4 line. We found that lead acetate treatment significantly reduced the expression level of PGC-1α, but increased the level of MRP1 in mitochondria of TM4 cells. To determine the role of PGC-1α and MRP1 in lead acetate-induced mitochondrial toxicity, we then generated PGC-1α stable overexpression and MRP1 stable knockdown TM4 cells, respectively. The lead acetate treatment caused TM4 cell mitochondrial ultrastructure damages, a decrease in ATP synthesis, an increase in ROS levels, and apoptotic cell death. In contrast, stably overexpressing PGC-1α significantly ameliorated the lead acetate treatment-caused mitochondrial toxicity and apoptosis. Moreover, it was also found that stably knocking down the level of MRP1 increased the TM4 cell mitochondrial lead-accumulation by 4–6 folds. Together, the findings from this study suggest that PGC-1α and MRP1 plays important roles in protecting TM4 cells against lead-induced mitochondrial toxicity, providing a better understanding of lead-induced mitochondrial toxicity.

  2. Nutrition in pregnancy: the argument for including a source of choline

    OpenAIRE

    Zeisel, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    Steven H Zeisel Nutrition Research Institute at Kannapolis, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: Women, during pregnancy and lactation, should eat foods that contain adequate amounts of choline. A mother delivers large amounts of choline across the placenta to the fetus, and after birth she delivers large amounts of choline in milk to the infant; this greatly increases the demand on the choline stores of the mother. Adequate inta...

  3. X-ray diffraction study of choline chloride's β form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrouleas, V.; Lemmon, R.M.; Christensen, A.

    1978-01-01

    The organic salt choline chloride exists in two crystalline polymorphs. One (the α form) is extraordinarily sensitive to ionizing radiation, the other (the β form) is not. The present report describes an x-ray diffraction study of the β form. The structure has been found to be highly disordered face centered cubic. A reasonable least-square refinement of the intensity data has been achieved in the centrosymmetric space group Fm3 or Fm3m by use of a molecular model with restrained bond lengths. The results show that in the β form the electronic density due to the choline cation is closely spaced around the N, so that hydrogen bonding to the chloride is unlikely. Comparison with infrared and NMR data indicates that the disordering is dynamic and can be ascribed to rotations of the choline ion around crystallographic symmetry axes. Possible connections of these results with the radiation stability of the β form are discussed

  4. Protective Effect of Vitamin E Against Lead-induced Memory and Learning Impairment in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead (Pb2+ is a neurotoxin substance that has been known for its adverse effects on central nervous system and memory. Previous studies reported the potential effect of vitamin E as a memory enhancer. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to assess the protective effects of vitamin E against Pb-induced amnesia. Materials and Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats (200-250 g were divided equally into the saline, Pb, Pb + vitamin E, and vitamin E alone groups. To induce Pb toxicity, rats received water that contained 0.2% Pb instead of regular water for 1 month. Rats pretreated, treated or post treated with vitamin E (150 mg/kg for 2 months. Passive avoidance learning was assessed using Shuttle-Box after two months. Retention was tested 24 and 48 hours after training. Results The results showed that Pb caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes in passive avoidance learning. Vitamin E reversed learning and memory deficits in pre, post or co- exposure with Pb (P < 0.001. Conclusions According to the results of this study, administration of vitamin E to rats counteracts the negative effects of Pb on learning and memory. To more precisely extrapolate these findings to humans, future clinical studies are warranted.

  5. Effects of vitamin E on lead-induced impairments in hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Karamian, Ruhollah; Komaki, Alireza; Tahmasebi, Lida; Taheri, Masoumeh; Nazari, Masoumeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Sarihi, Abdolrahman

    2015-12-10

    Lead (Pb) exposure during development is associated with impaired cognitive function and long-term potentiation (LTP). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant that could have protective effects against Pb intoxication. In this study, we examined the protective effects of vitamin E against Pb-induced LTP impairments. Forty-six adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 treatment groups: (1) control; (2) Pb exposure; (3) VE; (4) Pb +VE; (5) Pb exposure followed by VE 2 months after exposure; (6) VE followed by Pb exposure 1 month after treatment. Rats were exposed to Pb through daily consumption of Pb-contaminated distilled water; VE was administered by daily gavage for 3 months. After this period, the population spike (PS) amplitudes and the slopes of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were measured in the dentate gyrus (DG) area of the hippocampus in adult rats in response to electrical stimulation applied to the perforant pathway in vivo. Blood samples were also collected to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS). Biochemical analyses demonstrated significant increases in plasma MDA and TOS levels in the Pb-exposed group compared to the control group. VE-protected groups revealed significant increases in TAC levels. Our results demonstrate that Pb decreased EPSP slopes and PS amplitudes compared to the control group, whereas VE increased these parameters compared to the control group. Co-administration of VE with Pb exposure inhibited Pb-induced effects. These findings suggest that VE via its antioxidant activity reverses Pb-induced impairments of synaptic plasticity in the DG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Involvement of microglia activation in the lead induced long-term potentiation impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chao Liu

    Full Text Available Exposure of Lead (Pb, a known neurotoxicant, can impair spatial learning and memory probably via impairing the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP as well as hippocampal neuronal injury. Activation of hippocampal microglia also impairs spatial learning and memory. Thus, we raised the hypothesis that activation of microglia is involved in the Pb exposure induced hippocampal LTP impairment and neuronal injury. To test this hypothesis and clarify its underlying mechanisms, we investigated the Pb-exposure on the microglia activation, cytokine release, hippocampal LTP level as well as neuronal injury in in vivo or in vitro model. The changes of these parameters were also observed after pretreatment with minocycline, a microglia activation inhibitor. Long-term low dose Pb exposure (100 ppm for 8 weeks caused significant reduction of LTP in acute slice preparations, meanwhile, such treatment also significantly increased hippocampal microglia activation as well as neuronal injury. In vitro Pb-exposure also induced significantly increase of microglia activation, up-regulate the release of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in microglia culture alone as well as neuronal injury in the co-culture with hippocampal neurons. Inhibiting the microglia activation with minocycline significantly reversed the above-mentioned Pb-exposure induced changes. Our results showed that Pb can cause microglia activation, which can up-regulate the level of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS, these proinflammatory factors may cause hippocampal neuronal injury as well as LTP deficits.

  7. Choline transport in the isolated rabbit corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, isolated epithelial sheets were obtained by performing two sequential anterior keratectomies, three weeks apart, on rabbit corneas. Light microscopy of the isolated sheets revealed a multilayered epithelium with an intact basal cell layer without contamination from other cell types. The accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into the epithelial sheets was studied at substrate concentrations varying from 1 to 100 μMoles with and without the addition of specific metabolic and stereochemical inhibitors. Accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into these sheets was saturable. Kinetic analysis, performed by estimation from double-reciprocal plots, revealed a single component system with a K m of 24.9 μM. The metabolic inhibitors potassium cyanide and ouabain showed no effect on the uptake of [ 3 H]choline; however, the stereochemical inhibitor hemicholinium-3 significantly reduced the accumulation of radiolabel at both high and low substrate concentrations. The results suggest a non-energy dependent yet a highly specific transport system for the accumulation of choline into the rabbit epithelium

  8. Transport and phosphorylation of choline in higher plant cells. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bligny, R.; Foray, M.F.; Roby, C.; Douce, R.

    1989-03-25

    When sycamore cells were suspended in basal medium containing choline, the latter was taken up by the cells very rapidly. A facilitated diffusion system appertained at low concentrations of choline and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At higher choline concentrations simple diffusion appeared to be the principal mode of uptake. Addition of choline to the perfusate of compressed sycamore cells monitored by /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy resulted in a dramatic accumulation of P-choline in the cytoplasmic compartment containing choline kinase and not in the vacuole. The total accumulation of P-choline over a 10-h period exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. During this period, in the absence of Pi in the perfusion medium there was a marked depletion of glucose-6-P, and the cytoplasmic Pi resonance disappeared almost completely. When a threshold of cytoplasmic Pi was attained, the phosphorylation of choline was sustained by the continuous release of Pi from the vacuole although at a much lower rate. However, when 100 microM inorganic phosphate was present in the perfusion medium, externally added Pi was preferentially used to sustain P-choline synthesis. It is clear, therefore, that cytosolic choline kinase associated with a carrier-mediated transport system for choline uptake appeared as effective systems for continuously trapping cytoplasmic Pi including vacuolar Pi entering the cytoplasm.

  9. Importance of Choline as Essential Nutrient and Its Role in Prevention of Various Toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somava Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient included as a member of the vitamin B12 group owing to its structural similarities with that of the other members of the group. Its roles and functions, however, extend much wider than that of the vitamins with which it is grouped. Choline is vital for maintenance of various key metabolic processes which play a role in the prevention or progression of various health impairments. The occurrence of diseases like neural tube defect (NTD and Alzheimer’s is prevented by the metabolic role of choline. It is also indispensable for mitigation of various forms of toxic contamination. While adequate level of choline in the body is essential, an excess of choline can result in various forms of disorder. To maintain the optimal level of choline in the body can be a challenge. The vital roles played by choline together with the range of contradictions and problems that choline presents make choline an interesting area of study. This paper attempts to summarize and review some recent publications on choline that have opened up new prospect in understanding the multiple role played by choline and in throwing light on the role played by this wonder essential nutrient in mitigating various forms of toxic contamination.

  10. Dysregulated choline metabolism in T-cell lymphoma: role of choline kinase-α and therapeutic targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, J; Bian, J; Wang, L; Zhou, J-Y; Wang, Y; Zhao, Y; Wu, L-L; Hu, J-J; Li, B; Chen, S-J; Yan, C; Zhao, W-L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have distinct metabolomic profile. Metabolic enzymes regulate key oncogenic signaling pathways and have an essential role on tumor progression. Here, serum metabolomic analysis was performed in 45 patients with T-cell lymphoma (TCL) and 50 healthy volunteers. The results showed that dysregulation of choline metabolism occurred in TCL and was related to tumor cell overexpression of choline kinase-α (Chokα). In T-lymphoma cells, pharmacological and molecular silencing of Chokα significantly decreased Ras-GTP activity, AKT and ERK phosphorylation and MYC oncoprotein expression, leading to restoration of choline metabolites and induction of tumor cell apoptosis/necropotosis. In a T-lymphoma xenograft murine model, Chokα inhibitor CK37 remarkably retarded tumor growth, suppressed Ras-AKT/ERK signaling, increased lysophosphatidylcholine levels and induced in situ cell apoptosis/necropotosis. Collectively, as a regulatory gene of aberrant choline metabolism, Chokα possessed oncogenic activity and could be a potential therapeutic target in TCL, as well as other hematological malignancies with interrupted Ras signaling pathways

  11. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  12. A blunted anxiolytic like effect of curcumin against acute lead induced anxiety in rat: involvement of serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benammi, Hind; El Hiba, Omar; Romane, Abderrahmane; Gamrani, Halima

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders sharing extreme or pathological anxiety states as the primary disturbance in mood or emotional tone, with increased fear and exaggerated acute stress responses. Medicinal plants are very variable, but some of them are used as a spice such as curcumin (Curcuma longa). Curcumin shows a wide range of pharmacological potentialities, however, little is known about its anxiolytic properties. The aim of our study was to assess the anti-anxiety potential of curcumin extract against experimental lead induced-anxiety in rats. Experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats intoxicated acutely with an intraperitoneal injection of Pb (25mg/kg B.W.) and/or concomitantly with administration of curcumin (30 mg/kg B.W.) for 3 days. Using immunohistochemistry and anxiety assessment tests (dark light box and elevated plus maze), we evaluated, respectively, the expression of serotonin (5HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the anxiety state in our animals. Our results showed, for the first time, a noticeable anxiolytic effect of curcumin against lead induced anxiety in rats and this may possibly result from modulation of central neuronal monoaminergic neurotransmission, especially serotonin, which has shown a significant reduction of the immunoreactivity within the DRN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  14. Multimodal elucidation of choline metabolism in a murine glioma model using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 11C-choline positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrl, H.F.; Schwab, J.; Hasenbach, K.; Reischl, G.; Tabatabai, G.; Quintanilla-Martinez, L.; Jiru, F.; Chughtai, K; Kiss, A.; Cay, F.; Bukala, D.; Heeren, R.M.A.; Pichler, B.J.; Sauter, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolites, transporters, and enzymes involved in choline metabolism are regarded as biomarkers for disease progression in a variety of cancers, but their in vivo detection is not ideal. Both magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS using chemical shift imaging (CSI) total choline (tCho)] and

  15. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  16. Molecular Effects of Doxorubicin on Choline Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal choline phospholipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS detected total choline (tCho signal can serve as an early noninvasive imaging biomarker of chemotherapy response in breast cancer. We have quantified the individual components of the tCho signal, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, phosphocholine (PC and free choline (Cho, before and after treatment with the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in weakly metastatic human MCF7 and triple-negative human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. While the tCho concentration did not change following doxorubicin treatment, GPC significantly increased and PC decreased. Of the two phosphatidylcholine-specific PLD enzymes, only PLD1, but not PLD2, mRNA was down-regulated by doxorubicin treatment. For the two reported genes encoding GPC phosphodiesterase, the mRNA of GDPD6, but not GDPD5, decreased following doxorubicin treatment. mRNA levels of choline kinase α (ChKα, which converts Cho to PC, were reduced following doxorubicin treatment. PLD1 and ChKα protein levels decreased following doxorubicin treatment in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with the PLD1 specific inhibitor VU0155069 sensitized MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of 100 nM of doxorubicin increased MDA-MB-231 cell migration. GDPD6, but not PLD1 or ChKα, silencing by siRNA abolished doxorubicin-induced breast cancer cell migration. Doxorubicin induced GPC increase and PC decrease are caused by reductions in PLD1, GDPD6, and ChKα mRNA and protein expression. We have shown that silencing or inhibiting these genes/proteins can promote drug effectiveness and reduce adverse drug effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of detecting PC and GPC individually.

  17. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  18. Choline concentrations are lower in postnatal plasma of preterm infants than in cord plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Kunze, Rebecca; Koch, Vera; Heni, Martin; Maas, Christoph; Abele, Harald; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2015-08-01

    Choline is essential to human development, particularly of the brain in the form of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and acetylcholine, for bile and lipoprotein formation, and as a methyl group donator. Choline is actively transported into the fetus, and maternal supply correlates with cognitive outcome. Interruption of placental supply may therefore impair choline homeostasis in preterm infants. Determination of postnatal plasma concentrations of choline and its derivatives betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) in preterm infants compared to cord and maternal blood matched for postmenstrual age (PMA). We collected plasma of very low-birth-weight infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (n = 162), cord plasma of term and preterm infants (n = 176, 24-42-week PMA), serum of parturients (n = 36), and plasma of healthy premenopausal women (n = 40). Target metabolites were analyzed with tandem mass spectrometry and reported as median (25th/75th percentiles). Cord plasma choline concentration was 41.4 (31.8-51.2) µmol/L and inversely correlated with PMA. In term but not in preterm infants, cord plasma choline was lower in girls than in boys. Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment did not affect choline levels in cord plasma, whereas betaine was decreased and DMG increased. In parturients and non-pregnant women, choline concentrations were 14.1 (10.3-16.9) and 8.8 (5.7-11.2) µmol/L, respectively, whereas betaine was lowest in parturients. After delivery, preterm infant plasma choline decreased to 20.8 (16.0-27.6) µmol/L within 48 h. Betaine and DMG correlated with plasma choline in all groups. In preterm infants, plasma choline decreases to 50 % of cord plasma concentrations, reflecting choline undernourishment and postnatal metabolic adaptation, and potentially contributing to impaired outcome.

  19. Choline-mediated modulation of hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Viktoria; Both, Martin; Draguhn, Andreas; Egorov, Alexei V

    2014-06-01

    The cholinergic system is critically involved in the modulation of cognitive functions, including learning and memory. Acetylcholine acts through muscarinic (mAChRs) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), which are both abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Previous evidence indicates that choline, the precursor and degradation product of Acetylcholine, can itself activate nAChRs and thereby affects intrinsic and synaptic neuronal functions. Here, we asked whether the cellular actions of choline directly affect hippocampal network activity. Using mouse hippocampal slices we found that choline efficiently suppresses spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) and can induce gamma oscillations. In addition, choline reduces synaptic transmission between hippocampal subfields CA3 and CA1. Surprisingly, these effects are mediated by activation of both mAChRs and α7-containing nAChRs. Most nicotinic effects became only apparent after local, fast application of choline, indicating rapid desensitization kinetics of nAChRs. Effects were still present following block of choline uptake and are, therefore, likely because of direct actions of choline at the respective receptors. Together, choline turns out to be a potent regulator of patterned network activity within the hippocampus. These actions may be of importance for understanding state transitions in normal and pathologically altered neuronal networks. In this study we asked whether choline, the precursor and degradation product of acetylcholine, directly affects hippocampal network activity. Using mouse hippocampal slices we found that choline efficiently suppresses spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R). In addition, choline reduces synaptic transmission between hippocampal subfields. These effects are mediated by direct activation of muscarinic as well as nicotinic cholinergic pathways. Together, choline turns out to be a potent regulator of patterned activity within hippocampal

  20. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, G; Sathiyabarathi, M; Robert, M Arokia; Tamilmani, T

    2016-08-01

    Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.

  1. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klig, L.S.; Friedli, L.; Schmid, E.

    1990-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed

  2. Anaerobic choline metabolism in microcompartments promotes growth and swarming of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Eleanor; Fu, Tiantian; Brown, Ian R; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Purdy, Kevin J; Frank, Stefanie; Chen, Yin

    2016-09-01

    Gammaproteobacteria are important gut microbes but only persist at low levels in the healthy gut. The ecology of Gammaproteobacteria in the gut environment is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that choline is an important growth substrate for representatives of Gammaproteobacteria. Using Proteus mirabilis as a model, we investigate the role of choline metabolism and demonstrate that the cutC gene, encoding a choline-trimethylamine lyase, is essential for choline degradation to trimethylamine by targeted mutagenesis of cutC and subsequent complementation experiments. Proteus mirabilis can rapidly utilize choline to enhance growth rate and cell yield in broth culture. Importantly, choline also enhances swarming-associated colony expansion of P. mirabilis under anaerobic conditions on a solid surface. Comparative transcriptomics demonstrated that choline not only induces choline-trimethylamine lyase but also genes encoding shell proteins for the formation of bacterial microcompartments. Subsequent analyses by transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of such novel microcompartments in cells cultivated in liquid broth and hyper-flagellated swarmer cells from solid medium. Together, our study reveals choline metabolism as an adaptation strategy for P. mirabilis and contributes to better understand the ecology of this bacterium in health and disease. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. {sup 18}F-Choline, {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate PET/CT: comparative analysis for imaging prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogsitter, Claudia; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [Carl Gustav Carus Medical School, University of Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the second most common tumour in men worldwide. Whereas prostate specific antigen (PSA) is an established biochemical marker, the optimal imaging method for all clinical scenarios has not yet been found. With the rising number of PET centres there is an increasing availability and use of {sup 18}F-/{sup 11}C-choline or {sup 11}C-acetate for staging of PCA. However, to date no final conclusion has been reached as to whether acetate or choline tracers should be preferred. In this review we provide an overview of the performance of choline and acetate PET for staging the primary and recurrent disease and lymph nodes in PCA, based on the literature of the last 10 years. Although predominantly choline has been used rather than acetate, both tracers performed in a similar manner in published studies. Choline as well as acetate have insufficient diagnostic accuracy for the staging of the primary tumour, due to a minimum detectable tumour size of 5 mm and inability to differentiate PCA from benign prostate hyperplasia, chronic prostatitis and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Regarding lymph node staging, choline tracers have demonstrated a high specificity. Unfortunately, the sensitivity is only moderate. For staging recurrent disease, sensitivity depends on the level of serum PSA (PSA should be >2 ng/ml). This applies to both choline and acetate. However, despite these limitations, a significant number of patients with recurrent disease can benefit from PET imaging by a change in treatment planning. (orig.)

  4. Influence of minerals on lead-induced alterations in liver function in rats exposed to long-term lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D'souza Sunil; Geraldine, Menezes; T, Venkatesh

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of minerals on lead-induced effect on the liver. Differentiation of minerals and heavy metals pose an inherent problem due to certain common properties shared by them. With this approach to the problem of heavy metal toxicity, in the present study two groups of male Wistar albino rats, one group (well-nourished) fed on mineral rich diet and other group (undernourished) fed on diet without mineral supplements were used. Both the groups of rats were subjected to long-term lead exposure. The diet of well-nourished group was supplemented with calcium (Ca); 1.2%, phosphorous (P); 0.6%, iron (Fe); 90 mg/kg, zinc (Zn); 50 mg/kg, magnesium (Mg); 0.08%, manganese (Mn); 70 mg/kg, selenium (Se); 0.2 mg/kg, copper (Cu); 5 mg/kg, molybdenum (Mo); 0.8 mg/kg, iodine (I); 0.6 mg/kg, cobalt (Co); 3.0 mg/kg. Their blood lead and parameters of liver function were monitored periodically. Results of the study showed a very high statistically significant increase (p < 0.001) in the blood lead (PbB) levels and liver function test parameters in the undernourished subjects compared to the well-nourished subjects. Nutritional management of lead poisoning is of importance since essential elements and toxic heavy metals may interact to minimize the absorption of lead.

  5. Influence of minerals on lead-induced alterations in liver function in rats exposed to long-term lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D' souza Sunil, E-mail: hermansdsouza@rediffmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, KMC, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Geraldine, Menezes, E-mail: gere1@rediffmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, St. John' s Medical College, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034, Karnataka (India); T, Venkatesh, E-mail: venky_tv@hotmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, St. John' s Medical College, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034, Karnataka (India)

    2009-07-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of minerals on lead-induced effect on the liver. Differentiation of minerals and heavy metals pose an inherent problem due to certain common properties shared by them. With this approach to the problem of heavy metal toxicity, in the present study two groups of male Wistar albino rats, one group (well-nourished) fed on mineral rich diet and other group (undernourished) fed on diet without mineral supplements were used. Both the groups of rats were subjected to long-term lead exposure. The diet of well-nourished group was supplemented with calcium (Ca); 1.2%, phosphorous (P); 0.6%, iron (Fe); 90 mg/kg, zinc (Zn); 50 mg/kg, magnesium (Mg); 0.08%, manganese (Mn); 70 mg/kg, selenium (Se); 0.2 mg/kg, copper (Cu); 5 mg/kg, molybdenum (Mo); 0.8 mg/kg, iodine (I); 0.6 mg/kg, cobalt (Co); 3.0 mg/kg. Their blood lead and parameters of liver function were monitored periodically. Results of the study showed a very high statistically significant increase (p < 0.001) in the blood lead (PbB) levels and liver function test parameters in the undernourished subjects compared to the well-nourished subjects. Nutritional management of lead poisoning is of importance since essential elements and toxic heavy metals may interact to minimize the absorption of lead.

  6. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano; Noto, Takahisa; Yamada, Atsushi; Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  7. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano, E-mail: ayano.takeuchi@astellas.com [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Noto, Takahisa [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi [Drug Safety Research Division, Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  8. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  9. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  10. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippelt, Dominique; van der Kint, Sander; van Herk, Kevin; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory

  11. Choline evokes fluid secretion by perfused rat mandibular gland without desensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, M; Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    M and evoked secretory responses comparable with those of acetylcholine (0.05-1.0 microM) administered at similar Na concentrations. Continuous infusion of choline, in contrast to acetylcholine, did not lead to a fall off in the secretory response (desensitization or tachyphylaxis) until the choline...

  12. Umbilical choline and related methylamines betaine and dimethylglycine in relation to birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, M.; Heijer, M. den; Semmekrot, B.A.; Sporken, J.M.J.; Ueland, P.M.; Blom, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for the newborn and risk of chronic disease in adulthood. Choline plays an essential role in the integrity of cell membranes, methylation reactions, and memory development. We examined whether choline, betaine,

  13. Conductivity and electrochemical stability of concentrated aqueous choline chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. P.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2017-10-01

    The conductivity and electrochemical stability of choline chloride (ChCl) solutions with water contents ranging from 20 to 39 wt % are studied. Exposing ChCl to moist ambient air yields a highly concentrated aqueous solution that, as an electrolyte, exhibits the properties and variations in conductivity with temperature and concentration characteristic of other similar systems. Its electrochemical stability window, determined by cyclic voltammetry, is comparable to that of ChCl-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Products of the electrolysis of ChCl‒H2O mixtures seem to be less toxic than those of Reline, Ethaline, and Maline.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles Composite Film for the Construction of a Novel Amperometric Choline Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a facile method to fabricate a novel choline biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Chitosan, a natural biocompatible polymer, was used to solubilize MWCNTs for constructing the aqueous Chit-MWCNTs solution. Then Chit-MWCNTs were first dropped on the surface of a cleaned platinum electrode. Finally, a thiolated silica sol containing AuNPs and choline oxidase (ChOx was immobilized on the surface of the Chit-MWCNTs-modified electrode. The MWCNTs/AuNPs/Pt electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for choline. The resulting choline biosensor showed high sensitivity of choline (3.56 μA/mM, and wide linear range from 0.05 to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 15 μM. In addition, good reproducibility and stability were obtained.

  15. Role of choline PET/CT in guiding target volume delineation for irradiation of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenboeck, S.M.; Kurth, J. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Gocke, C.; Kuhnt, T.; Hildebrandt, G. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Radiotherapy, Rostock (Germany); Krause, B.J. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Universitaet Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitaetsmedizin Rostock, Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Choline PET/CT has shown limitations for the detection of primary prostate cancer and nodal metastatic disease, mainly due to limited sensitivity and specificity. Conversely in the restaging of prostate cancer recurrence, choline PET/CT is a promising imaging modality for the detection of local regional and nodal recurrence with an impact on therapy management. This review highlights current literature on choline PET/CT for radiation treatment planning in primary and recurrent prostate cancer. Due to limited sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between benign and malignant prostatic tissues in primary prostate cancer, there is little enthusiasm for target volume delineation based on choline PET/CT. Irradiation planning for the treatment of single lymph node metastases on the basis of choline PET/CT is controversial due to its limited lesion-based sensitivity in primary nodal staging. In high-risk prostate cancer, choline PET/CT might diagnose lymph node metastases, which potentially can be included in the conventional irradiation field. Prior to radiation treatment of recurrent prostate cancer, choline PET/CT may prove useful for patient stratification by excluding distant disease which would require systemic therapy. In patients with local recurrence, choline PET/CT can be used to delineate local sites of recurrence within the prostatic resection bed allowing a boost to PET-positive sites. In patients with lymph node metastases outside the prostatic fossa and regional metastatic lymph nodes, choline PET/CT might influence radiation treatment planning by enabling extension of the target volume to lymphatic drainage sites with or without a boost to PET-positive lymph nodes. Further clinical randomized trials are required to assess treatment outcomes following choline-based biological radiation treatment planning in comparison with conventional radiation treatment planning. (orig.)

  16. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  17. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  18. Melatonin Protects Cultured Tobacco Cells against Lead-Induced Cell Death via Inhibition of Cytochrome c Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylińska, Agnieszka; Reiter, Russel J.; Posmyk, Malgorzata M.

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin was discovered in plants more than two decades ago and, especially in the last decade, it has captured the interests of plant biologists. Beyond its possible participation in photoperiod processes and its role as a direct free radical scavenger as well as an indirect antioxidant, melatonin is also involved in plant defense strategies/reactions. However, the mechanisms that this indoleamine activates to improve plant stress tolerance still require identification and clarification. In the present report, the ability of exogenous melatonin to protect Nicotiana tabacum L. line Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cells against the toxic exposure to lead was examined. Studies related to cell proliferation and viability, DNA fragmentation, possible translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, cell morphology after fluorescence staining and also the in situ accumulation of superoxide radicals measured via the nitro blue tetrazolium reducing test, were conducted. This work establishes a novel finding by correcting the inhibition of release of mitochondrial ctytocrome c in to the cytoplasm with the high accumulation of superoxide radicals. The results show that pretreatment with 200 nm of melatonin protected tobacco cells from DNA damage caused by lead. Melatonin, as an efficacious antioxidant, limited superoxide radical accumulation as well as cytochrome c release thereby, it likely prevents the activation of the cascade of processes leading to cell death. Fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide documented that lead-stressed cells additionally treated with melatonin displayed intact nuclei. The results revealed that melatonin at proper dosage could significantly increase BY-2 cell proliferation and protected them against death. It was proved that melatonin could function as an effective priming agent to promote survival of tobacco cells under harmful lead-induced stress conditions. PMID:28959267

  19. Melatonin Protects Cultured Tobacco Cells against Lead-Induced Cell Death via Inhibition of Cytochrome c Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kobylińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin was discovered in plants more than two decades ago and, especially in the last decade, it has captured the interests of plant biologists. Beyond its possible participation in photoperiod processes and its role as a direct free radical scavenger as well as an indirect antioxidant, melatonin is also involved in plant defense strategies/reactions. However, the mechanisms that this indoleamine activates to improve plant stress tolerance still require identification and clarification. In the present report, the ability of exogenous melatonin to protect Nicotiana tabacum L. line Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2 suspension cells against the toxic exposure to lead was examined. Studies related to cell proliferation and viability, DNA fragmentation, possible translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, cell morphology after fluorescence staining and also the in situ accumulation of superoxide radicals measured via the nitro blue tetrazolium reducing test, were conducted. This work establishes a novel finding by correcting the inhibition of release of mitochondrial ctytocrome c in to the cytoplasm with the high accumulation of superoxide radicals. The results show that pretreatment with 200 nm of melatonin protected tobacco cells from DNA damage caused by lead. Melatonin, as an efficacious antioxidant, limited superoxide radical accumulation as well as cytochrome c release thereby, it likely prevents the activation of the cascade of processes leading to cell death. Fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide documented that lead-stressed cells additionally treated with melatonin displayed intact nuclei. The results revealed that melatonin at proper dosage could significantly increase BY-2 cell proliferation and protected them against death. It was proved that melatonin could function as an effective priming agent to promote survival of tobacco cells under harmful lead-induced stress conditions.

  20. Protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Dev, Rahul; Rathore, Narendra Singh; Khatri, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation kills cells in the area being treated (the target tissue) as well as other surrounding healthy cells. The damaging effects of ionizing radiation on healthy tissue create a major barrier in effective treatment of common human cancers. Thus there is a need to find a safe and highly effective avenue to reduce normal cell damage during cancer therapy, plants have been used in the traditional healthcare system from time immemorial, and phyto products continue to play an essential role in medicine. Emblica, is reported to have an excellent radio protective activity, antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. In light of above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and lead induced biochemical alterations in the kidney of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Lead acetate treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or Lead Acetate treatment. The animals from all experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, pieces of the kidney were taken out and kept at - 20 deg C for different biochemical parameters. For the study the animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Lead acetate treatments. In the experimental groups the Emblica juice was given seven days prior to the radiation or lead acetate treatment. The various biochemical parameters viz, total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA were estimated. The values were observed in the form of increase or decrease. After combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate the changes were more severe showing synergistic effect of both the agent. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pre-treated animals. Thus it appears that Emblica is potent enough to check Lead and Radiation induced

  1. Comparative Effect of Silymarin and D-Penicillamine on Lead Induced Hemotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Missagh Jalali*

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed to investigate the adverse effects of acute lead intoxication on hemogram, erythrocyte osmotic fragility and oxidant/antioxidant status and the probable ameliorating effect of silymarin in comparison to d-penicillamine. Methods: Forty-eight albino rats were divided in 8 groups and received the following treatments in a 10 day experiment in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, southwest Iran in 2015. Group 1: Normal saline as control; Group 2: 25 mg/kg lead acetate, intraperitoneally (IP for the last 5 days; Group 3: 100 mg/kg D-penicillamine, IP for the last 5 days; Group 4: 200 mg/kg silymarin, orally for 10 days; Group 5, 6, 7 and 8: In addition to lead, they received D-penicillamine, for the last 5 days, silymarin for 10 days, a combination of silymarin for 10 days and D-penicillamine for the last 5 days, and silymarin for the last 5 days, respectively. Results: Lead exposure induced a significant microcytic anemia accompanied by a significant elevation in total leukocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathion peroxidase (Gpx activities were significantly increased along with a significant elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in lead treated rats. Activities of SOD and Gpx were significantly alleviated by silymarin administration for 10 days while both D-penicillamine and silymarin could significantly reduce MDA concentration. Conclusion: Acute lead exposure induced significant leukocytosis and anemia that was associated with increased activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation. Silymarin in contrast to D-penicillamine treatment was more effective in preventing lead-induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes.

  2. A study of chemopreventive effects of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and lead induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halduniya, Hanish K.; Singariya, Seema; Bhatnagar, Shruti; Srivasrava, Deepti; Agarwal, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    The vast potential of radiant energy opens vistas of new horizons as its use in various fields of science, technology, therapeutics and diagnosis. However its also exposes the global population to the hazards of nuclear accidents and radiation injury. In this era of nuclear science it has become a prerequisite to know the effects of radiation on mankind and to develop effective countermeasures for minimizing the damages of radiation exposure. Heavy metals like lead can cause deleterious effects when its concentration goes beyond the limit in ecosystem. The combined effects of radiation and lead further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Amla is found to be a non toxic, inexpensive, easily available herbal drug. Therefore present study was pertain to evaluate the chemo preventive role of Amla against radiation and lead induced changes in blood of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays and with or without lead acetate which was given to them adlibitum. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or lead acetate treatment. Three animals were sacrificed from all the experimental group at each post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days by cervical dislocation . The blood was collected in heparinised tube for estimating various haematological parameters. The value of RBC, WBC, PCV, Hemoglobin, and MCV decreased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in drug treated groups, thereafter the value increased. When the animals treated with radiation and lead simultaneously synergistic effects were observed. The Amla treated groups showed early and fast recovery thus, it may deduce from above observation that Amla has potential to check the alteration produced by radiation and lead in the blood of Swiss albino mice. (author)

  3. Protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced changes in the Jejunum of Swiss Albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Meena, Dinesh; Issran, Rakesh; Pyarelal; Jangir, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Recently, increased interest has developed on search for potential drugs of plant origin which can quench the radiation induced free radicals and eliminate oxygen with minimum side effects. In view of the fact, present study was planned to evaluate the protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced changes in jejunum of mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups on the basis of radiation, lead, combined treatment and drug treated. The values of total proteins, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA were estimated. The values of total proteins, cholesterol, DNA and RNA decreased whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity increased. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculatrue, hydropic degeneration in submucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in submucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis and chromatolysis were also observed in crypt cells. Shortening and breaking of villus tips, leucocytic infiltration in lamina propria and cell debris in intestinal lumen were also noted. The number of goblet cells per crypt section also decreased in all the experimental groups. The value of the experimental groups was significantly lower than that of the control group. The biochemical finding indicated the drug treated section of living tissue showed slightly/no degenerative changes. The drug treated groups demonstrating the ability of Aloe vera to inhibit oxidative stress thus preventing tissue injury. (author)

  4. Protective potential of Emblica Officinalis Linn. against radiation and lead induced hepatic lesion in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bhartiya, K.M.; Isran, Rakesh; Bhati, Sharwan; Pyarelal; Basu, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of living systems to ionizing radiation causes a variety of damages to DNA and membranes due to generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. So there is a need of hour is to search for an ideal radioprotector which could minimize the deleterious and damaging effects caused by ionizing radiation. Radioprotectors are agents which reduce the radiation effects on cell when applied prior to exposure of radiation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Emblica officinalis in reducing radiation and lead induced changes in mice liver. For the present experiment, healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks) were selected and maintained under standard conditions of temperature and light. Fruit extract of Emblica was fed orally at the dose of 0.01 ml/animal/day.The animal were divided into seven groups according to the treatment i.e. lead acetate solution as drinking water (group-II) or exposed to 3.5 or 7.0 Gy gamma radiation (group-III) or combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate (group-IV). The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica extract seven days prior to radiation or lead acetate treatment (group V, VI and VII) respectively. The animals from all the groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals pieces of liver were taken out and some of them were kept at -20℃ for different biochemical parameters. The histopathological changes included cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, hyperaemia, pycnotic and crenated nuclei. The changes observed in the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. An increase in the value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA was observed up to day - 14 in the non drug treated group and day 7 in the Emblica treated groups, thereafter value declined up to day - 28 without reaching to normal. Whereas the value of

  5. 15. Sensitivity in visualizing vegetations in cardiac lead-induced endocarditis: A comparative study between transesophageal vs. transthoracic echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. AlFagih

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite advancement in sterile cardiac device implantation techniques, wound infections and/or bacteremia remain a significant problem. The presence of a vegetation in lead-induced endocarditis (LIE is a critical factor that determines the management. Transthoracic (TTE and Transesophageal (TEE Echocardiography are two different cardiac modalities that are used for the detection of lead vegetation. However, it is not yet clear which of the two has the highest diagnostic accuracy. We aim to identify which of the two has the highest sensitivity. In addition, we aim to correlate the existence of a vegetation with blood and wound culture results. We conducted a chart review in 113 patients whom underwent lead extraction at Prince Sultan Cardiac Center in Saudi Arabia during the period of Jan, 2002 to Jul, 2015. Six patients underwent lead extraction twice, increasing the number to be a total of 119 cases. Out of the study cohort, we include 38 patients who had both TTE and TEE done prior to lead extraction. Data regarding TTE, TEE, as well as blood and wound cultures were collected from echocardiography and microbiology lab reports using a well-structured case report form.Of the study population, 21 patients (55.3% had lead vegetations visualized either by TTE or TEE. Nineteen patients had vegetations detected by TEE, compared to 6 patients only when TTE was used. The sensitivity of TEE and TTE were 90.5% (CI: 69.6–98.8% and 28.5% (95% CI: 11.3–52.1%, respectively. Blood and wound culture results showed that in the presence of a vegetation, blood cultures were positive in 55% of the cases (P = 0.036 while only 44.4% of those with vegetations had a positive wound culture (P = 0.347. TEE has higher sensitivity in detecting vegetations compared to TTE in LIE. The presence of a vegetation is more likely to be associated with a positive blood culture than a positive wound culture. Further studies ought to measure the accuracy of different

  6. Choline and betaine intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhong, Xiao; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association of choline and betaine intake with colorectal cancer risk, although they might play an important role in colorectal cancer development because of their role as methyl donors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between consumption of choline and betaine and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and December 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Eight hundred and ninety consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 890 controls by age (5-year interval) and sex. Dietary information was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The logistic regression model was used to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total choline intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors. The multivariate-adjusted OR was 0.54 (95%CI = 0.37-0.80, Ptrend colorectal cancer risk was associated with higher intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, glycerophosphocholine and sphingomyelin but not for free choline and phosphocholine. The inverse association of total choline intake with colorectal cancer risk was observed in both men and women, colon and rectal cancer. These inverse associations were not modified by folate intake. These results indicate that high intake of total choline is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.

  7. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Intestinal absorption of cytidine diphosphate choline and its changes in the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Keisuke; Takamatsu, Masatoshi; Okuda, Kunio

    1975-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline), its structural changes in the digestive tract, and hepatic uptake have been investigated in rats using 14 C-labeled ( 14 CH 3 attached to N of choline) and 3 H-labeled (at C 5 of pyrimidine) compounds. The results indicate that: 1) CDP-choline is relatively stable in the stomach, but is quickly degraded into cytidine and choline in the intestine; 2) The hepatic uptakes of 14 C and 3 H reach the maximum in two to three hours after oral administration; 3) Whereas the amount of 14 C remaining in the gut is inversely related to the hepatic uptake, no similar correlation is seen with 3 H-labeled CDP-choline, and 4) Extrahepatic uptake of 14 C and 3 H is very small. The possibility of phosphorylation in the mucosa of choline and cytidine has been discussed, based on the differences in relative amount of radioactivity in individual broken-down products in the intestinal lumen and mucosa. (auth.)

  9. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  10. Comparison of the computational NMR chemical shifts of choline with the experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, C; Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Ghandi, K

    2012-01-01

    One of the main biological markers of the presence of cancer in living patients is an over-expression of total choline (tCho), which is the sum of free choline and its derivatives. 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, or H-MRS, enables the quantification of tCho via its proton spectra, and thus has the potential to be a diagnostic tool for the presence of cancer and an accurate early indicator of the response of cancer to treatment. However, it remains difficult to quantify individual choline derivatives, since they share a large structural similarity ((CH 3 ) 3 -N + -CH 2 -CH 2 -O-), of which the strongest signal detectable by MRS is that of the choline h ead group : the three methyl groups bonded to the nitrogen. This work used ACENet, a high performance computing system, to attempt to model the NMR parameters of choline derivatives, with the focus of this report being free choline. Optimized structures were determined using Density Functional Theory and the B3LYP electron correlation functional. The Polarizable Continuum Model was used to evaluate solvent effects. The Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbital method was found to be the superior method for calculating the NMR parameters of cholines.

  11. Synthesis of acetylcholine from choline derived from phosphatidylcholine in a human neuronal cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blusztajn, J.K.; Liscovitch, M.; Richardson, U.I.

    1987-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons are unique among cells since they alone utilize choline not only as a component of major membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (Ptd-Cho), but also as a precursor of their neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AcCho). It has been hypothesized that choline-phospholipids might serve as a storage pool of choline for AcCho synthesis. The selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons in certain neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, motor neuron disorders) might result from the abnormally accelerated liberation of choline (to be used a precursor of AcCho) from membrane phospholipids, resulting in altered membrane composition and function and compromised neuronal viability. However, the proposed metabolic link between membrane turnover and AcCho synthesis has been difficult to demonstrate because of the heterogeneity of the preparations used. Here the authors used a population of purely cholinergic cells (human neuroblastomas, LA-N-2), incubated in the presence of [methyl- 3 H]methionine to selectively label PtdCho synthesized by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, the only pathway of de novo choline synthesis. Three peaks of radioactive material that cochromatographed with authentic AcCho, choline, and phosphocholine were observed when the water-soluble metabolites of the [ 3 H]PtdCho were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results demonstrate that AcCho can be synthesized from choline derived from the degradation of endogenous PtdCho formed de novo by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine

  12. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  13. Interaction between cytotoxic effects of γ-radiation and folate deficiency in relation to choline reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Vipen; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2009-01-01

    The search for non-toxic radio-protective drugs has yielded many potential agents but most of these compounds have certain amount of toxicity. Recent studies have indicated that bio-molecules such as folate and choline might be of radio-protective value as they are, within broad dose ranges, non-toxic to humans and experimental animals. The objective of the present study was to investigate choline dependent adaptive response to potential synergistic cytotoxic effect of folate deficiency and γ-radiation. Male Swiss mice maintained on folate sufficient diet (FSD) and folate free diet (FFD) based on AIN-93 M formula, were subjected to 1-4 Gy total body γ-irradiation. To investigate liver DNA damage, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) were quantified. A significant increase in liver DNA AP sites with concomitant depletion of liver choline reserves was observed when γ-radiation was combined with folate deficiency. Further work in this direction suggested that cytotoxic interaction between folate deficiency and gamma radiation might induce utilization of choline and choline containing moieties by modifying levels of key regulatory enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and choline oxidase (ChoOx). Another major finding of these studies is that significant liver damage at higher doses of radiation (3-4 Gy), might release considerable amounts of choline reserves to serum. In conclusion, a plausible interpretation of the present studies is that folate deprivation and γ-radiation interact to mobilize additional choline reserves of hepatic tissue, for redistribution to other organs, which could not be utilized by folate deficiency alone. Present results clearly indicated a distinct choline pool in liver and kidney tissues that could be utilized by folate deficient animals only under radiation stress conditions

  14. Choline requirements of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Tang, J; Hou, S S; Guo, Y M; Huang, W; Xie, M

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with 8 dietary choline levels (302, 496, 778, 990, 1,182, 1,414, 1,625, and 1,832 mg/kg) was conducted with male White Pekin ducks to estimate the choline requirement from hatch to 21 d of age. Three hundred eighty-four 1-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain from each pen were calculated for feeding period, and 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were euthanized and the liver was collected to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. In our study, perosis, poor growth, and high liver fat were all observed in choline-deficient ducks and incidence of perosis was zero when dietary choline was 1,182 mg/kg. As dietary choline increased, the weight gain and feed intake increased linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05). On the other hand, as dietary choline increased, the total lipid and triglyceride in liver decreased linearly and liver phospholipid increased linearly (P < 0.05), and the lipotropic activity of choline may be associated with increasing phospholipid at a high dietary choline level. According to broken-line regression, the choline requirements for weight gain and feed intake were 810 and 823 mg/kg, respectively, but higher requirement should be considered to prevent perosis and excess liver lipid deposition completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Choline and betaine intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association of choline and betaine intake with colorectal cancer risk, although they might play an important role in colorectal cancer development because of their role as methyl donors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between consumption of choline and betaine and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and December 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Eight hundred and ninety consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 890 controls by age (5-year interval and sex. Dietary information was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The logistic regression model was used to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Total choline intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors. The multivariate-adjusted OR was 0.54 (95%CI = 0.37-0.80, Ptrend <0.01 comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No significant associations were observed for betaine or total choline+betaine intakes. For choline-containing compounds, lower colorectal cancer risk was associated with higher intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, glycerophosphocholine and sphingomyelin but not for free choline and phosphocholine. The inverse association of total choline intake with colorectal cancer risk was observed in both men and women, colon and rectal cancer. These inverse associations were not modified by folate intake.These results indicate that high intake of total choline is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.

  16. Experience in using ceretone (choline alfoscerate in brain concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Voropay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nootropics are used to treat patients who have sustained concussion of the brain and complain of reductions in memory and working capacity, as well as emotional disorders. The efficacy of ceretone® (choline alfoscerate was studied in 76 patients (45 men and 31 women whose age was 21-56 years who had sustained brain concussion and had complaints of headache, easy fatigability, nocturnal sleep disorders, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and bad mood. Thirty-nine patients received intravenous ceretone® in a dose of 1000 mg/day for 10 days; the other 37 patients formed a control group. A one-year follow-up indicated that ceretone® had a positive effect on health, autonomic, and emotional status and working capacity.

  17. Choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons in the human parietal neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Benagiano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of immunocytochemical studies have indicated the presence of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of various species of mammals. Whether such cholinergic neurons in the human cerebral cortex are exclusively of subcortical origin is still debated. In this immunocytochemical study, the existence of cortical cholinergic neurons was investigated on surgical samples of human parietal association neocortex using a highly specific monoclonal antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine biosynthesising enzyme. ChAT immunoreactivity was detected in a subpopulation of neurons located in layers II and III. These were small or medium-sized pyramidal neurons which showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the perikarya and processes, often in close association to blood microvessels. This study, providing demonstration of ChAT neurons in the human parietal neocortex, strongly supports the existence of intrinsic cholinergic innervation of the human neocortex. It is likely that these neurons contribute to the cholinergic innervation of the intracortical microvessels.

  18. Choline-based biodegradable ionic liquid catalyst for Mannich-type

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choline-based biodegradable ionic liquid catalyst for Mannich-type reaction ... Abstract. A three-component Mannich-type reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ketones, and amines was catalyzed by a novel ... Journal of Chemical Sciences | News.

  19. Bronsted acid-functionalized choline chloride-butane sultone for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P PADMA PRIYA

    2018-03-21

    Mar 21, 2018 ... Choline chloride and 1,4-butane sultone were combined to obtain a sulphonic acid-functionalized ..... Knifton J F and Sanderson J R 1990 Method for produc- ... alkenes via the Knoevenagel condensation Tetrahedron. Lett.

  20. Loss of P53 Function in Colon Cancer Cells Results in Increased Phosphocholine and Total Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. Human cancers that contain a p53 mutation are more aggressive, more apt to metastasize, and more often fatal. p53 controls numerous downstream targets that can influence various outcomes such as apoptosis, growth arrest, and DNA repair. Based on previous observations using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, we have identified choline phospholipid metabolite intensities typical of increased malignancy. Here we have used 1H MRS to characterize the choline phospholipid metabolite levels of p53+/+ and p53−/– cells, and demonstrated that loss of p53 function results in increased phosphocholine and total choline. These data suggest that the increased malignancy of cancer cells resulting from loss of p53 may be mediated, in part, through the choline phospholipid pathway.

  1. Lewis acidic (choline chloride.3ZnCl2) ionic liquid: A green and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choline chloride; zinc chloride; ionic liquid; one-pot; triarylmethane. 1. Introduction ... applications such as zinc electroplating11 and batter- ies.12 It has also been used as ... as indicated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), the catalyst was ...

  2. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  3. Choline metabolism as a basis for the selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The unique propensity of cholinergic neurons to use choline for two purposes--ACh and membrane phosphatidylcholine synthesis--may contribute to their selective vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease and other cholinergic neurodegenerative disorders. When physiologically active, the neurons use free choline taken from the 'reservoir' in membrane phosphatidylcholine to synthesize ACh; this can lead to an actual decrease in the quantity of membrane per cell. Alzheimer's disease (but not Down's syndrome, or other neurodegenerative disorders) is associated with characteristic neurochemical lesions involving choline and ethanolamine: brain levels of these compounds are diminished, while those of glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine (breakdown products of their respective membrane phosphatides) are increased, both in cholinergic and noncholinergic brain regions. Perhaps this metabolic disturbance and the tendency of cholinergic neurons to 'export' choline--in the form of ACh--underlie the selective vulnerability of the neurons. Resulting changes in membrane composition could abnormally expose intramembraneous proteins such as amyloid precursor protein to proteases.

  4. Serial plasma choline measurements after cardiac arrest in patients undergoing mild therapeutic hypothermia: a prospective observational pilot trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Storm

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Choline is related to phospholipid metabolism and is a marker for global ischaemia with a small reference range in healthy volunteers. The aim of our study was to characterize the early kinetics of plasma free choline in patients after cardiac arrest. Additionally, we investigated the potential of plasma free choline to predict neurological outcome. METHODS: Twenty patients admitted to our medical intensive care unit were included in this prospective, observational trial. All patients were enrolled between May 2010 and May 2011. They received post cardiac arrest treatment including mild therapeutic hypothermia which was initiated with a combination of cold fluid and a feedback surface cooling device according to current guidelines. Sixteen blood samples per patient were analysed for plasma free choline levels within the first week after resuscitation. Choline was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Most patients showed elevated choline levels on admission (median 14.8 µmol/L; interquartile range; IQR 9.9-20.1 which subsequently decreased. 48 hours after cardiac arrest choline levels in all patients reached subnormal levels at a median of 4.0 µmol/L (IQR 3-4.9; p = 0.001. Subsequently, choline levels normalized within seven days. There was no significant difference in choline levels when groups were analyzed in relation to neurological outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate a choline deficiency in the early postresucitation phase. This could potentially result in impaired cell membrane recovery. The detailed characterization of the early choline time course may aid in planning of choline supplementation trials. In a limited number of patients, choline was not promising as a biomarker for outcome prediction.

  5. Potentiation of lead-induced cell death in PC12 cells by glutamate: Protection by N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penugonda, Suman; Mare, Suneetha; Lutz, P.; Banks, William A.; Ercal, Nuran

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important factor in many neurological diseases. Oxidative toxicity in a number of these conditions is induced by excessive glutamate release and subsequent glutamatergic neuronal stimulation. This, in turn, causes increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and neuronal damage. Recent studies indicate that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system is involved in lead-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) investigate the potential effects of glutamate on lead-induced PC12 cell death and (2) elucidate whether the novel thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) had any protective abilities against such cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that glutamate (1 mM) potentiates lead-induced cytotoxicity by increased generation of ROS, decreased proliferation (MTS), decreased glutathione (GSH) levels, and depletion of cellular adenosine-triphosphate (ATP). Consistent with its ability to decrease ATP levels and induce cell death, lead also increased caspase-3 activity, an effect potentiated by glutamate. Exposure to glutamate and lead elevated the cellular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and phospholipase-A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity and diminished the glutamine synthetase (GS) activity. NACA protected PC12 cells from the cytotoxic effects of glutamate plus lead, as evaluated by MTS assay. NACA reduced the decrease in the cellular ATP levels and restored the intracellular GSH levels. The increased levels of ROS and MDA in glutamate-lead treated cells were significantly decreased by NACA. In conclusion, our data showed that glutamate potentiated the effects of lead-induced PC12 cell death by a mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP depletion) and oxidative stress. NACA had a protective role against the combined toxic effects of glutamate and lead by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and scavenging ROS, thus preserving intracellular GSH

  6. Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005–2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U.S. Only 8.03 ± 0.56% of adults and 8.51 ± 2.89% pregnant women meet the AI for choline. Children 2–3 years were the most likely to meet their gender and life-stage specific AI, followed by children 4–8 years. Adults 19+ years who consume eggs were more likely to meet their gender and life-stage AI as compared to non-consumers (57.3 ± 1.45% and 2.43 ± 0.28%. Consumers of eggs had almost double the usual intake of choline as compared to non-consumers (525 ± 5.17 mg/d and 294 ± 1.98; p < 0.0001. Protein food (meat, poultry and seafood consumption also increased usual choline intakes compared to non-consumers (345 ± 2.21 mg/day and 235 ± 8.81; p < 0.0001 to a lesser degree, but did not result in substantial increases in the percent of individuals meeting the AI. No subpopulation exceeded the UL for choline. This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement.

  7. Chronic choline supplementation improves cognitive and motor performance via modulating oxidative and neurochemical status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Haider, Saida; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Parveen, Tahira

    2017-08-01

    Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes. Two groups, control and choline, received tap water and choline bitartrate, respectively at the dose equivalent to adequate intake for five weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Behavioral analysis comprising assessment of cognitive performance (by novel object recognition, passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze test) and locomotor performance (by Open field, Kondziela's inverted screen and beam walking test) were performed. Following testing, rats were decapitated and brain samples were collected for estimation of acetylcholine, redox profile and monoamine measurements. The results showed that chronic choline administration significantly improves cognitive and locomotor performance accompanied by a reduction in oxidative stress, enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission and monoamine levels in the brain of healthy adult rats. Hence, chronic choline intake was found to improve behavioral, oxidative and neurochemical outcomes in the normal population, so it can be suggested that choline tablets can be used as a safe and effective supplement for improving the neurological health of normal individuals and that they might also be beneficial in preventing cognitive and motor disorders later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of garlic extract and silymarin compared to dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in treatment of lead induced nephropathy in adult male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman A. El-Khishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning has been known as an important disorder that affects individuals through acute, sub-acute and chronic exposure in environmental and occupational settings. This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. Histologically, lead induced disorganization and shrinkage of glomeruli with sloughing and vaculation of epithelium, widening of Bowman's space and inflammatory infiltration in renal medulla. Treatment by garlic extract combined with silymarin as well as treatment with DMSA resulted in significant improvement in the affected parameters. Also, both methods of treatment resulted in improvement of the histopathological changes. It can be concluded that garlic extract combined to silymarin is comparable to DMSA in amelioration of lead induced nephrotoxicity.

  9. Prenatal choline deficiency does not enhance hippocampal vulnerability after kainic acid-induced seizures in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Tognoni, Christina M; Mellott, Tiffany J; Glenn, Melissa J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Williams, Christina L

    2011-09-21

    Choline is a vital nutrient needed during early development for both humans and rodents. Severe dietary choline deficiency during pregnancy leads to birth defects, while more limited deficiency during mid- to late pregnancy causes deficits in hippocampal plasticity in adult rodent offspring that are accompanied by cognitive deficits only when task demands are high. Because prenatal choline supplementation confers neuroprotection of the adult hippocampus against a variety of neural insults and aids memory, we hypothesized that prenatal choline deficiency may enhance vulnerability to neural injury. To examine this, adult offspring of rat dams either fed a control diet (CON) or one deficient in choline (DEF) during embryonic days 12-17 were given multiple injections (i.p.) of saline (control) or kainic acid to induce seizures and were euthanized 16 days later. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, DEF rats were not more susceptible to seizure induction and showed similar levels of seizure-induced hippocampal histopathology, GAD expression loss, upregulated hippocampal GFAP and growth factor expression, and increased dentate cell and neuronal proliferation as that seen in CON rats. Although prenatal choline deficiency compromises adult hippocampal plasticity in the intact brain, it does not appear to exacerbate the neuropathological response to seizures in the adult hippocampus at least shortly after excitotoxic injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Uptake of [N-Me-3H]-choline by synaptosomes from the central nervous system of Locusta migratoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The accumulation of 3H-choline by isolated synaptosomes from the central nervous system of locust was studied at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 40 microM. Kinetic analysis of the saturable process revealed a high-affinity and a low-affinity system. The high-affinity uptake was competitively inhibited by hemicholinium-3 and was absolutely dependent on external sodium. Elevated potassium concentrations inhibited choline uptake. The choline uptake by insect synaptosomes was found to be remarkably resistant to a variety of metabolic inhibitors. The reduced choline uptake under depolarizing conditions (high potassium concentration or veratridine) in the absence of calcium implies that electrochemical gradients are important for high-affinity choline uptake. Depolarization of preloaded synaptosomes under appropriate conditions resulted in a significant release of newly accumulated choline radioactivity

  11. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  12. Choline kinase-alpha by regulating cell aggressiveness and drug sensitivity is a potential druggable target for ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Granata, A; Nicoletti, R; Tinaglia, V; De Cecco, L; Pisanu, M E; Ricci, A; Podo, F; Canevari, S; Iorio, E; Bagnoli, M; Mezzanzanica, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aberrant choline metabolism has been proposed as a novel cancer hallmark. We recently showed that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) possesses an altered MRS-choline profile, characterised by increased phosphocholine (PCho) content to which mainly contribute over-expression and activation of choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-alpha). Methods: To assess its biological relevance, ChoK-alpha expression was downmodulated by transient RNA interference in EOC in vitro models. Gene expression profi...

  13. Detection of choline transporter-like 1 protein CTL1 in neuroblastoma × glioma cells and in the CNS, and its role in choline uptake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Eva; O´Regan, S.; Newcombe, J.; Meunier, F. M.; Prentice, J.; Dove, R.; Lisá, Věra; Doležal, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2009), s. 1297-1309 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : CTL1 * choline * cell growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.999, year: 2009

  14. Choline transporter mutations in severe congenital myasthenic syndrome disrupt transporter localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haicui; Salter, Claire G; Refai, Osama; Hardy, Holly; Barwick, Katy E S; Akpulat, Ugur; Kvarnung, Malin; Chioza, Barry A; Harlalka, Gaurav; Taylan, Fulya; Sejersen, Thomas; Wright, Jane; Zimmerman, Holly H; Karakaya, Mert; Stüve, Burkhardt; Weis, Joachim; Schara, Ulrike; Russell, Mark A; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Chilton, John; Blakely, Randy D; Baple, Emma L; Cirak, Sebahattin; Crosby, Andrew H

    2017-11-01

    The presynaptic, high-affinity choline transporter is a critical determinant of signalling by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at both central and peripheral cholinergic synapses, including the neuromuscular junction. Here we describe an autosomal recessive presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome presenting with a broad clinical phenotype due to homozygous choline transporter missense mutations. The clinical phenotype ranges from the classical presentation of a congenital myasthenic syndrome in one patient (p.Pro210Leu), to severe neurodevelopmental delay with brain atrophy (p.Ser94Arg) and extend the clinical outcomes to a more severe spectrum with infantile lethality (p.Val112Glu). Cells transfected with mutant transporter construct revealed a virtually complete loss of transport activity that was paralleled by a reduction in transporter cell surface expression. Consistent with these findings, studies to determine the impact of gene mutations on the trafficking of the Caenorhabditis elegans choline transporter orthologue revealed deficits in transporter export to axons and nerve terminals. These findings contrast with our previous findings in autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy of a dominant-negative frameshift mutation at the C-terminus of choline transporter that was associated with significantly reduced, but not completely abrogated choline transporter function. Together our findings define divergent neuropathological outcomes arising from different classes of choline transporter mutation with distinct disease processes and modes of inheritance. These findings underscore the essential role played by the choline transporter in sustaining acetylcholine neurotransmission at both central and neuromuscular synapses, with important implications for treatment and drug selection. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse logistics. The thesis brings insights on reverse logistics decision-making and it lays down theoretical principles for reverse logistics as a research field.In particular it puts together a framework ...

  16. Evaluation of the PET component of simultaneous [18F]choline PET/MRI in prostate cancer: comparison with [18F]choline PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetter, Axel; Lipponer, Christine; Nensa, Felix; Altenbernd, Jens-Christian; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas; Heusch, Philipp; Ruebben, Herbert; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten; Nagarajah, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positron emission tomography (PET) component of [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI and compare it with the PET component of [ 18 F]choline PET/CT in patients with histologically proven prostate cancer and suspected recurrent prostate cancer. Thirty-six patients were examined with simultaneous [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI following combined [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Fifty-eight PET-positive lesions in PET/CT and PET/MRI were evaluated by measuring the maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV mean ) using volume of interest (VOI) analysis. A scoring system was applied to determine the quality of the PET images of both PET/CT and PET/MRI. Agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI regarding SUV max and SUV mean was tested using Pearson's product-moment correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. All PET-positive lesions that were visible on PET/CT were also detectable on PET/MRI. The quality of the PET images was comparable in both groups. Median SUV max and SUV mean of all lesions were significantly lower in PET/MRI than in PET/CT (5.2 vs 6.1, p max of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.86, p mean of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.81, p max of PET/CT vs PET/MRI and -1.12 to +2.23 between SUV mean of PET/CT vs PET/MRI. PET image quality of PET/MRI was comparable to that of PET/CT. A highly significant correlation between SUV max and SUV mean was found. Both SUV max and SUV mean were significantly lower in [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI than in [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Differences of SUV max and SUV mean might be caused by different techniques of attenuation correction. Furthermore, differences in biodistribution and biokinetics of [ 18 F]choline between the subsequent examinations and in the respective organ systems have to be taken into account. (orig.)

  17. N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine Affords Protection against Lead-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although lead exposure has declined in recent years as a result of change to lead-free gasoline, several epidemiological have pointed out that it represents a medical and public health emergency, especially in young children consuming high amounts of lead-contaminated flake paints. A previous study in our laboratory indicated that lead exposure induces cytotoxicity in human liver carcinoma cells. In the present study, we evaluated the role of oxidative stress in lead-induced toxicity, and the protective effect of the anti-oxidant n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC. We hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a role in lead-induced cytotoxicity, and that NAC affords protection against this adverse effect. To test this hypothesis, we performed the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the trypan blue exclusion test for cell viability. We also performed the thiobarbituric acid test for lipid peroxidation. Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that NAC significantly increased the viability of HepG2 cells in a dosedependent manner upon 48 hours of exposure. Similar trend was obtained with the trypan blue exclusion test. Data generated from the thiobarbituric acid test showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05 increase of MDA levels in lead nitrate-treated HepG2 cells compared to control cells. Interestingly, the addition of NAC to lead nitrate-treated HepG2 cells significantly decreased cellular content of reactive oxygen species (ROS, as evidenced by the decrease in lipid peroxidation byproducts. Overall, findings from this study suggest that NAC inhibits lead nitrate-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Hence, NAC may be used as a salvage therapy for lead-induced toxicity in exposed persons.

  18. Postnatal choline supplementation selectively attenuates hippocampal microRNA alterations associated with developmental alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Idrus, Nirelia M; Miranda, Rajesh C; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation. To determine whether choline supplementation alters ethanol's long-lasting effects on miRNAs, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol from postnatal days (PD) 4-9 via intubation; controls received sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) or saline vehicle subcutaneously (s.c.) from PD 4-21. On PD 22, subjects were sacrificed, and RNA was isolated from the hippocampus. MiRNA expression was assessed with TaqMan Human MicroRNA Panel Low-Density Arrays. Ethanol significantly increased miRNA expression variance, an effect that was attenuated with choline supplementation. Cluster analysis of stably expressed miRNAs that exceeded an ANOVA p < 0.05 criterion indicated that for both male and female offspring, control and ethanol-exposed groups were most dissimilar from each other, with choline-supplemented groups in between. MiRNAs that expressed an average 2-fold change due to ethanol exposure were further analyzed to identify which ethanol-sensitive miRNAs were protected by choline supplementation. We found that at a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted criterion of p < 0.05, miR-200c was induced by ethanol exposure and that choline prevented this effect. Collectively, our data show that choline supplementation can normalize disturbances in miRNA expression following developmental alcohol exposure and can protect specific miRNAs from induction by

  19. Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking combined with concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil on milk production and milk composition of Etawah Grade goats was evaluated. Choline chloride is an essential component in ruminant diets as it is required for fat metabolism. Method The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three types of treatments and eight replications. The trial had two successive experimental periods; the first, during the eight weeks of late pregnancy, and the second, during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Twenty-four Etawah Grade does in the second gestation period were divided into three treatment groups. Commercial choline chloride 60 % in corncobs-based powder was used as a source of choline chloride. The treatments were no supplementation (control and supplemented with either 4 g or 8 g/2days of choline chloride. Choline chloride was given to the animals through a forced drinking technique, after dissolving it in 60 ml drinking water. The initial body weight of does was 38.81 ± 3.66 kg. The does were penned individually, and were given fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum and 700 g/day of concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil, starting eight weeks prior to expecting kidding and continuing for 12 weeks of parturition. Results All nutrient intakes were not significantly different (p > 0.05 among the treatments during the late pregnancy and the lactation periods. Supplementation did not affect (p > 0.05 the average daily gains and feed conversion ratio during pregnancy but gave effects (p < 0.05 on the average daily gains, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost during lactation. The highest average daily milk yields and 4 % fat corrected milk yields were found in goats supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride and increased by 17.00 % and 24.67 %, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, milk

  20. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  1. Structure of choline oxidase in complex with the reaction product glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Francesca; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Weber, Irene T; Gadda, Giovanni

    2014-02-01

    Choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis, which is involved in the biosynthesis of glycine betaine from choline, has been extensively characterized in its mechanistic and structural properties. Despite the knowledge gained on the enzyme, the details of substrate access to the active site are not fully understood. The `loop-and-lid' mechanism described for the glucose-methanol-choline enzyme superfamily has not been confirmed for choline oxidase. Instead, a hydrophobic cluster on the solvent-accessible surface of the enzyme has been proposed by molecular dynamics to control substrate access to the active site. Here, the crystal structure of the enzyme was solved in complex with glycine betaine at pH 6.0 at 1.95 Å resolution, allowing a structural description of the ligand-enzyme interactions in the active site. This structure is the first of choline oxidase in complex with a physiologically relevant ligand. The protein structures with and without ligand are virtually identical, with the exception of a loop at the dimer interface, which assumes two distinct conformations. The different conformations of loop 250-255 define different accessibilities of the proposed active-site entrance delimited by the hydrophobic cluster on the other subunit of the dimer, suggesting a role in regulating substrate access to the active site.

  2. Enhancing the biodegradation of oil in sandy sediments with choline: A naturally methylated nitrogen compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Horel, Agota; Anders, Jennifer S.; Mirjafari, Arsalan; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how additions of choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments contaminated with moderately weathered crude oil (4000 mg kg −1 sediment). Addition of lauroylcholine chloride (LCC) and tricholine citrate (TCC) to oil contaminated sediments resulted in 1.6 times higher hydrocarbon degradation rates compared to treatments without added choline derivatives. However, the degradation rate constant for the oil contaminated sediments amended with LCC was similar to that in contaminated sediments amended with inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and glucose. Additions of LLC and TCC to sediments containing extensively weathered oil also resulted in enhanced mineralization rates. Cultivation-free 16S rRNA analysis revealed the presence of an extant microbial community with clones closely related to known hydrocarbon degraders from the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The results demonstrate that the addition of minimal amounts of organic compounds to oil contaminated sediments enhances the degradation of hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: •Aerobic degradation of weathered crude oil in sandy sediments was determined. •The effect of input of choline on degradation rates was determined. •16S rRNA clone library analyses were used to examine the microbial phylogeny. •The bacterial community was consisted of clones related to hydrocarbon degraders. •Hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was accelerated by addition of choline. -- Choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments by an extant microbial community

  3. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  4. Protective effect of Allium sativum (garlic) aqueous extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain, liver, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj Kumar, V; Henley, A K; Nelson, C J; Indumati, O; Prabhakara Rao, Y; Rajanna, S; Rajanna, B

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative activity of Allium sativum against lead-induced oxidative stress in the brain, liver, and kidney of male rats. Four groups of male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were taken: group 1 received 1000 mg/L sodium acetate and group 2 was given 1000 mg/L lead acetate through drinking water for 2 weeks. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum and 500 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum, respectively, by oral intubation for a period of 2 weeks along with lead acetate. The rats were sacrificed after treatment and the brain, liver, and kidney were isolated on ice. In the brain, four important regions namely the hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and brain stem were separated and used for the present investigation. Blood was also drawn by cardiac puncture and preserved in heparinized vials at 4 °C for estimation of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity. The results showed a significant (p sativum resulted in tissue-specific recovery of oxidative stress parameters namely ROS, LPP, and TPCC. A. sativum treatment also restored the blood delta-ALAD activity back to control. Overall, our results indicate that A. sativum administration could be an effective antioxidant treatment strategy for lead-induced oxidative insult.

  5. Choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as tool for the fabrication of agar films with improved mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present paper, we test the suitability of Choline-Cl/urea (DES-U) and Choline-Cl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures at 1:2 molar ratios for the production of agar biodegradable films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and s...

  6. Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

  7. Effects of CDP-choline on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakihana, M.; Fukuda, N.; Suno, M.; Nagaoka, A.

    1988-02-01

    The effects of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism were studied in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries for 20 or 30 minutes 24 hours after the vertebral arteries were permanently occluded by electrocautery. CDP-choline was administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days after reestablishing carotid blood flow. CDP-choline at two dosages (50 and 250 mg/kg) shortened the time required for recovery of spontaneous motor activity in a dose-related manner; recovery time was measured early after reperfusion. Neurologic signs were observed for 10 days. High-dose CDP-choline improved neurologic signs in the rats within 20-30 minutes of ischemia. When cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed on Day 4, increases in the levels of glucose and pyruvate were accompanied by decreases in the synthesis of labeled acetylcholine from uniformly labeled (/sup 14/C)glucose measured in the cerebral cortex of rats with 30 minutes of ischemia. High-dose CDP-choline also attenuated changes in these variables. CDP-(1,2-/sup 14/C)choline injected intravenously 10 minutes after reperfusion was used for membrane lipid biosynthesis. These results indicate that CDP-choline has beneficial effects on brain dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia, which may be due in part to the restorative effects of CDP-choline on disturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, probably by stimulating phospholipid biosynthesis.

  8. Effects of CDP-choline on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihana, M.; Fukuda, N.; Suno, M.; Nagaoka, A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism were studied in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries for 20 or 30 minutes 24 hours after the vertebral arteries were permanently occluded by electrocautery. CDP-choline was administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days after reestablishing carotid blood flow. CDP-choline at two dosages (50 and 250 mg/kg) shortened the time required for recovery of spontaneous motor activity in a dose-related manner; recovery time was measured early after reperfusion. Neurologic signs were observed for 10 days. High-dose CDP-choline improved neurologic signs in the rats within 20-30 minutes of ischemia. When cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed on Day 4, increases in the levels of glucose and pyruvate were accompanied by decreases in the synthesis of labeled acetylcholine from uniformly labeled [ 14 C]glucose measured in the cerebral cortex of rats with 30 minutes of ischemia. High-dose CDP-choline also attenuated changes in these variables. CDP-[1,2- 14 C]choline injected intravenously 10 minutes after reperfusion was used for membrane lipid biosynthesis. These results indicate that CDP-choline has beneficial effects on brain dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia, which may be due in part to the restorative effects of CDP-choline on disturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, probably by stimulating phospholipid biosynthesis

  9. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  10. Selective retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons with [3H]choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.; Beaudet, A.; Stella, M.; Cuenod, M.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented which is consistent with a specific retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons following [ 3 H]choline application in their zone of termination. [ 3 H]Choline injection in the rat hippocampus leads to perikaryal retrograde labeling in the ipsilateral medial septal nuclease and nucleus of the diagonal band, thus delineating an established cholinergic pathway, while only diffuse presumably anterograde labeling was observed in the lateral septum, the entorhinal cortex, and the opposite hippocampus. After [ 3 H]choline injection in the pigeon visual Wulst, only the ipsilateral thalamic relay, of all inputs, showed similar perikaryal retrograde labeling, an observation supporting the suggestion that at least some thalamo-Wulst neurons are cholinergic

  11. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Furanic Derivatives in the Presence of Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Jérôme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of furanic derivatives (5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, furfural… from carbohydrates is of high interest for a wide range of applications. These reactions are carried out in the presence of various solvents, and among them choline chloride can be used. It is a salt that can form a low melting mixture with a carbohydrate (fructose, glucose… or a deep eutectic mixture with carboxylic acid. A review of the studies performed in the conversion of carbohydrates to furanic derivatives in the presence of choline chloride is presented here with the advantages and drawbacks of this solvent. Choline chloride can enhance the selectivity to HMF by stabilizing effect and allows the conversion of highly concentrated feed. However, the extraction of the products from these solvents still needs improvement.

  12. Synthesis and study of thiocarbonate derivatives of choline as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, N A; Talesa, V; Giovannini, E; Rosi, G; Norton, S J

    1997-09-12

    Fourteen alkyl and aryl thiocarbonate derivatives of choline were synthesized and studied as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Twelve of the compounds inhibited AChEs derived from calf forebrain, human red blood cells, and octopus brain ranging from low to moderately high inhibition potency. The concentration of each inhibitory compound giving 50% inhibition of enzyme activity (IC50 values, which ranged from 1 x 10(-2) to 8 x 10(-7) M) was determined and is reported; inhibitor constants (Ki values) for the most inhibitory compounds, (1-pentylthiocarbonyl)choline chloride and (1-heptylthiocarbonyl)choline chloride, were calculated from kinetic data and are also reported. The inhibitors are competitive with substrate, and they are not hydrolyzed by the AChE activities. Certain of these new compounds may provide direction for the development of new drugs that have anticholinesterase activity and may be used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Review on Carbon Dioxide Absorption by Choline Chloride/Urea Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima J. Isaifan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past few years, deep eutectic solvents (DESs were developed sharing similar characteristics to ionic liquids but with more advantageous features related to preparation cost, environmental impact, and efficiency for gas separation processes. Amongst many combinations of DES solvents that have been prepared, reline (choline chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor mixed with urea as the hydrogen bond donor was the first DES synthesized and is still the one with the lowest melting point. Choline chloride/urea DES has proven to be a promising solvent as an efficient medium for carbon dioxide capture when compared with amine alone or ionic liquids under the same conditions. This review sheds light on the preparation method, physical and chemical characteristics, and the CO2 absorption capacity of choline chloride/urea DES under different temperatures and pressures reported up to date.

  14. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seal off the fallopian tubes, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, generally aren't reversible. Why ... electrocautery). Some types of sterilization, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, aren't considered reversible. Risks ...

  15. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the expense of betaine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Ariel B; Shields, Kelsey; Fomin, Vlad G; Lopez, Yusnier S; Mohan, Sanjay; Lovesky, Jessica; Chuang, Jasmine C; Ganti, Anita; Carrier, Bradley; Yan, Jian; Taeswuan, Siraphat; Cohen, Vanessa V; Swersky, Camille C; Stover, Julie A; Vitiello, Gerardo A; Malysheva, Olga V; Mudrak, Erika; Caudill, Marie A

    2016-10-01

    Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-mediated pathways predict susceptibility to choline deficiency during severe choline deprivation, it is unknown if effects persist at recommended intakes. Thus, we used stable isotope liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methodology to examine the impact of candidate SNPs on choline metabolism in a long-term, randomized, controlled feeding trial among pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant (NP) women consuming 480 or 930 mg/d choline (22% as choline-d 9 , with d 9 indicating a deuterated trimethyl amine group) and meeting folate-intake recommendations. Variants impairing folate metabolism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133, methionine synthase (MTR) rs1805087 [wild-type (WT)], MTR reductase (MTRR) rs1801394, and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) rs2236225, influenced choline dynamics, frequently through interactions with reproductive state and choline intake, with fewer genotypic alterations observed among pregnant women. Women with these variants partitioned more dietary choline toward phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-choline pathway at the expense of betaine synthesis even when use of betaine as a methyl donor was increased. Choline intakes of 930 mg/d restored partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and CDP-PC among NP (MTHFR rs1801133 and MTR rs1805087 WT) and lactating (MTHFD1 rs2236225) women with risk genotypes. Overall, our findings indicate that loss-of-function variants in folate-metabolizing enzymes strain cellular PC production, possibly via impaired folate-dependent phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT)-PC synthesis, and suggest that women with these risk genotypes may benefit from choline intakes exceeding current recommendations.-Ganz, A. B., Shields, K., Fomin, V. G., Lopez, Y. S., Mohan, S., Lovesky, J., Chuang, J

  16. Choline and its metabolites are differently associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, cardiovascular history and MRI documented cerebrovascular disease in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism. Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovas...

  17. Dietary choline levels modify the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Breit, Kristen R; Thomas, Jennifer D

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor. In this study, we examined the influence of dietary choline deficiency on the severity of fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive diets containing 40, 70, or 100% recommended choline levels. A group from each diet condition was exposed to ethanol (6.0g/kg/day) from gestational day 5 to 20 via intubation. Pair-fed and ad lib lab chow control groups were also included. Physical and behavioral development was measured in the offspring. Prenatal alcohol exposure delayed motor development, and 40% choline altered performance on the cliff avoidance task, independent of one another. However, the combination of low choline and prenatal alcohol produced the most severe impairments in development. Subjects exposed to ethanol and fed the 40% choline diet exhibited delayed eye openings, significantly fewer successes in hindlimb coordination, and were significantly overactive compared to all other groups. These data suggest that suboptimal intake of a single nutrient can exacerbate some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, a finding with important implications for the prevention of FASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. An electrochemiluminescence-based fibre optic biosensor for choline flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafack, V C; Marquette, C A; Leca, B; Blum, L J

    2000-01-01

    A fibre optic biosensor based on luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) integrated in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for the detection of choline. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol was generated by a glassy carbon electrode polarised at +425 mV vs. a platinum pseudo-reference electrode. Choline oxidase (Chx) was immobilised either covalently on polyamide (ABC type) or on UltraBind preactivated membranes, or by physical entrapment in a photo-cross-linkable poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer (PVA-SbQ) alone or after absorption on a weak anion exchanger, DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) Sepharose. The optimisation of the reaction conditions and physicochemical parameters influencing the FIA biosensor response demonstrated that the choline biosensor exhibited the best performances in a 30 mM veronal buffer containing 30 mM KCl and 1.5 mM MgCl2, at pH 9. The use of a 0.5 ml min-1 flow rate enabled the measurement of choline by the membrane-based ECL biosensors in 8 or 5 min, with ABC or UltraBind membranes, respectively, whereas the measurement required only 3 min with the DEAE-PVA system. For comparison, the detection of choline was performed with Chx immobilised using the four different supports. The best performances were obtained with the DEAE-PVA-Chx sensing layer, which allowed a detection limit of 10 pmol, whereas with the ABC, the UltraBind and the PVA systems, the detection limits were 300 pmol, 75 pmol and 220 pmol, respectively. The DEAE-based system also exhibited a good operational stability since 160 repeated measurements of 3 nmol of choline could be performed with an RSD of 4.5% whereas the stability under the best conditions was 45 assays with the other supports.

  19. Role of carbon-11 choline PET/CT in the management of uterine carcinoma. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Sawada, Morio; Arai, Yasuaki; Tateishi, Ukihide; Inoue, Tomio; Maeda, Tetsuo; Sugimura, Kazuro; Terauchi, Takashi; Kano, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the role of carbon-11 choline ( 11 C-choline) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the management of uterine carcinoma. Twenty-two patients who underwent 11 C-choline PET/CT and pelvic MRI were evaluated retrospectively. The images were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist and a nuclear medicine specialist who were unaware of any clinical information, and a consensus was reached. Diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT was evaluated for staging. The reference standard consisted of histological examination (n=17) and follow-up conventional CT (n=5). In five patients with cervical carcinoma, 11 C-choline PET/CT was performed before and after treatment that consisted of cisplatin infusion and subsequent radiotherapy. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was compared with unidimensional and volumetric measurements that were made on magnetic resonance images (MRI) before and after treatment. Based on PET/CT interpretations, the reviewers correctly classified tumor (T) stage in 8 patients (47%), nodes (N) stage in 21 patients (96%), metastasis (M) stage in 20 patients (91%), and tumor, nodes and metastasis (TNM) stage in 15 patients (88%). Tumor size, volume, and SUV decreased after treatment in five patients with cervical carcinoma. Using the Pearson correlation test, a significant correlation was found between the reduction rate of SUV and reduction rate of tumor volume. 11 C-choline PET/CT is an accurate means for the management of patients with uterine carcinoma. The combination of 11 C-choline PET/CT and MRI increases the accuracy of staging in patients with uterine carcinoma. (author)

  20. Prostate cancer: concordance between "1"8F-choline PET and CT in biochemical relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herández Pinzón, J.; Ferrarotti, C.; Ferrari, L.; Larrañaga, N.; Gallo, J.C.; Mena, D.; Bastianello, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish the concordance between 18-fluor choline positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) for re-staging patients with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer according to the TNM system. Materials and methods: The medical records of the Molecular Imaging Section were retrospectively reviewed. The TNM classification was established by us for each method, and the Kappa concordance statistic was used to classify the results according to the Landis and Koch proposal. Results: The PET-choline reported 19 (59.4%) patients N0 and 13 (40.6%) N1, while CT reported 28 (87.5%) N0 and 4 (12.5%) N1. In metastasis classification PET-choline established M0 in 17 (53.1%) patients, M1a in 1 (3.1%), M1b in 5 (15.6%), M1c in 1 (3.1%), M1a + M1b in 7 (21.9%), and M1b + M1c in 1 (3.1%). On the other hand, CT was M0 in 23 (71.9%) patients, M1a in 2 (6.25%), M1a + M1b in 2 (6.25%), and M1b + M1c in 5 (15.6%). The correlation between PET-choline and CT in the TNM lymph node and metastasis classifications was 71.88%, with a Kappa of 0.3455 (standard error 0.1336; P=.0049) and 62.5% with Kappa 0.3725 (standard error 0.0847; P=.0001), respectively. Discussion: Several studies have shown a high diagnostic accuracy of PET-choline detecting the spread of the disease compared to conventional methods. Conclusion: There is poor concordance for metastatic and lymph node classifications according to the TNM system between choline-PET and CT. (authors) [es

  1. The Investigation of Electrochemistry Behaviors of Tyrosinase Based on Directly-Electrodeposited Grapheneon Choline-Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaping; Yang, Xiaohui; Han, Quan; Zheng, Jianbin

    2017-06-23

    A novel catechol (CA) biosensor was developed by embedding tyrosinase (Tyr) onto in situ electrochemical reduction graphene (EGR) on choline-functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNPs-Ch) film. The results of UV-Vis spectra indicated that Tyr retained its original structure in the film, and an electrochemical investigation of the biosensor showed a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible redox peaks with E pa = -0.0744 V and E pc = -0.114 V (vs. SCE) in 0.1 M, pH 7.0 sodium phosphate-buffered saline at a scan rate of 100 mV/s. The transfer rate constant k s is 0.66 s -1 . The Tyr-EGR/AuNPs-Ch showed a good electrochemical catalytic response for the reduction of CA, with the linear range from 0.2 to 270 μM and a detection limit of 0.1 μM (S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was estimated to be 109 μM.

  2. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of

  3. Effect of quinolinic acid in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on cortical high-affinity choline uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, R.H.; Boegman, R.J.; Quirion, R.; Riopelle, R.J.; Ludwin, S.K.

    1987-08-01

    A transient 45% increase in cortical high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) was observed after an injection of quinolinic acid (QUIN) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbM) of the rat. This was followed by a steady decline in choline uptake, which resulted in a 46% decrease by day 7. Specific (/sup 3/H)hemicholinium-3 binding to coronal brain sections showed a similar pattern following injections of QUIN into the nbM. The increase in cortical HACU elicited by QUIN appeared to be dose dependent.

  4. A mechanism for suppression of the CDP-choline pathway during apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Craig C.; Aitchison, Adam J.; Gehrig, Karsten; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of the CDP-choline pathway during apoptosis restricts the availability of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) for assembly of membranes and synthesis of signaling factors. The N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) in CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT)α is removed during apoptosis but the caspase(s) involved and the contribution to suppression of the CDP-choline pathway is unresolved. In this study we utilized siRNA silencing of caspases in HEK293 cells and caspase 3-defi...

  5. Effects of dissolved calcium and magnesium ions on lead-induced stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of nuclear steam generator tubing alloy in high temperature crevice solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, B.T.; Tian, L.P.; Zhu, R.K.; Luo, J.L.; Lu, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of UNS N08800 are investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests at 300 o C in simulated crevice chemistries. The presence of lead contamination in the crevice chemistries increases significantly the SCC susceptibility of the alloy. The lead-assisted SCC (PbSCC) susceptibility is reduced markedly by the addition of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions into the solution and this mitigating effect is enhanced by increasing the total concentration of Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ . The CERT test results are consistent with the types of fracture surfaces shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). There is a reasonable correlation between the SCC susceptibility and the donor densities in the anodic films in accord with the role of lead-induced passivity degradation in PbSCC.

  6. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many irreversible computation models have reversible counterparts, but these are poorly understood at present. We introduce reversible flowcharts with an assertion operator and show that any reversible flowchart can be simulated by a structured reversible flowchart using only three control flow...... operators. Reversible flowcharts are r- Turing-complete, meaning that they can simuluate reversible Turing machines without garbage data. We also demonstrate the injectivization of classical flowcharts into reversible flowcharts. The reversible flowchart computation model provides a theoretical...

  7. Effect of CDP-choline on the biosynthesis of phospholipids in brain regions during hypoxic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghina, M.; Viola, M.; Serra, I.; Mistretta, A.; Giuffrida, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acute administration of CDP-choline (i.p. 100 mg/Kg b.w.), 10 min before the intraventricular injection of labeled precursors, [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C]-palmitate, was able to correct the impairment caused by hypoxic treatment of lipid metabolism in some brain regions, ie, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brainstem. After CDP-choline treatment, an increase of the specific radioactivity of total lipids and of phospholipids was observed in mitochondria purified from the three above-mentioned brain regions of the hypoxic animals, while no effect on the other subcellular fractions was found. CDP-Choline had a stimulating effect particularly on the incorporation of both precursors into mitochondrial PC, PE, and polyglycerophosphatides isolated form the three brain regions examined. The results obtained show that the action of CDP-choline in restoring lipid metabolism was more pronounced in brain mitochondria, which, among subcellular fractions, were the most affected by the hypoxic treatment

  8. Comparable stability of Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick base pairs in ionic liquid choline dihydrogen phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-08

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson-Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson-Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson-Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo.

  9. Comparable Stability of Hoogsteen and Watson–Crick Base Pairs in Ionic Liquid Choline Dihydrogen Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson–Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson–Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson–Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo. PMID:24399194

  10. Maternal Choline Supplementation: A Potential Prenatal Treatment for Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Barbara J; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Kelley, Christy M; Alldred, Melissa J; Strawderman, Myla; Caudill, Marie A; Mufson, Elliott J; Ginsberg, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Although Down syndrome (DS) can be diagnosed prenatally, currently there are no effective treatments to lessen the intellectual disability (ID) which is a hallmark of this disorder. Furthermore, starting as early as the third decade of life, DS individuals exhibit the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with subsequent dementia, adding substantial emotional and financial burden to their families and society at large. A potential therapeutic strategy emerging from the study of trisomic mouse models of DS is to supplement the maternal diet with additional choline during pregnancy and lactation. Studies demonstrate that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) markedly improves spatial cognition and attentional function, as well as normalizes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and offers protection to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. These effects on neurogenesis and BFCNs correlate significantly with spatial cognition, suggesting functional relationships. In this review, we highlight some of these provocative findings, which suggest that supplementing the maternal diet with additional choline may serve as an effective and safe prenatal strategy for improving cognitive, affective, and neural functioning in DS. In light of growing evidence that all pregnancies would benefit from increased maternal choline intake, this type of recommendation could be given to all pregnant women, thereby providing a very early intervention for individuals with DS, and include babies born to mothers unaware that they are carrying a fetus with DS.

  11. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  12. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  13. Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth A Mendoza B MD

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... oral doses of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) (0 and 1.5 g/day) and ... and stimulating glucose and cholesterol synthesis. .... The in vitro gas production indicates that half of herbal choline is fermented at 18 hours (Table 2),.

  14. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; van der Schouw, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16165 women aged 49-70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  15. Inhibition of high affinity choline uptake by N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asermely, K.E.; O'Neill, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral actions of N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol (N-Al-3-OHQ) on high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) on rat phrenic nerve diaphragm are described. Endplate regions (EPA) identified by the Koelle histochemical techniques for acetylcholinesterase, were dissected from adult rat hemidiaphragms and placed in cold Krebs solution (pH-7.35). All measurements of HAChU were at 37 0 C in buffers containing tritium choline (5 μM 0.124 μC/mmole) at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 30 min. Tissues were washed 3x, digested in 1N NaOH and counted for tritium in Chaikoff's solution. All data are expressed as pmole Ch/g wet weight. Comparison between EPA and non-EPA tissue demonstrate HAChU and slow choline diffusion, respectively. Steady state is observed in 15 min. N-Al-3-OHQ produces 15% inhibition at 5 x 10 -5 M compared with 50% inhibition on brain synaptosomes. At 5 x 10 -4 M N-Al-3-OHQ, 30% inhibition is observed. Attempts to deplete ACh by pre-stimulation with high K + -ion (25 mM) were unsuccessful; tissue 3 H-choline uptake appeared to oscillate over a 30 min period

  16. Inhibition of high affinity choline uptake by N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asermely, K.E.; O' Neill, J.J.

    1986-03-01

    The peripheral actions of N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol (N-Al-3-OHQ) on high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) on rat phrenic nerve diaphragm are described. Endplate regions (EPA) identified by the Koelle histochemical techniques for acetylcholinesterase, were dissected from adult rat hemidiaphragms and placed in cold Krebs solution (pH-7.35). All measurements of HAChU were at 37/sup 0/C in buffers containing tritium choline (5 ..mu..M 0.124 ..mu..C/mmole) at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 30 min. Tissues were washed 3x, digested in 1N NaOH and counted for tritium in Chaikoff's solution. All data are expressed as pmole Ch/g wet weight. Comparison between EPA and non-EPA tissue demonstrate HAChU and slow choline diffusion, respectively. Steady state is observed in 15 min. N-Al-3-OHQ produces 15% inhibition at 5 x 10/sup -5/ M compared with 50% inhibition on brain synaptosomes. At 5 x 10/sup -4/ M N-Al-3-OHQ, 30% inhibition is observed. Attempts to deplete ACh by pre-stimulation with high K/sup +/-ion (25 mM) were unsuccessful; tissue /sup 3/H-choline uptake appeared to oscillate over a 30 min period.

  17. Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as additives for optimizing chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guizhen; Zhu, Tao; Lei, Yingjie

    2015-01-01

    A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.

  18. Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as additives for optimizing chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guizhen; Zhu, Tao; Lei, Yingjie [Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-10-15

    A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.

  19. 75 FR 760 - Choline chloride; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist... body functions including the maintenance of osmotic pressure, acid-base balance, muscular activity, and... nervous system and memory. Choline is necessary to promote proper development in the fetus and infant and...

  20. Effect of addition of Proline, ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] on CO2 separation properties of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer / poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, S. H.; Kai, T.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Taniguchi, I.; Kazama, S.

    2018-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDMA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, proline, choline and ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] compounds were selected as rate promoters that were used to prepare PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes. The effect of addition of proline, choline, IL [Choline][Pro] on separation performance of PAMAM/PEGDMA) hybrid membranes for CO2/H2 separation was investigated. Amino acid proline, choline, and IL [Choline][Pro] were used to promote CO2 and amine reaction. With the addition of [Choline][Pro] into PAMAM/PEG membrane, CO2 permeance of PAMAM/PEG hybrid membranes are increased up to 46% without any change of selectivity of membrane for CO2.

  1. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yufang; Liang, Chen; Wang, Nasui; Zheng, Heping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-11-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Galvanostatic bottom-up filling of TSV-like trenches: Choline-based leveler containing two quaternary ammoniums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Jun; Seo, Youngran; Kim, Hoe Chul; Lee, Yoonjae; Choe, Seunghoe; Kim, Young Gyu; Cho, Sung Ki; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The choline-based leveler having two quaternary ammoniums was synthesized. • The adsorption of this leveler with suppressor and accelerator was examined. • Galvanostatic Cu bottom-up filling was achieved with three-additive system. • The mechanism of gap-filling was elucidated based on the additive adsorption. - Abstract: Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology is essential to accomplish 3-dimensional packaging of electronics. Hence, more reliable and faster TSV filling by Cu electrodeposition is required. Our approach to improve Cu gap-filling in TSV is based on the development of new organic additives for feature filling. Here, we introduce our achievements from the synthesis of choline-based leveler to the feature filling using a synthesized leveler. The choline-based leveler, which includes two quaternary ammoniums at both ends of the molecule, is synthesized from glutaric acid. The characteristics of the choline-based additive are examined by the electrochemical analyses, and it is confirmed that the choline-based leveler shows a convection dependent adsorption behavior, which is essential for leveling. The interactions between the polymeric suppressor, accelerator, and the choline-based leveler are also investigated by changing the convection condition. Using the combination of suppressor, accelerator, and the choline-based leveler, the extreme bottom-up filling of Cu at trenches with dimensions similar to TSV are fulfilled. The mechanism of Cu gap-filling is demonstrated based on the results of electrochemical analyses and feature filling

  3. Effect of dimethylaminoethanol, an inhibitor of betaine production, on the disposition of choline in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Acara, M.

    1990-01-01

    The choline metabolite betaine has been shown to be an important organic osmoregulatory solute in the kidney. The isolated perfused rat kidney and kidney slice incubations were used to investigate the effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), a choline oxidase inhibitor, on the renal excretion and metabolism of choline. In the isolated perfused kidney, [ 14 C]choline, at an initial perfusate concentration of 300 microM, was effectively removed from the perfusate over 25 min, with nearly all the 14 C in the perfusate accounted for by betaine during the remainder of the 90-min perfusion. DMAE at concentrations of 3.0 or 5.0 mM significantly decreased the rate of removal of [ 14 C]choline from the perfusate and the rate of addition of [ 14 C]betaine to the perfusate, yet [14C]betaine remained the only metabolite of choline in perfusate and urine. In kidney tissue slice experiments, conversion of [ 14 C]choline to [ 14 C]betaine was found in cortical, outer medullary and inner medullary regions of rat kidney. DMAE at 5.0 mM significantly inhibited [ 14 C]betaine production in each of the three regions studied. These data show that DMAE is an effective inhibitor of betaine production by the kidney and, as such, may be an important agent for the study of osmoregulation by the kidney

  4. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal choline supplementation attenuates MK-801-induced deficits in memory, motor function, and hippocampal plasticity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Chelsea A; Brown, Alexandra L; Yu, Waylin; Chun, Yoona; Glenn, Melissa J

    2017-10-11

    Choline is essential to the development and function of the central nervous system and supplemental choline during development is neuroprotective against a variety of insults, including neurotoxins like dizocilpine (MK-801). MK-801 is an NMDA receptor antagonist that is frequently used in rodent models of psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia. At low doses, it causes cognitive impairments, and at higher doses it induces motor deficits, anhedonia, and neuronal degeneration. The primary goals of the present study were to investigate whether prenatal choline supplementation protects against the cognitive impairments, motor deficits, and neuropathologies that are precipitated by MK-801 administration in adulthood. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard or supplemented choline diet prenatally. Using the novelty preference test of object recognition, we found that only prenatal standard-fed rats displayed memory consolidation deficits induced by low-dose MK-801 administered immediately following study of sample objects; all other groups, including prenatal choline supplemented rats given MK-801, showed intact memory. Following high-dose MK-801, prenatal choline supplementation significantly alleviated rats' motor response to MK-801, particularly ataxia. Using doublecortin and Ki67 to mark neurogenesis and cell division, respectively, in the hippocampus, we found that prenatal choline supplementation, in the face of MK-801 toxicity, protected against reduced hippocampal plasticity. Taken together, the current findings suggest that prenatal choline supplementation protects against a variety of behavioral and neural pathologies induced by the neurotoxin, MK-801. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting the robust neuroprotective capacity of choline. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Editor's Highlight: Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Choline Ion Pair Formation: A Potential Mechanism Modulating Hepatic Steatosis and Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Krishnan, Prasad; Ehresman, David J; Smith, Philip B; Dutta, Mainak; Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L; Patterson, Andrew D; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-induced steatosis remain unclear. The hypothesis that PFOS causes steatosis and other hepatic effects by forming an ion pair with choline was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a marginal methionine/choline-deficient (mMCD) diet, with and without 0.003, 0.006, or 0.012% potassium PFOS. Dietary PFOS caused a dose-dependent decrease in body weight, and increases in the relative liver weight, hepatic triglyceride concentration and serum markers of liver toxicity and oxidative stress. Some of these effects were exacerbated in mice fed the mMCD diet supplemented with 0.012% PFOS compared with those fed the control diet supplemented with 0.012% PFOS. Surprisingly, serum PFOS concentrations were higher while liver PFOS concentrations were lower in mMCD-fed mice compared with corresponding control-fed mice. To determine if supplemental dietary choline could prevent PFOS-induced hepatic effects, C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet, or a choline supplemental diet (1.2%) with or without 0.003% PFOS. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that PFOS caused alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism in the PFOS-fed mice compared with controls, and supplemental dietary choline prevented these PFOS-induced changes. Interestingly, dietary choline supplementation also prevented PFOS-induced oxidative damage. These studies are the first to suggest that PFOS may cause hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress by effectively reducing the choline required for hepatic VLDL production and export by forming an ion pair with choline, and suggest that choline supplementation may prevent and/or treat PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  8. Metabolism of choline in brain of the aged CBF-1 mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Kindel, G.; Karczmar, A.G.; Rosenberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to quantify the changes that occur in the cholinergic central nervous system with aging, we have compared acetylcholine (Ach) formation in brain cortex slice preparations from 2-year-old aged CBF-1 mouse brains and compared the findings with those in 2-4-month-old young adult mouse brain slices. Incorporation of exogenous radioactively labelled choline (31 nM [ 3 H] choline) into acetyl choline in incubated brain slices was linear with time for 90 min. Percentage of total choline label distributed into Ach remained constant from 5 min after starting the incubation to 90 min. In contrast, distribution of label into intracellular free choline (Ch) and phosphorylcholine (Pch) changed continuously over this period suggesting that the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in brain cortex is different from that for Pch synthesis. Incorporation of radioactivity into Ach was not influenced by administration of 10 microM eserine, showing that the increment of radioactivity in Ach reflects rate of Ach formation, independently from degradation by acetylcholine esterases. Under our experimental conditions, slices from cortices of aged 24-month-old mouse brain showed a significantly greater (27%) incorporation of radioactivity into intracellular Ach than those from young, 2-4-month-old, brain cortices. Inhibitors of Ach release, 1 mM ATP or GABA, had no effect. Since concentration of radioactive precursor in the incubation medium was very low (31 nM), the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in slices was labelled without measurably changing the size of the endogenous pool. These data suggest a compensatory acceleration of Ach synthesis or else a smaller precursor pool specific for Ach synthesis into which labelled Ch migrated in aged brain

  9. Genetic signatures in choline and 1-carbon metabolism are associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Karen D.; Abdelmalek, Manal F.; Spencer, Melanie D.; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Galanko, Joseph A.; Sha, Wei; Suzuki, Ayako; Guy, Cynthia D.; Cardona, Diana M.; Torquati, Alfonso; Diehl, Anna Mae; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Choline metabolism is important for very low-density lipoprotein secretion, making this nutritional pathway an important contributor to hepatic lipid balance. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the cumulative effects of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across genes of choline/1-carbon metabolism and functionally related pathways increase susceptibility to developing hepatic steatosis. In biopsy-characterized cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and controls, we assessed 260 SNPs across 21 genes in choline/1-carbon metabolism. When SNPs were examined individually, using logistic regression, we only identified a single SNP (PNPLA3 rs738409) that was significantly associated with severity of hepatic steatosis after adjusting for confounders and multiple comparisons (P=0.02). However, when groupings of SNPs in similar metabolic pathways were defined using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we identified groups of subjects with shared SNP signatures that were significantly correlated with steatosis burden (P=0.0002). The lowest and highest steatosis clusters could also be differentiated by ethnicity. However, unique SNP patterns defined steatosis burden irrespective of ethnicity. Our results suggest that analysis of SNP patterns in genes of choline/1-carbon metabolism may be useful for prediction of severity of steatosis in specific subsets of people, and the metabolic inefficiencies caused by these SNPs should be examined further.—Corbin, K. D., Abdelmalek, M. F., Spencer, M. D., da Costa, K.-A., Galanko, J. A., Sha, W., Suzuki, A., Guy, C. D., Cardona, D. M., Torquati, A., Diehl, A. M., Zeisel, S. H. Genetic signatures in choline and 1-carbon metabolism are associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292069

  10. A highly reversible anthraquinone-based anolyte for alkaline aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianyu; Tao, Meng; Chen, Hongping; Xu, Juan; Chen, Zhidong

    2018-05-01

    The development of electroactive organic materials for use in aqueous redox flow battery (RFB) electrolytes is highly attractive because of their structural flexibility, low cost and sustainability. Here, we report on a highly reversible anthraquinone-based anolyte (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, 1,8-DHAQ) for alkaline aqueous RFB applications. Electrochemical measurements reveal the substituent position of hydroxyl groups for DHAQ isomers has a significant impact on the redox potential, electrochemical reversibility and water-solubility. 1,8-DHAQ shows the highest redox reversibility and rapidest mass diffusion among five isomeric DHAQs. The alkaline aqueous RFB using 1,8-DHAQ as the anolyte and potassium ferrocyanide as the catholyte yields open-circuit voltage approaching 1.1 V and current efficiency and capacity retention exceeding 99.3% and 99.88% per cycle, respectively. This aqueous RFB produces a maximum power density of 152 mW cm-2 at 100% SOC and 45 °C. Choline hydroxide was used as a hydrotropic agent to enhance the water-solubility of 1,8-DHAQ. 1,8-DHAQ has a maximum solubility of 3 M in 1 M KOH with 4 M choline hydroxide.

  11. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  12. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, Toby [Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom and Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Montanaro, Ashley [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.

  13. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  14. Radiosynthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Graham [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Zhao Yongjun [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Leyton, Julius [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Shan Bo [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Nguyen, Quang-de; Perumal, Meg [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Turton, David [GE-Imanet, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Arstad, Erik; Luthra, Sajinder K.; Robins, Edward G. [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Aboagye, Eric O., E-mail: eric.aboagye@imperial.ac.u [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: Choline radiotracers are widely used for clinical PET diagnosis in oncology. [{sup 11}C]Choline finds particular utility in the imaging of brain and prostate tumor metabolic status, where 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ('FDG') shows high background uptake. More recently we have extended the clinical utility of [{sup 11}C]choline to breast cancer where radiotracer uptake correlates with tumor aggressiveness (grade). In the present study, a new choline analog, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline, was synthesized and evaluated as a potential PET imaging probe. Methods: [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline were synthesized by alkylation of the relevant precursor with [{sup 18}F]fluorobromomethane or [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate required extensive modification of the existing method. [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline were then subjected to in vitro oxidative stability analysis in a chemical oxidation model using potassium permanganate and an enzymatic model using choline oxidase. The two radiotracers, together with the corresponding di-deuterated compound, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline, were then evaluated in vivo in a time-course biodistribution study in HCT-116 tumor-bearing mice. Results: Alkylation with [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate proved to be the most reliable radiosynthetic route. Stability models indicate that [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline possesses increased chemical and enzymatic (choline oxidase) oxidative stability relative to [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine. The distribution of the three radiotracers, [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline, showed a similar uptake profile in most organs. Crucially, tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F

  15. Crystal structure of CbpF, a bifunctional choline-binding protein and autolysis regulator from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael; González, Ana; Stelter, Meike; Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Kahn, Richard; Morales, María; Moscoso, Miriam; Campuzano, Susana; Campillo, Nuria E; Mobashery, Shahriar; García, José L; García, Pedro; Hermoso, Juan A

    2009-03-01

    Phosphorylcholine, a crucial component of the pneumococcal cell wall, is essential in bacterial physiology and in human pathogenesis because it binds to serum components of the immune system and acts as a docking station for the family of surface choline-binding proteins. The three-dimensional structure of choline-binding protein F (CbpF), one of the most abundant proteins in the pneumococcal cell wall, has been solved in complex with choline. CbpF shows a new modular structure composed both of consensus and non-consensus choline-binding repeats, distributed along its length, which markedly alter its shape, charge distribution and binding ability, and organizing the protein into two well-defined modules. The carboxy-terminal module is involved in cell wall binding and the amino-terminal module is crucial for inhibition of the autolytic LytC muramidase, providing a regulatory function for pneumococcal autolysis.

  16. Choline PET based dose-painting in prostate cancer - Modelling of dose effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Bartenstein, Peter; Belka, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Several randomized trials have documented the value of radiation dose escalation in patients with prostate cancer, especially in patients with intermediate risk profile. Up to now dose escalation is usually applied to the whole prostate. IMRT and related techniques currently allow for dose escalation in sub-volumes of the organ. However, the sensitivity of the imaging modality and the fact that small islands of cancer are often dispersed within the whole organ may limit these approaches with regard to a clear clinical benefit. In order to assess potential effects of a dose escalation in certain sub-volumes based on choline PET imaging a mathematical dose-response model was developed. Based on different assumptions for α/β, γ50, sensitivity and specificity of choline PET, the influence of the whole prostate and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) dose on tumor control probability (TCP) was calculated. Based on the given heterogeneity of all potential variables certain representative permutations of the parameters were chosen and, subsequently, the influence on TCP was assessed. Using schedules with 74 Gy within the whole prostate and a SIB dose of 90 Gy the TCP increase ranged from 23.1% (high detection rate of choline PET, low whole prostate dose, high γ50/ASTRO definition for tumor control) to 1.4% TCP gain (low sensitivity of PET, high whole prostate dose, CN + 2 definition for tumor control) or even 0% in selected cases. The corresponding initial TCP values without integrated boost ranged from 67.3% to 100%. According to a large data set of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients the resulting TCP gains ranged from 22.2% to 10.1% (ASTRO definition) or from 13.2% to 6.0% (CN + 2 definition). Although a simplified mathematical model was employed, the presented model allows for an estimation in how far given schedules are relevant for clinical practice. However, the benefit of a SIB based on choline PET seems less than intuitively expected. Only under the

  17. Four-week dietary supplementation with 10- and/or 15-fold basal choline caused decreased body weight in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Ehresman, David J; Eveland, Alan; Parker, George A; Peters, Jeffrey M; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-10-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient utilized for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and lipoprotein packaging and secretion. Recently, choline supplementation has been used by athletes and the public for weight loss. However, the potential toxicological impact of choline dietary supplementation requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets containing basal choline levels (control) or 5-, 10-, or 15-fold (5×, 10×, or 15×) basal diet concentration. In groups fed choline-supplemented diets, there were no toxicologically relevant findings in clinical observations, food intake, clinical chemistry, liver weights, or liver histopathology. However, decreased mean body weights (8.5-10.2%) and body weight gains (24-31%) were noted for the 10× choline-supplemented (females only) and 15× choline-supplemented (both sexes) groups relative to the control groups from day 3 onward. These body weight effects were not related to a persistent reduction in average food intake. Serum cholesterol was increased in the 15× choline-supplemented male rats relative to the controls, an expected effect of choline supplementation; however, there were no changes in the serum cholesterol of female rats. Serum choline concentrations were increased in female rats relative to the male rats across all treatment groups. The maximum tolerated dose for male and female rats were the 15× and 10× choline supplements, respectively, based on decreased mean body weight and body weight gains. This study supported the conclusions of a clinical trial that showed a high choline diet can decrease body weight in humans.

  18. Long-term effects on biotransformation of labelled choline in different parts of the rat brain induced by single choline injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, A.; Wahlstroem, G.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term effects of single choline (Ch) injections on the uptake and metabolism of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch were studied in male rats. Choline was administered as a threshold infusion to obtain convulsions 10 and 4 weeks before sacrific (group 1). At a single threshold infusion of choline 4 weeks before sacrifice no convulsions were induced in 50% of the animals in a second group (group 2-) whereas convulsions were induced in the remainder of the animals in this group (group 2+). Group 3 contained control animals. One min. after administration of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch the animals were sacrificed and examined for /sup 3/H-total activity, /sup 3/H-Ch, /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (/sup 3/H-ACh) and /sup 3/H-phosphorylcholine (/sup 3/-H-PhCh). These activities were determined in three parts of the brain (cortex, striatum, midbrain + medulla oblongata). In the cortex a significant negative correlation between brain weight and /sup 3/H-ACh synthesis was seen in group 1. A comparison between group 2+ and group 2- indicated that induced convulsions were not critical for this effect. In the striatum there was a significant reduction in the total uptake of radioactivity in group 1 and group 2- when values were compared to the control group. Furthermore a significant positive correlation was detected between the concentration of radiolabel and /sup 3/H-ACh synthesis and a negative relationship with the level of /sup 3/H-Ch. In the midbrain preparation the synthesis of /sup 3/H-ACh was reduced in group 1 where a significant negative correlation was found between the average threshold dose of choline and both /sup 3/H-Ach and /sup 3/H-PhCh synthesis. Thus the Ch threshold doses given several weeks before testing seem to have long term effects on the uptake and utilization of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch in the cortex and striatum.

  19. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yufang; Liang, Chen; Wang, Nasui; Zheng, Heping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150 mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75 g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15 weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. - Highlights: • Fluoride exposure altered the growth and development, sperm count and sperm survival percentages, testicular histology • Fluoride exposure decreased NGF, Ras, and Mek mRNA and NGF and p-MEK protein expressions in testis of mice. • Choline supplementation diminishes fluoride-induced testicular toxicity.

  20. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Male Sprague Dawley Rats Is Not Attenuated by Dietary Choline Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Ehresman, David J; Eveland, Alan; Zitzow, Jeremiah D; Parker, George A; Peters, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Kendall B; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmentally persistent chemical. Dietary 100 ppm PFOS fed to male mice and rats for 4 weeks caused hepatic steatosis through an unknown mechanism. Choline deficient diets can cause hepatic steatosis. A hepatic choline:PFOS ion complex was hypothesized to cause this effect in mice. This study tested whether dietary choline supplementation attenuates PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were fed control, choline supplemented (CS), 100 ppm PFOS, or 100 ppm PFOS + CS diets for 3 weeks. Male rats fed both PFOS-containing diets had decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) on days 9, 16, and/or 23 and increased hepatic free fatty acids and TG (ie, steatosis). Female rats fed both PFOS diets had decreased serum cholesterol on days 9 and 16 and decreased hepatic free fatty acid and TG at termination (ie, no steatosis). Liver PFOS concentrations were similar for both sexes. Liver choline concentrations were increased in male rats fed PFOS (±CS), but the increase was lower in the PFOS + CS group. Female liver choline concentrations were not altered by any diet. These findings demonstrate a clear sex-related difference in PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis in the rat. Additional evaluated mechanisms (ie, nuclear receptor activation, mRNA upregulation, and choline kinase activity inhibition) did not appear to be involved in the hepatic steatosis. Dietary PFOS (100 ppm) induced hepatic steatosis in male, but not female, rats that was not attenuated by choline supplementation. The mechanism of lipid accumulation and the sex-related differences warrant further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianhai [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Zhang, Yufang [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Veterinary Station in Chen Villages of Lin Country, Linxian, Shanxi 033200 (China); Liang, Chen [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Wang, Nasui [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Zheng, Heping [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Wang, Jundong, E-mail: wangjd53@outlook.com [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150 mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75 g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15 weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. - Highlights: • Fluoride exposure altered the growth and development, sperm count and sperm survival percentages, testicular histology • Fluoride exposure decreased NGF, Ras, and Mek mRNA and NGF and p-MEK protein expressions in testis of mice. • Choline supplementation diminishes fluoride-induced testicular toxicity.

  2. Choline and/or folic acid deficiency is associated with genomic damage and cell death in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Ni, Juan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Weijiang; Fenech, Michael; Wang, Xu

    2012-04-01

    Choline and folate are interrelated methyl donors. Previous studies showed that folate prevents genomic damage in human lymphocytes in vitro; however, the association between choline and human genomic stability is uncertain. To explore the genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and cytostatic effects and possible interactions of choline and/or folate deficiency on the human genome, lymphocytes from 6 volunteers were cultured in 18 combinations of choline (CC) and folic acid (FA) media for 9 days. The genotoxicity was evaluated by micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds in the binucleated cell; the cytotoxicity indices included apoptosis and necrosis, and the cytostatic effects were indicated by nuclear division index (NDI). Across all choline concentrations, the frequencies of all biomarkers except NDI were diminished when FA concentration was more than or equal to 120 nmol/L. The frequencies of micronuclei, buds, and necrosis were significantly higher at lower levels of CC (0-6 μmol/L) compared with higher concentrations of CC (12-21.5 μmol/L) while maintaining the same FA concentration. We concluded that both choline and folate significantly impact genomic stability and cell death, although effects of folate were 2.5- to 6.2-fold greater, depending on the biomarker and dose. A combination of 12 μmol/L CC and 120 nmol/L FA appears to be optimal for genomic integrity in vitro.

  3. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  4. Uptake of 3H-choline and synthesis of 3H-acetylcholine by human penile corpus cavernosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.; Saenz de Tejada, I.; Azadzoi, K.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The neuroeffectors which relax penile smooth muscle and lead to erection are unknown; physiological studies of human corpus cavernosum, in vitro, have suggested a significant role of cholinergic neurotransmission. To further characterize the importance of cholinergic nerves, biopsies of human corpus cavernosum were obtained at the time of penile prosthesis implantation. Tissues were incubated in 3 H-choline (10 -5 M, 80 Ci/mmol) in oxygenated physiological salt solution at 37 0 C, pH 7.4 for 1 hour. Radiolabelled compounds were extracted with perchloric acid (0.4 M) and acetylcholine and choline were separated by HPLC; 14 C-acetylcholine was used as internal standard. 3 H-choline was accumulated by the tissues (20 +/- 1.9 fmol/mg), and 3 H-acetylcholine was synthesized (4.0 +/- 1.1 fmol/mg). In control experiments, heating of the tissue blocked synthesis of 3 H-acetylcholine. Inhibition of high affinity choline transport by hemicholinium-3 (10 -5 M) diminished tissue accumulation of 3 H-choline and significantly reduced the synthesis of 3 H-acetylcholine (0.5 +/ 0.2 fmol/mg, p < 0.05). These results provide direct evidence of neuronal accumulation of choline and enzymatic conversion to acetylcholine in human corpus cavernosum. Taken together with the physiological studies, it can be concluded that cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum plays a role in penile erection

  5. Usefulness of Choline-PET for the detection of residual hemangiopericytoma in the skull base: comparison with FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Shin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choline is a new PET tracer that is useful for the detection of malignant tumor. Choline is a precursor of the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a major phospholipid in the cell membrane of eukaryotic cells. Malignant tumors have an elevated level of phosphatidylcholine in cell membrane. Thus, choline is a marker of tumor malignancy. Method The patient was a 51-year-old man with repeated recurrent hemangiopericytoma in the skull base. We performed Choline-PET in this patient after various treatments and compared findings with those of FDG-PET. Results Choline accumulated in this tumor, but FDG did not accumulate. We diagnosed this tumor as residual hemangiopericytoma and performed the resection of the residual tumor. FDG-PET is not appropriate for skull base tumor detection because uptake in the brain is very strong. Conclusion We emphasize the usefulness of Choline-PET for the detection of residual hemangiopericytoma in the skull base after various treatments, compared with FDG-PET.

  6. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  7. Acetylcholine and choline contents of rat skeletal muscle determined by a radioenzymatic microassay: effects of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolo, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a specific, radioenzymatic microassay for measuring picomole quantities of ACh in skeletal muscle. The levels of ACh as well ascholine in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), soleus and gastrocnemiusmuscles of the rat are reported after focussed microwave irradiation to the hind limb to prevent post-mortem changes in ACh and choline contents. Particular attention was directed to the effect of some drugs potently affecting neuromuscular transmission at the end plate. Preparation of tissue samples, extraction and electrophoresis are described. A 26 ul portion of a second incubation mixture of tritium-acetylcoenzyme A and 14 ul of a partially purified choline acetyltransferase solution were added. A flow sheet giving an overview of he analytical steps involved in the method are shown

  8. Choline uptake in the hippocampus: inhibition of septal-hippocampal cholinergenic neurons by intraventricular barbiturates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The author attempts to determine where in the brain pentobarbital acts to cause the inhibition of high-affinity, sodium-dependent choline uptake, and what behavioral consequences result from this particular effect of barbituates. The experiments were done in male Wistar rats which had received an injection of Nivea cream injected directly to the acannula. In the experiments the drug solution injected into the lateral ventricle was also spiked with ( 14 C) - phenobarbital at a final specific activity of 5 dpm/nmole so that a more precise estimate of the spread of drug solution could be made. When a phenobarbital-Fast green Dye mixture was injected bilaterally into the lateral ventricles, the dye was found to have spread through the entire ventricular system when the rat was killed 10-20 min later. Choline uptake in the hippocampus was inhibited and the inhibition was apparently greater of 20 min rather than 10 min were allowed to elapse after the injection

  9. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  10. 11C-Choline PET/pathology image coregistration in primary localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Prokic, Vesna; Weirich, Gregor; Wendl, Christina; Geinitz, Hans; Molls, Michael; Kirste, Simon; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus; Gschwend, Juergen E.; Treiber, Uwe; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Krause, Bernd Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the comparison of pathology specimens after prostatectomy (post-S) with PET images obtained before surgery (pre-S). This method was used to evaluate the merit of 11 C-choline PET/CT for delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in prostate cancer (PC). In 28 PC patients, 11 C-choline PET/CT was performed before surgery. PET/CT data were coregistered with the pathology specimens. GTV on PET images (GTV-PET) was outlined automatically and corrected manually. Tumour volume in the prostate (TVP) was delineated manually on the pathology specimens. Based on the coregistered PET/pathology images, the following parameters were assessed: SUVmax and SUVmean in the tumoral and nontumoral prostate (NP), GTV-PET (millilitres) and TVP (millilitres). PET/pathology image coregistration was satisfactory. Mean SUVmax in the TVP was lower than in the NP: 5.0 and 5.5, respectively (p = 0.093). Considering the entire prostate, SUVmax was located in the TVP in two patients, in the TVP and NP in 12 patients and exclusively in NP in 14 patients. Partial overlap the TVP and GTV-PET was seen in 71 % of patients, and complete overlap in 4 %. PET/pathology image coregistration can be used for evaluation of different imaging modalities. 11 C-Choline PET failed to distinguish tumour from nontumour tissue. (orig.)

  11. Choline Modulation of the Aβ P1-40 Channel Reconstituted into a Model Lipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meleleo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs, implicated in memory and learning, in subjects affected by Alzheimer's disease result altered. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs inhibits amyloid plaques and increases ACh release. β-amyloid peptide (AβP forms ion channels in the cell and model phospholipid membranes that are retained responsible in Alzheimer disease. We tested if choline, precursor of ACh, could affect the AβP1-40 channels in oxidized cholesterol (OxCh and in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC:Ch lipid bilayers. Choline concentrations of 5 × 10−11 M–1.5 × 10−8 M added to the cis- or trans-side of membrane quickly increased AβP1-40 ion channel frequency (events/min and ion conductance in OxCh membranes, but not in POPC:Ch membranes. Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows that after 24 and 48 hours of incubation with AβP1-40, choline stabilizes the random coil conformation of the peptide, making it less prone to fibrillate. These actions seem to be specific in that ACh is ineffective either in solution or on AβP1-40 channel incorporated into PLMs.

  12. The use of choline in association with the Bangerter filters for the treatment of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelio Sabetti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of choline combined with Bangerter filter in the treatment of amblyopia. All amblyopic subjects used a Bangerter filter on the corrective spectacle lens (1d over the left eye, 1d over the right eye. Choline was then administered orally to 39 patients once daily, five days per week for the entire study period. Subjects treated with the Bangerter filter showed a mean visual acuity of 0.27 logMAR; at 12mo of treatment, the mean visual acuity reached 0.09 logMAR. Patients treated with the Bangerter filter and citicoline showed a mean visual acuity of 0.35 logMAR; at 12mo of treatment, the mean visual acuity reached 0.01 logMAR. No significant changes in the angle of deviation were observed in both groups. Subjects in both forms of amblyopia therapies demonstrated an increase in visual acuity. However, these effects were markedly enhanced when coupled with the administration of choline. Findings suggest that the effects are particularly relevant in the more severe amblyopic cases.

  13. Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Is a Metastasis-Resistant Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    Fatty liver disease is increasing in the developed and developing world. Liver metastasis from malignant lymphoma in the fatty liver is poorly understood. In a previous report, we developed color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) of the murine EL4-RFP malignant lymphoma during metastasis, including the lung. In the present report, we investigated the potential and microenvironment of the fatty liver induced by a choline-deficient diet as a metastatic site in this mouse lymphoma model. C57BL/6-GFP transgenic mice were fed with a choline-deficient diet in order to establish a fatty liver model. EL4-RFP cells were injected in the spleen of normal mice and fatty-liver mice. Metastases in mice with fatty liver or normal liver were imaged with the Olympus SZX7 microscope and the Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Metastases of EL4-RFP were observed in the liver, ascites and bone marrow. Primary tumors were imaged in the spleen at the injection site. The fewest metastases were observed in the fatty liver. In addition, the fewest cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were observed in the fatty liver. The relative metastatic resistance of the fatty liver may be due to the reduced number of CAFs in the fatty livers. The mechanism of the effect of the choline-deficient diet is discussed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  15. Value of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT in patients with suspected prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scher, Bernhard; Albinger, Wolfram; Tiling, Reinhold; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Dresel, Stefan [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Seitz, Michael [University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael; Becker, Hans-Christoph [University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Souvatzogluou, Michael; Wester, Hans-Juergen [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The value and limitations of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT for the detection of prostate cancer remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT in a large group of patients with suspected prostate cancer. Fifty-eight patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent {sup 11}C-choline PET (25/58, Siemens ECAT Exact HR+) or PET/CT (33/58, Philips Gemini) scanning. On average, 500 MBq of {sup 11}C-choline was administered intravenously. Studies were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and other diagnostic procedures. Qualitative image analysis as well as semiquantitative SUV measurement was carried out. The reference standard was histopathological examination of resection specimens or biopsy. Prevalence of prostate cancer in this selected patient population was 63.8% (37/58). {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 86.5% (32/37) and a specificity of 61.9% (13/21) in the detection of the primary malignancy. With regard to metastatic spread, PET showed a per-patient sensitivity of 81.8% (9/11) and produced no false positive findings. Based on our findings, differentiation between benign prostatic changes, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatitis, and prostate cancer is feasible in the majority of cases when image interpretation is primarily based on qualitative characteristics. SUV{sub max} may serve as guidance. False positive findings may occur due to an overlap of {sup 11}C-choline uptake between benign and malignant processes. By providing functional information regarding both the primary malignancy and its metastases, {sup 11}C-choline PET may prove to be a useful method for staging prostate cancer. (orig.)

  16. Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Kobrosly, Roni W; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Ueland, Per M; Myers, Gary J

    2013-07-28

    Choline is an essential nutrient that is found in many food sources and plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that choline status pre- and postnatally can have long-lasting effects on attention and memory; however, effects in human subjects have not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), methionine and homocysteine and specific measures of neurodevelopment were measured in 210 children aged 5 years. The children's plasma free choline concentration (9·17 (sd 2·09) μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine (r 0·24; P= 0·0006), DMG (r 0·15; P= 0·03), methionine (r 0·24; P= 0·0005) and homocysteine (r 0·19; P= 0·006) concentrations. Adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively associated with Preschool Language Scale – total language scores (β = 0·066; P= 0·04), but no other associations were evident. We found no indication that free choline concentration or its metabolites, within the normal physiological range, are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. As there is considerable animal evidence suggesting that choline status during development is associated with cognitive outcome, the issue deserves further study in other cohorts.

  17. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  18. Reversible Communicating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reversible distributed programs have the ability to abort unproductive computation paths and backtrack, while unwinding communication that occurred in the aborted paths. While it is natural to assume that reversibility implies full state recovery (as with traditional roll-back recovery protocols, an interesting alternative is to separate backtracking from local state recovery. For example, such a model could be used to create complex transactions out of nested compensable transactions where a programmer-supplied compensation defines the work required to "unwind" a transaction. Reversible distributed computing has received considerable theoretical attention, but little reduction to practice; the few published implementations of languages supporting reversibility depend upon a high degree of central control. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a practical reversible distributed language can be efficiently implemented in a fully distributed manner. We discuss such a language, supporting CSP-style synchronous communication, embedded in Scala. While this language provided the motivation for the work described in this paper, our focus is upon the distributed implementation. In particular, we demonstrate that a "high-level" semantic model can be implemented using a simple point-to-point protocol.

  19. Economic impact of reversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Estimations of the Norwegian hydropower production and various reversion models' market value have been made. The value of the Norwegian hydropower production until 01.01.2007 is estimated to about Nok 289 billion after taxes, or about 2,42 Nok/kWh medium production, given an expected future electricity price of around 0,25 Nok/kWh and a discount rate at 6,5 percent in nominal terms after taxes. The estimate is slightly above the level of prices for Norwegian hydropower plants in the last 8-10 years. The value of reversion in private plants which today have a limited licence time is estimated to Nok 5,5 billion. The value of reversion in public-owned Norwegian hydropower plants are about Nok 21 billion with a 60 year licence period from 01.01.2007, and about 12 billion for 75 years (ml)

  20. Reversible deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This presentation, given by the national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) at the meeting of October 8, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the concept of deep reversible disposal for high level/long living radioactive wastes, as considered by the ANDRA in the framework of the program law of June 28, 2006 about the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The document presents the social and political reasons of reversibility, the technical means considered (containers, disposal cavities, monitoring system, test facilities and industrial prototypes), the decisional process (progressive development and blocked off of the facility, public information and debate). (J.S.)

  1. Choline Catabolism in Burkholderia thailandensis Is Regulated by Multiple Glutamine Amidotransferase 1-Containing AraC Family Transcriptional Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Adam M; Wargo, Matthew J

    2016-09-15

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium that shares many metabolic pathways with the ecologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among the diverse nutrients it can utilize is choline, metabolizable to the osmoprotectant glycine betaine and subsequently catabolized as a source of carbon and nitrogen, similar to P. aeruginosa Orthologs of genes in the choline catabolic pathway in these two bacteria showed distinct differences in gene arrangement as well as an additional orthologous transcriptional regulator in B. thailandensis In this study, we showed that multiple glutamine amidotransferase 1 (GATase 1)-containing AraC family transcription regulators (GATRs) are involved in regulation of the B. thailandensis choline catabolic pathway (gbdR1, gbdR2, and souR). Using genetic analyses and sequencing the transcriptome in the presence and absence of choline, we identified the likely regulons of gbdR1 (BTH_II1869) and gbdR2 (BTH_II0968). We also identified a functional ortholog for P. aeruginosa souR, a GATR that regulates the metabolism of sarcosine to glycine. GbdR1 is absolutely required for expression of the choline catabolic locus, similar to P. aeruginosa GbdR, while GbdR2 is important to increase expression of the catabolic locus. Additionally, the B. thailandensis SouR ortholog (BTH_II0994) is required for catabolism of choline and its metabolites as carbon sources, whereas in P. aeruginosa, SouR function can by bypassed by GbdR. The strategy employed by B. thailandensis represents a distinct regulatory solution to control choline catabolism and thus provides both an evolutionary counterpoint and an experimental system to analyze the acquisition and regulation of this pathway during environmental growth and infection. Many proteobacteria that occupy similar environmental niches have horizontally acquired orthologous genes for metabolism of compounds useful in their shared environment. The arrangement and differential

  2. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio; Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2015-09-21

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features.

  3. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.ramondo@univaq.it [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, L’Aquila I-67100 (Italy); Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.gontrani@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-21

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features.

  4. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio; Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features

  5. Prospective head-to-head comparison of 11C-choline-PET/MR and 11C-choline-PET/CT for restaging of biochemical recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiber, Matthias; Rauscher, Isabel; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus; Maurer, Tobias; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Beer, Ambros J.

    2017-01-01

    Whole-body integrated 11 C-choline PET/MR might provide advantages compared to 11 C-choline PET/CT for restaging of prostate cancer (PC) due to the high soft-tissue contrast and the use of multiparametric MRI, especially for detection of local recurrence and bone metastases. Ninety-four patients with recurrent PC underwent a single-injection/dual-imaging protocol with contrast-enhanced PET/CT followed by fully diagnostic PET/MR. Imaging datasets were read separately by two reader teams (team 1 and 2) assessing the presence of local recurrence, lymph node and bone metastases in predefined regions using a five-point scale. Detection rates were calculated. The diagnostic performance of PET/CT vs. PET/MR was compared using ROC analysis. Inter-observer and inter-modality variability, radiation exposure, and mean imaging time were evaluated. Clinical follow-up, imaging, and/or histopathology served as standard of reference (SOR). Seventy-five patients qualified for the final image analysis. A total of 188 regions were regarded as positive: local recurrence in 37 patients, 87 regions with lymph node metastases, and 64 regions with bone metastases. Mean detection rate between both readers teams for PET/MR was 84.7% compared to 77.3% for PET/CT (p > 0.05). Local recurrence was identified significantly more often in PET/MR compared to PET/CT by team 1. Lymph node and bone metastases were identified significantly more often in PET/CT compared to PET/MR by both teams. However, this difference was not present in the subgroup of patients with PSA values ≤2 ng/ml. Inter-modality and inter-observer agreement (K > 0.6) was moderate to substantial for nearly all categories. Mean reduction of radiation exposure for PET/MR compared to PET/CT was 79.7% (range, 72.6-86.2%). Mean imaging time for PET/CT was substantially lower (18.4 ± 0.7 min) compared to PET/MR (50.4 ± 7.9 min). 11 C-choline PET/MR is a robust imaging modality for restaging biochemical recurrent PC and

  6. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  7. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of ‘cold’ and ‘warm’ materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  8. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  9. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  10. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Elastomers with Reversible Nanoporosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw; Andersen, K.; Schulte, Lars

    2009-01-01

    nanostructure and displays liquid-filled cavities. Upon several cycles of swelling and drying the cavities open and close in a reversible fashion. When exposed to a nonsolvent, the material remains collapsed. This discriminating behavior of liquid-material interaction holds potential for the use...

  12. Value of bimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI and trimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI/TRUS for the assessment of prostate cancer recurrence after radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, Francesco; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Romagnoli, Andrea; Piccazzo, Riccardo; Monticone, Michela; Cevasco, Luca; Campodonico, Fabio; Conzi, Giuseppe Maria; Carmignani, Giorgio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Between 27% and 53% of all patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation therapy (RT) as the first-line treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) develop a biochemical recurrence. Imaging plays a pivotal role in restaging by helping to distinguish between local relapse and metastatic disease (i.e., lymph-node and skeletal metastases). At present, the most promising tools for assessing PCa patients with biochemical recurrence are multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with radio-labeled choline derivatives. The main advantage of mpMRI is its high diagnostic accuracy in detecting local recurrence, while choline-PET/CT is able to identify lymph-node metastases when they are not suspicious on morphological imaging. The most recent advances in the field of fusion imaging have shown that multimodal co-registration, synchronized navigation, and combined interpretation are more valuable than the individual; separate assessment offered by different diagnostic techniques. The objective of the present essay was to describe the value of bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging and trimodal choline-PET/mpMRI/transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in the assessment of PCa recurrence after RP and RT. Bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging allows morphological, functional, and metabolic information to be combined, thereby overcoming the limitations of each separate imaging modality. In addition, trimodal real-time choline-PET/mpMRI/TRUS fusion imaging may be useful for the planning and real-time guidance of biopsy procedures in order to obtain histological confirmation of the local recurrence.

  13. Studies of antimony telluride and copper telluride films electrodeposition from choline chloride containing ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrangiu, Adriana-Simona; Sin, Ion [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Cotarta, Adina [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Cojocaru, Anca, E-mail: a_cojocaru@chim.upb.ro [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Anicai, Liana [Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Visan, Teodor [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-07-29

    Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the deposition of antimony telluride or copper telluride from ionic liquid consisting in mixture of choline chloride with oxalic acid. In addition, the cathodic process during copper telluride formation was studied in the mixture of choline chloride with ethylene glycol. The results indicate that the Pt electrode is first covered with a Te layer, and then the more negative polarisation leads to the deposition of Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} or Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} semiconductor compounds. Thin films were deposited on copper and carbon steel at 60–70 °C and were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their stoichiometry depends on the bath composition and applied potential. EDS and XRD patterns indicate the possible synthesis of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase and Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases, respectively, by controlling the ratio of ion concentrations in ionic liquid electrolytes and deposition potential. - Highlights: • Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} and Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} films electrodeposited from choline-chloride-based ionic liquids. • The stoichiometry of film depends on the bath composition and deposition potential. • Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases were identified in X-ray diffraction patterns.

  14. Effects of betaine supplementation and choline deficiency on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yi-qun; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of betaine status on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was investigated to determine whether folate deficiency impairs homocysteine removal not only by the methionine synthase (MS) pathway but also by the betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) pathway. For this purpose, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with betaine at a high level (1%) in rats fed a folate-deprived 10% casein diet (10C) and 20% casein diet (20C). We also investigated the effect of choline deprivation on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 20C. Supplementation of folate-deprived 10C and 20C with 1% betaine significantly suppressed folate deprivation-induced hyperhomocysteinemia, but the extent of suppression was partial or limited, especially in rats fed 10C, the suppression of plasma homocysteine increment being 48.5% in rats fed 10C and 69.7% in rats fed 20C. Although betaine supplementation greatly increased hepatic betaine concentration and BHMT activity, these increases did not fully explain why the effect of betaine supplementation was partial or limited. Folate deprivation markedly increased the hepatic concentration of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), a known inhibitor of BHMT, and there was a significant positive correlation between hepatic DMG concentration and plasma homocysteine concentration, suggesting that folate deficiency increases hepatic DMG concentration and thereby depresses BHMT reaction, leading to interference with the effect of betaine supplementation. Choline deprivation did not increase plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 20C, but it markedly enhanced plasma homocysteine concentration when rats were fed folate-deprived 20C. This indicates that choline deprivation reinforced folate deprivation-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Increased hepatic DMG concentration was also associated with such an effect. These results support the concept that folate deficiency impairs homocysteine metabolism not only

  15. Choline and methionine differentially alter methyl carbon metabolism in bovine neonatal hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Tawny L; White, Heather M

    2017-01-01

    Intersections in hepatic methyl group metabolism pathways highlights potential competition or compensation of methyl donors. The objective of this experiment was to examine the expression of genes related to methyl group transfer and lipid metabolism in response to increasing concentrations of choline chloride (CC) and DL-methionine (DLM) in primary neonatal hepatocytes that were or were not exposed to fatty acids (FA). Primary hepatocytes isolated from 4 neonatal Holstein calves were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24 h before treatment with CC (61, 128, 2028, and 4528 μmol/L) and DLM (16, 30, 100, 300 μmol/L), with or without a 1 mmol/L FA cocktail in a factorial arrangement. After 24 h of treatment, media was collected for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and cell lysates were collected for quantification of gene expression. No interactions were detected between CC, DLM, or FA. Both CC and DLM decreased the expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A). Increasing CC did not alter betaine-homocysteine S-methyltranferase (BHMT) but did increase 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) expression. Increasing DLM decreased expression of BHMT and MTR, but did not affect MTHFR. Expression of both phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) were decreased by increasing CC and DLM, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) was unaffected by either. Treatment with FA decreased the expression of MAT1A, MTR, MTHFR and tended to decrease PEMT but did not affect BHMT and MTTP. Treatment with FA increased CPT1A expression. Increasing CC increased secretion of VLDL and decreased the accumulation of ROS in media. Within neonatal bovine hepatocytes, choline and methionine differentially regulate methyl carbon pathways and suggest that choline may play a critical role in

  16. Opioid receptor subtypes mediating the noise-induced decreases in high-affinity choline uptake in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H; Carino, M A

    1992-07-01

    Acute (20 min) exposure to 100-dB white noise elicits a naltrexone-sensitive decrease in sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. In the present study, the subtypes of opioid receptors involved were investigated by pretreating rats with microinjection of specific opioid-receptor antagonists into the lateral cerebroventricle before noise exposure. We found that the noise-induced decrease in high-affinity choline uptake in the hippocampus was blocked by pretreatment with either mu-, delta-, or kappa-opioid-receptor antagonists, whereas the effect of noise on frontal cortical high-affinity choline uptake was blocked by a mu- and delta- but not by a kappa-antagonist. These data further confirm the role of endogenous opioids in mediating the effects of noise on central cholinergic activity and indicate that different neural mechanisms are involved in the effects of noise on the frontal cortical and hippocampal cholinergic systems.

  17. An Incidental Renal Oncocytoma: 18F-Choline PET/MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mallia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available PET/MRI is a new hybrid imaging modality and has the potential to become a powerful imaging tool. It is currently one of the most active areas of research in diagnostic imaging. The characterisation of an incidental renal lesion can be difficult. In particular, the differentiation of an oncocytoma from other solid renal lesions such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC represents a diagnostic challenge. We describe the detection of an incidental renal oncocytoma in a 79-year gentleman who underwent a re-staging 18F-Choline PET/MRI following a rise in PSA values (4.07, nadir 1.3.

  18. Therapy assessment in prostate cancer using choline and PSMA PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); University of California Los Angeles, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hadaschik, Boris [University Hospital Essen, Department of Urology, Essen (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    While PET with non-FDG tracers (mainly choline and Ga-PSMA) has commonly been used for restaging in men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer, as well as for primary staging, it is only recently that a few preliminary studies have addressed the possible use of PET for monitoring the response to systemic therapy of metastatic disease, especially innovative treatments such as abiraterone and enzalutamide. This article aims to evaluate the role of PET imaging with different non-FDG radiotracers for assessment of therapy in advanced prostate cancer patients. (orig.)

  19. Prostate cancer: a comparative study of {sup 11}C-choline PET and MR imaging combined with proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takako; Lee, Jin; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Oka, Takashi; Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Kanagawa (Japan); Sasaki, Takeshi [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kanagawa (Japan); Endou, Hisashi [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Prostate cancer is difficult to visualise in its early stages using current imaging technology. The present study aimed to clarify the utility of {sup 11}C-choline PET for localising and evaluating cancer lesions in patients with prostate cancer by conducting a prospective comparison with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging combined with proton MR spectroscopy. PET and MR imaging combined with proton MR spectroscopy were performed in 20 patients with prostate cancer. Correlations among the metabolite ratio of choline + creatine to citrate (Cho+Cr/Ci) on MR spectroscopy, serum PSA and maximum standardised uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of {sup 11}C-choline were assessed. The location of the primary lesion was assessed by the site of SUV{sub max} and the laterality of the highest Cho+Cr/Ci ratio and confirmed by examination of surgical pathology specimens (n=16). PET exhibited a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% (20/20) for primary lesions, while the sensitivities of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy were 60% (12/20) and 65% (13/20), respectively. Weak linear correlations were observed between SUV{sub max} and serum PSA (r=0.52, p<0.05), and between SUV{sub max} and Cho+Cr/Ci ratio (r=0.49, p<0.05). Regarding the localisation of main primary lesions, PET results agreed with pathological findings in 13 patients (81%) ({kappa}=0.59), while MR spectroscopy results were in accordance with pathological findings in eight patients (50%) ({kappa}=0.11). This preliminary study suggests that {sup 11}C-choline PET may provide more accurate information regarding the localisation of main primary prostate cancer lesions than MR imaging/MR spectroscopy. A further clinical study of {sup 11}C-choline PET in a large number of patients suspected of prostate cancer will be necessary to determine the clinical utility of {sup 11}C-choline PET in patients who clinically require biopsy. (orig.)

  20. An efficient and green method for regio- and chemo-selective Friedel–Crafts acylations using a deep eutectic mixture ([CholineCl][ZnCl2]3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Tran Phuong; Nguyen, Hai Truong; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    [CholineCl][ZnCl2]3, a deep eutectic solvent between choline chloride and ZnCl2, has been used as a dual function catalyst and green solvent for the Friedel–Crafts acylation of aromatic compounds instead of using the moisture-sensitive Lewis acids and volatile organic solvents. The reactions...... are performed with high yields under microwave irradiation with short reaction times for the synthesis of ketones. Interestingly, indole derivatives are regioselectively acylated in the 3-position under mild conditions with high yields without NH protection. Three new ketone products are synthesized. [Choline......Cl][ZnCl2]3 is easily synthesized from choline chloride and zinc chloride at a low cost, with easy purification and environmentally benign compounds. [CholineCl][ZnCl2]3 can be reused up to five times without loss of catalytic activity, making it ideal in industrial processes....

  1. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP

  2. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy (PRES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron E, Fanny E; Diaz Marchan, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinical Syndrome composed of cephalea, alteration in vision and convulsions, usually observed in patients with sudden elevation of arterial pressure. The imagenologic evidence shows reversible vasogenic brain edema without stroke. Its location is predominantly posterior; it affects the cortex and the subcortical white matter of the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. The treatment with antihypertensive drugs and the removing of immunosupressor medication are generally associated with complete neurological recovery; this is reflected also in the images which return to their basal condition. The untreated hypertension, on the other side, can result in a progressive defect of the autoregulation system of the central nervous system with cerebral hemorrhage, irreversible brain stroke, coma and death

  3. The detection rate of [11C]Choline-PET/CT depends on the serum PSA-value in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.J.; Souvatzoglou, M.; Tuncel, M.; Herrmann, K.; Buck, A.K.; Praus, C.; Schwaiger, M.; Schuster, T.; Geinitz, H.; Treiber, U.

    2008-01-01

    An increase of the serum PSA-level is a sensitive in vitro marker for recurrent prostate cancer. However, it remains difficult to differentiate between local, regional or distant recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT and the serum PSA-level in patients with a biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer with the view towards localisation of recurrent disease. Sixty-three patients (mean age, 68.8 ± 6.9; range, 45-83 years) with biochemical recurrence after primary therapy for prostate cancer were included in the analysis. Mean PSA-levels were 5.9 ± 9.7 ng/ml (range, 0.2-39 ng/ml; median, 2.15). Of the 63 patients, 17 were under anti-androgen therapy at the time of [ 11 C]Choline PET/CT. Patients underwent a [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT study after injection of 656 ± 119 MBq [ 11 C]Choline on a Sensation 16 Biograph PET/CT scanner. Of the 63 patients, 35 (56%) showed a pathological [ 11 C]Choline uptake. The detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT showed a relationship with the serum PSA-level: The detection rate was 36% for a PSA-value 11 C]Choline-PET/CT (p = 0.374). As an important result our study shows that even for PSA-values 11 C]Choline-PET/CT is 36%. Furthermore, the detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT shows a positive relationship with serum PSA-levels in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after primary therapy. Therefore, in these patients, [ 11 C]Choline PET/CT allows not only to diagnose but also to localise recurrent disease with implications on disease management (localised vs systemic therapy). (orig.)

  4. Effect of choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Gang-Fu; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in spleen and head kidney. However, anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxyl radical activities in spleen and head kidney also decreased. Interestingly, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in spleen, GPx activity in head kidney, and glutathione contents in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increase of dietary choline levels up to a certain point, whereas, activities of SOD, GST and GR in head kidney showed no significantly differences among groups. Similarly, expression levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GPx1b and GR gene in spleen and head kidney were significantly lower in group with choline level of 607 mg kg(-1) diet than those in the choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of Nrf2 in head kidney and Keap1a in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expression of Nrf2 in spleen were not significantly affected by dietary choline. In conclusion, dietary choline decreased the oxidant damage and regulated the antioxidant system in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reversible infantile mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczonadi, Veronika; Bansagi, Boglarka; Horvath, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are usually severe and progressive conditions; however, there are rare forms that show remarkable spontaneous recoveries. Two homoplasmic mitochondrial tRNA mutations (m.14674T>C/G in mt-tRNA(Glu)) have been reported to cause severe infantile mitochondrial myopathy in the first months of life. If these patients survive the first year of life by extensive life-sustaining measures they usually recover and develop normally. Another mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of the 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase (TRMU) causes severe liver failure in infancy, but similar to the reversible mitochondrial myopathy, within the first year of life these infants may also recover completely. Partial recovery has been noted in some other rare forms of mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of mitochondrial tRNA synthetases and mitochondrial tRNA modifying enzymes. Here we summarize the clinical presentation of these unique reversible mitochondrial diseases and discuss potential molecular mechanisms behind the reversibility. Understanding these mechanisms may provide the key to treatments of potential broader relevance in mitochondrial disease, where for the majority of the patients no effective treatment is currently available.

  6. Positioning paper on reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled the legal framework adopted in 2006 for the deep geological storage of radioactive wastes, and briefly introduced the concept of reversibility, this publication presents the principle of geological storage, presents high and medium level and long life wastes, highlights the ethical necessity to deal with these radioactive wastes, outlines that geological storage is the generally admitted and adopted solution at the international level, and presents additional means implemented for radioactive waste management. It presents the Cigeo project as the technical answer to the issue of radioactive waste storage, describes the Cigeo development process, its current status and its development planning, and justifies the choice of this technical solution, notably from an ethical point of view. It addresses the issue of reversibility and proposes an overview of the various tools and means which aim at guaranteeing this reversibility. Appendices propose figures illustrating the Cigeo project and its development process, and a rather detailed Power Point presentation of the project by the ANDRA (history, object, planning, installations, and so on)

  7. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of a choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Neil G.; Riboldi-Tunicliffe, Alan; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Isaacs, Neil W.

    2006-01-01

    The choline-binding protein CbpI from S. pneumoniae has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 3.5 Å resolution. The choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a 23.4 kDa protein with no known function. The protein has been successfully purified initially using Ni–NTA chromatography and to homogeneity using Q-Sepharose ion-exchange resin as an affinity column. CbpI was crystallized using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 83.31, c = 80.29 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 55.7% (V M = 2.77 Å 3 Da −1 ) and shows a diffraction limit of 3.5 Å

  8. Dietary choline supplementation in adult rats improves performance on a test of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Hayarelis; Hall, Geoffrey; Gallo, Milagros; de Brugada, Isabel

    2018-04-22

    In two experiments adult rats (aged at least 6 months at the start of the procedure) received a diet enriched with added choline for a period of 10 weeks; control subjects were maintained on a standard diet during this time. All rats then underwent the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) procedure in which they were exposed to a pair of objects and then tested, after a retention interval, to a display with one object changed. Exploration of the changed object indicates retention and use of information acquired during the exposure phase. All subjects showed retention with a 24-h interval (Experiments 1 and 2) and when retested after a further 24 h (Experiment 1). But when tested for the first time after a 48-h interval (Experiment 2), control subjects showed no evidence of retention, exploring both objects equally, whereas those given the dietary supplement continued to show a preference for the changed object. This supports the conclusion that dietary choline supplementation can enhance performance on a task regarded as a test of declarative memory, and will do so even when the supplementations is given in adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized TiO2 nanopowder involving choline chloride based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicai, Liana; Petica, Aurora; Patroi, Delia; Marinescu, Virgil; Prioteasa, Paula; Costovici, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 nanopowder electrochemically prepared using choline chloride based ionic liquids. • The new proposed method allowed high anodic synthesis efficiencies of minimum 92%. • High surface area of the electrochemically synthesized titania nanopowders. • Enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The paper presents some experimental results regarding the electrochemical synthesis of TiO 2 nanopowders through anodic dissolution of Ti metal in choline chloride based eutectic mixtures (DES). A detailed characterization of the obtained titania has been performed, using various techniques, including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM associated with EDX analysis, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The anodic behavior of Ti electrode in DES has been also investigated. The photoreactivity of the synthesized materials was evaluated for the degradation of Orange II dye under UV (λ = 365 nm) and visible light irradiation. An anodic synthesis efficiency of minimum 92% has been determined. The as-synthesized TiO 2 showed amorphous structure and a calcination post-treatment at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C yielded anatase. The anodically obtained nanocrystalline oxides have crystallite sizes of 8–18 nm, a high surface area and enhanced photocatalytic effect

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of Sc in eriochrome cyanine R(chrome azurol S) - phosphatidyl choline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Chen, X.; Hu, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Eriochrome cyanine R(chrome azurol S) is used as a color reagent to determine Sc in the presence of phosphatidyl choline, eta = 3.7 * 10 4 (4.5 * 10 4 ). This method has been connected to extraction separation to determine Sc in the presence of rare earth elements, and good results have been obtained. Phosphatidyl choline(PC) is a biochemical reagent, which can be used as a surfactant. It has been reported that chrome azurol S(CAS) can be used to determine Be in the presence of PC but it has not been reported that eriochrome cyanine R(ECR) and CAS can been used to determine Sc in the presence of PC. This paper has put forward a method by which Sc can be determined. ECR (CAS) has been used as a color reagent and PC as a surfactant. Conditional experiments have been made and this method has been connected to extraction separation. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) extracts Sc from rare earth elements to make a determination and good results have been obtained

  11. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT, now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  12. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, A; Vaccaro, R; D'Este, L; Sakaue, Y; Bellier, J P; Kimura, H; Renda, T G

    2012-07-19

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  13. In vitro inhibition of choline acetyltransferase by a series of 2-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capacio, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Ten substituted 2-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinones were synthesized and evaluated for their relative potency as in vitro inhibitors of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis was followed radiometrically by the incorporation of labeled acetate originating from 14 C-acetyl-CoA. Woolf-Augustinsson-Hofstee data analysis was used to calculate Vmax, Km, and Ki values. The inhibition was found to be noncompetitive or uncompetitive with respect to choline. Quantitative structure activity relationship correlations demonstrated a primary dependence on κ-σ, as well as steric properties of the substituted benzene ring. Additional radiometric and spectrophotometric were performed with 2-(3'-methyl)-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinone, one of the more potent analogs, to further elucidate the inhibitory mechanism. ChAT-mediated cleavage of ACh was measured spectrophotometrically by following the appearance of NADH at 340 nanometers in an enzyme coupled assay. Lineweaver-Burk analysis indicated mixed or uncompetitive inhibition with respect to both substrates of the forward reaction, suggesting interference with a rate limiting step

  14. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized TiO{sub 2} nanopowder involving choline chloride based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anicai, Liana, E-mail: lanicai@itcnet.ro [POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Petica, Aurora [Leather and Footwear Research Institute (ICPI), Ion Minulescu 93, Bucharest, 031215 (Romania); Patroi, Delia; Marinescu, Virgil; Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Costovici, Stefania [POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanopowder electrochemically prepared using choline chloride based ionic liquids. • The new proposed method allowed high anodic synthesis efficiencies of minimum 92%. • High surface area of the electrochemically synthesized titania nanopowders. • Enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The paper presents some experimental results regarding the electrochemical synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders through anodic dissolution of Ti metal in choline chloride based eutectic mixtures (DES). A detailed characterization of the obtained titania has been performed, using various techniques, including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM associated with EDX analysis, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The anodic behavior of Ti electrode in DES has been also investigated. The photoreactivity of the synthesized materials was evaluated for the degradation of Orange II dye under UV (λ = 365 nm) and visible light irradiation. An anodic synthesis efficiency of minimum 92% has been determined. The as-synthesized TiO{sub 2} showed amorphous structure and a calcination post-treatment at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C yielded anatase. The anodically obtained nanocrystalline oxides have crystallite sizes of 8–18 nm, a high surface area and enhanced photocatalytic effect.

  15. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of a choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Neil G., E-mail: neison@chem.gla.ac.uk; Riboldi-Tunicliffe, Alan [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Mitchell, Timothy J. [Division of Infection and Immunity (IBLS), Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Isaacs, Neil W. [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The choline-binding protein CbpI from S. pneumoniae has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 3.5 Å resolution. The choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a 23.4 kDa protein with no known function. The protein has been successfully purified initially using Ni–NTA chromatography and to homogeneity using Q-Sepharose ion-exchange resin as an affinity column. CbpI was crystallized using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 83.31, c = 80.29 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 55.7% (V{sub M} = 2.77 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}) and shows a diffraction limit of 3.5 Å.

  16. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of the choline transport tracer deshydroxy-[18F]fluorocholine ([18F]dOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, G.; Herz, M.; Hauser, A.; Schwaiger, M.; Wester, H.-J.

    2004-01-01

    11 C-labeled choline ([ 11 C]CHO) and 18 F-fluorinated choline analogues have been demonstrated to be valuable tracers for in vivo imaging of neoplasms by means of positron emission tomography (PET). The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether deshydroxy-[ 18 F]fluorocholine, ([ 18 F]dOC), a non-metabolizable [ 18 F]fluorinated choline analogue, can serve as a surrogate for cholines that are able to be phosphorylated and thus allow PET-imaging solely by addressing the choline transport system. The specificity of uptake of [ 18 F]dOC was compared with that of [ 11 C]choline ([ 11 C]CHO) in cultured rat pancreatic carcinoma and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. In addition, biodistribution of [ 18 F]dOC and [ 11 C]CHO was compared in AR42J- and PC-3 tumor bearing mice. The in vitro studies revealed that membrane transport of both compounds can be inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by similar concentrations of cold choline (IC 50 [ 18 F]dOC= 11 μM; IC 50 [ 11 C]CHO=13 μM. In vitro studies with PC-3 and AR42J cells revealed that the internalized fraction of [ 18 F]dOC after 5 min incubation time is comparable to that of [ 11 C]CHO, whereas the uptake of [ 11 C]CHO was superior after 20 min incubation time. As for [ 11 C]CHO, kidney and liver were also the primary sites of uptake for [ 18 F]dOC in vivo. Biodistribution data after simultaneous injection of both tracers into AR42J tumor bearing mice revealed slightly higher tumor uptake for [ 18 F]dOC at 10 min post-injection, whereas [ 11 C]CHO uptake was higher at later time points. In conclusion, [ 18 F]dOC is taken up into AR42J rat pancreatic carcinoma and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells by a choline specific transport system. Similar transport rates of [ 18 F]dOC and [ 11 C]CHO result in comparable cellular uptake levels at early time points. In contrast to [ 18 F]dOC, which is transported but not intracellularily trapped, the choline kinase substrate [ 11 C]CHO is transported

  17. Status of time reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Time Reversal Invariance is introduced, and theories for its violation are reviewed. The present experimental and theoretical status of Time Reversal Invariance and tests thereof will be presented. Possible future tests will be discussed. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Introduction to time reversal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theory and reaction mechanisms relevant to time reversal invariance are reviewed. Consequences of time reversal invariance are presented under the headings of CP tests, electromagnetic moments, weak emissions or absorptions, and scattering reactions. 8 refs., 4 figs

  19. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  20. Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    It has frequently been suggested that only the geomagnetic dipole, rather than higher order poles, reverse during a geomagnetic field reversal. Under this assumption the geomagnetic field strength has been calculated for the surface of the Earth for various steps of the reversal process. Even without an eminent a reversal of the field, extrapolation of the present secular change (although problematic) shows that the field strength may become zero in some geographic areas within a few hundred years.

  1. A Study on Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Dhananjaya

    2011-01-01

    In the competitive world of manufacturing, companies are often searching for new ways to improve their process, customer satisfaction and stay ahead in the game with their competitors. Reverse logistics has been considered a strategy to bring these things to life for the past decade or so. This thesis work tries to shed some light on the basics of reverse logistics and how reverse logistics can be used as a management strategy. This paper points out the fundamentals of reverse logistics and l...

  2. From the Cover: 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone Rescues Lead-Induced Impairment of Vesicular Release: A Novel Therapeutic Approach for Lead Intoxicated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei; McGlothan, Jennifer L; Miry, Omid; Stansfield, Kirstie H; Loth, Meredith K; Stanton, Patric K; Guilarte, Tomás R

    2018-01-01

    Childhood lead (Pb2+) intoxication is a public health problem of global proportion. Lead exposure during development produces multiple effects on the central nervous system including impaired synapse formation, altered synaptic plasticity, and learning deficits. In primary hippocampal neurons in culture and hippocampal slices, Pb2+ exposure inhibits vesicular release and reduces the number of fast-releasing sites, an effect associated with Pb2+ inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated trans-synaptic Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling. The objective of this study was to determine if activation of TrkB, the cognate receptor for BDNF, would rescue Pb2+-induced impairments of vesicular release. Rats were chronically exposed to Pb2+ prenatally and postnatally until 50 days of age. This chronic Pb2+ exposure paradigm enhanced paired-pulse facilitation of synaptic potentials in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, a phenomenon indicative of reduced vesicular release probability. Decreased vesicular release probability was confirmed by both mean-variance analysis and direct 2-photon imaging of vesicular release from hippocampal slices of rats exposed to Pb2+in vivo. We also found a Pb2+-induced impairment of calcium influx in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synaptic terminals. Intraperitoneal injections of Pb2+ rats with the TrkB receptor agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (5 mg/kg) for 14-15 days starting at postnatal day 35, reversed all Pb2+-induced impairments of presynaptic transmitter release at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. This study demonstrates for the first time that in vivo pharmacological activation of TrkB receptors by small molecules such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone can reverse long-term effects of chronic Pb2+ exposure on presynaptic terminals, pointing to TrkB receptor activation as a promising therapeutic intervention in Pb2+-intoxicated children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  3. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, M W

    1971-04-09

    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.

  4. Reversal Strategies for NOACs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Steen; Verheugt, Freek; Comuth, Willemijn

    2015-01-01

    , coagulation factor concentrates or NOAC-specific antidotes could be used. Coagulation factor concentrates can be used in patients with haemophilia and to reverse the effect of VKAs but, in NOAC-treated patients, results are inconsistent and these agents could potentially have pro-thrombotic effects. Specific...... antidotes for NOACs are expected to be on the market soon. Phase III clinical trials with a humanized antibody fragment directed against dabigatran (idarucizumab) and recombinant, modified factor Xa (andexanet alfa) are ongoing. A molecule (aripazine) with broad activity against various anticoagulants...

  5. Reversible brazing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  6. SALT ACCLIMATION OF TRITICUM-AESTIVUM BY CHOLINE CHLORIDE - PLANT-GROWTH, MINERAL-CONTENT, AND CELL-PERMEABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MM; STADELMANN, EJ; LEESTADELMANN, OY

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of a salt sensitive line of Triticum aestivum were grown in Hoagland solution supplemented with 100 mM NaCl following a pretreatment with choline chloride (ChCl). Changes in growth, mineral content of roots and shoots, and passive permeability of the cell membrane were measured. Relative

  7. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Baal, van J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Bakker, J.A.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerol were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous cows were blocked into 19 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one

  8. Protein τ-mediated effects on rat hippocampal choline transporters CHT1 and τ-amyloid β interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištofíková, Z.; Řípová, D.; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Šírová, J.; Homola, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2013), s. 1949-1959 ISSN 0364-3190 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Tau protein * Amyloid β peptide * Choline transporter Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2013

  9. Comparison of C-11-choline and F-18-FDG PET in primary diagnosis and staging of patients with thoracic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterman, RM; Que, TH; Elsinga, PH; Pruim, J; van Putten, JWG; Willemsen, ATM; Vaalburg, W; Groen, HJM

    PET with F-18-FDG is used for detection and staging of thoracic cancer; however, more specific PET radiopharmaceuticals would be welcome. C-11-labeled choline (CHOL) is a new radiopharmaceutical potentially useful for tumor imaging, since it is incorporated into cell membranes as

  10. Suppression Effects of Betaine-Enriched Spinach on Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by Guanidinoacetic Acid and Choline Deficiency in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is an important natural component of rich food sources, especially spinach. Rats were fed diets with betaine or spinach powder at the same level of betaine for 10 days to investigate the dose-dependent effects of spinach powder supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia induced by guanidinoacetic acid (GAA addition and choline deprivation. The GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C was significantly suppressed by supplementation with betaine or spinach, and it was completely suppressed by taking 11.0% spinach supplementation. The choline deprivation-induced enhancement of plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 25% soybean protein diet (25S was markedly suppressed by 3.82% spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach partially prevented the effects of GAA on hepatic concentrations of methionine metabolites. The decrease in activity of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS in GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was recovered by supplementation with betaine or spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach did not affect BHMT activity, whereas it partially restored CBS activity in choline-deprived 25S. The results indicated that betaine or spinach could completely suppress the hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deficiency resulting from stimulating the homocysteine removal by both remethylation and cystathionine formation.

  11. Effect of rumen-protected choline supplementation on liver and adipose gene expression during the transition period in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goselink, R.M.A.; Baal, van J.; Widjaja, H.C.A.; Dekker, R.A.; Zom, R.L.G.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that supplementation of rumen-protected choline (RPC) reduces the hepatic triacylglycerol concentration in periparturient dairy cows during early lactation. Here, we investigated the effect of RPC on the transcript levels of lipid metabolism-related genes in liver and adipose

  12. No up-regulation of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pathway and choline production by sex hormones in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B; Favier, Robert P; Robben, Joris H; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common cholestatic disease affecting cats of any breed, age and sex. Both choline deficiency and low hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) activity are associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in humans, mice and rats. The PEMT

  13. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  14. (18)F-choline PET/CT pitfalls in image interpretation: an update on 300 examined patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-02-01

    F-choline PET/CT is an important diagnostic tool in the management of patients with prostate cancer (PC). The aim of this study was to describe and discuss some abnormal sites of uptake that we observed, not due to PC recurrence. Three hundred patients were submitted to F-choline PET/CT for staging or restaging of PC. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired 40 minutes after the F-choline administration. We found abnormal uptake of the tracer, not related to PC, in 48/300 patients (16%). Most of these findings were due to inflammatory processes. Furthermore, some malignant conditions, such as a case of colon cancer, a case of bladder carcinoma, and a multiple myeloma, were diagnosed. Mild uptake was also detected in some benign diseases, such as thymoma, adrenal adenoma, and sarcoidosis. Six patients showed focal brain uptake in correspondence to a meningioma. It is necessary for nuclear physicians, during clinical practice, to consider the possibility of F-choline uptake in some benign or malignant conditions for the intrinsic pharmacologic property of the tracer. An accurate medical investigation, correlative imaging with CT and/or MRI with contrast agents, laboratory data, and above all, histologic examination are often necessary for correct diagnosis.

  15. Choline Phospholipid Metabolites of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Altered by Cyclooxygenase Inhibition, Growth Factor Depletion, and Paracrine Factors Secreted by Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance studies have previously shown that solid tumors and cancer cells in culture typically exhibit high phosphocholine and total choline. Treatment of cancer cells with the anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin (INDO, reverted the phenotype of choline phospholipid metabolites in cancer cells towards a less malignant phenotype. Since endothelial cells form a key component of tumor vasculature, in this study, we used MR spectroscopy to characterize the phenotype of choline phospholipid metabolites in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. We determined the effect of growth factors, the anti-inflammatory agent INDO, and conditioned media obtained from a malignant cell line, on choline phospholipid metabolites. Growth factor depletion or treatment with INDO induced similar changes in the choline phospholipid metabolites of HUVECs. Treatment with conditioned medium obtained from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells induced changes similar to the presence of growth factor supplements. These results suggest that cancer cells secrete growth factors and/or other molecules that influence the choline phospholipid metabolism of HUVECs. The ability of INDO to alter choline phospholipid metabolism in the presence of growth factor supplements suggests that the inflammatory response pathways of HUVECs may play a role in cancer cell-HUVEC interaction and in the response of HUVECs to growth factors.

  16. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  17. Specific and reversible immobilization of proteins tagged to the affinity polypeptide C-LytA on functionalized graphite electrodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bello-Gil

    Full Text Available We have developed a general method for the specific and reversible immobilization of proteins fused to the choline-binding module C-LytA on functionalized graphite electrodes. Graphite electrode surfaces were modified by diazonium chemistry to introduce carboxylic groups that were subsequently used to anchor mixed self-assembled monolayers consisting of N,N-diethylethylenediamine groups, acting as choline analogs, and ethanolamine groups as spacers. The ability of the prepared electrodes to specifically bind C-LytA-tagged recombinant proteins was tested with a C-LytA-β-galactosidase fusion protein. The binding, activity and stability of the immobilized protein was evaluated by electrochemically monitoring the formation of an electroactive product in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate 4-aminophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside. The hybrid protein was immobilized in an specific and reversible way, while retaining the catalytic activity. Moreover, these functionalized electrodes were shown to be highly stable and reusable. The method developed here can be envisaged as a general, immobilization procedure on the protein biosensor field.

  18. Specific and Reversible Immobilization of Proteins Tagged to the Affinity Polypeptide C-LytA on Functionalized Graphite Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Gil, Daniel; Maestro, Beatriz; Fonseca, Jennifer; Feliu, Juan M.; Climent, Víctor; Sanz, Jesús M.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a general method for the specific and reversible immobilization of proteins fused to the choline-binding module C-LytA on functionalized graphite electrodes. Graphite electrode surfaces were modified by diazonium chemistry to introduce carboxylic groups that were subsequently used to anchor mixed self-assembled monolayers consisting of N,N-diethylethylenediamine groups, acting as choline analogs, and ethanolamine groups as spacers. The ability of the prepared electrodes to specifically bind C-LytA-tagged recombinant proteins was tested with a C-LytA-β-galactosidase fusion protein. The binding, activity and stability of the immobilized protein was evaluated by electrochemically monitoring the formation of an electroactive product in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate 4-aminophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside. The hybrid protein was immobilized in an specific and reversible way, while retaining the catalytic activity. Moreover, these functionalized electrodes were shown to be highly stable and reusable. The method developed here can be envisaged as a general, immobilization procedure on the protein biosensor field. PMID:24498237

  19. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schugar, Rebecca C; Huang, Xiaojing; Moll, Ashley R; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666) that is very high in fat (~94% kcal), very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal), low in protein (~5% kcal), and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg) provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal) and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg). C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  20. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Schugar

    Full Text Available Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666 that is very high in fat (~94% kcal, very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal, low in protein (~5% kcal, and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg. C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  1. Long-term improvements in sensory inhibition with gestational choline supplementation linked to α7 nicotinic receptors through studies in Chrna7 null mutation mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E; Choo, Kevin S; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Adams, Catherine E

    2014-03-13

    Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A study of 11C-acetate production using 11C-choline commercial module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; Yao Shulin; Chen Yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: 11 C-acetate is a useful PET tracer in evaluating myocardial metabolism but more interest has been focused on its application in tumor detection in recent years, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was designed to evaluate the laboratory, preparation of 11 C-acetate with a modified 11 C-choline commercial module and to investigate its biodistribution in tumor (lung adenocarcinoma)-bearing mice as well as its potential as a tumor imaging agent. Methods: 11 C-acetate was synthesized with a modified 11 C choline module: Methyl magnesium bromide Grignard (0.1 ml of 1.5 mol/L) was load- ed to a Teflon loop before 11 CO 2 was recovered from the target. Cartier acetate solution (2 ml of 1 mmol/L) was pushed through the loop, SPE cartridges (mixed AG50 and IC-Ag) and then the QMA. The loop and cartridges were then rinsed with water. The product 11 C-acetate was then washed out from QMA with 0.9% NaCl solution into a collection vial containing diluted HCl. 11 C-carbonate was removed by nitrogen bubbling for 2 min. After neutralization with trisodium citrate, the injectable 11 C-acetate solution was obtained. The tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed. The percentage activity of injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) for tumor and other tissues were calculated. One patient with known diagnosis of moderately differentiated HCC was injected with 11 C-acetate and imaged by PET/CT, followed by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Results: The synthesis yield of 11 C-acetate was (60.5 ± 8.7)% (decay conected, n=10); the radio-chemistry purity was > 98% and the synthesis time was 10 min from 11 CO 2 to 11 C-acetate. The radioactivity ratio for tumor/muscle was 1.76 at 30 min. A patient with known HCC showed positive 11 C-acetate accumulation in the tumor but was negative in 18 F-FDG. Conclusion: The synthesis of 11 C-acetate by modification of an 11 C-choline commercial module was feasible and it could be achieved with high yield, high radiochemical purity

  3. PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma with {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine and {sup 11}C-choline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolthammer, Jeffrey A.; Tenley, Nathan [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); Corn, David J.; Wu, Chunying; Tian, Haibin; Wang, Yanming [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lee, Zhenghong [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Choline-based radiotracers have been studied for PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using an {sup 18}F-labeled choline analog, instead of the {sup 11}C-labeled native choline, would facilitate its widespread use in the clinic. In this study, PET with {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine (FEC) and {sup 11}C-choline (CHOL) were compared using an animal model of HCC. The effects of fasting on the performance of choline-based tracers were also investigated. A woodchuck model of HCC was used to compare the two tracers, which were administered and imaged in sequence during the same imaging session. Dynamic PET images were generated spanning 50 min starting from tracer injection. Time-activity curves and tracer contrast were calculated in liver regions with tracer accumulation, and the contrast at a late time-point with the two tracers, and between fasted and nonfasted states, were compared. Foci of HCC with increased uptake ranged in size from 1.0 to 1.6 cm, with mean tumor-to-background contrast of 1.3 with FEC and 1.5 with CHOL at 50 min after injection. The tracers show similar patterns of uptake immediately following administration, and both activities plateaued at 10 min after injection. No significant differences in uptake dynamics or final contrast were observed between the fasted and nonfasted states. PET imaging of HCC is possible with both CHOL and FEC. Fasting was not found to affect accumulation of either tracer. These results encourage further investigation into the clinical utility of FEC for HCC imaging. (orig.)

  4. Application of 11C-choline PET/CT imaging for differentiating malignant from benign prostate lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Wang Muwen; Liu Qingwei; Zhu Renjuan; Liu Lihui; Yuan Xianshun; Yao Shuzhan; Liu Songtao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential of 11 C-choline PET/CT imaging for differentiating prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia. Methods: A total of 45 patients with prostate lesions under- went 11 C-choline PET/CT imaging before transrectal needle biopsy. PET/CT imaging was performed 5 min after injection of 7.4 MBq/kg 11 C-choline in supine position over lower abdomen (3 min per bed with 2 beds), including the pelvis, and the whole body with 6 beds when necessary. After attenuation correction and iterative reconstruction, PET data were analyzed semi-quantitatively by measuring maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in prostate lesions (P, target) and the muscles (M, non-target) and then P/M ratios were calculated. Also visual analysis was performed in different transverse, sagittal views and slices as well as three-dimensional images. Results: Eighteen prostate cancer and 27 benign prostate hyperplasia [and(or) chronic prostatitis] were all confirmed by pathology. The mean P/M ratio of prostate cancer was 4.02± 1.88, while in benign lesions was 1.87±1.21. The statistical differences of P/M ratios between them were significant (t=2.07, P 11 C-choline PET/CT imaging were 88.89%, 88.89% and 92.31% respectively. Conclusions: 11 C-choline PET/CT imaging is a valuable non-invasive technology in the diagnosis of pros- tate cancer. The P/M ratio can differentiate prostate cancer from benign lesions better than SUV. (authors)

  5. [11C]Choline PET/CT predicts survival in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Incerti, Elena; Mapelli, Paola; Gianolli, Luigi; Picchio, Maria; Kirienko, Margarita; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Montorsi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, PET/CT with radiolabelled choline has been shown to be useful for restaging patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who develop biochemical failure. The limitations of most clinical studies have been poor validation of [ 11 C]choline PET/CT-positive findings and lack of survival analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether [ 11 C]choline PET/CT can predict survival in hormone-naive PCa patients with biochemical failure. This retrospective study included 302 hormone-naive PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy who underwent [ 11 C]choline PET/CT from 1 December 2004 to 31 July 2007 because of biochemical failure (prostate-specific antigen, PSA, >0.2 ng/mL). Median PSA was 1.02 ng/mL. PCa-specific survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between clinicopathological variables and PCa-specific survival. The coefficients of the covariates included in the Cox regression analysis were used to develop a novel nomogram. Median follow-up was 7.2 years (1.4 - 18.9 years). [ 11 C]Choline PET/CT was positive in 101 of 302 patients (33 %). Median PCa-specific survival after prostatectomy was 14.9 years (95 % CI 9.7 - 20.1 years) in patients with positive [ 11 C]choline PET/CT. Median survival was not achieved in patients with negative [ 11 C]choline PET/CT. The 15-year PCa-specific survival probability was 42.4 % (95 % CI 31.7 - 53.1 %) in patients with positive [ 11 C]choline PET/CT and 95.5 % (95 % CI 93.5 - 97.5 %) in patients with negative [ 11 C]choline PET/CT. In multivariate analysis, [ 11 C]choline PET/CT (hazard ratio 6.36, 95 % CI 2.14 - 18.94, P < 0.001) and Gleason score >7 (hazard ratio 3.11, 95 % CI 1.11 - 8.66, P = 0.030) predicted PCa-specific survival. An internally validated nomogram predicted 15-year PCa-specific survival probability with an accuracy of 80 %. Positive [ 11 C]choline PET/CT after biochemical failure predicts PCa-specific survival in hormone

  6. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won; Song, Chang Joon; Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong; Kim, Man Deuk

    2001-01-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  7. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  8. Reverse osmosis application studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomb, A.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of applying reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) for effective treatment of process and waste streams from operations at Ontario Hydro's thermal and nuclear stations, an extensive literature survey has been carried out. It is concluded that RO is not at present economic for pretreatment of Great Lakes water prior to ion exchange demineralization for boiler makeup. Using both conventional and novel commercial membrane modules, RO pilot studies are recommended for treatment of boiler cleaning wastes, fly ash leachates, and flue gas desulphurization scrubber discharges for removal of heavy metals. Volume reduction and decontamination of nuclear station low-level active liquid waste streams by RO/UF also appear promising. Research programmes are proposed

  9. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Senesac, Lawrence R [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  10. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  11. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  12. Sex Reversal in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented. Also information about pollutants found in the environment that could interfere with the development of the amphibian reproductive apparatus or with their reproductive physiology is given. Such compounds could play a part in the amphibian decline, since in the wild, many amphibians are endangered species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effects of anticonvulsants in vivo on high affinity choline uptake in vitro in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Richter, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of several anticonvulsant drugs on sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake (HACU) in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes was investigated. HACU was measured in vitro after in vivo administration of the drug to mice. HACU was inhibited by drugs which have in common the ability to facilitate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission, pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone, barbitone, diazepam, chloridiazepoxide, and valproic acid. Dose-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the drugs' potencies at inhibiting HACU correlated well with their anticonvulsant potencies. Clonazepam, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, and barbituric acid had no effect on HACU in the doses used while phenytoin and trimethadione stimulated HACU. These results suggest that certain anticonvulsants may elicit a part of their anticonvulsant activity by modulating cholinergic neurones. This effect may be mediated through a GABA mechanism. PMID:3978310

  14. Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates, and choline on neurotransmitter synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a meal to increase or decrease brain neurotransmitter synthesis has been studied. It is concluded that brain serotonin synthesis is directly controlled by the proportions of carbohydrate to protein in meals and snacks that increase or decrease brain tryptophan levels, thereby changing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase and the rate of serotonin synthesis. The ability of serotoninergic neurons to have their output coupled to dietary macronutrients enables them to function as sensors of peripheral metabolism, and to subserve an important role in the control of appetite. The robust and selective responses of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons to supplemental tyrosine and choline suggest that these compounds may become useful as a new type of drug for treating deseases or conditions in which adequate quantities of the transmitter would otherwise be unavailable.

  15. The Semi-automatic Synthesis of 18F-fluoroethyl-choline by Domestic FDG Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ming

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As an important complementary imaging agent for 18F-FDG, 18F-fluoroethyl-choline (18F-FECH has been demonstrated to be promising in brain and prostate cancer imaging. By using domestic PET-FDG-TI-I CPCU synthesizer, 18F-FECH was synthesized by different reagents and consumable supplies. The C18 column was added before the product collection bottle to remove K2.2.2. The 18F-FECH was synthesized by PET-FDG-IT-I synthesizer efficiently about 30 minutes by radiochemical yield of 42.0% (no decay corrected, n=5, and the radiochemical purity was still more than 99.0% after 6 hours. The results showed the domestic PET-FDG-IT-I synthesizer could semi-automatically synthesize injectable 18F-FECH in high efficiency and radiochemical purity

  16. Electrodeposition of copper composites from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Andrew P; El Ttaib, Khalid; Frisch, Gero; McKenzie, Katy J; Ryder, Karl S

    2009-06-07

    Here we describe for the first time the electrolytic deposition of copper and copper composites from a solution of the metal chloride salt in either urea-choline chloride, or ethylene glycol-choline chloride based eutectics. We show that the deposition kinetics and thermodynamics are quite unlike those in aqueous solution under comparable conditions and that the copper ion complexation is also different. The mechanism of copper nucleation is studied using chronoamperometry and it is shown that progressive nucleation leads to a bright nano-structured deposit. In contrast, instantaneous nucleation, at lower concentrations of copper ions, leads to a dull deposit. This work also pioneers the use of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) to monitor both current efficiency and the inclusion of inert particulates into the copper coatings. This technique allows the first in situ quantification or particulate inclusion. It was found that the composition of composite material was strongly dependent on the amount of species suspended in solution. It was also shown that the majority of material was dragged onto the surface rather than settling on to it. The distribution of the composite material was found to be even throughout the coating. This technology is important because it facilitates deposition of bright copper coatings without co-ligands such as cyanide. The incorporation of micron-sized particulates into ionic liquids has resulted, in one case, in a decrease in viscosity. This observation is both unusual and surprising; we explain this here in terms of an increase in the free volume of the liquid and local solvent perturbation.

  17. Blockage of High-Affinity Choline Transporter Increases Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Chronic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1 is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods. Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension (CRD was determined, and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR and threshold intensity data were recorded to measure the visceral sensitivity. After intraperitoneal injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3, the specific inhibitor of CHT1, CRD data were also recorded. The CHT1 expression of DRGs was investigated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Acetylcholine levels in the DRGs were detected by the assay kit. Results. Repetitive WAS increased the AWR score of CRD at high distension pressure and decreased the mean threshold of rats. The CHT1 expression and acetylcholine concentration of DRG were significantly increased in WAS rats. After the administration of HC-3, the AWR score in WAS group was significantly increased at higher distension pressure while the threshold intensity was significantly reduced compared to the normal saline group. Acetylcholine concentration was significantly lower than the normal saline rats. Conclusion. Our research firstly reports that CHT1 is overexpressed in noninflammatory visceral hypersensitivity, and blockage of CHT1 can enhance the visceral hypersensitivity. CHT1 may play an inhibitory role in visceral hypersensitivity.

  18. Blockage of High-Affinity Choline Transporter Increases Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS) was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension (CRD) was determined, and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) and threshold intensity data were recorded to measure the visceral sensitivity. After intraperitoneal injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), the specific inhibitor of CHT1, CRD data were also recorded. The CHT1 expression of DRGs was investigated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Acetylcholine levels in the DRGs were detected by the assay kit. Results Repetitive WAS increased the AWR score of CRD at high distension pressure and decreased the mean threshold of rats. The CHT1 expression and acetylcholine concentration of DRG were significantly increased in WAS rats. After the administration of HC-3, the AWR score in WAS group was significantly increased at higher distension pressure while the threshold intensity was significantly reduced compared to the normal saline group. Acetylcholine concentration was significantly lower than the normal saline rats. Conclusion Our research firstly reports that CHT1 is overexpressed in noninflammatory visceral hypersensitivity, and blockage of CHT1 can enhance the visceral hypersensitivity. CHT1 may play an inhibitory role in visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:29849603

  19. Enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline that parallels histamine discharge in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, J.D.; Castle, A.M.; Ma, A.K.; Stukenbrok, H.

    1984-01-01

    Purified rat peritoneal and pleural mast cells preincubated briefly with radioactively labeled fatty acid were treated with A23187, which bypasses primary receptors in stimulating exocytosis. An enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline (PC) that occurred in parallel with histamine release at 24-25 degrees C was observed and was initially proportional to the total amount of histamine discharged. Enhanced PC labeling and histamine secretion were also proportional at temperatures ranging from 17-37 degrees C. Both radioactive linoleic and palmitic acids were incorporated selectively at the beta-position of the glycerol backbone of PC. PC labeling by [3H]choline was not detectably different in control and stimulated cells, and phosphatidic acid did not exhibit selectively enhanced beta-acylation. Thus, the stimulated labeling in A23187-treated cells may occur secondary to the action of a phospholipase A2 that favors PC as a substrate. Other peritoneal cell types exhibit a very similar A23187-stimulated selective labeling of PC. Therefore, autoradiography has been used to provide a direct demonstration that in purified preparations, mast cells are the principal cell type engaged in A23187-elicited incorporation of fatty acid into PC. The efficacy of this approach has relied on special procedures devised to obtain significantly different autoradiographic grain densities between control and stimulated preparations that can be attributed to differences in the level of [3H]palmitate-labeled PC. Preliminary tests using compound 48/80 as a secretory stimulus for mast cells have identified a similar selectively enhanced PC labeling. In either case, however, consideration of possible relationships between PC metabolism and the secretory process are premature since they have not been tested directly

  20. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse gear...

  1. Patterns of Direct Projections from the Hippocampus to the Medial Septum-Diagonal Band Complex : Anterograde Tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris Leucoagglutinin Combined with Immunohistochemistry of Choline Acetyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Kuil, J. van der; Hersh, L.B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The projections from the Ammon's horn to the cholinergic cell groups in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were investigated with anterograde tracing of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase, in the rat. Tracer injections

  2. Eggs early in complementary feeding increase choline pathway biomarkers and DHA: a randomized controlled trial in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Waters, William F; Gallegos Riofrío, Carlos Andres; Malo, Carla; Reinhart, Gregory; Palacios, Ana; Karp, Celia; Chapnick, Melissa; Cox, Katherine; Aguirre, Santiago; Narvaez, Luis; López, Fernando; Sidhu, Rohini; Kell, Pamela; Jiang, Xuntian; Fujiwara, Hideji; Ory, Daniel S; Young, Rebecca; Stewart, Christine P

    2017-12-01

    Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63. Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and essential fatty acids. Design: A randomized controlled trial, the Lulun ("egg" in Kichwa) Project, was conducted in a rural indigenous population of Ecuador. Infants aged 6-9 mo were randomly assigned to treatment (1 egg/d for 6 mo; n = 80) and control (no intervention; n = 83) groups. Socioeconomic data, anthropometric measures, and blood samples were collected at baseline and endline. Household visits were made weekly for morbidity surveillance. We tested vitamin B-12 plasma concentrations by using chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay and plasma concentrations of choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, retinol, essential fatty acids, methionine, dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine, and trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO) with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Socioeconomic factors and biomarker concentrations were comparable at baseline. Of infants, 11.4% were vitamin B-12 deficient and 31.7% marginally deficient at baseline. In adjusted generalized linear regression modeling, the egg intervention increased plasma concentrations compared with control by the following effect sizes: choline, 0.35 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.57); betaine, 0.29 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.58); methionine, 0.31 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.60); docosahexaenoic acid, 0.43 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.73); DMA, 0.37 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.69); and TMAO, 0.33 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.58). No significant group differences were found for vitamin B-12, retinol, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), or ratios of betaine to choline and LA to ALA. Conclusion: The findings supported our hypothesis that early introduction of eggs significantly

  3. The value of 18F-choline PET/CT in patients with elevated PSA-level and negative prostate needle biopsy for localisation of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igerc, I.; Kohlfuerst, S.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Matschnig, S.; Kresnik, E.; Gomez-Segovia, I.; Lind, P.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with persistent elevated PSA and repeated negative prostate biopsy, that means having the prostate biopsied at multiple times, were investigated with 18F-choline PET/CT to delineate prostate cancer and guide renewed prostate biopsy. Twenty patients with elevated PSA and negative prostate biopsies underwent 18F-choline PET/CT. We performed an early examination of the pelvic region 3-5 min after application. After 30 minutes a whole body PET/CT examination was performed. Image analysis was performed visually and by semi-quantitative analysis calculating the maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax). 18F-choline uptake was defined as focal, multifocal or inhomogeneous. After the 18F-choline PET/CT, all patients underwent a repeated prostate biopsy, and in the cases where a focal or multifocal uptake was found, the biopsy was guided by the result of the examination. Qualitative image analysis revealed focal 18F-choline uptake in 13 out of 20 patients. In five patients, prostate cancer was revealed by repeated aspiration biopsy. None of the patients with a multifocal or inhomogeneous 18F-choline uptake had a malignant neoplasm in the prostate. Semiquantitative analysis performed with SUVmax was not helpful in the discrimination of malignancy but showed high values also in benign prostate diseases, as well as in normal prostate tissue. The dual-phase protocol delivered no clear benefit in discriminating malignancy from benign alterations. The use of 18F-choline cannot be generally recommended for localising prostate cancer; however, in highly selected patients, we found useful additional information. In 25% of patients, 18F-choline PET/CT allowed the identification of neoplastic prostatic zones. (orig.)

  4. 3D-segmentation of the 18F-choline PET signal for target volume definition in radiation therapy of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciernik, I Frank; Brown, Derek W; Schmid, Daniel; Hany, Thomas; Egli, Peter; Davis, J Bernard

    2007-02-01

    Volumetric assessment of PET signals becomes increasingly relevant for radiotherapy (RT) planning. Here, we investigate the utility of 18F-choline PET signals to serve as a structure for semi-automatic segmentation for forward treatment planning of prostate cancer. 18F-choline PET and CT scans of ten patients with histologically proven prostate cancer without extracapsular growth were acquired using a combined PET/CT scanner. Target volumes were manually delineated on CT images using standard software. Volumes were also obtained from 18F-choline PET images using an asymmetrical segmentation algorithm. PTVs were derived from CT 18F-choline PET based clinical target volumes (CTVs) by automatic expansion and comparative planning was performed. As a read-out for dose given to non-target structures, dose to the rectal wall was assessed. Planning target volumes (PTVs) derived from CT and 18F-choline PET yielded comparable results. Optimal matching of CT and 18F-choline PET derived volumes in the lateral and cranial-caudal directions was obtained using a background-subtracted signal thresholds of 23.0+/-2.6%. In antero-posterior direction, where adaptation compensating for rectal signal overflow was required, optimal matching was achieved with a threshold of 49.5+/-4.6%. 3D-conformal planning with CT or 18F-choline PET resulted in comparable doses to the rectal wall. Choline PET signals of the prostate provide adequate spatial information amendable to standardized asymmetrical region growing algorithms for PET-based target volume definition for external beam RT.

  5. Field reversal experiments (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centers the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFC's with a major radius R = 2-6 cm, minor radius a approximately 2 cm, and a total length l approximately 35 cm. The observed temperatures are T/sub e/ approximately 100 eV and T/sub i/ = 150-350 eV with a peak density n approximately 2 x 10 15 cm -3 . After the plasma reaches equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30 μs followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m = 2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behavior of the m = 2 mode qualitatively agrees with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value

  6. Field reversal experiments (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centres the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFCs with a major radius R=2-6cm, a minor radius a approximately 2cm, and a total length l approximately 35cm. The observed temperatures are Tsub(e) approximately 100eV and Tsub(i)=150-350eV with a peak density n approximately 2x10 15 cm -3 . After the plasma has reached equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30μs, followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m=2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behaviour of the m=2 mode agrees qualitatively with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value. (author)

  7. A choline-deficient diet exacerbates fatty liver but attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, Peter J; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Walker, Brian R

    2006-07-01

    Liver fat accumulation is proposed to link obesity and insulin resistance. To dissect the role of liver fat in the insulin resistance of diet-induced obesity, we altered liver fat using a choline-deficient diet. C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low-fat (10% of calories) or high-fat (45% of calories) diet for 8 weeks; during the final 4 weeks, diets were either choline deficient or choline supplemented. In choline replete animals, high-fat feeding induced weight gain, elevated liver triglycerides (171%), hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Choline deficiency did not affect body or adipose depot weights but amplified liver fat accumulation with high-fat diet (281%, P insulin (from 983 +/- 175 to 433 +/- 36 pmol/l, P phosphatidylcholine synthesis and of enzymes involved in free fatty acid esterification, without affecting those of de novo lipogenesis or fatty acid oxidation. We conclude that liver fat accumulation per se does not cause insulin resistance during high-fat feeding and that choline deficiency may shunt potentially toxic free fatty acids toward innocuous storage triglyceride in the liver.

  8. Oscillatory bands, neuronal synchrony and hippocampal function: implications of the effects of prenatal choline supplementation for sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Williams, Christina L; Meck, Warren H

    2008-10-27

    Choline supplementation of the maternal diet has long-term facilitative effects on spatial and temporal memory processes in the offspring. To further delineate the impact of early nutritional status on brain and behavior, we examined effects of prenatal-choline availability on hippocampal oscillatory frequency bands in 12 month-old male and female rats. Adult offspring of time-pregnant dams that were given a deficient level of choline (DEF=0.0 g/kg), sufficient choline (CON=1.1 g/kg) or supplemental choline (SUP=3.5 g/kg) in their chow during embryonic days (ED) 12-17 were implanted with an electroencephalograph (EEG) electrode in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in combination with an electromyograph (EMG) electrode patch implanted in the nuchal muscle. Five consecutive 8-h recording sessions revealed differential patterns of EEG activity as a function of awake, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep states and prenatal choline status. The main finding was that SUP rats displayed increased power levels of gamma (30-100 Hz) band oscillations during all phases of the sleep/wake cycle. These findings are discussed within the context of a general review of neuronal oscillations (e.g., delta, theta, and gamma bands) and synchronization across multiple brain regions in relation to sleep-dependent memory consolidation in the hippocampus.

  9. Improved Diagnostic Accuracy in Characterization of Adnexal Masses by Detection of Choline Peak Using 1H MR Spectroscopy in Comparison to Internal Reference at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Mahrooz; Pourashraf, Maryam; Gilani, Mitra Modares; Gity, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the presence of a choline peak in 3 Tesla 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. A total of 46 adnexal masses (23 malignant and 23 benign) underwent 1H MRS study prior to surgery to assess the presence of choline peak. A choline peak was detected in 16 malignant masses (69.5%) and was absent in the other 7 (30.5%). A choline peak was only detected in 6 (26%) of the benign adnexal masses. The presence of an MRS choline peak had a sensitivity of 69.5%, a specificity of 74%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72.7%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 71% for diagnosing malignant adnexal masses. A significant difference between the frequency of mean choline peaks in benign and malignant adnexal masses was observed (P valuepeak is seen in malignant adnexal masses more frequently than the benign masses, and may be helpful for diagnosing malignant adnexal masses.

  10. Towards a reversible functional language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    /equality operator also simplifies inverse computation and program inversion. We discuss the advantages of a reversible functional language using example programs, including run-length encoding. Program inversion is seen to be as lightweight as for imperative reversible languages and realized by recursive descent...

  11. Reverse engineering of RFID devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokslag, W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance and potential impact of both RFID and reverse engineering of RFID technology, followed by a discussion of common protocols and internals of RFID technology. The focus of the paper is on providing an overview of the different approaches to reverse engineering RFID

  12. How decision reversibility affects motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.; van Harreveld, F.; Förster, J.; Higgins, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making,

  13. Enzymatic reactions in reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    It has been recognised that enzymes in reversed micelles have potential for application in chemical synthesis. Before these expectations will be realised many problems must be overcome. This thesis deals with some of them.
    In Chapter 1 the present knowledge about reversed micelles and

  14. Reversible networks in supramolecular polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans - van Beek, D.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Non–covalent interactions between low molecular weight polymers form the basis of supramolecular polymers. The material properties of such polymers are determined by the strength and lifetime of the non–covalent reversible interactions. Due to the reversibility of the interactions between the low

  15. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  16. A silk peptide fraction restores cognitive function in AF64A-induced Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing expression of choline acetyltransferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yeseul [College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Su Kil [Division of Marine Molecular Biotechnology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Park, Dongsun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gwi Yeong; Yeon, Sungho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Yong [Worldway Co., Ltd., Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ehn-Kyoung [College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Seong Soo [Division of Marine Molecular Biotechnology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Heon-Sang, E-mail: hsjeong@cbu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun-Bae, E-mail: solar93@cbu.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a silk peptide fraction obtained by incubating silk proteins with Protease N and Neutrase (SP-NN) on cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease model rats. In order to elucidate underlying mechanisms, the effect of SP-NN on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA was assessed in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells; active amino acid sequence was identified using HPLC-MS. The expression of ChAT mRNA in F3.ChAT cells increased by 3.79-fold of the control level by treatment with SP-NN fraction. The active peptide in SP-NN was identified as tyrosine-glycine with 238.1 of molecular weight. Male rats were orally administered with SP-NN (50 or 300 mg/kg) and challenged with a cholinotoxin AF64A. As a result of brain injury and decreased brain acetylcholine level, AF64A induced astrocytic activation, resulting in impairment of learning and memory function. Treatment with SP-NN exerted recovering activities on acetylcholine depletion and brain injury, as well as cognitive deficit induced by AF64A. The results indicate that, in addition to a neuroprotective activity, the SP-NN preparation restores cognitive function of Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing the release of acetylcholine. - Highlights: • Cognition-enhancing effects of SP-NN, a silk peptide preparation, were investigated. • SP-NN enhanced ChAT mRNA expression in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells. • Active molecule was identified as a dipeptide composed of tyrosine-glycine. • SP-NN reversed cognitive dysfunction elicited by AF64A. • Neuroprotection followed by increased acetylcholine level was achieved with SP-NN.

  17. Glutamine/glutamate (Glx) concentration in prefrontal cortex predicts reversal learning performance in the marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Moore, Constance M; LaClair, Matthew; Payne, Laurellee; King, Jean A

    2018-07-02

    This study used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to identify potential neurometabolitic markers of cognitive performance in male (n = 7) and female (n = 8) middle-aged (∼5 years old) common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Anesthetized marmosets were scanned with a 4.7 T/40 cm horizontal magnet equipped with 450 mT/m magnetic field gradients and a 20 G/cm magnetic field gradient insert, within 3 months of completing the CANTAB serial Reversal Learning task. Neurometabolite concentrations of N-Acetyl Asparate, Myo-Inositol, Choline, Phosphocreatine + creatine, Glutamate and Glutamine were acquired from a 3 mm 3 voxel positioned in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC). Males acquired the reversals (but not simple discriminations) faster than the females. Higher PFC Glx (glutamate + glutamine) concentration was associated with faster acquisition of the reversals. Interestingly, the correlation between cognitive performance and Glx was significant in males, but not in females. These results suggest that MRS is a useful tool to identify biochemical markers of cognitive performance in the healthy nonhuman primate brain and that biological sex modulates the relationship between neurochemical composition and cognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MODELS OF PROJECT REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Володимирович ІВАНОВ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering decided important scientific and technical problems of increasing the cost of the existing technical product by transforming it into a product with other features or design. Search ideas of the new application of existing products on the base of heuristic analysis were created. The concept of reverse engineering and its division into three types: conceptual, aggregate and complete was expanded. The use of heuristic methods for reverse engineering concept was showed. The modification model of Reverse engineering based on the model of РМВОК was developed. Our model includes two new phases: identification and transformation. At the identification phase, technical control is made. At the transformation phase, search heuristic idea of the new applied existing technical product was made. The model of execution phase that included heuristic methods, metrological equipment, and CAD/CAM/CAE program complex was created. The model that connected economic indicators of reverse engineering project was developed.

  19. What do reversible programs compute?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Reversible computing is the study of computation models that exhibit both forward and backward determinism. Understanding the fundamental properties of such models is not only relevant for reversible programming, but has also been found important in other fields, e.g., bidirectional model...... transformation, program transformations such as inversion, and general static prediction of program properties. Historically, work on reversible computing has focussed on reversible simulations of irreversible computations. Here, we take the viewpoint that the property of reversibility itself should...... are not strictly classically universal, but that they support another notion of universality; we call this RTM-universality. Thus, even though the RTMs are sub-universal in the classical sense, they are powerful enough as to include a self-interpreter. Lifting this to other computation models, we propose r...

  20. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  1. A comparison between endogenous acetylcholiner release and (3H) choline outflow from guinea-pig brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beani, L.; Bianchi, C.; Siniscalchi, A.; Sivilotti, L.; Tanganelli, S.; Veratti, E.

    1986-01-01

    The measure of tritium-choline efflux from preloaded brain slices is considered a valid method for studying cholinergic functiton. At variance with th say of endogenous acetylcholine this procedure gives andindex of the release process in the absence of esterase inhibition, thus excluding the dampening of the autoreceptor-mediated negative feedback. In order to establish the equivalence of these approaches the tow methods have been compared on electrically=stimulated guinea-pig brain slices, kept under the ame experimental conditions. The results show that only a partial equivalence of the two methods can be recognized. A drawback of the tritium-choline approach is the exhaustion or dilution of tritium stores, so that drug-induced increases of evoked efflux are minimized

  2. Automated synthesis of 11C-carfentanil with 11C-choline module and micro PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Zhang Xiaojun; Tian Jiahe; Xu Zhihong; Xiang Xiaohui

    2011-01-01

    A simple modified home-made 11 C-choline module enabled to rapid and efficient synthesis 11 C-carfentanil ( 11 C-CFN) as CNS μ-opioid receptor imaging agent. The synthesis of 11 C-CFN was completed in a yield of 14.8 GBq within 18 min from 11 C-CO 2 on the choline module. The methylation took place from 4-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 4-[(1-oxopropyl) phenylamino]-l-(2-phenylethyl), sodium salt as precursor in DMSO solution. The radio- chemical yields were over 80% (n=55, decay-corrected and based on 11 CH 3 -triflate). The radiochemical purity was over 95% and the specific activities was over 1.4 × 10 14 Bq/g. The biologic activity of 11 C-CFN was confirmed with Micro PET/CT imaging. (authors)

  3. The correlation between (1)H MRS choline concentrations and MR diffusion trace values in human brain tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagnerová, Dita; Jirů, F.; Dezortová, M.; Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva; Hájek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2009), s. 19-31 ISSN 0968-5243 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:MZd(CZ) MZ0IKEM2005; EC FP6 project Angiotargeting(XE) 504743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : spectroscopic imaging * cholines * diffusion trace Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.859, year: 2009

  4. PET and PET/CT with radiolabeled choline in prostate cancer: a critical reappraisal of 20 years of clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Leoncini, Rossella; Riondato, Mattia; Ciarmiello, Andrea [S. Andrea Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, La Spezia (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    We here aim to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the literature concerning the clinical applications of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with radiolabeled choline in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). We will initially briefly summarize the historical context that brought to the synthesis of [{sup 11}C]choline, which occurred exactly 20 years ago. We have arbitrarily grouped the clinical studies in three different periods, according to the year in which they were published and according to their relation with their applications in urology, radiotherapy and oncology. Studies at initial staging and, more extensively, studies in patients with biochemical failure, as well as factors predicting positive PET/CT will be reviewed. The capability of PET/CT with radiolabeled choline to provide prognostic information on PCa-specific survival will also be examined. The last sections will be devoted to the use of radiolabeled choline for monitoring the response to androgen deprivation therapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The accuracy and the limits of the technique will be discussed according to the information available from standard validation processes, including biopsy or histology. The clinical impact of the technique will be discussed on the basis of changes induced in the management of patients and in the evaluation of the response to therapy. Current indications to PET/CT, as officially endorsed by guidelines, or as routinely performed in the clinical practice will be illustrated. Emphasis will be made on methodological factors that might have influenced the results of the studies or their interpretation. Finally, we will briefly highlight the potential role of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance and of new radiotracers for PCa imaging. (orig.)

  5. No evidence for role of extracellular choline-acetyltransferase in generation of gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, J O; ul Haq, R; Behrens, C J; Maslarova, A; Mody, I; Heinemann, U

    2015-01-22

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is well known to induce persistent γ-oscillations in the hippocampus when applied together with physostigmine, an inhibitor of the ACh degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Here we report that physostigmine alone can also dose-dependently induce γ-oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. We hypothesized that this effect was due to the presence of choline in the extracellular space and that this choline is taken up into cholinergic fibers where it is converted to ACh by the enzyme choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT). Release of ACh from cholinergic fibers in turn may then induce γ-oscillations. We therefore tested the effects of the choline uptake inhibitor hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) on persistent γ-oscillations either induced by physostigmine alone or by co-application of ACh and physostigmine. We found that HC-3 itself did not induce γ-oscillations and also did not prevent physostigmine-induced γ-oscillation while washout of physostigmine and ACh-induced γ-oscillations was accelerated. It was recently reported that ChAT might also be present in the extracellular space (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2013). Here we show that the effect of physostigmine was prevented by the ChAT inhibitor (2-benzoylethyl)-trimethylammonium iodide (BETA) which could indicate extracellular synthesis of ACh. However, when we tested for effects of extracellularly applied acetyl-CoA, a substrate of ChAT for synthesis of ACh, physostigmine-induced γ-oscillations were attenuated. Together, these findings do not support the idea that ACh can be synthesized by an extracellularly located ChAT. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Thaddaeus May; Kevin C. Klatt; Jacob Smith; Eumenia Castro; Mark Manary; Marie A. Caudill; Farook Jahoor; Marta L. Fiorotto

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed...

  7. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests

    OpenAIRE

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Met...

  8. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  9. Histopathological correlation of 11C-choline PET scans for target volume definition in radical prostate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joe H.; Joon, Daryl Lim; Lee, Sze Ting; Gong, Sylvia J.; Scott, Andrew M.; Davis, Ian D.; Clouston, David; Bolton, Damien; Hamilton, Christopher S.; Khoo, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of 11 C-choline PET scans in defining dominant intraprostatic lesions (DILs) for radiotherapy target volume definition. Material and methods: Eight men with prostate cancer who had 11 C-choline PET scans prior to radical prostatectomy were studied. Several methods were used to contour the DIL on the PET scans: visual, PET Edge, Region Grow, absolute standardised uptake value (SUV) thresholds and percentage of maximum SUV thresholds. Prostatectomy specimens were sliced in the transverse plane and DILs were delineated on these by a pathologist. These were then compared with the PET scans. The accuracy of correlation was assessed by the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the Youden index. Results: The contouring method resulting in both the highest DSC and the highest Youden index was 60% of the maximum SUV (SUV 60% ), with values of 0.64 and 0.51, respectively. However SUV 60% was not statistically significantly better than all of the other methods by either measure. Conclusions: Although not statistically significant, SUV 60% resulted in the best correlation between 11 C-choline PET and pathology amongst all the methods studied. The degree of correlation shown here is consistent with previous studies that have justified using imaging for DIL radiotherapy target volume definition.

  10. Choline-amino acid ionic liquids: past and recent achievements about the structure and properties of these really "green" chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2018-06-01

    The structure of choline-amino acid ionic liquids, atoxic task-specific solvents composed of materials originated from renewable feedstocks, is reviewed in this letter. The varied and strong interactions that these liquids are capable of establishing are largely dependent on their structure and confer them outstanding solvating properties with respect to a large number of different solutes. Among the experimental methods capable of yielding structural insight, the energy-dispersive version of X-Ray diffraction, that uses the Bremsstrahlung radiation of the X-Ray tube, is a technique very well suited to investigate these liquid systems. The diffraction spectra of five choline-amino acid ionic liquids, recently measured, are reported and discussed; in particular, the presence or absence of the medium-range order pre-peak is related to the presence of polar groups within the amino acid side chain that destroys the hydrophobic interactions between aliphatic chains. In the final section, a recent example of choline-amino acid ionic liquids as for ancient paper preservation and two other interesting results are discussed at the end.

  11. The role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging with radiolabeled choline analogues in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Pelayo Láinez, M M; Rodríguez-Fernández, A; Gómez-Río, M; Vázquez-Alonso, F; Cózar-Olmo, J M; Llamas-Elvira, J M

    2014-11-01

    prostate cancer is the most frequent solid malignant tumor in Western Countries. Positron emission tomography/x-ray computed tomography imaging with radiolabeled choline analogues is a useful tool for restaging prostate cancer in patients with rising prostate-specific antigen after radical treatment (in whom conventional imaging techniques have important limitations) as well as in the initial assessment of a selected group of prostate cancer patients. For this reason a literature review is necessary in order to evaluate the usefulness of this imaging test for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. a MEDLINE (PubMed way) literature search was performed using the search parameters: «Prostate cancer» and «Choline-PET/CT». Other search terms were «Biochemical failure» and/or «Staging» and/or «PSA kinetics». English and Spanish papers were selected; original articles, reviews, systematic reviews and clinical guidelines were included. according to available data, radiolabeled choline analogues plays an important role in the management of prostate cancer, especially in biochemical relapse because technique accuracy is properly correlated with prostate-specific antigen values and kinetics. Although is an emerging diagnostic technique useful in treatment planning of prostate cancer, final recommendations have not been submitted. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of choline-binding protein F from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rafael [Grupo de Cristalografía Macromolecular y Biología Estructural, Instituto Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); González, Ana; Moscoso, Miriam; García, Pedro [Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stelter, Meike; Kahn, Richard [Institut de Biologie Structurale J.-P. Ebel CEA CNRS UJF, Laboratoire de Cristallographie Macromoléculaire, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 1 (France); Hermoso, Juan A., E-mail: xjuan@iqfr.csic.es [Grupo de Cristalografía Macromolecular y Biología Estructural, Instituto Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-09-01

    The modular choline-binding protein F (CbpF) from S. pneumoniae has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A SAD data set from a gadolinium-complex derivative has been collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Choline-binding protein F (CbpF) is a modular protein that is bound to the pneumococcal cell wall through noncovalent interactions with choline moieties of the bacterial teichoic and lipoteichoic acids. Despite being one of the more abundant proteins on the surface, along with the murein hydrolases LytA, LytB, LytC and Pce, its function is still unknown. CbpF has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Diffraction-quality orthorhombic crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.13, b = 114.94, c = 75.69 Å. A SAD data set from a Gd-HPDO3A-derivatized CbpF crystal was collected to 2.1 Å resolution at the gadolinium L{sub III} absorption edge using synchrotron radiation.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of choline-binding protein F from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Rafael; González, Ana; Moscoso, Miriam; García, Pedro; Stelter, Meike; Kahn, Richard; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2007-01-01

    The modular choline-binding protein F (CbpF) from S. pneumoniae has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A SAD data set from a gadolinium-complex derivative has been collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Choline-binding protein F (CbpF) is a modular protein that is bound to the pneumococcal cell wall through noncovalent interactions with choline moieties of the bacterial teichoic and lipoteichoic acids. Despite being one of the more abundant proteins on the surface, along with the murein hydrolases LytA, LytB, LytC and Pce, its function is still unknown. CbpF has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Diffraction-quality orthorhombic crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.13, b = 114.94, c = 75.69 Å. A SAD data set from a Gd-HPDO3A-derivatized CbpF crystal was collected to 2.1 Å resolution at the gadolinium L III absorption edge using synchrotron radiation

  14. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  15. How decision reversibility affects motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullens, Lottie; van Harreveld, Frenk; Förster, Jens; Higgins, Tory E

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making, strengthening prevention-related motivation relatively more than promotion-related motivation. If so, then decision reversibility should have effects associated with the relative differences between prevention and promotion motivation. In 5 studies, we manipulated the reversibility of a decision and used different indicators of regulatory focus motivation to test these predictions. Specifically, Study 1 tested for differences in participants' preference for approach versus avoidance strategies toward a desired end state. In Study 2, we used speed and accuracy performance as indicators of participants' regulatory motivation, and in Study 3, we measured global versus local reaction time performance. In Study 4, we approached the research question in a different way, making use of the value-from-fit hypothesis (Higgins, 2000, 2002). We tested whether a fit between chronic regulatory focus and focus induced by the reversibility of the decision increased participants' subjective positive feelings about the decision outcome. Finally, in Study 5, we tested whether regulatory motivation, induced by decision reversibility, also influenced participants' preference in specific product features. The results generally support our hypothesis showing that, compared to irreversible decisions, reversible decisions strengthen a prevention focus more than a promotion focus. Implications for research on decision making are discussed.

  16. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT detection of bone metastases in patients with PSA progression after primary treatment for prostate cancer: comparison with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picchio, Maria [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); National Research Council (IBFM-CNR), Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Crivellaro, Cinzia [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); Fallanca, Federico; Gianolli, Luigi [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Giovacchini, Giampiero [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Messa, Cristina [National Research Council (IBFM-CNR), Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Monza (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in comparison with bone scintigraphy (BS) in detecting bone metastases (BM) of patients with biochemical progression after radical treatment for prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-eight consecutive patients with biochemical progression of PCa (mean prostate-specific antigen 21.1 ng/ml, range 0.2-500.0 ng/ml) referred for both [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and BS for restaging purposes were retrospectively analysed. The diagnostic accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and BS was assessed by using morphological imaging and/or follow-up as standards of reference. As equivocal findings were found, the accuracy analysis was performed twice, once including them as positive and once as negative. A separate analysis was also performed in hormone-resistant patients and data compared with those of patients who did not receive anti-androgenic treatment. Equivocal findings occurred in 1 of 78 (1%) cases in [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and in 21 of 78 (27%) cases in BS. Depending on their attribution as either positive or negative, the ranges of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT were 89-89%, 98-100%, 96-100%, 94-96% and 95-96%, respectively. For BS they were 100-70%, 75-100%, 68-100%, 100-86% and 83-90%, respectively. Concordant findings between [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and BS occurred in 55 of 78 (71%) cases. The accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT did not significantly (p = 0.30) differ between hormone-resistant patients (97%) and those who did not receive anti-androgenic treatment (95%). In clinical practice, [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT may not replace BS because of its lower sensitivity. However, for its high specificity, [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT positive findings may accurately predict the presence of BM. Equivocal findings are more frequent in BS than [{sup 11}C]choline PET

  17. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  18. Reverse engineering for quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    When the age of software engineering began, many companies were faced with a problem of how to support the older, pre-software-engineering, programs. The techniques of reverse engineering and re-engineering were developed to bridge the gap between the past and the present. Although reverse engineering can be used for generating missing documentation, it can also be used as a means to demonstrate quality in these older programs. This paper presents, in the form of a case study, how Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited addressed the quality issues of reverse engineering and re-engineering. (author)

  19. Field reversal in mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, L.D.; Anderson, D.V.; Boozer, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    This report discusses some of the physics issues anticipated in field-reversed mirrors. The effect of current cancellation due to electrons is described. An estimate is made of the required impurity level to maintain a field-reversed configuration. The SUPERLAYER code is used to simulate the high-β 2XIIB results, and favorable comparisons require inclusion of quasilinear RF turbulence. Impact of a quadrupole field on field-line closure and resonant transport is discussed. A simple self-consistent model of ion currents is presented. Conditions for stability of field-reversed configurations to E x B driven rotations are determined

  20. Zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, E. B.; Utari; Purnama, B.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discussed about zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal (TAMR). Appearance of reversal probability in zero field investigated through micromagnetic simulation by solving stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gibert (LLG). The perpendicularly anisotropy magnetic dot of 50×50×20 nm3 is considered as single cell magnetic storage of magnetic random acces memory (MRAM). Thermally assisted magnetization reversal was performed by cooling writing process from near/almost Curie point to room temperature on 20 times runs for different randomly magnetized state. The results show that the probability reversal under zero magnetic field decreased with the increase of the energy barrier. The zero-field probability switching of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T and the reversal probability become zero noted at energy barrier of 2348 k B T. The higest zero-field switching probability of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T which corespond to magnetif field of 150 Oe for switching.

  1. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  2. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungha Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT improve cognitive function of Alzheimer’s disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level.

  3. Insulin stimulates choline acetyltransferase activity in cultured embryonic chicken retina neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakis, J.M.; Hausman, R.E.; Peterson, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of insulin on the appearance of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase in embryonic chicken retina neurons cultured in defined medium was studied. In the presence of a minimal level of insulin (1 ng/ml), ChoAcT activity increased with time in culture. A correspondence between the insulin concentration in the defined medium (1-100 ng/ml) and both the rate of increase and maximum attained level of ChoAcT activity was observed. Maximal ChoAcT activity was 2- to 3-fold greater in cells cultured in the presence of 100 ng of insulin per ml than in cells cultured in the presence of 1 ng of insulin per ml. To elicit maximum ChoAcT activity, insulin at 100 ng/ml was required in the medium for only the first 4 days of the culture period, at which time insulin could be reduced to maintenance levels (10 ng/ml) without affecting ChoAcT activity. Insulin binding assays performed during a 7-day culture period revealed that irrespective of the 125 I-insulin concentration in the medium during culture, cell-surface insulin receptors decreased by ≅ 90% between 4 and 7 days in culture. This decrease in insulin binding corresponded to the observed decrease in the sensitivity of ChoAcT activity to insulin. The findings suggest that insulin plays a role in mediating cholinergic differentiation in the embryonic chicken retina

  4. Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Choline Kinase Identified by Fragment-Based Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Stephan G; Kohlmann, Anna; Zhou, Tianjun; Li, Feng; Squillace, Rachel M; Parillon, Lois E; Greenfield, Matthew T; Miller, David P; Qi, Jiwei; Thomas, R Mathew; Wang, Yihan; Xu, Yongjin; Miret, Juan J; Shakespeare, William C; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C

    2016-01-28

    Choline kinase α (ChoKα) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and thereby plays key roles in regulation of cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, and human carcinogenesis. Since several inhibitors of ChoKα display antiproliferative activity in both cellular and animal models, this novel oncogene has recently gained interest as a promising small molecule target for cancer therapy. Here we summarize our efforts to further validate ChoKα as an oncogenic target and explore the activity of novel small molecule inhibitors of ChoKα. Starting from weakly binding fragments, we describe a structure based lead discovery approach, which resulted in novel highly potent inhibitors of ChoKα. In cancer cell lines, our lead compounds exhibit a dose-dependent decrease of phosphocholine, inhibition of cell growth, and induction of apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. The druglike lead series presented here is optimizable for improvements in cellular potency, drug target residence time, and pharmacokinetic parameters. These inhibitors may be utilized not only to further validate ChoKα as antioncogenic target but also as novel chemical matter that may lead to antitumor agents that specifically interfere with cancer cell metabolism.

  5. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds.

  6. Positive correlations between cerebral choline and renal dysfunction in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Nakahama, Hajime; Nakamura, Satoko; Inenaga, Takashi; Kawano, Yuhei; Hattori, Noriaki; Inoue, Noriko; Sawada, Tohru; Kohno, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients has not been fully evaluated. This study examined cerebral metabolites in CRF, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Subjects comprised 19 CRF patients and 21 healthy volunteers. Spectra were acquired from voxels of interest positioned in the parietal gray and white matter, and concentrations of the following cerebral metabolites were measured: N-acetyl group (NA), creatine + phosphocreatine (Cr), choline-containing compounds (Cho), myo-inositol and glutamate + glutamine. Among the 19 CRF patients, 9 who were started on hemodialysis (HD) underwent careful follow-up. Proton MRS was performed before and about 2 weeks after starting HD. In six patients in whom follow-up was possible, a third MRS was performed after about 18 months. The NA/Cr ratio was not significantly changed in CRF. However, elevations in the Cho/Cr ratio were found in both gray and white matter compared with controls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of positive correlations between the Cho/Cr ratio in both regions and serum osmotic pressure. (orig.)

  7. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in the rat: The substrate for methylation and regulation by choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datko, A.H.; Aksamit, R.R.; Mudd, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    Two lines of evidence led us to reexamine the possibility that methylation of phosphoethanolamine and its partially methylated derivatives, in addition to methylation of the corresponding phosphatidyl derivatives, plays a role in mammalian phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis: (a) Results obtained by Salerno and Beeler with rat appear to strongly support such a role for methylation of phosphobases; (b) Such reactions have recently been shown to play major roles in phosphatidylcholine synthesis by higher plants. We found that, following continuous labeling of rat liver with L-[methyl-3H]methionine for 10.4 min (intraperitoneal administration) or for 0.75 min (intraportal administration), virtually no 3H was detected in methylated derivatives of phosphoethanolamine, but readily detectable amounts of 3H were present in the base moiety of each methylated derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine. Thus, there was no indication that phospho-base methylation makes a significant contribution. Studies of cultured rat hepatoma cells showed definitively for the first time in a mammalian system that choline deprivation up-regulates the rate of flow of methyl groups originating in methionine into phosphatidylethanolamine and derivatives. Even under these conditions, methylation of phosphoethanolamine bases appeared to play a negligible role

  8. A choline derivate-modified nanoprobe for glioma diagnosis using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Shixian; Shao, Kun; Liu, Yang; An, Sai; Kuang, Yuyang; Guo, Yubo; Ma, Haojun; Wang, Xuxia; Jiang, Chen

    2013-04-01

    Gadolinium (Gd) chelate contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a preferred method of glioma detection and preoperative localisation because it offers high spatial resolution and non-invasive deep tissue penetration. Gd-based contrast agents, such as Gd-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA-Gd, Magnevist), are widely used clinically for tumor diagnosis. However, the Gd-based MRI approach is limited for patients with glioma who have an uncompromised blood-brain barrier (BBB). Moreover, the rapid renal clearance and non-specificity of such contrast agents further hinders their prevalence. We present a choline derivate (CD)-modified nanoprobe with BBB permeability, glioma specificity and a long blood half-life. Specific accumulation of the nanoprobe in gliomas and subsequent MRI contrast enhancement are demonstrated in vitro in U87 MG cells and in vivo in a xenograft nude model. BBB and glioma dual targeting by this nanoprobe may facilitate precise detection of gliomas with an uncompromised BBB and may offer better preoperative and intraoperative tumor localization.

  9. A Typology of Reverse Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Zedtwitz, Max; Corsi, Simone; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2015-01-01

    secondary market introduction, this study expands the espoused definition of reverse innovation beyond its market-introduction focus with reversals in the flow of innovation in the ideation and product development phases. Recognizing that each phase can take place in different geographical locations...... taking place in an emerging country. This analytical framework allows recasting of current research at the intersection between innovation and international business. Of the 10 reverse innovation flows, six are new and have not been covered in the literature to date. The study addresses questions......’s portfolio of global innovation competence and capability. The implications for management are concerned with internal and external resistance to reverse innovation. Most significantly, while greater recognition and power of innovation in formerly subordinate organizational units is inconvenient to some...

  10. Choline Deficiency Causes Colonic Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Loss and Alleviates Murine Colitis under Type I NKT Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagami, Shintaro; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Fujita, Akira; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryohei; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Hinoi, Takao; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of choline deficiency on the severity of colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of choline deficiency in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet lowered the levels of type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in the colonic lamina propria, peritoneal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and increased the levels of type II NKT cells in the livers of wild-type B6 mice compared with that in mice fed a control (CTR) diet. The gene expression pattern of the chemokine receptor CXCR6, which promotes NKT cell accumulation, varied between colon and liver in a manner dependent on the changes in the type II NKT cell levels. To examine the role of type II NKT cells in colitis under choline-deficient conditions, we assessed the severity of DSS-induced colitis in type I NKT cell-deficient (Jα18-/-) or type I and type II NKT cell-deficient (CD1d-/-) mice fed the MCD or CTR diets. The MCD diet led to amelioration of inflammation, decreases in interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 secretion, and a decrease in the number of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing NKT cells in Jα18-/- mice but not in CD1d-/- mice. Finally, adaptive transfer of lymphocytes with type II NKT cells exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in Jα18-/- mice with MCD diet. These results suggest that choline deficiency causes proinflammatory type II NKT cell loss and alleviates DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inflammation in DSS-induced colitis under choline deficiency is caused by type II NKT cell-dependent mechanisms, including decreased type II NKT cell and proinflammatory cytokine levels.

  11. Quantification of acetylcholine, choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in human plasma and urine using stable-isotope dilution ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Susanne H; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Rabagny, Yannick; Obeid, Rima

    2010-12-15

    Disorders in choline metabolism are related to disease conditions. We developed a stable-isotope dilution ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of acetylcholine (ACh), betaine, choline, and dimethylglycine (DMG). We used this method to measure concentrations of the analytes in plasma and urine in addition to other biological fluids after a protein precipitation by acetonitrile. The detection limits were between 0.35 nmol/L (for ACh in urine) and 0.34 μmol/L (for betaine in urine). ACh concentrations were not detectable in plasma. Intraassay and interassay coefficient of variation (CVs) were all DMG in cerebrospinal fluid (CV=12.44%). Mean recoveries in urine pool samples were between 99.2% and 103.9%. The urinary excretion of betaine, choline, and DMG was low, with approximately 50.0% higher excretion of choline in females compared to males. Median urinary excretion of ACh were 3.44 and 3.92 μmol/mol creatinine in males and females, respectively (p=0.689). Plasma betaine concentrations correlated significantly with urinary excretions of betaine (r=0.495, p=0.027) and choline (r=0.502, p=0.024) in females. Plasma choline concentrations correlated significantly with urinary excretion of ACh in males (r=0.419, p=0.041) and females (r=0.621, p=0.003). The new method for the simultaneous determination of ACh, betaine, choline, and DMG is sensitive, precise, and fast enough to be used in clinical investigations related to the methylation pathway. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spontaneous direct and reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valitov, N.Kh.

    1996-01-01

    It has been ascertained experimentally that in the course of separation of CsCl, KCl, NaCl aqueous solutions by semi-permeable membrane from distilled water the direct and then reverse osmosis are observed. The same sequence is observed in case of separation of CsCl aqueous solutions from NaCl of different concentrations. The reason for the direct and reverse osmosis has been explained. 5 refs.; 3 figs. 1 tab

  13. Hormonal regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by reversible modulation of cytidylyltransferase.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, K L; Gutierrez, G; Martin, A

    1988-01-01

    The effect of both lipolytic and antilipolytic hormones on the turnover of phosphatidylcholine in freshly isolated rat adipocytes was investigated. Treatment of adipocytes with agonists such as glucagon or isoprenaline that stimulate lipolysis through a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism caused an increase in the incorporation of [Me-3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine. Pulse-chase studies indicated that the stimulation was due to an increase in the conversion of choline into phosphatidylcholine,...

  14. Garbage collection for reversible functional languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2015-01-01

    Reversible languages are programming languages where all programs can run both forwards and backwards. Reversible functional languages have been proposed that use symmetric pattern matching and data construction. To be reversible, these languages require linearity: Every variable must be used...

  15. Biotinidase deficiency: a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. Neuroimaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a series of four patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Shrinivas; Ganesan, Karthik; Hegde, Anaita

    2008-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a metabolic disorder characterized by inability to recycle biotin with resultant delayed myelination. Clinical findings include seizures, ataxia, alopecia and dermatitis with atypical findings of myoclonic jerks, neuropathy and spastic paraparesis. Neuroradiological findings include cerebral atrophy, encephalopathy and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Many of the clinical and neuroradiological features are reversible except sensorineural hearing loss and optic atrophy. To understand and describe the neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings of biotinidase deficiency. We evaluated the spectrum of neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings in four patients with biotinidase deficiency with follow-up studies in three patients. The imaging findings were encephalopathy, low cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Uncommon findings were caudate involvement, parieto-occipital cortical abnormalities and one patient with restricted diffusion. Two patients had subdural effusions, which is uncommon in biotinidase deficiency. 1 H-MR spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate, reversal of the choline/creatine ratio and decreased NAA peaks. Follow-up studies revealed complete reversal of imaging findings in two patients. Biotinidase deficiency is a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. This study highlights the importance of early and prompt cliniconeuroradiological diagnosis of biotinidase deficiency as it has an extremely good clinical outcome if treatment is initiated from early infancy. (orig.)

  16. Biotinidase deficiency: a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. Neuroimaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a series of four patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Shrinivas [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of CT and MRI, Mumbai (India); Ganesan, Karthik [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of CT and MRI, Mumbai (India); University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Hegde, Anaita [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatrics, Mumbai (India)

    2008-08-15

    Biotinidase deficiency is a metabolic disorder characterized by inability to recycle biotin with resultant delayed myelination. Clinical findings include seizures, ataxia, alopecia and dermatitis with atypical findings of myoclonic jerks, neuropathy and spastic paraparesis. Neuroradiological findings include cerebral atrophy, encephalopathy and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Many of the clinical and neuroradiological features are reversible except sensorineural hearing loss and optic atrophy. To understand and describe the neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings of biotinidase deficiency. We evaluated the spectrum of neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings in four patients with biotinidase deficiency with follow-up studies in three patients. The imaging findings were encephalopathy, low cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Uncommon findings were caudate involvement, parieto-occipital cortical abnormalities and one patient with restricted diffusion. Two patients had subdural effusions, which is uncommon in biotinidase deficiency. {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate, reversal of the choline/creatine ratio and decreased NAA peaks. Follow-up studies revealed complete reversal of imaging findings in two patients. Biotinidase deficiency is a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. This study highlights the importance of early and prompt cliniconeuroradiological diagnosis of biotinidase deficiency as it has an extremely good clinical outcome if treatment is initiated from early infancy. (orig.)

  17. Correlation between 11C-choline or 18F-FDG uptake and tumor proliferation: a rabbit bearing lung cancer model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yajun; Bai Renju; Gao Shuo; Li Yansheng; Liu Lei; Jia Wei; Cai Li; Xing Xiling

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Tumor proliferative activity has been recognized as an indicator of malignant degree in lung cancer and related to prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of assessing proliferative activity with 11 C-choline and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on a rabbit bearing lung VX2 tumor model. Methods: About 0.5 ml of viable VX2 tumor cell suspension was slowly injected into the right lungs of 54 New Zealand white rabbits through a transthoracical needle insertion. 11 C-choline and 18 F-FDG PET scan were performed 10-11 d after tumor implantation. One ear vein was cannulated for administration of the tracers, 11 C-choline PET scan (with Discovery LS PET/CT scanner, GE) was performed 5 rain after intravenously injection of 37 MBq 11 C-choline. Then 18.7 MBq 18 F-FDG was infused at 60 min after 11 C-choline administration and 18 F-FDG PET scan was performed at 60 min after 18 F-FDG administration. The maximal standardized uptake value of tumor was calculated. The animals were euthanized after examination. Histochemical stain with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed and PCNA index was obtained to assess tumor proliferation. The difference of 11 C-choline and 18 F-FDG was analyzed using paired student t-test. The correlation of 11 C-choline 18 F-FDG and tumor cell density and PCNA index was analyzed using Pearson linear regression. Results: Of the 54 rabbits, 36 had a solitary pulmonary tumor. The rate of successful generation of a solitary VX2 tumor was 66.7% (36/54). Only 33 rabbits underwent both 11 C-choline and 18 F-FDG PET, and enrolled in this study. The mean cellular density was (547.36 ± 64.78) cells/field and the mean PCNA index was (42.34 ± 15.26)%. 18 F-FDG was higher than 11 C-choline (5.70 ± 3.45 vs 4.02 ± 3.07, t=-3.188, P=0.003). 11 C-choline significantly and positively correlated with PCNA index (r=0.786, P 11 C-choline and tumor cellular density (r=-0.176, P=0.327). 18 F-FDG significantly and

  18. 11C-choline vs. 18F-FDG PET/CT in assessing bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Valentina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Myeloma (MM is a B cell neoplasm causing lytic or osteopenic bone abnormalities. Whole body skeletal survey (WBSS, Magnetic resonance (MR and 18F-FDG PET/CT are imaging techniques routinely used for the evaluation of bone involvement in MM patients. Aim As MM bone lesions may present low 18F-FDG uptake; the aim of this study was to assess the possible added value and limitations of 11C-Choline to that of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients affected with MM. Methods Ten patients affected with MM underwent a standard 11C-Choline PET/CT and an 18F-FDG PET/CT within one week. The results of the two scans were compared in terms of number, sites and SUVmax of lesions. Results Four patients (40% had a negative concordant 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. Two patients (20% had a positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans that identified the same number and sites of bone lesions. The remaining four patients (40% had a positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan, but the two exams identified different number of lesions. Choline showed a mean SUVmax of 5 while FDG showed a mean SUVmax of 3.8 (P = 0.042. Overall, 11C-Choline PET/CT scans detected 37 bone lesions and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans detected 22 bone lesions but the difference was not significant (P = 0.8. Conclusion According to these preliminary data, 11C-Choline PET/CT appears to be more sensitive than 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of bony myelomatous lesions. If these data are confirmed in larger series of patients, 11C-Choline may be considered a more appropriate functional imaging in association with MRI for MM bone staging.

  19. [A machine learning model using gut microbiome data for predicting changes of trimethylamine-N-oxide in healthy volunteers after choline consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun-Qi; Wang, Shan; Yin, Jia; Wu, Shan; He, Yan; Zheng, Hui-Min; Sheng, Hua-Fang; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2017-03-20

    To establish a machine learning model based on gut microbiota for predicting the level of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism in vivo after choline intake to provide guidance of individualized precision diet and evidence for screening population at high risks of cardiovascular disease. We quantified plasma levels of TMAO in 18 healthy volunteers before and 8 h after a choline challenge (ingestion of two boiled eggs). The volunteers were divided into two groups with increased or decreased TMAO level following choline challenge. Fresh fecal samples were collected before taking fasting blood samples for amplifying 16S rRNA V4 tags, and the PCR products were sequenced using the platform of Illumina HiSeq 2000. The differences in gut microbiata between subjects with increased and decreased plasma TMAO were analyzed using QIIME. Based on the gut microbiota data and TMAO levels in the two groups, the prediction model was established using the machine learning random forest algorithm, and the validity of the model was tested using a verified dataset. An obvious difference was found in beta diversity of the gut microbota between the subjects with increased and decreased plasma TMAO level following choline challenge. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model was 86.39% (95% CI: 72.7%-100%). Using the verified dataset, the model showed a much higher probability for correctly predicting TMAO variation following choline challenge. The model is feasible and reliable for predicting the level of TMAO metabolism in vivo based on gut microbiota.

  20. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek P Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42-60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%-6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery.

  1. The physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of the choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troter Dragan Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the physicochemical (density, dynamic viscosity, electrical conductivity and refractive index and the thermodynamic (thermal expansion coefficient, molecular volume, lattice energy and heat capacity properties of several choline chloride (ChCl based deep eutectic solvents (DESs, with 1:2 mole ratio, respectively: ChCl:propylene glycol, ChCl:1,3-dimethylurea and ChCl:thiourea, at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature over the range of 293.15–363.15 K. Their properties were also compared with those of some already characterized ChCl-based DESs, namely ChCl:ethylene glycol, ChCl:glycerol and ChCl:urea (1:2 mole ratio. Density, viscosity and refractive index of all DESs decrease with the increasing temperature while the electrical conductivity increases. Viscosity and conductivity of the tested DESs were fitted by both Arrhenius-type and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher equations. The changes of molar enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy of activation, determined using the Eyring theory, demonstrated the interactional factor as predominant over the structural factor for all DES systems. The fractional Walden rule, used to correlate molar conductivity and viscosity, showed an excellent linear behaviour. It was shown that ChCl:propylene glycol DES had properties similar to ChCl:ethylene glycol and ChCl:glycerol DESs. However, the properties (density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of ChCl:1,3-dimethylurea and ChCl: :thiourea DESs were inferior to those of the ChCl:urea DES. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 45001

  2. Choline kinase alpha and hexokinase-2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: association with survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi A Kwee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hexokinase-2 (HK2 and more recently choline kinase alpha (CKA expression has been correlated with clinical outcomes in several major cancers. This study examines the protein expression of HK2 and CKA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in association with patient survival and other clinicopathologic parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis for HK2 and CKA expression was performed on a tissue microarray of 157 HCC tumor samples. Results were analyzed in relation to clinicopathologic data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program registries. Mortality rates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared using log-rank tests. Predictors of overall survival were assessed using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical expression of HK2 and CKA was detected in 71 (45% and 55 (35% tumor samples, respectively. Differences in tumor HK2 expression were associated with tumor grade (p = 0.008 and cancer stage (p = 0.001, while CKA expression differed significantly only across cancer stage (p = 0.048. Increased mortality was associated with tumor HK2 expression (p = 0.003 as well as CKA expression (p = 0.03 with hazard ratios of 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.83 and 1.59 (95% CI 1.04-2.41, respectively. Similar effects on overall survival were noted in a subset analysis of early stage (I and II HCC. Tumor HK2 expression, but not CKA expression, remained a significant predictor of survival in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSION: HK2 and CKA expression may have biologic and prognostic significance in HCC, with tumor HK2 expression being a potential independent predictor of survival.

  3. Choline Kinase Alpha as an Androgen Receptor Chaperone and Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Mohammad; Massie, Charles E.; Orafidiya, Folake; Pértega-Gomes, Nelma; Warren, Anne Y.; Esmaeili, Mohsen; Selth, Luke A.; Zecchini, Heather I.; Luko, Katarina; Qureshi, Arham; Baridi, Ajoeb; Menon, Suraj; Madhu, Basetti; Escriu, Carlos; Lyons, Scott; Vowler, Sarah L.; Zecchini, Vincent R.; Shaw, Greg; Hessenkemper, Wiebke; Russell, Roslin; Mohammed, Hisham; Stefanos, Niki; Lynch, Andy G.; Grigorenko, Elena; D’Santos, Clive; Taylor, Chris; Lamb, Alastair; Sriranjan, Rouchelle; Yang, Jiali; Stark, Rory; Dehm, Scott M.; Rennie, Paul S.; Carroll, Jason S.; Griffiths, John R.; Tavaré, Simon; Mills, Ian G.; McEwan, Iain J.; Baniahmad, Aria; Tilley, Wayne D.; Neal, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The androgen receptor (AR) is a major drug target in prostate cancer (PCa). We profiled the AR-regulated kinome to identify clinically relevant and druggable effectors of AR signaling. Methods: Using genome-wide approaches, we interrogated all AR regulated kinases. Among these, choline kinase alpha (CHKA) expression was evaluated in benign (n = 195), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) (n = 153) and prostate cancer (PCa) lesions (n = 359). We interrogated how CHKA regulates AR signaling using biochemical assays and investigated androgen regulation of CHKA expression in men with PCa, both untreated (n = 20) and treated with an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor degarelix (n = 27). We studied the effect of CHKA inhibition on the PCa transcriptome using RNA sequencing and tested the effect of CHKA inhibition on cell growth, clonogenic survival and invasion. Tumor xenografts (n = 6 per group) were generated in mice using genetically engineered prostate cancer cells with inducible CHKA knockdown. Data were analyzed with χ2 tests, Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier methods. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: CHKA expression was shown to be androgen regulated in cell lines, xenografts, and human tissue (log fold change from 6.75 to 6.59, P = .002) and was positively associated with tumor stage. CHKA binds directly to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR, enhancing its stability. As such, CHKA is the first kinase identified as an AR chaperone. Inhibition of CHKA repressed the AR transcriptional program including pathways enriched for regulation of protein folding, decreased AR protein levels, and inhibited the growth of PCa cell lines, human PCa explants, and tumor xenografts. Conclusions: CHKA can act as an AR chaperone, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence for kinases as molecular chaperones, making CHKA both a marker of tumor progression and a potential therapeutic target for PCa. PMID:26657335

  4. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Mitsuzak, Naotoshi [Qualtec Co., Ltd, Osaka 590-0906 (Japan); Chen, Zhidong, E-mail: zdchen.lab@gmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials, Surface and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Material and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ChCl was applied as additive and conducting salt in Watts-type bath. • Progressive addition of ChCl leads to the crystal orientation (1 1 1) predominant. • The grain size and microhardness were refined and enhanced by increasing ChCl. • ChCl could be a good alternative to NiCl{sub 2} and additives for bright Ni electroplating. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl{sub 2}) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h{sup −1} when 20 g L{sup −1} ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  5. Dietary choline during periadolescence attenuates cognitive damage caused by neonatal maternal separation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Gudiño, Hayarelis; Carías Picón, Diamela; de Brugada Sauras, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Choline (Ch) is an essential nutrient that acts as a cognitive facilitator when administered during perinatal periods, and it has been recognised as a 'pharmacological' agent that can ease cognitive dysfunctions provoked by exposure to damaging stimuli during early developmental stages. The aim of the present work is to determine whether providing a diet rich in Ch would reduce the severity of the memory deficit provoked by a neonatal stress episode in male adult rats. The effect of Ch on memory was measured using memory tasks such as object and place recognition. Ontogenetic manipulations were conducted during two sensitive developmental periods. During the first post-natal (PN) 14 days, only the male rat pups were selected and half of them were separated from the mother, group maternal separation (MS). Subsequently, during periadolescence (PN 21-60), the rats were exposed to a deficient (DEF = 0 g/kg Ch chloride), sufficient (CON = 1.1 g/kg Ch chloride), or supplemented (SUP = 5 g/kg Ch chloride) diets for this nutrient. The results indicated that for group MS, only rats fed with the SUP diet were able to recognise the familiar object and place that had been experienced 24 hours before, unlike groups DEF and CON. In addition, whereas rats in the non-separated group (No-MS) recognised the object independently of the diet, only rats that received a DEF diet failed to recognise the place, showing that a Ch deficit affects spatial memory tasks. These results show that Ch supplementation during periadolescence can attenuate the memory deficit provoked by extended neonatal stress.

  6. Prognostic value of choline and creatine in WHO grade II gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattingen, Elke; Zanella, Friedhelm E.; Pilatus, Ulrich; Raab, Peter; Franz, Kea; Setzer, Matthias; Gerlach, Ruediger; Lanfermann, Heiner

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) predicts survival time, tumor progression, and malignant transformation in patients with WHO grade II gliomas. 1 H-MRS and MR imaging (MRI) were performed before surgery in 45 patients with histologically proven WHO grade II gliomas. Metabolite concentrations of choline-containing compounds (Cho) and creatine/phosphocreatine (tCr) were normalized to contralateral brain tissue. Spectroscopic data as well as the extent of tumor resection, contrast enhancement, size and histopatholocical type of the tumor, age, sex, and first neurological symptoms of the patients were analyzed for survival, tumor progression, and malignant transformation for a follow-up period of 1 to 5 years. The normalized tCr of WHO grade II gliomas was a significant predictor for tumor progression (p=0.011) and for malignant tumor transformation (p=0.016). Further, contrast enhancement of the tumor (p=0.014) at the time of diagnosis was significant for malignant tumor transformation and extent of tumor resection for the tumor progression (p=0.007). All other parameters failed to predict any of the three endpoints. Normalized values of tCr in WHO grade II gliomas may have prognostic implications for this group of gliomas. As a rule of the thumb, low-grade gliomas with decreased tCr (relative tCr values below 1.0) may show longer progression-free times and later malignant transformation than low-grade gliomas with regular or increased tCr values. (orig.)

  7. Absolute choline concentration measured by quantitative proton MR spectroscopy correlates with cell density in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Qiang [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Shibata, Yasushi; Kawamura, Hiraku; Matsumura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); Isobe, Tomonori [Kitasato University, Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Minato, Tokyo (Japan); Anno, Izumi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Gong, Qi-Yong [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China)]|[University of Liverpool, Division of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and pathological changes in meningioma. Twenty-two meningioma cases underwent single voxel 1H-MRS (point-resolved spectroscopy sequence, repetition time/echo time = 2,000 ms/68, 136, 272 ms). Absolute choline (Cho) concentration was calculated using tissue water as the internal reference and corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts. Pathological specimens were stained with MIB-1 antibody to measure cell density and proliferation index. Correlation analysis was performed between absolute Cho concentration and cell density and MIB-1 labeled proliferation index. Average Cho concentration of all meningiomas before correction was 2.95 {+-} 0.86 mmol/kg wet weight. It was increased to 3.23 {+-} 1.15 mmol/kg wet weight after correction. Average cell density of all meningiomas was 333 {+-} 119 cells/HPF, and average proliferation index was 2.93 {+-} 5.72%. A linear, positive correlation between cell density and Cho concentration was observed (r = 0.650, P = 0.001). After correction of Cho concentration, the correlation became more significant (r = 0.737, P < 0.001). However, no significant correlation between Cho concentration and proliferation index was found. There seemed to be a positive correlation trend after correction of Cho concentration but did not reach significant level. Absolute Cho concentration, especially Cho concentration corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts, reflects cell density of meningioma. (orig.)

  8. Experimental study of vascularized nerve graft: evaluation of nerve regeneration using choline acetyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, M; Tamai, S; Yajima, H; Kawanishi, K

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of nerve regeneration was performed on vascularized nerve graft (VNG) and free nerve graft (FNG) in Fischer strain rats. A segment of the sciatic nerve with vascular pedicle of the femoral artery and vein was harvested from syngeneic donor rat for the VNG group and the sciatic nerve in the same length without vascular pedicle was harvested for the FNG group. They were transplanted to a nerve defect in the sciatic nerve of syngeneic recipient rats. At 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks after operation, the sciatic nerves were biopsied and processed for evaluation of choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity, histological studies, and measurement of wet weight of the muscle innervated by the sciatic nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation of the grafted nerve was also performed before sacrifice. The average CAT activity in the distal to the distal suture site was 383 cpm in VNG and 361 cpm in FNG at 2 weeks; 6,189 cpm in VNG and 2,264 cpm in FNG at 4 weeks; and 11,299 cpm in VNG and 9,424 cpm in FNG at 6 weeks postoperatively. The value of the VNG group was statistically higher than that of the FNG group at 4 weeks postoperatively. Electrophysiological and histological findings also suggested that nerve regeneration in the VNG group was superior to that in the FNG group during the same period. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups after 6 weeks postoperatively in any of the evaluations. The CAT measurement was useful in the experiments, because it was highly sensitive and reproducible. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Metformin prevents and reverses inflammation in a non-diabetic mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH has not yet been established, particularly for individuals without diabetes. We examined the effects of metformin, commonly used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes, on liver pathology in a non-diabetic NASH mouse model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient plus high fat (MCD+HF diet with or without 0.1% metformin for 8 weeks. Co-administration of metformin significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose levels, but did not affect glucose tolerance or peripheral insulin sensitivity. Metformin ameliorated MCD+HF diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, metformin significantly reversed hepatic steatosis and inflammation when administered after the development of experimental NASH. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These histological changes were accompanied by reduced hepatic triglyceride content, suppressed hepatic stellate cell activation, and the downregulation of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. Metformin prevented and reversed steatosis and inflammation of NASH in an experimental non-diabetic model without affecting peripheral insulin resistance.

  10. Reverse Knowledge Transfer in MNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    a positive correlation with the extent of reverse knowledge transfers to the parent MNE. Relying on the headquarters-subsidiary view of the MNE, we argue that, beyond a point, increasing subsidiary innovativeness will be associated with lower reverse knowledge transfers. Further, we argue......It is now well recognized that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are differentiated networks wherein subsidiaries vary in terms of their ability to create new knowledge and competencies for their parent groups. In much of this theory, it is taken for granted that subsidiary innovativeness has...... that this relationship is sensitive to the subsidiary entry mode. Using data from a sample of 293 Italian subsidiaries, we find strong support for our hypotheses. In particular, our results confirm that the effect of subsidiary innovativeness on reverse knowledge transfers displays an inverted-U shape...

  11. Ice ages and geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration geomagnetic events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and geomagnetic reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.

  12. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  13. Reverse Transfection Using Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Fujita, Satoshi; Uchimura, Eiichiro; Miyake, Masato; Miyake, Jun

    Reverse transfection from a solid surface has the potential to deliver genes into various types of cell and tissue more effectively than conventional methods of transfection. We present a method for reverse transfection using a gold colloid (GC) as a nanoscaffold by generating nanoclusters of the DNA/reagentcomplex on a glass surface, which could then be used for the regulation of the particle size of the complex and delivery of DNA into nuclei. With this method, we have found that the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (20 nm in particle size) to the pEGFP-N1/Jet-PEI complex resulted in an increase in the intensity of fluorescence of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (based on the efficiency of transfection) from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), as compared with the control without GC. In this manner, we constructed a method for reverse transfection using GC to deliver genes into the cells effectively.

  14. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds...... that allows for recapturing most of the PRV. These notions have then been tested by analyzing two reverse supply chains with a case study research methodology. Findings – The findings show that low PRV is associated with second-class recovery options (recycling and energy recovery) and that high PRV...... is associated with first-class recovery options (reconditioning and remarketing). When the recovery option is recycling, time is not relevant, the primary objective is cost reduction (efficiency), the chain is centralized, and actors and phases of the reverse chain are determined by the specificity...

  15. The substrate oxidation mechanism of pyranose 2-oxidase and other related enzymes in the glucose-methanol-choline superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2013-07-01

    Enzymes in the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase superfamily catalyze the oxidation of an alcohol moiety to the corresponding aldehyde. In this review, the current understanding of the sugar oxidation mechanism in the reaction of pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) is highlighted and compared with that of other enzymes in the GMC family for which structural and mechanistic information is available, including glucose oxidase, choline oxidase, cholesterol oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, aryl-alcohol oxidase, and pyridoxine 4-oxidase. Other enzymes in the family that have been newly discovered or for which less information is available are also discussed. A large primary kinetic isotope effect was observed for the flavin reduction when 2-d-D-glucose was used as a substrate, but no solvent kinetic isotope effect was detected for the flavin reduction step. The reaction of P2O is consistent with a hydride transfer mechanism in which there is stepwise formation of d-glucose alkoxide prior to the hydride transfer. Site-directed mutagenesis of P2O and pH-dependence studies indicated that His548 is a catalytic base that facilitates the deprotonation of C2-OH in D-glucose. This finding agrees with the current mechanistic model for aryl-alcohol oxidase, glucose oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, methanol oxidase, and pyridoxine 4-oxidase, but is different from that of cholesterol oxidase and choline oxidase. Although all of the GMC enzymes share similar structural folding and use the hydride transfer mechanism for flavin reduction, they appear to have subtle differences in the fine-tuned details of how they catalyze substrate oxidation. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  16. Specificity of choline metabolites for in vivo diagnosis of breast cancer using 1H MRS at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanwell, Peter; Gluch, Laurence; Lean, Cynthia; Malycha, Peter; Mountford, Carolyn; Clark, David; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Baker, Luke; Giuffre, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The purpose was to determine if in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 1.5 T can accurately provide the correct pathology of breast disease. Forty-three asymptomatic volunteers including three lactating mothers were examined and compared with 21 breast cancer patients. Examinations were undertaken at 1.5 T using a purpose-built transmit-receive single breast coil. Single voxel spectroscopy was undertaken using echo times of 135 and 350 ms. The broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm, which includes contributions from choline, phosphocholine (PC), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), myo-inositol and taurine, was found not to be a unique marker for malignancy providing a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 80.0 and 86.0%, respectively. This was due to three of the asymptomatic volunteers and all of the lactating mothers also generating the broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm. Optimised post-acquisitional processing of the spectra resolved a resonance at 3.22 ppm, consistent with PC, in patients with cancer. In contrast the spectra recorded for three false-positive volunteers, and the three lactating mothers had a resonance centred at 3.28 ppm (possibly taurine, myo-inositol or GPC). This improved the specificity of the test to 100%. Careful referencing of the spectra and post-acquisitional processing intended to optimise spectral resolution of in vivo MR proton spectra from human breast tissue resolves the composite choline resonance. This allows the distinction of patients with malignant disease from volunteers with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. Therefore, resolution of the composite choline resonance into its constituent components improves the specificity of the in vivo 1 H MRS method, but does not overcome the problem of 20% false-negatives. (orig.)

  17. Choline kinase-alpha by regulating cell aggressiveness and drug sensitivity is a potential druggable target for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, A; Nicoletti, R; Tinaglia, V; De Cecco, L; Pisanu, M E; Ricci, A; Podo, F; Canevari, S; Iorio, E; Bagnoli, M; Mezzanzanica, D

    2014-01-21

    Aberrant choline metabolism has been proposed as a novel cancer hallmark. We recently showed that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) possesses an altered MRS-choline profile, characterised by increased phosphocholine (PCho) content to which mainly contribute over-expression and activation of choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-alpha). To assess its biological relevance, ChoK-alpha expression was downmodulated by transient RNA interference in EOC in vitro models. Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis and functional analysis was performed to identify the pathway/functions perturbed in ChoK-alpha-silenced cells, then validated by in vitro experiments. In silenced cells, compared with control, we observed: (I) a significant reduction of both CHKA transcript and ChoK-alpha protein expression; (II) a dramatic, proportional drop in PCho content ranging from 60 to 71%, as revealed by (1)H-magnetic spectroscopy analysis; (III) a 35-36% of cell growth inhibition, with no evidences of apoptosis or modification of the main cellular survival signalling pathways; (IV) 476 differentially expressed genes, including genes related to lipid metabolism. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified cellular functions related to cell death and cellular proliferation and movement as the most perturbed. Accordingly, CHKA-silenced cells displayed a significant delay in wound repair, a reduced migration and invasion capability were also observed. Furthermore, although CHKA silencing did not directly induce cell death, a significant increase of sensitivity to platinum, paclitaxel and doxorubicin was observed even in a drug-resistant context. We showed for the first time in EOC that CHKA downregulation significantly decreased the aggressive EOC cell behaviour also affecting cells' sensitivity to drug treatment. These observations open the way to further analysis for ChoK-alpha validation as a new EOC therapeutic target to be used alone or in combination with conventional drugs.

  18. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passman, Adam M; Strauss, Robyn P; McSpadden, Sarah B; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Woo, Ken H; Diepeveen, Luke A; London, Roslyn; Callus, Bernard A; Yeoh, George C

    2015-12-01

    The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC)-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet). Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100%) for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Passman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet. Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100% for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality.

  20. Reverse genetics with animal viruses. NSV reverse genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebatsion, T.

    2005-01-01

    New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries. (author)

  1. The optimal timing to perform 18F/11C-choline PET/CT in patients with suspicion of relapse of prostate cancer: trigger PSA versus PSA velocity and PSA doubling time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Rubello, Domenico; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-12-09

    In the present short communication we considered the main publications focused on trigger prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA kinetics that systematically compared 18F to 11C-choline PET/CT in order to establish the optimal time to perform choline PET/CT in relation to the trigger values and velocity, as well as doubling time of PSA serum levels.

  2. Flow injection determination of choline in milk hydrolysates by an immobilized enzyme reactor coupled to a selective hydrogen peroxide amperometric sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Sandra [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Quinto, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agroambientali, Chimica e Difesa Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71100 Foggia (Italy); Palmisano, Francesco [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: palmisano@chimica.uniba.it

    2007-07-02

    A choline oxidase (ChO) immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) prepared by glutaraldehyde coupling of the enzyme on aminopropyl modified controlled pore glass beads is described. The ChO-IMER was coupled, in a flow injection configuration system, to an interference free hydrogen peroxide amperometric sensor based on a Pt surface modified by an overoxidized polypyrrole film. The resulting analytical device responds selectively to choline and displays a sensitivity of 46.9 {+-} 0.2 {mu}C mM{sup -1} and a limit of detection, calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio equal to 3, of 7 {mu}M. Sensitivity remains constant for about 20 days and then starts to slowly deteriorate and after 2 months a 70% of the initial sensitivity was still retained. The application to choline determination in milk hydrolysates is demonstrated. Short- and long-term drift observed in the analytical response can be corrected by a bracketing technique.

  3. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  4. Reverse Zymography: Overview and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    Reverse zymography is a technique by which protease inhibitor(s) in a sample could be electrophoretically separated in a substrate-impregnated acrylamide gel and their relative abundance could be semi-quantified. The gel after electrophoresis is incubated with a protease when the impregnated substrate and all other proteins of the sample are degraded into small peptides except the inhibitor(s) that show clear bands against a white background. Since reverse zymography cannot distinguish between a protease inhibitor and a protein that is resistant against proteolysis, the results should be confirmed from inhibition of protease activity by solution state assay.

  5. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  6. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    inverses: Freeing a block of memory is done by running the allocation procedure backwards. Axelsen and Glück use this heap manager to sketch implementation of a simple reversible functional language where pattern matching a constructor is the inverse of construction, so pattern-matching implies......Modern programming languages and operating systems use heap memory that allows allocation and deallocation of memory to be decoupled, so they don't follow a stack discipline. Axelsen and Glück have presented a reversible heap manager where allocation and deallocation are each other's logical...

  7. Genetic variants in the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene are modestly associated with normal cognitive function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, J; Christensen, K; Thinggaard, M

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variants in the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene have been suggested as risk factors for neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the importance of genetic variants in the ChAT gene in normal cognitive function of elderly in a study sample of Danish twins...... and singletons (N = 2070). The ChAT rs3810950 A allele, which has been associated with increased risk for AD, was found to be associated with a decrease cognitive status evaluated by a five-component cognitive composite score [P = 0.03, regression coefficient -0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.57 to -0...

  8. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with docetaxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, UO Medicina Nucleare PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Castellucci, Paolo; Graziani, Tiziano; Renzi, Riccardo; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Borghesi, Marco; Brunocilla, Eugenio [University of Bologna, Department of Urology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Di Tullio, Piergiorgio; Ardizzoni, Andrea [University of Bologna, Department of Oncology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the role of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for evaluating the response to treatment in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with docetaxel in comparison with PSA response. Inclusion criteria were (a) proven mCRPC, (b) docetaxel as first line of chemotherapy (docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2} + prednisone 5 mg), and (c) {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT and PSA values assessed before and after docetaxel administration. A total of 61 patients were retrospectively enrolled (mean age 68.9 years, range 57 - 84 years). {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT was performed at baseline before docetaxel treatment (PET1) and after the end of treatment (PET2). PSA values were measured before treatment (PSA1) and after treatment (PSA2). PET2 was reported as complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD). Progressive disease (PD) was considered if a new lesion was seen. PSA trend was calculated from the change in absolute values between PSA1 and PSA2. A decrease of ≥50 % between PSA1 and PSA2 was considered a PSA response. Clinical, radiological and laboratory follow-up ranged from 6 to 53 months (mean 13.5 months). Of the 61 patients, 40 (65.5 %) showed PD on PET2, 13 (21.3 %) showed SD, 2 (3.4 %) showed PR, and 6 (9.8 %) showed CR. An increasing PSA trend was seen in 29 patients (47.5 %) and a decreasing PSA trend in 32 patients (52.5 %). A PSA response of ≥50 % was seen in 25 patients (41 %). Radiological PD was seen in 23 of the 29 patients (79.3 %) with an increasing PSA trend, in 16 of the 32 patients (50 %) with a decreasing PSA trend, and in 11 of the 25 patients (44 %) with a PSA response of ≥50 %. In the multivariate statistical analysis, the presence of more than ten bone lesions detected on PET1 was significantly associated with an increased probability of PD on PET2. No association was observed between PSA level and PD on PET2. Our results suggest that an increasing PSA trend measured after docetaxel treatment could be

  9. Synthesis, molecular docking, DFT calculations and cytotoxicity activity of benzo[g]quinazoline derivatives in choline chloride-urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Sivalingam; Govindaraj, Dharman; Ramalakshmi, Narayanan; Antony, S. Arul

    2017-12-01

    Green and highly efficient one-pot three component approach for the synthesis of benzo[g]quinazoline derivatives (6a-g) using Choline chloride-urea (DES). Synthesized compounds 6b and 6g showed the most potent biological activity against A549 lung cancer cell line. Docking simulation was performed to position compounds 6b and 6g showed the greater affinity for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor. Quantum chemical studies were carried out on these compounds to understand the structural features essential for activity using DFT/6-31G level of theory.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of formate oxidase, an enzyme of the glucose–methanol–choline oxidoreductase family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yoshifumi; Doubayashi, Daiju; Ootake, Takumi; Oki, Masaya; Mikami, Bunzo; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Formate oxidase from A. oryzae RIB40 was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. Formate oxidase (FOD), which catalyzes the oxidation of formate to yield carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, belongs to the glucose–methanol–choline oxidoreductase (GMCO) family. FOD from Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, which has a modified FAD as a cofactor, was crystallized at 293 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal was orthorhombic and belonged to space group C222 1 . Diffraction data were collected from a single crystal to 2.4 Å resolution

  11. PET/CT with 18F-choline: Physiological whole bio-distribution in male and female subjects and diagnostic pitfalls on 1000 prostate cancer patients: 18F-choline PET/CT bio-distribution and pitfalls. A southern Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Cicciò, Carmelo; Gangemi, Vincenzo; Gullà, Domenico; Rocca, Federico; Gallo, Gianpasquale; Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Schillaci, Orazio

    2017-08-01

    The 11 C/ 18 F-choline is a PET/CT radiopharmaceutical useful in detecting tumors with high lipogenesis. 11 C/ 18 F-choline uptake can occur in physiological conditions or tumors. The knowledge of its bio-distribution is essential to recognize physiologic variants or diagnostic pitfalls. Moreover, few information are available on the bio-distribution of this tracer in female patients. Our aim was to discuss some documented 18 F-choline PET/CT pitfalls in prostate cancer patients. Our secondary aim was to describe the 18 F-choline bio-distribution in the female body. We collected diagnostic pitfalls in three PET centers examining 1000 prostate cancer by 18 F-choline PET/CT. All pitfalls were ensured by follow-up, imaging and/or histology. We also performed whole body 18 F-choline PET/CT in 5 female patients. 169/1000 (16.9%) patients showed pitfalls not owing to prostate cancer. These findings were due to inflammation, benign tumors while, in 1% of examined patients, a concomitant neoplasm was found. In the female body, the breast showed low physiological uptake. The accurate knowledge of 18 F-choline PET/CT bio-distribution and diagnostic pitfalls is essential. Correlative imaging and histological exam are often necessary to depict pitfalls. In women, the uptake in the breast is due to the physiological gradient of 18 F-choline uptake in the exocrine glands. Our results confirm the possibility of 18 F-choline uptake in several diseases other than prostate cancer. However, our experience was acquired on a large population and shows that a conspicuous amount of 18 F-choline diagnostic pitfalls are easily recognizable and attributable to inflammation. A new advance in knowledge is the minimal difference in terms of physiological tracer bio-distribution between male and female patients. The knowledge of the physiological bio-distribution and of the potential pitfalls linked of a tracer could help physicians to choose the best diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for a

  12. A functional language for describing reversible logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2012-01-01

    Reversible logic is a computational model where all gates are logically reversible and combined in circuits such that no values are lost or duplicated. This paper presents a novel functional language that is designed to describe only reversible logic circuits. The language includes high....... Reversibility of descriptions is guaranteed with a type system based on linear types. The language is applied to three examples of reversible computations (ALU, linear cosine transformation, and binary adder). The paper also outlines a design flow that ensures garbage- free translation to reversible logic...... circuits. The flow relies on a reversible combinator language as an intermediate language....

  13. Variability of Gross Tumor Volume in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Using 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the variability of gross tumor volume (GTV using 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT images for nasopharyngeal carcinomas boundary definition. Assessment consisted of inter-observer and inter-modality variation analysis. Four radiation oncologists were invited to manually contour GTV by using PET/CT fusion obtained from a cohort of 12 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC and who underwent both 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG scans. Student's paired-sample t-test was performed for analyzing inter-observer and inter-modality variability. Semi-automatic segmentation methods, including thresholding and region growing, were also validated against the manual contouring of the two types of PET images. We observed no significant variation in the results obtained by different oncologists in terms of the same type of PET/CT volumes. Choline fusion volumes were significantly larger than the FDG volumes (p < 0.0001, mean ± SD = 18.21 ± 8.19. While significantly consistent results were obtained between the oncologists and the standard references in Choline volumes compared with those in FDG volumes (p = 0.0025. Simple semi-automatic delineation methods indicated that 11C-Choline PET images could provide better results than FDG volumes (p = 0.076, CI = [-0.29, 0.025]. 11C-Choline PET/CT may be more advantageous in GTV delineation for the radiotherapy of NPC than 18F-FDG. Phantom simulations and clinical trials should be conducted to prove the possible improvement of the treatment outcome.

  14. Role of Choline-Docosahexaenoic acid and Trigonella foenum graecum Seed Extract on Ovariectomy Induced Dyslipidemia and Oxidative Stress in Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamma Takkella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause is characterized by the deficiency of ovarian hormones, mainly estrogen. The decline in estrogen hormone is contributing the cardiovascular disorders in women. Hormone replacement therapy has disadvantages especially a higher risk of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers upon chronic use. Phytoestrogens may be used as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy. Aim and Objectives: This study was designed to scientifically evaluate the role of Choline- Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG seed extract on Ovariectomy (OVX induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in rat model. Material and Methods: Female Wistar rats were allocated into four groups (n=6:1 Sham control, 2 ovariectomized, 3 ovariectomized+ choline-DHA and 4 ovariectomized + choline-DHA+TFG. After 30 days of treatment, fasting blood samples and liver tissues were collected. Serum was analyzed for lipid profile and liver homogenates were used for assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity. Results: Ovariectomized rats showed significantly increased (P<0.05 Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL levels and decreased High Density Lipoprotein (HDL levels. Treating ovariectomized rats with choline-DHA and TFG seed extract significantly lowered (P<0.05 total cholesterol, LDL and markedly increased the HDL. Significantly increased (P≤0.01 Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS and reduced (P<0.05 glutathione levels were observed in OVX group. The synergetic effect of choline-DHA and fenugreek showed a significant reduction ((P≤0.01 in TBARS levels. Conclusion: These results showed that choline-DHA with TFG supplementation have a favorable effect on OVX induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress. Therefore, these components may be a therapeutic agent for treating the menopause induced hyperlipidemia or oxidative stress.

  15. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Converts Plant-Derived Choline to Glycine Betaine for Osmoprotection during Pre- and Post-harvest Colonization of Injured Lettuce Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A. Scott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant injury is inherent to the production and processing of fruit and vegetables. The opportunistic colonization of damaged plant tissue by human enteric pathogens may contribute to the occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to produce. Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 responds to physicochemical stresses in cut lettuce and lettuce lysates by upregulation of several stress response pathways. We investigated the tolerance of EcO157 to osmotic stress imposed by the leakage of osmolytes from injured lettuce leaf tissue. LC-MS analysis of bacterial osmoprotectants in lettuce leaf lysates and wound washes indicated an abundant natural pool of choline, but sparse quantities of glycine betaine and proline. Glycine betaine was a more effective osmoprotectant than choline in EcO157 under osmotic stress conditions in vitro. An EcO157 mutant with a deletion of the betTIBA genes, which are required for biosynthesis of glycine betaine from imported choline, achieved population sizes twofold lower than those of the parental strain (P < 0.05 over the first hour of colonization of cut lettuce in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP. The cell concentrations of the betTIBA mutant also were 12-fold lower than those of the parental strain (P < 0.01 when grown in hypertonic lettuce lysate, indicating that lettuce leaf cellular contents provide choline for osmoprotection of EcO157. To demonstrate the utilization of available choline by EcO157 for osmoadaptation in injured leaf tissue, deuterated (D-9 choline was introduced to wound sites in MAP lettuce; LC-MS analysis revealed the conversion of D9-choline to D-9 glycine betaine in the parental strain, but no significant amounts were observed in the betTIBA mutant. The EcO157 ΔbetTIBA-ΔotsBA double mutant, which is additionally deficient in de novo synthesis of the compatible solute trehalose, was significantly less fit than the parental strain after their co-inoculation onto injured lettuce leaves and

  16. Evaluation of 11C-choline PET/CT for primary diagnosis and staging of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassa, Naoto; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Gotoh, Momokazu; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Shimamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Abe, Shinji; Iwano, Shingo; Ito, Shinji; Naganawa, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a pilot study to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of PET/CT with 11 C-choline (choline PET/CT) for primary diagnosis and staging of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-UC). Enrolled in this study were 16 patients (9 men, 7 women; age range 51 - 83 years, mean ± SD 69 ± 10.8 years) with suspected UUT-UC. The patients were examined by choline PET/CT, and 13 underwent laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and partial cystectomy. Lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy were also performed as necessary in some of the patients. Of the 16 patients, 12 were confirmed to have UUT-UC (7 renal pelvis carcinoma and 5 ureteral carcinoma), 1 had malignant lymphoma (ureter), 1 had IgG4-related disease (ureter), and 2 had other benign diseases (ureter). Of the 16 study patients, 13 showed definite choline uptake in urothelial lesions, and of these, 11 had UUT-UC, 1 had malignant lymphoma, and 1 had IgG4-related disease. Three patients without choline uptake comprised one with UUT-UC and two with benign diseases. Of the 12 patients with UUT-UC, 3 had distant metastases, 2 had metastases only in the regional lymph nodes, and 7 had no metastases. Distant metastases and metastases in the regional lymph nodes showed definite choline uptake. The outcome in patients with UUT-UC, which was evaluated 592 - 1,530 days after surgery, corresponded to the patient classification based on the presence or absence of metastases and locoregional or distant metastases. Choline uptake determined as SUVmax 10 min after administration was significantly higher than at 20 min in metastatic tumours of UUT-UC (p < 0.05), whereas there was no statistically significant difference between the SUVmax values at 10 and those at 20 min in primary tumours of UUT-UC. This study suggests that choline PET/CT is a promising tool for the primary diagnosis and staging of UUT-UC. (orig.)

  17. Incidental detection of colorectal cancer via 1(8)F-choline PET/CT in a patient with recurrent prostate cancer: usefulness of early images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, Oreste; Filippi, Luca; Schillaci, Orazio

    2015-06-01

    A 74-year-old man with history of prostate cancer underwent F-choline PET/CT for restaging. Early acquisition of the pelvic region revealed intense uptake in prostate, with infiltration of the posterior wall of the bladder. Furthermore, focal uptake in the thickened anterior wall of the rectum was detected. Whole-body scan at 60 minutes confirmed early findings in pelvis, although the infiltration of the bladder was no more evident due to interference of radioactive urine. Biopsy demonstrated the presence of colorectal carcinoma. The dual-phase protocol resulted in significant clinical impact to clearly characterize focuses of abnormal F-choline uptake in the pelvic region.

  18. CAPSULE REPORT: REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A failure analysis has been completed for the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The focus was on process failures that result in releases of liquids and vapors to the environment. The report includes the following: 1) A description of RO and coverage of the principles behind the proc...

  19. Time reversal and parity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, K.

    1975-01-01

    A recent review by Henley discusses the present status of Time Reversal and Parity symmetry violations, and comments on the implications for high energy hadron scattering. This note will briefly summarize the situation with particular attention to the sizes of possible effects, relating them to experimental accuracy available or reasonably possible at the ZGS

  20. A Framework for Reverse Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReverse Logistics has been stretching out worldwide, involving all the layers of supply chains in various industry sectors. While some actors in the chain have been forced to take products back, others have pro-actively done so, attracted by the value in used products One way or the

  1. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  2. Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Czuba, Zenon P. [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Horak, Stanisław [I-st Chair and Clin. Dept. of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecological Oncology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Batorego 15, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the associations between environmental exposure to lead and a repertoire of cytokines in seminal plasma of males with normal semen profile according to the WHO criteria. Based on the median lead concentration in seminal plasma, 65 samples were divided into two groups: low (LE) and high exposure to lead (HE). Differences in semen volume and the pH, count, motility and morphology of sperm cells were not observed between the examined groups. The total oxidant status value and the level of protein sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly higher in the HE group, whereas the total antioxidant capacity value and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were depressed. IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HE group compared with the LE group. Environmental exposure to lead is sufficient to induce oxidative stress in seminal plasma and to modulate antioxidant defense system. - Highlights: • Lead induces oxidative stress in seminal plasma in human. • Lead modulates antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma in human. • Lead does not change a Th1/Th2 imbalance in seminal plasma in human.

  3. Reverse amblyopia with atropine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Bryan C; Sprunger, Derek C; Plager, David A; Neely, Daniel E; Guess, Matthew G

    2009-01-01

    Occlusion, pharmacologic pernalization and combined therapy have been documented in controlled studies to effectively treat amblyopia with few complications. However, there remain concerns about the effectiveness and complications when, as in this case, there are not standardized treatment protocols. A retrospective chart review of 133 consecutive patients in one community based ophthalmology practice treated for amblyopia was performed. Treatments evaluated were occlusion only, atropine penalization, and combination of occlusion and atropine. Reverse amblyopia was defined as having occured when the visual acuity of the sound eye was 3 LogMar units worse than visual acuity of the amblyopia eye after treatment. Improvement in vision after 6 months and 1 year of amblyopia therapy was similar among all three groups: 0.26 LogMar lines and 0.30 in the atropine group, 0.32 and 0.34 in the occlusion group, and 0.24 and 0.32 in the combined group. Eight (6%) patients demonstrated reverse amblyopia. The mean age of those who developed reverse amblyopia was 3.5 years, 1.5 years younger than the mean age of the study population, 7/8 had strabismic amblyopia, 6/8 were on daily atropine and had a mean refractive error of +4.77 diopters in the amblyopic eye and +5.06 diopters in the sound eye. Reverse amblyopia did not occur with occlusion only therapy. In this community based ophthalmology practice, atropine, patching, and combination therapy appear to be equally effective modalities to treat ambyopia. Highly hyperopic patients under 4 years of age with dense, strabismic amblyopia and on daily atropine appeared to be most at risk for development of reverse amblyopia.

  4. Metabolic pathways promoting intrahepatic fatty acid accumulation in methionine and choline deficiency: implications for the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, David P; Zou, Xiantong; Andrew, Ruth; Morton, Nicholas M; Livingstone, Dawn E W; Aucott, Rebecca L; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Iredale, John P; Walker, Brian R

    2011-02-01

    The pathological mechanisms that distinguish simple steatosis from steatohepatitis (or NASH, with consequent risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer) remain incompletely defined. Whereas both a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) and a choline-deficient diet (CDD) lead to hepatic triglyceride accumulation, MCDD alone is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation (steatohepatitis). We used metabolic tracer techniques, including stable isotope ([¹³C₄]palmitate) dilution and mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA) of [¹³C₂]acetate, to define differences in intrahepatic fatty acid metabolism that could explain the contrasting effect of MCDD and CDD on NASH in C57Bl6 mice. Compared with control-supplemented (CS) diet, liver triglyceride pool sizes were similarly elevated in CDD and MCDD groups (24.37 ± 2.4, 45.94 ± 3.9, and 43.30 ± 3.5 μmol/liver for CS, CDD, and MCDD, respectively), but intrahepatic neutrophil infiltration and plasma alanine aminotransferase (31 ± 3, 48 ± 4, 231 ± 79 U/l, P triglyceride pool differed between groups. Unlike CDD, MCDD had a defect in hepatic triglyceride export that was confirmed using intravenous tyloxapol (142 ± 21, 122 ± 15, and 80 ± 7 mg·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹, P metabolism may promote the development of steatohepatitis. Similar mechanisms may predispose to hepatocyte damage in human NASH.

  5. Carbon-11 choline or FDG-PET for staging of oesophageal cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, P.L.; Que, T.H.; Vaalburg, W.; Pruim, J.; Elsinga, P.; Plukker, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using carbon-11 choline (CHOL) positron emission tomography (PET) for the staging of oesophageal cancer, in comparison with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, using histopathological findings as the gold standard. Eighteen patients were studied: 16 patients with cancer of the oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction and two with in situ carcinoma/high-grade dysplasia. PET imaging was performed 5 min (CHOL) or 90 min (FDG) after injection of 370 MBq of the tracer. PET images were analysed by two independent and blinded physicians using visual and standardised uptake value (SUV) analysis. PET results were compared with surgical and histopathological findings. FDG-PET was able to detect all (100%) of the 16 malignant primary lesions, while CHOL-PET detected 73%. In situ carcinoma (n=1) and high-grade dysplasia (n=1) were not visualised with either tracer. Diffuse uptake of the tracers was noted in areas of Barrett's oesophagitis. Twelve patients had locoregional metastases (N1) that were not detected with either FDG or CHOL. Six patients had additional distant nodal (M1a) metastases; four of six (66%) were visualised by FDG, and three of five (60%) by CHOL-PET. On a lesion basis, FDG-PET detected 10/12 non-regional metastases (sensitivity 83%), while CHOL-PET detected 5/12 (sensitivity 42%). Haematogenous distant metastases (M1b) were positive on FDG-PET in three of four patients, and on CHOL-PET in two of four. SUV values were significantly higher for FDG (FDG 6.6±3.5, CHOL 5.5±2.5, P=0.04). CHOL-PET is able to visualise oesophageal carcinoma and its metastases, but appears to be inferior to FDG-PET. Presumably this is the result of lower tumoural uptake and considerable non-specific uptake of CHOL in liver, stomach wall, pancreas and small intestine. Further studies are needed to confirm these data. (orig.)

  6. Carbon-11 choline or FDG-PET for staging of oesophageal cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, P.L.; Que, T.H.; Vaalburg, W.; Pruim, J.; Elsinga, P. [PET Centre, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands); Plukker, J.T. [Dept. of Surgical Oncology, Groningen University Hospital (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using carbon-11 choline (CHOL) positron emission tomography (PET) for the staging of oesophageal cancer, in comparison with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, using histopathological findings as the gold standard. Eighteen patients were studied: 16 patients with cancer of the oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction and two with in situ carcinoma/high-grade dysplasia. PET imaging was performed 5 min (CHOL) or 90 min (FDG) after injection of 370 MBq of the tracer. PET images were analysed by two independent and blinded physicians using visual and standardised uptake value (SUV) analysis. PET results were compared with surgical and histopathological findings. FDG-PET was able to detect all (100%) of the 16 malignant primary lesions, while CHOL-PET detected 73%. In situ carcinoma (n=1) and high-grade dysplasia (n=1) were not visualised with either tracer. Diffuse uptake of the tracers was noted in areas of Barrett's oesophagitis. Twelve patients had locoregional metastases (N1) that were not detected with either FDG or CHOL. Six patients had additional distant nodal (M1a) metastases; four of six (66%) were visualised by FDG, and three of five (60%) by CHOL-PET. On a lesion basis, FDG-PET detected 10/12 non-regional metastases (sensitivity 83%), while CHOL-PET detected 5/12 (sensitivity 42%). Haematogenous distant metastases (M1b) were positive on FDG-PET in three of four patients, and on CHOL-PET in two of four. SUV values were significantly higher for FDG (FDG 6.6{+-}3.5, CHOL 5.5{+-}2.5, P=0.04). CHOL-PET is able to visualise oesophageal carcinoma and its metastases, but appears to be inferior to FDG-PET. Presumably this is the result of lower tumoural uptake and considerable non-specific uptake of CHOL in liver, stomach wall, pancreas and small intestine. Further studies are needed to confirm these data. (orig.)

  7. Visualisation of bladder cancer using 11C-choline PET: first clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, Igle J.; Pruim, Jan; Elsinga, Philip H.; Jongen, Maud M.G.J.; Vaalburg, Willem; Mensink, Han J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the most widely used radiopharmaceutical in positron emission tomography (PET) for oncological purposes, is unsuitable for imaging of bladder cancer owing to high excretion into the urine. More specific PET radiopharmaceuticals which are not excreted into urine would be welcome. Carbon-11 labelled choline (CHOL) is a new radiopharmaceutical potentially useful for tumour imaging and is not excreted into the urine. We prospectively studied the visualisation of bladder cancer using CHOL PET. Eighteen patients with bladder cancer and five healthy volunteers were included. Bladder cancer was first diagnosed by transurethral resection or by biopsy of the tumour. Next, PET images were performed before surgical treatment by cystectomy. The histopathological findings after cystectomy were used as the gold standard. PET images were performed on either an ECAT 951/31 or an ECAT Exact HR+ system. Attenuation-corrected PET images were obtained after injection of 400 MBq CHOL. PET images were analysed by two independent physicians using visual analysis and calculation of the standardised uptake value (SUV). In the normal bladder wall, the uptake of CHOL was low, and the bladder margin was only outlined by minimal urinary radioactivity, if present. In ten patients the tumour was detected correctly by CHOL PET, with an SUV of 4.7±3.6 (mean±SD). One false positive CHOL PET scan was seen in a patient with an indwelling catheter for 2 weeks prior to the PET scan. In two patients, lymph node metastases were detected by CHOL PET. A micrometastasis <5 mm was not visualised with CHOL PET. In seven patients, no residual tumour was found after surgery. In six of seven patients CHOL PET imaging was negative. In situ carcinoma, dysplasia and a non-invasive urothelial tumour (pTa) remained undetected in three of these six patients. Minimal to no urinary tract radioactivity was seen in 22/23 subjects. Non-specific uptake of CHOL was observed in the small

  8. Hormonal regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by reversible modulation of cytidylyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K L; Gutierrez, G; Martin, A

    1988-01-01

    The effect of both lipolytic and antilipolytic hormones on the turnover of phosphatidylcholine in freshly isolated rat adipocytes was investigated. Treatment of adipocytes with agonists such as glucagon or isoprenaline that stimulate lipolysis through a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism caused an increase in the incorporation of [Me-3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine. Pulse-chase studies indicated that the stimulation was due to an increase in the conversion of choline into phosphatidylcholine, which was both time- and dose-dependent. The stimulatory effect of isoprenaline was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by oxytocin or insulin. Oxytocin inhibited the incorporation of [Me-3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine in both the presence and the absence of isoprenaline, whereas in the absence of isoprenaline insulin increased the incorporation of [Me-3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine. The effects of isoprenaline, oxytocin and insulin on the incorporation of [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine were paralleled by changes in the activity of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. PMID:2849424

  9. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Pani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice.

  10. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  11. Trend towards reverse leach process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The South African gold mining industry is making notable strides in improving recovery methods for both gold and uranium with significant additions to profits because of higher efficiencies and reductions in costs in the recovery processes. The most notable step on the gold side recently is the adoption of the reverse leach process at Buffelsfontein and Western Deep Levels. This process was pioneered at Hartebeesfontein as far back as 1975 and when introduced there resulted in a two and a half per cent improvement in recovery efficiencies. The essence of reverse leaching under which the uranium is recovered before the gold is the fact that the gold partly coated with iron oxide or locked in uranite, is exposed to be recovered later by cyanidation

  12. Reversible evolution of charged ergoregions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkotas, K.; Spyrou, N.

    1987-07-01

    The reversible evolution of a charged rotating ergoregion, due to the injection into it of particles with mass-energy and angular momentum, is studied systematically. As in the uncharged case, a bulge always forms on the outer boundary of the ergoregion due to the latter's angular momentum. The behavior of the bulge's position, relative to the black hole's rotation axis and equatorial plane, is studied, on the basis of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, during the ergoregion's reversible evolution. The range of the permitted values of the ergoregion's linear dimensions along the rotation axis and perpendicular to it is specified. Finally the differences with the evolution of an uncharged ergoregion are pointed out and discussed.

  13. Malware analysis and reverse engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Šváb, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Focus of this thesis is reverse engineering in information technology closely linked with the malware analysis. It explains fundamentals of IA-32 processors architecture and basics of operating system Microsoft Windows. Main part of this thesis is dedicated to the malware analysis, including description of creating a tool for simplification of static part of the analysis. In Conclusion various approaches to the malware analysis, which were described in previous part of the thesis, are practic...

  14. How to play Reverse Hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Bjarne; Hayward, Ryan B.; Henderson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We present new results on how to play Reverse Hex, also known as Rex, or Misère Hex, on n × n boards. We give new proofs – and strengthened versions – of Lagarias and Sleator’s theorem (for n × n boards, each player can prolong the game until the board is full, so the first/second player can alwa...

  15. Theory of field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This final report surveys the results of work conducted on the theory of field reversed configurations. This project has spanned ten years, beginning in early 1980. During this period, Spectra Technology was one of the leading contributors to the advances in understanding FRC. The report is organized into technical topic areas, FRC formation, equilibrium, stability, and transport. Included as an appendix are papers published in archival journals that were generated in the course of this report. 33 refs

  16. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  17. Risperidone-induced reversible neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattalai Kailasam, Vasanth; Chima, Victoria; Nnamdi, Uchechukwu; Sharma, Kavita; Shah, Kairav

    2017-01-01

    This case report presents a 44-year-old man with a history of schizophrenia who developed neutropenia on risperidone therapy. The patient's laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of leukocytes and neutrophils after resolution and rechallenging. This was reversed with the discontinuation of risperidone and by switching to olanzapine. In this case report, we also discuss the updated evidence base for management of risperidone-induced neutropenia.

  18. Preclinical test: bacterial reverse mutation test for {sup 18}F-fluorocholine produced in CDTN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Bispo, Ana Carolina A.; Campos, Danielle C.; Silva, Juliana B., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br, E-mail: acab@cdtn.br, E-mail: dcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvajb@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The choline labeled with fluorine-18 (18FCH) is being considered as a great importance radiopharmaceutical due to its effective detection of many type of malignant neoplasm. The research related to {sup 18}F-fluorocholine synthesis in CDTN was initiated in 2010. In order to obtain clinical research approval, as well as to register {sup 18}FCH for marketing, safety and efficacy preclinical testing are required. The present work evaluated the {sup 18}FCH genotoxic potential through the bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) using Salmonella typhimurium TA-98, TA-100, TA-1535 and TA-1537 strains and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain. The reverse mutation test in bacteria for fluorcolina was conducted in two stages. Initially the method was applied to 'cold' fluorocholine molecule (19FCH). Subsequently, the decayed product of {sup 18}FCH synthesis was evaluated. The first step was performed in order to examine the FCH molecule mutagenicity. The second was carried out to determine the mutagenic potential of final product. All strains were tested in triplicate for each exposure concentration, in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S-9 mix - 10%). There were no statistically significant increases in revertant colonies rate for any strains tested after their exposure to decayed {sup 18}FCH or {sup 19}FCH. The number of revertant colonies in positive controls was significantly higher than that observed in significant increases in revertant colonies rate for any strains tested after their exposure to decayed {sup 18}FCH or {sup 19}FCH. The number of revertant colonies in positive controls was significantly higher than that observed in negative controls. Based on results of this assay, {sup 18}FCH and {sup 19}FCH, at tested doses, were found to be non-mutagenic in bacterial reverse mutation test. (author)

  19. Preclinical test: bacterial reverse mutation test for 18F-fluorocholine produced in CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Bispo, Ana Carolina A.; Campos, Danielle C.; Silva, Juliana B.

    2013-01-01

    The choline labeled with fluorine-18 (18FCH) is being considered as a great importance radiopharmaceutical due to its effective detection of many type of malignant neoplasm. The research related to 18 F-fluorocholine synthesis in CDTN was initiated in 2010. In order to obtain clinical research approval, as well as to register 18 FCH for marketing, safety and efficacy preclinical testing are required. The present work evaluated the 18 FCH genotoxic potential through the bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) using Salmonella typhimurium TA-98, TA-100, TA-1535 and TA-1537 strains and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain. The reverse mutation test in bacteria for fluorcolina was conducted in two stages. Initially the method was applied to 'cold' fluorocholine molecule (19FCH). Subsequently, the decayed product of 18 FCH synthesis was evaluated. The first step was performed in order to examine the FCH molecule mutagenicity. The second was carried out to determine the mutagenic potential of final product. All strains were tested in triplicate for each exposure concentration, in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S-9 mix - 10%). There were no statistically significant increases in revertant colonies rate for any strains tested after their exposure to decayed 18 FCH or 19 FCH. The number of revertant colonies in positive controls was significantly higher than that observed in significant increases in revertant colonies rate for any strains tested after their exposure to decayed 18 FCH or 19 FCH. The number of revertant colonies in positive controls was significantly higher than that observed in negative controls. Based on results of this assay, 18 FCH and 19 FCH, at tested doses, were found to be non-mutagenic in bacterial reverse mutation test. (author)

  20. CONCEPTUAL ISSUES REGARDING REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the power of consumers is growing, the product return for customer service and customer retention has become a common practice in the competitive market, which propels the recent practice of reverse logistics in companies. Many firms attracted by the value available in the flow, have proactively participated in handling returned products at the end of their usefulness or from other parts of the product life cycle. Reverse logistics is the flow and management of products, packaging, components and information from the point of consumption to the point of origin. It is a collection of practices similar to those of supply chain management, but in the opposite direction, from downstream to upstream. It involves activities such as reuse, repair, remanufacture, refurbish, reclaim and recycle. For the conventional forward logistics systems, the flow starts upstream as raw materials, later as manufactured parts and components to be assembled and continues downstream to reach customers as final products to be disposed once they reach their economic or useful lives. In reverse logistics, the disposed products are pushed upstream to be repaired, remanufactured, refurbished, and disassembled into components to be reused or as raw material to be recycled for later use.

  1. Change of choline compounds in sodium selenite-induced apoptosis of rats used as quantitative analysis by in vitro 9.4T MR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Zhen; Wu, Lin-Ping; Li, Yun-Xia

    2008-01-01

    staining was employed to detect and confirm the change of liver cells. RESULTS: Good (1)H-MR spectra of perchloric acid extract from liver tissue of rats were obtained. The conventional metabolites were detected and assigned. Concentrations of different ingredient choline compounds in treatment group vs...

  2. Amyloid Beta Peptide 1-40 and the Function of Rat Hippocampal Hemicholinium-3 Sensitive Choline Carriers: Effects of a Proteolytic Degradation in Vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištofíková, Z.; Tejkalová, H.; Klaschka, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2001), s. 203-212 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ3702 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : abeta * bromelain * papain * choline uptake * hemicholinium-3 * rat hippocampus Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.638, year: 2001

  3. Targeting personalized medicine in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient with {sup 18F}-FDG and {sup 18F}-choline PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Thalles H.; Filho, Raul S.; Castro, Ana Carolina G.; Paulino Junior, Eduardo; Mamede, Marcelo, E-mail: mamede.mm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    Early diagnosis and staging of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is essential for therapeutic strategy decision. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a glucose analogue, labeled with fluor-18 ({sup 18F}-FDG) has been used to evaluate staging, therapy response and prognosis in NHL patients. However, in some cases, {sup 18F}-FDG has shown false- -positive uptake due to inflammatory reaction after chemo and/or radiation therapy. In this case report, we present a NHL patient evaluated with {sup 18F}-FDG and {sup 18F}-choline PET/CT scan imaging pre- and post-therapy. {sup 18F}-FDG and {sup 18F}-choline PET/CT were performed for the purpose of tumor staging and have shown intense uptake in infiltrative tissue as well as in the lymph node, but with some mismatching in the tumor. Post-treatment {sup 18F}-FDG and {sup 18F}-choline PET/ CT scans revealed no signs of radiotracer uptake, suggesting complete remission of the tumor. {sup 18F}-choline may be a complimentary tool for staging and assessment of therapeutic response in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, while non-{sup 18F}-FDG tracer can be used for targeted therapy and patient management. (author)

  4. Methyl group balance in brain and liver: role of choline on increased S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) demand by chronic arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Rosalva; Santoyo, Martha E; Cruz, Daniela; Delgado, Juan Manuel; Zarazúa, Sergio; Jiménez-Capdeville, María E

    2012-11-30

    Arsenic toxicity has been related to its interference with one carbon metabolism, where a high demand of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for arsenic methylation as well as a failure of its regeneration would compromise the availability of methyl groups for diverse cellular functions. Since exposed animals show disturbances of methylated products such as methylated arginines, myelin and axon membranes, this work investigates whether alterations of SAM, choline and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the brain of arsenic exposed rats are associated with myelin alterations and myelin basic protein (MBP) immunoreactivity. Also these metabolites, morphologic and biochemical markers of methyl group alterations were analyzed in the liver, the main site of arsenic methylation. In adult, life-long arsenic exposed rats through drinking water (3 ppm), no changes of SAM, choline and PC concentrations where found in the brain, but SAM and PC were severely decreased in liver accompanied by a significant increase of choline. These results suggest that choline plays an important role as methyl donor in arsenic exposure, which could underlie hepatic affections observed when arsenic exposure is combined with other environmental factors. Also, important myelin and nerve fiber alterations, accompanied by a 75% decrease of MBP immunoreactivity were not associated with a SAM deficit in the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  6. Effect of Vegan Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Carnitine- and Choline-Derived Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Production and Vascular Inflammation in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, L.P.; Kootte, R.S.; Levin, E.; Prodan, A.; Fuentes, S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Wang, Z; Levison, B.S.; Cleophas, M.C.P.; Kemper, E.M.; Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Groen, A.K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.; Stroes, E.S.; Vos, W.M. de; Hazen, S.L.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly

  7. Effect of vegan fecal microbiota transplantation on carnitine- and choline-derived trimethylamine-N-oxide production and vascular inflammation in patients with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Loek P.; Kootte, Ruud S.; Levin, Evgeni; Prodan, Andrei; Fuentes, Susana; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Cleophas, Maartje C.P.; Kemper, E.M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Groen, Albert K.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Netea, Mihai G.; Stroes, Erik S.G.; Vos, de Willem M.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2018-01-01

    Background--Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly

  8. Effect of dietary γ-aminobutyric acid on the nerve growth factor and the choline acetyltransferase in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tujioka, Kazuyo; Thanapreedawat, Panicha; Yamada, Takashi; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Horie, Kenji; Kim, Mujo; Tsutsui, Kazumi; Hayase, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    The brain protein synthesis and the plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH) is sensitive to the dietary γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in ovariectomized female rats; however, the role of dietary GABA on biomarkers including nerve growth factor (NGF) and choline acetyltransferase for the function of cholinergic neurons remains unknown in ovariectomized female rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dietary GABA affects the concentration and mRNA level of NGF, and the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the brains of ovariectomized female rats. Experiments were done on two groups of 24-wk-old ovariectomized female rats given 0 or 0.5% GABA added to a 20% casein diet. The concentrations of NGF and activities of choline acetyltransferase in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and mRNA level of NGF in the hippocampus increased significantly with the 20% casein+0.5% GABA compared with the 20% casein diet alone. In the hippocampus, the mRNA level of NGF significantly correlated with the NGF concentration (r=0.714, pGABA to ovariectomized female rats is likely to control the mRNA level and concentration of NGF and cause an increase in the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the brains.

  9. Impact of total PSA, PSA doubling time and PSA velocity on detection rates of 11C-Choline positron emission tomography in recurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybalov, Maxim; Breeuwsma, Anthonius J.; Leliveld, Anna M.; Pruim, Jan; Dierckx, Rudi A.; de Jong, Igle J.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of total PSA (tPSA) and PSA kinetics on the detection rates of (11)C-Choline PET in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). METHODS: We included 185 patients with BCR after RP (PSA >0.2 ng/ml)

  10. Organic cation transporter 2 (SLC22A2), a low-affinity and high-capacity choline transporter, is preferentially enriched on synaptic vesicles in cholinergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, T; Matsui, T; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Anzai, N

    2013-11-12

    Organic cation transporters (OCTs) are expressed mainly in the kidney and liver. OCTs transport intrinsic organic cations, including monoamine, dopamine, serotonine and choline, across the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that OCT2 (SLC22A2) is expressed in cholinergic neurons, motoneurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, and is implicated in acetylcholine (Ach) recycling in presynaptic terminals. Application of rabbit anti-peptide antibody revealed that OCT2 was expressed in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Double immunostaining of muscle sections with anti-OCT2 and alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) revealed that OCT2 was localized in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that OCT2 was localized both in synaptic vesicles (SVs) in presynaptic terminals around the motoneurons (C-terminals) and in SVs in nerve terminals in NMJs. The similarity in the distribution of OCT2 in cholinergic neurons and that of vesicular acetyl choline transporter (VAchT), and the fact that OCT2 can transport choline suggest that OCT2 could work as a low-affinity and high-capacity choline transporter at presynaptic terminals in cholinergic neurons in a firing-dependent manner. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Folate, vitamin B12, alpha-tocopherol and selected liver components in periparturient dairy goats supplemented with choline and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dell'Orto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of rumen-protected choline and vitamin E administration on status of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin E and selected liver components was studied on 4 groups of 12 periparturient dairy goats: control, CTR; choline supplemented, RPC; vitamin E, VITE; choline and vitamin E, RPCE. Plasma folate did not differ between groups, except at parturition when RPC and RPCE goats had higher folate levels than CTR and VITE animals. Neither RPC nor vitamin E affected vitamin B12 plasma concentrations, while a time effect was observed after the third week of lactation, when B12 levels in each group started to increase. Alpha-tocopherol supplementation was associated with increased plasma a-tocopherol in the VITE and RPCE compared to the CRT and RPC groups, while RPC supplementation did not affect a-tocopherol levels in both RPC and RPCE groups compared to CTR and VITE ones. In control and RPC goats liver total lipid did not differ, while DNA contents and their ratio, were respectively higher and lower in RPC supplemented animals. Overall these results suggest that greater choline availability seems to be essential for optimising metabolic health and methyl group status, in dairy ruminants.

  12. The concentration of N-acetyl aspartate, creatine + phosphocreatine, and choline in different parts of the brain in adulthood and senium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Toft, P; Larsson, H B

    1993-01-01

    The fully relaxed water signal was used as an internal standard in a STEAM experiment to calculate the concentrations of the metabolites: N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine + phosphocreatine (Cr + PCr), and choline (Cho) containing compounds in four different parts of the brain in two age groups...

  13. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF REVERSE LOGISTICS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Mesjasz-Lech

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the essence of reverse logistics and directions of physical and information flows between logistic network partners. It also analyses effects of implementation of the principles of reverse logistics in Poland in the years 2004-2007

  14. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Dose Painting for Localized Prostate Cancer Using 11C-choline Positron Emission Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joe H.; Lim Joon, Daryl; Lee, Sze Ting; Gong, Sylvia J.; Anderson, Nigel J.; Scott, Andrew M.; Davis, Ian D.; Clouston, David; Bolton, Damien; Hamilton, Christopher S.; Khoo, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose painting using 11 C-choline positron emission tomography PET scans in patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was an RT planning study of 8 patients with prostate cancer who had 11 C-choline PET scans prior to radical prostatectomy. Two contours were semiautomatically generated on the basis of the PET scans for each patient: 60% and 70% of the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV 60% and SUV 70% ). Three IMRT plans were generated for each patient: PLAN 78 , which consisted of whole-prostate radiation therapy to 78 Gy; PLAN 78-90 , which consisted of whole-prostate RT to 78 Gy, a boost to the SUV 60% to 84 Gy, and a further boost to the SUV 70% to 90 Gy; and PLAN 72-90 , which consisted of whole-prostate RT to 72 Gy, a boost to the SUV 60% to 84 Gy, and a further boost to the SUV 70% to 90 Gy. The feasibility of these plans was judged by their ability to reach prescription doses while adhering to published dose constraints. Tumor control probabilities based on PET scan-defined volumes (TCP PET ) and on prostatectomy-defined volumes (TCP path ), and rectal normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were compared between the plans. Results: All plans for all patients reached prescription doses while adhering to dose constraints. TCP PET values for PLAN 78 , PLAN 78-90 , and PLAN 72-90 were 65%, 97%, and 96%, respectively. TCP path values were 71%, 97%, and 89%, respectively. Both PLAN 78-90 and PLAN 72-90 had significantly higher TCP PET (P=.002 and .001) and TCP path (P 78 . PLAN 78-90 and PLAN 72-90 were not significantly different in terms of TCP PET or TCP path . There were no significant differences in rectal NTCPs between the 3 plans. Conclusions: IMRT dose painting for localized prostate cancer using 11 C-choline PET scans is technically feasible. Dose painting results in higher TCPs without higher NTCPs.

  15. Periodicity and Immortality in Reversible Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Kari , Jarkko; Ollinger , Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Additional material available on the web at http://www.lif.univ-mrs.fr/~nollinge/rec/gnirut/; We investigate the decidability of the periodicity and the immortality problems in three models of reversible computation: reversible counter machines, reversible Turing machines and reversible one-dimensional cellular automata. Immortality and periodicity are properties that describe the behavior of the model starting from arbitrary initial configurations: immortality is the property of having at le...

  16. Diagnostic performance of 11C-choline PET/CT and bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Shingo; Kato, Takashi; Odawara, Soichi; Takaki, Haruyuki; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Yamakado, Koichiro; Nakanishi, Yukako; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Nojima, Michio; Hirota, Shozo

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 11C-choline PET/CT and bone scintigraphy (BS) for detection of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer. Twenty-one patients with histologically proven prostate cancer underwent 11C-choline PET/CT and BS before (n = 4) or after (n = 17) treatment. Patient-, region-, and lesion-based diagnostic performances of bone metastasis of both 11C-choline PET/CT and BS were evaluated using a five-point scale by two experienced readers. Bone metastases were present in 11 (52.4%) of 21 patients and 48 (32.7%) of 147 regions; 111 lesions were found to have bone metastases. Region-based analysis showed that the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curves (AUC) of 11C-choline PET/CT were 97.9%, 99.0%, 98.6%, and 0.9989, respectively; those of BS were 72.9%, 99.0%, 90.5%, and 0.8386, respectively. Sensitivity, accuracy, and AUC significantly differed between the two methods (McNemar test, p = 0.0015, p = 0.0015, and p PET/CT detected 110/111 metastatic lesions (99.1%); BS detected 85 (76.6%) (p PET/BS were 100%/90.3% for the blastic type, 91.7%/8.3% for the lytic type, 100%/100% for the mixed type, and 100%/53.3% for the invisible type, respectively. Significant differences in blastic, lytic, and invisible types were observed between the two methods (p = 0.013, p = 0.0044, and p = 0.023, respectively). In conclusion, 11C-choline PET/CT had greater sensitivity and accuracy than BS for detection of bone involvement in patients with prostate cancer.

  17. Effects of in ovo administration of betaine and choline on hatchability results, growth and carcass characteristics and immune response of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Gholami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of in ovo administration of different levels of betaine and choline on egg hatchability, immune response, growth and carcass traits of broiler chickens was studied. Four thousand hatching eggs from Ross 308 broiler breeder layers, weighed individually, were incubated for 21 days in a commercial hatchery. At 12th day of incubation, 3456 fertilized eggs were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups of 3 replicates each (144 eggs per replicate: negative control (NC – not injected; positive control (PC – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water; Bet 0.25 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.25 mg soluble betaine; Bet 0.375 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.375 mg soluble betaine; Bet 0.50 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.50 mg soluble betaine; Chol 0.25 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.25 mg soluble choline; Chol 0.375 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.375 mg soluble choline; Chol 0.50 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.50 mg soluble choline. Among the hatched chickens, 360 males were randomly chosen (45 for each group and were grown up to 42nd day of age. The embryo mortality, pecked eggs, infected eggs and hatchability percentages were similar among the experimental groups. The betaine and choline treatments improved hatching weight and final weight of chickens, while reduced feed conversion ratio and abdominal fat percentage. No effect on carcass yield, and breast muscle, leg and wings percentages, as well as on immunoglobulin M (IgM, G (IgG, and total antibody (IgT titers was observed. The treatments had little effect on internal organs.

  18. Imaging primary prostate cancer with 11C-Choline PET/CT: relation to tumour stage, Gleason score and biomarkers of biologic aggressiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ji; Zhao, Yong; Li, Xin; Sun, Peng; Wang, Muwen; Wang, Ridong; Jin, Xunbo

    2012-01-01

    As a significant overlap of 11C-Choline standardized uptake value (SUV) between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, controversy exists regarding the clinical value of 11C-Choline PET/CT scan in primary prostate cancer. In this study, the SUVmax of the prostate lesions and the pelvic muscles were measured and their ratios (SUVmax-P/M ratio) were calculated. Then we evaluated whether the tracer 11C-Choline uptake, quantified as SUVmax-P/M ratio, correlated with tumour stage, Gleason score, and expression levels of several biomarkers of aggressiveness. Twenty-six patients with primary prostate cancer underwent 11C-Choline PET/CT. Tumour specimens from these patients were graded histopathologically, and immunnohistochemistry for Ki-67, CD31, androgen receptor (AR), Her-2/neu, Bcl-2, and PTEN were performed. Both SUVmax and SUVmax-P/M ratio showed no significant difference between patients with tumour stage II and III, but significantly elevated in patients with tumour stage IV. SUVmax-P/M ratio was also significantly higher in lesions with Gleason score of 4+3 or higher versus less than or equal to 3+4. SUVmax-P/M ratio was found significantly correlated with expression levels of Ki-67 and CD31. In addition, a higher SUVmax-P/M ratio was demonstrated in Her-2/neu positive subgroup than negative subgroup. At the same time, Gleason score and expression levels of these biomarkers showed no significant association with SUVmax. Using the parameter SUVmax-P/M ratio, 11C-Choline PET/CT may be a valuable non-invasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer

  19. Prospective head-to-head comparison of {sup 11}C-choline-PET/MR and {sup 11}C-choline-PET/CT for restaging of biochemical recurrent prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiber, Matthias [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles (United States); Rauscher, Isabel; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Maurer, Tobias [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Urology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Holzapfel, Konstantin [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Beer, Ambros J. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Ulm University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Whole-body integrated {sup 11}C-choline PET/MR might provide advantages compared to {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for restaging of prostate cancer (PC) due to the high soft-tissue contrast and the use of multiparametric MRI, especially for detection of local recurrence and bone metastases. Ninety-four patients with recurrent PC underwent a single-injection/dual-imaging protocol with contrast-enhanced PET/CT followed by fully diagnostic PET/MR. Imaging datasets were read separately by two reader teams (team 1 and 2) assessing the presence of local recurrence, lymph node and bone metastases in predefined regions using a five-point scale. Detection rates were calculated. The diagnostic performance of PET/CT vs. PET/MR was compared using ROC analysis. Inter-observer and inter-modality variability, radiation exposure, and mean imaging time were evaluated. Clinical follow-up, imaging, and/or histopathology served as standard of reference (SOR). Seventy-five patients qualified for the final image analysis. A total of 188 regions were regarded as positive: local recurrence in 37 patients, 87 regions with lymph node metastases, and 64 regions with bone metastases. Mean detection rate between both readers teams for PET/MR was 84.7% compared to 77.3% for PET/CT (p > 0.05). Local recurrence was identified significantly more often in PET/MR compared to PET/CT by team 1. Lymph node and bone metastases were identified significantly more often in PET/CT compared to PET/MR by both teams. However, this difference was not present in the subgroup of patients with PSA values ≤2 ng/ml. Inter-modality and inter-observer agreement (K > 0.6) was moderate to substantial for nearly all categories. Mean reduction of radiation exposure for PET/MR compared to PET/CT was 79.7% (range, 72.6-86.2%). Mean imaging time for PET/CT was substantially lower (18.4 ± 0.7 min) compared to PET/MR (50.4 ± 7.9 min). {sup 11}C-choline PET/MR is a robust imaging modality for restaging biochemical recurrent PC

  20. r-Universal reversible logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, A de; Storme, L

    2004-01-01

    Reversible logic plays a fundamental role both in ultra-low power electronics and in quantum computing. It is therefore important to know which reversible logic gates can be used as building block for the reversible implementation of an arbitrary boolean function and which cannot

  1. THEORETICAL FRAMES FOR DESIGNING REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz K. Grabara; Sebastian Kot

    2009-01-01

    Logistics processes of return flow became more and more important in present business practice. Because of better customer satisfaction, environmental and financial aspects many enterprises deal with reverse logistics performance. The paper is a literature review focused on the design principles of reverse logistics processes Keywords: reverse logistics, designing.

  2. Prefix reversals on binary and ternary strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkens, C.A.J.; van Iersel, L.J.J.; Keijsper, J.C.M.; Kelk, S.M.; Stougie, L.; Tromp, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Given a permutation $\\pi$, the application of prefix reversal $f^{(i)}$ to $\\pi$ reverses the order of the first $i$ elements of $\\pi$. The problem of sorting by prefix reversals (also known as pancake flipping), made famous by Gates and Papadimitriou (Discrete Math., 27 (1979), pp. 47–57), asks

  3. Prefix reversals on binary and ternary strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkens, C.A.J.; Iersel, van L.J.J.; Keijsper, J.C.M.; Kelk, S.M.; Stougie, L.; Tromp, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Given a permutation $\\pi$, the application of prefix reversal $f^{(i)}$ to $\\pi$ reverses the order of the first $i$ elements of $\\pi$. The problem of sorting by prefix reversals (also known as pancake flipping), made famous by Gates and Papadimitriou (Discrete Math., 27 (1979), pp. 47–57), asks for

  4. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  5. Repeatable Reverse Engineering with PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-08

    necessary layout information for the Android 2.3 and 4.2 SDK kernels. See Section IV-C for an example of the kind of deep reverse engineering of Android apps ...code re-use and simplifying complex analysis development. We demonstrate PANDA’s effectiveness via a number of use cases, including enabling an old but...continue to function. 2) Identify critical vulnerabilities . 3) Understand the true purpose and actions of code. It is common for legacy code to stop

  6. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawierucha, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack

  7. Presbycusis: reversible with anesthesia drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Carl A

    2009-02-01

    Age-related hearing impairment, or presbycusis, is a degenerative condition not currently treatable by medication. It is therefore significant that the author, as a patient, experienced a reversal of high-frequency hearing loss during a 2-day period following abdominal surgery with general anesthesia. This report documents the surgery and the subsequent restoration of hearing, which was bilateral and is estimated to have exceeded 50dB at 4kHz. A possible role is noted for anesthetic agents such as lidocaine, propofol, or fentanyl. This experience may hold a clue for research toward the development of medical treatments for presbycusis.

  8. Field-reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor design is a multicell arrangement wherein a series of field-reversed plasma layers are arranged along the axis of a long superconducting solenoid which provides the background magnetic field. Normal copper mirror coils and Ioffe bars placed at the first wall radius provide shallow axial and radial magnetic wells for each plasma layer. Each of 11 plasma layers requires the injection of 3.6 MW of 200 keV deuterium and tritium and produces 20 MW of fusion power. The reactor has a net electric output of 74 MWe and an estimated direct capital cost of $1200/kWe

  9. Calixarene-mediated liquid membrane transport of choline conjugates 3: The effect of handle variation on neurotransmitter transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James L; Fujii, Ayu; Roshandel, Sahar; To, Cuong-Alexander; Schramm, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    Upper rim phosphonic acid functionalized calix[4]arene affects selective transport of multiple molecular payloads through a liquid membrane. The secret is in the attachment of a receptor-complementary handle to the payload. We find that the trimethylammonium ethylene group present in choline is one of several general handles for the transport of drug and drug-like species. Herein we compare the effect of handle variation against the transport of serotonin and dopamine. We find that several ionizable amine termini handles are sufficient for transport and identify two ideal candidates. Their performance is significantly enhanced in HEPES buffered solutions. This inquiry completes a series of 3 studies aimed at optimization of this strategy. In completion a new approach towards synthetic receptor mediated selective small molecule transport has emerged; future work in vesicular and cellular systems will follow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-03

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%).

  12. Kinematic reversal schemes for the geomagnetic dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Fluctuations in the distribution of cyclonic convective cells, in the earth's core, can reverse the sign of the geomagnetic field. Two kinematic reversal schemes are discussed. In the first scheme, a field maintained by cyclones concentrated at low latitude is reversed by a burst of cyclones at high latitude. Conversely, in the second scheme, a field maintained predominantly by cyclones in high latitudes is reversed by a fluctuation consisting of a burst of cyclonic convection at low latitude. The precise fluid motions which produce the geomagnetic field are not known. However, it appears that, whatever the details are, a fluctuation in the distribution of cyclonic cells over latitude can cause a geomagnetic reversal.

  13. In vivo 19F-MRS observation of 5-FU metabolism in fatty liver induced by choline-deficient diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hideki; Harada, Masafumi; Nishitani, Hiromu; Koga, Keiko.

    1996-01-01

    Using 19 F-MRS, 5-FU metabolism was investigated in rat fatty liver. Fatty liver was induced by choline-deficient diet (CD diet). This study showed differences in 5-FU metabolism between normal and fatty liver. After laparotomy, a surface coil was placed directly on the liver surface. Spectra were continuously obtained after injection of 5-FU 100 mg/kg body weight via a catheter inserted into femoral vein. We made MRI and 1 H-MRS study to examine the lipid accumulation. Histological study was also performed using HE (hematoxylin-eosin) and oil red stain. The livers of rats fed a CD diet showed very high intensity on T 1 -WI. 1 H-MRS was very useful in deteminating the fat content because the fat ratio demonstrated by 1 H-MRS is well correlated to histological findings. In 19 F-MRS, we recognized the following four peaks: 5-FU, FBAL, Fnct (fluoronucleotide) and FUPA. The decrease of 5-FU was not very apparent, but compared to the normal liver, the formation of Fnct increased and the formation of FBAL was suppressed in fatty liver. The rats fed a CD diet for four weeks showed a higher Fnct peak and lower FBAL peak compared with the results of rats fed a CD diet for two weeks. In a CD diet group, liver cell degeneration and necrotic changes were observed histologically. It is reported that cell degeneration is followed by cell proliferation in fatty liver induced by a choline deficient diet, and the high Fnct peak found in our study may reflect this phenomenon. The high Fnct peak on 19 F-MRS may correspond to recovering reaction from liver injury like fatty liver. (author)

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of 1-monoacyl-SN-glycerol-3-phosphoryl-choline (1-lysolecithin) by phospholipases from peanut seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H; Leibovitz-Ben Gershon, Z; Heller, M

    1976-06-01

    Hydrolysis of 1-lysolecithin (1-acyl glycerophosphorylcholine [1-acyl GPC]) by preparations of phospholipase D from peanut seeds was investigated. 1-Lysolecithin was hydrolyzed at a much slower rate than phosphatidylcholine (lecithin). Although Ca+2 ions are required for the cleavage of lecithin by the enzyme, their effect on the hydrolysis of lysolecithin depended upon the concentration of the substrate: at 0.2 mM 1-lysolecithin, Ca+2 ions increased the reaction rates, whereas at concentrations of the substrate lower than 0.1 mM, Ca+2 ions were inhibitory. A broad pH activity curve between 5 and 8 was obtained with higher rates in the alkaline range, both in the absence and presence of Ca+2 ions. The increased hydrolysis of lysolecithin due to Ca+2 was noticed over the entire pH range. Upon storage of the enzyme solutions at 4 C, decreased rates of hydrolysis of lecithin were observed, with t 1/2 values of ca. 50 and 100 days depending on the purity of the preparation. During the same period, no reduction occurred in the activity of these preparations on lysolecithin as substrate. The effects of Ca+2 ions and the analysis of the products of 1-acyl GPC cleavage by the enzyme preparations revealed the presence of more than one enzyme and the formation of the following compounds: lysophosphatidic acids (1 acyl glycerophosphoric acids), free fatty acids, glycerophosphorylcholine, and choline. The possible pathways leading to the degradation of lysolecithin and the formation of these products include reactions catalyzed by lysophospholipase A1 (lysophosphatidylcholine 1-acyl hydrolase, E.C. 3.1.1.5) and a phosphodiesterase (L-3-glycerylphosphorylcholine glycerophosphohydrolase, E.C.3.1.4.2), in addition to phospholipase D (phosphatidyl-choline phosphatidohydrolase, E.C. 3.1.4.4).

  15. Vitamin C and Vitamin E in Prevention of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD in Choline Deficient Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopasso Fabio P

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. Vitamin C and vitamin E are known to react with reactive oxygen species (ROS blocking the propagation of radical reactions in a wide range of oxidative stress situations. The potential therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants in NAFLD is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of antioxidant drugs (vitamin C or vitamin E in its prevention. Methods Fatty liver disease was induced in Wistar rats by choline-deficient diet for four weeks. The rats were randomly assigned to receive vitamin E (n = 6 – (200 mg/day, vitamin C (n = 6 (30 mg/Kg/day or vehicle orally. Results In the vehicle and vitamin E-treated rats, there were moderate macro and microvesicular fatty changes in periportal area without inflammatory infiltrate or fibrosis. Scharlach stain that used for a more precise identification of fatty change was strong positive. With vitamin C, there was marked decrease in histological alterations. Essentially, there was no liver steatosis, only hepatocellular ballooning. Scharlach stain was negative. The lucigenin-enhanced luminescence was reduced with vitamin C (1080 ± 330 cpm/mg/minx103 as compared to those Vitamin E and control (2247 ± 790; 2020 ± 407 cpm/mg/minx103, respectively (p Conclusions 1 Vitamin C reduced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited the development of experimental liver steatosis induced by choline-deficient diet ; 2Vitamin E neither prevented the development of fatty liver nor reduced the oxidative stress in this model.

  16. Theta, time reversal and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, Davide [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Kapustin, Anton [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Komargodski, Zohar [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Seiberg, Nathan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-05-17

    SU(N) gauge theory is time reversal invariant at θ=0 and θ=π. We show that at θ=π there is a discrete ’t Hooft anomaly involving time reversal and the center symmetry. This anomaly leads to constraints on the vacua of the theory. It follows that at θ=π the vacuum cannot be a trivial non-degenerate gapped state. (By contrast, the vacuum at θ=0 is gapped, non-degenerate, and trivial.) Due to the anomaly, the theory admits nontrivial domain walls supporting lower-dimensional theories. Depending on the nature of the vacuum at θ=π, several phase diagrams are possible. Assuming area law for space-like loops, one arrives at an inequality involving the temperatures at which CP and the center symmetry are restored. We also analyze alternative scenarios for SU(2) gauge theory. The underlying symmetry at θ=π is the dihedral group of 8 elements. If deconfined loops are allowed, one can have two O(2)-symmetric fixed points. It may also be that the four-dimensional theory around θ=π is gapless, e.g. a Coulomb phase could match the underlying anomalies.

  17. Exercise prescription to reverse frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Nick W; Smart, Rowan R; Jakobi, Jennifer M; Jones, Gareth R

    2016-10-01

    Frailty is a clinical geriatric syndrome caused by physiological deficits across multiple systems. These deficits make it challenging to sustain homeostasis required for the demands of everyday life. Exercise is likely the best therapy to reverse frailty status. Literature to date suggests that pre-frail older adults, those with 1-2 deficits on the Cardiovascular Health Study-Frailty Phenotype (CHS-frailty phenotype), should exercise 2-3 times a week, for 45-60 min. Aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and balance training components should be incorporated but resistance and balance activities should be emphasized. On the other hand, frail (CHS-frailty phenotype ≥ 3 physical deficits) older adults should exercise 3 times per week, for 30-45 min for each session with an emphasis on aerobic training. During aerobic, balance, and flexibility training, both frail and pre-frail older adults should work at an intensity equivalent to a rating of perceived exertion of 3-4 ("somewhat hard") on the Borg CR10 scale. Resistance-training intensity should be based on a percentage of 1-repetition estimated maximum (1RM). Program onset should occur at 55% of 1RM (endurance) and progress to higher intensities of 80% of 1RM (strength) to maximize functional gains. Exercise is the medicine to reverse or mitigate frailty, preserve quality of life, and restore independent functioning in older adults at risk of frailty.

  18. Theta, time reversal and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Komargodski, Zohar; Seiberg, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    SU(N) gauge theory is time reversal invariant at θ=0 and θ=π. We show that at θ=π there is a discrete ’t Hooft anomaly involving time reversal and the center symmetry. This anomaly leads to constraints on the vacua of the theory. It follows that at θ=π the vacuum cannot be a trivial non-degenerate gapped state. (By contrast, the vacuum at θ=0 is gapped, non-degenerate, and trivial.) Due to the anomaly, the theory admits nontrivial domain walls supporting lower-dimensional theories. Depending on the nature of the vacuum at θ=π, several phase diagrams are possible. Assuming area law for space-like loops, one arrives at an inequality involving the temperatures at which CP and the center symmetry are restored. We also analyze alternative scenarios for SU(2) gauge theory. The underlying symmetry at θ=π is the dihedral group of 8 elements. If deconfined loops are allowed, one can have two O(2)-symmetric fixed points. It may also be that the four-dimensional theory around θ=π is gapless, e.g. a Coulomb phase could match the underlying anomalies.

  19. Optimized reversible binary-coded decimal adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Babu and Chowdhury [H.M.H. Babu, A.R. Chowdhury, Design of a compact reversible binary coded decimal adder circuit, Journal of Systems Architecture 52 (5) (2006) 272-282] recently proposed, in this journal, a reversible adder for binary-coded decimals. This paper corrects and optimizes...... their design. The optimized 1-decimal BCD full-adder, a 13 × 13 reversible logic circuit, is faster, and has lower circuit cost and less garbage bits. It can be used to build a fast reversible m-decimal BCD full-adder that has a delay of only m + 17 low-power reversible CMOS gates. For a 32-decimal (128-bit....... Keywords: Reversible logic circuit; Full-adder; Half-adder; Parallel adder; Binary-coded decimal; Application of reversible logic synthesis...

  20. Kinetic Line Voronoi Operations and Their Reversibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Gold, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In Geographic Information Systems the reversibility of map update operations has not been explored yet. In this paper we are using the Voronoi based Quad-edge data structure to define reversible map update operations. The reversibility of the map operations has been formalised at the lowest level...... mechanisms and dynamic map visualisations. In order to use the reversibility within the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments, we need to assure that reversing the map commands will produce exactly the changes in the map equivalent to the previous map states. To prove...... that reversing the map update operations produces the exact reverse changes, we show an isomorphism between the set of complex operations on the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments and the sets of numbers of new / deleted Voronoi regions induced by these operations, and its...

  1. Teucrium polium reversed the MCD diet-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Rahim; Yazdanparast, Razieh; Aghazadeh, Safiyeh; Ghaffari, Seyed H

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the ability of Teucrium polium ethyl acetate fraction, with high antioxidant activity, in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rats and its possible effect on factors involved in pathogenesis of the disease. To induce NASH, a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet was given to N-Mary rats for 8 weeks. After NASH development, MCD-fed rats were divided into 2 groups: NASH group that received MCD diet and NASH + T group which was fed MCD diet plus ethyl acetate fraction of T. polium orally for 3 weeks. Histopathological evaluations revealed that treatment with the extract has abated the severity of NASH among the MCD-fed rats. In addition, the fraction reduced the elevated levels of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) gene expression and also the elevated level of malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, the extract increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and enhanced the level of hepatic glutathione (GSH). Moreover, the fraction treatments lowered caspase-3 level and the phosphorylated form of C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and augmented the phosphorylated level of extracellular regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). These results indicate that the ethyl acetate fraction of T. poium effectively reversed NASH, mainly due to its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. Comparison of {sup 68}Ga-labelled PSMA-11 and {sup 11}C-choline in the detection of prostate cancer metastases by PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenck, Johannes [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Rempp, Hansjoerg; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Pfannenberg, Christina [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Reischl, Gerald [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Kruck, Stephan; Stenzl, Arnulf [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Urology, Tuebingen (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Tuebingen (Germany); German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center Partner Site, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed ubiquitously on the membrane of most prostate tumors and its metastasis. While PET/CT using {sup 11}C-choline was considered as the gold standard in the staging of prostate cancer, PET with radiolabelled PSMA ligands was introduced into the clinic in recent years. Our aim was to compare the PSMA ligand {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 with {sup 11}C-choline in patients with primary and recurrent prostate cancer. 123 patients underwent a whole-body PET/CT examination using {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 and {sup 11}C-choline. Suspicious lesions were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively (SUVavg). Out of these, 103 suffered from a confirmed biochemical relapse after prostatectomy and/or radiotherapy (mean PSA level of 4.5 ng/ml), while 20 patients underwent primary staging. In 67 patients with biochemical relapse, we detected 458 lymph nodes suspicious for metastasis. PET using {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 showed a significantly higher uptake and detection rate than {sup 11}C-choline PET. Also {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET identified significantly more patients with suspicious lymph nodes as well as affected lymph nodes regions especially at low PSA levels. Bone lesions suspicious for prostate cancer metastasis were revealed in 36 patients' biochemical relapse. Significantly more bone lesions were detected by {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11, but only 3 patients had only PSMA-positive bone lesions. Nevertheless, we detected also 29 suspicious lymph nodes and 8 bone lesions, which were only positive as per {sup 11}C-choline PET. These findings led to crucial differences in the TNM classification and the identification of oligometastatic patients. In the patients who underwent initial staging, all primary tumors showed uptake of both tracers. Although significantly more suspicious lymph nodes and bone lesions were identified, only 2 patients presented with bone lesions only detected by {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET. Thus, PET using {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 showed a higher

  3. Is There an Additional Value of 11C-Choline PET-CT to T2-weighted MRI Images in the Localization of Intraprostatic Tumor Nodules?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Laura; Koole, Michel; Isebaert, Sofie; Joniau, Steven; Deroose, Christophe M.; Oyen, Raymond; Lerut, Evelyne; Budiharto, Tom; Mottaghy, Felix; Bormans, Guy; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Haustermans, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the additional value of 11 C-choline positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) to T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for localization of intraprostatic tumor nodules. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine prostate cancer patients underwent T2w MRI and 11 C-choline PET-CT before radical prostatectomy and extended lymphadenectomy. Tumor regions were outlined on the whole-mount histopathology sections and on the T2w MR images. Tumor localization was recorded in the basal, middle, and apical part of the prostate by means of an octant grid. To analyze 11 C-choline PET-CT images, the same grid was used to calculate the standardized uptake values (SUV) per octant, after rigid registration with the T2w MR images for anatomic reference. Results: In total, 1,176 octants were analyzed. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of T2w MRI were 33.5%, 94.6%, and 70.2%, respectively. For 11 C-choline PET-CT, the mean SUV max of malignant octants was significantly higher than the mean SUV max of benign octants (3.69 ± 1.29 vs. 3.06 ± 0.97, p mean values (2.39 ± 0.77 vs. 1.94 ± 0.61, p mean and absolute tumor volume (Spearman r = 0.3003, p = 0.0362). No correlation was found between SUVs and prostate-specific antigen, T-stage or Gleason score. The highest accuracy (61.1%) was obtained with a SUV max cutoff of 2.70, resulting in a sensitivity of 77.4% and a specificity of 44.9%. When both modalities were combined (PET-CT or MRI positive), sensitivity levels increased as a function of SUV max but at the cost of specificity. When only considering suspect octants on 11 C-choline PET-CT (SUV max ≥ 2.70) and T2w MRI, 84.7% of these segments were in agreement with the gold standard, compared with 80.5% for T2w MRI alone. Conclusions: The additional value of 11 C-choline PET-CT next to T2w MRI in detecting tumor nodules within the prostate is limited.

  4. Reversal of diaschisis by zolpidem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, R.P.; Nel, H.W.; Sathekge, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Recent literature has reported on clinical improvement after zolpidem, a GABAergic anti insomnia drug, in brain injury and stroke patients. In this study, the effect of zolpidem on crossed cerebellar diaschisis was investigated in such patients. Method: Four patients with crossed cerebellar diaschisis after brain injury or stroke were investigated before and after application of 10 mg zolpidem by 99mTc HMPAO brain SPECT. Result: Apart from clinical improvements, 99mTc HMPAO brain SPECT studies showed reversal of the crossed cerebellar diaschisis and improvement of perfusion defects after zolpidem. Conclusion: 99mTc HMPAO brain SPECT may have a role to pre-select brain injury and stroke patients who will benefit clinically from zolpidem therapy. (author)

  5. Model of reverse steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malasek, V.; Manek, O.; Masek, V.; Riman, J.

    1987-01-01

    The claim of Czechoslovak discovery no. 239272 is a model designed for the verification of the properties of a reverse steam generator during the penetration of water, steam-water mixture or steam into liquid metal flowing inside the heat exchange tubes. The design may primarily be used for steam generators with a built-in inter-tube structure. The model is provided with several injection devices configured in different heat exchange tubes, spaced at different distances along the model axis. The design consists in that between the pressure and the circumferential casings there are transverse partitions and that in one chamber consisting of the circumferential casings, pressure casing and two adjoining partitions there is only one passage of the injection device through the inter-tube space. (Z.M.). 1 fig

  6. Reversible arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2010-01-01

    This communication presents the complete design of a reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. The presented ALU is garbage free and uses reversible updates to combine the standard reversible arithmetic...... and logical operations in one unit. Combined with a suitable control unit, the ALU permits the construction of an r-Turing complete computing device. The garbage-free ALU developed in this communication requires only 6n elementary reversible gates for five basic arithmetic-logical operations on two n......-bit operands and does not use ancillae. This remarkable low resource consumption was achieved by generalizing the V-shape design first introduced for quantum ripple-carry adders and nesting multiple V-shapes in a novel integrated design. This communication shows that the realization of an efficient reversible...

  7. Principles of a reversible programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The principles of reversible programming languages are explicated and illustrated with reference to the design of a high-level imperative language, Janus. The fundamental properties for such languages include backward as well as forward determinism and reversible updates of data. The unique design...... languages, and demonstrate this for Janus. We show the practicality of the language by implementation of a reversible fast Fourier transform. Our results indicate that the reversible programming paradigm has fundamental properties that are relevant to many different areas of computer science....... features of the language include explicit post-condition assertions, direct access to an inverse semantics and the possibility of clean (i.e., garbage-free) computation of injective functions. We suggest the clean simulation of reversible Turing machines as a criterion for computing strength of reversible...

  8. Securing Biometric Images using Reversible Watermarking

    OpenAIRE

    Thampi, Sabu M.; Jacob, Ann Jisma

    2011-01-01

    Biometric security is a fast growing area. Protecting biometric data is very important since it can be misused by attackers. In order to increase security of biometric data there are different methods in which watermarking is widely accepted. A more acceptable, new important development in this area is reversible watermarking in which the original image can be completely restored and the watermark can be retrieved. But reversible watermarking in biometrics is an understudied area. Reversible ...

  9. Combining or Separating Forward and Reverse Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Larsen, Samuel; Nielsen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – While forward logistics handles and manages the flow of goods downstream in the supply chain from suppliers to customers, reverse logistics (RL) manages the flow of returned goods upstream. A firm can combine reverse logistics with forward logistics, keep the flows separated, or choose......-research addresses intra-RL issues while the relationship between forward and reverse logistics is under-researched. This paper contributes to RL-theory by identifying the contextual factors that determine the most advantageous relationship between forward and reverse logistics, and proposes a novel decision making...

  10. Chronic treatment with amyloid beta(1-42) inhibits non-cholinergic high-affinity choline transport in NG108-15 cells through protein kinase C signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Jana; Mikasová, Lenka; Machová, Eva; Lisá, Věra; Doležal, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1062, č. 1-2 (2005), s. 101-110 ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011206; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:Lipidiet(XE) QLK1-CT-2002-00172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : choline transporter * beta-amyloid * protein kinase C Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.296, year: 2005

  11. Simple determination of betaine, l-carnitine and choline in human urine using self-packed column and column-switching ion chromatography with nonsuppressed conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dan; Zhu, Yan; Guo, Ming

    2018-02-01

    A sequential online extraction, clean-up and separation system for the determination of betaine, l-carnitine and choline in human urine using column-switching ion chromatography with nonsuppressed conductivity detection was developed in this work. A self-packed pretreatment column (50 × 4.6 mm, i.d.) was used for the extraction and clean-up of betaine, l-carnitine and choline. The separation was achieved using self-packed cationic exchange column (150 × 4.6 mm, i.d.), followed by nonsuppressed conductivity detection. Under optimized experimental conditions, the developed method presented good analytical performance, with excellent linearity in the range of 0.60-100 μg mL -1 for betaine, 0.75-100 μg mL -1 for l-carnitine and 0.50-100 μg mL -1 for choline, with all correlation coefficients (R 2 ) >0.99 in urine. The limits of detection were 0.15 μg mL -1 for betaine, 0.20 μg mL -1 for l-carnitine and 0.09 μg mL -1 for choline. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision for all quality controls were within ±10.32 and ±9.05%, respectively. Satisfactory recovery was observed between 92.8 and 102.0%. The validated method was successfully applied to the detection of urinary samples from 10 healthy people. The values detected in human urine using the proposed method showed good agreement with the measurement reported previously. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Determination of betaine, l-carnitine, and choline in human urine using a self-packed column and column-switching ion chromatography with nonsuppressed conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dan; Liu, Junwei; Guo, Ming; Zhu, Yan

    2017-11-01

    A simple method for the determination of betaine, l-carnitine, and choline in human urine was developed based on column-switching ion chromatography coupled with nonsuppressed conductivity detection by using a self-packed column. A pretreatment column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, id) packed with poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres was used for the extraction and cleanup of analytes. Chromatographic separation was achieved within 10 min on a cationic exchange column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, id) using maleic anhydride modified poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene) as the particles for packing. The detection was performed by ion chromatography with nonsuppressed conductivity detection. Parameters including column-switching time, eluent type, flow rates of eluent, and interfering effects were optimized. Linearity (r 2 ≥ 0.99) was obtained for the concentration range of 0.50-100, 0.75-100, and 0.25-100 μg/mL for betaine, l-carnitine, and choline, respectively. Detection limits were 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 μg/mL for betaine, l-carnitine, and choline, respectively. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision for all quality controls were within ±10.11%. Satisfactory recovery was observed between 92.5 and 105.0%. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of betaine, l-carnitine, and choline in urine samples from healthy people. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Diagnostic value of combining {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilla-Lievre, Maria-Angela [University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hopital Antoine Beclere, Clamart (France); IMIV - UMR 1023 Inserm/CEA/Universite Paris Sud - ERL 9218 CNRS, Orsay (France); Franco, Dominique [Universite Paris-Sud, Department of Surgery, Hopital Antoine Beclere, University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Clamart (France); Gervais, Philippe; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Desarnaud, Serge; Helal, Badia-Ourkia [IMIV - UMR 1023 Inserm/CEA/Universite Paris Sud - ERL 9218 CNRS, Orsay (France); CEA, DSV, I2BM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Agostini, Helene [University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Clinical Research Unit of Hopitaux universitaires Paris-Sud, Hopital Kremlin Bicetre (France); Marthey, Lysiane [Universite Paris-Sud, Department of Gastroenterology, Hopital Antoine Beclere, University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Clamart (France)

    2016-05-15

    In this prospective study, our goal was to emphasize the diagnostic value of combining {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease. Thirty-three consecutive patients were enrolled. All patients were suspected to have HCC based on CT and/or MRI imaging. A final diagnosis was obtained by histopathological examination or by imaging alone according to American Association for the Study of Liver Disease criteria. All patients underwent PET/CT with both tracers within a median of 5 days. All lesions showing higher tracer uptake than normal liver were considered positive for HCC. We examined how tracer uptake was related to biological (serum α-fetoprotein levels) and pathological (differentiation status, peritumoral capsule and vascular invasion) prognostic markers of HCC, as well as clinical observations at 6 months (recurrence and death). Twenty-eight HCC, four cholangiocarcinomas and one adenoma were diagnosed. In the HCC patients, the sensitivity of {sup 11}C-choline, {sup 18}F-FDG and combined {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of HCC was 75 %, 36 % and 93 %, respectively. Serum α-fetoprotein levels >200 ng/ml were more frequent among patients with {sup 18}F-FDG-positive lesions than those with {sup 18}F-FDG-negative lesions (p < 0.05). Early recurrence (n=2) or early death (n=5) occurred more frequently in patients with {sup 18}F-FDG-positive lesions than in those with {sup 18}F-FDG-negative lesions (p < 0.05). The combined use of {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT detected HCC with high sensitivity. This approach appears to be of potential prognostic value and may facilitate the selection of patients for surgical resection or liver transplantation. (orig.)

  14. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan N; Howe, Caitlin G; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-05-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24-55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Choline decreased in the placebo group (-6.6%; 95% CI: -10.2%, -2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: -0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: -2.5%, 5.5%; P creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Therapeutic Efficacy of Fenugreek Extract or/and Choline with Docosahexaenoic Acid in Attenuating Learning and Memory Deficits in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu K

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated that estradiol influences cognitive functions. Phytoestrogens and many other estrogen-like compounds in plants have beneficial effects on cognitive performance in postmenopausal women. However, there is no evident report of fenugreek and choline-Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA on cognition in ovariectomized rats. Aim and Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of fenugreek extract or/and choline- DHA in attenuating ovariectomy-induced memory impairment, brain antioxidant status and hippocampal neural cell deficits in the rat model. Material and Methods: Female Wistar 9-10 months old rats were grouped (n=12/group as - (1 Normal Control (NC, (2 Ovariectomized (OVX, (3 OVX+FG (hydroalcoholic seed extract of fenugreek, (4 OVX+C-DHA,(5 OVX+FG+C-DHA and (6 OVX+Estradiol. Groups 2- 6 were bilaterally OVX. FG, C-DHA was supplemented orally for 30 days, 14 days after ovariectomy. Assessment of learning and memory was performed by passive avoidance test. Oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were assessed by standard methods. Nissl stained hippocampal sections were analyzed to determine alterations in neural cell numbers in CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus. Results: Supplementation of FG or/and choline with DHA to OVX rats, caused significant improvement in learning and memory as well as decreased neural cell deficits compared to the same in OVX rats. Further, significantly reduced levels of brain Malondialdehyde (MDA and increased levels of Glutathione (GSH were observed. Conclusion: Therapeutic supplementation of FG with choline-DHA significantly attenuates ovariectomy-induced neurocognitive deficits in rats.

  16. Comparison between the efficacies of curcumin and puerarin in C57BL/6 mice with steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, YUNLIANG; LI, JIAN; ZHUGE, LI; SU, DONGMEI; YANG, MEIJUAN; TAO, SHIYING; LI, JUNXIANG

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent disease, which features an abnormal accumulation of lipids inside hepatocytes. Steatohepatitis plays a critical role in the process resulting in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Curcumin and puerarin are herbal products widely used in Asia, which are believed to have therapeutic benefits for alleviating the symptoms of steatohepatitis. In this study, mice models of steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) w...

  17. New Acquisition Protocol of 18F-Choline PET/CT in Prostate Cancer Patients: Review of the Literature about Methodology and Proposal of Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Chondrogiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. (1 To evaluate a new acquisition protocol of 18F-choline (FCH PET/CT for prostate cancer patients (PC, (2 to review acquisition 18F-choline PET/CT methodology, and (3 to propose a standardized acquisition protocol on FCH PET/CT in PC patients. Materials. 100 consecutive PC patients (mean age 70.5 years, mean PSA 21.35 ng/mL were prospectively evaluated. New protocol consisted of an early scan of the pelvis immediately after the injection of the tracer (1 bed position of 4 min followed by a whole body scan at one 1 hour. Early and 1 hour images were compared for interfering activity and pathologic findings. Results. The overall detection rate of FCH PET/CT was 64%. The early static images of the pelvis showed absence of radioactive urine in ureters, bladder, or urethra which allowed a clean evaluation of the prostatic fossae. Uptake in the prostatic region was better visualized in the early phase in 26% (7/30 of cases. Other pelvic pathologic findings (bone and lymph nodes were visualized in both early and late images. Conclusion. Early 18F-choline images improve visualization of abnormal uptake in prostate fossae. All pathologic pelvic deposits (prostate, lymph nodes, and bone were visualized in both early and late images.

  18. Effects of ginsenoside of stem and leaf combined with choline on learning and memory ability of rat models with Alzheimer diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Zhao; Xianglin Xie; Zuoli Xia; Yunsheng Gao; Yuyun Zhu; Hongxia Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central adrenergic nerve and 5-serotonergic nerve can influence central cholinergic nerve on learning and memory and make easy for study; however, ginsenoside of stem and leaf (GSL) can improve functions of central adrenergic nerve; moreover, 5-serotonergic nerve and the combination with choline can produce synergistic effect and enhance learning and memory ability so as to improve learning and memory disorder of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD).OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of GSL combining with choline on learning and memory of AD model rats.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design and controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Pharmacology, Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Pharmacological Department of Medical College of Jilin University from October 1996 to January 1997. Forty healthy male Wistar rats of clean grade were randomly divided into 5 groups, including sham-injury group, model group, GSL group, choline group and combination group, with 8 rats in each group. Main medications: GSL with the volume more than 92.8% was provided by Department of Chemistry, Norman Bethune Medical College of Jilin University. Panaxatriol, the main component, was detected with thin layer scanning technique and regarded as the index of GSL quality [(55±1)%, CV= 2%, n= 5]. Choline was provided by the Third Shanghai Laboratory Factory.METHODS: 150 nmol quinolinic acid was used to damage bilateral Meynert basal nuclei of adult rats so as to establish AD models. Rats in GSL, choline and combination groups were intragastric administrated with 400 mg/kg GSL, 200 mg/kg choline (20 mL/kg), and both respectively last for 17 days starting from two days 400 mg/kg GSL, 200 mg/kg choline (20 mL/kg), and both respectively last for 17 days starting from two days before operation. Rats in sham-injury group and model group were perfused with the same volume of distilled jumped up safe platform when they were shocked with 36 V

  19. Incorporation of radioactive labelled cholin and palmitate into lung lecithin of rabbits treated with high doses of bromcarbamides, barbiturates and diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichert, P. von; Schmidt, C.; Pomraenke, K.; Wiegers, U.

    1977-01-01

    Severe intoxications with bromcarbamides often show respiratory complications. To answer the question if there is a direct effect of the drug on lung tissue the incorporation of radioactive labelled choline and palmitate into lung lecithin was investigated. The phospholipid metabolism is in close relation to the surfactant system of the lung. Secondly the influence of bromcarbamides was compared with other hypnotic drugs. There was a reduction of palmitate incorporation into lung lecithin down to 40%, whereas the incorporation of choline increases in bromcarbamide intoxication. The relation between palmitate and choline incorporation was 6.77 in the controls and it decreases to 2-3 in the bromcarbamide group. The total phospholipid content in the lung/g wet weight remained unchanged in all experiments. From this data it is concluded, that these drugs cause a reduction of fatty acid exchange of the lecithin molecules of the lung. This might lead to the production of non surface active lecithin. The clinical and the morphological aspects of severe bromcarbamide intoxication are consistent with a perturbation of the surfactant function. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Prospective Comparison of F-18 Choline PET/CT Scan Versus Axial MRI for Detecting Bone Metastasis in Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Huysse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared fluor-18 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT and axial skeleton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI prospectively obtained for the detection of bone metastases in non-castrated patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer following primary treatment. PET/CT was performed 45 min post-injection of 3–4 MBq/kg F-18 methyl choline. MRI included T1- and fluid sensitive T2-weighted images of the spine and pelvis. Readers were initially blinded from other results and all scans underwent independent double reading. The best valuable comparator (BVC defined the metastatic status. On the basis of the BVC, 15 out of 64 patients presented with 24 bone metastases. On a patient level, the sensitivity and specificity of MRI and PET were not significantly different. On a lesion level, the sensitivity of MRI was significantly better compared to PET, and the specificity did not differ significantly. In conclusion, axial MRI is an interesting screening tool for the detection of bone metastases because of its low probability of false negative results. However, F-18 choline PET is a valuable addition as it can overrule false positive MRI results and detect non-axial metastases.

  1. Magnetic graphene oxide modified with choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvent for the solid-phase extraction of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanhua; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Pan, Qi; Wang, Ying; Ding, Xueqin; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-06-02

    Highlights: • A strategy for extraction of protein based on DES-coated magnetic graphene oxide. • The deep eutectic solvents were based on choline chloride. • Bovine serum albumin was used as the analyte. • The material prepared works for the acidic but not the basic or the neutral proteins. - Abstract: Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) have been synthesized and coated on the surface of magnetic graphene oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO) to form Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein. X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES, and the results indicated the successful preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES. The UV–vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of protein after extraction. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction amount was influenced by the types of DESs, solution temperature, solution ionic strength, extraction time, protein concentration and the amount of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES. Comparison of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES was carried out by extracting bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme. The experimental results showed that the proposed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES performs better than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO in the extraction of acidic protein. Desorption of protein was carried out by eluting the solid extractant with 0.005 mol L{sup −1} Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} contained 1 mol L{sup −1} NaCl. The obtained elution efficiency was about 90.9%. Attributed to the convenient magnetic separation, the solid extractant could be easily recycled.

  2. Time reversal and the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupp, T. E.; Cooper, R. L.; Coulter, K. P.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Jones, G. L.; Garcia, A.; Mumm, H. P.; Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K.; Trull, C.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the triple correlation D n >/J n ·(β e x p-hat ν ) with a polarized cold-neutron beam (Mumm et al., Phys Rev Lett 107:102301, 2011; Chupp et al., Phys Rev C 86:035505, 2012). A non-zero value of D can arise due to parity-even-time-reversal-odd interactions that imply CP violation. Final-state effects also contribute to D at the level of 10  − 5 and can be calculated with precision of 1 % or better. The D coefficient is uniquely sensitive to the imaginary part of the ratio of axial-vector and vector beta-decay amplitudes as well as to scalar and tensor interactions that could arise due to beyond-Standard-Model physics. Over 300 million proton-electron coincidence events were used in a blind analysis with the result D = [ − 0.94±1.89 (stat)±0.97(sys)]×10  − 4 . Assuming only vector and axial vector interactions in beta decay, our result can be interpreted as a measure of the phase of the axial-vector coupling relative to the vector coupling, φ AV = 180.012 ° ± 0.028 °. This result also improves constrains on certain non-VA interactions.

  3. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors as microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewi, Paul; Heeres, Jan; Ariën, Kevin; Venkatraj, Muthusamy; Joossens, Jurgen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Augustyns, Koen; Vanham, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The CAPRISA 004 study in South Africa has accelerated the development of vaginal and rectal microbicides containing antiretrovirals that target specific enzymes in the reproduction cycle of HIV, especially reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI). In this review we discuss the potential relevance of HIV-1 RTIs as microbicides, focusing in the nucleotide RTI tenofovir and six classes of nonnucleoside RTIs (including dapivirine, UC781, urea and thiourea PETTs, DABOs and a pyrimidinedione). Although tenofovir and dapivirine appear to be most advanced in clinical trials as potential microbicides, several issues remain unresolved, e.g., the importance of nonhuman primates as a "gatekeeper" for clinical trials, the emergence and spread of drug-resistant mutants, the combination of microbicides that target different phases of viral reproduction and the accessibility to microbicides in low-income countries. Thus, here we discuss the latest research on RTI as microbicides in the light of the continuing spread of the HIV pandemic from the point of view of medicinal chemistry, virological, and pharmaceutical studies.

  4. Reversible hypothyroidism and Whipple's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Huy A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major cause of primary hypothyroidism is autoimmune mediated with progressive and permanent destruction of the thyroid gland resulting in life-long replacement therapy. Treatable and reversible hypothyroidism is unusual and here forth is such a case due to infection of the thyroid gland with Tropheryma whippleii, Whipple disease. Case presentation A 45 year-old female presented with symptoms and signs consistent with primary hypothyroidism, which was also confirmed biochemically. Her response to thyroxine replacement therapy was poor however, requiring a significantly elevated amount. Further investigation revealed the presence of Whipple's disease involving the gastrointestinal trace and possibly the thyroid gland. Her thyroxine requirement decreased drastically following appropriate antimicrobial therapy for Whipple's disease to the extent that it was ceased. Thyrotropin releasing hormone testing in the steady state suggested there was diminished thyroid reserve due to Whipple's disease. Conclusion This is the first ante-mortem case report studying the possible involvement of the thyroid gland by Whipple's disease. Despite the normalization of her thyroid function test biochemically after antibiotic therapy, there is diminished thyroid reserve thus requiring close and regular monitoring.

  5. Time reversal and the neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chupp, T. E., E-mail: chupp@umich.edu; Cooper, R. L.; Coulter, K. P. [Univeristy of Michigan (United States); Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K. [University of California and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States); Jones, G. L. [Hamilton College (United States); Garcia, A. [University of Washington (United States); Mumm, H. P.; Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States); Trull, C.; Wietfeldt, F. E. [Tulane University (United States); Wilkerson, J. F. [University of North Carolina (United States); Collaboration: emiT II Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    We have measured the triple correlation D/J{sub n}{center_dot}({beta}{sub e} x p-hat{sub {nu}}) with a polarized cold-neutron beam (Mumm et al., Phys Rev Lett 107:102301, 2011; Chupp et al., Phys Rev C 86:035505, 2012). A non-zero value of D can arise due to parity-even-time-reversal-odd interactions that imply CP violation. Final-state effects also contribute to D at the level of 10{sup - 5} and can be calculated with precision of 1 % or better. The D coefficient is uniquely sensitive to the imaginary part of the ratio of axial-vector and vector beta-decay amplitudes as well as to scalar and tensor interactions that could arise due to beyond-Standard-Model physics. Over 300 million proton-electron coincidence events were used in a blind analysis with the result D = [ - 0.94{+-}1.89 (stat){+-}0.97(sys)] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup - 4}. Assuming only vector and axial vector interactions in beta decay, our result can be interpreted as a measure of the phase of the axial-vector coupling relative to the vector coupling, {phi}{sub AV} = 180.012 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.028 Degree-Sign . This result also improves constrains on certain non-VA interactions.

  6. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  7. Online Reverse Auctions for Procurement of Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnline reverse auctions, in which a buyer seeks to select a supplier and suppliers compete for contracts by bidding online, revolutionized corporate procurement early this century. Shortly after they had been pioneered by General Electric, many companies rushed to adopt reverse auctions

  8. Vibrational dynamics of ice in reverse micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, A.M.; Petersen, C.; Woutersen, S.; Bakker, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    he ultrafast vibrational dynamics of HDO:D2O ice at 180 K in anionic reverse micelles is studied by midinfrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Solutions containing reverse micelles are cooled to low temperatures by a fast-freezing procedure. The heating dynamics of the micellar solutions is

  9. Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum

  10. Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheyko, Andrey; Finlay, Christopher C; Jackson, Andrew

    2016-11-24

    A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes place in Earth's core, but the precise mechanism is debated. The majority of numerical geodynamo simulations that exhibit reversals operate in a regime in which the viscosity of the fluid remains important, and in which the dynamo mechanism primarily involves stretching and twisting of field lines by columnar convection. Here we present an example of another class of reversing-geodynamo model, which operates in a regime of comparatively low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity. This class does not fit into the paradigm of reversal regimes that are dictated by the value of the local Rossby number (the ratio of advection to Coriolis force). Instead, stretching of the magnetic field by a strong shear in the east-west flow near the imaginary cylinder just touching the inner core and parallel to the axis of rotation is crucial to the reversal mechanism in our models, which involves a process akin to kinematic dynamo waves. Because our results are relevant in a regime of low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity, and with geophysically appropriate boundary conditions, this form of dynamo wave may also be involved in geomagnetic reversals.

  11. Reverse engineering of the robot base platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar A Rahman; Azizul Rahman A Aziz; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Muhd Nor Atan; Fadil Ismail; Rosli Darmawan

    2009-01-01

    The robot base platform used to place the robotic arm version 2 was imported through a local company. The robot base platform is used as a reference for reverse egineering development for a smaller size robot. The paper will discuss the reverse engineering design process and parameters involved in the development of the robot base platform. (Author)

  12. Reverse logistics: A review of case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito, de M.P.; Dekker, Rommert; Flapper, S.D.P.; Fleischmann, B.; Klose, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of scientific literature that describes and discusses cases of reverse logistics activities in practice. Over sixty case studies are considered. Based on these studies we are able to indicate critical factors for the practice of reverse logistics. In addition we compare

  13. Reversal of laryngotracheal separation in paediatric patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Laryngotracheal separation (LTS) is an effective and reliable definitive treatment for intractable aspiration. A major advantage of this treatment for intractable aspiration is its\\' potential reversibility. Should the underlying disorder improve, a reversal of the procedure may be attempted. This has been successfully achieved in the adult population. To our knowledge, no previous cases have been reported of successful reversal of LTS in children. METHODS: A retrospective review from 2003 to 2010 identified four cases of intractable aspiration treated with LTS in our department. Two of these patients displayed objective evidence of sufficient recovery of their underlying aspiration to consider reversal. Patient selection for reversal was dependent upon successful oral intake for 9 months along with videofluoroscopic evidence of normal or minimally impaired swallow. RESULTS: Two children who were successfully treated for intractable aspiration with LTS demonstrated objective evidence of recovery sufficient to attempt reversal. Both children underwent successful surgical reversal of LTS using a cricotracheal resection with end-to-end anastamosis, similar to that used in treatment of subglottic stenosis. Both children can now tolerate oral diet and their speech and language development is in line with their overall developmental level. CONCLUSIONS: Laryngotracheal separation is an effective and reliable definitive treatment for intractable aspiration facilitating protection of the airway and allowing safe swallowing with unimpeded respiration, but with the major drawback of loss of phonation. To our knowledge, we document the first two cases of successful LTS reversal in children.

  14. Observation of the reversed current effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, I.R.; Silawatshananai, C.

    1979-05-01

    The paper describes an observation of the reversed current effect, and its consequences, in a 'stabilized' Z-pinch. Magnetic probe measurements and holographic interferometry were used to follow the development of a reversed current layer and to pinpoint its location in the outer region of the pinched plasma column. The subsequent ejection of the outer plasma layer was observed using fast photography

  15. Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheyko, Andrey; Finlay, Chris; Jackson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes ...... to kinematic dynamo waves. Because our results are relevant in a regime of low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity, and with geophysically appropriate boundary conditions, this form of dynamo wave may also be involved in geomagnetic reversals.......A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes...... place in Earth's core, but the precise mechanism is debated. The majority of numerical geodynamo simulations that exhibit reversals operate in a regime in which the viscosity of the fluid remains important, and in which the dynamo mechanism primarily involves stretching and twisting of field lines...

  16. Kronisk ileus efter iatrogen reversering af tyndtarmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mark Ellebaek; Rahr, Hans B; Mahdi, Bassam

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of inadvertent reversal of the entire small intestine leading to severe complications and long-standing ileus. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and laparotomy. The patient was cured by surgical re-reversal of the bowel. Care should be taken to ma...... the bowel ends when multiple simultaneous bowel resections are performed....

  17. Probabilistic Reversible Automata and Quantum Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Golovkins, Marats; Kravtsev, Maksim

    2002-01-01

    To study relationship between quantum finite automata and probabilistic finite automata, we introduce a notion of probabilistic reversible automata (PRA, or doubly stochastic automata). We find that there is a strong relationship between different possible models of PRA and corresponding models of quantum finite automata. We also propose a classification of reversible finite 1-way automata.

  18. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2018-01-01

    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  19. Parkinson’s disease managing reversible neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Cole, Ted; McDougall, Beth; Westaway, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptom course has been classified as an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease. This paper documents 29 PD and treatment-induced systemic depletion etiologies which cause and/or exacerbate the seven novel primary relative nutritional deficiencies associated with PD. These reversible relative nutritional deficiencies (RNDs) may facilitate and accelerate irreversible progressive neurodegeneration, while other reversible RNDs may induce previously undocumented reversible pseudo-neurodegeneration that is hiding in plain sight since the symptoms are identical to the symptoms being experienced by the PD patient. Documented herein is a novel nutritional approach for reversible processes management which may slow or halt irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease and correct reversible RNDs whose symptoms are identical to the patient’s PD symptoms. PMID:27103805

  20. Estimation and uncertainty of reversible Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Wu, Hao; Paul, Fabian; Noé, Frank

    2015-11-07

    Reversibility is a key concept in Markov models and master-equation models of molecular kinetics. The analysis and interpretation of the transition matrix encoding the kinetic properties of the model rely heavily on the reversibility property. The estimation of a reversible transition matrix from simulation data is, therefore, crucial to the successful application of the previously developed theory. In this work, we discuss methods for the maximum likelihood estimation of transition matrices from finite simulation data and present a new algorithm for the estimation if reversibility with respect to a given stationary vector is desired. We also develop new methods for the Bayesian posterior inference of reversible transition matrices with and without given stationary vector taking into account the need for a suitable prior distribution preserving the meta-stable features of the observed process during posterior inference. All algorithms here are implemented in the PyEMMA software--http://pyemma.org--as of version 2.0.