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Sample records for choline peak integral

  1. Low-Q peak in X-ray patterns of choline-phenylalanine and -homophenylalanine: A combined effect of chain and stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campetella, Marco; Martino, Delia Chillura; Scarpellini, Eleonora; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    In this contribution we report for the first time the X-ray patterns of choline-phenylalanine and choline-homophenylalanine ionic liquids. The presence of a low Q peak in both systems is another evidence that a long alkyl chain is not always needed to establish a nanodomain segregation in the liquid sufficient to be revealed by the diffraction experiment. These new data are compared with the diffraction patterns and the theoretical calculations of other choline-aminoacid ionic liquids recently reported. A significant role might be played by the stacking interactions between aromatic rings.

  2. Explanation of the surface peak in charge integrated LEIS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxler, M.; Beikler, R.; Taglauer, E.; Schmid, K.; Gruber, R.; Ermolov, S.N.; Bauer, P. E-mail: bauer@exphys.uni-linz.ac.at

    2003-04-01

    Low energy ion scattering is very surface sensitive if scattered ions are analyzed. By time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, also neutral and charge integrated spectra (ions plus neutrals) can be obtained, which yield information about deeper layers. In the literature, the observation of a more or less pronounced surface peak was reported for charge integrated spectra, the intensity of the surface peak being higher at low energies and for heavy projectiles. Aiming at a more profound physical understanding of this surface peak, we performed TOF-experiments and computer simulations for He projectiles and a copper target. Experiments were done in the range 1-9 keV for a scattering angle of 129 deg. . The simulation was performed using the MARLOWE code for the given experimental parameters and a polycrystalline target. At low energies, a pronounced surface peak was observed, which fades away at higher energies. This peak is quantitatively reproduced by the simulation, and corresponds to scattering from {approx}2 atomic layers. Analyzing the contributions of the individual outermost atomic layers, one finds that the surface peak is due to binary collisions of projectiles with atoms in the first and second layer, while the contribution from deeper layers is dominated by multiple scattering.

  3. Explanation of the surface peak in charge integrated LEIS spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Draxler, M; Taglauer, E; Schmid, K; Gruber, R; Ermolov, S N; Bauer, P

    2003-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering is very surface sensitive if scattered ions are analyzed. By time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, also neutral and charge integrated spectra (ions plus neutrals) can be obtained, which yield information about deeper layers. In the literature, the observation of a more or less pronounced surface peak was reported for charge integrated spectra, the intensity of the surface peak being higher at low energies and for heavy projectiles. Aiming at a more profound physical understanding of this surface peak, we performed TOF-experiments and computer simulations for He projectiles and a copper target. Experiments were done in the range 1-9 keV for a scattering angle of 129 deg. . The simulation was performed using the MARLOWE code for the given experimental parameters and a polycrystalline target. At low energies, a pronounced surface peak was observed, which fades away at higher energies. This peak is quantitatively reproduced by the simulation, and corresponds to scattering from approx 2 atomic...

  4. Proton (1H) MR spectroscopy of the breast at 3.0T. Detectability of the choline peak of breast cancer in comparison with a 1.5T imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1H-MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the breast demonstrated that choline could be detected in breast cancers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detectability of the choline peak (Tcho) in breast cancer using a 3.0T imager. A total of 52 female patients who underwent MR imaging were evaluated. Localization methods included the single-voxel system (SVS) and point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS), with acquisition times of approximately 5 minutes. Correlations among tumor size, histological type, and the presence of Tcho were evaluated. Of 52 breast lesions that were pathologically diagnosed, 50 were malignant [45 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), five ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS)] and 2 were benign. The presence of Tcho was evaluated in 50 cases. The average diameter of malignant tumors was 2.2 cm and that of benign tumors was 1.9 cm. Tcho was identified in 24 of 48 breast cancers (sensitivity 50%, specificity 100%). There was a significant difference between the identification in tumors according to tumor size. Tcho was identified in 76.9% of IDC cases with a diameter greater than the voxel size (1.5 cm), while it was identified in only 17.6% of tumors less than 1.5 cm in size. Tcho was identified in approximately 77% of breast cancer tumors overall with a diameter greater than the voxel size. The result was comparable with the detectability at 1.5T, although the acquisition times at 3.0T were much shorter than at 1.5T. The advantages at 3.0T include the ability to investigate smaller lesions within a shorter time frame. (author)

  5. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

  6. Caffeine potentiates the enhancement by choline of striatal acetylcholine release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. A.; Ulus, I. H.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of peripherally administered caffeine (50 mg/kg), choline (30, 60, or 120 mg/kg) or combinations of both drugs on the spontaneous release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the corpus striatum of anesthetized rats using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine alone or choline in the 30 or 60 mg/kg dose failed to increase ACh in microdialysis samples; the 120 mg/kg choline dose significantly enhanced ACh during the 80 min following drug administration. Coadministration of caffeine with choline significantly increased ACh release after each of the choline doses tested. Peak microdialysate levels with the 120 mg/kg dose were increased 112% when caffeine was additionally administered, as compared with 54% without caffeine. These results indicate that choline administration can enhance spontaneous ACh release from neurons, and that caffeine, a drug known to block adenosine receptors on these neurons, can amplify the choline effect.

  7. An integrated approach for automating validation of extracted ion chromatographic peaks

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, William D.; Viele, Kert; Lynn, Bert C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Accurate determination of extracted ion chromatographic peak areas in isotope-labeled quantitative proteomics is difficult to automate. Manual validation of identified peaks is typically required. We have integrated a peak confidence scoring algorithm into existing tools which are compatible with analysis pipelines based on the standards from the Institute for Systems Biology. This algorithm automatically excludes incorrectly identified peaks, improving the accuracy of the final prot...

  8. PINT: a software for integration of peak volumes and extraction of relaxation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlner, Alexandra; Carlsson, Mats; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald; Lundstroem, Patrik, E-mail: patlu@ifm.liu.se [Linkoeping University, Division of Molecular Biotechnology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    We present the software Peak INTegration (PINT), designed to perform integration of peaks in NMR spectra. The program is very simple to run, yet powerful enough to handle complicated spectra. Peaks are integrated by fitting predefined line shapes to experimental data and the fitting can be customized to deal with, for instance, heavily overlapped peaks. The results can be inspected visually, which facilitates systematic optimization of the line shape fitting. Finally, integrated peak volumes can be used to extract parameters such as relaxation rates and information about low populated states. The utility of PINT is demonstrated by applications to the 59 residue SH3 domain of the yeast protein Abp1p and the 289 residue kinase domain of murine EphB2.

  9. PINT: a software for integration of peak volumes and extraction of relaxation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the software Peak INTegration (PINT), designed to perform integration of peaks in NMR spectra. The program is very simple to run, yet powerful enough to handle complicated spectra. Peaks are integrated by fitting predefined line shapes to experimental data and the fitting can be customized to deal with, for instance, heavily overlapped peaks. The results can be inspected visually, which facilitates systematic optimization of the line shape fitting. Finally, integrated peak volumes can be used to extract parameters such as relaxation rates and information about low populated states. The utility of PINT is demonstrated by applications to the 59 residue SH3 domain of the yeast protein Abp1p and the 289 residue kinase domain of murine EphB2

  10. Effects of Choline Chloride on Performance and Serum Biochemical Indexes of White Leghorn Breeding Hens in Late of Peak Production%氯化胆碱对白来航蛋种鸡产蛋高峰后期生产性能和血清生化指标影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严华祥; 徐志刚; 袁超; 邹晓庭

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of choline chloride on performance and serum biochemi-cal indexes of white Leghorn breeding hens in late of peak production. A total of 240 white Leghorn breeding hens,48-week-old,were randomly divided into 4 groups with 5 replicates in each group and 12 breeding hens in each replicate. Hens in the four groups were fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with 450,750, 1 050 and 1 650 mg/kg choline chloride,respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 weeks. The research showed as follows:1)no significant difference of laying rate was found among all groups( P>0.05),and the livability of the 450 mg/kg choline chloride group was the lowest,which had a significant difference from oth-er groups( P0.05). Yolk color of the 750 mg/kg choline chloride group was the highest. Choline chloride added level could not improve the ability of storing eggs( P>0.05). 3)The 750 mg/kg choline chlo-ride group had the highest fertile hatchability than other groups( P<0.05). 4)The 750 mg/kg choline chloride group had the highest serum albumin content than other groups( P<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen,urea acid and triglyceride contents of the 750 mg/kg choline chloride group were significantly lower than those of the 450 mg/kg choline chloride group( P<0.05). The research implies that the appropriate choline chloride added level(750 mg/kg)can improve the livability and fertile egg hatchability,reduce serum urea nitrogen,urea acid and triglyceride contents of breeding hens in late of peak production.%本研究旨在评估饲粮氯化胆碱对白来航蛋种鸡生产性能和血清生化指标的影响。选取240只48周龄白来航蛋种鸡,随机分成4组,每组5个重复,每个重复12只蛋种鸡。饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮,氯化胆碱添加水平分别是450、750、1050和1650 mg/kg,试验期13周。结果表明:1)各组蛋种鸡产蛋率差异不显著( P>0.05),450 mg/kg氯化胆碱组蛋种鸡成活率

  11. Dose-escalation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer - evaluation of quality of life with and without 18F-choline PET-CT detected simultaneous integrated boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparison to the conventional whole-prostate dose escalation, an integrated boost to the macroscopic malignant lesion might potentially improve tumor control rates without increasing toxicity. Quality of life after radiotherapy (RT) with vs. without 18F-choline PET-CT detected simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was prospectively evaluated in this study. Whole body image acquisition in supine patient position followed 1 h after injection of 178-355MBq 18F-choline. SIB was defined by a tumor-to-background uptake value ratio > 2 (GTVPET). A dose of 76Gy was prescribed to the prostate (PTVprostate) in 2Gy fractions, with or without SIB up to 80Gy. Patients treated with (n = 46) vs. without (n = 21) SIB were surveyed prospectively before (A), at the last day of RT (B) and a median time of two (C) and 19 month (D) after RT to compare QoL changes applying a validated questionnaire (EPIC - expanded prostate cancer index composite). With a median cut-off standard uptake value (SUV) of 3, a median GTVPET of 4.0 cm3 and PTVboost (GTVPET with margins) of 17.3 cm3 was defined. No significant differences were found for patients treated with vs. without SIB regarding urinary and bowel QoL changes at times B, C and D (mean differences ≤3 points for all comparisons). Significantly decreasing acute urinary and bowel score changes (mean changes > 5 points in comparison to baseline level at time A) were found for patients with and without SIB. However, long-term urinary and bowel QoL (time D) did not differ relative to baseline levels - with mean urinary and bowel function score changes < 3 points in both groups (median changes = 0 points). Only sexual function scores decreased significantly (> 5 points) at time D. Treatment planning with 18F-choline PET-CT allows a dose escalation to a macroscopic intraprostatic lesion without significantly increasing toxicity

  12. Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying

    The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than

  13. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  14. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  15. Analysis of factors influencing the integrated bolus peak timing in contrast-enhanced brain computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong [Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Baekseok Culture University College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Young [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jung Soo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing integrated bolus peak timing in contrast- enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and to determine a method of calculating personal peak time. The optimal time was calculated by performing multiple linear regression analysis, after finding the influence factors through correlation analysis between integrated peak time of contrast medium and personal measured value by monitoring CTA scans. The radiation exposure dose in CTA was 716.53 mGy·cm and the radiation exposure dose in monitoring scan was 15.52 mGy (2 - 34 mGy). The results were statistically significant (p < .01). Regression analysis revealed, a -0.160 times decrease with a one-step increase in heart rate in male, and -0.004, -0.174, and 0.006 times decrease with one-step in DBP, heart rate, and blood sugar, respectively, in female. In a consistency test of peak time by calculating measured peak time and peak time by using the regression equation, the consistency was determined to be very high for male and female. This study could prevent unnecessary dose exposure by encouraging in clinic calculation of personal integrated peak time of contrast medium prior to examination.

  16. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.;

    2012-01-01

    plasma samples were extracted to analyze the content of free choline and betaine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma choline was only increased in mink kits fed the highest level of choline whereas plasma choline dit not change in full-grown mink irrespectively of choline level in the feed....... Plasma betaine increased when the level of choline in the diet increased. The changes in plasma betaine were most prominent in mink kits. The present study shows that plasma betaine may be a more reliable marker of choline status than plasma choline, especially in mink kits....

  17. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de result

  18. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting approximately equimolecular quantities of ferric hydroxide, choline,...

  19. Choline metabolism-based molecular diagnosis of cancer: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Glunde, Kristine; Penet, Marie-France; Jiang, Lu; Jacobs, Michael A.; Zaver M Bhujwalla

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal choline metabolism continues to be identified in multiple cancers. Molecular causes of abnormal choline metabolism are changes in choline kinase-α, ethanolamine kinase-α, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and -D and glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterases, as well as several choline transporters. The net outcome of these enzymatic changes is an increase in phosphocholine and total choline (tCho) and, in some cancers, a relative decrease of glycerophosphocholine. The incre...

  20. Does litomosoides sigmodontis synthesize dimethylethanolamine from choline?

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, K.M.; Babayan, S.; Allen, J. E.; Harnett, W

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile female Litomosoides sigmodontis secrete a protein (Juv-p120) highly modified with dimethylethanolamine (DMAE). In an attempt to establish the source of this decoration worms were pulsed with [3H]-choline and [3H]-ethanolamine and the radio-isotope labelled products analysed. Both isotope labels were successfully taken up by the worms, as demonstrated by labelling of phospholipids with [3H]-choline, being predominantly incorporated into phosphatidylcholine and [3H]-ethanolamine into p...

  1. Does Litomosoides sigmodontis synthesize dimethylethanolamine from choline?

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, K.M.; Babayan, S. A.; Allen, J. E.; Harnett, W; Allen, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile female Litomosoides sigmodontis secrete a protein (Juv-p120) highly modified with dimethylethanolamine (DMAE). In an attempt to establish the source of this decoration worms were pulsed with [3H]-choline and [3H]-ethanolamine and the radio-isotope labelled products analysed. Both isotope labels were successfully taken up by the worms, as demonstrated by labelling of phospholipids with [3H]-choline, being predominantly incorporated into phosphatidylcholine and [3H]-ethanolamine into p...

  2. Yeast mutants auxotrophic for choline or ethanolamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, K D; Jensen, B.; Kolat, A I; Storm, E M; Henry, S. A.; Fogel, S

    1980-01-01

    Three mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which require exogenous ethanolamine or choline were isolated. The mutants map to a single locus (cho1) on chromosome V. The lipid composition suggests that cho1 mutants do not synthesize phosphatidylserine under any growth conditions. If phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine, which are usually derived from phosphatidylserine, were synthesized from exogenous ethanolamine or choline, the mutants grew and divided relatively normally....

  3. Quantification of choline concentration following liver cell apoptosis using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Wei Shen; Zhen Cao; Ke-Zeng You; Zhong-Xian Yang; Ye-Yu Xiao; Xiao-Fang Cheng; Yao-Wen Chen

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the feasibility of quantifying liver choline concentrations in both normal and apoptotic rabbit livers in vivo,using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS).METHODS:1H-MRS was performed in 18 rabbits using a 1.5T GE MR system with an eight-channel head/neck receiving coil.Fifteen rabbits were injected with sodium selenite at a dose of 10 μmol/kg to induce the liver cell apoptosis.Point-resolved spectroscopy sequencelocalized spectra were obtained from 10 livers once before and once 24 h after sodium selenite injection in vivo.T1 and T2 relaxation time of water and choline was measured separately in the livers of three healthy rabbits and three selenite-treated rabbits.Hematoxylin and eosin and dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was used to detect and confirm apoptosis.Choline peak areas were measured relative to unsuppressed water using LCModel.Relaxation attenuation was corrected using the average of T1 and T2 relaxation time.The choline concentration was quantified using a formula,which was tested by a phantom with a known concentration.RESULTS:Apoptosis of hepatic cells was confirmed by TUNEL assay.In phantom experiment,the choline concentration (3.01 mmol/L),measured by 1H-MRS,was in good agreement with the actual concentration (3 mmol/L).The average T1 and T2 relaxation time of choline was 612 ± 15 ms and 74 ± 4 ms in the control group and 670 ± 27 ms and 78 ± 5 ms in apoptotic livers in vivo,respectively.Choline was quantified in 10 rabbits,once before and once after the injection with sodium selenite.The choline concentration decreased from 14.5 ± 7.57 mmol/L before sodium selenite injection to 10.8 ± 6.58 mmol/L (mean ± SD,n =10) after treatment (Z =-2.395,P < 0.05,two-sample paired Wilcoxon test).CONCLUSION:1H-MRS can be used to quantify liver choline in vivo using unsuppressed water as an internal reference.Decreased liver choline concentrations are found in sodium selenite-treated rabbits undergoing liver cell

  4. Choline incorporation by Schistosoma mansoni: distribution of choline metabolites during development and after sexual differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancelin, M.L.; Torpier, G.; Vial, H.J.; Capron, A.

    1987-06-01

    Choline metabolism was investigated in Schistosoma mansoni during the main phases of its development, namely, schistosomula, 11- and 15-day-old worms, and adults. At the physiological choline concentration used in the assay (20 microM), betaine was, along with phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant choline metabolites, revealing considerable choline oxidation activity. Very little radioactivity was associated with CDP-choline, whereas a sustained incorporation into phosphocholine occurred. These results provide good evidence that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a regulatory role in the de novo pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. During development, the incorporation of choline into its various metabolites was maximal in 11-day-old worms. At this stage, the oxidative pathway predominated over the Kennedy pathway, whereas at all other stages the de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was predominant. Furthermore, choline incorporation into betaine was much more important in the adult female worm than in the male, indicating a major difference in choline incorporation and distribution between the 2 sexes of the adult worms.

  5. Choline-containing bacteriophage receptors in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, R. (Rafael); Garcia, E.; Garcia, P.; Ronda, C; Tomasz, A.

    1982-01-01

    Choline-containing teichoic acid seems to be essential for the adsorption of bacteriophage Dp-1 to pneumococci. This conclusion is based on the following observations: In contrast to pneumococci grown in choline-containing medium, cells grown in medium containing ethanolamine or other submethylated aminoalcohols instead of choline were found to be resistant to infection by Dp-1. Live choline-grown bacteria and heat- or UV-inactivated cells and purified cell walls prepared from these cells wer...

  6. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made...

  7. Gebromeerde vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van H.J.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sinds begin 2008 worden in het Nationaal Plan Diervoeder Choline Chloride monsters (= diervoeder additief) gevonden waarbij de DR CALUX screenings-assay een sterk verdacht signaal geeft, maar bij de GC-HRMS geen dioxines en dl-PCB's worden gevonden. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van nader ond

  8. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  9. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  10. The Comparative effects of synthetic choline and herbal choline on hepatic lipid metabolism in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.Gangane1

    Full Text Available An experiment of 0-42 days in day old 150 Vencobb broiler chickens was conducted to determine comparative effects of synthetic choline and herbal sources of choline on hepatic lipid metabolism in broilers. Birds were randomly distributed into three groups (T0- T2, one untreated control and two treatments. Chicks in Group T0 were given feed without any additional source choline chloride. Chicks of Group T1 were fed with feed mixed with herbal product (Repchol supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India @ 500gm/tonne of feed and T2 was given combination of synthetic choline chloride@1kg/tonne (60% and biotin @ 150 mg/ton of feed. To study the effect of inclusion of herbal sources of choline and synthetic choline on hepatic lipid metabolism, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were estimated on day 21st and 42nd of experimental study. Gross pathological changes in liver were recorded on representative birds per group at the end of the study. It was recorded that inclusion of either synthetic choline or herbal source of choline exerted a hypocholesterolemic effect and also decreased the level of triglycerides as compared to untreated control thus minimizing the incidence of fatty liver, however the two treatment do not differ significantly. Gross pathological study also revealed no significant changes in the architecture of liver as compared to control. It can be concluded that the herbal supplements can successfully replace their synthetic analogues from broiler ration. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(7.000: 318-320

  11. 'Peak oil' or 'peak demand'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports a workshop which addressed several energy issues like the objectives and constraints of energy mix scenarios, the differences between the approaches in different countries, the cost of new technologies implemented for this purposes, how these technologies will be developed and marketed, which will be the environmental and societal acceptability of these technical choices. Different aspects and issues have been more precisely presented and discussed: the peak oil, development of shale gases and their cost (will non conventional hydrocarbons modify the peak oil and be socially accepted?), energy efficiency (its benefits, its reality in France and other countries, its position in front of the challenge of energy transition), and strategies in the transport sector (challenges for mobility, evolution towards a model of sustainable mobility)

  12. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  13. Choline Transporters in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma: Expression and Functional Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for cell survival and proliferation, however, the expression and function of choline transporters have not been well identified in cancer. In this study, we detected the mRNA and protein expression of organic cation transporter OCT3, carnitine/cation transporters OCTN 1 and OCTN2,and choline transporter-like protein CTL1 in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549, H1299 and SPC-A-1.Their expression pattern was further confirmed in 25 human primary adenocarcinoma tissues. The choline uptake in these cell lines was significantly blocked by CTL1 inhibitor, but only partially inhibited by OCT or OCTN inhibitors. The efficacy of these inhibitors on cell proliferation is closely correlated with their abilities to block choline transport. Under the native expression of these transporters, the total choline uptake was notably blocked by specific PI3K/AKT inhibitors. These results describe the expression of choline transporters and their relevant function in cell proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma, thus providing a potential"choline-starvation" strategy of cancer interference through targeting choline transporters, especially CTL1.

  14. Choline alphoscerate (alpha-glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline) an old choline- containing phospholipid with a still interesting profile as cognition enhancing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Enea; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Amenta, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    Cholinergic precursors have represented the first approach to counter cognitive impairment occurring in adultonset dementia disorders. These compounds were early leaved because their clinical efficacy was not clearly demonstrated. This is probably not true for some choline-containing phospholipids including choline alphoscerate. Choline alphoscerate increases the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampus, facilitates learning and memory in experimental animals, improves brain transduction mechanisms and decreases age-dependent structural changes occurring in rat brain areas involved in learning and memory. The compound exerts neuroprotective effects in models of altered cholinergic neurotransmission and of brain vascular injury. In clinical studies choline alphoscerate improved memory and attention impairment, as well as affective and somatic symptoms in dementia disorders. An ongoing trial indicates that association between the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and choline alphoscerate is accompanied by an improvement in several cognitive tests superior to that induced by donepezil alone. It is suggested that this association may represent a therapeutic option to prolong beneficial effects of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer's disease patients with concomitant ischemic cerebrovascular disorders. In summary, choline alphoscerate has significant effects on cognitive function with a good safety profile and tolerability. Although limited both in terms of size of the samples investigated and of the length of treatment, preclinical and clinical results presented suggest that cognitive enhancing capabilities of choline alphoscerate merit of being further investigated in appropriate trials.

  15. Legionella bozemanae synthesizes phosphatidylcholine from exogenous choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Janczarek, Monika; Kalitynski, Rafal; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Russa, Ryszard

    2011-02-20

    The phospholipid class and fatty acid composition of Legionella bozemanae were determined using thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were the predominant phospholipids, while phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidyl-N,N-dimethylethanolamine were present at low concentrations. With the use of the LC/MS technique, PC16:0/15:0, PC17:/15:0, and PE16:1/15:0 were shown to be the dominant phospholipid constituents, which may be taxonomically significant. Two independent phosphatidylcholine synthesis pathways (the three-step methylation and the one-step CDP-choline pathway) were present and functional in L. bozemanae. In the genome of L. bozemanae, genes encoding two potential phosphatidylcholine forming enzymes, phospholipid N-methyl transferase (PmtA) and phosphatidylcholine synthase (Pcs), homologous to L. longbeachae, L. drancourtii, and L. pneumophila pmtA and pcs genes were identified. Genes pmtA and pcs from L. bozemanae were sequenced and analyzed on nucleotide and amino acid levels. Bacteria grown on an artificial medium with labelled choline synthesized phosphatidylcholine predominantly via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway, which indicates that L. bozemanae phosphatidylcholine, similarly as in other bacteria associated with eukaryotes, is an important determinant of host-microbe interactions. PMID:20338739

  16. Choline associated hypersexuality in a 79-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Cordici, Francesco; Genovese, Carmelo; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Hypersexuality, also referred to as sexually inappropriate behavior and sexual disinhibition, involves persistent, uninhibited sexual behaviors directed at oneself or at others, sometimes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient, used as a dietary supplement in different diseases. This report was aimed at considering choline intake as a possible cause of iatrogenic hypersexuality. After an evaluation, a 79-year-old man affected by memory loss was diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and treated with oral choline. After 6 weeks of regular choline assumption, the patient showed a pathological increase in libido with sexual urges. As choline was withdrawn, the hypersexuality disappeared within 5 days. Since hypersexuality may be an underreported and overlooked adverse effect of drugs and dietary supplements acting on the cholinergic pathway, this should be considered when treating and counselling patients with inappropriate sexual behavior. PMID:23733158

  17. Bioelectrochemical response of a choline biosensor fabricated by using polyaniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the isoelectric point of an enzyme and the doping principle of conducting polymers,choline oxidase was doped in a polyaniline film to form a biosensor. The amperometric detection of choline is based on the oxidation of the H2O2 enzymatically produced on the choline biosensor. The response current of the biosensor as a function of temperature was determined from 3 to 40℃. An apparent activation energy of 22.8 kJ·mol-1 was obtained. The biosensor had a wide linear response range from 5 × 10-7 to 1 × 10-4 M choline with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and a detection limit of 0.2 μM,and had a high sensitivity of 61.9 mA·M-1·cm-2 at 0.50 V and at pH 8.0. The apparent Michaelis constant and the optimum pH for the immobilized enzyme are 1.4 mM choline and 8.4,respectively,which are very close to those of choline oxidase in solution. The effect of selected organic compounds on the response of the choline biosensor was studied.

  18. Choline supplementation mitigates trace, but not delay, eyeblink conditioning deficits in rats exposed to alcohol during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Tran, Tuan D

    2012-03-01

    Children exposed to alcohol prenatally suffer from a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Both the cerebellum and hippocampus are affected by alcohol exposure during development, which may contribute to behavioral and cognitive deficits observed in children with FASD. Despite the known neuropathology associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, many pregnant women continue to drink (heavy drinkers, in particular), creating a need to identify effective treatments for their children who are adversely affected by alcohol. We previously reported that choline supplementation can mitigate alcohol's effects on cognitive development, specifically on tasks which depend on the functional integrity of the hippocampus. The present study examined whether choline supplementation could differentially mitigate alcohol's effects on trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC, a hippocampal-dependent task) and delay ECC (a cerebellar-dependent task). Long-Evans rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day alcohol via gastric intubation from postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development equivalent to late gestation in humans. A sham-intubated control group was included. From PD 10-30, subjects received subcutaneous injections of 100 mg/kg choline chloride or vehicle. Beginning on PD 32-34, subjects were trained on either delay or trace eyeblink conditioning. Performance of subjects exposed to alcohol was significantly impaired on both tasks, as indicated by significant reductions in percentage and amplitude of conditioned eyeblink responses, an effect that was attenuated by choline supplementation on the trace, but not delay conditioning task. Indeed, alcohol-exposed subjects treated with choline performed at control levels on the trace eyeblink conditioning task. There were no significant main or interactive effects of sex. These data indicate that choline supplementation can significantly reduce the

  19. CHOLINE METABOLISM ALTERATION: A FOCUS ON OVARIAN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eBagnoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to normal differentiated cells, cancer cells require a metabolic reprogramming to support their high proliferation rates and survival. Aberrant choline metabolism is a fairly new metabolic hallmark reflecting the complex reciprocal interactions between oncogenic signaling and cellular metabolism. Alterations of the involved metabolic network may be sustained by changes in activity of several choline transporters as well as of enzymes like choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-α and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipases C and D. Of note, the net outcome of these enzymatic alterations is an increase of phosphocholine and total choline-containing compounds, a cholinic phenotype that can be monitored in cancer by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This review will highlight the molecular basis for targeting this pathway in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC, a highly heterogeneous and lethal malignancy characterized by late diagnosis, frequent relapse and development of chemoresistance. Modulation of ChoK-α expression impairs only EOC but not normal ovarian cells, thus supporting the hypothesis that cholinic phenotype is a peculiar feature of transformed cells, and indicating ChoK-α targeting as a novel approach to improve efficacy of standard EOC chemotherapeutic treatments.

  20. Choline on the Move: Perspectives on the Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology of the Presynaptic Choline Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, E A; Blakely, R D

    2016-01-01

    Genetic, biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological approaches have advanced our understanding of cholinergic biology for over 100 years. High-affinity choline uptake (HACU) was one of the last features of cholinergic signaling to be defined at a molecular level, achieved through the cloning of the choline transporter (CHT, SLC5A7). In retrospect, the molecular era of CHT studies initiated with the identification of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), a potent, competitive CHT antagonist, though it would take another 30 years before HC-3, in radiolabeled form, was used by Joseph Coyle's laboratory to identify and monitor the dynamics of CHT proteins. Though HC-3 studies provided important insights into CHT distribution and regulation, another 15 years would pass before the structure of CHT genes and proteins were identified, a full decade after the cloning of most other neurotransmitter-associated transporters. The availability of CHT gene and protein probes propelled the development of cell and animal models as well as efforts to gain insights into how human CHT gene variation affects the risk for brain and neuromuscular disorders. Most recently, our group has pursued a broadening of CHT pharmacology, elucidating novel chemical structures that may serve to advance cholinergic diagnostics and medication development. Here we provide a short review of the transformation that has occurred in HACU research and how such advances may promote the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:27288078

  1. Henry’s constant of carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (choline chloride/ethylene glycol, choline chloride/glycerol, choline chloride/malonic acid) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new set of Henry’s constant for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvents were measured. • The DESs used were: ethaline, glyceline, and maline. • The measured data were reported as functions of temperature and composition. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by the applied correlations. -- Abstract: In this study, we present a new set of Henry’s constant data for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (DES) (20 to 80 wt% DES) at T = (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. The DESs used were choline chloride-based: ethaline (choline chloride/ethylene glycol), glyceline (choline chloride/glycerol), and maline (choline chloride/malonic acid). A differential Henry’s coefficient model was used to describe the behaviour of Henry’s constant, and correlate it with temperature and concentration of DES in the aqueous DES solution. The correlation was found satisfactory such that the proposed model can be used in engineering calculations with reasonable accuracy

  2. Synthesis, isolation and purification of [(11)C]-choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydło, Marcin; Jadwiński, Michał; Chmura, Agnieszka; Gorczewski, Kamil; Sokół, Maria

    2016-01-01

    [(11)C]-choline is an effective PET tracer used for imaging of neoplastic lesions and metastases of the prostate cancer. However, its production can be a challenge for manufacturers, as it has not yet been described in Polish or European pharmacopoeia. In this study the technical aspects of [(11)C]-choline production are described and detailed process parameters are provided. The quality control procedures for releasing [(11)C]-choline as solutio iniectabilis are also presented. The purity and quality of the radiopharmaceutical obtained according to the proposed method were find to be high enough to safely administrate the radiopharmaceutical to patients. Application of an automated synthesizer makes it possible to carry out the entire process of [(11)C]-choline production, isolation and purification within 20 minutes. It is crucial to maintain all aspects of the process as short as possible, since the decay half-time of carbon-11 is 20.4 minutes. The resulting radiopharmaceutical is sterile and pyrogen-free and of a high chemical, radiochemical, and radionuclide purity proved by chromatographic techniques. The yield of the process is up to 20%. [(11)C]-choline PET scanning can be used as accurate and effective diagnostic tool in all centers equipped with [(11)C]-target containing cyclotron. PMID:27660552

  3. Biochemical characterization of the initial steps of the Kennedy pathway in Trypanosoma brucei : the ethanolamine and choline kinases

    OpenAIRE

    GIBELLINI, FEDERICA; Hunter, William N.; Smith, Terry K.

    2008-01-01

    Ethanolamine and choline are major components of the trypanosome membrane phospholipids, in the form of GPEtn (glycero-phosphoethanolamine) and GPCho (glycerophosphocholine). Ethanolamine is also found as an integral component of the GPI (glycosylpliosphatidylinositol) anchor that is required for membrane attachment of cell-surface proteins, most notably the variant-surface glycoproteins. The de novo synthesis of GPEtn and GPCho starts with the generation of phosphoethanolamine and phosphocho...

  4. Biochemical characterisation of the initial steps of the kennedy pathway in Trypanosoma brucei - the ethanolamine and choline kinases

    OpenAIRE

    GIBELLINI, FEDERICA; Hunter, William N.; Smith, Terry K.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ethanolamine (EtN) and choline (Cho) are major components of the trypanosome membrane phospholipids, in the form of phosphatidylethanolamine (GPEtn) and phosphatidylcholine (GPCho). Ethanolamine is also found as an integral component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that is required for membrane attachment of cell surface proteins, most notably the variant surface glycoproteins. The de novo synthesis of GPEth and GPCho starts with the generation of phosphoe...

  5. Microwave-assisted extraction and quantitative LC/ID-MS measurement of total choline and free carnitine in food standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melissa M; Sander, Lane C

    2012-01-01

    The Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals of AOAC INTERNATIONAL has declared both choline and carnitine to be priority nutrients in infant formulas, and ongoing efforts exist to develop or improve Official Methods of Analysis for these nutrients. As a result, matrix-based certified reference materials are needed with assigned values for these compounds. In this work, traditional acid and enzymatic hydrolysis procedures were compared to microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and conditions optimized to provide complete sample hydrolysis and recovery of total choline from four food standard reference materials (SRMs): whole milk powder, whole egg powder, infant formula, and soy flour. The extracts were analyzed using LC on a mixed-mode column (simultaneous RP and ion exchange) with isotope dilution-MS detection to achieve simultaneous quantification of total choline and free carnitine. Total choline has been determined in these four food matrixes with excellent precision (0.65 to 2.60%) and accuracy, as confirmed by use of SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula as a control material. Free carnitine has been determined in two of these food matrixes with excellent precision (0.69 to 2.19%) and accuracy, as confirmed by use of SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula as a control material. Limitations in simultaneous determination of total choline and free carnitine resulted from extreme differences in concentration of the two components in egg powder and soy flour (at least three orders of magnitude). Samples required dilution to prevent poor LC peak shape, which caused decreased precision in the determination of low concentrations of free carnitine. Despite this limitation, the described method yields results comparable to current AOAC Official Method 999.14 Choline in Infant Formula, with a decrease of more than 2 h in sample preparation time. PMID:23175983

  6. Peak flow meter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  7. Phosphoryl choline-grafted water-soluble carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Kai Xi; Min Gu; Zheng Sheng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble property is the precondition of biomedical evaluation and application of carbon nanotube (CNT). Novel watersoluble CNT was synthesized in this letter by grafting phosphoryi choline (PC) onto multi-wall CNTs. Utilizing FTIR, XPS, TGAand TEM, the title CNTs were characterized and it was found that the target products could facilely dissolve in water.

  8. Synthesis of glycine betaine from exogenous choline in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Gutiérrez, Joaquín José; Cánovas, David; Vargas, C.; Csonka, Laszlo N.; Ventosa Ucero, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The role of choline in osmoprotection in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata has been examined. Transport and conversion of choline to betaine began immediately after addition of choline to the growth medium. Intracellular accumulation of betaine synthesized from choline was salt dependent up to 2.5 M NaCl. Oxidation of choline was enhanced at 2.0 M NaCl in the presence or absence of externally provided betaine. This indicates that the NaCl concentration in the growth medium has major e...

  9. Mechanism of choline deficiency and membrane alteration in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome primary skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Laila C; Singh, Ratnesh K; Michel, Vera; Zeisel, Steven H; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Johnson, Amy R; Mudd, Harvey S; Bakovic, Marica

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblasts from a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), who presented with low plasma choline and betaine, were studied to determine the metabolic characteristics of the choline deficiency. Choline is required for the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and for betaine, an important osmoregulator. Here, choline transport, lipid homeostasis, and mitochondria function were analyzed in skin fibroblasts from POTS and compared with control cells. The choline transporter-like protein 1/solute carrier 44A1 (CTL1/SLC44A1) and mRNA expression were 2-3 times lower in POTS fibroblasts, and choline uptake was reduced 60% (P < 0.05). Disturbances of membrane homeostasis were observed by reduced ratios between PC:phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin:cholesterol, as well as by modified phospholipid fatty acid composition. Choline deficiency also impaired mitochondria function, which was observed by a reduction in oxygen consumption, mitochondrial potential, and glycolytic activity. When POTS cells were treated with choline, transporter was up-regulated, and uptake of choline increased, offering an option for patient treatment. The characteristics of the POTS fibroblasts described here represent a first model of choline and CTL1/SLC44A1 deficiency, in which choline transport, membrane homeostasis, and mitochondrial function are impaired.

  10. INTEGRAL detection of the multi-peaked emission from the Be/X-ray binary pulsar GRO J1008-57

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Sguera, A.; Chenevez, Jérôme;

    2014-01-01

    /4 of the outbursts in Be/XRBs (e.g. Kretschmar et al., 2013, arXiv.1302.3434). We will continue to monitor the source activity with INTEGRAL through the GPS programme until December 20th. Light curves and images can be found on the GPS webpages: http://gpsiasf.iasf-roma.inaf.it/...

  11. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-Resolution, Integrated-Light Spectroscopy. IV. The Large Magellanic Cloud: $\\alpha$, Fe-peak, Light, and Heavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Colucci, J E; Cameron, S A; McWilliam, A

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in 8 clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05 to 12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high resolution ($R\\sim$25,000) integrated light spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional integrated light $\\chi^2$-minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak ($\\sim$15 m\\AA) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N$\\sim$30). Additionally, we supplement the integrated light abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (Age$+0.5$) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-meta...

  12. Forecasting peak ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.W.; Layton, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    Box-Jenkins (1970) time series models are used to predict peak afternoon O3 levels. Data sets from three monitoring stations in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, are used in the analysis, one of the stations being inner-city and the others being outer-city. It is found that univariate models using only the peak O3 data-set at a site to predict future peak O3 levels are unsatisfactory. However bivariate models using peak O3 data from one site to predict peak O3 levels at another site yield good results. However it is clear that these results only arise because the O3 is formed in a well mixed layer over the region leading to a high degree of correlation between O3 peaks throughout the region. 15 references.

  13. Are Bragg Peaks Gaussian?

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouda, Boualem

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to assume that Bragg scattering peaks have Gaussian shape. The Gaussian shape function is used to perform most instrumental smearing corrections. Using Monte Carlo ray tracing simulation, the resolution of a realistic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument is generated reliably. Including a single-crystal sample with large d-spacing, Bragg peaks are produced. Bragg peaks contain contributions from the resolution function and from spread in the sample structure....

  14. CHKA and PCYT1A gene polymorphisms, choline intake and spina bifida risk in a California population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammer Edward J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural tube defects (NTDs are among the most common of all human congenital defects. Over the last two decades, accumulating evidence has made it clear that periconceptional intake of folic acid can significantly reduce the risk of NTD affected pregnancies. This beneficial effect may be related to the ability of folates to donate methyl groups for critical physiological reactions. Choline is an essential nutrient and it is also a methyl donor critical for the maintenance of cell membrane integrity and methyl metabolism. Perturbations in choline metabolism in vitro have been shown to induce NTDs in mouse embryos. Methods This study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in human choline kinase A (CHKA gene and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylytransferase (PCYT1A gene were risk factors for spina bifida. Fluorescence-based allelic discrimination analysis was performed for the two CHKA intronic SNPs hCV1562388 (rs7928739 and hCV1562393, and PCYT1A SNP rs939883 and rs3772109. The study population consisted of 103 infants with spina bifida and 338 non-malformed control infants who were born in selected California counties in the period 1989–1991. Results The CHKA SNP hCV1562388 genotypes with at least one C allele were associated with a reduced risk of spina bifida (odds ratio = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.38–0.94. The PCYT1A SNP rs939883 genotype AA was associated with a twofold increased risk of spina bifida (odds ratio = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.97–3.67. These gene-only effects were not substantially modified by analytic consideration to maternal periconceptional choline intake. Conclusion Our analyses showed genotype effects of CHKA and PCYT1A genes on spina bifida risk, but did not show evidence of gene-nutrient interactions. The underlying mechanisms are yet to be resolved.

  15. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  16. The reaction of choline dehydrogenase with some electron acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M C; Dawson, A P

    1975-12-01

    1. The choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) WAS SOLUBILIZED FROM ACETONE-DRIED POWDERS OF RAT LIVER MITOCHONDRIA BY TREATMENT WITH Naja naja venom. 2. The kinetics of the reaction of enzyme with phenazine methosulphate and ubiquinone-2 as electron acceptors were investigated. 3. With both electron acceptors the reaction mechanism appears to involve a free, modified-enzyme intermediate. 4. With some electron acceptors the maximum velocity of the reaction is independent of the nature of the acceptor. With phenazine methosulphate and ubiquinone-2 as acceptors the Km value for choline is also independent of the nature of the acceptor molecule. 5. The mechanism of the Triton X-100-solubilized enzyme is apparently the smae as that for the snake venom solubilized enzyme.

  17. Peak Experience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  18. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  19. Dietary choline and betaine intake, choline-metabolising genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Feng; Luo, Wei-Ping; Lin, Fang-Yu; Lian, Zhen-Qiang; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Yan, Bo; Xu, Ming; Huang, Wu-Qing; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-09-01

    Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case-control study consecutively recruited 570 cases with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 576 age-matched (5-year interval) controls. Choline and betaine intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ, and genotyping was conducted for PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared with the highest quartile of choline intake, the lowest intake quartile showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer. The SNP PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 had no overall association with breast cancer, but a significant risk reduction was observed among postmenopausal women with AA genotype of BHMT rs3733890 (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·98). Significant interactions were observed between choline intake and SNP PEMT rs7946 (P interaction=0·029) and BHMT rs3733890 (P interaction=0·006) in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that SNP PEMT rs7946 and BHMT rs3733890 may interact with choline intake on breast cancer risk.

  20. Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on choline PET/CT in recurrent prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dost, Rutger J.; Breeuwsma, Anthonius J.; Jong, Igle J. de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Urology, Groningen (Netherlands); Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Recurrent prostate cancer is usually treated by combining radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy. To stage the cancer, choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT can be performed. It is generally thought that androgen deprivation therapy does not influence choline PET/CT. In this article we focus on the molecular backgrounds of choline and androgens, and the results of preclinical and clinical studies performed using PET/CT. Using PubMed, we looked for the relevant articles about androgen deprivation therapy and choline PET/CT. During ADT, a tendency of decreased uptake of choline in prostate cancer was observed, in particular in hormone-naive patients. We conclude that in order to prevent false-negative choline PET/CT scans androgen deprivation should be withheld prior to scanning, especially in hormone-naive patients. (orig.)

  1. Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on choline PET/CT in recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurrent prostate cancer is usually treated by combining radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy. To stage the cancer, choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT can be performed. It is generally thought that androgen deprivation therapy does not influence choline PET/CT. In this article we focus on the molecular backgrounds of choline and androgens, and the results of preclinical and clinical studies performed using PET/CT. Using PubMed, we looked for the relevant articles about androgen deprivation therapy and choline PET/CT. During ADT, a tendency of decreased uptake of choline in prostate cancer was observed, in particular in hormone-naive patients. We conclude that in order to prevent false-negative choline PET/CT scans androgen deprivation should be withheld prior to scanning, especially in hormone-naive patients. (orig.)

  2. Central injection of captopril inhibits the blood pressure response to intracerebroventricular choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Isbil-Buyukcoskun

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the brain renin-angiotensin system in the effects of central cholinergic stimulation on blood pressure in conscious, freely moving normotensive rats. In the first step, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv choline (50, 100 and 150 µg on blood pressure. Choline increased blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. In order to investigate the effects of brain renin-angiotensin system blockade on blood pressure increase induced by choline (150 µg, icv, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril (25 and 50 µg, icv, was administered 3 min before choline. Twenty-five µg captopril did not block the pressor effect of choline, while 50 µg captopril blocked it significantly. Our results suggest that the central renin-angiotensin system may participate in the increase in blood pressure induced by icv choline in normotensive rats.

  3. Rumen protected choline supplementation in beef cattle: effect on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rumen-protected choline administration on growth performance in beef cattle. Thirty-two newly received Charolais steers (420 kg ± 8 kg initial BW, were assigned randomly to one of the two experimental groups: control (CTR, no choline supplementation; choline (RPC, supplemented with 5 g/day choline chloride in rumenprotected form. Experimental period was 122 d long. DMI at different times did not differ between treatments. Supplementation of 5 g of choline increased body weight, and average daily gain on day 89 of the experiment,but not later on. Feed conversion rate and killing out percentage were not affected by the treatment. Therefore ruminally protected choline can improve growth performance of newly received beef cattle, and its inclusion in receiving diet can be useful.

  4. Economic Analysis on Peak Load Regulation Measure with Integration of Wind Farms%风电并网后电网调峰措施的经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡剑琛; 刘燕华; 李献; 赵冬梅

    2012-01-01

    To accommodate large numbers of integrating wind powers, various peak regulation measures should be taken in power grid and be evaluated economically. In this paper, the load capacity regulating method of power system that is used to balance the output power of wind generation is presented, and peak load regulation measures to integrate wind power is discussed. Then, economic benefit of each peak regulation measure is analyzed, and the approach to balance and evaluate the economics of peak load regulation measures is proposed based on secure operation requirement of system, load regulation measures and capacity, electricity price of various forms of power generation, and consumption of fossil fuel. In the end, the peak load regulation scheme is presented for regional power grid, which is reference to energy-saving economic dispatching and sustainable health development of wind power.%为接纳大量风电并网运行,电网需采取各种调峰措施并评价措施的经济性.给出了确定用于平衡风电出力波动的电网可调峰容量的方法,阐述了接纳风电所采取的调峰措施,并对各种调峰手段进行经济效益分析.基于系统的安全运行要求、调峰措施、调峰容量、各种发电形式上网电价和化石燃料的消耗量提出了衡量以及评价调峰措施经济性的方法.以区域电网为研究对象,制定了调峰策略,为电网的节能经济调度提供参考依据,并对风电的持续健康发展提出了建议.

  5. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  6. Peak of Achievement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s first inland research station on the highest peak of Antarctic progresses smoothly China will complete the construction of its first inland Antarctic research station at Dome A,the highest polar icecap peak at 4,093 meters above sea level,next year,according to a south pole scientist involved in the project. "The preparatory work for the new sta-

  7. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  8. Significance of yeast peroxisomes in the metabolism of choline and ethanolamine

    OpenAIRE

    Zwart, Kor B.; Veenhuis, Marten; Harder, Wim

    1983-01-01

    The yeasts Candida utilis and Hansenula polymorpha were able to grow in media containing choline or ethanolamine as the sole nitrogen source. During growth in the presence of these substrates, large peroxisomes developed in the cells, and extracts of choline-grown C. utilis cells contained increased levels of amine oxidase and catalase. Incubation of whole cells with choline in the presence of the amine oxidase inhibitor aminoacetonitrile led to excretion of dimethylamine and methylamine. Cyt...

  9. Effects of CDP-choline on macrophages and oligodendrocytes in neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    1) Background and objective of the project Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has gained some importance as an add-on therapy in neurodegenerative, neurovascular and traumatic brain disorders due to its neuroprotective and regenerative properties. Exogenously applied CDP-choline displays a very high bioavailability and readily disperses throughout the organism, also crossing the blood-brain barrier. Along with a favorable toxicity profile, these characteristics render CDP-choline a...

  10. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Caitlyn M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic profiles to rodents and humans when exposed to moderate choline deficiency.

  11. Influence of chain length and double bond on the aqueous behavior of choline carboxylate soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstl, Doris; Diat, Olivier; Klein, Regina; Kunz, Werner

    2013-02-26

    In preceding studies, we demonstrated that choline carboxylates ChC(m) with alkyl chain lengths of m = 12 - 18 are highly water-soluble (for m = 12, soluble up to 93 wt % soap and 0 °C). In addition, choline soaps are featured by an extraordinary lyotropic phase behavior. With decreasing water concentration, the following phases were found: micellar phase (L(1)), discontinuous cubic phase (I(1)' and I(1)"), hexagonal phase (H(1)), bicontinuous cubic phase (V(1)), and lamellar phase (L(α)). The present work is also focused on the lyotropic phase behavior of choline soaps but with shorter alkyl chains or different alkyl chain properties. We have investigated the aqueous phase behavior of choline soaps with C(8) and C(10) chain-lengths (choline octanoate and choline decanoate) and with a C(18) chain-length with a cis-double bond (choline oleate). We found that choline decanoate follows the lyotropic phase behavior of the longer-chain homologues mentioned above. Choline octanoate in water shows no discontinuous cubic phases, but an extended, isotropic micellar solution phase. In addition, choline octanoate is at the limit between a surfactant and a hydrotrope. The double bond in choline oleate leads also to a better solubility in water and a decrease of the solubilization temperature. It also influences the Gaussian curvature of the aggregates which results in a loss of discontinuous cubic phases in the binary phase diagram. The different lyotropic mesophases were identified by the penetration scan technique with polarizing light microscope and visual observations. To clarify the structural behavior small (SAXS) and wide (WAXS) angle X-ray scattering were performed. To further characterize the extended, isotropic micellar solution phase in the binary phase diagram of choline octanoate viscosity and conductivity measurements were also carried out.

  12. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Caitlyn M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01) compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic profiles to rodents and humans when exposed to moderate choline deficiency. PMID:26196148

  13. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, G; Sathiyabarathi, M; Robert, M Arokia; Tamilmani, T

    2016-08-01

    Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction. PMID:27651671

  14. Utilization of choline from crude soybean lecithin by chicks. 1. Growth and prevention of perosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, B; Bornstein, S; Budowski, P

    1977-01-01

    Data obtained with growing chicks fed a semi-purified diet indicate that choline from crude soybean lecithin is as well utilized as synthetic choline chloride, on the basis of growth, relative liver weight and prevention of perosis. Extrapolation of the results on growth and perosis prevention, obtained between 1 and 3 weeks of age, to performance on practical-type diets yields choline requirements for broiler-type chicks ranging from 800 to 1000 mg./kg. diet (as choline chloride). The requirement seems to decrease with age. PMID:564504

  15. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (Pstimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (Pstimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  16. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jayaprakash

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumenprotected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.

  17. Bioelectrochemical Response and Kinetics of Choline Oxidase Entrapped in Polyaniline—Polyacrylonitrile Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛怀国; 沈芝荃

    2002-01-01

    A novel choline oxidase electrode was constructed by entrapping choline oxidase into polyaniline-polyacrylonitrile composite film,The enzyme film was prepared by in situ electropolyme-ritztion of aniline into porous polyacrylonitrile-coated platinum electrode in the presence of choline oxidase ,the enzyme electrode exhibited sensitive and stable electrochemical response to choline ,The kinetics analysis,showed that the mass transport is partially rate-liniting.The influences of pH,applied potential and temperature on the response of the enzyme electrode were also desribed.

  18. Bioelectrochemical Response and Kinetics of Choline Oxidase Entrapped in Polyaniline-Polyacrylonitrile Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE,Huai-Guo(薛怀国); SHEN,Zhi-Quan(沈之荃)

    2002-01-01

    A novel choline oxidase electrode was constructed by entrapping choline oxidase into polyaniline-polyacrylonitrile composite film. The enzyme film was prepared by in situ electropolymerization of aniline into porous polyacrylonitrile-coated platinum electrode in the presence of choline oxidase. The enzyme electrode exhibited sensitive and stable electrochemical response to choline. The kinetics analysis showed that the mass transport is partially rate-limiting. The influences of pH, applied potential and temperature on the response of the enzyme electrode were also described.

  19. 18F-Choline, 11C-choline and 11C-acetate PET/CT: comparative analysis for imaging prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogsitter, Claudia; Zöphel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Jörg

    2013-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the second most common tumour in men worldwide. Whereas prostate specific antigen (PSA) is an established biochemical marker, the optimal imaging method for all clinical scenarios has not yet been found. With the rising number of PET centres there is an increasing availability and use of (18)F-/(11)C-choline or (11)C-acetate for staging of PCA. However, to date no final conclusion has been reached as to whether acetate or choline tracers should be preferred. In this review we provide an overview of the performance of choline and acetate PET for staging the primary and recurrent disease and lymph nodes in PCA, based on the literature of the last 10 years. Although predominantly choline has been used rather than acetate, both tracers performed in a similar manner in published studies. Choline as well as acetate have insufficient diagnostic accuracy for the staging of the primary tumour, due to a minimum detectable tumour size of 5 mm and inability to differentiate PCA from benign prostate hyperplasia, chronic prostatitis and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Regarding lymph node staging, choline tracers have demonstrated a high specificity. Unfortunately, the sensitivity is only moderate. For staging recurrent disease, sensitivity depends on the level of serum PSA (PSA should be >2 ng/ml). This applies to both choline and acetate. However, despite these limitations, a significant number of patients with recurrent disease can benefit from PET imaging by a change in treatment planning.

  20. {sup 18}F-Choline, {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate PET/CT: comparative analysis for imaging prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogsitter, Claudia; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [Carl Gustav Carus Medical School, University of Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the second most common tumour in men worldwide. Whereas prostate specific antigen (PSA) is an established biochemical marker, the optimal imaging method for all clinical scenarios has not yet been found. With the rising number of PET centres there is an increasing availability and use of {sup 18}F-/{sup 11}C-choline or {sup 11}C-acetate for staging of PCA. However, to date no final conclusion has been reached as to whether acetate or choline tracers should be preferred. In this review we provide an overview of the performance of choline and acetate PET for staging the primary and recurrent disease and lymph nodes in PCA, based on the literature of the last 10 years. Although predominantly choline has been used rather than acetate, both tracers performed in a similar manner in published studies. Choline as well as acetate have insufficient diagnostic accuracy for the staging of the primary tumour, due to a minimum detectable tumour size of 5 mm and inability to differentiate PCA from benign prostate hyperplasia, chronic prostatitis and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Regarding lymph node staging, choline tracers have demonstrated a high specificity. Unfortunately, the sensitivity is only moderate. For staging recurrent disease, sensitivity depends on the level of serum PSA (PSA should be >2 ng/ml). This applies to both choline and acetate. However, despite these limitations, a significant number of patients with recurrent disease can benefit from PET imaging by a change in treatment planning. (orig.)

  1. In vitro assessment of choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) as a vehicle for recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Foureau, David M.; Vrikkis, Regina M.; Jones, Chase P.; Weaver, Katherine D.; Douglas R MacFarlane; Salo, Jonathan C.; McKillop, Iain H; Elliott, Gloria D.

    2012-01-01

    Choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) is an ionic liquid reported to increase thermal stability of model proteins. The current work investigated CDHP effect on structural integrity and biological activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2), a therapeutic protein used for treating advanced melanoma. In vitro CDHP biocompatibility was also evaluated using primary cell cultures, or B16-F10 cell line, chronically exposed to the ionic liquid. Formulation of rhIL-2 in an aqueous 680mM CDHP p...

  2. Correlation-Peak Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A.; Metzler, A.; Köckenberger, W.; Izquierdo, M.; Komor, E.; Haase, A.; Décorps, M.; von Kienlin, M.

    1996-08-01

    Identification and quantitation in conventional1H spectroscopic imagingin vivois often hampered by the small chemical-shift range. To improve the spectral resolution of spectroscopic imaging, homonuclear two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy has been combined with phase encoding of the spatial dimensions. From the theoretical description of the coherence-transfer signal in the Fourier-transform domain, a comprehensive acquisition and processing strategy is presented that includes optimization of the width and the position of the acquisition windows, matched filtering of the signal envelope, and graphical presentation of the cross peak of interest. The procedure has been applied to image the spatial distribution of the correlation peaks from specific spin systems in the hypocotyl of castor bean (Ricinus communis) seedlings. Despite the overlap of many resonances, correlation-peak imaging made it possible to observe a number of proton resonances, such as those of sucrose, β-glucose, glutamine/glutamate, lysine, and arginine.

  3. Hale Central Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    19 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the mountains that make up the central peak region of Hale Crater, located near 35.8oS, 36.5oW. Dark, smooth-surfaced sand dunes are seen to be climbing up the mountainous slopes. The central peak of a crater consists of rock brought up during the impact from below the crater floor. This autumn image is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  4. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...

  5. Rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis created by methionine and choline deficiency: biochemical and histological analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinichi Nagai1, Jun Iwamoto2, Masakazu Suzuki1, Azusa Seki11Hamri Co Ltd, Koga, Ibaraki, Japan; 2Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to establish a Sprague-Dawley rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH due to combined methionine and choline deficiency (MCD. Methods: Eighty nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups (n = 40, comprising an MCD diet group and a standard diet (control group. After fasting blood was collected, 10 rats from each group were scheduled to be sacrificed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 from the start of the experiment. Body weight and liver wet weight were measured, and histological examination of the liver was performed after hematoxylin and eosin and Oil Red O staining. Results: In the MCD group, body weight and liver wet weight were decreased compared with the control group, while serum levels of albumin, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin were increased, but serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. Histological examination of the liver revealed centrilobular hepatocellular fatty change from as early as four weeks, with mild fibrosis after 12 weeks. Conclusion: These findings suggested the onset of NASH with liver dysfunction and bile duct damage in rats fed with the MCD diet. Increased fatty acid uptake and decreased cholesterol secretion were considered to be important mechanisms by which the MCD diet promoted intrahepatic lipid accumulation in this model.Keywords: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, rat, methionine, choline, fatty liver 

  6. On the role of secondary extinction in the measurement of the integrated intensity of X-ray diffraction peaks and in the determination of the thickness of damaged epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyutt, R. N.

    2016-06-01

    The integrated intensity of X-ray diffraction reflections has been measured for a series of epitaxial layers of AIII nitrides (GaN, AlN, AlGaN) grown on different substrates (sapphire, SiC) and characterized by different degrees of structural perfection. It has been shown that, despite a high density of dislocations and a significant broadening of the diffraction peaks, the obtained values are not described by the kinematic theory of X-ray diffraction and suggest the existence of extinction. The results have been analyzed on the basis of the Darwin and Zachariasen extinction models. The secondary extinction coefficients and the thicknesses of epitaxial layers have been determined using two orders of reflection both in the Bragg geometry (0002 and 0004) and in the Laue geometry (10bar 10) and 10bar 20). It has been demonstrated that the secondary extinction coefficient is the greater, the smaller is the broadening of the diffraction peaks and, consequently, the dislocation density. It has been found that, for epitaxial layers with a regular system of threading dislocations, the secondary extinction coefficient for the Laue reflections is substantially greater than that for the Bragg reflections.

  7. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  8. Choline uptake in Agrobacterium tumefaciens by the high-affinity ChoXWV transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Meriyem; Jost, Kathinka A; Fritz, Christiane; Narberhaus, Franz

    2011-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a facultative phytopathogen that causes crown gall disease. For successful plant transformation A. tumefaciens requires the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is produced via the methylation and the PC synthase (Pcs) pathways. The latter route is dependent on choline. Although choline uptake has been demonstrated in A. tumefaciens, the responsible transporter(s) remained elusive. In this study, we identified the first choline transport system in A. tumefaciens. The ABC-type choline transporter is encoded by the chromosomally located choXWV operon (ChoX, binding protein; ChoW, permease; and ChoV, ATPase). The Cho system is not critical for growth and PC synthesis. However, [14C]choline uptake is severely reduced in A. tumefaciens choX mutants. Recombinant ChoX is able to bind choline with high affinity (equilibrium dissociation constant [KD] of ≈2 μM). Since other quaternary amines are bound by ChoX with much lower affinities (acetylcholine, KD of ≈80 μM; betaine, KD of ≈470 μM), the ChoXWV system functions as a high-affinity transporter with a preference for choline. Two tryptophan residues (W40 and W87) located in the predicted ligand-binding pocket are essential for choline binding. The structural model of ChoX built on Sinorhizobium meliloti ChoX resembles the typical structure of substrate binding proteins with a so-called "Venus flytrap mechanism" of substrate binding. PMID:21803998

  9. Plasma choline and betaine and their relation to plasma homocysteine in normal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, Francien V; Holm, Pål I; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Dijs, Fey P; Ueland, Per M; Muskiet, Frits A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) decrease during pregnancy. This reduction has been investigated in relation to folate status, but no study has addressed the possible role of betaine and its precursor choline. Objective: We investigated the courses of plasma choline and

  10. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  11. Choline evokes fluid secretion by perfused rat mandibular gland without desensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, M; Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    The secretomotor action of choline on salivary secretion has been studied in the isolated perfused mandibular gland of the rat. Choline made up in substituted Ringer solutions (Na concentrations of 40, 70, or 100 mM) was an effective secretomotor agonist in the concentration range of 1-100 mM and...

  12. What Choline Metabolism Can Tell Us About the Underlying Mechanisms of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of fetal exposure to alcohol are very diverse and the likely molecular mechanisms involved must be able to explain how so many developmental processes could go awry. If pregnant rat dams are fed alcohol, their pups develop abnormalities characteristic of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but if these rat dams were also treated with choline, the effects from ethanol were attenuated in their pups. Choline is an essential nutrient in humans, and is an important methyl group donor. Alcohol exposure disturbs the metabolism of choline and other methyl donors. Availability of choline during gestation directly influences epigenetic marks on DNA and histones, and alters gene expression needed for normal neural and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation. Maternal diets low in choline alter development of the mouse hippocampus, and decrement memory for life. Women eating low-choline diets have an increased risk of having an infant with a neural tube or or ofacial cleft birth defect. Thus, the varied effects of choline could affect the expression of FASD, and studies on choline might shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for FASD. PMID:21259123

  13. Oxygen-18 and deuterium labeling studies of choline oxidation by spinach and sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, C; Hanson, A D; Rhodes, D

    1988-11-01

    Chenopods synthesize betaine by a two-step oxidation of choline: choline --> betaine aldehyde --> betaine. The pathway is chloroplastic; the first step has been shown in isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts to be O(2)- and light-dependent, the role of light being to provide reducing power (P Weigel, EA Weretilnyk, AD Hanson 1988 Plant Physiol 86: 54-60). Here, we report use of in vivo(18)O- and (2)H-labeling in conjunction with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry to test for two hypothetical choline-oxidizing reactions that would explain the observed requirements for O(2) and reductant: a desaturase or an oxygenase. Simple syntheses for (2)H(3)-choline, (2)H(3), (18)O-choline, and (2)H(3), (18)O-betaine are given. A desaturase mechanism was sought by giving choline deuterated at the 2-carbon, or choline unlabeled at this position together with (2)H(2)O and by analyzing newly synthesized betaine. About 15% of the (2)H at C-2 was lost during oxidation of choline to betaine, and about 10% of the betaine made in the presence of 50% (2)H(2)O was monodeuterated. These small effects are more consistent with chemical exchange than with a desaturase, because 10 to 15% losses of (2)H from the C-2 position also occurred if choline was converted to betaine by a purified bacterial choline oxidase. To test for an oxygenase, the incorporation of (18)O from (18)O(2) into newly synthesized betaine was compared with that from (18)O-labeled choline, in light and darkness. Incorporation of (18)O from (18)O-choline was readily detectable and varied from about 15 to 50% of the theoretical maximum value; the (18)O losses were attributable to exchange of the intermediate betaine aldehyde with water. In darkness, incorporation of (18)O from (18)O(2) approached that from (18)O-choline, but in the light was severalfold lower, presumably due to isotopic dilution by photosynthetic (16)O(2). These data indicate that the chloroplast choline-oxidizing enzyme is an oxygenase

  14. Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Labeling Studies of Choline Oxidation by Spinach and Sugar Beet 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Claudia; Hanson, Andrew D.; Rhodes, David

    1988-01-01

    Chenopods synthesize betaine by a two-step oxidation of choline: choline → betaine aldehyde → betaine. The pathway is chloroplastic; the first step has been shown in isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts to be O2- and light-dependent, the role of light being to provide reducing power (P Weigel, EA Weretilnyk, AD Hanson 1988 Plant Physiol 86: 54-60). Here, we report use of in vivo18O- and 2H-labeling in conjunction with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry to test for two hypothetical choline-oxidizing reactions that would explain the observed requirements for O2 and reductant: a desaturase or an oxygenase. Simple syntheses for 2H3-choline, 2H3, 18O-choline, and 2H3, 18O-betaine are given. A desaturase mechanism was sought by giving choline deuterated at the 2-carbon, or choline unlabeled at this position together with 2H2O and by analyzing newly synthesized betaine. About 15% of the 2H at C-2 was lost during oxidation of choline to betaine, and about 10% of the betaine made in the presence of 50% 2H2O was monodeuterated. These small effects are more consistent with chemical exchange than with a desaturase, because 10 to 15% losses of 2H from the C-2 position also occurred if choline was converted to betaine by a purified bacterial choline oxidase. To test for an oxygenase, the incorporation of 18O from 18O2 into newly synthesized betaine was compared with that from 18O-labeled choline, in light and darkness. Incorporation of 18O from 18O-choline was readily detectable and varied from about 15 to 50% of the theoretical maximum value; the 18O losses were attributable to exchange of the intermediate betaine aldehyde with water. In darkness, incorporation of 18O from 18O2 approached that from 18O-choline, but in the light was severalfold lower, presumably due to isotopic dilution by photosynthetic 16O2. These data indicate that the chloroplast choline-oxidizing enzyme is an oxygenase. PMID:16666370

  15. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn M Getty

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention. Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter milk replacer (postnatal intervention for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P < 0.01 plasma choline and choline-containing phospholipid concentrations and higher (P < 0.05 liver enzyme (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01 compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01 plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01 than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and

  16. Effects of Choline on DNA Methylation and Macronutrient Metabolic Gene Expression in In Vitro Models of Hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyin Jiang; Esther Greenwald; Chauntelle Jack-Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient that plays an important role in lipid metabolism and DNA methylation. Studies in rodents suggest that choline may adversely affect glycemic control, yet studies in humans are lacking. Using the human hepatic and placental cells, HepG2 and BeWo, respectively, we examined the interaction between choline and glucose treatments. In HepG2 cells, choline supplementation (1 mM) increased global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase expression in both low-glucose ...

  17. PEAK READING VOLTMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, A.L.

    1958-07-29

    An improvement in peak reading voltmeters is described, which provides for storing an electrical charge representative of the magnitude of a transient voltage pulse and thereafter measuring the stored charge, drawing oniy negligible energy from the storage element. The incoming voltage is rectified and stored in a condenser. The voltage of the capacitor is applied across a piezoelectric crystal between two parallel plates. Amy change in the voltage of the capacitor is reflected in a change in the dielectric constant of the crystal and the capacitance between a second pair of plates affixed to the crystal is altered. The latter capacitor forms part of the frequency determlning circuit of an oscillator and means is provided for indicating the frequency deviation which is a measure of the peak voltage applied to the voltmeter.

  18. Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles Composite Film for the Construction of a Novel Amperometric Choline Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a facile method to fabricate a novel choline biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Chitosan, a natural biocompatible polymer, was used to solubilize MWCNTs for constructing the aqueous Chit-MWCNTs solution. Then Chit-MWCNTs were first dropped on the surface of a cleaned platinum electrode. Finally, a thiolated silica sol containing AuNPs and choline oxidase (ChOx was immobilized on the surface of the Chit-MWCNTs-modified electrode. The MWCNTs/AuNPs/Pt electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for choline. The resulting choline biosensor showed high sensitivity of choline (3.56 μA/mM, and wide linear range from 0.05 to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 15 μM. In addition, good reproducibility and stability were obtained.

  19. Choline-based ionic liquids-enhanced biodegradation of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Sudharshan; Surianarayanan, Mahadevan; Ranganathan, Vijayaraghavan; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-01

    Industrial wastewaters such as tannery and textile processing effluents are often characterized by a high content of dissolved organic dyes, resulting in large values of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD) in the aquatic systems into which they are discharged. Such wastewater streams are of rapidly growing concern as a major environmental issue in developing countries. Hence there is a need to mitigate this challenge by effective approaches to degrade dye-contaminated wastewater. In this study, several choline-based salts originally developed for use as biocompatible hydrated ionic liquids (i.e., choline sacchrinate (CS), choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDP), choline lactate (CL), and choline tartarate (CT)) have been successfully employed as the cosubstrate with S. lentus in the biodegradation of an azo dye in aqueous solution. We also demonstrate that the azo dye has been degraded to less toxic components coupled with low biomass formation.

  20. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB)

  1. Effects of temperature, moisture and choline chloride on vitamin A stability in broiler premix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Haixia; SHAN Anshan; SHI Baoming

    2007-01-01

    A 2×2×2 factorial design was adopted to study the effects of temperature, moisture and choline chloride on vitamin A stability in premix. The results indicated that temperature, moisture and choline chloride damaged vitamin A significantly. The regression equations of vitamin A disappearance rate and storage time were as follows: in room temperature (18±3) ℃, y=14.368Ln(x)+ 4.1425,R2=978; in high temperature (4℃), y=22.24Ln(x)+13.27, R2=O.9918; in low moisture (2%-3%), y=10.408Ln(x)+9.5418, R2=O.9322; in high moisture (8%-9%), y=26.199Ln(x)+7.8741, R2=0.9949; in the condition of choline chloride free, y=9.5125Ln(x)+ 8.9869, R2=O.9826; supplemented with choline chloride, y=27.094Ln(x)+8.4276, R2=0.9984. Temperature had highly significant interaction with moisure and choline chloride on destruction of vitamin A, respectively from the periods of two months storage. However, from the period of the first month storage, the interaction of moisture and choline chloride, as well as the interaction of temperature, moisture and choline destroyed vitamin A remarkably.

  2. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  3. Choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanwen; Li, Xiao; Ren, Anjing; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Zhu, Lingjun; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A number of human and animal in vitro or in vivo studies have investigated the relationship between dietary choline and betaine and cancer risk, suggesting that choline and betaine consumption may be protective for cancer. There are also a few epidemiologic studies exploring this relationship, however, with inconsistent conclusions. The PubMed and Embase were searched, from their inception to March 2016, to identify relevant studies and we brought 11 articles into this meta-analysis eventually. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of cancer for the highest versus the lowest range were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97) for choline consumption only, 0.86 (95%CI, 0.76 to 0.97) for betaine consumption only and 0.60 (95%CI, 0.40 to 0.90) for choline plus betaine consumption, respectively. Significant protective effect of dietary choline and betaine for cancer was observed when stratified by study design, location, cancer type, publication year, sex and quality score of study. An increment of 100 mg/day of choline plus betaine intake helped reduce cancer incidence by 11% (0.89, 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.92) through a dose-response analysis. To conclude, choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer incidence in this meta-analysis, but further studies are warranted to verify the results. PMID:27759060

  4. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  5. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  6. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Lippelt

    Full Text Available Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  7. Reduction of choline acetyltransferase activities in APP770 transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing the 770-amino acid isoform of human Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein exhibit extracellular b -amyloid deposits in brain regions including cerebral cortex and hippocampus, which are severely affected in Alzheimer's disease patients. Significant reduction in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities has been observed in both cortical and hippocampal brain regions in the transgenic mice at the age of 10 months compared with the age-matched non-transgenic mice, but such changes have not been observed in any brain regions of the transgenic mice under the age of 5 months. These results suggest that deposition of b -amyloid can induce changes in the brain cholinergic system of the transgenic mice.

  8. Experience in using ceretone (choline alfoscerate in brain concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Voropay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nootropics are used to treat patients who have sustained concussion of the brain and complain of reductions in memory and working capacity, as well as emotional disorders. The efficacy of ceretone® (choline alfoscerate was studied in 76 patients (45 men and 31 women whose age was 21-56 years who had sustained brain concussion and had complaints of headache, easy fatigability, nocturnal sleep disorders, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and bad mood. Thirty-nine patients received intravenous ceretone® in a dose of 1000 mg/day for 10 days; the other 37 patients formed a control group. A one-year follow-up indicated that ceretone® had a positive effect on health, autonomic, and emotional status and working capacity.

  9. Dietary Supplementation of Alternative Methionine and Choline Sources in the Organic Broiler Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Demattê Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of natural and alternative sources of methionine and choline which can be allowed to use in organic livestock systems to feed broilers produced in Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty one-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allocated to four treatments with six replicates of 24 birds each. The treatments consisted in substituting the commonly used DL-methionine 99% by a vegetable source of methionine and cholinechloride 60% by alternative source of choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine. The following treatments were evaluated: I feed with DL-methionine 99% and choline chloride 60%, II feed with an vegetable methionine source and choline chloride 60%, III feed with DL-methionine 99% and choline as phosphatidylcholine, and IV feed with vegetable methionine source and choline as phosphatidylcholine. Daily weight gain, body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were evaluated for the periods of 1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days of age. During both periods, broilers fed the vegetable methionine source presented lower daily gain and lower body weight. When only choline chloride was substituted by the alternative choline source, broiler performance was not different compared with that of the control group. The group fed the diet with substitution of both DL-methionine 99% and choline chloride 60% by natural sources presented lower daily weight gain, final body weight, and feed intake. Further research on alternative nutrient sources are required for the development of the organic production chain.

  10. A novel biosensor array with a wheel-like pattern for glucose, lactate and choline based on electrochemiluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Xu, Linru; Wu, Suozhu; Su, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging provides a superior approach to achieve array detection because of its ability for ultrasensitive multiplex analysis. In this paper, we reported a novel ECL imaging biosensor array modified with an enzyme/carbon nanotubes/chitosan composite film for the determination of glucose, choline and lactate. The biosensor array was constructed by integrating a patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) glass plate with six perforated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) covers. ECL is generated by the electrochemical reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide that is produced by the enzyme catalysed oxidation of different substrates with molecular oxygen, and ECL images were captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The separated electrochemical micro-cells enabled simultaneous assay of six samples at different concentrations. From the established calibration curves, the detection limits were 14 μM for glucose, 40 μM for lactate and 97 μM for choline, respectively. Moreover, multicomponent assays and cross reactivity were also studied, both of which were satisfied for the analysis. This biosensing platform based on ECL imaging shows many distinct advantages, including miniaturization, low cost, and multi-functionalization. We believe that this novel ECL imaging biosensor platform will have potential applications in clinical diagnostics, medicine and food inspection. PMID:25068822

  11. Geyser Peak Cabernet Sauvignon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>年份:2000产地:美国加州Sonoma County售价:$196 Geyser Peak(盖世峰)成立于1880年,是美国军有的过百岁葡萄酒庄。可惜美国酿制葡萄酒的技术在近三四十年才有突破,历史再悠久也没有太多帮助近二十年Geyser Peak就努力改进,希望迎头赶上其它加州新秀的水平,1989年,他们就聘请了澳洲Penfolds酒庄的酿酒师Daryl Groom,让旗下出品多了一份澳洲式的"霎眼娇"风格。2003年,Geyser Peak更在International Wine & Spirit Competition赢得"最佳美国葡萄酒生产商"大奖。

  12. Generator Maintenance Scheduling of Large-scale Wind Power Integration Considering Peak Shaving%考虑大规模风电调峰要求的系统机组检修计划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏宇; 印永华; 申洪; 何剑; 赵珊珊

    2012-01-01

    考虑风电运行特性进行发电机组检修安排对优化风电利用和保证系统运行安全意义重大。综合考虑了风电出力运行要求、负荷变化特性与机组调节特性以及机组检修特性,以系统检修成本和风电弃风量为优化目标,以系统发电可靠性和系统调峰充裕性等为约束条件,利用Benders分解法将原始模型分解为主问题(多目标整数规划)和子问题(弃风量计算、系统发电可靠性和调峰充裕性)进行分散协调,对含大规模风电的电力系统机组检修计划进行了研究。最后,利用IEEE—RTS测试系统验证了所述方法的可行性与有效性。%It is important to consider the operational characteristics of wind power in the generator maintenance scheduling for optimizing the use of wind power and ensuring the safety of system operation. A comprehensive model of generator maintenance scheduling, considering the operational characteristics of wind power, the fluctuation characteristics of load and the regulating and maintenance characteristics of units, is established. The model optimization goal is the combination of system maintenance cost and revenue loss of wind energy, which is mainly constrained by the power generation reliability and peak-load regulating adequacy. Based on Benders decomposition, the model is decomposed into two parts: a master problem (deterministic multi-objective integer programming) and three sub-problems (revenue loss of wind energy calculation, power generation reliability and peak-load regulating adequacy) for decentralized coordination, and this method is applied to make maintenance scheduling for all the generators in IEEE-RTS test system with large-scale wind power integration. The results prove that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  13. Methionine-choline deprivation alters liver and brain acetylcholinesterase activity in C57BL6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučević, Danijela B; Cerović, Ivana B; Mladenović, Dušan R; Vesković, Milena N; Stevanović, Ivana; Jorgačević, Bojan Z; Ješić Vukićević, Rada; Radosavljević, Tatjana S

    2016-07-01

    Choline and methionine are precursors of acetylcholine, whose hydrolysis is catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Considering the possibility of their common deficiency, we investigated the influence of methionine-choline deprivation on AChE activity in liver and various brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and striatum) in mice fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 28) were randomly and equally divided into following groups: control group fed with standard diet for 6 weeks (C) and groups fed with MCD diet for 2 weeks (MCD2), 4 weeks (MCD4) and for 6 weeks (MCD6). After the diet, mice were sacrificied and AChE activity in liver and brain was determined spectrophotometrically. Hepatic AChE activity was higher in MCD2, MCD4 and MCD6 compared to control (p methionine-choline deprivation.

  14. Choline metabolism as a basis for the selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The unique propensity of cholinergic neurons to use choline for two purposes--ACh and membrane phosphatidylcholine synthesis--may contribute to their selective vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease and other cholinergic neurodegenerative disorders. When physiologically active, the neurons use free choline taken from the 'reservoir' in membrane phosphatidylcholine to synthesize ACh; this can lead to an actual decrease in the quantity of membrane per cell. Alzheimer's disease (but not Down's syndrome, or other neurodegenerative disorders) is associated with characteristic neurochemical lesions involving choline and ethanolamine: brain levels of these compounds are diminished, while those of glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine (breakdown products of their respective membrane phosphatides) are increased, both in cholinergic and noncholinergic brain regions. Perhaps this metabolic disturbance and the tendency of cholinergic neurons to 'export' choline--in the form of ACh--underlie the selective vulnerability of the neurons. Resulting changes in membrane composition could abnormally expose intramembraneous proteins such as amyloid precursor protein to proteases.

  15. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  16. Quantum Chemical Insight into the Interactions and Thermodynamics Present in Choline Chloride Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Durgesh V; Deakyne, Carol A; Baker, Gary A

    2016-07-14

    We report quantum chemical calculations performed on three popular deep eutectic solvents (DESs) in order to elucidate the molecular interactions, charge transfer interactions, and thermodynamics associated with these systems. The DESs studied comprise 1:2 choline chloride/urea (reline), 1:2 choline chloride/ethylene glycol (ethaline), and 1:1 choline chloride/malonic acid (maloline). The excellent correlation between calculated and experimental vibrational spectra allowed for identification of dominant interactions in the DES systems. The DESs were found to be stabilized by both conventional hydrogen bonds and C-H···O/C-H···π interactions between the components. The hydrogen-bonding network established in the DES is clearly distinct from that which exists within the neat hydrogen-bond donor dimer. Charge decomposition analysis indicates significant charge transfer from choline and chloride to the hydrogen-bond donor with a higher contribution from the cation, and a density of states analysis confirms the direction of the charge transfer. Consequently, the sum of the bond orders of the choline-Cl(-) interactions in the DESs correlates directly with the melting temperatures of the DESs, a correlation that offers insight into the effect of the tuning of the choline-Cl(-) interactions by the hydrogen-bond donors on the physical properties of the DESs. Finally, the differences in the vibrational entropy changes upon DES formation are consistent with the trend in the overall entropy changes upon DES formation. PMID:27268431

  17. In vivo {sup 19}F-MRS observation of 5-FU metabolism in fatty liver induced by choline-deficient diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Hideki; Harada, Masafumi; Nishitani, Hiromu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Koga, Keiko

    1996-07-01

    Using {sup 19}F-MRS, 5-FU metabolism was investigated in rat fatty liver. Fatty liver was induced by choline-deficient diet (CD diet). This study showed differences in 5-FU metabolism between normal and fatty liver. After laparotomy, a surface coil was placed directly on the liver surface. Spectra were continuously obtained after injection of 5-FU 100 mg/kg body weight via a catheter inserted into femoral vein. We made MRI and {sup 1}H-MRS study to examine the lipid accumulation. Histological study was also performed using HE (hematoxylin-eosin) and oil red stain. The livers of rats fed a CD diet showed very high intensity on T{sub 1}-WI. {sup 1}H-MRS was very useful in deteminating the fat content because the fat ratio demonstrated by {sup 1}H-MRS is well correlated to histological findings. In {sup 19}F-MRS, we recognized the following four peaks: 5-FU, FBAL, Fnct (fluoronucleotide) and FUPA. The decrease of 5-FU was not very apparent, but compared to the normal liver, the formation of Fnct increased and the formation of FBAL was suppressed in fatty liver. The rats fed a CD diet for four weeks showed a higher Fnct peak and lower FBAL peak compared with the results of rats fed a CD diet for two weeks. In a CD diet group, liver cell degeneration and necrotic changes were observed histologically. It is reported that cell degeneration is followed by cell proliferation in fatty liver induced by a choline deficient diet, and the high Fnct peak found in our study may reflect this phenomenon. The high Fnct peak on {sup 19}F-MRS may correspond to recovering reaction from liver injury like fatty liver. (author)

  18. PET/CT in prostate cancer: non-choline radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, P; Jadvar, H

    2012-08-01

    In this brief review, the major potential clinical applications of 18F-FDG, 11C-acetate, 18F-FDHT, 18F-FLT, 18F-FMAU, and anti-18F-FACBC in the imaging evaluation of men with prostate cancer are discussed. 18F-FDG has a limited role in primary diagnosis and staging but it may be able to reflect tumour aggressiveness, detect sites of recurrence in some men with high serum PSA after biochemical failure and assess response to chemo- and hormonal treatment in metastatic disease. 11C-acetate has been investigated for intra-prostatic primary tumour detection and staging as well as for re-staging in case of biochemical relapse with results that are overall similar to those with 18F- and 11C-labeled choline. 18F-FDHT targets the androgen receptor and may be particularly useful in the assessment of the pharmacodynamics of the androgen signalling pathway. PET in conjunction with 18F-FLT or 18F-FMAU that track the thymidine salvage pathway of DNA synthesis has also been investigated for imaging cellular proliferation in prostate cancer. Initial experience with the radiolabeled synthetic amino acid, anti-18F-FACBC, which displays slow urinary excretion has been encouraging but further studies will be needed to decipher its exact role in the imaging management of men with prostate cancer.

  19. Kinetics of [{sup 11}C]choline uptake in prostate cancer: a PET stydy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutinen, Eija; Minn, Heikki [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Central Hospital, PO Box 52, 20521, Turku (Finland); Nurmi, Martti [Department of Surgery, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Roivainen, Anne; Tolvanen, Tuula; Lehikoinen, Pertti [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Varpula, Matti [Department of Radiology, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland)

    2004-03-01

    Carbon-11 choline has recently been introduced as a potential tracer for tumour imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). We evaluated the kinetics of the uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also evaluated the association between the uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline and the histological grade of malignancy, Gleason score, volume of the prostate and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Fourteen patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer and five patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were studied with [{sup 11}C]choline PET. A mean dose of 430{+-}31 MBq of [{sup 11}C]choline was injected intravenously and a dynamic emission acquisition of prostate was performed for 30 min. The uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline was measured as a standardised uptake value (SUV) and as a kinetic influx constant (K{sub i}) obtained from graphical analysis. Both cancerous and hyperplastic prostate were well visualised with [{sup 11}C]choline against low or moderate tracer accumulation in the bladder and rectal wall. The measured radioactivity in urine was invariably low. In the graphical analysis, linear plots were achieved. The mean K{sub i} of the untreated tumour was 0.205{+-}0.089 min{sup -1} (range 0.128-0.351; n=7) and the mean SUV was 5.6{+-}3.2 (range 1.9-15.5; n=15). K{sub i} values and SUVs correlated closely (r=0.964, P=0.0005), whereas no correlation could be demonstrated between the tumour uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline and the histological grade, Gleason score, volume of the prostate or PSA. The mean SUV and the mean K{sub i} of benign hyperplastic prostate were 3.5{+-}1.0 (range 2.0-4.5; n=4) and 0.119{+-}0.076 min{sup -1} (range 0.065-0.173; n=2). In conclusion, a high uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline characterises not only carcinomatous but also hyperplastic prostatic tissue. Dynamic imaging of the uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline in the prostate shows a good applicability of the graphical analysis model with an

  20. Changes of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline after mechanical ventilation in patients with acute cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei-dong; ZHOU Dao-yang; YANG Yun-mei; XU Zhe-rong; SHEN Mei-ya; SU Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect the levels of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) in the sputum of the patients with acute cerebral injury without primary pulmonary injury after mechanical ventilation treatment.Methods: DPPC levels in sputum of 35 patients with acute cerebral injury but without pulmonary injury were detected with high performance liquid chromatography at the beginning of ventilation and 16-20 days, 21-40 days,and 41-60 days after ventilation, respectively.Results: There was no significant difference of the DPPC levels between 16-20 days after ventilation (3.36 ±0.49) and at the beginning of ventilation ( 3.37 ± 0.58 )(P>0.05). The mean levels of DPPC decreased significantly at 21-40 days (2.87 mg/ml ±0.26 mg/ml, P <0.05) and 41-60 days (1.93 mg/ml ±0.21 mg/ml, P <0.01) after ventilation compared with that at the beginning of ventilation. At the same period, the peak inspiratory pressure and the mean pressure of airway increas ed significantly, whereas the static compliance and the partial pressure of oxygen in artery decreased significantly. Among the 25 patients who received ventilation for more than 20days, 8 (32%) had slightly-decreased partial pressure of oxygen in artery compared with that at the beginning of ventilation.Conclusions: Mechanical ventilation can decrease the DPPC levels, decrease the lung compliance and increase the airway pressure, even impair the oxygenation function in patients with acute cerebral injury. Abnormal DPPC is one of the major causes of ventilator-associated lung injury.

  1. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  2. Decoupling approximation design using the peak to peak gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Cornel

    2013-04-01

    Linear system design for accurate decoupling approximation is examined using the peak to peak gain of the error system. The design problem consists in finding values of system parameters to ensure that this gain is small. For this purpose a computationally inexpensive upper bound on the peak to peak gain, namely the star norm, is minimized using a stochastic method. Examples of the methodology's application to tensegrity structures design are presented. Connections between the accuracy of the approximation, the damping matrix, and the natural frequencies of the system are examined, as well as decoupling in the context of open and closed loop control.

  3. Improved human visuomotor performance and pupil constriction after choline supplementation in a placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Marnix; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Only few nutrients are known to enhance cognition. Here we explore whether visuomotor performance can be improved through the intake of the nutrient choline, an essential chemical compound in a vertebrate's diet. Choline is abundant in for example eggs and shrimps and many animal studies suggest that it serves as a cognitive enhancer. As choline is important for the communication between motor neurons and the control of skeletal muscles, we assumed that choline supplementation may have positive effects on action coordination in humans. A group of twenty-eight individuals ingested two grams of choline bitartrate or a placebo in two separate sessions. Seventy minutes post ingestion, participants performed a visuomotor aiming task in which they had to rapidly hit the centers of targets. Results showed that participants hit targets more centrally after choline supplementation. Pupil size (a cognition-sensitive biomarker) also significantly decreased after choline intake and correlated positively with the hit distance to the targets and the number of target misses, and negatively with reaction times. These findings point to a choline-induced bias towards action precision in the trade-off between speed and accuracy. The changes in pupil size suggest that choline uptake alters cholinergic functions in the nervous system. PMID:26271904

  4. Choline Ameliorates Disease Phenotypes in Human iPSC Models of Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eunice W M; Marcy, Guillaume; Yoon, Su-In; Ma, Dongliang; Rosales, Francisco J; Augustine, George J; Goh, Eyleen L K

    2016-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects girls. Mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene account for approximately 95 % of all RTT cases. To model RTT in vitro, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of two RTT patients with different mutations (MECP2 (R306C) and MECP2 (1155Δ32)) in their MECP2 gene. We found that these iPSCs were capable of differentiating into functional neurons. Compared to control neurons, the RTT iPSC-derived cells had reduced soma size and a decreased amount of synaptic input, evident both as fewer Synapsin 1-positive puncta and a lower frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Supplementation of the culture media with choline rescued all of these defects. Choline supplementation may act through changes in the expression of choline acetyltransferase, an important enzyme in cholinergic signaling, and also through alterations in the lipid metabolite profiles of the RTT neurons. Our study elucidates the possible mechanistic pathways for the effect of choline on human RTT cell models, thereby illustrating the potential for using choline as a nutraceutical to treat RTT. PMID:27379379

  5. Choline Ameliorates Disease Phenotypes in Human iPSC Models of Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eunice W M; Marcy, Guillaume; Yoon, Su-In; Ma, Dongliang; Rosales, Francisco J; Augustine, George J; Goh, Eyleen L K

    2016-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects girls. Mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene account for approximately 95 % of all RTT cases. To model RTT in vitro, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of two RTT patients with different mutations (MECP2 (R306C) and MECP2 (1155Δ32)) in their MECP2 gene. We found that these iPSCs were capable of differentiating into functional neurons. Compared to control neurons, the RTT iPSC-derived cells had reduced soma size and a decreased amount of synaptic input, evident both as fewer Synapsin 1-positive puncta and a lower frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Supplementation of the culture media with choline rescued all of these defects. Choline supplementation may act through changes in the expression of choline acetyltransferase, an important enzyme in cholinergic signaling, and also through alterations in the lipid metabolite profiles of the RTT neurons. Our study elucidates the possible mechanistic pathways for the effect of choline on human RTT cell models, thereby illustrating the potential for using choline as a nutraceutical to treat RTT.

  6. Choline requirements of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Tang, J; Hou, S S; Guo, Y M; Huang, W; Xie, M

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with 8 dietary choline levels (302, 496, 778, 990, 1,182, 1,414, 1,625, and 1,832 mg/kg) was conducted with male White Pekin ducks to estimate the choline requirement from hatch to 21 d of age. Three hundred eighty-four 1-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain from each pen were calculated for feeding period, and 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were euthanized and the liver was collected to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. In our study, perosis, poor growth, and high liver fat were all observed in choline-deficient ducks and incidence of perosis was zero when dietary choline was 1,182 mg/kg. As dietary choline increased, the weight gain and feed intake increased linearly or quadratically (P perosis and excess liver lipid deposition completely. PMID:25260528

  7. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation.

  8. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation. PMID:26302482

  9. C-11 Choline and FDG PET/CT Imaging of Primary Cholangiocarcinoma – a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanisa Chotipanich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aimed to compare the diagnostic values of 11C-choline and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 10 patients (6 males and 4 females, aged 42-69 years, suspected of having CCA based on CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI results. 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT studies were performed in all patients over 1 week. PET/CT results were visually analyzed by 2 independent nuclear medicine physicians and quantitatively by calculating the tumor-to-background ratio (T/B. Results: No 11C-choline PET/CT uptake was observed in primary extrahepatic or intrahepatic CCA cases. Intense 18F-FDG avidity was detected in the tumors of 8 patients (%80. Two patients, who were 18F-FDG negative, had primary extrahepatic CCA. Ki-67 measurements were positive in all patients (range; 14.2%-39.9%. The average T/B values of 11C-choline and 18F-FDG were 0.4±0.2 and 2.0±1.0 in all cases of primary CCA, respectively; these values were significantly lower for 11C-choline (P

  10. Physical and chemical immobilization of choline oxidase onto different porous solid supports: Adsorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Marieta L C; Ribeiro, David S M; Santos, João L M; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2016-08-01

    This work carries out for the first time the comparison between the physical and chemical immobilization of choline oxidase onto aminated silica-based porous supports. The influence on the immobilization efficiency of concentration, pH, temperature and contact time between the support and choline oxidase, was evaluated. The immobilization efficiency was estimated taking into consideration the choline oxidase activity, which was assessed by using cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs), obtained by hydrothermal synthesis, as photoluminescent probes. Hydrogen peroxide produced by enzyme activity was capable of quenching CdTe QDs photoluminescence. The magnitude of the PL quenching process was directly related with the enzyme activity. By comparing the chemical process with the physical adsorption, it was observed that the latter provided the highest choline oxidase immobilization. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy and entropy were also calculated. These results will certainly contribute to the development of new sensing schemes for choline, taking into account the growing demand for its quantification in biological samples. PMID:27241295

  11. Amperometric Choline Biosensor Fabricated through Electrostatic Assembly of Bienzyme/Polyelectrolyte Hybrid Layers on Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-03-01

    We report a flow injection amperometric choline biosensors based on the electrostatic assembly of an enzyme of choline oxidase (ChO) and a bi-enzyme of ChO and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. These choline biosensors were fabricated by immobilization of enzymes on the negatively charged MWCNT surface through alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallydiimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and an enzyme layer. Using this layer-by-layer assembling approach, bioactive nanocomposite film of a PDDA/ChO/PDDA/HRP/PDDA/CNT (ChO/HRP/CNT) and a PDDA/ChO/PDDA/ CNT (ChO/ CNT) were fabricated on GC surface, respectively. Owning to the electrocatalytic effect of carbon nanotubes, the measurement of faradic responses resulting from enzymatic reactions has been realized at low potential with acceptable sensitivity. It is found the ChO/HRP/CNT biosensor is more sensitive than the ChO/CNT one. Experimental parameters affecting the sensitivity of biosensors, e.g. applied potential, flow rate, etc. were optimized and potential interference was examined. The response time for this choline biosensor is fast (less than a few seconds). The linear range of detection for the choline biosensor is from 5 x 10-5 to 5 x 10-3 M and the detection limit is determined to be about 1.0 x 10-5 M.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum Choline Kinase Inhibition Leads to a Major Decrease in Phosphatidylethanolamine Causing Parasite Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrán-Aguilera, Lucía; Denton, Helen; Rubio-Ruiz, Belén; López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Entrena, Antonio; Izquierdo, Luis; Smith, Terry K.; Conejo-García, Ana; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, with P. falciparum being the deadliest. Increasing parasitic resistance to existing antimalarials makes the necessity of novel avenues to treat this disease an urgent priority. The enzymes responsible for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are attractive drug targets to treat malaria as their selective inhibition leads to an arrest of the parasite’s growth and cures malaria in a mouse model. We present here a detailed study that reveals a mode of action for two P. falciparum choline kinase inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo. The compounds present distinct binding modes to the choline/ethanolamine-binding site of P. falciparum choline kinase, reflecting different types of inhibition. Strikingly, these compounds primarily inhibit the ethanolamine kinase activity of the P. falciparum choline kinase, leading to a severe decrease in the phosphatidylethanolamine levels within P. falciparum, which explains the resulting growth phenotype and the parasites death. These studies provide an understanding of the mode of action, and act as a springboard for continued antimalarial development efforts selectively targeting P. falciparum choline kinase. PMID:27616047

  13. Experience with carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography in prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the potential of carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of lymph node and bone metastases in prostate cancer. A total of 23 patients were studied (known metastases: 8; suspicion of metastases: 3; primary staging: 12). Whole-body PET imaging was performed 5 min after injection of the tracer and completed within 1 h. Focally increased tracer uptake in bone or abdominal lymph node regions was interpreted as representing tumour involvement. All known bone and lymph node metastases could be recognized by [11C]choline PET. One out of ten negative scans for primary staging was false-negative (lymph node 11C]choline PET is a promising new tool for the primary staging of prostate cancer, with lymph node and bone metastases demonstrating high tracer uptake. Therapeutic management could be influenced by these results in that the technique may permit avoidance of surgical lymph node exploration. (orig.)

  14. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  15. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  16. How polar are choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashish; Rai, Rewa; Pal, Mahi; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-01-28

    Developing and characterizing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is one of the most important issues in chemistry. Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), in this regard, have shown tremendous promise. Compared to popular organic solvents, DESs possess negligible VOCs and are non-flammable. Compared to ionic liquids, which share many characteristics but are ionic compounds and not ionic mixtures, DESs are cheaper to make, much less toxic and mostly biodegradable. An estimate of the polarity associated with DESs is essential if they are to be used as green alternatives to common organic solvents in industries and academia. As no one physical parameter can satisfactorily represent solute-solvent interactions within a medium, polarity of DESs is assessed through solvatochromic optical spectroscopic responses of several UV-vis absorbance and molecular fluorescence probes. Information on the local microenvironment (i.e., the cybotactic region) that surrounds several solvatochromic probes [betaine dye, pyrene, pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), p-toluidinyl-6-naphthalene sulfonate (TNS), 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylaminonaphthalene) (PRODAN), coumarin-153, and Nile Red] for four common and popular DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, urea, and malonic acid, respectively, in 1 : 2 molar ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, reline, and maline is obtained and used to assess the effective polarity afforded by each of these DESs. The four DESs as indicated by these probe responses are found to be fairly dipolar in nature. Absorbance probe betaine dye and fluorescence probes ANS, TNS, PRODAN, coumarin-153, and Nile Red, whose solvatochromic responses are based on photoinduced charge-transfer, imply ethaline and glyceline, DESs formed using alcohol-based H-bond donors, to be relatively more dipolar in nature as compared to reline and maline. The pyrene polarity scale, which is based on polarity-induced changes in

  17. In vivo uptake of [C-11]choline does not correlate with cell proliferation in human prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruim, J; Jongen, MM; Suurmeijer, AJ; Vaalburg, W; Nijman, RJ; de Jong, IJ; Breeuwsma, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among US men. Positron emission tomography (PET) with [C-11] choline has been shown to be useful in the staging and detection of prostate cancer. The background of the increased uptake of choline in human prostate cancer is no

  18. Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

  19. Transformation of Synechococcus with a gene for choline oxidase enhances tolerance to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshnium, P; Los, D A; Hayashi, H; Mustardy, L; Murata, N

    1995-12-01

    Choline oxidase, isolated from the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis, converts choline to glycinebetaine (N-trimethylglycine) without a requirement for any cofactors. The gene for this enzyme, designated codA, was cloned and introduced into the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. The codA gene was expressed under the control of a strong constitutive promoter, and the transformed cells accumulated glycinebetaine at intracellular levels of 60-80 mM. Consequently the cells acquired tolerance to salt stress, as evaluated in terms of growth, accumulation of chlorophyll and photosynthetic activity. PMID:8555454

  20. Osmoprotectants in Halomonas elongata: High-affinity betaine transport system and choline-betaine pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Gutiérrez, Joaquín José; Cánovas, David; Vargas, C.; Ventosa Ucero, Antonio; Csonka, Laszlo N.

    1996-01-01

    The osmoregulatory pathways of the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 have been investigated. This strain grew optimally at 1.5 to 2 M NaCl in M63 glucose-defined medium. It required at least 0.5 M NaCl for growth, which is a higher concentration than that exhibited by the H. elongata type strain ATCC 33173. Externally provided betaine, choline, or choline-O-sulfate (but not proline, ectoine, or proline betaine) enhanced the growth of H. elongata on 3 M NaCl-glucose-M...

  1. Effect of choline on carbon assimilation and phosphorus uptake by ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results showed that the choline sprayed at green fruit stage of 4 years old ginseng, photosynthetic rate increased by 14.22%, transfer rate of 14C-assimilates increased by 21.82%, a mount of 14C-assimilates transported in total ginsensidi of root increased by 10.66%. Choline treatment also promoted phosphorus absorption in ginseng, the ratio of 32P absorption increased by 17.81%, and the 32P accumulated in root increased by 31.2%. The yield of ginseng root was increased by 28.78%

  2. Temperature-Driven Mixing-Demixing Behavior of Binary Mixtures of the Ionic Liquid Choline Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and Water

    OpenAIRE

    Nockemann, Peter; Binnemans, Koen; Thijs, Ben; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana; Merz, Klaus; Mudring, Anja-Verena; Menon, Preethy Chirukandath; Rajesh, Ravindran Nair; George, Cordoyiannis; Thoen, Jan; Leys, Jan; Glorieux, Christ

    2009-01-01

    The ionic liquid (2-hydroxyethylammonium)trimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (choline bistriflimide) was obtained as a supercooled liquid at room temperature (melting point = 30 °C). Crystals of choline bistriflimide suitable for structure determination were grown from the melt in situ on the X-ray diffractometer. The choline cation adopts a folded conformation, whereas the bistriflimide anion exhibits a transoid conformation. The choline cation and the bistriflimide anion ar...

  3. Doppler peaks from active perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Coulson, D; Ferreira, P; Magueijo, Joao; Albrecht, Andreas; Coulson, David; Ferreira, Pedro

    1995-01-01

    We examine how the qualitative structure of the Doppler peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave anisotropy depends on the fundamental nature of the perturbations which produced them. The formalism of Hu and Sugiyama is extended to treat models with cosmic defects. We discuss how perturbations can be ``active'' or ``passive'' and ``incoherent'' or ``coherent'', and show how causality and scale invariance play rather different roles in these various cases. We find that the existence of secondary Doppler peaks and the rough placing of the primary peak unambiguously reflect these basic properties.

  4. Psychological Preparation for Peak Performance in Sports Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben; Jonathan, Ugwuanyi I.; Ikechukwu, Ugwu Jude

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to make an overview of various techniques, sport psychologist adopt in psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospect on physical training on sport skills alone rather should integrate both the mental and physical…

  5. NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) based signatures of abnormal choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma with no prominent Warburg effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bag, Swarnendu, E-mail: Swarna.bag@gmail.com [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Banerjee, Deb Ranjan, E-mail: debranjan2@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Basak, Amit, E-mail: absk@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Das, Amit Kumar, E-mail: amitk@hijli.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Pal, Mousumi, E-mail: drmpal62@gmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Banerjee, Rita, E-mail: ritabanerjee@outlook.com [Department of Science and Technology, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110016 (India); Paul, Ranjan Rashmi, E-mail: dr_rsspaul@yahoo.co.in [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy, E-mail: jchatterjee.iitkgp@gmail.com [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India)

    2015-04-17

    At functional levels, besides genes and proteins, changes in metabolome profiles are instructive for a biological system in health and disease including malignancy. It is understood that metabolomic alterations in association with proteomic and transcriptomic aberrations are very fundamental to unravel malignant micro-ambient criticality and oral cancer is no exception. Hence deciphering intricate dimensions of oral cancer metabolism may be contributory both for integrated appreciation of its pathogenesis and to identify any critical but yet unexplored dimension of this malignancy with high mortality rate. Although several methods do exist, NMR provides higher analytical precision in identification of cancer metabolomic signature. Present study explored abnormal signatures in choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analysis of serum. It has demonstrated down-regulation of choline with concomitant up-regulation of its break-down product in the form of trimethylamine N-oxide in OSCC compared to normal counterpart. Further, no significant change in lactate profile in OSCC possibly indicated that well-known Warburg effect was not a prominent phenomenon in such malignancy. Amongst other important metabolites, malonate has shown up-regulation but D-glucose, saturated fatty acids, acetate and threonine did not show any significant change. Analyzing these metabolomic findings present study proposed trimethyl amine N-oxide and malonate as important metabolic signature for oral cancer with no prominent Warburg effect. - Highlights: • NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) study of Oral Squamous cell Carcinoma Serum. • Abnormal Choline metabolomic signatures. • Up-regulation of Trimethylamine N-oxide. • Unchanged lactate profile indicates no prominent Warburg effect. • Proposed alternative glucose metabolism path through up-regulation of malonate.

  6. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  7. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  8. Electricity Portfolio Management: Optimal Peak / Off-Peak Allocations

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Ronald; Mahieu, Ronald; Schlichter, Felix

    2007-01-01

    textabstractElectricity purchasers manage a portfolio of contracts in order to purchase the expected future electricity consumption profile of a company or a pool of clients. This paper proposes a mean-variance framework to address the concept of structuring the portfolio and focuses on how to allocate optimal positions in peak and off-peak forward contracts. It is shown that the optimal allocations are based on the difference in risk premiums per unit of day-ahead risk as a measure of relati...

  9. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian, E-mail: marian@radetzki.bi [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  10. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks. Chimeras without substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian [Luleaa University of Technology (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth. (author)

  11. Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as additives for optimizing chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guizhen; Zhu, Tao; Lei, Yingjie [Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-10-15

    A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.

  12. Mechanisms of Indomethacin-Induced Alterations in the Choline Phospholipid Metabolism of Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Glunde

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs exhibit an increase in phosphocholine (PC and total cholinecontaining compounds, as well as a switch from high glycerophosphocholine (GPC/low PC to low GPC/high PC, with progression to malignant phenotype. The treatment of human breast cancer cells with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin, reverted the high PC/low GPC pattern to a low PC/high GPC pattern indicative of a less malignant phenotype, supported by decreased invasion. Here, we have characterized mechanisms underlying indomethacininduced alterations in choline membrane metabolism in malignant breast cancer cells and nonmalignant HMECs labeled with [1,2-13C]choline using 1H and 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Microarray gene expression analysis was performed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes. In breast cancer cells, indomethacin treatment activated phospholipases that, combined with an increased choline phospholipid biosynthesis, led to increased GPC and decreased PC levels. However, in nonmalignant HMECs, activation of the anabolic pathway alone was detected following indomethacin treatment. Following indomethacin treatment in breast cancer cells, several candidate genes, such as interleukin 8, NGFB, CSF2, RHOB, EDN1, and JUNB, were differentially expressed, which may have contributed to changes in choline metabolism through secondary effects or signaling cascades leading to changes in enzyme activity.

  13. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  14. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  15. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J A

    1981-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined. PMID:7322986

  16. 75 FR 760 - Choline chloride; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... participant of animal and human metabolism. Choline chloride has been used as a widespread nutrient in animal... Findings In the Federal Register of December 3, 2008 (73 FR 73648) (FRL- 8391-3), EPA issued a notice... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational...

  17. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; Schouw, van der Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16 165 women aged 49¿70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  18. The unmediated choline sensor based on layered double hydroxides in hydrogen peroxide detection mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this work,we have developed a novel choline biosensor on the basis of immobilization of choline oxidase (ChOx) by the attractive materials layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Amperometric detection of choline was evaluated by holding the modified electrode at 0.5 V (vs. SCE). Due to the special properties of LDHs ([Zn3-Al-Cl]),such as chemical inertness,high porosity,and swelling property,the [Zn3-Al-Cl]/ChOx modified electrode exhibited an enhanced analytical performance. The biosensor provided a linear response to choline over a concentration range from 3.7 × 10-6 to 6.3 × 10-4 M with a low detection limit of 3 × 10-7 M based on S/N=3. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was calculated to be 1.38 mM. In addition,the interaction between ChOx and LDHs has also been investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy.

  19. Solubilities and thermodynamic properties of CO2 in choline-chloride based deep eutectic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solubilities of carbon dioxide in three deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been reported. • The experimental data were reduced to Henry’s law constants. • The Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes were calculated. • Relationship between solubility and structure of DESs was developed. - Abstract: The solubilities of CO2 in three kinds of deep eutectic solvents, (choline chloride + phenol), (choline chloride + diethylene glycol) and (choline chloride + triethylene glycol), were determined at temperatures ranging from 293.15 K to 323.15 K under pressures up to 600.0 kPa using isochoric saturation method. The mole ratios of choline chloride to phenol were selected as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, the others as 1:3 and 1:4. Henry’s constants and thermodynamic properties such as standard Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes of CO2 solvation were calculated from the correlation of solubility data. Results revealed that the solubility of CO2 increased with increasing pressure and decreased with increasing temperature. The enthalpies of solution were negative at all conditions

  20. Decision Model of Critical Peak Pricing Considering Wind Power to Be Integrated%考虑系统风电接纳的尖峰电价决策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔强; 王秀丽; 唐伦; 丁向坤

    2014-01-01

    Propose solution responses to the difficulty of peak regulation and lack of peak power, we aim at improving the ability of accepted wind power and reducing the wind was forced to discard. The decision model time-variable critical peak pricing is established after having comprehensive considerations,including the interests of the wind farms,power users and power supply company. Monte Carlo simulation to wind speed and the improved genetic algorithm are used to create the model. The method effectively cut down the critical peak load of the system and improving the ability of accepted wind power. It is a win-win solution,the wind was forced to discard by wind farm is reduced,wind energy resources is utilized efficiently,the average power purchase price of users is lowered,and the profit of power supply company is increased.%针对以火电为主、调峰难、缺少尖峰电力的电源结构,提出通过需求响应解决目前系统风电接纳能力不足、弃风严重的问题。建立了综合考虑风电场、电力用户和供电公司利益的多目标变时段尖峰电价决策模型,通过风速的Monte Carlo模拟,采用改进的遗传算法对模型进行了求解。该方法有效的削减了系统的尖峰负荷,提高了系统接纳风电的能力。风电场弃风减少,风能资源得到了有效利用,并且电力用户的平均购电价格降低,供电公司利润增加,实现了多方共赢。

  1. Methionine- and choline-deficient diet induces hepatic changes characteristic of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Marcolin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a disease with a high incidence, difficult diagnosis, and as yet no effective treatment. So, the use of experimental models for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induction and the study of its routes of development have been studied. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to develop an experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a methionine- and choline-deficient diet that is manufactured in Brazil so as to evaluate the liver alterations resulting from the disorder. METHODS: Thirty male C57BL6 mice divided in two groups (n = 15 were used: the experimental group fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet manufactured by Brazilian company PragSoluções®, and the control group fed a normal diet, for a period of 2 weeks. The animals were then killed by exsanguination to sample blood for systemic biochemical analyses, and subsequently submitted to laparotomy with total hepatectomy and preparation of the material for histological analysis. The statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for independent samples, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The mice that received the methionine- and choline-deficient diet showed weight loss and significant increase in hepatic damage enzymes, as well as decreased systemic levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and VLDL. The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was performed in 100% of the mice that were fed the methionine- and choline-deficient diet. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed some degree of macrovesicular steatosis, ballooning, and inflammatory process. None of the animals which were fed the control diet presented histological alterations. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed significantly increased lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH activity. CONCLUSION: The low cost and easily accessible methionine- and choline-deficient diet explored in this study is highly effective in

  2. Doubly ionic hydrogen bond interactions within the choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P; Welton, Tom; Hunt, Patricia A

    2016-07-21

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are exemplars of systems with the ability to form neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. Herein, the pairwise interactions of the constituent components of the choline chloride-urea DES are examined. Evidence is found for a tripodal CHCl doubly ionic H-bond motif. Moreover it is found that the covalency of doubly ionic H-bonds can be greater than, or comparable with, neutral and ionic examples. In contrast to many traditional solvents, an "alphabet soup" of many different types of H-bond (OHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, OHCl, NHCl, OHNH, CHCl, CHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHOH and NHNH) can form. These H-bonds exhibit substantial flexibility in terms of number and strength. It is anticipated that H-bonding will have a significant impact on the entropy of the system and thus could play an important role in the formation of the eutectic. The 2 : 1 urea : choline-chloride eutectic point of this DES is often associated with the formation of a [Cl(urea)2](-) complexed anion. However, urea is found to form a H-bonded urea[choline](+) complexed cation that is energetically competitive with [Cl(urea)2](-). The negative charge on [Cl(urea)2](-) is found to remain localised on the chloride, moreover, the urea[choline](+) complexed cation forms the strongest H-bond studied here. Thus, there is potential to consider a urea[choline](+)·urea[Cl](-) interaction. PMID:27328990

  3. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  4. Discriminate Modelling of Peak and Off-Peak Motorway Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Mohammed Alhassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic theory is concerned with the movement of discrete objects in real time over a finite network in 2 Dimensions. It is compatible with or dependent on fundamental diagram of traffic. Without question traffic flow is an essential quantitative parameter that is used in planning, designs and roadway improvements.  Road capacity is significant because it is an important indicator of road performance and can point road managers in the right road maintenance and traffic management direction. In this paper four direct empirical capacity measurement methods have been considered. To test the efficacy of each method, data for peak period, off-peak and transition to peak have been used. The headway and the volume methods lack predictive capability and are suitable only for current assessment of flow rates.  The product limit method is weak in its predictive capability in view of the arbitrariness in the selection of the capacity value. It is also an extreme value method; hence not all volume data can be used with this method. The fundamental diagram method has good predictive capability and furnishes capacity values consistent with the standard of the facility. Unlike other methods, it does not rely on bottleneck conditions to deliver the capacity value.  The paper concluded that each method is uniquely suited to prevailing conditions and can be so employed.

  5. Choline PET and PET/CT in Primary Diagnosis and Staging of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schwarzenböck, M. Souvatzoglou, B. J. Krause

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PET and PET/CT using [11C]- and [18F]-labelled choline derivates is increasingly being used for imaging of primary and recurrent prostate cancer. While PET and PET/CT with [11C]- and [18F]-labelled choline derivates in patients suffering from biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies that demonstrate an increasing importance, its role in the primary staging of prostate cancer is still a matter of debate.Morphological and functional imaging techniques such as CT, MRI and TRUS have demonstrated only limited accuracy for the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer. Molecular imaging with PET and PET/CT could potentially increase accuracy to localize primary prostate cancer. A considerable number of studies have examined the value of PET/CT with [11C]- and [18F]- labelled choline derivates for the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer with mixed results. Primary prostate cancer can only be detected with moderate sensitivity using [11C]- and [18F]choline PET and PET/CT. The detection rate depends on the tumour configuration. Detection is also limited by a considerable number of microcarcinomas that cannot be detected due to partial volume effects. Therefore small and in part rind-like tumours can often not be visualized. Furthermore, the differentiation between benign changes like prostatitis, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN or prostatic hyperplasia is not always possible. Therefore, at the present time, the routine use of PET/CT with [11C]- and [18F]-labelled choline derivates cannot be recommended as a first-line screening procedure for primary prostate cancer in men at risk. A potential application of choline PET and PET/CT may be to increase the detection rate of clinically suspected prostate cancer with multiple negative prostate biopsies, for example in preparation of a focused re-biopsy and may play a role in patient stratification with respect to primary surgery and radiation therapy in the future.

  6. Measuring nonlocal Lagrangian peak bias

    CERN Document Server

    Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent; Paranjape, Aseem

    2013-01-01

    In the Lagrangian approach to halo clustering, nonlocal bias can be generated either in the initial conditions or by the subsequent gravitational motions. Here, we investigate nonlocal Lagrangian bias contributions involving gradients of the linear density field, for which we have predictions from the excursion set peak formalism. We reformulate this approach in order to explicitly take into account the variable describing the crossing of the collapse barrier. This enables us to write down a bias expansion which includes all the bias terms, including the nonlocal ones. Having checked that the model furnishes a reasonable fit to the halo mass function, we extend the 1-point cross-correlation technique of Musso, Paranjape & Sheth (2012) to bias contributions that are chi-squared distributed. We validate the method with numerical realizations of peaks of Gaussian random fields before applying it to N-body simulations. We focus on the lowest (quadratic) order nonlocal bias factors predicted by the excursion s...

  7. Causality and the Doppler Peaks

    OpenAIRE

    Turok, Neil

    1996-01-01

    Could cosmic structure have formed by the action of causal physics within the standard hot big bang, or was a prior period of inflation required? Recently there has been some discussion of whether causal sources could reproduce the pattern of Doppler peaks of the standard scale-invariant adiabatic theory. This paper gives a rigorous definition of causality, and a causal decomposition of a general source. I present an example of a simple causal source which mimics the standard adiabatic theory...

  8. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions of...

  9. Early second trimester maternal plasma choline and betaine are related to measures of early cognitive development in term infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T F Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of maternal dietary choline for fetal neural development and later cognitive function has been well-documented in experimental studies. Although choline is an essential dietary nutrient for humans, evidence that low maternal choline in pregnancy impacts neurodevelopment in human infants is lacking. We determined potential associations between maternal plasma free choline and its metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age. METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their full-term, single birth infants. Maternal blood was collected at 16 and 36 weeks of gestation and infant neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months of age for 154 mother-infant pairs. Maternal plasma choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, total B12, holotranscobalamin and folate were quantified. Infant neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III. Multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates that impact development, was used to determine the associations between maternal plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine and infant neurodevelopment. RESULTS: The maternal plasma free choline at 16 and 36 weeks gestation was median (interquartile range 6.70 (5.78-8.03 and 9.40 (8.10-11.3 µmol/L, respectively. Estimated choline intakes were (mean ± SD 383 ± 98.6 mg/day, and lower than the recommended 450 mg/day. Betaine intakes were 142 ± 70.2 mg/day. Significant positive associations were found between infant cognitive test scores and maternal plasma free choline (B=6.054, SE=2.283, p=0.009 and betaine (B=7.350, SE=1.933, p=0.0002 at 16 weeks of gestation. Maternal folate, total B12, or holotranscobalamin were not related to infant development. CONCLUSION: We show that choline status in the first half of pregnancy is associated with cognitive development among healthy term gestation infants. More work

  10. Radiosynthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Graham [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Zhao Yongjun [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Leyton, Julius [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Shan Bo [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Nguyen, Quang-de; Perumal, Meg [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Turton, David [GE-Imanet, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Arstad, Erik; Luthra, Sajinder K.; Robins, Edward G. [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Aboagye, Eric O., E-mail: eric.aboagye@imperial.ac.u [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: Choline radiotracers are widely used for clinical PET diagnosis in oncology. [{sup 11}C]Choline finds particular utility in the imaging of brain and prostate tumor metabolic status, where 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ('FDG') shows high background uptake. More recently we have extended the clinical utility of [{sup 11}C]choline to breast cancer where radiotracer uptake correlates with tumor aggressiveness (grade). In the present study, a new choline analog, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline, was synthesized and evaluated as a potential PET imaging probe. Methods: [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline were synthesized by alkylation of the relevant precursor with [{sup 18}F]fluorobromomethane or [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate required extensive modification of the existing method. [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline were then subjected to in vitro oxidative stability analysis in a chemical oxidation model using potassium permanganate and an enzymatic model using choline oxidase. The two radiotracers, together with the corresponding di-deuterated compound, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline, were then evaluated in vivo in a time-course biodistribution study in HCT-116 tumor-bearing mice. Results: Alkylation with [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate proved to be the most reliable radiosynthetic route. Stability models indicate that [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline possesses increased chemical and enzymatic (choline oxidase) oxidative stability relative to [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine. The distribution of the three radiotracers, [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline, showed a similar uptake profile in most organs. Crucially, tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F

  11. Regulation of the high-affinity choline transporter activity and trafficking by its association with cholesterol-rich lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Leah K; Winick-Ng, Warren; Rylett, Rebecca Jane

    2014-03-01

    The sodium-coupled, hemicholinium-3-sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is responsible for transport of choline into cholinergic nerve terminals from the synaptic cleft following acetylcholine release and hydrolysis. In this study, we address regulation of CHT function by plasma membrane cholesterol. We show for the first time that CHT is concentrated in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in both SH-SY5Y cells and nerve terminals from mouse forebrain. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells expressing rat CHT with filipin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβC) or cholesterol oxidase significantly decreased choline uptake. In contrast, CHT activity was increased by addition of cholesterol to membranes using cholesterol-saturated MβC. Kinetic analysis of binding of [(3)H]hemicholinium-3 to CHT revealed that reducing membrane cholesterol with MβC decreased both the apparent binding affinity (KD) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax ); this was confirmed by decreased plasma membrane CHT protein in lipid rafts in cell surface protein biotinylation assays. Finally, the loss of cell surface CHT associated with lipid raft disruption was not because of changes in CHT internalization. In summary, we provide evidence that CHT association with cholesterol-rich rafts is critical for transporter function and localization. Alterations in plasma membrane cholesterol cholinergic nerve terminals could diminish cholinergic transmission by reducing choline availability for acetylcholine synthesis. The sodium-coupled choline transporter CHT moves choline into cholinergic nerve terminals to serve as substrate for acetylcholine synthesis. We show for the first time that CHT is concentrated in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, and decreasing membrane cholesterol significantly reduces both choline uptake activity and cell surface CHT protein levels. CHT association with cholesterol-rich rafts is critical for its function, and alterations in plasma membrane cholesterol could diminish cholinergic

  12. Brain choline concentrations may not be altered in euthymic bipolar disorder patients chronically treated with either lithium or sodium valproate

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ren H; O'Donnell, Tina; Ulrich, Michele; Asghar, Sheila J; Hanstock, Christopher C; Silverstone, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that lithium increases choline concentrations, although previous human studies examining this possibility using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) have had mixed results: some found increases while most found no differences. Methods The present study utilized 1H MRS, in a 3 T scanner to examine the effects of both lithium and sodium valproate upon choline concentrations in treated euthymic bipolar patients utilizing two different methodologies. In the...

  13. Rapid Amplification of 5′ cDNA End of S. Liaotungensis Choline Monooxygenase Using Inverse PCR RACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on part of a known cDNA sequence of Suaeda Liaotungensis choline monooxygenase, the authors successfully cloned the 5′ cDNA end of Suaeda Lianotungensis choline monooxygenase using Inverse PCR RACE with a specially designed 5′-phosphated RT primer and two pairs of specific inverse PCR primers. Compared with the anchored PCR RACE, inverse PCR RACE has better specificity and higher amplification.

  14. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  15. Choline Chloride Catalyzed Amidation of Fatty Acid Ester to Monoethanolamide: A Green Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pramod; Pratap, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Choline chloride catalyzed efficient method for amidation of fatty acid methyl ester to monoethanolamide respectively. This is a solvent free, ecofriendly, 100% chemo selective and economically viable path for alkanolamide synthesis. The Kinetics of amidation of methyl ester were studied and found to be first order with respect to the concentration of ethanolamine. The activation energy (Ea) for the amidation of lauric acid methyl ester catalyzed by choline chloride was found to be 50.20 KJ mol(-1). The 98% conversion of lauric acid monoethanolamide was obtained at 110°C in 1 h with 6% weight of catalyst and 1:1.5 molar ratio of methyl ester to ethanolamine under nitrogen atmosphere. PMID:26666271

  16. Daunorubicin and doxorubicin inhibit the [{sup 11}C]choline accumulation in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikecz, Pal [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, 4012 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)], E-mail: pal@pet.dote.hu; Marian, Terez; Miklovicz, Tuende; Galuska, Laszlo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, 4012 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Krasznai, Zoltan; Toth, Agnes; Goda, Katalin [Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, 4012 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Tron, Lajos [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, 4012 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Hernadi, Zoltan; Krasznai, Zoard T. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, 4012 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)

    2009-10-15

    We studied how very short (10-40 min) incubation with anthracycline derivatives modifies the accumulation of PET tumor-diagnostic radiotracers in cancer cells. The human ovarian A2780 and A2780AD, human B lymphoid JY, human epidermoid KB-3-1 and KB-V-1, and smooth muscle DDT1 MF-2 cells were pre-incubated with daunorubicin and doxorubicin, and the uptake of [{sup 18}F]FDG and [{sup 11}C]choline was measured. Anthracycline treatment decreased remarkably the [{sup 11}C]choline accumulation in a concentration dependent manner, while it did not modify significantly the [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake of the cells.

  17. [Histochemistry and choline acetyltransferase in cat spinal cord and spinal ganglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motavkin, P A; Okhotin, V E

    1978-09-01

    Cytochemical activity of choline acetyltransferase has been studied in the pericaryon of motor neurons of the spinal enlargement and sensitive neurocytes of the intervertebral ganglia in the cat by means of Burt's method. It has been demonstrated that cytoplasm of all motor neurons positively reacts with acetyl KoA. According to the activity of choline acetyltransferase, four groups of neurons have been determined. In cerebrospinal ganglia, the enzyme is present in 58% of pseudounipolar cells, which seem to be cholinergic neurocytes. It has been stated that for all nonspecific reactions the presence of massive and dense residue in all the neurons, walls of small blood vessels and sometimes in astrocytes is a characteristic feature. PMID:718431

  18. Usefulness of Choline-PET for the detection of residual hemangiopericytoma in the skull base: comparison with FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Shin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choline is a new PET tracer that is useful for the detection of malignant tumor. Choline is a precursor of the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a major phospholipid in the cell membrane of eukaryotic cells. Malignant tumors have an elevated level of phosphatidylcholine in cell membrane. Thus, choline is a marker of tumor malignancy. Method The patient was a 51-year-old man with repeated recurrent hemangiopericytoma in the skull base. We performed Choline-PET in this patient after various treatments and compared findings with those of FDG-PET. Results Choline accumulated in this tumor, but FDG did not accumulate. We diagnosed this tumor as residual hemangiopericytoma and performed the resection of the residual tumor. FDG-PET is not appropriate for skull base tumor detection because uptake in the brain is very strong. Conclusion We emphasize the usefulness of Choline-PET for the detection of residual hemangiopericytoma in the skull base after various treatments, compared with FDG-PET.

  19. Highly sensitive choline biosensor based on carbon nanotube-modified Pt electrode combined with sol-gel immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao; ZHAO Zixia; QIN Xia; HUANG Jiadong; SHI Haibin; WU Baoyan; CHEN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    A novel amperometric choline biosensor has been fabricated with choline oxidase (ChOx) immobilized by the sol-gel method on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified platinum electrode to improve the sensitivity and the anti-interferential property of the sensor.By analyzing the electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode by MWCNT,it was found that MWCNT could not only improve the current response to H2O2 but also decrease the electrocatalytic potential.The effects of experimental variables such as the buffer solutions,pH and the amount of loading enzyme were investigated for the optimum analytical performance.This sensor shows sensitive determination of choline with a linear range from 5.0×10-6 to 1.0×10-4 mol/L when the operating pH and potential are 7.2 and 0.15 V,respectively.The detection limit of choline was 5.0×10-7 mol/L.Selectivity for choline was 9.48 μA.(mmol/L)-1.The biosensor exhibits excellent anti-interferential property and good stability,retaining 85% of its original current value even after a month.It has been applied to the determination of choline in human serum.

  20. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  1. Choline supplementation alters some amino acid concentrations with no change in homocysteine in children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Belal; Schall, Joan I; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria; Bennett, Michael J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2016-05-01

    The present study determined the plasma amino acid status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in the modern medical and nutritional care setting and investigated the effect of choline supplementation on amino acid status. A total of 110 children aged 5 to 18 years with CF and PI were randomized to receive choline-enriched structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB) or placebo with similar energy and fat content. Plasma amino acids were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months. We hypothesized that choline supplementation would result in lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in children with CF. At baseline, dietary protein intake was high and the amino acid profile was within laboratory reference ranges in most participants. Alanine and cysteine were elevated in 24% and 36% of participants, respectively. Children with baseline alanine above reference range had improved weight, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Low homocysteine was found in 62% of children 11 years and older. After 3 and 12 months, there was no effect of choline supplementation on methionine or homocysteine status. Compared with placebo, choline supplementation resulted in increased glycine and decreased threonine, histidine, valine, and total branch chained amino acids at 12 months. In conclusion, daily choline supplementation with LYM-X-SORB did not alter methionine-homocysteine metabolism but did result in alterations in other amino acids in children with CF and PI.

  2. Comparison of the cellular and biochemical properties of Plasmodium falciparum choline and ethanolamine kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Alberge, Blandine; Gannoun-Zaki, Leila; Bascunana, Céline; Tran Van Ba, Christophe; Vial, Henri; Cerdan, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The proliferation of the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum within the erythrocyte is concomitant with massive phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis. Based on pharmacological and genetic data, de novo biosynthesis pathways of both phospholipids appear essential for parasite survival. The present study characterizes P. falciparum choline kinase (PfCK) and ethanolamine kinase (PfEK), which catalyse the first enzymatic steps of these essent...

  3. The Pathogenesis of Ethanol versus Methionine and Choline Deficient Diet-Induced Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gyamfi, Maxwell Afari; Damjanov, Ivan; French, Samuel; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The differences and similarities of the pathogenesis of alcoholic (ASH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were examined. Mice (6/group) received 1 of 4 Lieber-Decarli liquid diets for 6 weeks: (1) paired-fed control diet; (2) control diet with ethanol (ethanol); (3) paired-fed methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet; and (4) MCD plus ethanol (combination). Hepatotoxicity, histology, and gene expression changes were examined. Both MCD and ethanol induced macrovesicular steatosis. Howeve...

  4. Comparable Stability of Hoogsteen and Watson–Crick Base Pairs in Ionic Liquid Choline Dihydrogen Phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Hisae Tateishi-Karimata; Miki Nakano; Naoki Sugimoto

    2014-01-01

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson–Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson–Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stabi...

  5. New splicing mutation in the choline kinase beta (CHKB) gene causing a muscular dystrophy detected by whole-exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Negrão, Luís; Fineza, Isabel; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Gonçalves, Ana Rita; Froufe, Hugo; Egas, Conceição; Santos, Rosário; Sousa, Mário

    2015-06-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a group of hereditary muscle disorders that include two particularly heterogeneous subgroups: limb-girdle MD and congenital MD, linked to 52 different genes (seven common to both subgroups). Massive parallel sequencing technology may avoid the usual stepwise gene-by-gene analysis. We report the whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis of a patient with childhood-onset progressive MD, also presenting mental retardation and dilated cardiomyopathy. Conventional sequencing had excluded eight candidate genes. WES of the trio (patient and parents) was performed using the ion proton sequencing system. Data analysis resorted to filtering steps using the GEMINI software revealed a novel silent variant in the choline kinase beta (CHKB) gene. Inspection of sequence alignments ultimately identified the causal variant (CHKB:c.1031+3G>C). This splice site mutation was confirmed using Sanger sequencing and its effect was further evaluated with gene expression analysis. On reassessment of the muscle biopsy, typical abnormal mitochondrial oxidative changes were observed. Mutations in CHKB have been shown to cause phosphatidylcholine deficiency in myofibers, causing a rare form of CMD (only 21 patients reported). Notwithstanding interpretative difficulties that need to be overcome before the integration of WES in the diagnostic workflow, this work corroborates its utility in solving cases from highly heterogeneous groups of diseases, in which conventional diagnostic approaches fail to provide a definitive diagnosis. PMID:25740612

  6. GRANITE PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Donald F.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Peak Roadless Area occupies an area of about 5 sq mi in the southern part of the Trinity Alps of the Klamath Mountains, about 12 mi north-northeast of Weaverville, California. Rock and stream-sediment samples were analyzed. All streams draining the roadless area were sampled and representative samples of the rock types in the area were collected. Background values were established for each element and anomalous values were examined within their geologic settings and evaluated for their significance. On the basis of mineral surveys there seems little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources.

  7. Spatial peak-load pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo [Universidad de Chile, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-03-15

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  8. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/pathology image coregistration in primary localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Prokic, Vesna [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Weirich, Gregor [Technical University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Wendl, Christina; Geinitz, Hans; Molls, Michael [Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Kirste, Simon [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Gschwend, Juergen E.; Treiber, Uwe [Technical University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, New York (United States); Krause, Bernd Joachim [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); University of Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the comparison of pathology specimens after prostatectomy (post-S) with PET images obtained before surgery (pre-S). This method was used to evaluate the merit of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in prostate cancer (PC). In 28 PC patients, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was performed before surgery. PET/CT data were coregistered with the pathology specimens. GTV on PET images (GTV-PET) was outlined automatically and corrected manually. Tumour volume in the prostate (TVP) was delineated manually on the pathology specimens. Based on the coregistered PET/pathology images, the following parameters were assessed: SUVmax and SUVmean in the tumoral and nontumoral prostate (NP), GTV-PET (millilitres) and TVP (millilitres). PET/pathology image coregistration was satisfactory. Mean SUVmax in the TVP was lower than in the NP: 5.0 and 5.5, respectively (p = 0.093). Considering the entire prostate, SUVmax was located in the TVP in two patients, in the TVP and NP in 12 patients and exclusively in NP in 14 patients. Partial overlap the TVP and GTV-PET was seen in 71 % of patients, and complete overlap in 4 %. PET/pathology image coregistration can be used for evaluation of different imaging modalities. {sup 11}C-Choline PET failed to distinguish tumour from nontumour tissue. (orig.)

  9. Choline Modulation of the Aβ P1-40 Channel Reconstituted into a Model Lipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meleleo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs, implicated in memory and learning, in subjects affected by Alzheimer's disease result altered. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs inhibits amyloid plaques and increases ACh release. β-amyloid peptide (AβP forms ion channels in the cell and model phospholipid membranes that are retained responsible in Alzheimer disease. We tested if choline, precursor of ACh, could affect the AβP1-40 channels in oxidized cholesterol (OxCh and in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC:Ch lipid bilayers. Choline concentrations of 5 × 10−11 M–1.5 × 10−8 M added to the cis- or trans-side of membrane quickly increased AβP1-40 ion channel frequency (events/min and ion conductance in OxCh membranes, but not in POPC:Ch membranes. Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows that after 24 and 48 hours of incubation with AβP1-40, choline stabilizes the random coil conformation of the peptide, making it less prone to fibrillate. These actions seem to be specific in that ACh is ineffective either in solution or on AβP1-40 channel incorporated into PLMs.

  10. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA's Smart Grids Technology Roadmap identified five global trends that could be effectively addressed by deploying smart grids. These are: increasing peak load (the maximum power that the grid delivers during peak hours), rising electricity consumption, electrification of transport, deployment of variable generation technologies (e.g. wind and solar PV) and ageing infrastructure. Along with this roadmap, a new working paper -- Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 -- develops a methodology to estimate the evolution of peak load until 2050. It also analyses the impact of smart grid technologies in reducing peak load for four key regions; OECD North America, OECD Europe, OECD Pacific and China. This working paper is a first IEA effort in an evolving modelling process of smart grids that is considering demand response in residential and commercial sectors as well as the integration of electric vehicles.

  11. Effects of ethanolamine and choline on thiotepa cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity in L1210 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amino alcohols, ethanolamine and choline, were studied for their effects on (a) L1210 cell growth, (b) N,N',N double-prime-triethylenetheiphosphoramide (thiotepa)-induced growth inhibition of L1210 cells, and (c) 14C accumulation by L1210 cells incubated with [14C]thiotepa. Ethanolamine, at concentrations up to 300 microM, had no effect on L1210 cell growth but, at concentrations greater than 300 microM, produced a dose-dependent reduction in cell growth. Choline, at concentrations up to 20 mM, had no effect on L1210 cell growth. Neither ethanolamine, at 250 microM, nor choline, at 10 mM, altered the ability of thiotepa to reduce L1210 cell growth. Neither ethanolamine, at 250 microM, nor choline, at 10 mM, affected the rapid phase of 14C accumulation by L1210 cells incubated with [14C]thiotepa. The slow phase of 14C accumulation by L1210 cells incubated with 5 microM [14C]thiotepa, a process which is 80-85% due to production of [14C]phosphatidylethanolamine, was not affected by 250 microM choline. In contrast, ethanolamine produced a dose-dependent reduction in this slow rate of 14C accumulation. The reduction in the slow rate of 14C accumulation produced by ethanolamine was due almost entirely to a decrease in the accumulation of nonexchangeable 14C. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 14C accumulation produced by 25, 100, and 250 microM ethanolamine was compatible with competitive inhibition. Thin layer chromatography of cell extracts showed that the ability of ethanolamine to reduce 14C accumulation by L1210 cells incubated with [14C]thiotepa was due solely to reduction in production of [14C]phosphatidylethanolamine. These results are all compatible with and predicted by our previously described scheme wherein thiotepa enters cells by simple diffusion and serves as a prodrug for aziridine

  12. [11C]choline PET/CT imaging in occult local relapse of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and clinical impact of [11C]choline PET/CT for localizing occult relapse of prostate adenocarcinoma after radical prostatectomy. Fourty-nine patients with prostate adenocarcinoma, radical prostatectomy, no evidence of metastatic disease, and occult relapse underwent [11C]choline PET/CT. Thirty-six of the patients had biochemical evidence and histological evaluation of local recurrence. Thirteen patients had PSA 11C]choline uptake in the prostatic fossa was visually assessed and graded on a five point scale. Maximum standardized radioactivity uptake value (SUVmax) and the lesion size were measured. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and the clinical impact of the PET/CT study was determined. [11C]choline PET/CT was true positive in 23/33 patients and true negative in 12/13 controls. SUVmax of local recurrence was 3.0 (median, range 0.6-7.4) and 1.1 (0.4-1.6) in controls (p = 0.0002). Lesion size was 1.7 cm (range 0.9-3.7). Area under the ROC curve for detecting relapse was 0.90 ± 0.05 and 0.83 ± 0.06 for visual evaluation and SUVmax, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of [11C]choline PET/CT were 0.73 and 0.88, respectively. [11C]choline PET/CT identified 12/17 (71%) patients with a favourable biochemical response to local radiotherapy at 2 year (median, 0.8-3.2 range) follow-up. Focally increased [11C]choline uptake in the prostatic bed reliably predicted local low volume occult relapsing prostate adenocarcinoma after radical prostatectomy and identified 71% of patients with a favourable biochemical response to local radiotherapy. (orig.)

  13. Value of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT in patients with suspected prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scher, Bernhard; Albinger, Wolfram; Tiling, Reinhold; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Dresel, Stefan [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Seitz, Michael [University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael; Becker, Hans-Christoph [University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Souvatzogluou, Michael; Wester, Hans-Juergen [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The value and limitations of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT for the detection of prostate cancer remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT in a large group of patients with suspected prostate cancer. Fifty-eight patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent {sup 11}C-choline PET (25/58, Siemens ECAT Exact HR+) or PET/CT (33/58, Philips Gemini) scanning. On average, 500 MBq of {sup 11}C-choline was administered intravenously. Studies were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and other diagnostic procedures. Qualitative image analysis as well as semiquantitative SUV measurement was carried out. The reference standard was histopathological examination of resection specimens or biopsy. Prevalence of prostate cancer in this selected patient population was 63.8% (37/58). {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 86.5% (32/37) and a specificity of 61.9% (13/21) in the detection of the primary malignancy. With regard to metastatic spread, PET showed a per-patient sensitivity of 81.8% (9/11) and produced no false positive findings. Based on our findings, differentiation between benign prostatic changes, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatitis, and prostate cancer is feasible in the majority of cases when image interpretation is primarily based on qualitative characteristics. SUV{sub max} may serve as guidance. False positive findings may occur due to an overlap of {sup 11}C-choline uptake between benign and malignant processes. By providing functional information regarding both the primary malignancy and its metastases, {sup 11}C-choline PET may prove to be a useful method for staging prostate cancer. (orig.)

  14. Peak loads and network investments in sustainable energy transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhuis, Erik, E-mail: e.g.j.blokhuis@tue.nl [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brouwers, Bart [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Putten, Eric van der [Endinet, Gas and Electricity Network Operations, P.O. Box 2005, 5600CA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schaefer, Wim [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Current energy distribution networks are often not equipped for facilitating expected sustainable transitions. Major concerns for future electricity networks are the possibility of peak load increases and the expected growth of decentralized energy generation. In this article, we focus on peak load increases; the effects of possible future developments on peak loads are studied, together with the consequences for the network. The city of Eindhoven (the Netherlands) is used as reference city, for which a scenario is developed in which the assumed future developments adversely influence the maximum peak loads on the network. In this scenario, the total electricity peak load in Eindhoven is expected to increase from 198 MVA in 2009 to 591-633 MVA in 2040. The necessary investments for facilitating the expected increased peak loads are estimated at 305-375 million Euros. Based upon these projections, it is advocated that - contrary to current Dutch policy - choices regarding sustainable transitions should be made from the viewpoint of integral energy systems, evaluating economic implications of changes to generation, grid development, and consumption. Recently applied and finished policies on energy demand reduction showed to be effective; however, additional and connecting policies on energy generation and distribution should be considered on short term. - Highlights: > Sustainable energy transitions can result in major electricity peak load increases. > Introduction of heat pumps and electrical vehicles requires network expansion. > Under worst case assumptions, peak loads in Eindhoven increase with 200% until 2040. > The necessary investment for facilitating this 2040 peak demand is Euro 305-375 million. > Future policy choices should be made from the viewpoint of the integral energy system.

  15. Peak loads and network investments in sustainable energy transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current energy distribution networks are often not equipped for facilitating expected sustainable transitions. Major concerns for future electricity networks are the possibility of peak load increases and the expected growth of decentralized energy generation. In this article, we focus on peak load increases; the effects of possible future developments on peak loads are studied, together with the consequences for the network. The city of Eindhoven (the Netherlands) is used as reference city, for which a scenario is developed in which the assumed future developments adversely influence the maximum peak loads on the network. In this scenario, the total electricity peak load in Eindhoven is expected to increase from 198 MVA in 2009 to 591-633 MVA in 2040. The necessary investments for facilitating the expected increased peak loads are estimated at 305-375 million Euros. Based upon these projections, it is advocated that - contrary to current Dutch policy - choices regarding sustainable transitions should be made from the viewpoint of integral energy systems, evaluating economic implications of changes to generation, grid development, and consumption. Recently applied and finished policies on energy demand reduction showed to be effective; however, additional and connecting policies on energy generation and distribution should be considered on short term. - Highlights: → Sustainable energy transitions can result in major electricity peak load increases. → Introduction of heat pumps and electrical vehicles requires network expansion. → Under worst case assumptions, peak loads in Eindhoven increase with 200% until 2040. → The necessary investment for facilitating this 2040 peak demand is Euro 305-375 million. → Future policy choices should be made from the viewpoint of the integral energy system.

  16. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  17. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass. PMID:12699292

  18. Peak Detection Using Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daoud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new work based-wavelet transform is designed to o vercome one of the main drawbacks that found in the present new technologies. Orthogonal Frequency Divi sion Multiplexing (OFDMis proposed in the literature to enhance the multimedia resolution. Ho wever, the high peak power (PAPR values will obstr uct such achievements. Therefore, a new proposition is found in this work, making use of the wavelet transforms methods, and it is divided into three ma in stages; de-noising stage, thresholding stage and then the replacement stage. In order to check the system stages validity; a mat hematical model has been built and its checked afte r using a MATLAB simulation. A simulated bit error ra te (BER achievement will be compared with our previously published work, where an enhancement fro m 8×10 -1 to be 5×10 -1 is achieved. Moreover, these results will be compared to the work found in the l iterature, where we have accomplished around 27% PAPR extra reduction. As a result, the BER performance has been improved for the same bandwidth occupancy. Moreover and due to the de-noise stage, the verification rate ha s been improved to reach 81%. This is in addition t o the noise immunity enhancement.

  19. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.ramondo@univaq.it [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, L’Aquila I-67100 (Italy); Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.gontrani@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-21

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features.

  20. Effects of genotype and environment on the contents of betaine, choline, and trigonelline in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corol, Delia-Irina; Ravel, Catherine; Raksegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Charmet, Gilles; Beale, Michael H; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L

    2012-05-30

    This study examined the environmental and genetic variation in methyl donor contents and compositions of 200 cereal genotypes. Glycine betaine, choline, and trigonelline contents were determined by (1)H NMR, and significant differences were observed between cereal types (G) and across harvesting years and growing locations (E). Glycine betaine was the most abundant methyl donor in all of the 200 lines grown on a single site, and concentrations ranged from 0.43 ± 0.09 mg/g dm in oats to 2.57 ± 0.25 mg/g dm in diploid Einkorn varieties. In bread wheat genotypes there was a 3-fold difference in glycine betaine content. Choline contents, in the same lines, were substantially lower, and mean concentrations ranged from 0.17 mg/g dm in oats to 0.27 mg/g dm in durum wheat. Trigonelline was by far the least abundant of the methyl donors studied. Despite this, however, there were large differences between cereal types. Twenty-six wheat genotypes were grown in additional years at four European locations. The average glycine betaine content was highest in grains grown in Hungary and lowest in those grown in the United Kingdom. Across the six environments, there was a 3.8-fold difference in glycine betaine content. Glycine betaine levels, although moderately heritable (0.36), were found to be the most susceptible to the environmental conditions. Free choline concentrations were less variable across genotypes, but heritability of this component was the lowest of all methyl donor components (0.25) and showed a high G × E interaction. Trigonelline showed the most variation due to genotype. Heritability of this metabolite was the highest (0.59), but given that it is at a very low concentration in wheat, it is probably not attractive to plant breeders.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Protein Concentration by Absorption Peak Integration Method of UV Spectroscopy-Taking Alkaline Phosphatase as an Example%紫外吸收光谱积分法分析蛋白质浓度-以碱性磷酸酶为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱元荣; 吴丰昌; 林樱

    2013-01-01

    利用矿物(针铁矿,蒙脱石)和太湖沉积物吸附碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,APase),测定吸附后上清液中剩余碱性磷酸酶浓度时发现其紫外吸收光谱发生了变化,利用传统280 nm处紫外吸收法无法直接准确测定其浓度值.基于对碱性磷酸酶252~305 nm处吸收峰面积积分方法可以消除影响,并准确分析测定碱性磷酸酶浓度.其测定结果与考马斯亮蓝法测定结果进行比较,表明了该方法可以方便,快速和准确地测定此类实验中碱性磷酸酶浓度.同时,该方法还可以扩展至其他蛋白质的定量分析,甚至其他类似实验中,一定程度上克服传统方法应用单波长进行定量分析中存在的易受干扰的缺点.%Adsorption of alkaline phosphatase (APase) on minerals (goethite,montmorillonite) and sediments from Taihu Lake was studied.However,the concentration of alkaline phosphatase in the supernatant cannot be analyzed by the adsorption at 280 nm due to that the UV spectroscopy was changed.Quantitative analysis of alkaline phosphatase in the supernatant by the absorption peak (252~305 nm) integration method of UV spectroscopy was developed.This method determined the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase well.Compared to the results of Bradford,the absorption peak integration method can determine the concentrations of supernatant fast,conveniently,and accurately.This method can also be applied to other protein solution analysis and similar experiments.The drawbacks of traditional single wavelength method (280nm) were overcome to some extent based on the method of absorption peak integration.

  2. An Incidental Renal Oncocytoma: 18F-Choline PET/MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mallia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available PET/MRI is a new hybrid imaging modality and has the potential to become a powerful imaging tool. It is currently one of the most active areas of research in diagnostic imaging. The characterisation of an incidental renal lesion can be difficult. In particular, the differentiation of an oncocytoma from other solid renal lesions such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC represents a diagnostic challenge. We describe the detection of an incidental renal oncocytoma in a 79-year gentleman who underwent a re-staging 18F-Choline PET/MRI following a rise in PSA values (4.07, nadir 1.3.

  3. Dietary choline regulates antibacterial activity, inflammatory response and barrier function in the gills of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-Fu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of choline (197-1795 mg/kg) on antibacterial properties, inflammatory status and barrier function in the gills of grass carp. The results showed that optimal dietary choline supplementation significantly improved lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement component 3 (C3) content, and the liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin mRNA levels in the gills of fish (P C3 content and AHR activity, the dietary choline requirements for young grass carp (266.5-787.1 g) were estimated to be 1191.0 and 1555.0 mg/kg diet, respectively. PMID:26988287

  4. The Developmental Impact of Not Integrating Childhood Peak Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarb, Craig W.

    2007-01-01

    Much prior groundbreaking research has been done in recent years highlighting the qualities, quantities and means children have to enter transpersonal states of awareness. As important as this precedent research has been, in many ways it has yet to fully appreciate the gravity of childhood transpersonal experiences in terms of the impact on…

  5. N-methyl-D-aspartate increases acetylcholine release from rat striatum and cortex: its effect is augmented by choline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulus, I. H.; Buyukuysal, R. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, and of glutamate itself, on acetylcholine (ACh) release from superfused rat striatal slices. In a Mg(++)-free medium, NMDA (32-1000 microM) as well as glutamate (1 mM) increased basal ACh release by 35 to 100% (all indicated differences, P less than .05), without altering tissue ACh or choline contents. This augmentation was blocked by Mg++ (1.2 mM) or by MK-801 (10 microM). Electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 75 mA) increased ACh release 9-fold (from 400 to 3660 pmol/mg of protein): this was enhanced (to 4850 pmol/mg of protein) by NMDA (100 microM). ACh levels in stimulated slices fell by 50 or 65% depending on the absence or presence of NMDA. The addition of choline (40 microM) increased ACh release both basally (570 pmol/mg of protein) and with electrical stimulation (6900 pmol/mg of protein). In stimulated slices choline acted synergistically with NMDA, raising ACh release to 10,520 pmol/mg of protein. The presence of choline also blocked the fall in tissue ACh. No treatment affected tissue phospholipid or protein levels. NMDA (32-320 microM) also augmented basal ACh release from cortical but not hippocampal slices. Choline efflux from striatal and cortical (but not hippocampal) slices decreased by 34 to 50% in Mg(++)-free medium. These data indicate that NMDA-like drugs may be useful, particularly in combination with choline, to enhance striatal and cortical cholinergic activity. ACh release from rat hippocampus apparently is not affected by NMDA receptors.

  6. Immunohistochemical determination of the extracellular matrix modulation in a rat model of choline-deprived myocardium: the effects of carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strilakou, Athina; Perelas, Apostolos; Lazaris, Andreas; Papavdi, Asteria; Karkalousos, Petros; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kriebardis, Anastasios; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Liapi, Charis

    2016-02-01

    Choline has been identified as an essential nutrient with crucial role in many vital biological functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that heart dysfunction can develop in the setting of choline deprivation even in the absence of underlying heart disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are responsible for extracellular matrix degradation, and the dysregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 has been involved in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs), in the pathogenesis of choline deficiency-induced cardiomyopathy, and the way they are affected by carnitine supplementation. Male Wistar Albino adult rats were divided into four groups and received standard or choline-deficient diet with or without L-carnitine in drinking water (0.15% w/v) for 1 month. Heart tissue immunohistochemistry for MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was performed. Choline deficiency was associated with suppressed immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2 and an increased expression of TIMP-2 compared to control, while it had no impact on TIMP-1. MMP-9 expression was decreased without, however, reaching statistical significance. Carnitine did not affect MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 or TIMP-2 expression. The pattern of TIMP and MMP modulation observed in a choline deficiency setting appears to promote fibrosis. Carnitine, although shown to suppress fibrosis, does not seem to affect MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 or TIMP-2 expression. Further studies will be required to identify the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of carnitine.

  7. PET as a possible indicator of the prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Comparative analysis of FDG-PET and choline-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), which reflects glucose metabolism, has been reported to be useful for staging head and neck cancers and for investigating the primary lesion of unknown origin, double cancer, recurrence and residual cancer after treatment. It has also been reported that the degree of accumulation before treatment may be utilized as a prognostic factor. The usefulness of PET using 11C-choline, which reflects cell membrane phospholipid metabolism, for cancer diagnosis has been reported as well. In this study, we investigated differences in the prognosis based on the degree of 11C-choline-PET and FDG-PET accumulation. 11C-choline-PET and FDG-PET were taken before treatment in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. To indicate the degree of accumulation, the standard uptake value (SUV) was used. Choline and FDG were accumulated in the primary lesion in all patients. The SUVs in both choline and FDG were higher in patients who responded poorly to primary treatment than in those who responded well. The cumulative survival rate of patients with a high SUV of choline was significantly lower than that of patients with a low SUV of choline. SUV of choline-PET before treatment may be utilized as a prognostic factor. (author)

  8. Pre-Conditioning with CDP-Choline Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Death in a Hypoxia/Reperfusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor González-Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. CDP-choline is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential component of cellular membranes, and a cell signalling mediator. CDP-choline has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischaemia, showing beneficial effects. However, its potential benefit for the treatment of myocardial ischaemia has not been explored yet. Aim. In the present work, we aimed to evaluate the potential use of CDP-choline as a cardioprotector in an in vitro model of ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Methods. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were isolated and subjected to hypoxia/reperfusion using the coverslip hypoxia model. To evaluate the effect of CDP-choline on oxidative stress-induced reperfusion injury, the cells were incubated with H2O2 during reperfusion. The effect of CDP-choline pre- and postconditioning was evaluated using the cell viability MTT assay, and the proportion of apoptotic and necrotic cells was analyzed using the Annexin V determination by flow cytometry. Results. Pre- and postconditioning with 50 mg/mL of CDP-choline induced a significant reduction of cells undergoing apoptosis after hypoxia/reperfusion. Preconditioning with CDP-choline attenuated postreperfusion cell death induced by oxidative stress. Conclusion. CDP-choline administration reduces cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after hypoxia/reperfusion of cardiac myocytes. Thus, it has a potential as cardioprotector in ischaemia/reperfusion-injured cardiomyocytes.

  9. 27 CFR 9.140 - Atlas Peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Atlas Peak. 9.140 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.140 Atlas Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Atlas Peak.”...

  10. Peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Peak-flow annual exceedance probabilities, also called probability-percent chance flow estimates, and regional regression equations are provided describing the peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate peak-flow data. Analysis of Virginia peak-flow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating unregulated peak flow of gaged and ungaged streams. Station peak-flow characteristics identified by fitting the logarithms of annual peak flows to a Log Pearson Type III frequency distribution yield annual exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.4292, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 for 476 streamgaging stations. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression model equations for six physiographic regions to estimate regional annual exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted peak-flow values that combine annual exceedance probabilities computed from gaging station data and from regional regression equations provide improved peak-flow estimates. Text, figures, and lists are provided summarizing selected peak-flow sites, delineated physiographic regions, peak-flow estimates, basin characteristics, regional regression model equations, error estimates, definitions, data sources, and candidate regression model equations. This study supersedes previous studies of peak flows in Virginia.

  11. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]choline: a comparison between rat and human data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolvanen, Tuula; Ujula, Tiina; Autio, Anu [Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Yli-Kerttula, Timo [Turku University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Turku (Finland); Lehikoinen, Pertti [Turku University Hospital, Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Minn, Heikki [Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku (Finland); Roivainen, Anne [Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Turku Centre for Disease Modelling, Turku (Finland)

    2010-05-15

    Methyl-{sup 11}C-choline ([{sup 11}C]choline) is a radiopharmaceutical used for oncological PET studies. We investigated the biodistribution and biokinetics of [{sup 11}C]choline and provide estimates of radiation doses in humans. The distribution of [{sup 11}C]choline was evaluated ex vivo in healthy rats (n=9) by measuring the radioactivity of excised organs, and in vivo in tumour-bearing rats (n=4) by PET. In addition to estimates of human radiation doses extrapolated from rat data, more accurate human radiation doses were calculated on the basis of PET imaging of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n=6) primarily participating in a synovitis imaging project with [{sup 11}C]choline. Dynamic data were acquired from the thorax and abdomen after injection of 423{+-}11 MBq (mean{+-}SD) of tracer. Following PET imaging, the radioactivity in voided urine was measured. The experimental human data were used for residence time estimations. Radiation doses were calculated with OLINDA/EXM. In rats, the radioactivity distributed mainly to the kidneys, lungs, liver and adrenal gland. The effective dose in a human adult of about 70 kg was 0.0044 mSv/MBq, which is equivalent to 2.0 mSv from 460 MBq of [{sup 11}C]choline PET. The highest absorbed doses in humans were 0.021 mGy/MBq in the kidneys, 0.020 mGy/MBq in the liver and 0.029 mGy/MBq in the pancreas. Only 2.0% of injected radioactivity was excreted in the urine during the 1.5 h after injection. The absorbed radiation doses after administration of 460 MBq of [{sup 11}C]choline were low. Except for the pancreas, biodistribution in the rat was in accordance with that in humans, but rat data may underestimate the effective dose, suggesting that clinical measurements are needed for a more detailed estimation. The observed effective doses suggest the feasibility of [{sup 11}C]choline PET for human studies. (orig.)

  12. Electrochemical Deposition of Niobium onto the Surface of Copper Using a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wixtroma, Alex I. [Christopher Newport U.; Buhlera, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport U.; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport U.

    2013-06-01

    Recent research has shown that choline chloride-based solutions can be used to replace acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. In this study niobium metal was successfully deposited on the surface of copper substrate via electrochemical deposition using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The niobium metal used for deposition on the Cu had been dissolved in the solution from electrochemical polishing of a solid niobium piece prior to the deposition. The visible coating on the surface of the Cu was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemical polishing.

  13. A novel finding: Anti-androgen flutamide kills androgen-independent PC-3 cells: A radiolabelled methyl-choline incorporation into tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: [Methyl-11C]-choline was introduced to image many types of cancers especially the prostate cancer. Al-Saeedi et al. reported that the incorporation of [Methyl-3H]-choline into breast tumour (MCF-7) cells correlated strongly with proliferation as determined by [Methyl-14C]- thymidine uptake. Also, Al-Saeedi, et al. showed that the chemotherapy using MCF-7 cells treated with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) induced modulation in [Methyl-3H]-choline incorporation and certain mechanisms for this modulation were reported. In this study, the androgen-dependent prostate tumour (LNCaP) cells were treated with the well known pure anti-androgen drug, flutamide, for three days. The cells were then incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 mint to detect the effect of flutamide on both cell proliferation and choline incorporation. At the same time, a preliminary work was established using androgen-independent PC-3 cells treated with flutamide as controls in this study. PC-3 cells were treated with a range of doses of flutamide inhibiting growth by 20[Methyl-3H]-Choline Incorporation into MCF-7 Cells: Correlation with Proliferation: choline kinase and phospholipase D assay. [Methyl-3H]-Choline Incorporation into MCF-7 Cells: Correlation with Proliferation: choline kinase and phospholipase D assay. - 70%. Treated and control cells were incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 min, then in non-radioactive medium to simulate the rapid blood clearance of [Methyl-11C]-choline tracer in control and treated PC-3 cells, and then extracted with organic and aqueous solvents to determine its effect on the intracellular distribution of this tracer. Interesting results showed that flutamide killed the androgen-independent prostate cancer cells, PC-3 and mechanisms responsible for flutamide-induced modulation on [Methyl-3H]- choline incorporation were reported. The PC-3 cells' proliferation was inhibited by flutamide. In addition, treatment of PC-3 cells with flutamide for 3 days resulted

  14. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT, now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  15. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, A; Vaccaro, R; D'Este, L; Sakaue, Y; Bellier, J P; Kimura, H; Renda, T G

    2012-07-19

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized TiO{sub 2} nanopowder involving choline chloride based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anicai, Liana, E-mail: lanicai@itcnet.ro [POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Petica, Aurora [Leather and Footwear Research Institute (ICPI), Ion Minulescu 93, Bucharest, 031215 (Romania); Patroi, Delia; Marinescu, Virgil; Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Costovici, Stefania [POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanopowder electrochemically prepared using choline chloride based ionic liquids. • The new proposed method allowed high anodic synthesis efficiencies of minimum 92%. • High surface area of the electrochemically synthesized titania nanopowders. • Enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The paper presents some experimental results regarding the electrochemical synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders through anodic dissolution of Ti metal in choline chloride based eutectic mixtures (DES). A detailed characterization of the obtained titania has been performed, using various techniques, including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM associated with EDX analysis, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The anodic behavior of Ti electrode in DES has been also investigated. The photoreactivity of the synthesized materials was evaluated for the degradation of Orange II dye under UV (λ = 365 nm) and visible light irradiation. An anodic synthesis efficiency of minimum 92% has been determined. The as-synthesized TiO{sub 2} showed amorphous structure and a calcination post-treatment at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C yielded anatase. The anodically obtained nanocrystalline oxides have crystallite sizes of 8–18 nm, a high surface area and enhanced photocatalytic effect.

  17. Solubility of carbon dioxide in a eutectic mixture of choline chloride and glycerol at moderate pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The solubilities of carbon dioxide in a eutectic mixture of choline chloride and glycerol were measured. ► The pressure was up to 6.3 MPa. ► The temperature studied was (303.15 to 343.15) K. ► The measured data were reported as functions of temperature and pressure. ► The measured data were represented satisfactorily by the applied correlation. - Abstract: In this work, we present new measurements on the solubility of carbon dioxide in a deep eutectic solvent (DES) containing choline chloride and glycerol (1:2 mole ratio) over the temperature range (303.15 to 343.15) K and pressures up to 6.3 MPa. Experimental measurements were carried out in a thermogravimetric microbalance, and the effects of buoyancy on the measurements were accounted for. Results indicated that the solubility of the gas in the solvent increased almost linearly with pressure and decreased with increasing temperature. The dependence of the carbon dioxide solubility in the DES (in molality) on temperature and pressure were accurately represented by an extended Henry’s law model at an average absolute deviation of 1.4%.

  18. The role of rumen-protected choline in hepatic function and performance of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Arash; D'Occhio, Michael J; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2016-07-01

    High-producing dairy cows enter a period of negative energy balance during the first weeks of lactation. Energy intake is usually sufficient to cover the increase in energy requirements for fetal growth during the period before calving, but meeting the demand for energy is often difficult during the early stages of lactation. A catabolic state predominates during the transition period, leading to the mobilisation of energy reserves (NEFA and amino acids) that are utilised mainly by the liver and muscle. Increased uptake of mobilised NEFA by the liver, combined with the limited capacity of hepatocytes to either oxidise fatty acids for energy or to incorporate esterified fatty acids into VLDL results in fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. This metabolic disturbance can affect the general health, and it causes economic losses. Different nutritional strategies have been used to restrict negative effects associated with the energy challenge in transition cows. The provision of choline in the form of rumen-protected choline (RPC) can potentially improve liver function by increasing VLDL exportation from the liver. RPC increases gene expression of microsomal TAG transfer protein and APOB100 that are required for VLDL synthesis and secretion. Studies with RPC have looked at gene expression, metabolic hormones, metabolite profiles, milk production and postpartum reproduction. A reduction in liver fat and enhanced milk production has been observed with RPC supplementation. However, the effects of RPC on health and reproduction are equivocal, which could reflect the lack of sufficient dose-response studies. PMID:27138530

  19. Evaluation of Peak-Fitting Software for Gamma Spectrum Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zahn, Guilherme S; Moralles, Maurício

    2015-01-01

    In all applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy, one of the most important and delicate parts of the data analysis is the fitting of the gamma-ray spectra, where information as the number of counts, the position of the centroid and the width, for instance, are associated with each peak of each spectrum. There's a huge choice of computer programs that perform this type of analysis, and the most commonly used in routine work are the ones that automatically locate and fit the peaks; this fit can be made in several different ways -- the most common ways are to fit a Gaussian function to each peak or simply to integrate the area under the peak, but some software go far beyond and include several small corrections to the simple Gaussian peak function, in order to compensate for secondary effects. In this work several gamma-ray spectroscopy software are compared in the task of finding and fitting the gamma-ray peaks in spectra taken with standard sources of $^{137}$Cs, $^{60}$Co, $^{133}$Ba and $^{152}$Eu. The results...

  20. On the trail of double peak hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Hissler, Christophe; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Juilleret, Jérôme; François Iffly, Jean; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    A double peak hydrograph features two peaks as a response to a unique rainfall pulse. The first peak occurs at the same time or shortly after the precipitation has started and it corresponds to a fast catchment response to precipitation. The delayed peak normally starts during the recession of the first peak, when the precipitation has already ceased. Double peak hydrographs may occur for various reasons. They can occur (i) in large catchments when lag times in tributary responses are large, (ii) in urban catchments where the first peak is often caused by direct surface runoff on impervious land cover, and the delayed peak to slower subsurface flow, and (iii) in non-urban catchments, where the first and the delayed discharge peaks are explained by different runoff mechanisms (e.g. overland flow, subsurface flow and/or deep groundwater flow) that have different response times. Here we focus on the third case, as a formal description of the different hydrological mechanisms explaining these complex hydrological dynamics across catchments with diverse physiographic characteristics is still needed. Based on a review of studies documenting double peak events we have established a formal classification of catchments presenting double peak events based on their regolith structure (geological substratum and/or its weathered products). We describe the different hydrological mechanisms that trigger these complex hydrological dynamics across each catchment type. We then use hydrometric time series of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture and groundwater levels collected in the Weierbach (0.46 km2) headwater catchment (Luxembourg) to better understand double peak hydrograph generation. Specifically, we aim to find out (1) if the generation of a double peak hydrograph is a threshold process, (2) if the hysteretic relationships between storage and discharge are consistent during single and double peak hydrographs, and (3) if different functional landscape units (the hillslopes

  1. PSA doubling time for prediction of [11C]choline PET/CT findings in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that the positive detection rate of [11C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) depends on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plasma levels. This study compared PSA levels and PSA doubling time (PSADT) to predict [11C]choline PET/CT findings. PSADT was retrospectively calculated in 170 prostate cancer (PCa) patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy who underwent [11C]choline PET/CT. PSADT was calculated as PSADT = ln2/m, where m is the slope of the linear regression line of the natural log of PSA values. At least three PSA measurements were used (median: 4; range: 3-16), separated by at least 3 months, each with a minimum increase of 0.20 ng/ml. PET/CT findings were validated using criteria based on histological analysis and clinical and imaging data. Statistical analysis was performed using the t test, chi-square test, analysis of variance and binary logistic regression. Regression-based coefficients were used to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of positive [11C]choline PET/CT and 200 bootstrap resamples were used for internal validation. The median PSA was 1.25 ng/ml (range: 0.23-48.6 ng/ml), and the median PSADT was 7.0 months (range: 0.97-45.3 months). [11C]choline PET/CT was positive in 75 of 170 patients (44%). PET/CT findings were validated using histological criteria (11%) and clinical and imaging criteria (89%). The overall accuracy of [11C]choline PET/CT was 88%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that high PSA and short PSADT were significant (p 11C]choline PET/CT [PSA: odds ratio (OR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.78; PSADT: OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04-1.21]. The percentage of patients with positive [11C]choline PET/CT was 27% for PSADT >6 months, 61% for PSADT between 3 and 6 months and 81% for PSADT 11C]choline uptake in the skeleton significantly increased (p 6 months to 52% for PSADT 11C]choline uptake in the prostatectomy bed were 0% for PSADT 6

  2. Efficacy of oral nicotinic acid and choline in the treatment and prevention of fatty liver in dairy cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianWenru; YangDianjun; 等

    1994-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (N.C.)and choline were given orally to the periparturient cows to treat and prevent fatty liver.Blood parameters of glucose,β-hydroxybutyrate,albumin,total protein,magnesium,aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and non-esterified fatty acid(NEFA) were measured.There were no significant differences between the reated and untreated groups in the plasma concentrations of albumin,total,protein and magnsium.Significant decrease in plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate,NEFA and AST were observed in the treated cows following administration of N.C.and choline.All the fatty liver cows(100%) treated with N.C.and choline recovered within 5 weeks after calving compared with 71.4%(5/7) of untreated cows recovered.The incident ate of fatty liver postpartum in the cows with N.C.and choline given 2 weeks before calving was 30%(3/10),and the affected cows had a range of mild to moderate fatty liver whilst the incident rate was 50%(5/10)in the untreated cows.which had a range of mild to of severe fatty liver,Meanwhile,the treated cows had a significant higher prodection of milk and shorter intervals from calving to uterine involution,to the first postpartum ovulation and to conception.

  3. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  4. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Baal, van J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Bakker, J.A.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerol were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous cows were blocked into 19 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one

  5. Effect of rumen-protected choline supplementation on liver and adipose gene expression during the transition period in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goselink, R.M.A.; Baal, van J.; Widjaja, H.C.A.; Dekker, R.A.; Zom, R.L.G.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that supplementation of rumen-protected choline (RPC) reduces the hepatic triacylglycerol concentration in periparturient dairy cows during early lactation. Here, we investigated the effect of RPC on the transcript levels of lipid metabolism-related genes in liver and adipose

  6. No up-regulation of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pathway and choline production by sex hormones in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B; Favier, Robert P; Robben, Joris H; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common cholestatic disease affecting cats of any breed, age and sex. Both choline deficiency and low hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) activity are associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in humans, mice and rats. The PEMT expr

  7. Suppression Effects of Betaine-Enriched Spinach on Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by Guanidinoacetic Acid and Choline Deficiency in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is an important natural component of rich food sources, especially spinach. Rats were fed diets with betaine or spinach powder at the same level of betaine for 10 days to investigate the dose-dependent effects of spinach powder supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia induced by guanidinoacetic acid (GAA addition and choline deprivation. The GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C was significantly suppressed by supplementation with betaine or spinach, and it was completely suppressed by taking 11.0% spinach supplementation. The choline deprivation-induced enhancement of plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 25% soybean protein diet (25S was markedly suppressed by 3.82% spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach partially prevented the effects of GAA on hepatic concentrations of methionine metabolites. The decrease in activity of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS in GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was recovered by supplementation with betaine or spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach did not affect BHMT activity, whereas it partially restored CBS activity in choline-deprived 25S. The results indicated that betaine or spinach could completely suppress the hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deficiency resulting from stimulating the homocysteine removal by both remethylation and cystathionine formation.

  8. SALT ACCLIMATION OF TRITICUM-AESTIVUM BY CHOLINE CHLORIDE - PLANT-GROWTH, MINERAL-CONTENT, AND CELL-PERMEABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MM; STADELMANN, EJ; LEESTADELMANN, OY

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of a salt sensitive line of Triticum aestivum were grown in Hoagland solution supplemented with 100 mM NaCl following a pretreatment with choline chloride (ChCl). Changes in growth, mineral content of roots and shoots, and passive permeability of the cell membrane were measured. Relative g

  9. Effects of Flutamide on [Methyl-3H]-Choline Uptake in Human Prostate Cancer-3 Cells: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saeedi, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Background: Positron emission tomography using [methyl-11C]-choline is effective in imaging many types of cancer, especially prostate cancer (PC). The antiandrogen flutamide is often used as part of the initial treatment of PC. Data on the effect of flutamide on and methylcholine incorporation into PC-3 cells are lacking in the experimental and literature work.

  10. The Origin of Weak Lensing Convergence Peaks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jia; Haiman, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Weak lensing convergence peaks are a promising tool to probe nonlinear structure evolution at late times, providing additional cosmological information beyond second-order statistics. Previous theoretical and observational studies have shown that the cosmological constraints on $\\Omega_m$ and $\\sigma_8$ are improved by a factor of up to ~ 2 when peak counts and second-order statistics are combined, compared to using the latter alone. We study the origin of lensing peaks using observational da...

  11. Origin of weak lensing convergence peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    Weak lensing convergence peaks are a promising tool to probe nonlinear structure evolution at late times, providing additional cosmological information beyond second-order statistics. Previous theoretical and observational studies have shown that the cosmological constraints on Ωm and σ8 are improved by a factor of up to ≈2 when peak counts and second-order statistics are combined, compared to using the latter alone. We study the origin of lensing peaks using observational data from the 154 deg2 Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey. We found that while high peaks (with height κ >3.5 σκ , where σκ is the rms of the convergence κ ) are typically due to one single massive halo of ≈1 015M⊙ , low peaks (κ ≲σκ ) are associated with constellations of 2-8 smaller halos (≲1 013M⊙ ). In addition, halos responsible for forming low peaks are found to be significantly offset from the line of sight towards the peak center (impact parameter ≳ their virial radii), compared with ≈0.25 virial radii for halos linked with high peaks, hinting that low peaks are more immune to baryonic processes whose impact is confined to the inner regions of the dark matter halos. Our findings are in good agreement with results from the simulation work by Yang et al. [Phys. Rev. D 84, 043529 (2011)].

  12. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  13. The relationship between choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in magnetic resonance spectroscopy with the invasion of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghafoori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second cause of cancer mortality in men. Although histopathological examination is the gold-standard for its diagnosis, tendency toward less invasive methods is growing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS with the invasion of prostate cancer in a series of patients with prostate cancer.Methods: Totally, 200 patients with pathologically proven prostate cancer were enrolled in this cross-sectional study by a non-probability sampling method in Hazrat Rasul Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2009-2010. Pathological staging was the gold standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer while the patients underwent MRS for choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio determination. MRS and pathological results were compared and analyzed.Results: The mean (±SD values of choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in patients with Gleason scores less than 3, 3 to 4 and greater than 4 were 245.8±146.8, 427.1±173.6 and 427.1±173.6, respectively (P<0.001. The mean (±SD values of choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in patients with PSA levels less than 4, 4 to 10 and greater than 10 were 180.7±58.3, 247±93.5 and 385.1±106.6, respectively (P<0.001.Conclusion: Choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy has a significant relationship with the degree of invasion of prostate cancer and can be used for the staging of the disease.

  14. PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma with {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine and {sup 11}C-choline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolthammer, Jeffrey A.; Tenley, Nathan [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); Corn, David J.; Wu, Chunying; Tian, Haibin; Wang, Yanming [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lee, Zhenghong [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Choline-based radiotracers have been studied for PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using an {sup 18}F-labeled choline analog, instead of the {sup 11}C-labeled native choline, would facilitate its widespread use in the clinic. In this study, PET with {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine (FEC) and {sup 11}C-choline (CHOL) were compared using an animal model of HCC. The effects of fasting on the performance of choline-based tracers were also investigated. A woodchuck model of HCC was used to compare the two tracers, which were administered and imaged in sequence during the same imaging session. Dynamic PET images were generated spanning 50 min starting from tracer injection. Time-activity curves and tracer contrast were calculated in liver regions with tracer accumulation, and the contrast at a late time-point with the two tracers, and between fasted and nonfasted states, were compared. Foci of HCC with increased uptake ranged in size from 1.0 to 1.6 cm, with mean tumor-to-background contrast of 1.3 with FEC and 1.5 with CHOL at 50 min after injection. The tracers show similar patterns of uptake immediately following administration, and both activities plateaued at 10 min after injection. No significant differences in uptake dynamics or final contrast were observed between the fasted and nonfasted states. PET imaging of HCC is possible with both CHOL and FEC. Fasting was not found to affect accumulation of either tracer. These results encourage further investigation into the clinical utility of FEC for HCC imaging. (orig.)

  15. Dorsal root ganglion progenitors differentiate to gamma-aminobutyric acid- and choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli Yu; Yindi Ding; Ambre Spencer; Ji Ma; Ruisheng Lu; Brian B. Rudkin; Chonggang Yuan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the isolation and differentiation of dorsal root ganglion progenitor cells for therapeutic use in neurodegenerative diseases.Rat embryonic dorsal root ganglia progenitors were isolated and purified using the differential adhesion method combined with cytosine arabinoside treatment.After culture in serum-free medium supplemented with B27, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor, these cells remained viable and survived for more than 18 months in vitro.Most cells differentiated to neurons that were immunoreactive for gamma-aminobutyric acid and choline acetyltransferase as detected by immunohistochemical staining.In addition, nerve growth factor and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor expression were also observed in dorsal root ganglion progenitors and differentiated cells.K252a, an inhibitor that blocks nerve growth factor-induced signaling, inhibited cell survival, suggesting the possible existence of a nerve growth factor autocrine loop in these proliferating cells.

  16. Surfactant Behavior of Sodium Dodecylsulfate in Deep Eutectic Solvent Choline Chloride/Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, T; Jackson, A J; Sanchez-Fernandez, A; Magnone, D; Terry, A E; Edler, K J

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) resemble ionic liquids but are formed from an ionic mixture instead of being a single ionic compound. Here we present some results that demonstrate that surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) remains surface-active and shows self-assembly phenomena in the most commonly studied DES, choline chloride/urea. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) suggest that the behavior is significantly different from that in water. Our SANS data supports our determination of the critical micelle concentration using surface-tension measurements and suggests that the micelles formed in DES do not have the same shape and size as those seen in water. Reflectivity measurements have also demonstrated that the surfactants remain surface-active below this concentration. PMID:26540438

  17. The Semi-automatic Synthesis of 18F-fluoroethyl-choline by Domestic FDG Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ming

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As an important complementary imaging agent for 18F-FDG, 18F-fluoroethyl-choline (18F-FECH has been demonstrated to be promising in brain and prostate cancer imaging. By using domestic PET-FDG-TI-I CPCU synthesizer, 18F-FECH was synthesized by different reagents and consumable supplies. The C18 column was added before the product collection bottle to remove K2.2.2. The 18F-FECH was synthesized by PET-FDG-IT-I synthesizer efficiently about 30 minutes by radiochemical yield of 42.0% (no decay corrected, n=5, and the radiochemical purity was still more than 99.0% after 6 hours. The results showed the domestic PET-FDG-IT-I synthesizer could semi-automatically synthesize injectable 18F-FECH in high efficiency and radiochemical purity

  18. Effect Of Choline Chloride (CC On 'Monroe' Peach Fruit Quality And Leaf Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike ÇETİNBAŞ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of choline chloride (CC were evaluated on fruit quality of ‘Monroe’ peach over 2-year period in a commercial orchard. Spray treatments of CC (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were applied to 7, 21 and 30 days before commercial harvest (DBH. Some fruit quality parameters fruit weight (g, fruit flesh firmness (N, soluble solids content (SSC, %, titratable acidity (TA, %, fruit colour (CIELab, sugars, ethylene production, respiration rate were assessed for per treatments. All treatments were increased fruit size and fruit weight. In the applications of CC the most determined results have occurred on colourness which is the one of significant quality parameter in peaches and they had positive effect on the development red colour.Treatments of CC have been increased of total sugar contents

  19. Synthesis of cadmium and zinc semiconductor compounds from an ionic liquid containing choline chloride and urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Phillip J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.j.dale@bath.ac.uk; Samantilleke, Anura P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Shivagan, Dilip D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Peter, Laurence M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-31

    A eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea (commercially known as Reline) has been used as a medium from which CdS, CdSe, and ZnS thin films have been electrodeposited for the first time. Reline is a conductive room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) with a wide electrochemical window, which is suitable for use as a medium for electrodeposition. The voltammetric behaviour of the Reline-Cd(II)-sulfur system has been investigated. Thin films of CdS deposited at constant potential were characterized by photocurrent and electrolyte electroabsorbance spectroscopies. Thin films of CdSe and ZnS have also been prepared, and their photocurrent excitation spectra have been measured.

  20. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Minimal surface roughness is a critical feature for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used to engineer particle accelerators. Current methods for polishing Niobium cavities typically utilize solutions containing a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Polishing processes such as these are effective, yet there are many hazards and costs associated with the use (and safe disposal) of the concentrated acid solutions. An alternative method for electrochemical polishing of the cavities was explored using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the ionic polishing solution. Final surface roughness of the Nb was found to be comparable to that of the acid-polishing method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This indicates that ionic liquid-based electrochemical polishing of Nb is a viable replacement for acid-based methods for preparation of SRF cavities.

  1. Phosphorylation of Human Choline Kinase Beta by Protein Kinase A: Its Impact on Activity and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching Ching; Few, Ling Ling; Konrad, Manfred; See Too, Wei Cun

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase beta (CKβ) is one of the CK isozymes involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. CKβ is important for normal mitochondrial function and muscle development as the lack of the ckβ gene in human and mice results in the development of muscular dystrophy. In contrast, CKα is implicated in tumorigenesis and has been extensively studied as an anticancer target. Phosphorylation of human CKα was found to regulate the enzyme’s activity and its subcellular location. This study provides evidence for CKβ phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). In vitro phosphorylation of CKβ by PKA was first detected by phosphoprotein staining, as well as by in-gel kinase assays. The phosphorylating kinase was identified as PKA by Western blotting. CKβ phosphorylation by MCF-7 cell lysate was inhibited by a PKA-specific inhibitor peptide, and the intracellular phosphorylation of CKβ was shown to be regulated by the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a PKA activator. Phosphorylation sites were located on CKβ residues serine-39 and serine-40 as determined by mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Phosphorylation increased the catalytic efficiencies for the substrates choline and ATP about 2-fold, without affecting ethanolamine phosphorylation, and the S39D/S40D CKβ phosphorylation mimic behaved kinetically very similar. Remarkably, phosphorylation drastically increased the sensitivity of CKβ to hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibition by about 30-fold. These findings suggest that CKβ, in concert with CKα, and depending on its phosphorylation status, might play a critical role as a druggable target in carcinogenesis. PMID:27149373

  2. Green synthesis of choline chloride%氯化胆碱的绿色合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞瑞; 袁存光

    2012-01-01

    以环氧乙烷和三甲胺盐酸盐为原料,用经过酸碱活化的绿色环保阴离子交换树脂为催化剂合成氯化胆碱.用质量分数为0.5%的活化的阴离子交换树脂作催化剂,在n(环氧乙烷)∶n(三甲胺盐酸盐)=1.1∶1,反应温度为60℃,反应时间为1h的条件下,合成的氯化胆碱产品的产率≥96%.催化剂经酸碱活化1次可重复使用若干次而不影响催化效果.%In this paper, a kind of environment friendly anion exchange resin catalyst which was activated by acid and base was applied in synthesizing choline chloride. The ethylene oxide and trimethylamine hydrochlorate were used as the raw material in this study. When the weight of catalyst is 0. 5% of total reactant mass, molar ratio of C2H4O and ( CH3 )3N-HC1 is 1. 1 ,the reaction temperature is 601 and the reaction time is 1 hour,the yield of choline chloride is above 96%. The activity of catalyst is almost the same as the one activated once,when it is used several times.

  3. Dietary choline supplementation to dams during pregnancy and lactation mitigates the effects of in utero stress exposure on adult anxiety-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Pearson, Jennifer N.; Gasparrini, Mary E.; Brooks, Kayla F.; Drake-Frazier, Chakeer; Zajkowski, Megan E.; Kreisler, Alison D.; Adams, Catherine E.; Leonard, Sherry; Stevens, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain cholinergic dysfunction is associated with neuropsychiatric illnesses such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Maternal stress exposure is associated with these same illnesses in adult offspring, yet the relationship between prenatal stress and brain cholinergic function is largely unexplored. Thus, using a rodent model, the current study implemented an intervention aimed at buffering the potential effects of prenatal stress on the developing brain cholinergic system. Specifically, control and stressed dams were fed choline-supplemented or control chow during pregnancy and lactation, and the anxiety-related behaviors of adult offspring were assessed in the open field, elevated zero maze and social interaction tests. In the open field test, choline supplementation significantly increased center investigation in both stressed and nonstressed female offspring, suggesting that choline-supplementation decreases female anxiety-related behavior irrespective of prenatal stress exposure. In the elevated zero maze, prenatal stress increased anxiety-related behaviors of female offspring fed a control diet (normal choline levels). However, prenatal stress failed to increase anxiety-related behaviors in female offspring receiving supplemental choline during gestation and lactation, suggesting that dietary choline supplementation ameliorated the effects of prenatal stress on anxiety-related behaviors. For male rats, neither prenatal stress nor diet impacted anxiety-related behaviors in the open field or elevated zero maze. In contrast, perinatal choline supplementation mitigated prenatal stress-induced social behavioral deficits in males, whereas neither prenatal stress nor choline supplementation influenced female social behaviors. Taken together, these data suggest that perinatal choline supplementation ameliorates the sex-specific effects of prenatal stress. PMID:24675162

  4. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT predicts survival in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero [Stadtspital Triemli, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Incerti, Elena; Mapelli, Paola; Gianolli, Luigi; Picchio, Maria [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milano (Italy); Kirienko, Margarita [University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Montorsi, Francesco [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Urology, Milano (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Over the last decade, PET/CT with radiolabelled choline has been shown to be useful for restaging patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who develop biochemical failure. The limitations of most clinical studies have been poor validation of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT-positive findings and lack of survival analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT can predict survival in hormone-naive PCa patients with biochemical failure. This retrospective study included 302 hormone-naive PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy who underwent [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT from 1 December 2004 to 31 July 2007 because of biochemical failure (prostate-specific antigen, PSA, >0.2 ng/mL). Median PSA was 1.02 ng/mL. PCa-specific survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between clinicopathological variables and PCa-specific survival. The coefficients of the covariates included in the Cox regression analysis were used to develop a novel nomogram. Median follow-up was 7.2 years (1.4 - 18.9 years). [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT was positive in 101 of 302 patients (33 %). Median PCa-specific survival after prostatectomy was 14.9 years (95 % CI 9.7 - 20.1 years) in patients with positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT. Median survival was not achieved in patients with negative [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT. The 15-year PCa-specific survival probability was 42.4 % (95 % CI 31.7 - 53.1 %) in patients with positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and 95.5 % (95 % CI 93.5 - 97.5 %) in patients with negative [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT. In multivariate analysis, [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT (hazard ratio 6.36, 95 % CI 2.14 - 18.94, P < 0.001) and Gleason score >7 (hazard ratio 3.11, 95 % CI 1.11 - 8.66, P = 0.030) predicted PCa-specific survival. An internally validated nomogram predicted 15-year PCa-specific survival probability with an accuracy of 80 %. Positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT after biochemical failure

  5. [11C]Choline PET/CT predicts survival in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, PET/CT with radiolabelled choline has been shown to be useful for restaging patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who develop biochemical failure. The limitations of most clinical studies have been poor validation of [11C]choline PET/CT-positive findings and lack of survival analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether [11C]choline PET/CT can predict survival in hormone-naive PCa patients with biochemical failure. This retrospective study included 302 hormone-naive PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy who underwent [11C]choline PET/CT from 1 December 2004 to 31 July 2007 because of biochemical failure (prostate-specific antigen, PSA, >0.2 ng/mL). Median PSA was 1.02 ng/mL. PCa-specific survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between clinicopathological variables and PCa-specific survival. The coefficients of the covariates included in the Cox regression analysis were used to develop a novel nomogram. Median follow-up was 7.2 years (1.4 - 18.9 years). [11C]Choline PET/CT was positive in 101 of 302 patients (33 %). Median PCa-specific survival after prostatectomy was 14.9 years (95 % CI 9.7 - 20.1 years) in patients with positive [11C]choline PET/CT. Median survival was not achieved in patients with negative [11C]choline PET/CT. The 15-year PCa-specific survival probability was 42.4 % (95 % CI 31.7 - 53.1 %) in patients with positive [11C]choline PET/CT and 95.5 % (95 % CI 93.5 - 97.5 %) in patients with negative [11C]choline PET/CT. In multivariate analysis, [11C]choline PET/CT (hazard ratio 6.36, 95 % CI 2.14 - 18.94, P < 0.001) and Gleason score >7 (hazard ratio 3.11, 95 % CI 1.11 - 8.66, P = 0.030) predicted PCa-specific survival. An internally validated nomogram predicted 15-year PCa-specific survival probability with an accuracy of 80 %. Positive [11C]choline PET/CT after biochemical failure predicts PCa-specific survival in hormone-naive PCa patients

  6. Identification of new genetic polymorphisms that alter the dietary requirement for choline and vary in their distribution across ethnic and racial groups

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Corbin, Karen D.; Niculescu, Mihai D.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Zeisel, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Effect alleles (alleles with a polymorphism that is associated with the effect being measured) in a small number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are known to influence the dietary requirement for choline. In this study, we examined a much larger number of SNPs (n=200) in 10 genes related to choline metabolism for associations with development of organ dysfunction (liver or muscle) when 79 humans were fed a low-choline diet. We confirmed that effect alleles in SNPs such as the C alle...

  7. The Boson peak in supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Wikfeldt, K Thor; Schlesinger, Daniel; Pettersson, Lars G M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the TIP4P/2005 model of water to investigate the origin of the Boson peak reported in experiments on supercooled water in nanoconfined pores, and in hydration water around proteins. We find that the onset of the Boson peak in supercooled bulk water coincides with the crossover to a predominantly low-density-like liquid below the Widom line TW. The frequency and onset temperature of the Boson peak in our simulations of bulk water agree well with the results from experiments on nanoconfined water. Our results suggest that the Boson peak in water is not an exclusive effect of confinement. We further find that, similar to other glass-forming liquids, the vibrational modes corresponding to the Boson peak are spatially extended and are related to transverse phonons found in the parent crystal, here ice Ih. PMID:23771033

  8. Multiscale peak alignment for chromatographic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Lu, Hong-Mei; Tan, Bin-Bin; Xu, Xiao-Na; Ferro, Miguel

    2012-02-01

    Chromatography has been extensively applied in many fields, such as metabolomics and quality control of herbal medicines. Preprocessing, especially peak alignment, is a time-consuming task prior to the extraction of useful information from the datasets by chemometrics and statistics. To accurately and rapidly align shift peaks among one-dimensional chromatograms, multiscale peak alignment (MSPA) is presented in this research. Peaks of each chromatogram were detected based on continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and aligned against a reference chromatogram from large to small scale gradually, and the aligning procedure is accelerated by fast Fourier transform cross correlation. The presented method was compared with two widely used alignment methods on chromatographic dataset, which demonstrates that MSPA can preserve the shapes of peaks and has an excellent speed during alignment. Furthermore, MSPA method is robust and not sensitive to noise and baseline. MSPA was implemented and is available at http://code.google.com/p/mspa. PMID:22222564

  9. Multiscale peak detection in wavelet space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Tong, Xia; Peng, Ying; Ma, Pan; Zhang, Ming-Jin; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-12-01

    Accurate peak detection is essential for analyzing high-throughput datasets generated by analytical instruments. Derivatives with noise reduction and matched filtration are frequently used, but they are sensitive to baseline variations, random noise and deviations in the peak shape. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based method is more practical and popular in this situation, which can increase the accuracy and reliability by identifying peaks across scales in wavelet space and implicitly removing noise as well as the baseline. However, its computational load is relatively high and the estimated features of peaks may not be accurate in the case of peaks that are overlapping, dense or weak. In this study, we present multi-scale peak detection (MSPD) by taking full advantage of additional information in wavelet space including ridges, valleys, and zero-crossings. It can achieve a high accuracy by thresholding each detected peak with the maximum of its ridge. It has been comprehensively evaluated with MALDI-TOF spectra in proteomics, the CAMDA 2006 SELDI dataset as well as the Romanian database of Raman spectra, which is particularly suitable for detecting peaks in high-throughput analytical signals. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that MSPD can detect more true peaks while keeping the false discovery rate lower than MassSpecWavelet and MALDIquant methods. Superior results in Raman spectra suggest that MSPD seems to be a more universal method for peak detection. MSPD has been designed and implemented efficiently in Python and Cython. It is available as an open source package at . PMID:26514234

  10. The Origin of Weak Lensing Convergence Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Weak lensing convergence peaks are a promising tool to probe nonlinear structure evolution at late times, providing additional cosmological information beyond second-order statistics. Previous theoretical and observational studies have shown that the cosmological constraints on $\\Omega_m$ and $\\sigma_8$ are improved by a factor of up to ~ 2 when peak counts and second-order statistics are combined, compared to using the latter alone. We study the origin of lensing peaks using observational data from the 154 deg$^2$ Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey. We found that while high peaks (with height $\\kappa$ >3.5 $\\sigma_\\kappa$, where $\\sigma_\\kappa$ is the r.m.s. of the convergence $\\kappa$) are typically due to one single massive halo of ~$10^{15}M_\\odot$, low peaks ($\\kappa$ ~ their virial radii), compared with ~0.25 virial radii for halos linked with high peaks, hinting that low peaks are more immune to baryonic processes whose impact is confined to the inner regions of the dark matter halos. Our fi...

  11. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Haiman, Zoltán; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with S /N >1 (where S /N is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find ≈50 % fewer counts for peaks near S /N =0 and significantly higher counts in the negative S /N tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within 20% for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the {Ωm,σ8} are ≈30 % larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with 2 3 ). Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14% improvement in parameter constraints. We identified the covariance estimation as the main driver behind differences in inference, and suggest possible ways to make Camelus even more useful as a highly accurate peak count emulator.

  12. Cosmological Information in Weak Lensing Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiuyuan; Wang, Sheng; Lim, Eugene A; Haiman, Zoltan; May, Morgan

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the number counts of convergence peaks N(kappa) in weak lensing (WL) maps, expected from large forthcoming surveys, can be a useful probe of cosmology. We follow up on this finding, and use a suite of WL convergence maps, obtained from ray-tracing N-body simulations, to study (i) the physical origin of WL peaks with different heights, and (ii) whether the peaks contain information beyond the convergence power spectrum P_ell. In agreement with earlier work, we find that high peaks (with amplitudes >~ 3.5 sigma, where sigma is the r.m.s. of the convergence kappa) are typically dominated by a single massive halo. In contrast, medium-height peaks (~0.5-1.5 sigma) cannot be attributed to a single collapsed dark matter halo, and are instead created by the projection of multiple (typically, 4-8) halos along the line of sight, and by random galaxy shape noise. Nevertheless, these peaks dominate the sensitivity to the cosmological parameters w, sigma_8, and Omega_m. We find that the peak...

  13. Looking for High Energy Peaked Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Costamante, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.; Tagliaferri, G.; Wolter, A.; Chiaberge, M.; Fossati, G; Pian, E.; L. Maraschi(INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy); Tavecchio, F.; Treves, A.

    2000-01-01

    Blazars can be classified on the basis of their overall Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). BL Lac objects are usually divided in LBL or HBL (Low or High energy peaked BL Lacs), according to the peak frequency of the synchrotron emission, if in the optical or UV-soft-X band respectively. FSRQs instead are characterized by synchrotron peaks mainly at IR-optical frequencies, similarly to LBLs. Here we report on recent BeppoSAX observations which are unveiling the high energy branch of the range...

  14. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  15. Structural Evolution of Colloidal Crystal Films in the Process of Melting Revealed by Bragg Peak Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulyanova, Elena A.; Shabalin, Anatoly; Zozulya, Alexey V.; Meijer, Janne-Mieke; Dzhigaev, Dmitry; Gorobtsov, Oleg; Kurta, Ruslan P.; Lazarev, Sergey; Lorenz, Ulf; Singer, Andrej; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Zaluzhnyy, Ivan; Besedin, Ilya; Sprung, Michael; Petukhov, A. V.; Vartanyants, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction studies of structural evolution of colloidal crystal films formed by polystyrene spherical particles upon incremental heating are reported. The Bragg peak parameters, such as peak position, integrated intensity, and radial and azimuthal widths were analyzed as a function of

  16. Storage Operation for Peak Shaving of Distributed PV and Wind Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, S.; Molderink, A.; Hurink, J.L.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of fluctuating power generation based on renewable energy systems (RES-E) in distribution grids require grid reinforcement resulting from high feed-in peaks. Introducing storage assets can decrease these peaks. For this, storage technologies need to be chosen and dimensioned accordin

  17. Peak Vegetation Growth 2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2004 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  18. Peak Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  19. Peak Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  20. Peak Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  1. Peak Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  2. Peak Vegetation Growth 2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2002 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  3. Peak Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  4. Peak Vegetation Growth 1999 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1999 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  5. Amplification of postwildfire peak flow by debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, J. W.; McGuire, L. A.; Rengers, F. K.; Smith, J. B.; Staley, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    In burned steeplands, the peak depth and discharge of postwildfire runoff can substantially increase from the addition of debris. Yet methods to estimate the increase over water flow are lacking. We quantified the potential amplification of peak stage and discharge using video observations of postwildfire runoff, compiled data on postwildfire peak flow (Qp), and a physically based model. Comparison of flood and debris flow data with similar distributions in drainage area (A) and rainfall intensity (I) showed that the median runoff coefficient (C = Qp/AI) of debris flows is 50 times greater than that of floods. The striking increase in Qp can be explained using a fully predictive model that describes the additional flow resistance caused by the emergence of coarse-grained surge fronts. The model provides estimates of the amplification of peak depth, discharge, and shear stress needed for assessing postwildfire hazards and constraining models of bedrock incision.

  6. Peak Vegetation Growth 1991 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1991 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  7. Peak Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  8. Tectonics, Climate and Earth's highest peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Prominent peaks characterized by high relief and steep slopes are among the most spectacular morphological features on Earth. In collisional orogens they result from the interplay of tectonically driven crustal thickening and climatically induced destruction of overthickened crust by erosional surface processes. The glacial buzz-saw hypothesis proposes a superior status of climate in limiting mountain relief and peak altitude due to glacial erosion. It implies that peak altitude declines with duration of glacial occupation, i.e., towards high latitudes. This is in strong contrast with high peaks existing in high latitude mountain ranges (e.g. Mt. St. Elias range) and the idea of peak uplift due to isostatic compensation of spatially variable erosional unloading an over-thickened orogenic crust. In this study we investigate landscape dissection, crustal thickness and vertical strain rates in tectonically active mountain ranges to evaluate the influence of erosion on (latitudinal) variations in peak altitude. We analyze the spatial distribution of serval thousand prominent peaks on Earth extracted from the global ETOPO1 digital elevation model with a novel numerical tool. We compare this dataset to crustal thickness, thickening rate (vertical strain rate) and mean elevation. We use the ratios of mean elevation to peak elevation (landscape dissection) and peak elevation to crustal thickness (long-term impact of erosion on crustal thickness) as indicators for the influence of erosional surface processes on peak uplift and the vertical strain rate as a proxy for the mechanical state of the orogen. Our analysis reveals that crustal thickness and peak elevation correlate well in orogens that have reached a mechanically limited state (vertical strain rate near zero) where plate convergence is already balanced by lateral extrusion and gravitational collapse and plateaus are formed. On the Tibetan Plateau crustal thickness serves to predict peak elevation up to an altitude

  9. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health for Lupus Patients Bone Health and Anorexia Nervosa Partner Resources Screening Tests and Immunizations Guidelines for ... calcium. Physical Activity. Girls and boys and young adults who exercise regularly generally achieve greater peak bone ...

  10. Cosmic Microwave Background Acoustic Peak Locations

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zhen; Mulroe, Brigid; Narimani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Planck collaboration has measured the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background well enough to determine the locations of eight peaks in the temperature (TT) power spectrum, five peaks in the polarization (EE) power spectrum and twelve extrema in the cross (TE) power spectrum. The relative locations of these extrema give a striking, and beautiful, demonstration of what we expect from acoustic oscillations in the plasma; e.g., that EE peaks fall half way between TT peaks. We expect this because the temperature map is predominantly sourced by temperature variations in the last scattering surface, while the polarization map is predominantly sourced by gradients in the velocity field, and the harmonic oscillations have temperature and velocity 90 degrees out of phase. However, there are large differences in expectations for extrema locations from simple analytic models vs. numerical calculations. Here we quantitatively explore the origin of these differences in gravitational potential tr...

  11. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yichen

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  12. Helping System Engineers Bridge the Peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha; Tkachuk, Oksana; Person, Suzette; Biatek, Jason; Whalen, Michael W.; Castle, Joseph; Castle, JosephGundy-Burlet, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In our experience at NASA, system engineers generally follow the Twin Peaks approach when developing safety-critical systems. However, iterations between the peaks require considerable manual, and in some cases duplicate, effort. A significant part of the manual effort stems from the fact that requirements are written in English natural language rather than a formal notation. In this work, we propose an approach that enables system engineers to leverage formal requirements and automated test generation to streamline iterations, effectively "bridging the peaks". The key to the approach is a formal language notation that a) system engineers are comfortable with, b) is supported by a family of automated V&V tools, and c) is semantically rich enough to describe the requirements of interest. We believe the combination of formalizing requirements and providing tool support to automate the iterations will lead to a more efficient Twin Peaks implementation at NASA.

  13. Peaking Capacity in Restructured Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Doorman, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this thesis is the supply of capacity during peak demand in restructured power systems. There are a number of reasons why there is uncertainty about whether an enegyonly electricity market (where generators are only paid for the energy produced) is able to ensure uninterrupted supply during peak load conditions.Much of the public debate in Europe has been about the present surplus generation capacity. However, in a truly competitive environment, it is hard to believe that seldom ...

  14. Forward-peaked scattering of polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2014-11-15

    Polarized light propagation in a multiple scattering medium is governed by the vector radiative transfer equation. We analyze the vector radiative transfer equation in asymptotic limit of forward-peaked scattering and derive an approximate system of equations for the Stokes parameters, which we call the vector Fokker-Planck approximation. The vector Fokker-Planck approximation provides valuable insight into several outstanding issues regarding the forward-peaked scattering of polarized light such as the polarization memory phenomenon. PMID:25490484

  15. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    OpenAIRE

    Glaucia Nency Takara; Gualberto Ruas; Bruna Varanda Pessoa; Luciana Kawakami Jamami; Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo; Mauricio Jamami

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value record...

  16. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    CERN Document Server

    Matilla, José Manuel Zorrilla; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with $\\mathcal{S/N}>1$ (where $\\mathcal{S/N}$ is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find $\\approx 50\\%$ fewer counts for peaks near $\\mathcal{S/N}=0$ and significantly higher counts in the negative $\\mathcal{S/N}$ tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within $20\\%$ for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the $\\{\\Omega_m, \\sigma_8\\}$ are $\\approx 30\\%$ larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with $23)$. Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14\\% improveme...

  17. Cosmic microwave background acoustic peak locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Knox, L.; Mulroe, B.; Narimani, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Planck collaboration has measured the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background well enough to determine the locations of eight peaks in the temperature (TT) power spectrum, five peaks in the polarization (EE) power spectrum and 12 extrema in the cross (TE) power spectrum. The relative locations of these extrema give a striking, and beautiful, demonstration of what we expect from acoustic oscillations in the plasma; e.g. that EE peaks fall half way between TT peaks. We expect this because the temperature map is predominantly sourced by temperature variations in the last scattering surface, while the polarization map is predominantly sourced by gradients in the velocity field, and the harmonic oscillations have temperature and velocity 90 deg out of phase. However, there are large differences in expectations for extrema locations from simple analytic models versus numerical calculations. Here, we quantitatively explore the origin of these differences in gravitational potential transients, neutrino free-streaming, the breakdown of tight coupling, the shape of the primordial power spectrum, details of the geometric projection from three to two dimensions, and the thickness of the last scattering surface. We also compare the peak locations determined from Planck measurements to expectations under the Λ cold dark matter model. Taking into account how the peak locations were determined, we find them to be in agreement.

  18. Effects of irradiation on the [methyl-{sup 3}H]choline uptake in the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, K.; Mueller, S.A.; Seidl, C.; Schwaiger, M.; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany); Grosu, A.L. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Background and purpose: choline positron emission tomography (PET) can help to optimize radiation treatment strategy of prostate cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of ionizing radiation on the choline uptake in an androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and an androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer cell line. Material and methods: uptake of [methyl-{sup 3}H]choline chloride was investigated between 4 and 96 h after irradiation with 6 Gy. Dose dependence of choline uptake was examined following irradiation with 2-12 Gy, and cell survival was analyzed via the clonogenic assay. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was determined 24 h (PC3) and 48 h (LNCaP) after irradiation with 6 Gy. Results: PC3 cells showed a significant transitory increase of [methyl-{sup 3}H]choline uptake with a maximum at 24 h after irradiation. In LNCaP cells irradiation induced a significant decrease with a minimum at 48 h. Changes in choline uptake in both cell lines were almost dose-independent up to 12 Gy. Following irradiation with 6 Gy, transport capacity (v{sub max}) increased and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}) decreased in PC3 cells, while in LNCaP cells the two parameters behaved vice versa. Conclusion: changes in choline uptake following irradiation might be due to metabolic changes associated with initiation of processes that finally cause cell death. Thus, changes in tumor choline uptake monitored by PET after radiotherapy might not exclusively reflect therapeutic success but also altered tracer uptake as a consequence of irradiation. (orig.)

  19. Utility of 18F-choline photon emission tomography/computed tomography in the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Tripathi, Madhavi; Behera, Abhishek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Aggarwal, Shipra; Aggarwal, Vivek; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathi; Taywade, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the role of 18F-choline in the detection of parathyroid adenomas has been reported. At our institution, we are currently studying the role of this tracer in comparison to the standard methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile.(MIBI) scan with single photon emission tomography/computed tomography. Our initial results show that 18F-choline is at least as good as 99mTc-MIBI scan. We present here a representative case of a 45-year-old woman with multiple skeletal lytic lesions and a high parathyroid hormone.(PTH) who underwent both these imaging techniques with concordant results, further confirmed by histopathology and postoperative fall in serum PTH levels. PMID:27385893

  20. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  1. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  2. Highly specific antibodies for co-detection of human choline kinase α1 and α2 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cun See Too

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Choline kinase is the first enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway that synthesizes phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. In humans, choline kinase exists as three isoforms (CKα1, α2, and β. Specific inhibition of CKα has been reported to selectively kill tumoral cells. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against CKα used in previous studies to detect the level of this isozyme in different cellular or biochemical contexts were able to detect either the α1 or the α2 isoform. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, an antiserum against CKα was produced by immunizing rabbits with denatured, purified recombinant CKα2 full-length protein. This antiserum was highly specific for CKα when tested with extracts from different cell lines, and there was no cross reactivity with purified CKβ and other related proteins like human ethanolamine kinases (EK and yeast choline or ethanolamine kinases. The antiserum simultaneously detected both CKα1 and α2 isoforms in MCF-7 and HepG2 cell extracts, but not in HeLa, HCT-116, and mouse embryonic stem cell extracts. Subsequent protein dot blot assay of total CKα in a human normal/tumor protein array of 30 tissue samples by using the antiserum showed that CKα was not overexpressed in all tumor tissues when compared to their normal counterparts. Most striking differences between tumor and normal CKα expression levels were observed in kidney (11-fold higher in tumor and liver (15-fold lower in tumor samples. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Apart from its high sensitivity and specificity, the antiserum produced in this work, which does not require further purification, has the advantage of co-detecting both α1 and α2 isoforms in cell extracts for direct comparison of their expression levels.

  3. Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez, R.; Raïch, J.; Aguilar, J.

    1991-01-01

    1. Spiroperidol binding (dopamine D2 receptors) and quinuclidinyl benzilate binding (muscarinic receptors) in striata of 19-month old mice was analyzed for animals that had received chronic administration of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) incorporated into the chow consumed (100 or 500 mg kg-1 added per day) for the 7 months before they were killed. 2. Treated animals displayed an increase in the dopamine receptor densities of 11% for those receiving 100 mg kg-1 and 18% for those ...

  4. Diagnostic value of combining 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this prospective study, our goal was to emphasize the diagnostic value of combining 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease. Thirty-three consecutive patients were enrolled. All patients were suspected to have HCC based on CT and/or MRI imaging. A final diagnosis was obtained by histopathological examination or by imaging alone according to American Association for the Study of Liver Disease criteria. All patients underwent PET/CT with both tracers within a median of 5 days. All lesions showing higher tracer uptake than normal liver were considered positive for HCC. We examined how tracer uptake was related to biological (serum α-fetoprotein levels) and pathological (differentiation status, peritumoral capsule and vascular invasion) prognostic markers of HCC, as well as clinical observations at 6 months (recurrence and death). Twenty-eight HCC, four cholangiocarcinomas and one adenoma were diagnosed. In the HCC patients, the sensitivity of 11C-choline, 18F-FDG and combined 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of HCC was 75 %, 36 % and 93 %, respectively. Serum α-fetoprotein levels >200 ng/ml were more frequent among patients with 18F-FDG-positive lesions than those with 18F-FDG-negative lesions (p < 0.05). Early recurrence (n=2) or early death (n=5) occurred more frequently in patients with 18F-FDG-positive lesions than in those with 18F-FDG-negative lesions (p < 0.05). The combined use of 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT detected HCC with high sensitivity. This approach appears to be of potential prognostic value and may facilitate the selection of patients for surgical resection or liver transplantation. (orig.)

  5. No evidence for role of extracellular choline-acetyltransferase in generation of gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, J O; ul Haq, R; Behrens, C J; Maslarova, A; Mody, I; Heinemann, U

    2015-01-22

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is well known to induce persistent γ-oscillations in the hippocampus when applied together with physostigmine, an inhibitor of the ACh degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Here we report that physostigmine alone can also dose-dependently induce γ-oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. We hypothesized that this effect was due to the presence of choline in the extracellular space and that this choline is taken up into cholinergic fibers where it is converted to ACh by the enzyme choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT). Release of ACh from cholinergic fibers in turn may then induce γ-oscillations. We therefore tested the effects of the choline uptake inhibitor hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) on persistent γ-oscillations either induced by physostigmine alone or by co-application of ACh and physostigmine. We found that HC-3 itself did not induce γ-oscillations and also did not prevent physostigmine-induced γ-oscillation while washout of physostigmine and ACh-induced γ-oscillations was accelerated. It was recently reported that ChAT might also be present in the extracellular space (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2013). Here we show that the effect of physostigmine was prevented by the ChAT inhibitor (2-benzoylethyl)-trimethylammonium iodide (BETA) which could indicate extracellular synthesis of ACh. However, when we tested for effects of extracellularly applied acetyl-CoA, a substrate of ChAT for synthesis of ACh, physostigmine-induced γ-oscillations were attenuated. Together, these findings do not support the idea that ACh can be synthesized by an extracellularly located ChAT. PMID:25453770

  6. Solubilities of carbon dioxide in the eutectic mixture of levulinic acid (or furfuryl alcohol) and choline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solubilities of carbon dioxide in six renewable deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been reported. • The experimental data were well correlated by Henry’s law. • The dissolution Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes were derived. • The absorption capacities of CO2 in present DESs and other DESs as well as several ionic liquids were compared. - Abstract: The solubilities of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the renewable deep eutectic solvents (DESs) containing levulinic acid (or furfuryl alcohol) and choline chloride were determined at temperatures (303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K and pressures up to 600.0 kPa using an isochoric saturation method. The mole ratios of levulinic acid (or furfuryl alcohol) to choline chloride were fixed at 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1. Standard Gibbs free energy, dissolution enthalpy and dissolution entropy were calculated from Henry’s law constant of CO2 in the DESs. Results indicated that levulinic acid based DESs are more effective to capture CO2 than furfuryl alcohol based ones. The solubility of CO2 in the DESs increased with increasing mole ratio of levulinic acid (or furfuryl alcohol) to choline chloride as well as pressure and decreased with increasing temperature

  7. INS, DFT and temperature dependent IR investigations of dynamical properties of low temperature phase of choline chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlukojć, A., E-mail: andrzej@jinr.ru [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16 str., 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Hetmańczyk, Ł. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3 str., 30-060 Cracow (Poland)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Choline chloride was investigated by INS and IR. • DFT calculations for solids state model were performed. • Full vibrational analysis was performed. • Activation energy for the CH{sub 3} group reorientation was obtained. - Abstract: Within the framework of the research the inelastic neutron scattering and temperature dependent infra-red spectroscopy investigations of the low temperature phase of choline chloride were performed. The infra-red spectra in wavenumber region 4000–80 cm{sup −1} and in a temperature range 9–300 K were collected. The density functional theory calculations with the periodic boundary conditions for determination and description of the normal modes in the vibration spectra of choline chloride were applied. Bands assigned to the CH{sub 3} torsional vibration were observed at 288 and 249 cm{sup −1}. From the analysis of the temperature dependence of the full-width-at-half-maximum the activation energy for CH{sub 3} group reorientation is found to be equal to 1.6 ± 0.2 kcal/mol.

  8. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Peaked Traveling Wave Solutions to a Generalized Novikov Equation with Cubic and Quadratic Nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Camassa-Holm equation, Degasperis—Procesi equation and Novikov equation are the three typical integrable evolution equations admitting peaked solitons. In this paper, a generalized Novikov equation with cubic and quadratic nonlinearities is studied, which is regarded as a generalization of these three well-known studied equations. It is shown that this equation admits single peaked traveling wave solutions, periodic peaked traveling wave solutions, and multi-peaked traveling wave solutions. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Choline-induced selective fluorescence quenching of acetylcholinesterase conjugated Au@BSA clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Meegle S; Baksi, Ananya; Pradeep, T; Joseph, Kuruvilla

    2016-07-15

    We have developed a highly selective sensitive fluorescent detection of acetylcholine (ACh) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) protected atomically precise clusters of gold. The gold quantum clusters (AuQC@BSA) synthesized using bovine serum albumin and conjugated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme specific for acetylcholine, resulting in AuQC@BSA-AChE. The enzyme, AChE hydrolyzes acetylcholine (ACh) to choline (Ch) which in turn interacts with AuQC@BSA-AChE and quenches its fluorescence, enabling sensing. We have carried out the real time monitoring of the hydrolysis of ACh using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) to find out the mechanism of fluorescent quenching. The validity of present method for determination of concentration of acetylcholine in real system such as blood was demonstrated. Further, the sensor, AuQC@BSA-AChE can be easily coated on paper and an efficient and cheap sensor can be developed and detection limit for ACh is found to be 10nM. The fluorescent intensity of AuQC@BSA-AChE is sensitive towards acetylcholine in range of 10nM to 6.4µM. This suggests that AuQC@BSA-AChE has an excellent potential to be used for diagnosis of various neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungha Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT improve cognitive function of Alzheimer’s disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level.

  13. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Yeseul; Kim, Kwang Sei; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Choi, Youngjin; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs) overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) improve cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh) level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing) time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level. PMID:27087745

  14. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  15. Interaction Mechanism Insights on the Solvation of Fullerene B(80)with Choline-based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-09-24

    Beyond carbon allotropes, other nanostructures such as fullerene B80 are attracting a growing interest due to their potential applications. The use of new materials based on fullerene B80 is still in a premature stage; however many of these applications would require the use of B80 in solution. This paper reports an unprecedented density functional theory (DFT) analysis on the interaction mechanism between B80 and two choline-based ionic liquids as a first insight for the fullerene B80 solvation by ionic liquids. The analysis of properties such as binding energies, charge distributions or intermolecular interactions shed light on the main features, which should govern interaction between ionic liquids and fullerene B80. In addition, the optimization of systems composed by six ionic pairs around a fullerene B80 has supplied some information about the first solvation shell at the molecular level. As a summary, this paper provides the first insights in the rational design of ionic liquids with suitable properties for the solvation of B80.

  16. Initial prostate cancer diagnosis and disease staging--the role of choline-PET-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Paola; Picchio, Maria

    2015-09-01

    An early and correct diagnosis together with accurate staging of prostate cancer is necessary in order to plan the most appropriate treatment strategy. Morphological imaging modalities such as transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT, and MRI can have some limitations regarding their accuracy for primary diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer; for instance, they have limited specificity in differentiating cancer from benign prostatic conditions and, by using size as the only criterion to characterize lymph node metastases, they might not be accurate enough for tumour characterization. In this scenario, PET-CT with (11)C-labelled or (18)F-labelled choline derivatives provides morphological and functional characterization and could overcome the limitations of the conventional imaging techniques. PET-CT is one of the most investigated molecular imaging modalities for prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. Currently, the main investigations on the role of PET-CT in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer have been performed on a retrospective basis and this type of analysis might be one of the main reasons why different results regarding its diagnostic accuracy have been reported.

  17. Electrolysis of solid copper oxide to copper in Choline chloride-EG eutectic melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical deoxygenation of porous CuO pellet to prepare copper was investigated in the 33.3-66.7 mol% Choline chloride (ChCl)-EG eutectic melt at 353 K. Cyclic voltammetry of the Pt-powder cavity microelectrode loaded with CuO powder exhibited that the solid CuO can be electrochemically reduced in solid state in the eutectic melt. Constant-voltage (2.0 to 2.4 V) electrolysis, with an assembled cathode of a sintered porous CuO pellet and a graphite anode, that performed in the eutectic melt demonstrated the conversion process of oxide-to metal as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction spectra. A mechanism for this reduction process has been proposed on the basis of the in situ formation of numerous gas at the cathode, emphasizing that the oxidation of cathodically generated O2− ions occurred nearby along with the copper electroreduction, in which the new formed metal was served as a temporary anode, oxygen was generated at the interface of the reduced copper and electrolyte inside the cathode

  18. Enzyme-Catalyzed Henry Reaction in Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xuemei; Zhang, Suoqin; Zheng, Liangyu

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme-catalyzed Henry reaction was realized using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a reaction medium. The lipase from Aspergillus niger (lipase AS) showed excellent catalytic activity toward the substrates aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane in choline chloride:glycerol at a molar ratio of 1:2. Addition of 30 vol% water to DES further improved the lipase activity and inhibited DES-catalyzed transformation. A final yield of 92.2% for the lipase AS-catalyzed Henry reaction was achieved under optimized reaction conditions in only 4 h. In addition, the lipase AS activity was improved by approximately 3-fold in a DES-water mixture compared with that in pure water, which produced a final yield of only 33.4%. Structural studies with fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the established strong hydrogen bonds between DES and water may be the main driving force that affects the spatial conformation of the enzyme, leading to a change in lipase activity. The methodology was also extended to the aza-Henry reaction, which easily occurred in contrast to that in pure water. The enantioselectivity of both Henry and aza-Henry reactions was not found. However, the results are still remarkable, as we report the first use of DES as a reaction medium in a lipase-catalyzed Henry reaction. PMID:26437947

  19. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds. PMID:26743645

  20. Positive correlations between cerebral choline and renal dysfunction in chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Nakahama, Hajime; Nakamura, Satoko; Inenaga, Takashi; Kawano, Yuhei [National Cardiovascular Center, Division of Hypertension and Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Hattori, Noriaki; Inoue, Noriko; Sawada, Tohru [BF Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Kohno, Shigeru [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    Cerebral metabolism in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients has not been fully evaluated. This study examined cerebral metabolites in CRF, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Subjects comprised 19 CRF patients and 21 healthy volunteers. Spectra were acquired from voxels of interest positioned in the parietal gray and white matter, and concentrations of the following cerebral metabolites were measured: N-acetyl group (NA), creatine + phosphocreatine (Cr), choline-containing compounds (Cho), myo-inositol and glutamate + glutamine. Among the 19 CRF patients, 9 who were started on hemodialysis (HD) underwent careful follow-up. Proton MRS was performed before and about 2 weeks after starting HD. In six patients in whom follow-up was possible, a third MRS was performed after about 18 months. The NA/Cr ratio was not significantly changed in CRF. However, elevations in the Cho/Cr ratio were found in both gray and white matter compared with controls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of positive correlations between the Cho/Cr ratio in both regions and serum osmotic pressure. (orig.)

  1. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27507101

  2. Paleomagnetism of the Becker Peak stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. A.; Housen, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of plutonic rocks, although subject to uncertainty due to lack of paleohorizontal control, can provide important constrains of patterns of regional deformation, and can play a role in evaluation of tectonic models and reconstructions. Many plutonic rocks of the Cascades have been well-studied via paleomagnetism, but there are many that lack robust data sets. One such pluton, the Beckler Peak stock, is a late Cretaceous tonalitic stock, with biotite and amphibole K-Ar ages of 93 to 82 Ma (Engels and Crowder, 1971, Yeats and Engels, 1971). The Beckler Peak stock is considered to be a companion body to the larger Mt. Stuart Batholith, but is separated from the Mt. Stuart Batholith by the Evergreen Fault. For this study five paleomagnetic sites were sampled from the Beckler Peak stock near Skykomish, Washington. After low temperature and thermal demagnetization site means were calculated for the four sites where at least two samples survived demagnetization. Unblocking temperatures were indicative of magnetite and hematite as the carriers of remanence. Two of the site means were disregarded due to anomalous directions likely due to sites being from very large slump blocks. The two acceptable site means, along with a Beckler Peak stock site mean from Beck and Noson (1972) and another from Housen et al. (2003) give a stock-wide mean of D = 3.8°, I = 41.9°, k = 32.9, and α95 = 16.2°. This direction is consistent with mean directions for the Mount Stuart batholith determined by Beck and Noson (1972), Beck et al. (1981), and Housen et al. (2003). This directional consistency supports an association between the Beckler Peak stock and the Mt. Stuart Batholith, or at least that these two plutonic bodies were emplaced in the same structural block, and that any post-magnetization deformation (such as rotation and/or tilt associated with the Evergreen Fault) between the Beckler Peak stock and the Mt. Stuart Batholith was minor.

  3. 胆碱的生物学功能及其对运动能力的影响综述%A Review of Choline Biology Function and Its Influence towards the Motor Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一民; 李响响; 姚崇

    2014-01-01

    目的系统掌握胆碱的生物学功能及其对运动能力影响的资料文献,为胆碱在运动人体科学中的应用提供理论依据。方法采用文献综述方法。结果胆碱是卵磷脂和神经鞘磷脂的组成部分,是维持细胞结构所必需的;合成乙酰胆碱的前体,乙酰胆碱是传递神经信息的重要物质,参与许多神经活动;胆碱是亲脂肪性的维生素B族中的一种,能将脂肪、胆固醇乳化,防止胆固醇积蓄在动脉壁或胆囊中;胆碱是能穿过“脑血管屏障”的少数物质之一,胆碱进入脑细胞可生成能帮助记忆的物质。胆碱含量高低会影响中枢神经系统的正常功能,进而影响运动能力和运动性疲劳的产生和发展。结论对人体身心健康及运动能力提高有一定的作用,可适量补充。%Objective:Cholinergic system can master biological function and exercise capacity influence on literature data, providing a theoretical basis for choline in human movement science. Methods:A literature review methods. Results:Choline is an integral part of lecithin and sphingomyelin,necessary for the maintenance of cell structure;synthetic precursor of acetylcholine,acetylcholine is an im-portant material transmission of nerve information,participate in many neural activity;choline fatty vitamin pro-B family in one,capa-ble of fat,cholesterol,emulsifying,prevent cholesterol accumulation in the artery wall or gallbladder;cholinergic through one of"cere-bral vascular barrier"of the few substances,choline into the brain cells can be generated to help memory substances. Choline content lev-el will affect the normal function of the central nervous system,thereby affecting the production and development of exercise capacity and exercise-induced fatigue. Conclusion:High to human physical and mental health and exercise capacity increased to a certain extent, may be appropriate to add.

  4. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT detection of bone metastases in patients with PSA progression after primary treatment for prostate cancer: comparison with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picchio, Maria [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); National Research Council (IBFM-CNR), Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Crivellaro, Cinzia [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); Fallanca, Federico; Gianolli, Luigi [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Giovacchini, Giampiero [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Messa, Cristina [National Research Council (IBFM-CNR), Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Monza (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in comparison with bone scintigraphy (BS) in detecting bone metastases (BM) of patients with biochemical progression after radical treatment for prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-eight consecutive patients with biochemical progression of PCa (mean prostate-specific antigen 21.1 ng/ml, range 0.2-500.0 ng/ml) referred for both [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and BS for restaging purposes were retrospectively analysed. The diagnostic accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and BS was assessed by using morphological imaging and/or follow-up as standards of reference. As equivocal findings were found, the accuracy analysis was performed twice, once including them as positive and once as negative. A separate analysis was also performed in hormone-resistant patients and data compared with those of patients who did not receive anti-androgenic treatment. Equivocal findings occurred in 1 of 78 (1%) cases in [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and in 21 of 78 (27%) cases in BS. Depending on their attribution as either positive or negative, the ranges of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT were 89-89%, 98-100%, 96-100%, 94-96% and 95-96%, respectively. For BS they were 100-70%, 75-100%, 68-100%, 100-86% and 83-90%, respectively. Concordant findings between [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and BS occurred in 55 of 78 (71%) cases. The accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT did not significantly (p = 0.30) differ between hormone-resistant patients (97%) and those who did not receive anti-androgenic treatment (95%). In clinical practice, [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT may not replace BS because of its lower sensitivity. However, for its high specificity, [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT positive findings may accurately predict the presence of BM. Equivocal findings are more frequent in BS than [{sup 11}C]choline PET

  5. MOSES AND DENNISON PEAK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Lipton, David A.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was conducted in the Moses and Dennison Peak Roadless Areas, southeastern Sierra Nevada, California. One area within the Moses Roadless Area is classified as having substantiated mineral-resource potential for small base-metal skarn deposits. Additionally, geochemical data indicate probable potential for small base-metal skarn deposits from one locality within Dennison Peak Roadless Area and for small tungsten skarn deposits from a region within Moses Roadless Area. The geologic setting precludes the presence of energy resources.

  6. Role of bone marrow cells in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in a rat model of pancreatitis induced by a choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, Shingo; Kubota, Koji [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Kobayashi, Akira, E-mail: kbys@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Misawa, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Akira; Nakata, Takenari; Yokoyama, Takahide [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Takahashi, Masafumi [Center for Molecular Medicine Division of Bioimaging Sciences, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimono, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Miyagawa, Shinichi [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BMC-derived PSCs play a role in a rat CDE diet-induced pancreatitis model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BMC-derived PSCs contribute mainly to the early stage of pancreatic fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BMC-derived activated PSCs can produce PDGF and TGF {beta}1. -- Abstract: Bone marrow cell (BMC)-derived myofibroblast-like cells have been reported in various organs, including the pancreas. However, the contribution of these cells to pancreatic fibrosis has not been fully discussed. The present study examined the possible involvement of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) originating from BMCs in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in a clinically relevant rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by a choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet. BMCs from female transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were transplanted into lethally irradiated male rats. Once chimerism was established, acute pancreatitis was induced by a CDE diet. Chronological changes in the number of PSCs originating from the donor BMCs were examined using double immunofluorescence for GFP and markers for PSCs, such as desmin and alpha smooth muscle actin ({alpha}SMA), 1, 3 and 8 weeks after the initiation of CDE feeding. We also used immunohistochemical staining to evaluate whether the PSCs from the BMCs produce growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) {beta}1. The percentage of BMC-derived activated PSCs increased significantly, peaking after 1 week of CDE treatment (accounting for 23.3 {+-} 0.9% of the total population of activated PSCs) and then decreasing. These cells produced both PDGF and TGF{beta}1 during the early stage of pancreatic fibrosis. Our results suggest that PSCs originating from BMCs contribute mainly to the early stage of pancreatic injury, at least in part, by producing growth factors in a rat CDE diet-induced pancreatitis model.

  7. Role of bone marrow cells in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in a rat model of pancreatitis induced by a choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► BMC-derived PSCs play a role in a rat CDE diet-induced pancreatitis model. ► BMC-derived PSCs contribute mainly to the early stage of pancreatic fibrosis. ► BMC-derived activated PSCs can produce PDGF and TGF β1. -- Abstract: Bone marrow cell (BMC)-derived myofibroblast-like cells have been reported in various organs, including the pancreas. However, the contribution of these cells to pancreatic fibrosis has not been fully discussed. The present study examined the possible involvement of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) originating from BMCs in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in a clinically relevant rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by a choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet. BMCs from female transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were transplanted into lethally irradiated male rats. Once chimerism was established, acute pancreatitis was induced by a CDE diet. Chronological changes in the number of PSCs originating from the donor BMCs were examined using double immunofluorescence for GFP and markers for PSCs, such as desmin and alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), 1, 3 and 8 weeks after the initiation of CDE feeding. We also used immunohistochemical staining to evaluate whether the PSCs from the BMCs produce growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1. The percentage of BMC-derived activated PSCs increased significantly, peaking after 1 week of CDE treatment (accounting for 23.3 ± 0.9% of the total population of activated PSCs) and then decreasing. These cells produced both PDGF and TGFβ1 during the early stage of pancreatic fibrosis. Our results suggest that PSCs originating from BMCs contribute mainly to the early stage of pancreatic injury, at least in part, by producing growth factors in a rat CDE diet-induced pancreatitis model.

  8. Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris

    1976-01-01

    This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…

  9. Real estate price peaks: a comparative overview

    CERN Document Server

    Röhner, B M

    2006-01-01

    First, we emphasize that the real estate price peaks which are currently under way in many industrialized countries (one important exception is Japan) share many of the characteristics of previous historical price peaks. In particular, we show that: (i) In the present episode real price increases are, at least for now, of the same order of magnitude as in previous episodes, typically of the order of 80 percent to 100 percent. (ii) Historically, price peaks turned out to be symmetrical with respect to the peak; soft landing, i.e. an upgoing phase followed by a plateau, has rarely (if ever) been observed. (iii) The inflated demand is mainly boosted by investors and high-income buyers. (iv) In the present as well as in previous episodes, the main engines in the upgoing phase have been the hot markets which developed in major cities such as London, Los Angeles, New York, Paris, San Francisco or Sydney. In our conclusion, we propose a prediction for real estate prices in the West of the United States over the peri...

  10. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie;

    2015-01-01

    ; this makes the problem essentially more challenging. As our main contribution, we present a simple truthful-in-expectation mechanism that achieves an approximation ratio of 1+b=c for both the social and the maximum, cost, where b is the distance of the agent from the peak and c is the minimum cost of...

  11. [11C]choline uptake with PET/CT for the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer: relation to PSA levels, tumour stage and anti-androgenic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with [11C]choline for the detection of prostate cancer is not well established. We assessed the dependence of [11C]choline maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in the prostate gland on cell malignancy, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, Gleason score, tumour stage and anti-androgenic hormonal therapy. In this prospective study, PET/CT with [11C]choline was performed in 19 prostate cancer patients who subsequently underwent prostatectomy with histologic sextant analysis (group A) and in six prostate cancer patients before and after anti-androgenic hormonal therapy (bicalutamide 150 mg/day; median treatment of 4 months; group B). In group A, based on a sextant analysis with a [11C]choline SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 (as derived from a receiver-operating characteristic analysis), PET/CT showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 72, 43, 64, 51 and 60%, respectively. In the patient-by-patient analysis, no significant correlation was detected between SUVmax and PSA levels, Gleason score or pathological stage. On the contrary, a significant (P max and anti-androgenic therapy both in univariate (r 2 = 0.24) and multivariate (r 2 = 0.48) analyses. Prostate [11C]choline uptake after bicalutamide therapy significantly (P 11C]choline is not suitable for the initial diagnosis and local staging of prostate cancer. PET/CT with [11C]choline could be used to monitor the response to anti-androgenic therapy. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of {sup 18}F-FACBC and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in patients with radically treated prostate cancer and biochemical relapse: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina; Boschi, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Martorana, Giuseppe; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Urology, Bologna (Italy); Pettinato, Cinzia [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Medical Physics, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    We assessed the rate of detection rate of recurrent prostate cancer by PET/CT using anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC, a new synthetic amino acid, in comparison to that using {sup 11}C-choline as part of an ongoing prospective single-centre study. Included in the study were 15 patients with biochemical relapse after initial radical treatment of prostate cancer. All the patients underwent anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT within a 7-day period. The detection rates using the two compounds were determined and the target-to-background ratios (TBR) of each lesion are reported. No adverse reactions to anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT were noted. On a patient basis, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was positive in 3 patients and negative in 12 (detection rate 20 %), and anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT was positive in 6 patients and negative in 9 (detection rate 40 %). On a lesion basis, {sup 11}C-choline detected 6 lesions (4 bone, 1 lymph node, 1 local relapse), and anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC detected 11 lesions (5 bone, 5 lymph node, 1 local relapse). All {sup 11}C-choline-positive lesions were also identified by anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT. The TBR of anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC was greater than that of {sup 11}C-choline in 8/11 lesions, as were image quality and contrast. Our preliminary results indicate that anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC may be superior to {sup 11}C-choline for the identification of disease recurrence in the setting of biochemical failure. Further studies are required to assess efficacy of anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC in a larger series of prostate cancer patients. (orig.)

  13. Maternal choline modifies fetal liver copper, gene expression, DNA methylation, and neonatal growth in the tx-j mouse model of Wilson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Shibata, Noreene M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Islam, Mohammad S; Keen, Carl L; Kim, Kyoungmi; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W; Halsted, Charles H; LaSalle, Janine M

    2014-01-01

    Maternal diet can affect fetal gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Wilson disease (WD), which is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in ATP7B encoding a biliary copper transporter, is characterized by excessive hepatic copper accumulation, but variability in disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that gestational supply of dietary methyl groups modifies fetal DNA methylation and expression of genes involved in methionine and lipid metabolism that are impaired prior to hepatic steatosis in the toxic milk (tx-j) mouse model of WD. Female C3H control and tx-j mice were fed control (choline 8 mmol/Kg of diet) or choline-supplemented (choline 36 mmol/Kg of diet) diets for 2 weeks throughout mating and pregnancy to gestation day 17. A second group of C3H females, half of which were used to cross foster tx-j pups, received the same diet treatments that extended during lactation to 21 d postpartum. Compared with C3H, fetal tx-j livers had significantly lower copper concentrations and significantly lower transcript levels of Cyclin D1 and genes related to methionine and lipid metabolism. Maternal choline supplementation prevented the transcriptional deficits in fetal tx-j liver for multiple genes related to cell growth and metabolism. Global DNA methylation was increased by 17% in tx-j fetal livers after maternal choline treatment (P < 0.05). Maternal dietary choline rescued the lower body weight of 21 d tx-j mice. Our results suggest that WD pathogenesis is modified by maternal in utero factors, including dietary choline. PMID:24220304

  14. Effect of hypoxia on the uptake of [methyl-3H]choline, [1-14C] acetate and [18F]FDG in cultured prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Choline, acetate and glucose ([2-18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose, [18F]FDG) analogs are under investigation as positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the imaging of prostate cancer; however, their response to tumor hypoxia has not been clarified. Methods: The uptake of [methyl-3H]choline, [1-14C]acetate and [18F]FDG was monitored in androgen-independent PC-3 cells and androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells under aerobic or anoxic conditions. The effect of androgen depletion was also examined. Results: PC-3 cells exhibited aerobic choline and acetate uptake five to six times higher than FDG uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed choline uptake 2.2-fold higher than acetate uptake and 10-fold higher than FDG uptake. After 4 h of anoxia, PC-3 cells showed an 85% increase in FDG uptake, a 15% decrease in choline uptake and a 36% increase in acetate uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed a 212% increase in FDG uptake, a 28% decrease in choline uptake and no change in acetate uptake. Androgen depletion resulted in a marked decrease in the uptake of all tracers in LNCaP cells but no changes in PC-3 cells. Conclusion: In aerobic conditions, both PC-3 and LNCaP cells exhibited an order of uptake preference as follows: choline>acetate>FDG. In hypoxic cells, the order is reversed, reflecting diverse biochemical responses to hypoxia. These findings may help to explain PET imaging findings of the diverse responses of these tracers in different stages and locations of prostate cancer. Androgen depletion markedly suppressed the uptake of all three tracers in LNCaP cells, which suggests the potential for underestimation of the disease state when PET imaging is performed subsequent to antiandrogen therapy

  15. A new record peak luminosity for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Two weeks of dedicated machine development paid off last weekend when the LHC ran for physics with three nominal intensity (∼1011 protons) bunches in each beam.   This brought a new record peak luminosity of around 8×1029 cm-2 s-1, and allowed the LHC to double the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments since 30 March from 16 to 32 inverse nanobarns over the weekend. After a few more fills in this configuration, the number of bunches will be raised to six per beam, which will in turn allow the peak luminosity to break the 1030 cm-2 s-1 barrier for the first time, well on the way to achieving the 2010 objective of 1032 cm-2 s-1. This peak luminosity goal requires 800 nominal bunches per beam squeezed to a beta of 3.5 metres. The plan for 2011 is to run the LHC in this configuration over about 10 months, thus achieving the objective of recording one inverse femtobarn of data in total. The machine development period also allowed the TOTEM detectors to be set up with 45...

  16. Coimmobilization of acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase on gold nanoparticles: stoichiometry, activity, and reaction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighron, Jacqueline D; Åkesson, Sebastian; Cans, Ann-Sofie

    2014-09-30

    Hybrid structures constructed from biomolecules and nanomaterials have been used in catalysis and bioanalytical applications. In the design of many chemically selective biosensors, enzymes conjugated to nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes have been used in functionalization of the sensor surface for enhancement of the biosensor functionality and sensitivity. The conditions for the enzyme:nanomaterial conjugation should be optimized to retain maximal enzyme activity, and biosensor effectiveness. This is important as the tertiary structure of the enzyme is often altered when immobilized and can significantly alter the enzyme catalytic activity. Here we show that characterization of a two-enzyme:gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugate stoichiometry and activity can be used to gauge the effectiveness of acetylcholine detection by acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChO). This was done by using an analytical approach to quantify the number of enzymes bound per AuNP and monitor the retained enzyme activity after the enzyme:AuNP synthesis. We found that the amount of immobilized enzymes differs from what would be expected from bulk solution chemistry. This analysis was further used to determine the optimal ratio of AChE:ChO added at synthesis to achieve optimum sequential enzyme activity for the enzyme:AuNP conjugates, and reaction efficiencies of greater than 70%. We here show that the knowledge of the conjugate stoichiometry and retained enzyme activity can lead to more efficient detection of acetylcholine by controlling the AChE:ChO ratio bound to the gold nanoparticle material. This approach of optimizing enzyme gold nanoparticle conjugates should be of great importance in the architecture of enzyme nanoparticle based biosensors to retain optimal sensor sensitivity. PMID:25167196

  17. Choline kinase alpha and hexokinase-2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: association with survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi A Kwee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hexokinase-2 (HK2 and more recently choline kinase alpha (CKA expression has been correlated with clinical outcomes in several major cancers. This study examines the protein expression of HK2 and CKA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in association with patient survival and other clinicopathologic parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis for HK2 and CKA expression was performed on a tissue microarray of 157 HCC tumor samples. Results were analyzed in relation to clinicopathologic data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program registries. Mortality rates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared using log-rank tests. Predictors of overall survival were assessed using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical expression of HK2 and CKA was detected in 71 (45% and 55 (35% tumor samples, respectively. Differences in tumor HK2 expression were associated with tumor grade (p = 0.008 and cancer stage (p = 0.001, while CKA expression differed significantly only across cancer stage (p = 0.048. Increased mortality was associated with tumor HK2 expression (p = 0.003 as well as CKA expression (p = 0.03 with hazard ratios of 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.83 and 1.59 (95% CI 1.04-2.41, respectively. Similar effects on overall survival were noted in a subset analysis of early stage (I and II HCC. Tumor HK2 expression, but not CKA expression, remained a significant predictor of survival in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSION: HK2 and CKA expression may have biologic and prognostic significance in HCC, with tumor HK2 expression being a potential independent predictor of survival.

  18. Choline Kinase Alpha as an Androgen Receptor Chaperone and Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Mohammad; Massie, Charles E.; Orafidiya, Folake; Pértega-Gomes, Nelma; Warren, Anne Y.; Esmaeili, Mohsen; Selth, Luke A.; Zecchini, Heather I.; Luko, Katarina; Qureshi, Arham; Baridi, Ajoeb; Menon, Suraj; Madhu, Basetti; Escriu, Carlos; Lyons, Scott; Vowler, Sarah L.; Zecchini, Vincent R.; Shaw, Greg; Hessenkemper, Wiebke; Russell, Roslin; Mohammed, Hisham; Stefanos, Niki; Lynch, Andy G.; Grigorenko, Elena; D’Santos, Clive; Taylor, Chris; Lamb, Alastair; Sriranjan, Rouchelle; Yang, Jiali; Stark, Rory; Dehm, Scott M.; Rennie, Paul S.; Carroll, Jason S.; Griffiths, John R.; Tavaré, Simon; Mills, Ian G.; McEwan, Iain J.; Baniahmad, Aria; Tilley, Wayne D.; Neal, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The androgen receptor (AR) is a major drug target in prostate cancer (PCa). We profiled the AR-regulated kinome to identify clinically relevant and druggable effectors of AR signaling. Methods: Using genome-wide approaches, we interrogated all AR regulated kinases. Among these, choline kinase alpha (CHKA) expression was evaluated in benign (n = 195), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) (n = 153) and prostate cancer (PCa) lesions (n = 359). We interrogated how CHKA regulates AR signaling using biochemical assays and investigated androgen regulation of CHKA expression in men with PCa, both untreated (n = 20) and treated with an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor degarelix (n = 27). We studied the effect of CHKA inhibition on the PCa transcriptome using RNA sequencing and tested the effect of CHKA inhibition on cell growth, clonogenic survival and invasion. Tumor xenografts (n = 6 per group) were generated in mice using genetically engineered prostate cancer cells with inducible CHKA knockdown. Data were analyzed with χ2 tests, Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier methods. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: CHKA expression was shown to be androgen regulated in cell lines, xenografts, and human tissue (log fold change from 6.75 to 6.59, P = .002) and was positively associated with tumor stage. CHKA binds directly to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR, enhancing its stability. As such, CHKA is the first kinase identified as an AR chaperone. Inhibition of CHKA repressed the AR transcriptional program including pathways enriched for regulation of protein folding, decreased AR protein levels, and inhibited the growth of PCa cell lines, human PCa explants, and tumor xenografts. Conclusions: CHKA can act as an AR chaperone, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence for kinases as molecular chaperones, making CHKA both a marker of tumor progression and a potential therapeutic target for PCa. PMID:26657335

  19. PSA doubling time for prediction of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT findings in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Garcia Parra, Rita [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); Picchio, Maria; Gianolli, Luigi [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Scattoni, Vincenzo; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Urology, Milan (Italy); Messa, Cristina [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); National Research Council, Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Monza (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Previous studies have shown that the positive detection rate of [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) depends on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plasma levels. This study compared PSA levels and PSA doubling time (PSADT) to predict [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT findings. PSADT was retrospectively calculated in 170 prostate cancer (PCa) patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy who underwent [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT. PSADT was calculated as PSADT = ln2/m, where m is the slope of the linear regression line of the natural log of PSA values. At least three PSA measurements were used (median: 4; range: 3-16), separated by at least 3 months, each with a minimum increase of 0.20 ng/ml. PET/CT findings were validated using criteria based on histological analysis and clinical and imaging data. Statistical analysis was performed using the t test, chi-square test, analysis of variance and binary logistic regression. Regression-based coefficients were used to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and 200 bootstrap resamples were used for internal validation. The median PSA was 1.25 ng/ml (range: 0.23-48.6 ng/ml), and the median PSADT was 7.0 months (range: 0.97-45.3 months). [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT was positive in 75 of 170 patients (44%). PET/CT findings were validated using histological criteria (11%) and clinical and imaging criteria (89%). The overall accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT was 88%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that high PSA and short PSADT were significant (p < 0.05) predictors of positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT [PSA: odds ratio (OR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.78; PSADT: OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04-1.21]. The percentage of patients with positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT was 27% for PSADT >6 months, 61% for PSADT between 3 and 6 months and 81% for PSADT <3 months. The percentage of patients who displayed pathological [{sup 11}C]choline

  20. 11C-choline vs. 18F-FDG PET/CT in assessing bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Valentina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Myeloma (MM is a B cell neoplasm causing lytic or osteopenic bone abnormalities. Whole body skeletal survey (WBSS, Magnetic resonance (MR and 18F-FDG PET/CT are imaging techniques routinely used for the evaluation of bone involvement in MM patients. Aim As MM bone lesions may present low 18F-FDG uptake; the aim of this study was to assess the possible added value and limitations of 11C-Choline to that of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients affected with MM. Methods Ten patients affected with MM underwent a standard 11C-Choline PET/CT and an 18F-FDG PET/CT within one week. The results of the two scans were compared in terms of number, sites and SUVmax of lesions. Results Four patients (40% had a negative concordant 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. Two patients (20% had a positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans that identified the same number and sites of bone lesions. The remaining four patients (40% had a positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan, but the two exams identified different number of lesions. Choline showed a mean SUVmax of 5 while FDG showed a mean SUVmax of 3.8 (P = 0.042. Overall, 11C-Choline PET/CT scans detected 37 bone lesions and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans detected 22 bone lesions but the difference was not significant (P = 0.8. Conclusion According to these preliminary data, 11C-Choline PET/CT appears to be more sensitive than 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of bony myelomatous lesions. If these data are confirmed in larger series of patients, 11C-Choline may be considered a more appropriate functional imaging in association with MRI for MM bone staging.

  1. Gaussian peaks decomposing of simple liquids’ RDF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟民; 边秀房; 秦敬玉; 张林; 叶以富

    1999-01-01

    According to feasibility of Gaussian peaks decomposing distribution function (DF) 4πrρ(r), radial distribution function (RDF) 4πr~2ρ(r) of simple liquids also is possibly decomposed into Gaussian peaks with r in the size of several atoms. Experimental structure parameters of pure liquid Al and Si were obtained by θ-θ X-ray diffraction measurements and following data processing. Based on Gaussian decomposing liquid aluminun’s DF 4πrρ(r), liquid aluminum and silicon’s radial distribution function (RDF) 4πr~2ρ(r), it is shown that RDF of simple liquids is able to be decomposed in Gaussian function, compared with decomposing of DF, supplying more physical meaning and better indicating the short range order of liquids, whicb draws a clearer structure picture of simple liquids.

  2. Peak oil, food systems, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Roni A; Parker, Cindy L; Kirschenmann, Frederick L; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S

    2011-09-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all.

  3. Reference values for the peak expiratory flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Peak expiratory flow (PEF is an important screening method for investigation and follow-up of the pulmonary function. Since reading the obtained PEF results requires reference values, the aim of this study was to establish normal values for PEF in our adolescent population. Material and methods The investigation included 1154 healthy teenagers aged from 15 to 19 years using a peak flow meter Harlow, Essex CM 2 ED. Detailed explanations, purpose of investigation and function demonstrations were done prior to testing. Results were statistically analyzed. Results Obtained results showed an increase of PEF values with age and body height in both sexes. Elevation of PEF was more significant in boys; high correlation was found in regard to age and height in boys and moderate correlation in girls. Discussion and conclusion Regression equations for sex, age and height were made after measurements and data analysis. PEF values can be easily calculated knowing one's age and height.

  4. The Doppler peaks from a generic defect

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    1996-01-01

    We investigate which of the exotic Doppler peak features found for textures and cosmic strings are generic novelties pertaining to defects. We find that the ``out of phase'' texture signature is an accident. Generic defects, when they generate a secondary peak structure similar to inflation, apply to it an additive shift. It is not necessary for this shift to be ``out of phase''. We also show which factors are responsible for the absence of secondary oscillations found for cosmic strings. Within this general analysis we finally consider the conditions under which topological defects and inflation can be confused. It is argued that only \\Omega=1 inflation and a defect with a horizon size coherence length have a chance to be confused. Any other inflationary or defect model always differ distinctly. (To appear in the proceedings of the XXXIth Moriond meeting, ``Microwave Background Anisotropies'')

  5. After Acoustic Peaks What's Next in CMB?

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, A R

    2002-01-01

    The advent of high signal-to-noise cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments has allowed detailed studies on the power spectrum of temperature fluctuations. The existence of acoustic oscillations in the anisotropy power spectrum is now established with the detection of the first two, and possibly the third, peaks. Beyond the acoustic peak structure, we consider cosmological and astrophysical information that can be extracted by pushing anisotropy observations to fine angular scales with higher resolution instruments. At small scales, a variety of contributions allow the use of CMB photons as a probe of the large scale structure: we outline possible studies related to understanding detailed physical properties such as the distribution of dark matter, baryons and pressure, and ways to measure the peculiar, transverse and rotational velocities of virialized halos such as galaxy clusters. Beyond the temperature, we consider several useful aspects of the CMB polarization and comment on an ultimate g...

  6. The accuracy of portable peak flow meters.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M. R.; Dickinson, S A; Hitchings, D J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variability of peak expiratory flow (PEF) is now commonly used in the diagnosis and management of asthma. It is essential for PEF meters to have a linear response in order to obtain an unbiased measurement of PEF variability. As the accuracy and linearity of portable PEF meters have not been rigorously tested in recent years this aspect of their performance has been investigated. METHODS: The response of several portable PEF meters was tested with absolute standards of flow ge...

  7. Commodity hydrogen from off-peak electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, K.; Biederman, N.; Konopka, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the use of off-peak electrical power as an energy source for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. The present industrial uses for hydrogen are examined to determine if hydrogen produced in this fashion would be competitive with the industry's onsite production or existing hydrogen prices. The paper presents a technical and economic feasibility analysis of the various components required and of the operation of the system as a whole including production, transmission, storage, and markets.

  8. UTILIZATION OF CHOLINE IN DIFFERENT LEVELS AND DIETARY CHOLINE AVAILABILITY VALUES IN SEVEN COMMON FEED INGREDIENTS FOR JUVENILE BLUNT SNOUT BREAM,MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA%团头鲂幼鱼对不同浓度胆碱的利用率及7种常见饲料原料中胆碱生物学效价的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 蒋广震; 刘文斌; 钱妤; 朱杰

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate dietary choline availability values in juvenile blunt snout breamMegalobrama amblycephala, an 8-week feeding trial was conducted with seven common feed ingredients. Choline chloride was fortified to the basal diet that contained 310 g/kg diet from vitamin-free casein and gelatin to formulate four purified diets containing 0, 1030, 1230 and 1430 mg/kg choline, respectively. These four purified diets were used to generate a standard curve to evaluate choline availability in seven diets containing the following common feed ingredients: fish meal (FM), soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM), cottonseed meal (CSM), wheat middling (WM), wheat bran (WB) and rice bran (RB). The choline in seven diets was 1230 mg/kg including 1030 mg/kg choline chloride. Three groups ofMegalobrama am-blycephala with initial average weight (3.5±0.1) g were fed randomly with each diet in a flow-through system. Our re-sults indicated that weight gain and liver choline concentration were significantly increased for higher dietary choline levels (P 0.05);在同一胆碱水平(1230 mg/kg)的条件下,原料组的增长率均高于对照组;团头鲂幼鱼对鱼粉、豆粕、菜粕、棉粕、次粉、麸皮和米糠的胆碱生物学效价分别为87.42%、112.54%、76.84%、98.00%、95.91%、43.88%、91.5%。分析可知,团头鲂生产饲料中尚需要额外添加氯化胆碱方能满足其对胆碱的需要,实际添加量与饲料所使用的原料有关。

  9. Power peakings in mixed TRIGA cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoj, Luka [Reactor Physics Division, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: luka.snoj@ijs.si; Ravnik, Matjaz [Reactor Physics Division, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-09-15

    Modern Monte-Carlo codes (e.g. MCNP) allow calculation of the power density distribution in 3D geometry assuming detailed geometry without unit-cell homogenization. The power density distribution (and its maximum value-the peaking) can be calculated 'point-wise' with the resolution of approximately 1 mm. Results of the detailed power density distribution calculated by MCNP are presented for 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor, assuming various realistic and hypothetical core-loading patterns with focus on the mixed cores. Combinations of 8.5 w/o, 12 w/o, 20 w/o and 30 w/o low-enriched (20%) fresh TRIGA fuel rods are systematically treated in the mixed cores. The power peaking factor value and position strongly depends on the core configuration. Power peakings are usually found in fuel rods with higher uranium content especially if they are inserted near the core centre. The results are conservative and can be applied in planning realistic mixed core-loading patterns.

  10. Power Peaking Factors in Mixed TRIGA cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoj, Luka; Ravnik, Matjaz [' Jozef Stefan' Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-10-29

    Modern Monte-Carlo codes (e.g. MCNP) allow calculation of the power density distribution in 3-D geometry assuming detailed geometry without unit-cell homogenization. The power density distribution (and its maximum value - the peaking) can be calculated 'point-wise' with the resolution of approximately 1 mm. Results of the detailed power density distribution calculated by MCNP are presented for 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor, assuming various realistic and hypothetical core loading patterns with focus on the mixed cores. Combinations of 8.5 w/o, 12 w/o, 20 w/o and 30 w/o low enriched (20 %) fresh TRIGA fuel rods are systematically treated in the mixed cores. The power peaking factor value and position strongly depends on the core configuration. Power peaking are usually found in fuel rods with higher uranium content especially if they are inserted near the core centre. The results are conservative and can be applied in planning realistic mixed core loading patterns. (authors)

  11. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain); Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain); Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E{sub T}{sup miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m{sub g} or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  12. Revisiting Twomey's approximation for peak supersaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Shipway

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Twomey's seminal 1959 paper provided lower and upper bound approximations to the estimation of peak supersaturation within an updraft and thus provides the first closed expression for the number of nucleated cloud droplets. The form of this approximation is simple, but provides a surprisingly good estimate and has subsequently been employed in more sophisticated treatments of nucleation parametrization. In the current paper, we revisit the lower bound approximation of Twomey and make a small adjustment which can be used to obtain a more accurate calculation of peak supersaturation under all potential aerosol loadings and thermodynamic conditions. In order to make full use of this improved approximation, the underlying integro-differential equation for supersaturation evolution and the condition for calculating peak supersaturation are examined. A simple rearrangement of the algebra allows for an expression to be written down which can then be solved with a single lookup table with only one independent variable for an underlying lognormal aerosol population. Multimode aerosol with only N different dispersion characteristics require only N of these one-dimensional lookup tables. No additional information is required in the lookup table to deal with additional chemical, physical or thermodynamic properties. The resulting implementation provides a relatively simple, yet computationally cheap and very accurate physically-based parametrization of droplet nucleation for use in climate and NWP models.

  13. [Fast spectral modeling based on Voigt peaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rong; Dai, Lian-kui

    2012-03-01

    Indirect hard modeling (IHM) is a recently introduced method for quantitative spectral analysis, which was applied to the analysis of nonlinear relation between mixture spectrum and component concentration. In addition, IHM is an effectual technology for the analysis of components of mixture with molecular interactions and strongly overlapping bands. Before the establishment of regression model, IHM needs to model the measured spectrum as a sum of Voigt peaks. The precision of the spectral model has immediate impact on the accuracy of the regression model. A spectrum often includes dozens or even hundreds of Voigt peaks, which mean that spectral modeling is a optimization problem with high dimensionality in fact. So, large operation overhead is needed and the solution would not be numerically unique due to the ill-condition of the optimization problem. An improved spectral modeling method is presented in the present paper, which reduces the dimensionality of optimization problem by determining the overlapped peaks in spectrum. Experimental results show that the spectral modeling based on the new method is more accurate and needs much shorter running time than conventional method. PMID:22582612

  14. Uncertainty in peak cooling load calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez-Munoz, Fernando; Cejudo-Lopez, Jose M.; Carrillo-Andres, Antonio [Grupo de Energetica, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Calle Dr. Ortiz Ramos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Peak cooling loads are usually calculated at early stages of the building project, when large uncertainties affect the input data. Uncertainties arise from a variety of sources like the lack of information, random components and the approximate nature of the building mathematical model. Unfortunately, these uncertainties are normally large enough to make the result of the calculation very dependent on starting assumptions about the value of input data. HVAC engineers deal with uncertainties through worst-case scenarios and/or safety factors. In this paper, a new approach is proposed based on stochastic simulation methods. Uncertainty bands are applied to the input data and propagated through the building model in order to determine their impact on the peak cooling load. The result of this calculation is a probability distribution that quantifies the whole range of possible peak loads and the probability of each interval. The stochastic solution is compared with the conventional one, and a global sensitivity analysis is undertaken to identify the most important uncertainties. (author)

  15. An alternative interpretation for cosmic ray peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Doojin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an alternative mechanism based upon dark matter (DM) interpretation for anomalous peak signatures in cosmic ray measurements, assuming an extended dark sector with two DM species. This is contrasted with previous effort to explain various line-like cosmic-ray excesses in the context of DM models where the relevant DM candidate directly annihilates into Standard Model (SM) particles. The heavier DM is assumed to annihilate to an on-shell intermediate state. As the simplest choice, it decays directly into the lighter DM along with an unstable particle which in turn decays to a pair of SM states corresponding to the interesting cosmic anomaly. We show that a sharp continuum energy peak can be readily generated under the proposed DM scenario, depending on dark sector particle mass spectra. Remarkably, such a peak is robustly identified as half the mass of the unstable particle. Furthermore, other underlying mass parameters are analytically related to the shape of energy spectrum. We apply this idea to ...

  16. Ten Reasons to Take Peak Oil Seriously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Brecha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty years ago, the results of modeling, as presented in The Limits to Growth, reinvigorated a discussion about exponentially growing consumption of natural resources, ranging from metals to fossil fuels to atmospheric capacity, and how such consumption could not continue far into the future. Fifteen years earlier, M. King Hubbert had made the projection that petroleum production in the continental United States would likely reach a maximum around 1970, followed by a world production maximum a few decades later. The debate about “peak oil”, as it has come to be called, is accompanied by some of the same vociferous denials, myths and ideological polemicizing that have surrounded later representations of The Limits to Growth. In this review, we present several lines of evidence as to why arguments for a near-term peak in world conventional oil production should be taken seriously—both in the sense that there is strong evidence for peak oil and in the sense that being societally unprepared for declining oil production will have serious consequences.

  17. Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J.; Cao, L.

    2008-12-01

    The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, "peak oil" may drive a shift towards increased reliance on coal as a primary energy source. Because coal per unit energy, in the absence of carbon capture and disposal, releases more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than oil, "peak oil" may lead to an acceleration of carbon dioxide emissions. We will never run out of oil. As oil becomes increasingly scarce, prices will rise and therefore consumption will diminish. As prices rise, other primary energy sources will become increasingly competitive with oil. The developed world uses oil primarily as a source of transportation fuels. The developing world uses oil primarily for heat and power, but the trend is towards increasing reliance on oil for transportation. Liquid fuels, including petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are attractive as transportation fuels because of their relative abundance of energy per unit mass and volume. Such considerations are especially important for the air transport industry. Today, there is little that can compete with petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Future CO2 emissions from the transportation sector largely depend on what replaces oil as a source of fuel. Some have suggested that biomass-derived ethanol, hydrogen, or electricity could play this role. Each of these potential substitutes has its own drawbacks (e.g., low power density per unit area in the case of biomass, low power density per unit volume in the case of hydrogen, and low power density per unit mass in the case of battery storage). Thus, it is entirely likely that liquefaction of coal could become the primary means by which transportation fuels are produced. Since the burning of coal produces more CO2 per unit energy than does the burning of

  18. Cerebrovascular and blood-brain barrier morphology in spontaneously hypertensive rats: effect of treatment with choline alphoscerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Amenta, Francesco; Tomassoni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic precursors increasing choline availability and acetylcholine synthesis/release may represent a therapeutic approach for countering cognitive impairment occurring in adult-onset dementia disorders. Choline alphoscerate (alpha-gliceryl-phosphoryl-choline, GPC) is among cholinergic precursors the most effective in enhancing acetylcholine biosynthesis and release in animal models. This study was designed to assess if a long-term treatment with GPC modify cerebrovascular components [perivascular astrocytes, blood-brain barrier (BBB) and microvessels] and endothelial inflammatory markers expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) used as a model of brain vascular injury. Male SHR aged 32 weeks and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated for 4 weeks with GPC (150 mg/kg/day) or a vehicle. Intracerebral arteries of different brain areas, perivascular astrocytes, BBB and endothelial inflammatory markers were assessed by quantitative morphological and immunohistochemical techniques. No significant changes in the size of perivascular astrocytes were observed in SHR versus normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats, whereas the expression of the BBB marker aquaporin-4 increased in SHR. This phenomenon was countered by GPC treatment. On the contrary, GPC has no vasodilator effect on brain micro-vessels. Endothelial markers and vascular adhesion molecules expression were not homogeneously affected by hypertension and GPC treatment in intracerebral vessels. The observation that treatment with GPC reversed BBB changes and countered to some extent micro-vessels changes occurring in SHR could explain data of clinical trials reporting an improvement of cognitive function in subjects suffering from cerebrovascular disorders and treated with GPC. These preclinical data suggest that the compound could have a cerebrovascular protective effect deserving a further characterization. PMID:25714975

  19. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Passman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet. Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100% for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality.

  20. Targeting choline phospholipid metabolism: GDPD5 and GDPD6 silencing decrease breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maria Dung; Cheng, Menglin; Rizwan, Asif; Jiang, Lu; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Bathen, Tone F; Glunde, Kristine

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal choline phospholipid metabolism is associated with oncogenesis and tumor progression. We have investigated the effects of targeting choline phospholipid metabolism by silencing two glycerophosphodiesterase genes, GDPD5 and GDPD6, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Treatment with GDPD5 and GDPD6 siRNA resulted in significant increases in glycerophosphocholine (GPC) levels, and no change in the levels of phosphocholine or free choline, which further supports their role as GPC-specific regulators in breast cancer. The GPC levels were increased more than twofold during GDPD6 silencing, and marginally increased during GDPD5 silencing. DNA laddering was negative in both cell lines treated with GDPD5 and GDPD6 siRNA, indicating absence of apoptosis. Treatment with GDPD5 siRNA caused a decrease in cell viability in MCF-7 cells, while GDPD6 siRNA treatment had no effect on cell viability in either cell line. Decreased cell migration and invasion were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with GDPD5 or GDPD6 siRNA, where a more pronounced reduction in cell migration and invasion was observed under GDPD5 siRNA treatment as compared with GDPD6 siRNA treatment. In conclusion, GDPD6 silencing increased the GPC levels in breast cancer cells more profoundly than GDPD5 silencing, while the effects of GDPD5 silencing on cell viability/proliferation, migration, and invasion were more severe than those of GDPD6 silencing. Our results suggest that silencing GDPD5 and GDPD6 alone or in combination may have potential as a new molecular targeting strategy for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27356959

  1. Specificity of choline metabolites for in vivo diagnosis of breast cancer using 1H MRS at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to determine if in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 1.5 T can accurately provide the correct pathology of breast disease. Forty-three asymptomatic volunteers including three lactating mothers were examined and compared with 21 breast cancer patients. Examinations were undertaken at 1.5 T using a purpose-built transmit-receive single breast coil. Single voxel spectroscopy was undertaken using echo times of 135 and 350 ms. The broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm, which includes contributions from choline, phosphocholine (PC), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), myo-inositol and taurine, was found not to be a unique marker for malignancy providing a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 80.0 and 86.0%, respectively. This was due to three of the asymptomatic volunteers and all of the lactating mothers also generating the broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm. Optimised post-acquisitional processing of the spectra resolved a resonance at 3.22 ppm, consistent with PC, in patients with cancer. In contrast the spectra recorded for three false-positive volunteers, and the three lactating mothers had a resonance centred at 3.28 ppm (possibly taurine, myo-inositol or GPC). This improved the specificity of the test to 100%. Careful referencing of the spectra and post-acquisitional processing intended to optimise spectral resolution of in vivo MR proton spectra from human breast tissue resolves the composite choline resonance. This allows the distinction of patients with malignant disease from volunteers with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. Therefore, resolution of the composite choline resonance into its constituent components improves the specificity of the in vivo 1H MRS method, but does not overcome the problem of 20% false-negatives. (orig.)

  2. Differential role of human choline kinase α and β enzymes in lipid metabolism: Implications in cancer onset and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Ortega, David; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Ramos, Maria Angeles; Valdés Mora, Fátima; Barderas, Maria Gonzalez; Sarmentero Estrada, Jacinto; Lacal, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Background The Kennedy pathway generates phosphocoline and phosphoethanolamine through its two branches. Choline Kinase (ChoK) is the first enzyme of the Kennedy branch of synthesis of 1phosphocholine, the major component of the plasma membrane. ChoK family of proteins is composed by ChoKα and ChoKβ isoforms, the first one with two different variants of splicing. Recently ChoKα has been implicated in the carcinogenic process, since it is over-expressed in a variety of human cancers. Howev...

  3. Molecular cloning of a cDNA for a putative choline co-transporter from Limulus CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Cao, Z; Newkirk, R F; Ivy, M T; Townsel, J G

    2001-05-01

    It is well documented that the sodium dependent, hemicholinium-3 sensitive, high affinity choline co-transporter is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and is essential to cholinergic transmission. Until recently this transporter had eluded cloning. Okuda et al. (2000. Nature Neurosci. 3, 120-125) recently reported the successful cloning of the choline co-transporter in Caenorhabditis elegans (CHO-1) and rat (CHT1). We report herein the cloning of the choline co-transporter in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Through the use of a series of degenerate primers selected from consensus sequences of CHO-1 and CHT1, we generated two probes that were used to search a Limulus cDNA library produced from central nervous system (CNS) tissue. The full length nucleotide sequence of the Limulus homolog consists of 3368 bp which includes an open reading frame (ORF) that predicts a protein of 579 amino acids and two non-translation regions (NTR), one at the 3' end and the other at the 5' end. The amino acid sequence has 46% identity with rat CHT1 and 50% identity with both CHO-1 in C. elegans and the recently cloned human co-transporter (hCHT; Apparsundaram et al., 2000. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 276, 862-867; Okuda and Haga, 2000. FEBS Lett. 484, 92-97). Hydropathy plot analysis predicts the Limulus choline co-transporter (LChCoT) to have thirteen transmembrane domains (TMD), with the N-terminus oriented extracellularly and the C-terminus oriented intracellularly. Northern blot analyses using cDNA probes designed from LChCoT cDNA sequences revealed its distribution specifically in central nervous system structures. On the other hand it was not found in non-nervous tissues. The successful cloning of LChCoT, which was shown to be a member of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter family (SLGT), should prove useful in the determination of its physiological regulation, including its intracellular trafficking. PMID:11368908

  4. Gmca is a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase required for the induction of asexual development in aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Oier Etxebeste; Erika Herrero-García; Cortese, Marc S.; Aitor Garzia; Elixabet Oiartzabal-Arano; Vivian de los Ríos; Unai Ugalde; Espeso, Eduardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans asexual differentiation is induced by Upstream Developmental Activators (UDAs) that include the bZIP-type Transcription Factor (TF) FlbB. A 2D-PAGE/MS-MS-coupled screen for proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of FlbB identified 18 candidates. Most candidates belong to GO term classes involved in osmotic and/or oxidative stress response. Among these, we focused on GmcA, a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase which is upregulated in a Δ...

  5. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with docetaxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, UO Medicina Nucleare PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Castellucci, Paolo; Graziani, Tiziano; Renzi, Riccardo; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Borghesi, Marco; Brunocilla, Eugenio [University of Bologna, Department of Urology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Di Tullio, Piergiorgio; Ardizzoni, Andrea [University of Bologna, Department of Oncology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the role of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for evaluating the response to treatment in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with docetaxel in comparison with PSA response. Inclusion criteria were (a) proven mCRPC, (b) docetaxel as first line of chemotherapy (docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2} + prednisone 5 mg), and (c) {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT and PSA values assessed before and after docetaxel administration. A total of 61 patients were retrospectively enrolled (mean age 68.9 years, range 57 - 84 years). {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT was performed at baseline before docetaxel treatment (PET1) and after the end of treatment (PET2). PSA values were measured before treatment (PSA1) and after treatment (PSA2). PET2 was reported as complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD). Progressive disease (PD) was considered if a new lesion was seen. PSA trend was calculated from the change in absolute values between PSA1 and PSA2. A decrease of ≥50 % between PSA1 and PSA2 was considered a PSA response. Clinical, radiological and laboratory follow-up ranged from 6 to 53 months (mean 13.5 months). Of the 61 patients, 40 (65.5 %) showed PD on PET2, 13 (21.3 %) showed SD, 2 (3.4 %) showed PR, and 6 (9.8 %) showed CR. An increasing PSA trend was seen in 29 patients (47.5 %) and a decreasing PSA trend in 32 patients (52.5 %). A PSA response of ≥50 % was seen in 25 patients (41 %). Radiological PD was seen in 23 of the 29 patients (79.3 %) with an increasing PSA trend, in 16 of the 32 patients (50 %) with a decreasing PSA trend, and in 11 of the 25 patients (44 %) with a PSA response of ≥50 %. In the multivariate statistical analysis, the presence of more than ten bone lesions detected on PET1 was significantly associated with an increased probability of PD on PET2. No association was observed between PSA level and PD on PET2. Our results suggest that an increasing PSA trend measured after docetaxel treatment could be

  6. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-01

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25240200

  7. Evidence of self-aggregation of cationic surfactants in a choline chloride+glycerol deep eutectic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Mahi; Singh, Ranjan K; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-08-24

    Based on fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, surface tension, small-angle X-ray/dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of cationic surfactants of the n-alkyltrimethylammonium family within an archetypical deep eutectic solvent comprised of a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and glycerol. Estimated thermodynamic parameters suggest this self-aggregation process to be less entropically driven than that in water. These novel water-free self-assemblies might serve as dynamic soft templates to direct the growth of size- or shape-tailored nanoparticles within water-restricted media. PMID:26080073

  8. Estrogen intervention in microvascular morphology and choline acetyltransferase expression in rat hippocampal neurons in chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang; Hongwei Yan; Guomin Zhang; Zhihong Chen; Jingfeng Xue

    2011-01-01

    We observed dynamic changes in microvessels and a protective effect of estrogen on chronic cerebral ischemia ovariectomized rat models established through permanent occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries at 7, 14 and 21 days. The results revealed that estrogen improved microvasculature in the hippocampus of chronic cerebral ischemic rats, upregulated Bcl-2 protein expression, downregulated Bax protein expression, increased choline acetyltransferase expression in hippocampal cholinergic neurons, and suppressed hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. These findings indicate that estrogen can protect hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia.

  9. Particle creation by peak electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Gitman, D M

    2016-01-01

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially-increasing and another exponentially-decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered.

  10. Probable Values of Current Solar Cycle Peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Silbergleit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of multiple linear regression method applied to solar cycles 4 to 23 using lagged values of smoothed monthly mean sunspot numbers as independent variables is presented. According to that, the amplitude of current solar cycle 24 is estimated providing a quantitative prediction result. Our adjustment shows that the current cycle would have a sunspot peak less than the biggest one observed during the cycle 19 giving an additional support to the declination in solar activity which is currently happening.

  11. LARAMIE PEAK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Weisner, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, most of the Laramie Peak Wilderness study area in Wyoming was concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Only three small areas in the northern part, one extending outside the study area to Esterbrook, were found to have probable mineral-resource potential for copper and lead. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil-fuel resources in the study area. There are no surface indications that geothermal energy could be developed within or near the study area.

  12. Peak oil, economic growth, and wildlife conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, J Edward; Czech, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The proposed book focuses on one of the most important issues affecting humankind in this century - Peak Oil or the declining availability of abundant, cheap energy-and its effects on our industrialized economy and wildlife conservation. Energy will be one of the defining issues of the 21st Century directly affecting wildlife conservation wherever energy extraction is a primary economic activity and indirectly through deepening economic recessions. Since cheap, abundant energy has been at the core of our industrial society, and has resulted in the technological advancements we enjoy today, the

  13. The Physical Meanings of 5 Basic Parameters for an X-Ray Diffraction Peak and Their Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 王河锦

    2003-01-01

    This paper derives the physical meanings of peak position, peak width and height ofan X-ray diffraction peak from the analyses of the Bragg's equation, the Scherrer' s formula andthe principle of peak intensity calculation. The geometric characteristics of an asymmetric peakare clarified by means of experiment. The relationships between neak shape and domain size/lattice strain have been verified by geological events. Therefore this paper integrates the physicalmeanings of all 5 basic parameters for an X-ray diffraction peak. Applications of these 5 parame-ters are exemplified.

  14. Derivative polynomials and permutations by numbers of interior peaks and left peaks

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shi-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Derivative polynomials in two variables are defined by repeated differentiation of the tangent and secant functions. We establish the connections between the coefficients of these derivative polynomials and the numbers of interior and left peaks over the symmetric group. Properties of the generating functions for the numbers of interior and left peaks over the symmetric group, including recurrence relations, generating functions and real-rootedness, are studied.

  15. Structural Evolution of Colloidal Crystal Films in the Process of Melting Revealed by Bragg Peak Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sulyanova, Elena; Shabalin, Anatoly; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Zaluzhnyy, Ivan; Besedin, Ilya; Sprung, Michael; Petukhov, Andrei; Vartaniants, Ivan; Zozulya, Alexey; Meijer, Janne-Mieke; Dzhigaev, Dmitry; Gorobtsov, Oleg; Kurta, Ruslan; Lazarev, Sergey; Lorenz, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction studies of structural evolution of colloidal crystal films formed by polystyrene spherical particles upon incremental heating are reported. The Bragg peak parameters, such as peak position, integrated intensity, and radial and azimuthal widths were analyzed as a function of temperature. A quantitative study of colloidal crystal lattice distortions and mosaic spread as a function of temperature was carried out using Williamson–Hall plots based on mosaic block model. T...

  16. THE CONCAVE OR CONVEX PEAKED AND SMOOTH SOLITON SOLUTIONS OF CAMASSA-HOLM EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立新; 许刚; 刘曾荣

    2002-01-01

    The traveling wave soliton solutions and pair soliton solution to a class of newcompletely integrable shallow water equation, Camassa-Holm equation are studied. Theconcept of concave or convex peaked soliton and smooth soliton were introduced. And theresearch shows that the traveling wave solution of that equation possesses concave and conv-ex peaked soliton and smooth soliton solutions with the peakson. Simultaneously by applyingBacklund transformation the new pair soliton solutions to this class of equation are given.

  17. PeakVizor: Visual Analytics of Peaks in Video Clickstreams from Massive Open Online Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Chen, Yuanzhe; Liu, Dongyu; Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Qu, Huamin

    2016-10-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) aim to facilitate open-access and massive-participation education. These courses have attracted millions of learners recently. At present, most MOOC platforms record the web log data of learner interactions with course videos. Such large amounts of multivariate data pose a new challenge in terms of analyzing online learning behaviors. Previous studies have mainly focused on the aggregate behaviors of learners from a summative view; however, few attempts have been made to conduct a detailed analysis of such behaviors. To determine complex learning patterns in MOOC video interactions, this paper introduces a comprehensive visualization system called PeakVizor. This system enables course instructors and education experts to analyze the "peaks" or the video segments that generate numerous clickstreams. The system features three views at different levels: the overview with glyphs to display valuable statistics regarding the peaks detected; the flow view to present spatio-temporal information regarding the peaks; and the correlation view to show the correlation between different learner groups and the peaks. Case studies and interviews conducted with domain experts have demonstrated the usefulness and effectiveness of PeakVizor, and new findings about learning behaviors in MOOC platforms have been reported. PMID:26661473

  18. Variability of Gross Tumor Volume in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Using 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the variability of gross tumor volume (GTV using 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT images for nasopharyngeal carcinomas boundary definition. Assessment consisted of inter-observer and inter-modality variation analysis. Four radiation oncologists were invited to manually contour GTV by using PET/CT fusion obtained from a cohort of 12 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC and who underwent both 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG scans. Student's paired-sample t-test was performed for analyzing inter-observer and inter-modality variability. Semi-automatic segmentation methods, including thresholding and region growing, were also validated against the manual contouring of the two types of PET images. We observed no significant variation in the results obtained by different oncologists in terms of the same type of PET/CT volumes. Choline fusion volumes were significantly larger than the FDG volumes (p < 0.0001, mean ± SD = 18.21 ± 8.19. While significantly consistent results were obtained between the oncologists and the standard references in Choline volumes compared with those in FDG volumes (p = 0.0025. Simple semi-automatic delineation methods indicated that 11C-Choline PET images could provide better results than FDG volumes (p = 0.076, CI = [-0.29, 0.025]. 11C-Choline PET/CT may be more advantageous in GTV delineation for the radiotherapy of NPC than 18F-FDG. Phantom simulations and clinical trials should be conducted to prove the possible improvement of the treatment outcome.

  19. Effects of gentamicin on choline acetyltransferase expression in paraolivary nucleus neurons of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingguang Zhao; Xiaochen Wang; Yong Liang; Peng Xie; Xuejun Guo; Jinjiang Li; Wei Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that gentamicin can damage the cochlear nerve and acoustic nerve. In recent years, scholars have focused on neuronal changes and neurochemical information in the brainstem primary auditory center. OBJECTIVE: To explore morphological changes of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the paraolivary nucleus (PON) of guinea pigs, and the effect on hearing following gentamicin injection. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized grouping and morphological observational study was performed at Animal Experimental Center of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to August 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 48 healthy guinea pigs were randomly divided into model (n = 40) and control (n = 8) groups. The model group was divided into five subgroups at five time points of I and 3 days, 1, 2, and 3 weeks. METHODS: Guinea pigs in the model group were intraperitoneally injected with gentamicin, and those in the control group were intraperitoneally injected with the same volume of saline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Auditory brainstem-evoked potential was used to record auditory threshold; distribution and morphological changes of ChAT-positive neurons in the PON were observed with immunohistochemistry; section area and gray value of ChAT-positive neurons were measured with Quantimet 570 image-analyzing system. RESULTS: ChAT-positive neurons were diffusedly distributed in the PON. The majority was composed of large, round cells, with positive neurites that could be clearly observed. Following gentamicin injection, the positive neurons displayed an irregular outline, and their neurites began to shorten and disappear. The gray value increased with prolonged gentamicin administration (P < 0.05). In addition, the somatic cross-sectional area was enlarged in the model group at 1 and 3 days after injection (P < 0.05), whereas cell number significantly decreased at three weeks after injection (P < 0.05). Starting

  20. Choline acetyltransferase expressed by radial neuroglia cells in the development of telencephalon: A validated study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Lingling Ding; Zhisuo Xiao; Yuanyuan Qin; Guibin Li

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholinergic neuron directly participants in human motion, learning and memory and is a target cell for multiple degenerative diseases of central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the mitotic cell is the radial glial cell expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in ventricle zone (VZ) of telencephalon and whether cholinergic neuron is derived from radial glial cell in ventricle zone of telencephalon.DESIGN: Observational study.SETTING: Department of Histology and Embryology, Basic Medical College of Jilin University.MATERIALS: Nine healthy Wistar rats included 6 females and 3 male. Male and female rats were mated routinely, and the day when spermatozoa or vaginal plug were found was regarded as embryonic 0 (E0).Primary monoclonal antibodies ChAT and vimentin were provided respectively by Wuhan Boster Company,and Biogenex Company, USA.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Cell Culture and Immunohistochemistry,Department of Histology and Embryology from march 2002 to January 2003. Firstly, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to confirm the time of generation of cholinergic neuron; secondly,telencephalons of rats at embryonic 14 days (E14) were performed coronary sections, then immunohistochemistry double staining for vimentin (a protein marker of radial neuroglia cell) and ChAT (a protein marker of cholinergic neuron) were used to test whether ChAT was expressed in the radial neuroglia cells.results of immunohistochemistry double staining.RESULTS: It is confirmed using by flow cytometer that embryogenesis time of cholinergic neuron was at E12, and shown the population of cells in VZ of dorsal telencephalon of E14 rat co-expressed vimentin and ChAT through immunohistochemistry double staining. A lot of vimentin-positive cells and ChAT-positive cells respectively were observed in VZ of lateral ganglionic eminence.CONCLUSION: Cholinergic neuron in cerebral cortex is derived from radial glial cells in VZ

  1. Peak Load Electricity Production with Cryogenic Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Zumbo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Natural Gas is often liquefied (LNG for its transport by ships over long distances. In order to prepare it for further transport by pipelines it has to be reduced again to a gaseous state, normally by heating it with sea water. A similar technology is envisaged for long-distance transport of Hydrogen as an energy carrier. The scope of this article is the thermodynamic investigation of two power plants for peak load energy production. These two power plants use as fuel the fluids obtained by the re-gasification of the cryogenic fluids. The first proposal is a Hydrogen-fired steam power plant, while the second considers the use of LNG in an oxy-combustion arrangement with subsequent CO2 separation, which is obtained by a three-stage intercooled compression train. The power cycle performance was verified in both cases by exergy analysis. Since the size of these power plants is relatively small (10 MWe, they can be easily built inside the area of LNG gasifiers, or inside the area of the plant producing liquid Hydrogen; the cryogenic fuel and oxidizer are thus considered available, and the purpose of the power plant is peak load energy production rather than obtaining high values of conversion efficiency.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  2. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen....... The peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  3. Microwave peak absorption frequency of liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN GuangZe; CHEN MingDong

    2008-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is a new effective method which has practical ap-plications in many fields. Microwave heating is one of its physical mechanisms, and it also has the characteristic of selectivity. When the applied microwave fre-quency equals a certain absorption frequency of the material (or specific compo-nent), the material will intensively absorb microwave energy. This is also known as resonant absorption, and the frequency is called the peak absorption frequency which depends on the physical structure of the material. In this work, dynamic hy-drogen bond energy was included in molecular activation energy; with the liquid cell model, the expression of interaction energy between dipolar molecules was derived. The rotational relaxation time was gotten from the Eyring viscosity formula. Then based on the relationship between dielectric dissipation coefficient and re-laxation time, the expression of microwave peak absorption frequency as a func-tion of the material physical structure, rotational inertia and electrical dipole mo-ment of molecules was established. These theoretical formulas were applied to water and benzene, and the calculated results agree fairly well with the experi-mental data. This work can not only deepen the study of the interaction between microwave and material, but also provide a possible guide for the experiment of microwave-assisted extraction.

  4. Microwave peak absorption frequency of liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is a new effective method which has practical ap-plications in many fields. Microwave heating is one of its physical mechanisms,and it also has the characteristic of selectivity. When the applied microwave fre-quency equals a certain absorption frequency of the material (or specific compo-nent),the material will intensively absorb microwave energy. This is also known as resonant absorption,and the frequency is called the peak absorption frequency which depends on the physical structure of the material. In this work,dynamic hy-drogen bond energy was included in molecular activation energy; with the liquid cell model,the expression of interaction energy between dipolar molecules was derived. The rotational relaxation time was gotten from the Eyring viscosity formula. Then based on the relationship between dielectric dissipation coefficient and re-laxation time,the expression of microwave peak absorption frequency as a func-tion of the material physical structure,rotational inertia and electrical dipole mo-ment of molecules was established. These theoretical formulas were applied to water and benzene,and the calculated results agree fairly well with the experi-mental data. This work can not only deepen the study of the interaction between microwave and material,but also provide a possible guide for the experiment of microwave-assisted extraction.

  5. Outreach Plans for Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation 10,500 ft. SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. We plan to create a unique summer undergraduate education experiences for students of diversity at Storm Peak Laboratory. As stressed by the College Pathways to Science Education Standards [Siebert and McIntosh, 2001], to support changes in K-12 science education transformations must first be made at the college level, including inquiry-oriented opportunities to engage in meaningful research. These workshops will be designed to allow students to experience the excitement of science, increasing their likelihood of pursing careers within the fields of scientific education or research.

  6. Evaluation of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for primary diagnosis and staging of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassa, Naoto; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Gotoh, Momokazu [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Nagoya (Japan); Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Shimamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Seiichi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Abe, Shinji [Nagoya University Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Iwano, Shingo; Ito, Shinji; Naganawa, Shinji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    We conducted a pilot study to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of PET/CT with {sup 11}C-choline (choline PET/CT) for primary diagnosis and staging of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-UC). Enrolled in this study were 16 patients (9 men, 7 women; age range 51 - 83 years, mean ± SD 69 ± 10.8 years) with suspected UUT-UC. The patients were examined by choline PET/CT, and 13 underwent laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and partial cystectomy. Lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy were also performed as necessary in some of the patients. Of the 16 patients, 12 were confirmed to have UUT-UC (7 renal pelvis carcinoma and 5 ureteral carcinoma), 1 had malignant lymphoma (ureter), 1 had IgG4-related disease (ureter), and 2 had other benign diseases (ureter). Of the 16 study patients, 13 showed definite choline uptake in urothelial lesions, and of these, 11 had UUT-UC, 1 had malignant lymphoma, and 1 had IgG4-related disease. Three patients without choline uptake comprised one with UUT-UC and two with benign diseases. Of the 12 patients with UUT-UC, 3 had distant metastases, 2 had metastases only in the regional lymph nodes, and 7 had no metastases. Distant metastases and metastases in the regional lymph nodes showed definite choline uptake. The outcome in patients with UUT-UC, which was evaluated 592 - 1,530 days after surgery, corresponded to the patient classification based on the presence or absence of metastases and locoregional or distant metastases. Choline uptake determined as SUVmax 10 min after administration was significantly higher than at 20 min in metastatic tumours of UUT-UC (p < 0.05), whereas there was no statistically significant difference between the SUVmax values at 10 and those at 20 min in primary tumours of UUT-UC. This study suggests that choline PET/CT is a promising tool for the primary diagnosis and staging of UUT-UC. (orig.)

  7. Distinct choline metabolic profiles are associated with differences in gene expression for basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer xenograft models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased concentrations of choline-containing compounds are frequently observed in breast carcinomas, and may serve as biomarkers for both diagnostic and treatment monitoring purposes. However, underlying mechanisms for the abnormal choline metabolism are poorly understood. The concentrations of choline-derived metabolites were determined in xenografted primary human breast carcinomas, representing basal-like and luminal-like subtypes. Quantification of metabolites in fresh frozen tissue was performed using high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR MAS MRS). The expression of genes involved in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) metabolism was retrieved from whole genome expression microarray analyses. The metabolite profiles from xenografts were compared with profiles from human breast cancer, sampled from patients with estrogen/progesterone receptor positive (ER+/PgR+) or triple negative (ER-/PgR-/HER2-) breast cancer. In basal-like xenografts, glycerophosphocholine (GPC) concentrations were higher than phosphocholine (PCho) concentrations, whereas this pattern was reversed in luminal-like xenografts. These differences may be explained by lower choline kinase (CHKA, CHKB) expression as well as higher PtdCho degradation mediated by higher expression of phospholipase A2 group 4A (PLA2G4A) and phospholipase B1 (PLB1) in the basal-like model. The glycine concentration was higher in the basal-like model. Although glycine could be derived from energy metabolism pathways, the gene expression data suggested a metabolic shift from PtdCho synthesis to glycine formation in basal-like xenografts. In agreement with results from the xenograft models, tissue samples from triple negative breast carcinomas had higher GPC/PCho ratio than samples from ER+/PgR+ carcinomas, suggesting that the choline metabolism in the experimental models is representative for luminal-like and basal-like human breast cancer. The differences in choline metabolite

  8. , Recorded at Ladron Peak, Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, J. W.; Kelley, S.; Read, A. S.; Karlstrom, K. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ladron Peak, situated on the western flank of the Rio Grande rift ~30 miles NW of Socorro, NM, is composed of Precambrian granitic and metamorphic assemblages that have been faulted and uplifted during the late Tertiary formation of the rift. The area is bounded on three sides by normal faults, including the anomalously low-angle (~26°) Jeter fault to the east, which places Precambrian rocks in the footwall against Paleozoic and Mesozoic fault slivers, and mainly Cenozoic Santa Fe Group basin fill in the hanging wall. New apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronological data collected at 22 locations along the NE and SE margins of Ladron Peak give a range of ages from 10.9 ± 1.9 to 20.4 ± 8.6 Ma. Samples within the footwall include granitic and metasedimentary rocks that have mean track lengths of 13.1 to 14.1 μm; one quartzite sample has a mean track length of 12.5 μm, suggesting time in the partial annealing zone. Within the hanging wall block, new AFT ages from the Permian Bursum and Abo Formations give cooling ages of 23.1 ± 3.3 Ma. and 59.9 ± 12.4 Ma., respectively. The Bursum Formation sample, with a track length of 13.7 μm, cooled below the 110°C isotherm during the Miocene, while the Abo Formation sample, with a track length of 11.2 μm, was only partially reset prior to rift-related deformation. Mylonitized granitic and metamorphic rocks in the immediate footwall preserve dip-slip lineations that are parallel to slip on the Jeter fault. This suggests that strain associated with exhumation was recorded by both brittle and ductile deformation. Although this type of deformation is common within metamorphic core complexes in highly extended terranes, ductile normal faulting has not been recognized within the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico, though there is some suggestion of ductile deformation around Blanca Peak in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. These observations imply one or both of the following: (1) Ductile deformation at Ladron Peak was

  9. The Nature of Double-Peaked [O III] Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Hai; Myers, Adam D; Stockton, Alan; Djorgovski, S G; Aldering, G; Rich, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with double-peaked [O III] lines are suspected to be sub-kpc or kpc-scale binary AGNs. However, pure gas kinematics can produce the same double-peaked line profile in spatially integrated spectra. Here we combine integral-field spectroscopy and high-resolution imaging of 42 double-peaked [O III] AGNs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the constituents of the population. We find two binary AGNs where the line-splitting is driven by the orbital motion of the merging nuclei. Such objects account for only ~2% of the double-peaked AGNs. Almost all (~98%) of the double-peaked AGNs were selected because of gas kinematics; and half of those show spatially resolved narrow-line regions that extend 4-20 kpc from the nuclei. Serendipitously, we find two spectrally unresolved binary AGNs where gas kinematics produced the double-peaked [O III] lines. The relatively frequent serendipitous discoveries indicate that only ~1% of binary AGNs would appear double-peaked in Sloan spectra and...

  10. Investigation of Cytotoxicity of Phosphoryl Choline Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes under a Live Cell Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and various modified SWCNTs have drawn a lot of attention due to their potential applications in biomedical field. Before further moving on to real clinical applications, hydrophobicity and toxicity of SWCNTs should be investigated thoroughly. In this paper, 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC was adopted to modify SWCNTs and phosphoryl choline was grafted onto SWCNTs as small molecule moieties and polymeric chains, which made SWCNTs dispersed stably both in water and in cell culture medium for a long time. Cytotoxicity of pristine and modified SWCNTs were assayed upon successful preparation of the designed modified SWCNT. Furthermore, the internalization of SWCNTs by three cells was investigated using a live cell station under normal culture temperature (37°C and low temperature (4°C. The results showed that the internalization of modified SWCNTs was related to both the active transport and the passive transport. Although the modification with phosphoryl choline remarkably reduced the cytotoxicity of SWCNTs, the results were probably due to other reasons such as the decrease in the ratio of cells which internalized modified SWCNTs since the cells without SWCNTs occupation still exhibited normal states.

  11. Adsorption of choline benzoate ionic liquid on graphene, silicene, germanene and boron-nitride nanosheets: a DFT perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-07-01

    The adsorption of choline benzoate ([CH][BE]) ionic liquid (IL) on the surface of different hexagonal nanosheets has been studied using Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. For this, the interaction mechanism, binding energies and electronic structure of [CH][BE] ionic liquid on four types of nanosheets, i.e., graphene, silicene, germanene and boron-nitride, were estimated and compared. The adsorption of [CH][BE] ionic liquid on different nanosheets is mainly featured by van der Waals forces, leading to strong benzoate ion-surface π-stacking. Likewise, there is also an important charge transfer from the anion to the sheet. The electronic structure analysis shows that Si- and Ge-based sheets lead to the largest changes in the HOMO and LUMO levels of choline benzoate. This paper provides new insights into the capability of DFT methods to provide useful information about the adsorption of ionic liquids on nanosheets and how ionic liquid features could be tuned through the adsorption on the suitable nanosheet. PMID:26040507

  12. Novel choline-based ionic liquids as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tianqiao; Zhang, Lingzhi; Wang, Jinglun; Mai, Yongjin; Yan, Xiaodan; Zhao, Xinyue

    2016-10-01

    Three choline-based ionic liquids functionalized with trimethylsilyl, allyl, and cynoethyl groups are synthesized in an inexpensive route as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries. The thermal stabilities, viscosities, conductivities, and electrochemical windows of these ILs are reported. Hybrid electrolytes were formulated by doping with 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M lithium oxalydifluoroborate (LiODFB) as salts and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent. By using 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M LiODFB trimethylsilylated choline-based IL (SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC as electrolyte, LiCoO2/graphite full cell showed excellent cycling performance with a capacity of 152 mAh g-1 and 99% capacity retention over 90 cycles at a cut-off voltage of 4.4 V. The propagation rate of SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC electrolyte is only one quarter of the commercial electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC/DMC, v/v/v = 1/1/1), suggesting a better safety feature.

  13. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  14. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT in patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer showing biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco; Ambrosini, Valentina; Boschi, Stefano; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Haematology Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Castellucci, Paolo [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Haematology Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Unversitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, UO di Medicina Nucleare, PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Mamede, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Molecular Imaging Center, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Schiavina, Riccardo; Martorana, Giuseppe [University of Bologna, Department of Urology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Rubello, Domenico [' Santa Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre, Rovigo (Italy); Fuccio, Chiara [Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Pavia (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    To determine the diagnostic efficacy of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in patients with prostate cancer (PC) after radical prostatectomy who presented with increasing PSA levels during follow-up in spite of being on hormone treatment (HT), and therefore showing HT resistance. We evaluated a large series of 157 consecutive PC patients previously treated by radical prostatectomy who presented with biochemical recurrence with increasing PSA levels in spite of ongoing HT (HT-resistant patients). At the time of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT, the mean value of trigger PSA level was 8.3 (range 0.2 - 60.6 ng/mL), the mean PSA doubling time (PSAdt) was 5.3 (range 0.4 - 35 months), and the mean PSA velocity (PSAvel) was 22.1 ng/mL/year (range 0.12 - 82 ng/mL/year). {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT was performed following a standard procedure at our centre to investigate increasing PSA levels, either as the first imaging procedure or in patients with negative conventional imaging. At the time of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT all patients were receiving HT (61 were receiving monotherapy and 96 multidrug therapy). PET-positive findings were validated by: (a) transrectal US-guided biopsy in patients with recurrence in the prostatic bed, (b) surgical pelvic lymphadenectomy, (c) other imaging modalities, including repeated {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT, performed during a minimum follow-up of 12-months. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT showed positive findings in 104 of the 157 patients (66 %). {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT detected: a single lesion in 40 patients (7 in the prostate bed, 10 in lymph nodes, 22 in bone, 1 at another site); two lesions in 18 patients (7 in lymph nodes, 7 in bone, 4 in both lymph nodes and bone); three or four lesions in 7 patients (4 in lymph nodes, 2 in bone, 1 at another site); and more than four lesions in the remaining 39 patients (2 in the prostate bed, 12 in lymph nodes, 12 in bone, 11 in both lymph nodes and bone, 2 at other sites). In {sup 11}C-choline PET-negative patients, the mean

  15. Power peakings in mixed TRIGA cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoj, Luka; Ravnik, Matjaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Division F-8, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: luka.snoj@ijs.si

    2006-07-01

    Power distribution in the reactor core is normally calculated by the diffusion codes (e.g. TRIGLAV package) in 2-D approximation. Diffusion codes normally treat the fuel rods and surrounding water as homogeneous regions called unit cells. Modern Monte-Carlo codes (e.g. MCNP) allow calculation of the power density distribution in 3-D geometry assuming detailed geometry without unit-cell homogenization. The power density distribution (and its maximum value - the peaking) can be calculated 'point-wise' with the resolution of approximately 1 mm. Results of the detailed power density distribution calculated by MCNP are presented for 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor, assuming various realistic and hypothetical core loading patterns with focus on the mixed cores. Combinations of 8.5 w/o, 12 w/o and 20 w/o low enriched (20 %) TRIGA fuel elements are systematically treated in the mixed cores. (author)

  16. Deuterium treatment of low water peak fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwei QIAN; Deming LIU; Feng TU

    2009-01-01

    The deuterium (D2) treatment of low water peak single-mode fiber (LWP-SMF) after drawing has been investigated. The D2 treatment time and concentra-tion have important effect on fiber's properties after D2 treatment. The insufficient treatment of D2 cannot ensure fiber resistant to hydrogen aging, whereas excessive treatment of D2 will result in excess loss on fiber at 13 83 nm. The optimization on viscosity match between the core and the cladding is helpful on problem solving of excess loss after the D2 treatment. However, by designing proper time and D2 concentration in the D2 treatment process, it can produce fiber with good hydrogen aging resistance and low excess loss and lower the cost of the D2 treatment process.

  17. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  18. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  19. Sample distribution in peak mode isotachophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Shimon [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Schwartz, Ortal [Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Bercovici, Moran, E-mail: mberco@technion.ac.il [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-01-15

    We present an analytical study of peak mode isotachophoresis (ITP), and provide closed form solutions for sample distribution and electric field, as well as for leading-, trailing-, and counter-ion concentration profiles. Importantly, the solution we present is valid not only for the case of fully ionized species, but also for systems of weak electrolytes which better represent real buffer systems and for multivalent analytes such as proteins and DNA. The model reveals two major scales which govern the electric field and buffer distributions, and an additional length scale governing analyte distribution. Using well-controlled experiments, and numerical simulations, we verify and validate the model and highlight its key merits as well as its limitations. We demonstrate the use of the model for determining the peak concentration of focused sample based on known buffer and analyte properties, and show it differs significantly from commonly used approximations based on the interface width alone. We further apply our model for studying reactions between multiple species having different effective mobilities yet co-focused at a single ITP interface. We find a closed form expression for an effective-on rate which depends on reactants distributions, and derive the conditions for optimizing such reactions. Interestingly, the model reveals that maximum reaction rate is not necessarily obtained when the concentration profiles of the reacting species perfectly overlap. In addition to the exact solutions, we derive throughout several closed form engineering approximations which are based on elementary functions and are simple to implement, yet maintain the interplay between the important scales. Both the exact and approximate solutions provide insight into sample focusing and can be used to design and optimize ITP-based assays.

  20. EFFICIENCY ENHANCEMENT BASED ON ALLOCATING BIZARRE PEAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. J. Hamarsheh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new work has been proposed in this paper in order to overcome one of the main drawbacks that found in the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM systems, namely Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR. Furthermore, this work will be compared with a previously published work that uses the neural network (NN as a solution to remedy this deficiency. The proposed work could be considered as a special averaging technique (SAT, which consists of wavelet transformation in its first stage, a globally statistical adaptive detecting algorithm as a second stage; and in the third stage it replaces the affected peaks by making use of moving average filter process. In the NN work, the learning process makes use of a previously published work that is based on three linear coding techniques. In order to check the proposed work validity, a MATLAB simulation has been run and has two main variables to compare with; namely BER and CCDF curves. This is true under the same bandwidth occupancy and channel characteristics. Two types of tested data have been used; randomly generated data and a practical data that have been extracted from a funded project entitled by ECEM. From the achieved simulation results, the work that is based on SAT shows promising results in reducing the PAPR effect reached up to 80% over the work in the literature and our previously published work. This means that this work gives an extra reduction up to 15% of our previously published work. However, this achievement will be under the cost of complexity. This penalty could be optimized by imposing the NN to the SAT work in order to enhance the wireless systems performance.

  1. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  2. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  3. Patterns of Direct Projections from the Hippocampus to the Medial Septum-Diagonal Band Complex : Anterograde Tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris Leucoagglutinin Combined with Immunohistochemistry of Choline Acetyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Kuil, J. van der; Hersh, L.B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The projections from the Ammon's horn to the cholinergic cell groups in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were investigated with anterograde tracing of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase, in the rat. Tracer injections w

  4. Choline and Cystine Deficient Diets in Animal Models with Hepatocellular Injury: Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and Expression of RAGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Célia F. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effects of diets deficient in choline and/or cystine on hepatocellular injury in animal models (young male Wistar rats, aged 21 days, by monitoring some of the oxidative stress biomarkers and the expression of RAGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β. The animals were divided into 6 groups (n=10 and submitted to different diets over 30 days: AIN-93 diet (standard, St, AIN-93 choline deficient (CD diet and AIN-93 choline and cystine deficient (CCD diet, in the pellet (pl and powder (pw diet forms. Independently of the diet form, AIN-93 diet already led to hepatic steatosis and CD/CCD diets provoked hepatic damage. The increase of lipid peroxidation, represented by the evaluation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, associated with the decrease of levels of antioxidant enzymes, were the parameters with higher significance toward redox profile in this model of hepatic injury. Regarding inflammation, in relation to TNF-α, higher levels were evidenced in CD(pl, while, for IL-1β, no significant alteration was detected. RAGE expression was practically the same in all groups, with exception of CCD(pw versus CCD(pl. These results together confirm that AIN-93 causes hepatic steatosis and choline and/or cysteine deficiencies produce important hepatic injury associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory profiles.

  5. A facile and practical biosensor for choline based on manganese dioxide nanoparticles synthesized in-situ at the surface of electrode by one-step electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangxia; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Weixiang; Wei, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a facile and sensitive biocompatible biosensor based on Nafion/choline oxidase/manganese dioxide composite film was developed for the determination of choline chloride. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles, possessing the advantages of large specific surface areas, good hydrophilicity, great permeability as well as excellent biocompatibility, were synthesized in-situ at the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by one-step electrodeposition. And then, choline oxidase (ChOx) was immobilized on the MnO2 modified GCE with coating a Nafion film to hold the ChOx/MnO2 film on the electrode surface firmly. Upon optimized conditions, a linear range of 8.0-1.0 mM was obtained for the sensor in a cyclic voltammetry method, with a detection limit as low as 5.0 µM. Besides, the biosensor was successfully employed to detect choline in milk, milk powder and feedstuff samples, providing a promising alternative for the practical application. PMID:26695320

  6. Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Temporal Memory: Synergistic Effects of Combining Prenatal Choline and Nicotine on Reinforcement-Induced Resetting of an Interval Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that prenatal choline supplementation could increase the precision of timing and temporal memory and facilitate simultaneous temporal processing in mature and aged rats. In the present study, we investigated the ability of adult rats to selectively control the reinforcement-induced resetting of an internal clock as a function…

  7. Characterization of Leishmania major phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferases LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2 and their inhibition by choline analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibis, Stergios S.; Dahlstrom, Kelly; Zhu, Tongtong; Zufferey, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in the membranes of the human parasite Leishmania. It is synthesized via two metabolic routes, the de novo pathway that starts with the uptake of choline, and the threefold methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. Choline was shown to be dispensable for Leishmania; thus, the methylation pathway likely represents the primary route for PC production. Here, we have identified and characterized two phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferases, LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2. Both enzymes are expressed in promastigotes as well as in the vertebrate form amastigotes, suggesting that these methyltransferases are important for the development of the parasite throughout its life cycle. These enzymes are maximally expressed during the log phase of growth which correlates with the demand of PC synthesis during cell multiplication. Immunofluorescence studies combined with cell fractionation have shown that both methyltransferases are localized at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Heterologous expression in yeast has demonstrated that LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2 complement the choline auxotrophy phenotype of a yeast double null mutant lacking phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity. LmjPEM1 catalyzes the first, and to a lesser extent, the second methylation reaction. In contrast, LmjPEM2 has the capacity to add the second and third methyl group onto phosphatidylethanolamine to yield (lyso)PC; it can also add the first methyl group, albeit with very low efficiency. Finally, we have demonstrated using inhibition studies with choline analogs that miltefosine and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide are potent inhibitors of this metabolic pathway. PMID:25176160

  8. Dietary choline requirements of adult GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)%吉富罗非鱼成鱼胆碱的最适需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵辉; 文华; 刘伟; 蒋明; 吴凡; 田娟; 黄凤

    2013-01-01

    选用初始体质量为(220.00±8.34) g的吉富罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)360尾,随机分成6组,每组3重复(每重复20尾),于1 m×1 m×1.5 m池塘网箱中饲养。分别饲喂胆碱含量为97.80(对照组)、375.04、565.74、974.27、1409.81、1824.35 mg/kg的半纯化饲料10周,研究胆碱对吉富罗非鱼成鱼生长、饲料利用、鱼体营养组成、胆碱蓄积量及部分血液生化指标的影响。结果显示,经过10周的饲喂,饲料中添加胆碱可显著提高鱼体增重率、特定生长率和饲料效率(P<0.05);降低肝脂肪含量(P<0.05),提高肌肉脂肪含量(P<0.05);显著升高肝胆碱蓄积量(P<0.05);胆碱添加组血清甘油三酯(TG)和总胆固醇(T-CHO)显著高于对照组(P<0.05),并随饲料胆碱含量增加呈现升高的趋势;肝甘油三酯(TG)和总胆固醇(T-CHO)随着胆碱含量的增加而显著降低(P<0.05);血清谷草转氨酶(ALT)、谷丙转氨酶(AST)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)均随着饲料胆碱含量的增大而显著降低(P<0.05)。结果表明,饲料中添加适量的胆碱可以改善吉富罗非鱼成鱼的生长性能,提高饲料利用效率,降低肝脂肪含量,促进肝脂肪转运;对特定生长率进行回归分析,得出吉富罗非鱼成鱼对饲料中胆碱的最低需要量为506.43 mg/kg,而对肝胆碱蓄积量回归分析得出的需要量为981.38 mg/kg。%A10-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary choline chloride supplementation on the growth performance, lipid metabolism, feed utilization, body composition, serum biochemical indices, liver lipid content, and muscle and liver choline content of adult GIFT tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus). The basal diet contained 27.60%crude protein and 6.45%crude lipid. The basal diet was supplemented with choline chloride (0, 300, 600, 1200, 1 800, and 2 400 mg choline per kg food) to formulate six semi-purified diets containing choline of 97.80(control group), 375.04, 565.74, 974.27, 1409

  9. Catalytic dehydration of carbohydrates suspended in organic solvents promoted by AlCl3 /SiO2 coated with choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Gu, Yanlong; Jérôme, François

    2015-01-01

    We show that the coating of choline chloride on silica-supported AlCl3 allows the dehydration of carbohydrates to successfully proceed in low boiling point organic solvents. The concept is based on the in situ formation of a deep eutectic liquid phase on the catalyst surface, thus facilitating the interaction between the solid catalyst and insoluble carbohydrate.

  10. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Dose Painting for Localized Prostate Cancer Using {sup 11}C-choline Positron Emission Tomography Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joe H. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lim Joon, Daryl [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Lee, Sze Ting [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Gong, Sylvia J. [Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Anderson, Nigel J. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Scott, Andrew M. [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Davis, Ian D. [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Clouston, David [Focus Pathology, Victoria (Australia); Bolton, Damien [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Urology, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Hamilton, Christopher S. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Khoo, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.khoo@rmh.nhs.uk [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Clinical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose painting using {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography PET scans in patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was an RT planning study of 8 patients with prostate cancer who had {sup 11}C-choline PET scans prior to radical prostatectomy. Two contours were semiautomatically generated on the basis of the PET scans for each patient: 60% and 70% of the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub 60%} and SUV{sub 70%}). Three IMRT plans were generated for each patient: PLAN{sub 78}, which consisted of whole-prostate radiation therapy to 78 Gy; PLAN{sub 78-90}, which consisted of whole-prostate RT to 78 Gy, a boost to the SUV{sub 60%} to 84 Gy, and a further boost to the SUV{sub 70%} to 90 Gy; and PLAN{sub 72-90}, which consisted of whole-prostate RT to 72 Gy, a boost to the SUV{sub 60%} to 84 Gy, and a further boost to the SUV{sub 70%} to 90 Gy. The feasibility of these plans was judged by their ability to reach prescription doses while adhering to published dose constraints. Tumor control probabilities based on PET scan-defined volumes (TCP{sub PET}) and on prostatectomy-defined volumes (TCP{sub path}), and rectal normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were compared between the plans. Results: All plans for all patients reached prescription doses while adhering to dose constraints. TCP{sub PET} values for PLAN{sub 78}, PLAN{sub 78-90}, and PLAN{sub 72-90} were 65%, 97%, and 96%, respectively. TCP{sub path} values were 71%, 97%, and 89%, respectively. Both PLAN{sub 78-90} and PLAN{sub 72-90} had significantly higher TCP{sub PET} (P=.002 and .001) and TCP{sub path} (P<.001 and .014) values than PLAN{sub 78}. PLAN{sub 78-90} and PLAN{sub 72-90} were not significantly different in terms of TCP{sub PET} or TCP{sub path}. There were no significant differences in rectal NTCPs between the 3 plans. Conclusions: IMRT dose painting for

  11. Differential role of human choline kinase alpha and beta enzymes in lipid metabolism: implications in cancer onset and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gallego-Ortega

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kennedy pathway generates phosphocoline and phosphoethanolamine through its two branches. Choline Kinase (ChoK is the first enzyme of the Kennedy branch of synthesis of phosphocholine, the major component of the plasma membrane. ChoK family of proteins is composed by ChoKalpha and ChoKbeta isoforms, the first one with two different variants of splicing. Recently ChoKalpha has been implicated in the carcinogenic process, since it is over-expressed in a variety of human cancers. However, no evidence for a role of ChoKbeta in carcinogenesis has been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we compare the in vitro and in vivo properties of ChoKalpha1 and ChoKbeta in lipid metabolism, and their potential role in carcinogenesis. Both ChoKalpha1 and ChoKbeta showed choline and ethanolamine kinase activities when assayed in cell extracts, though with different affinity for their substrates. However, they behave differentially when overexpressed in whole cells. Whereas ChoKbeta display an ethanolamine kinase role, ChoKalpha1 present a dual choline/ethanolamine kinase role, suggesting the involvement of each ChoK isoform in distinct biochemical pathways under in vivo conditions. In addition, while overexpression of ChoKalpha1 is oncogenic when overexpressed in HEK293T or MDCK cells, ChoKbeta overexpression is not sufficient to induce in vitro cell transformation nor in vivo tumor growth. Furthermore, a significant upregulation of ChoKalpha1 mRNA levels in a panel of breast and lung cancer cell lines was found, but no changes in ChoKbeta mRNA levels were observed. Finally, MN58b, a previously described potent inhibitor of ChoK with in vivo antitumoral activity, shows more than 20-fold higher efficiency towards ChoKalpha1 than ChoKbeta. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first evidence of the distinct metabolic role of ChoKalpha and ChoKbeta isoforms, suggesting different physiological roles and implications in human

  12. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt;

    2016-01-01

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak...

  13. Peak phosphorus - peak food? The need to close the phosphorus cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The peak in the world production of phosphorus has been predicted to occur in 2033, based on world reserves of rock phosphate (URR) reckoned at around 24,000 million tonnes (Mt), with around 18,000 Mt remaining. This figure was reckoned-up to 71,000 Mt, by the USGS, in 2012, but a production maximum during the present century is still highly probable. There are complex issues over what the demand will be for phosphorus in the future, as measured against a rising population (from 7 billion to over 9 billion in 2050), and a greater per capita demand for fertiliser to grow more grain, in part to feed animals and meet a rising demand for meat by a human species that is not merely more populous but more affluent. As a counterweight to this, we may expect that greater efficiencies in the use of phosphorus - including recycling from farms and of human and animal waste - will reduce the per capita demand for phosphate rock. The unseen game changer is peak oil, since phosphate is mined and recovered using machinery powered by liquid fuels refined from crude oil. Hence, peak oil and peak phosphorus might appear as conjoined twins. There is no unequivocal case that we can afford to ignore the likelihood of a supply-demand gap for phosphorus occurring sometime this century, and it would be perilous to do so.

  14. Z-peaked excess in goldstini scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Seng Pei; Mawatari, Kentarou; Sakurai, Kazuki; Vereecken, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We study a possible explanation of a 3.0 $\\sigma$ excess recently reported by the ATLAS Collaboration in events with Z-peaked same-flavour opposite-sign lepton pair, jets and large missing transverse momentum in the context of gauge-mediated SUSY breaking with more than one hidden sector, the so-called goldstini scenario. In a certain parameter space, the gluino two-body decay chain $\\tilde g\\to g\\tilde\\chi^0_{1,2}\\to gZ\\tilde G'$ becomes dominant, where $\\tilde\\chi^0_{1,2}$ and $\\tilde G'$ are the Higgsino-like neutralino and the massive pseudo-goldstino, respectively, and gluino pair production can contribute to the signal. We find that a mass spectrum such as $m_{\\tilde g}\\sim 900$ GeV, $m_{\\tilde\\chi^0_{1,2}}\\sim 700$ GeV and $m_{\\tilde G'}\\sim 600$ GeV demonstrates the rate and the distributions of the excess, without conflicting with the stringent constraints from jets plus missing energy analyses and with the CMS constraint on the identical final state.

  15. Three Gorges Project Withstanding 2010 Peak Floods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Rushu

    2010-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project(TGP)on the Yangtze River(YR)is the largest hydro-power project in the world;it is now attracting the world wide attention.Possessing comprehensive utilization benefits mainly for flood control,power generation and navigation improvement,TGP is a vital and important project in harnessing and developing the YR.The Project primarily aims at flood control whose reservoir has a total storage capacity of 39.3 billion m3,22.15 billion m3 of which can be set for flood control.Construction of the project has greatly improved the flood control capacity in the middle and lower sections of the YR.In 2010 TGP has successfully withstood 3 peak floods,especially the one on July 20 with a frequency of once in 20-year,the largest since the construction of TGP.TGP as an eco-environmental project will be beneficial to ecological and environmental protection and low carbon economy and it will accelerate coordination of the economy,society,resources and environment and sustainable development along the valley,as well as the rapid development of Chinese economy.

  16. Asymmetry parameter of peaked Fano line shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierott, S.; Hotz, T.; Néel, N.; Kröger, J.

    2016-10-01

    The spectroscopic line shape of electronic and vibrational excitations is ubiquitously described by a Fano profile. In the case of nearly symmetric and peaked Fano line shapes, the fit of the conventional Fano function to experimental data leads to difficulties in unambiguously extracting the asymmetry parameter, which may vary over orders of magnitude without degrading the quality of the fit. Moreover, the extracted asymmetry parameter depends on initially guessed values. Using the spectroscopic signature of the single-Co Kondo effect on Au(110) the ambiguity of the extracted asymmetry parameter is traced to the highly symmetric resonance profile combined with the inevitable scattering of experimental data. An improved parameterization of the conventional Fano function is suggested that enables the nonlinear optimization in a reduced parameter space. In addition, the presence of a global minimum in the sum of squared residuals and thus the independence of start parameters may conveniently be identified in a two-dimensional plot. An angular representation of the asymmetry parameter is suggested in order to reliably determine uncertainty margins via linear error propagation.

  17. Comparison of choline-PET/CT, MRI, SPECT, and bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published data on the diagnosis of bone metastases of prostate cancer are conflicting and heterogeneous. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to compare the diagnostic performance of choline-PET/CT, MRI, bone SPECT, and bone scintigraphy (BS) in detecting bone metastases in parents with prostate cancer. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) were calculated both on a per-patient basis and on a per-lesion basis. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were also drawn to obtain the area under curve (AUC) and Q* value. Sixteen articles consisting of 27 studies were included in the analysis. On a per-patient basis, the pooled sensitivities by using choline PET/CT, MRI, and BS were 0.91 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.83-0.96], 0.97 (95 % CI: 0.91-0.99), 0.79 (95 % CI: 0.73-0.83), respectively. The pooled specificities for detection of bone metastases using choline PET/CT, MRI, and BS, were 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.93-1.00), 0.95 (95 % CI: 0.90-0.97), and 0.82 (95 % CI: 0.78-0.85), respectively. On a per-lesion basis, the pooled sensitivities of choline PET/CT, bone SPECT, and BS were 0.84 (95 % CI: 0.81-0.87), 0.90 (95 % CI: 0.86-0.93), 0.59 (95 % CI: 0.55-0.63), respectively. The pooled specificities were 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.89-0.96) for choline PET/CT, 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.80-0.90) for bone SPECT, and 0.75 (95 % CI: 0.71-0.79) for BS. This meta-analysis indicated that MRI was better than choline PET/CT and BS on a per-patient basis. On a per-lesion analysis, choline PET/CT with the highest DOR and Q* was better than bone SPECT and BS for detecting bone metastases from prostate cancer. (orig.)

  18. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano, E-mail: ayano.takeuchi@astellas.com [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Noto, Takahisa [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi [Drug Safety Research Division, Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  19. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  20. Effects of in ovo administration of betaine and choline on hatchability results, growth and carcass characteristics and immune response of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Gholami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of in ovo administration of different levels of betaine and choline on egg hatchability, immune response, growth and carcass traits of broiler chickens was studied. Four thousand hatching eggs from Ross 308 broiler breeder layers, weighed individually, were incubated for 21 days in a commercial hatchery. At 12th day of incubation, 3456 fertilized eggs were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups of 3 replicates each (144 eggs per replicate: negative control (NC – not injected; positive control (PC – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water; Bet 0.25 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.25 mg soluble betaine; Bet 0.375 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.375 mg soluble betaine; Bet 0.50 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.50 mg soluble betaine; Chol 0.25 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.25 mg soluble choline; Chol 0.375 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.375 mg soluble choline; Chol 0.50 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.50 mg soluble choline. Among the hatched chickens, 360 males were randomly chosen (45 for each group and were grown up to 42nd day of age. The embryo mortality, pecked eggs, infected eggs and hatchability percentages were similar among the experimental groups. The betaine and choline treatments improved hatching weight and final weight of chickens, while reduced feed conversion ratio and abdominal fat percentage. No effect on carcass yield, and breast muscle, leg and wings percentages, as well as on immunoglobulin M (IgM, G (IgG, and total antibody (IgT titers was observed. The treatments had little effect on internal organs.

  1. Change of choline compounds in sodium selenite-induced apoptosis of rats used as quantitative analysis by in vitro 9.4T MR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Cao; Lin-Ping Wu; Yun-Xia U; Yu-Bo Guo; Yao-Wen Chen; Ren-Hua Wu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study liver cell apoptosis caused by the toxicity of selenium and observe the alteration of choline compounds using in vitro 9.4T high resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy.METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups.The rats in the treatment group were intraperitoneally injected with sodium selenite and the control group with distilled water.All rats were sacrificed and the livers were dissected.1H-MRS data were collected using in vitro 9.4T high resolution magnetic resonance spectrometer.Spectra were processed using XWINNMR and MestRe-c 4.3.HE and TUNEL staining was employed to detect and confirm the change of liver cells.RESULTS: Good 1H-MR spectra of perchloric acid extract from liver tissue of rats were obtained.The conventional metabolites were detected and assigned.Concentrations of different ingredient choline compounds in treatment group vs control group were as follows: total choline compounds,5.08±0.97 mmol/L vs 3.81±1.16 mmol/L (P = 0.05); and free choline,1.07±0.23 mmol/L vs 0.65±0.20 mmol/L (P = 0.00).However,there was no statistical significance between the two groups.The hepatic sinus and cellular structure of hepatic cells in treatment group were abnormal.Apoptosis of hepatic cells was confirmed by TUNEL assay.CONCLUSION: High dose selenium compounds can cause the rat liver lesion and induce cell apoptosis in vivo.High resolution 1H-MRS in vitro can detect diversified metabolism.The changing trend for different ingredient of choline compounds is not completely the same at early period of apoptosis.

  2. Imaging primary prostate cancer with 11C-Choline PET/CT: relation to tumour stage, Gleason score and biomarkers of biologic aggressiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a significant overlap of 11C-Choline standardized uptake value (SUV) between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, controversy exists regarding the clinical value of 11C-Choline PET/CT scan in primary prostate cancer. In this study, the SUVmax of the prostate lesions and the pelvic muscles were measured and their ratios (SUVmax-P/M ratio) were calculated. Then we evaluated whether the tracer 11C-Choline uptake, quantified as SUVmax-P/M ratio, correlated with tumour stage, Gleason score, and expression levels of several biomarkers of aggressiveness. Twenty-six patients with primary prostate cancer underwent 11C-Choline PET/CT. Tumour specimens from these patients were graded histopathologically, and immunnohistochemistry for Ki-67, CD31, androgen receptor (AR), Her-2/neu, Bcl-2, and PTEN were performed. Both SUVmax and SUVmax-P/M ratio showed no significant difference between patients with tumour stage II and III, but significantly elevated in patients with tumour stage IV. SUVmax-P/M ratio was also significantly higher in lesions with Gleason score of 4+3 or higher versus less than or equal to 3+4. SUVmax-P/M ratio was found significantly correlated with expression levels of Ki-67 and CD31. In addition, a higher SUVmax-P/M ratio was demonstrated in Her-2/neu positive subgroup than negative subgroup. At the same time, Gleason score and expression levels of these biomarkers showed no significant association with SUVmax. Using the parameter SUVmax-P/M ratio, 11C-Choline PET/CT may be a valuable non-invasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer

  3. Study on peak overpressure and flame propagation speed of gas deflagration in the tube with obstacles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The on-way peak overpressure and flame propagation speed of gas deflagration in the tube with obstacles are important data for process safety. Based on carbon monoxide deflagration experiments, the paper presents a multi-zone integration model for calculation of on-way peak overpressure, in which the tube with obstacles is considered as a series of venting explosion enclosures which link each others. The analysis of experimental data indicates that the on-way peak overpressure of gas deflagration can be correlated as an empirical formula with equivalence ratio of carbon monoxide oxidation, expansion ratio, flame path length, etc., and that the on-way peak overpressure exhibits a linear relationship with turbulence factor and flame propagation speed. An empirical formula of flame propagation speed is given.

  4. Degradable Dextran Nanopolymer as a Carrier for Choline Kinase (ChoK siRNA Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihang Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although small interfering RNA (siRNA therapy has proven to be a specific and effective treatment in cells, the delivery of siRNA is a challenge for the applications of siRNA therapy. We present a degradable dextran with amine groups as an siRNA nano-carrier. In our nano-carrier, the amine groups are conjugated to the dextran platform through the acetal bonds, which are acid sensitive. Therefore this siRNA carrier is stable in neutral and basic conditions, while the amine groups can be cleaved and released from dextran platform under weak acid conditions (such as in endosomes. The cleavage and release of amine groups can reduce the toxicity of cationic polymer and enhance the transfection efficiency. We successfully applied this nano-carrier to deliver choline kinase (ChoK siRNA for ChoK inhibition in cells.

  5. Voltammetric and impedance studies of the electropolishing of type 316 stainless steel in a choline chloride based ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the first practical alternative to the use of phosphoric and sulphuric acid mixtures for the electropolishing of stainless steel. In this paper, efficient electropolishing of type 316 stainless steel is demonstrated in an ionic liquid composed of ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) and choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-). Linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and AC impedance methods were used to investigate the steel dissolution mechanism and the results are compared to polishing done in aqueous acidic solutions. It is shown that the quality of the polish is related to the breakdown of the oxide film and preliminary data suggest that the polishing process may be controlled by the diffusion of chloride ions. The dissolution is different from that found in aqueous acid solutions, and oxide breakdown is shown to be slower, which can lead to pitting at low current densities

  6. Isolation of a choline monooxygenase cDNA clone from Amaranthus tricolor and its expressions under stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Plants synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) via choline→betaine aldehyde→glycine betaine[1]. Two enzymes are involved in the pathway, choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). A full length CMO cDNA (1,643bp) was cloned from Amaranthus tricolor. The open reading frame encoded a 442-amino acid polypeptide, which showed 69% identity with CMOs in Spinacia oleracea L. And Beta vulgaris L. DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of one copy of CMO gene in the A. Tricolor genome. The expressions of CMO and BADH proteins in A.tricolor leaves significantly increased under salinization, drought and heat stress (42℃), as determined by immunoblot analysis, but did not respond to cold stress (4℃), or exogenous ABA application. The increase of GB content in leaves was parallel to CMO and BADH contents.

  7. Single neuron transcriptomics identify SRSF/SR protein B52 as a regulator of axon growth and Choline acetyltransferase splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyin; Bossing, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We removed single identified neurons from living Drosophila embryos to gain insight into the transcriptional control of developing neuronal networks. The microarray analysis of the transcriptome of two sibling neurons revealed seven differentially expressed transcripts between both neurons (threshold: log21.4). One transcript encodes the RNA splicing factor B52. Loss of B52 increases growth of axon branches. B52 function is also required for Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT ) splicing. At the end of embryogenesis, loss of B52 function impedes splicing of ChAT, reduces acetylcholine synthesis, and extends the period of uncoordinated muscle twitches during larval hatching. ChAT regulation by SRSF proteins may be a conserved feature since changes in SRSF5 expression and increased acetylcholine levels in brains of bipolar disease patients have been reported recently. PMID:27725692

  8. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  9. Choline acetyltransferase and organic cation transporters are responsible for synthesis and propionate-induced release of acetylcholine in colon epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Sandra; Klein, Jochen; Diener, Martin

    2014-06-15

    Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter, but is found in a variety of non-neuronal cells. For example, the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), catalyzing acetylcholine synthesis, is expressed by the colonic epithelium of different species. These cells release acetylcholine across the basolateral membrane after luminal exposure to propionate, a short-chain fatty acid. The functional consequence is the induction of chloride secretion, measurable as increase in short-circuit current (Isc) in Ussing chamber experiments. It is unclear how acetylcholine is produced and released by colonic epithelium. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the identification (on mRNA and protein level) and functional characterization (in Ussing chamber experiments combined with HPLC detection of acetylcholine) of transporters/enzymes in the cholinergic system of rat colonic epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining as well as RT-PCR revealed the expression of high-affinity choline transporter, ChAT, carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and organic cation transporters (OCT 1, 2, 3) in colonic epithelium. In contrast to blockade of ChAT with bromoacetylcholine, inhibition of CarAT with mildronate did not inhibit the propionate-induced increase in Isc, suggesting a predominant synthesis of epithelial acetylcholine by ChAT. Although being expressed, blockade of VAChT with vesamicol was ineffective, whereas inhibition of OCTs with omeprazole and corticosterone inhibited propionate-induced Isc and the release of acetylcholine into the basolateral compartment. In summary, OCTs seem to be involved in regulated acetylcholine release by colonic epithelium, which is assumed to be involved in chemosensing of luminal short-chain fatty acids by the intestinal epithelium.

  10. Dixon imaging-based partial volume correction improves quantification of choline detected by breast 3D-MRSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minarikova, Lenka; Gruber, Stephan; Bogner, Wolfgang; Trattnig, Siegfried; Chmelik, Marek [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, MR Center of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Helbich, Thomas H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-14

    Our aim was to develop a partial volume (PV) correction method of choline (Cho) signals detected by breast 3D-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3D-MRSI), using information from water/fat-Dixon MRI. Following institutional review board approval, five breast cancer patients were measured at 3 T. 3D-MRSI (1 cm{sup 3} resolution, duration ∝11 min) and Dixon MRI (1 mm{sup 3}, ∝2 min) were measured in vivo and in phantoms. Glandular/lesion tissue was segmented from water/fat-Dixon MRI and transformed to match the resolution of 3D-MRSI. The resulting PV values were used to correct Cho signals. Our method was validated on a two-compartment phantom (choline/water and oil). PV values were correlated with the spectroscopic water signal. Cho signal variability, caused by partial-water/fat content, was tested in 3D-MRSI voxels located in/near malignant lesions. Phantom measurements showed good correlation (r = 0.99) with quantified 3D-MRSI water signals, and better homogeneity after correction. The dependence of the quantified Cho signal on the water/fat voxel composition was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced using Dixon MRI-based PV correction, compared to the original uncorrected data (1.60-fold to 3.12-fold) in patients. The proposed method allows quantification of the Cho signal in glandular/lesion tissue independent of water/fat composition in breast 3D-MRSI. This can improve the reproducibility of breast 3D-MRSI, particularly important for therapy monitoring. (orig.)

  11. 氯化胆碱作为润滑剂研究%Study on Choline Chloride as a Lubricant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向中; 王毓民

    2011-01-01

    To study the lubrication properties of choline chloride ionic liquids on steel/steel contacts surfaces at various speeds and loads.The coefficients of friction are determined on a scratch tester and on a pin-on-disc wear tester at various speeds and loads to analyze the lubrication properties.Surface roughness and adsorption force of lubricant are tested to study mechanism of lubrication.Studies show that the choline chloride ionic liquids can provide a low friction coefficient when used to lubricate a steel/steel contact, but lubricant lose and the coefficients of friction go up after a short duration.%研究了氯化胆碱在钢-钢摩擦副表面上不同速度不同载荷条件下的润滑特性.在利痕试验机和销盘式摩擦磨损试验机上测定不同速度不同载荷条件下的摩擦系数,分析其润滑特性;通过测试摩擦副表面粗糙度、润滑剂吸附力,研究其润滑机理;结果表明,用氯化胆碱作为润滑剂,钢-钢摩擦副之间能出现低的摩擦系数,但在摩擦一段时间之后,润滑剂会失去,摩擦系数上升.

  12. Magnetic graphene oxide modified with choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvent for the solid-phase extraction of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A strategy for extraction of protein based on DES-coated magnetic graphene oxide. • The deep eutectic solvents were based on choline chloride. • Bovine serum albumin was used as the analyte. • The material prepared works for the acidic but not the basic or the neutral proteins. - Abstract: Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) have been synthesized and coated on the surface of magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4@GO) to form Fe3O4@GO-DES for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein. X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize Fe3O4@GO-DES, and the results indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4@GO-DES. The UV–vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of protein after extraction. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction amount was influenced by the types of DESs, solution temperature, solution ionic strength, extraction time, protein concentration and the amount of Fe3O4@GO-DES. Comparison of Fe3O4@GO and Fe3O4@GO-DES was carried out by extracting bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme. The experimental results showed that the proposed Fe3O4@GO-DES performs better than Fe3O4@GO in the extraction of acidic protein. Desorption of protein was carried out by eluting the solid extractant with 0.005 mol L−1 Na2HPO4 contained 1 mol L−1 NaCl. The obtained elution efficiency was about 90.9%. Attributed to the convenient magnetic separation, the solid extractant could be easily recycled

  13. Vitamin C and Vitamin E in Prevention of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD in Choline Deficient Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopasso Fabio P

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. Vitamin C and vitamin E are known to react with reactive oxygen species (ROS blocking the propagation of radical reactions in a wide range of oxidative stress situations. The potential therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants in NAFLD is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of antioxidant drugs (vitamin C or vitamin E in its prevention. Methods Fatty liver disease was induced in Wistar rats by choline-deficient diet for four weeks. The rats were randomly assigned to receive vitamin E (n = 6 – (200 mg/day, vitamin C (n = 6 (30 mg/Kg/day or vehicle orally. Results In the vehicle and vitamin E-treated rats, there were moderate macro and microvesicular fatty changes in periportal area without inflammatory infiltrate or fibrosis. Scharlach stain that used for a more precise identification of fatty change was strong positive. With vitamin C, there was marked decrease in histological alterations. Essentially, there was no liver steatosis, only hepatocellular ballooning. Scharlach stain was negative. The lucigenin-enhanced luminescence was reduced with vitamin C (1080 ± 330 cpm/mg/minx103 as compared to those Vitamin E and control (2247 ± 790; 2020 ± 407 cpm/mg/minx103, respectively (p Conclusions 1 Vitamin C reduced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited the development of experimental liver steatosis induced by choline-deficient diet ; 2Vitamin E neither prevented the development of fatty liver nor reduced the oxidative stress in this model.

  14. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT detects the site of relapse in the majority of prostate cancer patients showing biochemical recurrence after EBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco; Graziani, Tiziano; Lodi, Filippo; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Castellucci, Paolo [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Unversitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, UO di Medicina Nucleare, PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Martorana, Giuseppe [University of Bologna, Department of Urology, Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Mazzarotto, Renzo; Ntreta, Maria [University of Bologna, Service of Radiotherapy, Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the usefulness and the detection rate of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in a population of patients with prostate cancer (PC), exclusively treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as primary treatment, who showed biochemical relapse. We enrolled 140 patients showing a serum PSA level >2 ng/mL (mean 8.6 ng/mL, median 5 ng/mL, range 2 - 60 ng/mL). All patients had been treated with EBRT to the prostate gland and prostatic fossa with doses ranging from 70 to 76 Gy in low-risk patients (T1/T2 and/or serum PSA <10 ng/mL) and escalating to >76 Gy (range 76 - 81 Gy) in high-risk patients (T3/T4 and/or serum PSA >10 ng/mL). Of the 140 patients, 53 were receiving androgen deprivation therapy at the time of the scan. All positive {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT findings were validated by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy or at least 12 months of follow-up with contrast-enhanced CT, MR, bone scintigraphy or a repeated {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scan. The relationships between the detection rate of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT and the factors PSA level, PSA kinetics, Gleason score, age, time to relapse and SUVmax in patients with positive findings were analysed. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT detected the site of relapse in 123 of the 140 patients with a detection rate of 87.8 % (46 patients showed local relapse, 31 showed local and distant relapse, and 46 showed only distant relapse). In patients with relapse the mean serum PSA level was 9.08 ng/mL (median 5.1 ng/mL, range 2 - 60 ng/mL), the mean PSA doubling time was 5.6 months (median 3.5 months, range 0.4 - 48 months), and the mean PSA velocity was 15 ng/mL/year (median 8.8 ng/mL/year, range 0.4 - 87 ng/mL/year). Of the 123 patients with relapse, 77 (62.6 %) showed distant relapse with/without local relapse, and of these 77, 31 (40.2 %) showed oligometastatic disease (one or two distant lesions: lymph node lesions only in 16, bone lesions only in 14, and lymph node lesions and bone

  15. ASSESSING PEAK AEROBIC CAPACITY IN DUTCH LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, Harriet; Takken, Tim; de Groot, Janke; Reneman, Michiel; Peters, Roelof; Vanhees, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report norm

  16. Analysis of read-out heating rate effects on the glow peaks of TLD-100 using WinGCF software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauk, Sabar, E-mail: sabar@usm.my [Physics Section, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Hussin, Siti Fatimah [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Alam, Md. Shah [Physics Section, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Physics Department, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet (Bangladesh)

    2016-01-22

    This study was done to analyze the effects of the read-out heating rate on the LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) glow peaks using WinGCF computer software. The TLDs were exposed to X-ray photons with a potential difference of 72 kVp and 200 mAs in air and were read-out using a Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. The TLDs were read-out using four read-out heating rates at 10, 7, 4 and 1 °C s{sup −1}. It was observed that lowering the heating rate could separate more glow peaks. The activation energy for peak 5 was found to be lower than that for peak 4. The peak maximum temperature and the integral value of the main peak decreased as the heating rate decreases.

  17. Analysis of read-out heating rate effects on the glow peaks of TLD-100 using WinGCF software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done to analyze the effects of the read-out heating rate on the LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) glow peaks using WinGCF computer software. The TLDs were exposed to X-ray photons with a potential difference of 72 kVp and 200 mAs in air and were read-out using a Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. The TLDs were read-out using four read-out heating rates at 10, 7, 4 and 1 °C s−1. It was observed that lowering the heating rate could separate more glow peaks. The activation energy for peak 5 was found to be lower than that for peak 4. The peak maximum temperature and the integral value of the main peak decreased as the heating rate decreases

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in comparison with CT and/or MRI in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta [Nuclear Medicine Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Torzilli, Guido; Donadon, Matteo; Palmisano, Angela [Hepatobiliary Surgery, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Poretti, Dario; Lanza, Ezio; Pedicini, Vittorio [Radiology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Neto, Lauro J.S. de; Sabongi, Juliano Guerra [Medicina Nuclear, Centro Medico Imagem, Sorocaba (Brazil); Rimassa, Lorenza; Personeni, Nicola [Medical Oncology and Hematology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Ceriani, Roberto [Hepatology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Comito, Tiziana; Scorsetti, Marta [Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Nuclear Medicine Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Humanitas University, Chair of Diagnostic Imaging, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In recent decades, the use of radiopharmaceuticals in the assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become established, and new findings indicate that radiolabelled choline has considerable potential in this setting. Therefore, in this study we aimed to assess the diagnostic role of {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, compared with conventional imaging with CT/MRI, in patients with HCC. The study population comprised 45 patients (male to female ratio = 37:8, median age 70.5 years) referred to our institution owing to HCC: 27 at initial diagnosis and 18 for restaging after recurrence. In all cases we performed whole-body {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT and compared its findings with contrast-enhanced CT (n = 35) or MRI (n = 29) or both (n = 15) for a total of 50 paired scans. The reference standard was either histological proof (21 patients) or a multidisciplinary consensus. Diagnostic accuracy was then determined in a scan-based (SBA) and a lesion-based analysis (LBA). On SBA the sensitivity and specificity for PET were 88 and 90 %, respectively, whereas for CT/MRI they were 90 and 73 %, respectively (p > 0.05). On LBA the overall sensitivity and specificity were 78 and 86 %, respectively, for PET vs 65 and 55 % for CT/MRI. Overall we investigated 168 disease sites, of which 100 were in the liver and 68 were extrahepatic. When considering only liver lesions, {sup 11}C-choline PET and CT/MRI showed an accuracy of 66 and 85 %, respectively, while for extrahepatic lesions PET showed an accuracy of 99 %, while the accuracy of CT/MRI was 32 %. In both cases, there was a statistically significant difference in accuracy between the two modalities (p < 0.01). Combination of the PET results with those of CT/MRI resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy in both analyses, at 92 % for SBA and 96 % for LBA. In 11 patients (24 %) the PET findings modified the therapeutic strategy, the modification proving appropriate in 10 of them. {sup 11}C-Choline PET

  19. Do androgens control the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate in human prostate cancer cell lines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emonds, Kimy M.; Nuyts, Johan; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Swinnen, Johannes V.; Vanderhoydonc, Frank [K.U. Leuven, Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Experimental Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Weerden, Wytske M. van [Erasmus University Rotterdam, Department of Experimental Urology, Josephine Nefkens Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of androgen ablation therapy in different prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines - reflecting different stages of the disease - on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate uptake. Uptake experiments were performed in androgen-sensitive (LNCaP, PC346C) and independent cell lines (22Rv1, PC346DCC, PC-3) as well as in a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-1) cell line. Tracer uptake was assessed under androgen ablation. Results of the cancer cell lines were normalized to those of BPH-1. To evaluate the effect of androgen on the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate in PCa cell lines, 10{sup -8}M R1881, 10{sup -10}M R1881, the combination of 10{sup -10}M R1881 plus 10{sup -6}M Casodex or 10{sup -6}M Casodex alone were added in parallel cell cultures 1 day before uptake experiments. Uptake in androgen-supplemented cell cultures was compared to the uptake under androgen deprivation. Uptake was corrected for cell number using protein content. Compared to BPH-1, a higher {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was observed only in PC346C cells, whereas a higher {sup 11}C-choline and markedly increased {sup 11}C-acetate uptake was seen in all cancer cell lines. Androgens significantly modulated the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in LNCaP, PC346C and 22Rv1 cells, and of {sup 11}C-choline in the PC346C and 22Rv1 cell line. No androgenic effect on {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was observed in PC-3 and PC346DCC cells. {sup 11}C-Acetate uptake was independent of androgen status in all PCa cell lines studied. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in PCa cell lines showed the highest variability and strongest androgen effect, suggesting its poor potential for metabolic imaging of advanced PCa. In contrast to {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-choline, {sup 11}C-acetate uptake was unaffected by androgens and thus {sup 11}C-acetate seems best for monitoring PCa progression. (orig.)

  20. Peak exposures in aluminium potrooms: instrument development and field calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephanie R; Seixas, Noah S; Thompson, Mary Lou; Yost, Michael G

    2004-11-01

    Aluminium smelter potrooms are unique in that workplace exposures to hydrogen fluoride (HF), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter occur simultaneously for some tasks. The peak exposures to these contaminants are of increasing interest in discovering the etiology of respiratory health effects. While a variety of direct-reading instruments are available for sulfur dioxide and particulate matter, only a few exist for hydrogen fluoride. The sensors in these HF instruments have a cross-sensitivity to sulfur dioxide making it difficult to monitor HF in an environment that also contains SO2. To overcome this problem, we assessed the simultaneous use of two electrochemical instruments: one with a SO2 sensor that does not respond to HF and the second with a hydrogen fluoride sensor that responds to both HF and SO2 in a 1 : 1 ratio, termed 'total acid gas'. The difference in the response between the two instruments should indicate the HF concentration: [HF + SO2] minus SO2 equals HF. The performance characteristics of this sampling train were evaluated in the laboratory through the generation of both HF and SO2 with permeation tubes. The response and recovery times for the SO2 only instrument were acceptable (6 and 15 s, respectively), but the "total acid gas" instrument exhibited both slow response and slow recovery approaching three and six min. The association between the traditional integrated filter sampling method and the direct-reading instrument for SO2 is 0.80 (Spearman's rho). The use of the digital filter strengthens the association between the HF direct-reading instrument and the integrated samples from 0.41 to 0.68. PMID:15536509

  1. Study on peak shape fitting method in radon progeny measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Abdumomin, Kadir; Tang, Yushi; Guo, Qiuju

    2015-11-01

    Alpha spectrum measurement is one of the most important methods to measure radon progeny concentration in environment. However, the accuracy of this method is affected by the peak tailing due to the energy losses of alpha particles. This article presents a peak shape fitting method that can overcome the peak tailing problem in most situations. On a typical measured alpha spectrum curve, consecutive peaks overlap even their energies are not close to each other, and it is difficult to calculate the exact count of each peak. The peak shape fitting method uses combination of Gaussian and exponential functions, which can depict features of those peaks, to fit the measured curve. It can provide net counts of each peak explicitly, which was used in the Kerr method of calculation procedure for radon progeny concentration measurement. The results show that the fitting curve fits well with the measured curve, and the influence of the peak tailing is reduced. The method was further validated by the agreement between radon equilibrium equivalent concentration based on this method and the measured values of some commercial radon monitors, such as EQF3220 and WLx. In addition, this method improves the accuracy of individual radon progeny concentration measurement. Especially for the (218)Po peak, after eliminating the peak tailing influence, the calculated result of (218)Po concentration has been reduced by 21 %. PMID:25920795

  2. Fast-slow climate dynamics and peak global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of a linear two-box energy balance climate model is analyzed as a fast-slow system, where the atmosphere, land, and near-surface ocean taken together respond within few years to external forcing whereas the deep-ocean responds much more slowly. Solutions to this system are approximated by estimating the system's time-constants using a first-order expansion of the system's eigenvalue problem in a perturbation parameter, which is the ratio of heat capacities of upper and lower boxes. The solution naturally admits an interpretation in terms of a fast response that depends approximately on radiative forcing and a slow response depending on integrals of radiative forcing with respect to time. The slow response is inversely proportional to the "damping-timescale", the timescale with which deep-ocean warming influences global warming. Applications of approximate solutions are discussed: conditions for a warming peak, effects of an individual pulse emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and metrics for estimating and comparing contributions of different climate forcers to maximum global warming.

  3. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed

    2013-01-07

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  4. Change of choline compounds in sodium selenite-induced apoptosis of rats used as quantitative analysis by in vitro 9.4T MR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Zhen; Wu, Lin-Ping; Li, Yun-Xia;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study liver cell apoptosis caused by the toxicity of selenium and observe the alteration of choline compounds using in vitro 9.4T high resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in the treatment group were...... intraperitoneally injected with sodium selenite and the control group with distilled water. All rats were sacrificed and the livers were dissected. (1)H-MRS data were collected using in vitro 9.4T high resolution magnetic resonance spectrometer. Spectra were processed using XWINNMR and MestRe-c 4.3. HE and TUNEL...... staining was employed to detect and confirm the change of liver cells. RESULTS: Good (1)H-MR spectra of perchloric acid extract from liver tissue of rats were obtained. The conventional metabolites were detected and assigned. Concentrations of different ingredient choline compounds in treatment group vs...

  5. Pre-treatment of bean seedlings with choline compounds increases the resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to UV-radiation and elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings were pre-treated with choline compounds, during 24 h, then after 6 d the excised primary leaves were exposed to UV-B and high temperature stress. Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, delayed light emission, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of the active oxygen detoxifying enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined. Pre-treatment of plants with Ch or CCh enhanced the resistance of photosystem 2 (PS2) photochemistry to UV-B and heat injuries. The higher stress resistance can be explained by the increased activity of the detoxifying enzymes. The increased content of UV-B-absorbing pigments may also contribute to the enhanced resistance of choline-treated plants to UV-B radiation

  6. Magnetic graphene oxide modified with choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvent for the solid-phase extraction of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanhua; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Pan, Qi; Wang, Ying; Ding, Xueqin; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-06-02

    Highlights: • A strategy for extraction of protein based on DES-coated magnetic graphene oxide. • The deep eutectic solvents were based on choline chloride. • Bovine serum albumin was used as the analyte. • The material prepared works for the acidic but not the basic or the neutral proteins. - Abstract: Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) have been synthesized and coated on the surface of magnetic graphene oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO) to form Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein. X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES, and the results indicated the successful preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES. The UV–vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of protein after extraction. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction amount was influenced by the types of DESs, solution temperature, solution ionic strength, extraction time, protein concentration and the amount of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES. Comparison of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES was carried out by extracting bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme. The experimental results showed that the proposed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES performs better than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO in the extraction of acidic protein. Desorption of protein was carried out by eluting the solid extractant with 0.005 mol L{sup −1} Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} contained 1 mol L{sup −1} NaCl. The obtained elution efficiency was about 90.9%. Attributed to the convenient magnetic separation, the solid extractant could be easily recycled.

  7. Choline: Bioavailability and Its Application in Laying Hens Production%胆碱生物利用率的评价及其在蛋鸡养殖中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟钦辉; 董晓芳; 佟建明; 鲍延娥

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for laying hens, which mainly used for the synthesis of phosphatidyl-choline, a component of egg yolk. It is well known that laying hens can synthesize substantial quantities of choline. Whether laying hens can synthesize sufficient choline for their needs under practical conditions is controversial. This article mainly reviewed the recent studies in choline content and bioavailability of feed ingredients and the application of choline in hens breeding, which can establish the theoretical reference for practical production. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24(9) : 1615-1621]%胆碱是蛋鸡所必需的营养物质,主要用来合成蛋黄的卵磷脂.蛋鸡能够大量合成胆碱,但在实际生产中蛋鸡能否合成足够的胆碱来满足其需要一直存在很大的争议.本文综述了饲料中胆碱的含量及其生物利用率的评价以及胆碱在蛋鸡养殖中的应用,为其相关研究及在生产中应用提供参考.

  8. Quantification of Choline- and Ethanolamine-Containing Metabolites in Human Prostate Tissues Using 1H HR-MAS Total Correlation Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Mark G.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Simko, Jeffry P.; Shinohara, Katsuto; Carroll, Peter R.; Zektzer, Andrew S.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2008-01-01

    A fast and quantitative 2D high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiment was developed to resolve and quantify the choline- and ethanolamine-containing metabolites in human prostate tissues in ≈1 hr prior to pathologic analysis. At a 40-ms mixing time, magnetization transfer efficiency constants were empirically determined in solution and used to calculate metabolite concentrations in tissue. Phosphocholine (PC) was observed in 11/15 (73%) can...

  9. Accumulation of choline and glycinebetaine and drought stress tolerance induced in maize (zea mays) by three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in inducing the tolerance of crop plants to drought is vital in regulation of physiological reactions that eventually adapts to a stressed environment, however, how PGPR strain induces better drought resistance by accumulation of choline and glycinebetaine (GB) in maize under drought stress (DS) is still poorly understood. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the induced role in maize by the three PGPR strains i.e. Klebsiella variicola F2 (KJ465989), Raoultella planticola YL2 (KJ465991) and Pseudomonas fluorescens YX2 (KJ465990) in view of plant growth, water relations and accumulation of choline and GB in leaves. Seedlings of cultivar Zhengdan 958 were inoculated with strains F2, YL2 and YX2 under different DS degrees induced by different PEG-6000 concentrations of 0, 10%, 15% and 20%. The soil microbe strains F2, YL2 and YX2 substantially enhanced the accumulation of choline and GB, and in turn improved leaf relative water content (RWC) and dry mater weight (DMW) under varying DS regimes. The best responses induced by PGPR were obtained by strain YX2 regardless of DS degree and all three strains under moderate DS stimulated by 10-15% concentrations of PEG-6000. The PGPR strains were involved in the regulation of osmotic adjustment via accumulations of choline and subsequent GB, resulting in improvement of water relations and plant growth in maize plants under DS. The effects of PGPR strains on improvement of plant drought resistance might be dependent on microbial species and degree of DS. (author)

  10. Electrodeposition of a Au-Dy2O3 Composite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalyst from Eutectic Urea/Choline Chloride Ionic Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Mele; Benedetto Bozzini

    2012-01-01

     In this research we have fabricated and tested Au/Dy2O3 composites for applications as Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) electrocatalysts. The material was obtained by a process involving electrodeposition of a Au-Dy alloy from a urea/choline chloride ionic liquid electrolyte, followed by selective oxidation of Dy to Dy2O3 in air at high temperature. The electrochemical kinetics of the electrodeposition bath were studied by cyclic voltammetry, whence optimal electrodeposition conditions ...

  11. Comparison between the efficacies of curcumin and puerarin in C57BL/6 mice with steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, YUNLIANG; Li, Jian; ZHUGE, LI; Su, Dongmei; YANG, MEIJUAN; TAO, SHIYING; Li, Junxiang

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent disease, which features an abnormal accumulation of lipids inside hepatocytes. Steatohepatitis plays a critical role in the process resulting in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Curcumin and puerarin are herbal products widely used in Asia, which are believed to have therapeutic benefits for alleviating the symptoms of steatohepatitis. In this study, mice models of steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) w...

  12. Reduction in temporal N-acetylaspartate and creatine (or choline) ratio in temporal lobe epilepsy: does this 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy finding mean poor seizure control?

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes-Ribeiro, J.; Soares, R.,; Simoes-Ribeiro, F.; Guimaraes, M

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is a potentially useful tool in the in vivo investigation of brain metabolites in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Focal N-acetylaspartatate (NAA) reductions have been correlated with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in surgically resected epileptogenic foci.
OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the abnormalities in the metabolites NAA, creatine+ phosphocreatine (Cr), and choline containing compounds (Cho) in the tempora...

  13. Plasma methionine, choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    OpenAIRE

    Nitter, Mathilde Hjelle; Norgård, Benedicte Wentzel; Vogel, Stefan; Eussen, Simone; Meyer, Klaus; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per Magne; Nygård, Ottar; Vollset, Stein Emil; Bjørge, Tone; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cottet, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Background Disturbances in one carbon metabolism may contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting methylation and synthesis of DNA. Choline and its oxidation product betaine are involved in this metabolism and can serve as alternative methyl group donors when folate status is low. Patients and methods We conducted a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), to investigate plasma concentrations of the methyl donors methionin...

  14. Diagnostic value of combining {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilla-Lievre, Maria-Angela [University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hopital Antoine Beclere, Clamart (France); IMIV - UMR 1023 Inserm/CEA/Universite Paris Sud - ERL 9218 CNRS, Orsay (France); Franco, Dominique [Universite Paris-Sud, Department of Surgery, Hopital Antoine Beclere, University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Clamart (France); Gervais, Philippe; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Desarnaud, Serge; Helal, Badia-Ourkia [IMIV - UMR 1023 Inserm/CEA/Universite Paris Sud - ERL 9218 CNRS, Orsay (France); CEA, DSV, I2BM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Agostini, Helene [University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Clinical Research Unit of Hopitaux universitaires Paris-Sud, Hopital Kremlin Bicetre (France); Marthey, Lysiane [Universite Paris-Sud, Department of Gastroenterology, Hopital Antoine Beclere, University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Clamart (France)

    2016-05-15

    In this prospective study, our goal was to emphasize the diagnostic value of combining {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease. Thirty-three consecutive patients were enrolled. All patients were suspected to have HCC based on CT and/or MRI imaging. A final diagnosis was obtained by histopathological examination or by imaging alone according to American Association for the Study of Liver Disease criteria. All patients underwent PET/CT with both tracers within a median of 5 days. All lesions showing higher tracer uptake than normal liver were considered positive for HCC. We examined how tracer uptake was related to biological (serum α-fetoprotein levels) and pathological (differentiation status, peritumoral capsule and vascular invasion) prognostic markers of HCC, as well as clinical observations at 6 months (recurrence and death). Twenty-eight HCC, four cholangiocarcinomas and one adenoma were diagnosed. In the HCC patients, the sensitivity of {sup 11}C-choline, {sup 18}F-FDG and combined {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of HCC was 75 %, 36 % and 93 %, respectively. Serum α-fetoprotein levels >200 ng/ml were more frequent among patients with {sup 18}F-FDG-positive lesions than those with {sup 18}F-FDG-negative lesions (p < 0.05). Early recurrence (n=2) or early death (n=5) occurred more frequently in patients with {sup 18}F-FDG-positive lesions than in those with {sup 18}F-FDG-negative lesions (p < 0.05). The combined use of {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT detected HCC with high sensitivity. This approach appears to be of potential prognostic value and may facilitate the selection of patients for surgical resection or liver transplantation. (orig.)

  15. 11C Choline PET Guided Salvage Radiotherapy with Volumetric Modulation Arc Therapy and Hypofractionation for Recurrent Prostate Cancer after HIFU Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Alongi, Filippo; Liardo, Rocco L. E.; Iftode, Cristina; Lopci, Egesta; Villa, Elisa; Comito, Tiziana; Tozzi, Angelo; Navarria, Pierina; Ascolese, Anna M.; Mancosu, Pietro; Tomatis, Stefano; Bellorofonte, Carlo; Arturo, Chiti; Scorsetti, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate tolerance, feasibility and acute toxicity in patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) failure. From 2005 to 2011 a total of 15 patients were treated with HIFU as primary radical treatment. Between July 2011 and February 2013, all 15 patients presented biochemical relapse after HIFU and 11C choline PET documenting intrapostatic-only failure. Salvage EBRT was performed with moderate hypofractionation schedul...

  16. Detection of Local, Regional, and Distant Recurrence in Patients With PSA Relapse After External-Beam Radiotherapy Using 11C-Choline Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level cannot distinguish between local-regional recurrences and the presence of distant metastases after treatment with curative intent for prostate cancer. With the advent of salvage treatment such as cryotherapy, it has become important to localize the site of recurrence (local or distant). In this study, the potential of 11C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) to identify site of recurrence was investigated in patients with rising PSA after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy patients with histologically proven prostate cancer treated with EBRT and showing biochemical recurrence as defined by American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus statement and 10 patients without recurrence underwent a PET scan using 400 MBq 11C-choline intravenously. Biopsy-proven histology from the site of suspicion, findings with other imaging modalities, clinical follow-up and/or response to adjuvant therapy were used as comparative references. Results: None of the 10 patients without biochemical recurrence had a positive PET scan. Fifty-seven of 70 patients with biochemical recurrence (median PSA 9.1 ng/mL; mean PSA 12.3 ng/mL) showed an abnormal uptake pattern (sensitivity 81%). The site of recurrence was only local in 41 of 57 patients (mean PSA 11.1 ng/mL at scan), locoregionally and/or distant in 16 of 57 patients (mean PSA 17.7 ng/mL). Overall the positive predictive value and negative predictive value for 11C-choline PET scan were 1.0 and 0.44 respectively. Accuracy was 84%. Conclusions: 11C-choline PET scan is a sensitive technique to identify the site of recurrence in patients with PSA relapse after EBRT for prostate cancer.

  17. The relevance of food peak architecture in trophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatka, Emma; Orell, Markku; Rytkönen, Seppo

    2016-04-01

    Phenological shifts and associated changes in the temporal match between trophic levels have been a major focus of the study of ecological consequences of climate change. Previously, the food peak has been thought to respond as an entity to warming temperatures. However, food peak architecture, that is, timings and abundances of prey species and the level of synchrony between them, determines the timing and shape of the food peak. We demonstrate this with a case example of three passerine prey species and their predator. We explored temporal trends in the timing, height, width, and peakedness of prey availabilities and explained their variation with food peak architecture and ambient temperatures of prebreeding and breeding seasons. We found a temporal match between the predator's breeding schedule and food availability. Temporal trends in the timing of the food peak or in the synchrony between the prey species were not found. However, the food peak has become wider and more peaked over time. With more peaked food availabilities, predator's breeding success will depend more on the temporal match between its breeding schedule and the food peak, ultimately affecting the timing of breeding in the predator population. The height and width of the food peak depended on the abundances and breeding season lengths of individual prey species and their reciprocal synchronies. Peakednesses of separate prey species' availability distributions alone explained the peakedness of the food peak. Timing and quantity of food production were associated with temperatures of various time periods with variable relevance in different prey species. Alternating abundances of early and late breeding prey species caused high annual fluctuation in the timing of the food peak. Interestingly, the food peak may become later even when prey species' schedules are advanced. Climate warming can thus produce unexpected changes in the food availabilities, intervening in trophic interactions. PMID

  18. Estimation of peak relative velocity and peak absolute acceleration of linear SDOF systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwei Song; Yi-Lun Chu; Zach Liang; George C. Lee

    2007-01-01

    In the seismic analysis and design of structures, the true velocity and absolute acceleration are usually approximated by their corresponding pseudo-values. This approach is simple and works well for structures with small damping (say, less than 15%). When the damping of a structure is enhanced for the purpose of response reduction, it may result in large analysis and design errors. Based on theory of random vibration and the established mechanism of seismic response spectra analysis, a method is developed (1) to predict the relative velocity spectra with any damping ratio level directly from the 5% standard pseudo-acceleration spectrum; and (2) to estimate the peak absolute acceleration. The accuracy of both is validated by using two selected ensembles of ground motion records.

  19. Scaling of the Density Peak with Pellet Injection in ITER*%Scaling of the Density Peak with Pellet Injection in ITER*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. KLAYWITTAPHAT; T. ONJUN

    2012-01-01

    Scalings of the density peak and pellet penetration length in ITER are developed based on simulations using 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code. In these simulations , the pellet ablation is described by the Neutral Gas Shielding (NGS) model with grad-B drift effect taken into account. The NGS pellet model is coupled with a plasma core transport model, which is a combination of an MMM95 anomalous transport model and an NCLASS neoclassical transport model. The BALDUR code with a combination of MMM95 and NCLASS models, together with the NGS model, is used to simulate the time evolution of plasma current, ion and electron temperatures, and density profiles for ITER standard type I ELMy H-mode discharges during the pellet injection. As a result, the scaling of the density peak and pellet penetration length at peak density can be established using this set of predictive simulations that covers a wide range of ITER plasma conditions and pellet parameters. The multiple regression technique is utilized in the development of the scalings. It is found that the scaling for density at center is sensitive to both the plasma and pellet parameters; whereas the scalings for density and location of the additional peak are sensitive to the pellet parameters only.

  20. Effects of ginsenoside of stem and leaf combined with choline on learning and memory ability of rat models with Alzheimer diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Zhao; Xianglin Xie; Zuoli Xia; Yunsheng Gao; Yuyun Zhu; Hongxia Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central adrenergic nerve and 5-serotonergic nerve can influence central cholinergic nerve on learning and memory and make easy for study; however, ginsenoside of stem and leaf (GSL) can improve functions of central adrenergic nerve; moreover, 5-serotonergic nerve and the combination with choline can produce synergistic effect and enhance learning and memory ability so as to improve learning and memory disorder of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD).OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of GSL combining with choline on learning and memory of AD model rats.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design and controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Pharmacology, Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Pharmacological Department of Medical College of Jilin University from October 1996 to January 1997. Forty healthy male Wistar rats of clean grade were randomly divided into 5 groups, including sham-injury group, model group, GSL group, choline group and combination group, with 8 rats in each group. Main medications: GSL with the volume more than 92.8% was provided by Department of Chemistry, Norman Bethune Medical College of Jilin University. Panaxatriol, the main component, was detected with thin layer scanning technique and regarded as the index of GSL quality [(55±1)%, CV= 2%, n= 5]. Choline was provided by the Third Shanghai Laboratory Factory.METHODS: 150 nmol quinolinic acid was used to damage bilateral Meynert basal nuclei of adult rats so as to establish AD models. Rats in GSL, choline and combination groups were intragastric administrated with 400 mg/kg GSL, 200 mg/kg choline (20 mL/kg), and both respectively last for 17 days starting from two days 400 mg/kg GSL, 200 mg/kg choline (20 mL/kg), and both respectively last for 17 days starting from two days before operation. Rats in sham-injury group and model group were perfused with the same volume of distilled jumped up safe platform when they were shocked with 36 V

  1. Evaluation of Bioavailability of Choline in Various Feedstuffs%不同饲料原料中胆碱生物学效价的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斯佳; 蔡辉益; 刘国华; 闫海洁

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究采用斜率比法对玉米、豆粕、菜粕和玉米酒精糟(distillers dried grains,DDGS)中胆碱的生物学效价(the relative bioavailability,RBV)进行评估.[方法]试验选用1日龄爱拔益加(AA)肉仔鸡1 32只,随机分为22个处理组,其中S1-S6组为标准曲线组,A1-A4组为玉米日粮组,B1-B4组为豆粕日粮组,C1-C4为菜粕日粮组,D1-D4为DDGS日粮组,每个处理6个重复,每个重复1只鸡.基础日粮采用醇提法将玉米、豆粕、菜粕和DDGS中的胆碱洗脱后配制而成.在基础日粮中添加不同剂量的氯化胆碱配制6种梯度的标准日粮,另将4种待测原料分别以10%、20%、40%和100%的比例替换洗脱过的相应原料配制试验日粮.分别以1-21日龄的平均日增重、肝脏脂肪含量和全血胆碱浓度为衡量指标,以比斜率法计算待测原料的相对生物学利用率.[结果]以平均日增重为指标,玉米、豆粕、菜粕和DDGS中胆碱RBV分别为63.95%、104.7%、37.98%和72.09%;以全血胆碱浓度为指标,玉米、豆粕、菜粕和DDGS中胆碱RBV分别为94.73%、184.11%、23.63%和134.23%.[结论]以日增重和全血胆碱含量为指标衡量饲料原料中胆碱生物学效价是可行的,但由于选择指标的不同,所得数值亦有所差异;4种参试原料中胆碱的相对生物学利用率从高到低依次为豆粕、DDGS、玉米和菜粕.%[Objective] This study was conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability (RBV) of choline in corn, soybean meal, canola meal and distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS). [Method] Atotal of 132 one-day-old broilers were divided into 22 groups (6 replicates per group and each replicate had 1 broiler). Groups S1-S6 were standard curve group, Groups A1-A4 were corn groups, Group B1-B4 were soybean meal groups, Group C1-C4 were canola meal groups, and Groups D1-D4 were DDGS groups. The basic diet contained the four feedstuffs above with lower choline content

  2. Magnetocaloric Studies of the Peak Effect in Nb

    OpenAIRE

    Daniilidis, N. D.; Dimitrov, I. K.; Mitrovic, V F; Elbaum, C.; Ling, X. S.

    2006-01-01

    We report a magnetocaloric study of the peak effect and Bragg glass transition in a Nb single crystal. The thermomagnetic effects due to vortex flow into and out of the sample are measured. The magnetocaloric signature of the peak effect anomaly is identified. It is found that the peak effect disappears in magnetocaloric measurements at fields significantly higher than those reported in previous ac-susceptometry measurements. Investigation of the superconducting to normal transition reveals t...

  3. Group Elevator Peak Scheduling Based on Robust Optimization Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Zong, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Scheduling of Elevator Group Control System (EGCS) is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Uncertain group scheduling under peak traffic flows has become a research focus and difficulty recently. RO (Robust Optimization) method is a novel and effective way to deal with uncertain scheduling problem. In this paper, a peak scheduling method based on RO model for multi-elevator system is proposed. The method is immune to the uncertainty of peak traffic flows, optimal scheduling is re...

  4. Statistics of peaks in cosmological nonlinear density fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of the high-density peaks in the universe is examined using N-body simulations. Nonlinear evolution of the underlying density field significantly changes the statistical properties of the peaks, compared with the analytic results valid for the random Gaussian field. In particular, the abundances and correlations of the initial density peaks are discussed in the context of biased galaxy formation theory. (author)

  5. Peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Christina; Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Maslow (1970) defined peak experiences as the most wonderful experiences of a person's life, which may include a sense of awe, well-being, or transcendence. Furthermore, recent research has suggested that psilocybin can produce experiences subjectively rated as uniquely meaningful and significant (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is therefore possible that psilocybin may facilitate or change the nature of peak experiences in users compared to non-users. This study was designed to compare the peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users, to evaluate the frequency of peak experiences while under the influence of psilocybin, and to assess the perceived degree of alteration of consciousness during these experiences. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from undergraduate classes and at a musical event. Participants were divided into three groups, those who reported a peak experience while under the influence of psilocybin (psilocybin peak experience: PPE), participants who had used psilocybin but reported their peak experiences did not occur while they were under the influence of psilocybin (non-psilocybin peak experience: NPPE), and participants who had never used psilocybin (non-user: NU). A total of 101 participants were asked to think about their peak experiences and complete a measure evaluating the degree of alteration of consciousness during that experience. Results indicated that 47% of psilocybin users reported their peak experience occurred while using psilocybin. In addition, there were significant differences among the three groups on all dimensions of alteration of consciousness. Future research is necessary to identify factors that influence the peak experiences of psilocybin users in naturalistic settings and contribute to the different characteristics of peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

  6. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Abdul; Ngangbam, Ajit Kumar; Waters, Daniel L E; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular. PMID:27447649

  7. Electrochemical Behavior of Niobium Electrodeposited 316 Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate for PEMFC in Choline Chloride Based Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Caihong; LIANG Chenghao; HUANG Naibao

    2015-01-01

    Niobium was electrodeposited on 316 stainless steel bipolar plates of a fuel cell in water and air-stable choline chloride based ionic liquids. The electrochemical corruption property of bipolar plates in simulated PEMFC environment was investigated. It was showed that the plating iflm was distributed on the surface of 316 stainless steel like isolated islands with height less than 50 nm. The XPS, XRD results showed that a smooth and strong chemical inert iflm of NbO and Nb2O5 was formed on the surface of 316 stainless steel. In simulated cathodic condition, the corrosion potential of Nb coated stainless steel was improved by 244 mV, whilst in an anodic condition, it was improved by 105 mV. The current densities for the coated 316 stainless steel were decreased to 2.479 4 µA•cm-2 from 14.810 µA•cm-2 at-0.1 V and to 0.576 µA•cm-2 from 13.417 µA/•cm-2 at 0.6 V, respectively. It was implied that the niobium coating effectively decreased the corrosion rate. The results of the electrochemical tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of stainless steel was greatly improved after coated with niobium.

  8. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Baten

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular.

  9. Monitoring cholinergic activity during attentional performance in mice heterozygous for the choline transporter: a model of cholinergic capacity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolone, Giovanna; Mallory, Caitlin S; Koshy Cherian, Ajeesh; Miller, Thomas R; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Reductions in the capacity of the human choline transporter (SLC5A7, CHT) have been hypothesized to diminish cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, leading to risk for cognitive and mood disorders. To determine the acetylcholine (ACh) release capacity of cortical cholinergic projections in a mouse model of cholinergic hypofunction, the CHT+/- mouse, we assessed extracellular ACh levels while mice performed an operant sustained attention task (SAT). We found that whereas SAT-performance-associated increases in extracellular ACh levels of CHT+/- mice were significantly attenuated relative to wildtype littermates, performance on the SAT was normal. Tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal excitability reduced both dialysate ACh levels and SAT performance similarly in both genotypes. Likewise, lesions of cholinergic neurons abolished SAT performance in both genotypes. However, cholinergic activation remained more vulnerable to the reverse-dialyzed muscarinic antagonist atropine in CHT+/- mice. Additionally, CHT+/- mice displayed greater SAT-disrupting effects of reverse dialysis of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Receptor binding assays revealed a higher density of α4β2* nAChRs in the cortex of CHT+/- mice compared to controls. These findings reveal compensatory mechanisms that, in the context of moderate cognitive challenges, can overcome the performance deficits expected from the significantly reduced ACh capacity of CHT+/- cholinergic terminals. Further analyses of molecular and functional compensations in the CHT+/- model may provide insights into both risk and resiliency factors involved in cognitive and mood disorders.

  10. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.

  11. Plasticizing effect of choline chloride/urea eutectic-based ionic liquid on physicochemical properties of agarose films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Adlie Shamsuri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Agarose films were formed with the addition of 30 to 70 wt% choline chloride/urea eutectic-based ionic liquid (ChCl/Urea. The ChCl/Urea was prepared through complexation at a 1:2 mole ratio. The films were prepared by dissolving ChCl/Urea in distilled water followed by dispersion of the agarose at 95 °C. The solution was gelled at room temperature, and the formed gel was dried in an oven overnight at 70 °C. Mechanical testing indicated that the agarose film containing 60 wt% ChCl/Urea had higher tensile extension and tensile strain at break compared to the pristine agarose film. The addition of ChCl/Urea also reduced the glass transition temperature (Tg of agarose films. Cross-section SEM images of the agarose films showed that surface roughness disappeared with the incorporation of ChCl/Urea. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between agarose and ChCl/Urea. XRD patterns demonstrated that an amorphous phase was obtained when ChCl/Urea was added. Agarose films containing more ChCl/Urea exhibited higher transparency, as measured by a UV-Vis spectrometer. In summary, the physicochemical properties of agarose films were evidently affected by the incorporation of the ChCl/Urea as a plasticizing agent.

  12. Severe congenital myasthenia gravis of the presynaptic type with choline acetyltransferase mutation in a Chinese infant with respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Wai L; Lam, Ching W; Fung, Lai W E; Hon, Kam L E; Ng, Pak C

    2009-01-01

    We report a severe case of congenital myasthenia gravis in a Chinese newborn who presented with complete ptosis, severe hypotonia, dysphagia and respiratory insufficiency with recurrent apnea that required mechanical ventilatory support since birth. Routine neurophysiologic studies, including the 3-Hz repetitive stimulation test and electromyogram were normal. Neostigmine and edrophonium tests were also negative. However, decremental response to 3-Hz stimulation became apparent after depleting the muscles with trains of 10-Hz stimuli for 10 min. The infant was subsequently confirmed to have heterozygous mutations in the choline acetyltransferase genes, p.T553N and p.S704P. Both missense mutations are novel mutations. The child remained on positive pressure ventilation at 3 years of age despite treatment with high-dose anticholinesterase. This case highlights the difficulty of making an early diagnosis based on clinical presentation and routine electrophysiologic tests, especially when neonatologists are not familiar with this condition. Further, as there are different genetic defects causing different types of congenital myasthenia gravis, anticholinesterase therapy may be beneficial to some but detrimental to others. Therefore, the exact molecular diagnosis is an important guide to therapy. A high index of suspicion coupled with extended electrodiagnostic tests in clinically suspected patients will ensure the selection of appropriate genetic molecular study for confirming the diagnosis. PMID:18797171

  13. Voltammetric and impedance studies of the electropolishing of type 316 stainless steel in a choline chloride based ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Andrew P. [Chemistry Department, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Andrew.abbott@le.ac.uk; Capper, Glen [Chemistry Department, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); McKenzie, Katy J. [Chemistry Department, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ryder, Karl S. [Chemistry Department, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-01

    We demonstrate the first practical alternative to the use of phosphoric and sulphuric acid mixtures for the electropolishing of stainless steel. In this paper, efficient electropolishing of type 316 stainless steel is demonstrated in an ionic liquid composed of ethylene glycol (HOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH) and choline chloride (HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} {sup +}Cl{sup -}). Linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and AC impedance methods were used to investigate the steel dissolution mechanism and the results are compared to polishing done in aqueous acidic solutions. It is shown that the quality of the polish is related to the breakdown of the oxide film and preliminary data suggest that the polishing process may be controlled by the diffusion of chloride ions. The dissolution is different from that found in aqueous acid solutions, and oxide breakdown is shown to be slower, which can lead to pitting at low current densities.

  14. Choline and Geranate Deep Eutectic Solvent as a Broad-Spectrum Antiseptic Agent for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrewsky, Michael; Banerjee, Amrita; Apte, Sanjana; Kern, Theresa L; Jones, Mattie R; Sesto, Rico E Del; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T; Mitragotri, Samir

    2016-06-01

    Antiseptic agents are the primary arsenal to disinfect skin and prevent pathogens spreading within the host as well as into the surroundings; however the Food and Drug Administration published a report in 2015 requiring additional validation of nearly all current antiseptic agents before their continued use can be allowed. This vulnerable position calls for urgent identification of novel antiseptic agents. Recently, the ability of a deep eutectic, Choline And Geranate (CAGE), to treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica was demonstrated. Here it is reported that CAGE exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against a number of drug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and viruses including clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans as well as laboratory strains of Herpes Simplex Virus. Studies in human keratinocytes and mice show that CAGE affords negligible local or systemic toxicity, and an ≈180-14 000-fold improved efficacy/toxicity ratio over currently used antiseptic agents. Further, CAGE penetrates deep into the dermis and treats pathogens located in deep skin layers as confirmed by the ability of CAGE in vivo to treat Propionibacterium acnes infection. In combination, the results clearly demonstrate CAGE holds promise as a transformative platform antiseptic agent for preventive as well as therapeutic applications. PMID:26959835

  15. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Abdul; Ngangbam, Ajit Kumar; Waters, Daniel L E; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular.

  16. Constitutive androstane receptor agonist, TCPOBOP, attenuates steatohepatitis in the methionine choline-deficient diet-fed mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To ascertain whether constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5,dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) modulates steatohepatitis in the methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed animal. METHODS: C57/BL6 wild-type mice were fed the MCD or standard diet for 2 wk and were treated with either the CAR agonist, TCPOBOP, or the CAR inverse agonist, androstanol. RESULTS: Expression of CYP2B10 and CYP3A11, known CAR target genes, increased 30-fold and 45-fold, respectively, in TCPOBOP-treated mice fed the MCD diet. TCPOBOP treatment reduced hepatic steatosis (44.6 ± 5.4% vs 30.4 ± 4.5%, P < 0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (48 ± 8 vs 20 ± 1 mg/Dl, P < 0.05) in MCD dietfed mice as compared with the standard diet-fed mice. This reduction in hepatic steatosis was accompanied by an increase in enzymes involved in fatty acid microsomal ω-oxidation and peroxisomal β-oxidation, namely CYP4A10, LPBE, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. The reduction in steatosis was also accompanied by a reduction in liver cell apoptosis and inflammation. In contrast, androstanol was without effect on any of the above parameters. CONCLUSION: CAR activation stimulates induction of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, and ameliorates hepatic steatosis, apoptosis and inflammation.

  17. Zener Relaxation Peak in an Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正存; 程和法; 宫晨利; 魏健宁; 韩福生

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the temperature spectra of internal friction and relative dynamic modulus of the Fe-(25 wt%)Cr-(5wt%)Al alloy with different grain sizes. It is found that a peak appears in the internal friction versus temperature plot at about 550°C. The peak is of a stable relaxation and is reversible, which occurs not only during heating but also during cooling. Its activation energy is 2.5 (± 0.15) eV in terms of the Arrhenius relation. In addition, the peak is not obvious in specimens with a smaller grain size. It is suggested that the peak originates from Zener relaxation.

  18. Synchronized peak-rate years of global resources use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Seppelt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many separate studies have estimated the year of peak, or maximum, rate of using an individual resource such as oil. However, no study has estimated the year of peak rate for multiple resources and investigated the relationships among them. We exploit time series on the appropriation of 27 global renewable and nonrenewable resources. We found 21 resources experienced a peak-rate year, and for 20 resources the peak-rate years occurred between 1960-2010, a narrow time window in the long human history. Whereas 4 of 7 nonrenewable resources show no peak-rate year, conversion to cropland and 18 of the 20 renewable resources have passed their peak rate of appropriation. To test the hypothesis that peak-rate years are synchronized, i.e., occur at approximately the same time, we analyzed 20 statistically independent time series of resources, of which 16 presented a peak-rate year centered on 2006 (1989-2008. We discuss potential causal mechanisms including change in demand, innovation and adaptation, interdependent use of resources, physical limitation, and simultaneous scarcity. The synchrony of peak-rate years of multiple resources poses a greater adaptation challenge for society than previously recognized, suggesting the need for a paradigm shift in resource use toward a sustainable path in the Anthropocene.

  19. Improved Peak Cancellation for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Lilin; Xiao, Yue; Ni, Wei; Li, Shaoqian

    This letter presents an improved peak cancellation (PC) scheme for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The main idea is based on a serial peak cancellation (SPC) mode for alleviating the peak regrowth of the conventional schemes. Based on the SPC mode, two particular algorithms are developed with different tradeoff between PAPR and computational complexity. Simulation shows that the proposed scheme has a better tradeoff among PAPR, complexity and signal distortion than the conventional schemes.

  20. Adaptive Peak Frequency Estimation Using a Database of PARCOR Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iiguni Youji

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive peak frequency estimation method using a database that stores PARCOR coefficients as key attributes and the corresponding peak frequencies as nonkey attributes. The least-square lattice algorithm is used to recursively estimate the PARCOR coefficients to adapt to changing circumstances. The nearest neighbor to the current PARCOR coefficient is retrieved from the database, and the corresponding peak frequency is regarded as the estimation. A simultaneous execution of database construction and peak estimation with database update is performed to accelerate the processing time and to improve the estimation accuracy.

  1. Nonlinear preprocessing method for detecting peaks from gas chromatograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hyeyoung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of locating valid peaks from data corrupted by noise frequently arises while analyzing experimental data. In various biological and chemical data analysis tasks, peak detection thus constitutes a critical preprocessing step that greatly affects downstream analysis and eventual quality of experiments. Many existing techniques require the users to adjust parameters by trial and error, which is error-prone, time-consuming and often leads to incorrect analysis results. Worse, conventional approaches tend to report an excessive number of false alarms by finding fictitious peaks generated by mere noise. Results We have designed a novel peak detection method that can significantly reduce parameter sensitivity, yet providing excellent peak detection performance and negligible false alarm rates from gas chromatographic data. The key feature of our new algorithm is the successive use of peak enhancement algorithms that are deliberately designed for a gradual improvement of peak detection quality. We tested our approach with real gas chromatograms as well as intentionally contaminated spectra that contain Gaussian or speckle-type noise. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve near perfect peak detection performance while maintaining very small false alarm probabilities in case of gas chromatograms. Given the fact that biological signals appear in the form of peaks in various experimental data and that the propose method can easily be extended to such data, our approach will be a useful and robust tool that can help researchers highlight valid signals in their noisy measurements.

  2. Peak load pricing in the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenders, J.T.

    In the electric utility industry, cost minimization requires that heterogeneous electric generation technologies be used to produce electricity demands of different durations. In contrast to the conclusions of traditional peak-load pricing theory, the existence of a heterogeneous capital stock means that off-peak marginal cost prices almost always should include some marginal capacity costs, and that the profit maximizing regulated electric utility may set peak price above marginal cost and off-peak price below marginal cost in order to encourage the expansion of capital-intensive base load generating capacity. (auth)

  3. An upper limit prediction of the peak sunspot number for solar cycle 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Linden R.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the prediction of the maximum sunspot number in solar cycle 24. We correlate the integral sunspot activity related to the variability of the cycle decrease speed in the declining phase with the height of the next sunspot maximum. Using this method we predict that the sunspot maximum of cycle 24 will be weaker than the previous one and its peak value will not exceed 72.

  4. Stone Comminution Correlates with the Average Peak Pressure Incident on a Stone during Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, N; P Zhong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+...

  5. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Wittink

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report normative absolute and relative VO2peak values of a sample of law enforcement officers in the Netherlands. Material and Methods: The peak rate of oxygen consumption (ml×kg–1×min–1 was measured using a maximal incremental bicycle test in 1530 subjects, including 1068 male and 461 female police officers. Validity of the prediction equations for groups was assessed by comparing predicted VO2peak with measured VO2peak using paired t-tests. For individual differences limits of agreement (LoA were calculated. Equations were considered valid for individuals when the difference between measured and predicted VO2peak did not exceed ±1 metabolic equivalent (MET in 95% of individuals. Results: None of the equations met the validity criterion of 95% of individuals having ±1 MET difference or less than the measured value. Limits of agreement (LoAs were large in all predictions. At the individual level, none of the equations were valid predictors of VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1. Normative values for Dutch law enforcement officers were presented. Conclusions: Substantial differences between measured and predicted VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1 were found. Most tested equations were invalid predictors of VO2peak at group level and all were invalid at individual levels.

  6. PET/CT with {sup 11}C-choline for evaluation of prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence: meta-analysis and critical review of available data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanti, Stefano; Castellucci, Paolo [S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Minozzi, Silvia [Lazio Regional Health Service, Cochrane Review Group on Drugs and Alcohol, Department of Epidemiology, Rome (Italy); Balduzzi, Sara [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Diagnostic Medicine, Clinical and Public Health, Modena (Italy); Herrmann, Ken [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Krause, Bernd Joachim [Universitaetsmedizin Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Oyen, Wim [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milano (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    For the last decade PET and PET/CT with {sup 11}C-choline have been proposed for the evaluation of prostate cancer (PC), but the diagnostic performance of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT is still a matter of debate. We performed a comprehensive review of the most important clinical application of {sup 11}C-choline PET, restaging of patients with biochemical relapse, following a rigorous methodological approach and including assessment of the risk of bias. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature assessing {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for its accuracy in the diagnosis and ability to detect the site of recurrence of PC in the restaging of patients with biochemical recurrence after initial treatment with curative intent. We performed a comprehensive literature search of PubMed and the Cochrane Library to determine the accuracy for the detection of the site of recurrence (prostate bed recurrences, metastatic spread to locoregional pelvic lymph nodes or distant metastases). Only studies with a reference standard (for prostatic bed histopathology, for histopathology or biopsy of distant metastases or a composite reference standard with clinical follow-up of at least 12 months, correlative imaging and clinical data) were included. Overall 425 studies were retrieved, of which 43 were judged as potentially relevant and 29 with 2,686 participants were finally included. Of these 29 studies, 18 reported results for any relapse, All 18 studies, with a total of 2,126 participants, reported detection rates. The pooled rate was 62 % (95 % CI 53 - 71 %). Of the 18 studies, 12 with 1,270 participants reported useful data to derive sensitivity and specificity. The pooled sensitivity was 89 % (95 % CI 83 - 93 %) and the pooled specificity was 89 % (95 % CI 73 - 96 %). Of 11 studies reporting results for local relapse, 9 with 993 participants reported detection rates. The pooled rate was 27 % (95 % CI 16 - 38 %). Six studies with 491 participants reported sensitivity

  7. Greatest Moments in Interpersonal Communication: Peak Communication Experiencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ron

    In an exploratory study of peak communication experiences (PCEs), 36 male and 50 female undergraduates from a speech communication course were asked to describe their PCEs using 19 descriptors derived from A. Maslow's model of the generalized peak experience. Two-thirds or more of both sexes used 10 of these 19 descriptors to characterize their…

  8. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  9. Online junction temperature measurement using peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco;

    2015-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an IGBT or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly proportional to the peak gate current...

  10. The cosmological information of shear peaks: beyond the abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Marian, Laura; Hilbert, Stefan; Schneider, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We study the cosmological information of weak lensing (WL) peaks, focusing on two other statistics besides their abundance: the stacked tangential-shear profiles and the peak-peak correlation function. We use a large ensemble of simulated WL maps with survey specifications relevant to future missions like Euclid and LSST, to explore the three peak probes. We find that the correlation function of peaks with high signal-to-noise (S/N) measured from fields of size 144 sq. deg. has a maximum of ~0.3 at an angular scale ~10 arcmin. For peaks with smaller S/N, the amplitude of the correlation function decreases, and its maximum occurs on smaller angular scales. We compare the peak observables measured with and without shape noise and find that for S/N~3 only ~5% of the peaks are due to large-scale structures, the rest being generated by shape noise. The covariance matrix of the probes is examined: the correlation function is only weakly covariant on scales 2 arcmin, with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.7. U...

  11. 46 CFR 171.090 - Aft peak bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aft peak bulkhead. 171.090 Section 171.090 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.090 Aft peak bulkhead. (a) Each of the following vessels must have an...

  12. Determination of gaussian peaks in gamma spectra by iterative regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameters of the peaks in gamma-ray spectra are determined by a simple iterative regression method. For each peak, the parameters are associated with a gaussian curve (3 parameters) located above a linear continuum (2 parameters). This method may produces the complete result of the calculation of statistical uncertainties and an accuracy higher than others methods. (author)

  13. Deformation Induced Internal Friction Peaks in Nanocrystalline Nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping-Yun; ZHANG Xi-Yan; NI Hai-Tao; CAO Zhen-Hua; MENG Xiang-Kang

    2012-01-01

    We report the mechanical spectroscopy study of the cold-rolling induced dynamical behavior of crystalline defects in nanocrystalline (NC) nickel. The results show that internal friction (IF) peaks in NC nickel can be induced by cold-rolling. An IF peak, originating from dislocation activity, occurs when the strain is in the range of 9.7-32.8%. Two Bordoni peaks occur when the strain is 39.0% and an IF peak associated with deformation twinning appears when the strain is 42.6%. These results mean that deformation of NC nickel is mediated by different kinds of defects as the strain increases.%We report the mechanical spectroscopy study of the cold-rolling induced dynamical behavior of crystalline defects in nanocrystalline (NC) nickel The results show that internal friction (IF) peaks in NC nickel can be induced by cold-rolling.An IF peak,originating from dislocation activity,occurs when the strain is in the range of 9.7- 32.8%.Two Bordoni peaks occur when the strain is 39.0% and an IF peak associated with deformation twinning appears when the strain is 42.6%.These results mean that deformation of NC nickel is mediated by different kinds of defects as the strain increases.

  14. Arrival Times of Gravitational Radiation Peaks for Binary Inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of gravitational waves (GWs) from binary black hole inspiral brings together early post-Newtonian waveforms and late quasinormal ringing waveforms. Attempts to bridge the two limits without recourse to numerical relativity involve predicting the time of the peak GW amplitude. This prediction will require solving the question of why the peak of the "source," i.e., the peak of the binary angular velocity, does not correspond to the peak of the GW amplitude. We show here that this offset can be understood as due to the existence two distinct components of the radiation: the "direct" radiation analogous to that in flat spacetime, and "scattered" radiation associated with curved spacetime. The time dependence of these two components, and of their relative phases determines the location of the peak amplitude. We use a highly simplified model to clarify the twocomponent nature of the source, then demonstrate that the explanation is valid also for an extreme mass ratio binary inspiral.

  15. OBSERVATION OF ENERGY DISSIPATION PEAK IN POLYSTYRENE MELT ABOVE Tg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper two different kinds of dynamic mechanical techniques (inversed torsion pendulum and energy dissipation apparatus) were used to study the dynamic behavior of atactic monodisperse polystyrene above glass transition.The plots of energy dissipation versus temperature were presented for two atactic polystyrene samples. An apparent energy dissipation peak occurred above Tg in each plot measured by the inversed torsion pendulum, and simultaneously the sample was found to flow assuredly at the moment. To exclude the influence of the flow and demonstrate there was a peak indeed above Tg, the energy dissipation apparatus was used, in which the samples were put into a cup. An obvious peak appeared,and it was in agreement with the peak observed by the inversed torsion pendulum. On basis of the results measured by the two kinds of apparatus, a conclusion is drawn that a peak occurrs above Tg, which gives a manifestation for the existence of the liquid-liquid transition.

  16. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    be increased during peak hours. DATA AND METHODOLOGYData is collected by observation of activities during two weeks on for example whether halls are used or not; the amount of playing field used; and number of participants (Iversen, 2012). Data on 1.331 activities in 36 sport halls across 4 municipalities have...... been collected. RESULTS The number of participants per activity is higher during peak hours, which is expected when demand is high. However, the usage of sport floor only differs slightly between peak and low hours. Both during peak and low hours on average 80-100 per cent of floor space is used......BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...

  17. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk;

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances....... On the contrary, the low priority devices have to pause their operation, when the algorithm dictates it, and resume it in the future. This can become beneficial for both energy companies and users. The electricity suppliers companies will be capable of regulating power generation during demand peaks periods...... (RFS) algorithm, which was originally developed for telecommunication networks, is applied. The purpose is to analyze how a power consumption limit and priorities for home appliances will affect the demand peak and the users’ everyday life. Verification of the effectiveness of the RFS algorithm is done...

  18. Peak broadening in paper chromatography and related techniques : III. Peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Remijnse, A.G.

    1968-01-01

    The mechanism of peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder was investigated by comparing the peak widths obtained in chromatography with those caused only by diffusion in the cellulose powder, for a set of amino acids of widely differing RF values and six kinds of cellulose po

  19. Evaluation of different time domain peak models using extreme learning machine-based peak detection for EEG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Asrul; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Mokhtar, Norrima; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Cumming, Paul; Mubin, Marizan

    2016-01-01

    Various peak models have been introduced to detect and analyze peaks in the time domain analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In general, peak model in the time domain analysis consists of a set of signal parameters, such as amplitude, width, and slope. Models including those proposed by Dumpala, Acir, Liu, and Dingle are routinely used to detect peaks in EEG signals acquired in clinical studies of epilepsy or eye blink. The optimal peak model is the most reliable peak detection performance in a particular application. A fair measure of performance of different models requires a common and unbiased platform. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the four different peak models using the extreme learning machine (ELM)-based peak detection algorithm. We found that the Dingle model gave the best performance, with 72 % accuracy in the analysis of real EEG data. Statistical analysis conferred that the Dingle model afforded significantly better mean testing accuracy than did the Acir and Liu models, which were in the range 37-52 %. Meanwhile, the Dingle model has no significant difference compared to Dumpala model.

  20. Derived Equivalence Relations of Geometry Skills in Students with Autism: An Application of the PEAK-E Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Belisle, Jordan; Stanley, Caleb R.; Daar, Jacob H.; Williams, Leigh Anne

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of equivalence-based instruction (EBI) as described in the PEAK-E curriculum (Dixon, 2015) for promoting the emergence of derived geometry skills in two children with high-functioning autism. The results suggested that direct training of shape name (A) to shape property (B) (i.e., A-B relations) was…

  1. On the formation of multiple local peaks in breakthrough curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirila-Woodburn, Erica R.; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Fernández-Garcia, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of breakthrough curves (BTCs) is of interest in hydrogeology as a way to parameterize and explain processes related to anomalous transport. Classical BTCs assume the presence of a single peak in the curve, where the location and size of the peak and the slope of the receding limb has been of particular interest. As more information is incorporated into BTCs (for example, with high-frequency data collection, supercomputing efforts), it is likely that classical definitions of BTC shapes will no longer be adequate descriptors for contaminant transport problems. We contend that individual BTCs may display multiple local peaks depending on the hydrogeologic conditions and the solute travel distance. In such cases, classical definitions should be reconsidered. In this work, the presence of local peaks in BTCs is quantified from high-resolution numerical simulations in synthetic fields with a particle tracking technique and a kernel density estimator to avoid either overly jagged or smoothed curves that could mask the results. Individual BTCs from three-dimensional heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields with varying combinations of statistical anisotropy, heterogeneity models, and local dispersivity are assessed as a function of travel distance. The number of local peaks, their corresponding slopes, and a transport connectivity index are shown to strongly depend on statistical anisotropy and travel distance. Results show that the choice of heterogeneity model also affects the frequency of local peaks, but the slope is less sensitive to model selection. We also discuss how solute shearing and rerouting can be determined from local peak quantification.

  2. Peak shift discrimination learning as a mechanism of signal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Cnaani, Jonathan; Papaj, Daniel R

    2005-06-01

    "Peak shift" is a behavioral response bias arising from discrimination learning in which animals display a directional, but limited, preference for or avoidance of unusual stimuli. Its hypothesized evolutionary relevance has been primarily in the realm of aposematic coloration and limited sexual dimorphism. Here, we develop a novel functional approach to peak shift, based on signal detection theory, which characterizes the response bias as arising from uncertainty about stimulus appearance, frequency, and quality. This approach allows the influence of peak shift to be generalized to the evolution of signals in a variety of domains and sensory modalities. The approach is illustrated with a bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) discrimination learning experiment. Bees exhibited peak shift while foraging in an artificial Batesian mimicry system. Changes in flower abundance, color distribution, and visitation reward induced bees to preferentially visit novel flower colors that reduced the risk of flower-type misidentification. Under conditions of signal uncertainty, peak shift results in visitation to rarer, but more easily distinguished, morphological variants of rewarding species in preference to their average morphology. Peak shift is a common and taxonomically widespread phenomenon. This example of the possible role of peak shift in signal evolution can be generalized to other systems in which a signal receiver learns to make choices in situations in which signal variation is linked to the sender's reproductive success.

  3. Absorption correction of peak positions for neutron strain measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In angle-dispersive neutron strain scanning the information about residual strain comes from the whole gauge volume that is defined by slits in the incoming and diffracted beams. Since the intensity of the neutron beam decreases with the amount of material it has travelled, neutrons diffracted from different locations within the gauge volume contribute with different intensities to the recorded diffraction peak. This can lead to peak shifts, and thus apparent strains. The magnitude of this peak shift depends mostly on the beam attenuation and the size of the gauge volume, but also on the sample geometry and position of the gauge volume within the sample. The peak shift plays a significant role when the size of the gauge volume becomes large because of peak broadening by the sample. An analytic expression for the peak shift was derived for a simple geometry to evaluate a numerical simulation. The numerical simulation was developed to quantify necessary corrections in detail. The attenuation-induced peak shift was demonstrated by measurements on a strain-free powder sample and the results were compared with the numerical predictions.

  4. Two density peaks in low magnetic field helicon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report two density peaks in argon helicon plasma under an axial magnetic field from 0 G to 250 G with Boswell-type antenna driven by radio frequency (RF) power of 13.56 MHz. The first peak locates at 40–55 G and the second one at 110–165 G, as the RF power is sustainably increased from 100 W to 250 W at Ar pressure of 0.35 Pa. The absorbed power of two peaks shows a linear relationship with the magnetic field. End views of the discharge taken by intensified charge coupled device reveal that, when the first peak appeared, the discharge luminance moves to the edge of the tube as the magnetic field increases. For the second peak, the strong discharge area is centered at the two antenna legs after the magnetic field reaches a threshold value. Comparing with the simulation, we suggest that the efficient power absorption of two peaks at which the efficient power absorption mainly appears in the near-antenna region is due to the mode conversion in bounded non-uniform helicon plasma. The two low-field peaks are caused, to some extent, by the excitation of Trivelpiece-Gould wave through non-resonance conversion

  5. Two density peaks in low magnetic field helicon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.; Ouyang, J. T., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: lppmchenqiang@hotmail.com [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Z. W. [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Materials, Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, Beijing 102600 (China); Chen, Q., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: lppmchenqiang@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Materials, Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, Beijing 102600 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we report two density peaks in argon helicon plasma under an axial magnetic field from 0 G to 250 G with Boswell-type antenna driven by radio frequency (RF) power of 13.56 MHz. The first peak locates at 40–55 G and the second one at 110–165 G, as the RF power is sustainably increased from 100 W to 250 W at Ar pressure of 0.35 Pa. The absorbed power of two peaks shows a linear relationship with the magnetic field. End views of the discharge taken by intensified charge coupled device reveal that, when the first peak appeared, the discharge luminance moves to the edge of the tube as the magnetic field increases. For the second peak, the strong discharge area is centered at the two antenna legs after the magnetic field reaches a threshold value. Comparing with the simulation, we suggest that the efficient power absorption of two peaks at which the efficient power absorption mainly appears in the near-antenna region is due to the mode conversion in bounded non-uniform helicon plasma. The two low-field peaks are caused, to some extent, by the excitation of Trivelpiece-Gould wave through non-resonance conversion.

  6. A simple pharmacokinetics subroutine for modeling double peak phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfazaelian, Ahmad; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2006-04-01

    Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs. Numerous reasons have been implicated in causing the double peak. DRUG-KNT--a pharmacokinetic software developed previously for fitting one and two compartment kinetics using the iterative curve stripping method--was modified and a revised subroutine was incorporated to solve double-peak models. This subroutine considers the double peak as two hypothetical doses administered with a time gap. The fitting capability of the presented model was verified using four sets of data showing double peak profiles extracted from the literature (piroxicam, ranitidine, phenazopyridine and talinolol). Visual inspection and statistical diagnostics showed that the present algorithm provided adequate curve fit disregarding the mechanism involved in the emergence of the secondary peaks. Statistical diagnostic parameters (RSS, AIC and R2) generally showed good fitness in the plasma profile prediction by this model. It was concluded that the algorithm presented herein provides adequate predicted curves in cases of the double peak phenomenon. PMID:16400712

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of two types of choline acetyltransferase in neurons and sensory cells of the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Yuko; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Kimura, Shin; D'Este, Loredana; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic structures in the arm of the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris were studied by immunohistochemistry using specific antisera for two types (common and peripheral) of acetylcholine synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT): antiserum raised against the rat common type ChAT (cChAT), which is cross-reactive with molluscan cChAT, and antiserum raised against the rat peripheral type ChAT (pChAT), which has been used to delineate peripheral cholinergic structures in vertebrates, but not previously in invertebrates. Western blot analysis of octopus extracts revealed a single pChAT-positive band, suggesting that pChAT antiserum is cross-reactive with an octopus counterpart of rat pChAT. In immunohistochemistry, only neuronal structures of the octopus arm were stained by cChAT and pChAT antisera, although the pattern of distribution clearly differed between the two antisera. cChAT-positive varicose nerve fibers were observed in both the cerebrobrachial tract and neuropil of the axial nerve cord, while pChAT-positive varicose fibers were detected only in the neuropil of the axial nerve cord. After epitope retrieval, pChAT-positive neuronal cells and their processes became visible in all ganglia of the arm, including the axial and intramuscular nerve cords, and in ganglia of suckers. Moreover, pChAT-positive structures also became detectable in nerve fibers connecting the different ganglia, in smooth nerve fibers among muscle layers and dermal connective tissues, and in sensory cells of the suckers. These results suggest that the octopus arm has two types of cholinergic nerves: cChAT-positive nerves from brain ganglia and pChAT-positive nerves that are intrinsic to the arm.

  8. Choline acetyltransferase expression in rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after acute and chronic exposure to amisulpride, haloperidol, and risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Li, Chun-Rong; Sui, Zhi-Yan; Kang, Nam-In; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-10-24

    Recently, there has been an increasing concern that atypical antipsychotics as well as typical ones may cause detrimental effects on cognitive function. Supporting evidence comes from many preclinical studies demonstrating that long-term administration of haloperidol, risperidone, and ziprasidone reduced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in rat hippocampus (HIP). However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the effects of amisulpride on ChAT expression in rats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of amisulpride, haloperidol, and risperidone on ChAT expression in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) and HIP. Animals received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of amisulpride (5 or 100mg/kg), haloperidol (1 or 2mg/kg), risperidone (1 or 2mg/kg) or vehicle for 7 or 45 days. One day after the last injection, rats were sacrificed. ChAT immunoreactivity was assessed with immunofluorescence staining. Target areas of brain were PFC and HIP (CA1, CA3 and DG). The short-term administration of haloperidol and risperidone produced significant decrease of ChAT immunoreactivity in the PFC and HIP compared to vehicle whereas amisulpride had no effects on ChAT immunoreactivity in the PFC and HIP. In long-term study, haloperidol and risperidone decreased ChAT-positive cells and/or fiber pixel density in the PFC and HIP whereas amisulpride decreased ChAT-positive cells in the PFC and had no effects on fiber pixel density of ChAT in the HIP. The results suggest that both short-term and long-term administration of haloperidol and risperidone, and long-term administration of amisulpride may produce detrimental effects on cognitive function by reducing ChAT expression in the PFC and/or HIP.

  9. DSS colitis promotes tumorigenesis and fibrogenesis in a choline-deficient high-fat diet-induced NASH mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiwa, Koichi; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Honda, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-29

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients progress to liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several lines of evidence indicate that accumulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and disruption of gut microbiota play contributory roles in HCC. Moreover, in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice, a high-fat diet increases portal LPS level and promotes hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, this diet-induced NASH model requires at least 50 weeks for carcinogenesis. In this study, we sought to determine whether increased intestinal permeability would aggravate liver inflammation and fibrosis and accelerate tumorigenesis in a diet-induced NASH model. Mice were fed a choline-deficient high-fat (CDHF) diet for 4 or 12 weeks. The DSS group was fed CDHF and intermittently received 1% DSS in the drinking water. Exposure to DSS promoted mucosal changes such as crypt loss and increased the number of inflammatory cells in the colon. In the DSS group, portal LPS levels were elevated at 4 weeks, and the proportions of Clostridium cluster XI in the fecal microbiota were elevated. In addition, levels of serum transaminase, number of lobular inflammatory cells, F4/80 staining-positive area, and levels of inflammatory cytokines were all elevated in the DSS group. Liver histology in the DSS group revealed severe fibrosis at 12 weeks. Liver tumors were detected in the DSS group at 12 weeks, but not in the other groups. Thus, DSS administration promoted liver tumors in a CDHF diet-induced NASH mouse over the short term, suggesting that the induction of intestinal inflammation and gut disruption of microbiota in NASH promote hepatic tumorigenesis.

  10. Enteric plexuses of two choline-acetyltransferase transgenic mouse lines: chemical neuroanatomy of the fluorescent protein-expressing nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Márta; Lawrence, J Josh; Gábriel, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied cholinergic circuit elements in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of two distinct transgenic mouse lines in which fluorescent protein expression was driven by the choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter. In the first mouse line, green fluorescent protein was fused to the tau gene. This construct allowed the visualization of the fiber tracts and ganglia, however the nerve cells were poorly resolved. In the second mouse line (ChATcre-YFP), CRE/loxP recombination yielded cytosolic expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). In these preparations the morphology of enteric neurons could be well studied. We also determined the neurochemical identity of ENS neurons in muscular and submucous layers using antibodies against YFP, calretinin (CALR), calbindin (CALB), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Confocal microscopic imaging was used to visualize fluorescently-conjugated secondary antibodies. In ChATcre-YFP preparations, YFP was readily apparent in somatodendritic regions of ENS neurons. In the myenteric plexus, YFP/CALR/VIP staining revealed that 34% of cholinergic cells co-labeled with CALR. Few single-stained CR-positive cells were observed. Neither YFP nor CALR co-localized with VIP. In GFP/CALB/CALR staining, all co-localization combinations were represented. In the submucosal plexus, YFP/CALR/VIP staining revealed discrete neuronal populations. However, in separate preparations, double labeling was observed for YFP/CALR and CALR/VIP. In YFP/CALR/CALB staining, all combinations of double staining and triple labeling were verified. In conclusion, the neurochemical coding of ENS neurons in these mouse lines is consistent with many observations in non-transgenic animals. Thus, they provide useful tools for physiological and pharmacological studies on distinct neurochemical subtypes of ENS neurons. PMID:25592616

  11. Resonant Orbits and the High Velocity Peaks toward the Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Matthew; Smith, Martin C.; Evans, N. Wyn; Shen, Juntai

    2015-10-01

    We extract the resonant orbits from an N-body bar that is a good representation of the Milky Way, using the method recently introduced by Molloy et al. By decomposing the bar into its constituent orbit families, we show that they are intimately connected to the boxy-peanut shape of the density. We highlight the imprint due solely to resonant orbits on the kinematic landscape toward the Galactic center. The resonant orbits are shown to have distinct kinematic features and may be used to explain the cold velocity peak seen in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment commissioning data. We show that high velocity peaks are a natural consequence of the motions of stars in the 2:1 orbit family and that stars on other higher order resonances can contribute to the peaks. The locations of the peaks vary with bar angle and, with the tacit assumption that the observed peaks are due to the 2:1 family, we find that the locations of the high velocity peaks correspond to bar angles in the range {10}\\circ ≲ {θ }{bar}≲ 25^\\circ . However, some important questions about the nature of the peaks remain, such as their apparent absence in other surveys of the Bulge and the deviations from symmetry between equivalent fields in the north and south. We show that the absence of a peak in surveys at higher latitudes is likely due to the combination of a less prominent peak and a lower number density of bar supporting orbits at these latitudes.

  12. Determination of the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jia-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Lebanowski, Logan; Lin, Guey-Lin; Chen, Shaomin

    2016-08-01

    A physically motivated function was developed to accurately determine the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter and to overcome biases present in many commonly used methods. The function is the convolution of a detector resolution function with the sum of a delta function, which represents the complete absorption of energy, and a tail function, which describes the partial absorption of energy and depends on the detector materials and structures. Its performance was tested with the simulation of three typical cases. The accuracy of the extracted peak value, resolution, and peak area was improved by an order of magnitude on average, relative to the Crystal Ball function.

  13. Pressure dependence of the Boson peak in poly(butadiene)

    CERN Document Server

    Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    Variation of pressure and temperature in inelastic neutron scattering experiments allows us to separate density and thermal energy contributions. We summarise briefly the influence of pressure and temperature on the dynamic scattering law of the polymer glass former poly(butadiene) far below the glass transition. We also show the advantage of using a liquid-niobium pressure cell in such studies. The effect of pressure on the boson peak is to shift the peak towards higher energies and to reduce the low-frequency modes more strongly below the boson-peak maximum than above. A decrease in the Debye-Waller factor with increasing pressure is observed. (orig.)

  14. Robust detection of peak signals for lateral flow immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Jong Dae; Nahm, Kie Bong; Choi, Eui Yul; Lee, Geumyoung

    2011-02-01

    Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method.

  15. Pressure dependence of the Boson peak in poly(butadiene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation of pressure and temperature in inelastic neutron scattering experiments allows us to separate density and thermal energy contributions. We summarise briefly the influence of pressure and temperature on the dynamic scattering law of the polymer glass former poly(butadiene) far below the glass transition. We also show the advantage of using a liquid-niobium pressure cell in such studies. The effect of pressure on the boson peak is to shift the peak towards higher energies and to reduce the low-frequency modes more strongly below the boson-peak maximum than above. A decrease in the Debye-Waller factor with increasing pressure is observed. (orig.)

  16. Resolving the limitation of the peak fitting and peak shape methods in the determination of the activation energy of thermoluminescence glow peaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek, A.M., E-mail: dr_amrsadek@hotmail.com [Ionizing Radiation Metrology Department, National Institute for Standards, Cairo (Egypt); Eissa, H.M. [Ionizing Radiation Metrology Department, National Institute for Standards, Cairo (Egypt); Basha, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum (Egypt); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics and Elementary Particles Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Makedonia (Greece)

    2014-02-15

    An overview of the successes and failure of the computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) and the peak shape methods in describing the glow peaks generated from the fundamental one trap-one recombination center (OTOR) model was discussed. Also, the existing method, and a new developed one, to test the applicability of the existing thermoluminescence (TL) expressions to describe the glow peaks were discussed. The new TL expressions deduced by Kitis and Vlachos ([17] G. Kitis, N.D. Vlachos, Radiat. Meas. 48 (2013) 47–54) were tested in the cases in which the other existing TL expressions failed. The results showed that the error in the calculated activation energy (E) using the existing expressions may reach up, in some cases, to 50%. While, using the new TL expressions, the error in the calculated E did not exceed 0.5%. -- Highlights: • The successes and failure of the CGCD and peak shape methods were discussed. • The deduced TL expressions based on the Lambert W function were tested. • A comparison between the existing and the new deduced TL expressions was made. • The error of E calculated using the existing expressions may reach up to 50%. • The error of E calculated using the new deduced expression did not exceed 0.5%.

  17. Modeled future peak streamflows in four coastal Maine rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    To safely and economically design bridges and culverts, it is necessary to compute the magnitude of peak streamflows that have specified annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs). Annual precipitation and air temperature in the northeastern United States are, in general, projected to increase during the 21st century. It is therefore important for engineers and resource managers to understand how peak flows may change in the future. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT), presents modeled changes in peak flows at four basins in coastal Maine on the basis of projected changes in air temperature and precipitation. To estimate future peak streamflows at the four basins in this study, historical values for climate (temperature and precipitation) in the basins were adjusted by different amounts and input to a hydrologic model of each study basin. To encompass the projected changes in climate in coastal Maine by the end of the 21st century, air temperatures were adjusted by four different amounts, from -3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) (-2 degrees Celsius (ºC)) to +10.8 ºF (+6 ºC) of observed temperatures. Precipitation was adjusted by three different percentage values from -15 percent to +30 percent of observed precipitation. The resulting 20 combinations of temperature and precipitation changes (includes the no-change scenarios) were input to Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed models, and annual daily maximum peak flows were calculated for each combination. Modeled peak flows from the adjusted changes in temperature and precipitation were compared to unadjusted (historical) modeled peak flows. Annual daily maximum peak flows increase or decrease, depending on whether temperature or precipitation is adjusted; increases in air temperature (with no change in precipitation) lead to decreases in peak flows, whereas increases in precipitation (with no change in temperature) lead to increases in peak flows. As

  18. Activation of functional α7-containing nAChRs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by physiological levels of choline in the presence of PNU-120596.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bopanna I Kalappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The level of expression of functional α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons is believed to be very low compared to hippocampal CA1 interneurons, and for many years this expression was largely overlooked. However, high densities of expression of functional α7-containing nAChRs in CA1 pyramidal neurons may not be necessary for triggering important cellular and network functions, especially if activation of α7-containing nAChRs occurs in the presence of positive allosteric modulators such as PNU-120596. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An approach previously developed for α7-containing nAChRs expressed in tuberomammillary neurons was applied to investigate functional CA1 pyramidal α7-containing nAChRs using rat coronal hippocampal slices and patch-clamp electrophysiology. The majority (∼71% of tested CA1 pyramidal neurons expressed low densities of functional α7-containing nAChRs as evidenced by small whole-cell responses to choline, a selective endogenous agonist of α7 nAChRs. These responses were potentiated by PNU-120596, a novel positive allosteric modulator of α7 nAChRs. The density of functional α7-containing nAChRs expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons (and thus, the normalized net effect of activation, i.e., response net charge per unit of membrane capacitance per unit of time was estimated to be ∼5% of the density observed in CA1 interneurons. The results of this study demonstrate that despite low levels of expression of functional pyramidal α7-containing nAChRs, physiological levels of choline (∼10 µM are sufficient to activate these receptors and transiently depolarize and even excite CA1 pyramidal neurons in the presence of PNU-120596. The observed effects are possible because in the presence of 10 µM choline and 1-5 µM PNU-120596, a single opening of an individual pyramidal α7-containing nAChR ion channel appears to transiently depolarize (∼4 mV the

  19. 1.55 Micron High Peak Power Fiber Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, we propose to demonstrate and build a 1.55 micron single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber amplifier by developing an innovative...

  20. Peak globalization. Climate change, oil depletion and global trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Fred [Department of Economics, Drew University, Madison, NJ 07940 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The global trade in goods depends upon reliable, inexpensive transportation of freight along complex and long-distance supply chains. Global warming and peak oil undermine globalization by their effects on both transportation costs and the reliable movement of freight. Countering the current geographic pattern of comparative advantage with higher transportation costs, climate change and peak oil will thus result in peak globalization, after which the volume of exports will decline as measured by ton-miles of freight. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and peak oil are very unlikely to change this result due to their late implementation, contradictory effects and insufficient magnitude. The implication is that supply chains will become shorter for most products and that production of goods will be located closer to where they are consumed. (author)